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economic

ID

tu 1 Abatement cost

nghia Chi ph kim sot; chi ph chng ( nhim)

2 Ability and earnings 3 Ability to pay

Nng lc v thu nhp Kh nng chi tr.

4 Ability to pay theory 5 Abnormal profits 6 Abscissa 7 Absenteeism

L thuyt v kh nng chi tr Li nhun d thng Honh Trn vic, s ngh lm khng c l do a ch (ch bt ng sn) cch bit Li th tuyt i.

8 Absentee landlord 9 Absolute advantage

10 Absolute cost advantage 11 Absolute income hypothesis 12 Absolute monopoly 13 Absolute prices 14 Absolute scarcity 15 Absolute value 16 Absorption approach 17 Abstinence 18 Accelerated depreciation 19 20 21 22 Accelerating inflation Accelerator Accelerator coefficient Accelerator effect

Li th nh ph tn tuyt i. Gi thuyt thu nhp tuyt i. c quyn tuyt i. Gi tuyt i. Khan him tuyt i . Gi tr tuyt i. Phng php hp thu. Nhn chi tiu. Khu hao nhanh, khu hao gia tc. Lm pht gia tc. Gia s H s gia tc. Hiu ng gia tc. Nguyn l gia tc. chp nhn thanh ton.

23 Accelerator principle 24 Acceptance

25 Accepting house 26 Accesion rate 27 Accesions tax

Ngn hng nhn tr. T l gia tng lao ng. Thu qu tng. M hnh nh i khng gian hay m hnh tip cn. Chnh sch tin t iu tit.

28 Access/space trade - off model 29 Accommodating monetary policy

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30 Accommodation transactions

Cc giao dch iu tit.

31 Account 32 Accrued expenses

Ti khon. Chi ph pht sinh (tnh trc).

33 Achieving Society, the. 34 Across-the-board tariff changes 35 Action lag

X hi thnh t. Thay i thu quan ng lot. tr ca hnh ng.

36 Active balance 37 Activity analysis 38 Activity rate 39 Adaptive expectation 40 Adding up problem 41 Additional worker hypothesis

D nghch. Phn tch hot ng. T l lao ng. K vng thch nghi; k vng phng theo Vn cng tng. Gi thuyt cng nhn thm vo.

42 Addition rule

Quy tc cng.

43 Additive utility function

Hm tho dng ph tr.

44 Address principle 45 Adjustable peg regime

Nguyn l a ch. Ch iu chnh hn ch.

46 Adjustable peg system 47 Adjustment cost

H thng neo t gi hi oi c th iu chnh. Chi ph iu chnh sn xut.

48 Adjustment lag

tr iu chnh.

49 Adjustment process 50 Administered prices

Qu trnh iu chnh Cc mc gi b qun ch.

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51 Administrative lag 52 Advalorem tax 53 Advance

tr do hnh chnh Thu theo gi tr. Tin ng trc.

54 Advance Corporation Tax (ACT) 55 Advance refunding 56 Advanced countries 57 Adverse balance 58 Adverse selection

Thu doanh nghip ng trc. Hon tr trc. Cc nc pht trin, cc nc i u. Cn cn thm ht. La chn tri ; La chn theo hng bt li.

59 Advertising 60 Advertising - sale ratio 61 AFL-CIO

Qung co. T l doanh s-qung co. Xem AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR.

62 Age-earning profile Agency for International 63 Development 64 Agency shop 65 Agglomeration economies 66 Aggregate concentration 67 Adverse supply shock 68 Aggregate demand 69 70 71 72 73 Aggregate demand curve Aggregate demand shedule Aggregate expenditure Aggregate income Aggregate output

Biu quan h thu nhp theo tui C quan pht trin quc t. Nghip on. Tnh kinh t nh kt khi. S tp trung gp. C sc cung bt li. Cu gp; Tng cu ng cu gp; ng tng cu Biu cu gp; Biu tng cu Chi tiu gp. Thu nhp gp; Tng thu nhp Sn lng gp.

74 Aggregate production function 75 Aggregate supply curve 76 Aggregation problem 77 Agrarian revolution

Hm sn xut gp. ng cung gp; ng tng cung. Vn v php gp. Cch mng nng nghip.

78 Agricultural earnings

Cc khon thu t nng nghp.

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79 Agricultural exports 80 Agricultural lag 81 Agricultural livies

Nng sn xut khu tr ca nng nghip Thu nng nghip.

82 Agricultural reform 83 Agricultural sector Agricultural Stabilization and 84 Conservation Service 85 Agricultural subsidies

Ci cch nng nghip. Khu vc nng nghip. ASCS - Nha n nh v bo tn nng nghip. Khon tr cp nng nghip. Cc hi ng tin cng trong nng nghip. Vin tr c lng s Aitken. S tha ho

86 Agricultural Wage Boards 87 Aid 88 Aitken estimator 89 Alienation

90 Allais Maurice (1911)

Allen , Sir roy George 91 Douglas(1906-1983) 92 Allocate

1906-1983 Phn b, n nh

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93 Allocation funtion 94 Allocative efficiency Allowances and expences for 95 corporation tax Allowances and expencess for 96 income tax 97 Almon lag 98 Alpha coeficient

Chc nng phn b Hiu qu phn b. Khu tr v chi ph vi thu cng ty. Khu tr v chi ph vi thu thu nhp. tr Almon. H s Alpha

99 Alternative technology 100 Altruism 101 Amalgamation

Cng ngh thay th. Lng v tha. S hp nht.

102 America Depository Receipt 103 America Federation of Labuor

ADR - Phiu gi tin M. ALF - Lin on lao ng M.

104 America selling price

Gi bn kiu M.

105 American Stock Exchange 106 Amortization 107 Amplitude 108 Amtorg

S giao dch chng khon M (ASE hay AMEX). Chi tr tng k. Bin C quan mu dch thng tr ca Lin X.

109 Analysis of variance

ANOVA - Phn tch phng sai

110 Anarchy

Tnh trng v chnh ph.

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111 Allowance

Phn tin tr cp.

113 Anchor argument

Lun im v ci neo.

114 Animal spirits 115 Analysis (stats) 116 Annecy Round 117 Annual allowances 118 Annual capital charge 119 Annuity 120 Annuity market 121 Anomaliess pay 123 Anticipated inflation

Tinh thn by n; Tm l ha theo Phn tch. Vng m phn Annecy. Min thu hng nm. Chi ph vn hng nm. Nin kim. Th trng nin kim. Tin tr cng bt thng. Lm pht c d tnh.

124 Anti-trust

Chng lng on.

125 Appreciation 126 Apprenticeship 127 Anti-export bias 128 Appropriate products

S tng gi tr. Hc vic. Thin lch / nh kin chng xut khu. Cc sn phm thch hp.

129 Appropriate technology

Cng ngh thch hp.

130 Appropriation account

Ti khon phn phi li. B phiu tn thnh; b phiu ph chun.

131 Approval voting

132 Apriori

Tin nghim.

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133 Aquinas St Thomas 134 Arbitrage

(1225-1274) Kinh doanh da vo chnh lch gi; bun chng khon

135 Arbitration 136 Arc elasticity of demand

Trng ti co gin hnh cung ca cu

137 ARCH 138 ARCH effect

Kim nghim ARCH. Hiu ng ARCH.

139 Aristotle 140 Arithmetic mean 141 Arithmetic progression

(384-322 BC)-Aristotle (384-322 trc cng nguyn) Trung bnh s hc. Cp s cng.

142 Arrow.KennethJ 143 "A" shares

(1921-). C phiu "A".(C phiu hng li sau).

144 Asiab Development Bank 145 Assessable Income or profit

Ngn hng pht trin chu . Thu nhp hoc li nhun chu thu.

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146 Assessable profit 147 Asset

Li nhun chu thu. Ti sn.

148 Asset stripping

Tc ot ti sn.

149 Assignment problem

Bi ton kt ni.

150 Assisted areas Association of International Bond 152 Dealers

Cc vng c h tr Hip hi nhng ngi bun bn tri khon quc t.

Association of South East Asian 153 Nations (ASEAN)

Hip hi cc nc ng nam .

154 Assurance 155 Asset stocks and services flows 156 Asymmetric infornation 157 Asymptote

Bo him xc nh D tr ti sn v lung dch v. Thng tin bt i xng; Thng tin khng tng xng. ng tim cn.

158 Asymptotic distribution 159 Atomistic competition 160 Attribute

Phn phi tim cn. Cnh tranh c lp. Thuc tnh.

161 Auctioneer

Ngi bn u gi.

162 Auction markets 163 Auctions

Cc th trng u gi. u gi. ADF - Kim nh Dickey Fuller b sung.

164 Augmented Dickey Fuller test

165 Augmented Phillips curve

ng Phillips b sung.

166 Austrian school 167 Autarky 168 Autarky economy 169 Autocorrelation

Trng phi kinh t o. T cung t cp. Nn kinh t t cung t cp S t tng quan.

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170 Automatic stabilizers 171 Automation 172 Autonomous expenditure 173 174 175 176 Induced expenditure Autonomous consumption Autonomous investment Autonomous investment demand

Cc bin php n nh t ng. T ng ho. Khon chi tiu t nh. Khon chi tiu ph thuc (vo mc thu nhp). Tiu dng t nh. u t t nh. Nhu cu u t t nh.

177 Autonomous transactions 178 Autonomous variables 179 Autoregression 180 Availability effects 181 Average 182 Average cost 183 Average cost pricing 184 Average expected income 185 Average fixed costs 186 Average product 187 Average productivity 188 Average propensity to consume

Giao dch t nh Cc bin t nh T hi quy. Cc hiu ng ca s sn c. S trung bnh. Chi ph bnh qun. nh gi theo chi ph bnh qun. Thu nhp k vng bnh qun; Thu nhp bnh qun d kin. Chi ph c nh bnh qun. Sn phm bnh qun. Nng sut bnh qun. Khuynh hng tiu dng bnh qun. Khuynh hng tit kim bnh qun. Sut thu bnh qun (sut thu thc t). Doanh thu bnh qun. Sn phm doanh thu bnh qun. Tng chi ph bnh qun AVC-Chi ph kh bin bnh qun.

189 Average propensity to save

190 Average rate of tax 191 Average revenue 192 Average revenue product 193 Average total cost 194 Average variable cost

195 196 197 198

Averch-Johnson Effect Axiom of completeness Axiom of continuity Axiom of convexity

199 Axiom of dominance 200 Axiom of 201 Axiom of prefence 202 Backdoor fancing

Hiu ng Averch-Johnson. Tin v tnh y . Tin v tnh lin tc. Tin v tnh li. Tin v tnh thch nhiu hn thch t. Tin v s la chn. Tin v s thch. Cp tin qua ca sau.

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203 Back-haul rates

Cc vn ti ngc.

204 Backstop technology Backward bending supply curve of 205 labour 206 Backward intergration 207 Backward linkage 208 Backwash effects 209 Bad 210 Bad money drive out good

Cng ngh chng cui. ng cung lao ng cong v pha sau. Lin hp thng ngun. Lin kt thng ngun. Hiu ng ngc. Hng xu. "ng tin xu ui ng tin tt".

211 Bagehot, Walter 212 Balanced budget 213 Balanced-budget multiplier

(1826-1877). Ngn sch cn i. S nhn ngn sch cn i.

214 Balanced economic development

Pht trin kinh t cn i.

215 Balanced growth 216 Balance of payment

Tng trng cn i. Cn cn thanh ton.

217 Balance of trade

Cn cn thng mi.

218 Balance principle 219 Balance sheet

Nguyn l cn i. Bng cn i ti sn. ng tin bancor (ng tin quc t). GDP c cn i

220 Bancor 221 Balanced GDP

223 Bandwagon effect

Hiu ng on tu

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224 Bank 225 Bank advance

Ngn hng Khon vay ngn hng.

226 Bank bill 227 Bank Charter Act

Hi phiu ngn hng. o lut Ngn hng.

228 Bank credit

Tn dng ngn hng.

229 Bank deposite

Tin gi ngn hng.

230 Bank for international Settlements

Ngn hng thanh ton quc t.

231 Banking panic 232 Banking school

Cn hong lon ngn hng. Trng phi ngn hng

233 Bank loan

Khon vay ngn hng.

234 Bank note

Giy bc ca ngn hng.

235 Bank of England

Ngn hng Anh

236 Bank of United State 237 Bank rate 238 Bankruptcy

Ngn hng Hoa K. T l chit khu chnh thc ca ngn hng ANH. S ph sn.

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239 Bargaining tariff

Thu quan mc c; Thu quan thng lng.

240 Bargaining theory of wages

L thuyt thng lng v tin cng; L thuyt mc c v tin cng.

241 Bargaining unit 242 Banks' cash-deposit ratio

n v thng lng; n v mc c. T s gia tin mt v tin gi ca ngn hng.

243 Barlow Report 244 Barometric price leadership

Bo co Barlow. S ch o theo k p gi c.

245 Barriers to entry 246 Barter 247 Barter agreements

Ro cn nhp ngnh Hng i hng. Hip nh trao i hng.

248 Barter economy 249 Base period

Nn kinh t hng i hng Giai on gc.

250 251 252 253

Base rate Basic activities Basic exports Basic industries

Li sut gc. Cc hot ng c bn. Hng xut khu c bn Nhng ngnh c bn.

254 Basic need philosophy 255 Basic wage rates

Trit l nhu cu c bn. Mc tin cng c bn; mc lng c bn.

256 Basing-point system

H thng im nh v c s.

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257 Bayesian techniques 258 Bearer bonds 259 Bears

K thut Bayes. Tri khon khng ghi tn. Ngi u c gi xung. Chnh sch lm ngho nc lng ging

260 Beggar-my neighbour policies

261 Behavioural equation 262 Behavioural expectations

Phng trnh v hnh vi K vng da trn hnh vi. Cc l thuyt da trn hnh vi v hng; l thuyt v hng da trn hnh vi. Nm gc, nm c s. T s chi ph-li ch. Phn tch li ch chi ph.

263 264 265 266

Behavioural theories of the firm Base year Benefit-cost ratio Benefit-cost analysis

267 Benefit principle

Nguyn tc nh thu theo li ch.

268 Benelux Economic Union 269 Bentham,Jeremy Bergsonnian Social Walfare 270 Funtion

Lin minh kinh t Benelux. 1748-1832

Hm phc li x hi Bergson

271 Bernoulli Hypothesis 272 Bertrand's duopoly Model

Gi thuyt Bernoulli. M hnh lng quyn ca Bertrand. (BLUE)-on s trng tuyn tnh p nht; (c lng tuyn tnh khng chch tt nht) Ch s Beta

273 Best Linear Unbiased Estimator 274 Beta

275 Beveridge Report 276 Bias 277 Bid

Bo co Beveridge. lch. u thu.

278 Bid-rent function

Hm gi thu thu t.

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279 Bifurcation Hypothesis 280 Big bang

Gi thuyt lng cc. V o ln ln.

281 Big push

C y mnh.

282 Bilateral assistance 283 Bilateral monopoly

Tr gip song phng. c quyn song phng.

284 Bilateral trade 285 Bill 286 Bill broker 287 Bill of exchange

Mu dch song phng Hi phiu. Ngi mi gii hi phiu. Hi phiu i ngoi.

288 Bills only

Ch c nghip v hi phiu.

289 Binary variable

Bin nh phn.

290 291 292 293

Biological interest rate Birth rate BIS Bivariate analysis

Li sut sinh hc. T sut sinh Ngn hng thanh ton quc t Phn tch hai bin s Ch en im cc mn; im hon ton tho mn Tr cp c gi C phn xanh Sch xanh Cng nhn c xanh S d BLUS

294 Black market

295 Bliss point 296 Block grant 297 Blue chip 298 Blue Book 299 Blue-collar workers 300 BLUS residuals

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Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen Von (1851301 1914)

302 Bond

Tri khon

303 Bond market 304 Bonus issue

Th trng tri phiu C phiu thng

305 Book value

Gi tr trn s sch

306 Boom

S bng n tng trng

307 Borda Count 308 Boulwarism

Con tnh Borda Ch ngha Boulware

309 Bounded rationality

Tnh duy l b hn ch. Tng lp trng gi; Tng lp t sn Phng php Box-Jenkins. (Hin tng) chy mu cht xm Nhip v ngn hng chi nhnh S trung thnh vi nhn hiu

310 Bourgeoisie 311 Box-Jenkins 312 Brain drain 313 Branch banking 314 Brand loyalty

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315 Break-even analysis

Phn tch im ho vn

316 Break-even level of income

Mc ho vn ca thu nhp

317 Bretton Woods 318 Bretton Woods system

H thng Bretton Woods.

319 Brooker 320 Brokerage

Ngi mi gii. Hoa hng mi gii.

321 Brookings model

M hnh Brookings

322 Brussels, Treaty of 323 Brussels, Treaty of

Hip c Brussels Hip c Brussels (c bit n nh hip c B sung)

324 Brussels conference 325 Brussels Tariff Nomenclature

Hi ngh Brussels. Biu thu quan theo Hip nh Brussels

326 Buchanan, James M.

(1919-)

327 Budget

Ngn sch.

328 Budget deficit 329 Budget line

Thm ht ngn sch. ng ngn sch

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330 Budget surplus

Thng d ngn sch.

331 Budgetary control 332 Budget shares 333 Buffer stocks 334 Building society 335 Built-in stabililizers

Kim sot ngn sch T phn ngn sch. Kho m, d tr bnh n Ngn hng pht trin gia c Cc chnh sch, cng c n nh ni to.

336 Bullion

Thoi

337 Bulls

Ngi u c gi ln.

338 Bureaucracy, economic theory of

L thuyt kinh t v h thng cng chc.

339 Bureaux 340 Business cycle

Vn phng Chu k kinh doanh.

341 Business performance 342 Business risk 343 Buyer concertration 344 Buyers' market 345 Caculus

Kt qu kinh doanh. Ri ro kinh doanh S tp trung ngi mua. Th trng ca ngi mua. Gii tch.

346 Call money 347 Call option 348 Cambridge Equation 349 Cambridge school of Economics 350 Cambridge theory of Money 351 CAP 352 Capacity model 353 Capacity untilization

Khon vay khng k hn. Hp ng mua trc. Phng trnh Cambridge Trng phi kinh t hc Cambridge L thuyt tin t ca trng phi Cambridge.

M hnh cng nng. Mc s dng cng nng

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354 Capital 355 Capital account 356 Capital accumulation 357 Capital allowances 358 Capital asset 359 Capital asset pricing model 360 Capital budgeting 361 Capital charges 362 Capital coefficients 363 Capital Consumption Allowance

T bn/ vn. Ti khon vn. Tch l vn. Cc khon min thu cho vn. Ti sn vn. M hnh nh gi Ti sn vn. Phn b vn ngn sch. Cc ph tn cho vn Cc h s vn. Khon khu tr cho s dng t bn.

364 Capital Controversy 365 Capital deepening 366 Capital equipment

Tranh ci v yu t vn. Tng cng vn. Thit b sn xut, thit b vn.

367 Capital expenditure Capital information (capital 368 formation?) 369 Capital gain 370 Capital gains tax 371 Capital gearing 372 Capital goods 373 Capital intensity

Chi tiu cho vn. S hnh thnh vn. Khon li vn. Thu li vn. T trng vn vay T liu sn xut, hng t liu sn xut. Cng vn. (ngnh) da nhiu vo vn; s dng nhiu vn. Nn kinh t da nhiu vo vn.

374 Capital - intensive 375 Capital - intensive economy

376 Capital-intensive sector 377 Capital-intensive techniques 378 Capital, marginal efficiency of

Ngnh bao hm nhiu vn Cc k thut da nhiu vo vn Vn, hiu qu bin ca

379 Capitalism 380 Capitalization 381 Capitalization issue 382 Capitalization rates

Ch ngha t bn T bn ho, vn ha C phiu khng mt tin T l vn ho

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383 Capitalized value 384 Capital-labour ratio 385 Capital loss

Gi tr c vn ho T s vn/ lao ng Khon l vn

386 Capital market 387 Capital movements 388 Capital-output ratio

Th trng vn Cc lung di chuyn vn T s vn-sn lng

389 Capital rationing

nh mc vn

390 Capital requirements 391 Capital- reversing 392 Capital services 393 Capital stock

Cc yu cu v vn Thay i k thut sn xut Cc dch v vn Dung lng vn

Nguyn l iu chnh dung lng 394 Capital Stock Adjustment Principle vn Cu trc vn 395 Capital structure Thu vn 396 Captital tax 397 Capital theoretic approach 398 Capital theory Phng php l thuyt qui v vn L thuyt v vn

399 Capital transfer tax

Thu chuyn giao vn

400 Capital turnover criterion 401 Capital widening 402 Capitation tax 403 Capture theory

Tiu chun quay vng vn u t chiu rng (m rng vn) Thu thn L thuyt nm gi. Ngi / Ngn hng b buc phi mua mt s chng khon va pht hnh. (Nh nc quy nh). Thu Carbon Trng phi im ho; trng phi chia .

404 Captive buyer 405 Carbon tax 406 Cardinalism

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407 Cardinal utility

tho dng im ho; tho dng, khong cch gia cc mc tho dng.

408 Cartel 409 Cartel sanctions 410 Cash 411 Cash balance approach

Cartel S trng pht ca Cartel Tin mt. Cch tip cn tn qu. (S d tin mt). Nng sn thng mi; Hoa mu hng ho/ hoa mu thng mi. Tht thot / ht tin mt. Lung tin, ngn lu, dng kim lu. Bn bo co lung tin / ngn lu. Hn mc chi tiu, hn mc tin mt. T sut tin mt. Cng vic tm thi. Tr cp chn lc. Phng php nhn qu.

412 Cash crops 413 Cash drainage 414 Cash flow 415 Cash flow statement 416 Cash limit 417 Cash ratio 418 Casual employment 419 Categorical 420 Causality 421 CBI 423 Ceiling

Mc trn

424 Celler - Kefauver Act 425 Central Bank 426 Central Bank of Central Banks 427 Central business district

o lut Celler - Kefauver. Ngn hng trung ng Ngn hng trung ng ca cc ngn hng trung ng. Khu kinh doanh trung tm.

428 Central Limit Theorem. 429 Central Place Theory 430 Central planing 431 Central policy Review Staff

nh l gii hn trung tm. L thuyt V tr Trung tm. K hoch ho tp trung. Ban xet duyt chnh sch trung ng (CPRS).

432 Central Statical office 433 Certainty equivalence

Cc thng k trung ng Mc qui i v tt nh.

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434 Certificate of deposit 435 CES production function

Giy chng nhn tin gi. hm sn xut c co gin thay th c nh.

436 Ceteris paribus 437 Chain rule 438 Central tendency 439 Ceilings and floors 440 Causation

iu kin khc gi nguyn Quy tc dy chuyn. (Quy tc hm ca hm). Xu hng hng tm; Hng tm. Mc trn v mc sn; Mc nh v mc y. Quan h nhn qu.

441 Chamberlin, Edward

(1899-1967)

442 Characteristics theory 443 Charge account 444 Cheap money 445 Check off

L thuyt v c tnh sn phm. Ti khon tn dng. Tin r. Tr cng on ph trc tip.

446 Cheque card

Th sc.

447 Cheque

Sc

448 Chicago School

Trng phi (kinh t) Chicago.

449 Child allowance

Tr cp tr em.

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450 Chi-square distribution 451 Choice of technology

Phn phI Kai bnh phng (Phn phi khi bnh phng) S la chn cng ngh.

452 Choice variable

453 454 455 456 457 458

CIF CIO Circular flow of income Choice of production technique Circular flow of payments Circulating capital

Bin la chn. Gi, ph bo him, cc vn chuyn , hay gi y ca hng ho. Lung lun chuyn thu nhp. S la chn k thut sn xut. Dng thanh ton lun chuyn. Vn lu ng.

459 Clark, John Bates 460 Classical dichotomy 461 Classical economics 462 Classical school Classical system of company 463 taxation 464 Classical techniques Classical and Keynesian 465 unemployment 466 Classical model

(1847-1938) Thuyt lng phn c in Kinh t hc c in Trng phi c in H thng c in v thu cng ty Cc k thut c in Tht nghip theo l thuyt c in v theo l thuyt Keynes M hnh c in

467 Clay-clay

clay-clay; t st- t st

468 Clayton Act 469 Clean float

o lut Clayton Th ni t do

470 Clearing banks

Cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr

471 Clearing house 472 Cliometrics

Phng thanh ton b tr S lng

473 Closed economy

Nn kinh t ng

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474 Closed shop 475 Closing prices 476 Club good 477 Clubs, theory of

Ca hng ng;Cng ty c t chc cng on. Gi lc ng ca. Hng ho club; Hng ho bn cng cng. Thuyt club; Thuyt cu lc b, thuyt hng ho bn cng cng.

478 Coase, Ronald H.

(1910- ).

479 Coase's theorem

nh l Coase.

480 Cobb-Douglas production function Hm sn xut Cobb-Douglas.

481 Cobweb theorem

nh l mng nhn.

482 Cochrane-Orcutt 483 Co-determination 484 Coefficient of determination 485 Coefficient of variation

Cochrane-Orcutt ng quyt nh. H s xc nh (H s tng quan bi s R bnh phng). H s phn tn ( phn tn tng i).

486 Coercive comparisons 487 Cofactor 488 Coinage

So snh p buc. ng h s. Tin c.

489 Coincident indicator 490 Cointegration

Ch s bo trng hp. ng lin kt

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491 COLA

iu chnh theo gi sinh hot.

492 Collateral security

Vt th chp.

493 Collective bargaining 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 Collective choise Collective goods Collective exhaustive Collinearity Multi-Collinearity Collusion Collusive oligopoly Collusive price leadership Comecon Command economy

Thng lng tp th. S la chn tp th. Hng ho tp th. Hon ton. Cng tuyn. a cng tuyn. Kt cu. c quyn nhm c kt cu. Ch o gi kt cu. Hi ng tng tr kinh t. Nn kinh t ch huy.

504 Commercial banks

Cc ngn hng thng mi.

505 Commercial bill 506 Commercial paper 507 Commercial policy 508 Commissions 509 Commodity 510 Commodity bundling 511 Commodity Credit Corporation 512 Commodity money 513 Commodity space 514 Commodity terms of trade

Hi phiu thng mi. Thng phiu Chnh sch thng mi Xem COMPENSATION RULES Vt phm; Hng ho Bn hng theo l Cng ty tn dng hng ho; Cng ty tn dng vt phm Tin t da trn vt phm; Tin bng hng ho. Khng gian hng ho. T gi trao i hng ho; T gi hng ho.

515 Common Agricultural Policy 516 Common Customs Tariff

Chnh sch nng nghip chung. Biu thu quan chung.

517 Common external tariff

Biu thu i ngoi chung.

518 Common facility co-operative

Cc hp tc x c thit b chung.

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519 Common market

Th trng chung.

520 Common stock

Chng khon ph thng.

521 Communism 522 Community Charge 523 Community indifference curve

Ch ngha cng sn. Thu cng ng. ng bng quan cng ng.

524 Company

Cng ty.

525 Company bargaining 526 Company director

m phn cng ty. Gim c cng ty.

527 Company saving 528 Comparability argument 529 Comparable worth

So snh v lng Lun im v tnh c th so snh. Gi tr c th so snh.

530 Comparative advantage 531 Comparative costs

Li th so snh Chi ph so snh.

532 Comparative dynamics

Phng php so snh ng.

533 Comparative statics 534 Compensated demand curves 535 Compensating variation 536 Compensation principle

Phng php so snh tnh. ng cu c b. Mc thay i b p. Nguyn l b p.

537 Compensation rules

Cc quy tc tr th lao.

538 Compensation tests

Kim nghim n b.

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539 Competition Act 1980

o lut cnh tranh 1980.

540 Competition and Credit Control

Kim sot tn dng v cnh tranh

541 Competitive markets 542 Complements 543 Complex number

Th trng cnh tranh Hng ho b tr S phc

544 Composite commodity theorem 545 Compound interest 546 Compensating differentials 547 Competition policy 548 Concave function (concavity)

nh l hng ho a hp Li kp Cc mc b thm tin lng. Chnh sch v cnh tranh Hm lm (tnh lm).

549 Concentration

S tp trung.

550 Concentration, coefficient of. 551 Concentration ratio

H s tp trung. T l tp trung.

552 Concerted action Concertina method of tariff 553 reduction

Hnh ng phi hp. Phng php iu ho gim thu quan; Phng php gim thu quan hi ho.

554 Conciliation

Ho gii Tiu chun g chi; Tiu chun Condorcet Lin on cng nghip ANH (CBI).

555 Condorcet Criterion 556 Confederation of British Industrial

557 Confidence interval

Khong tin cy.

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558 Confidence problem

Vn lng tin.

559 Congestion costs 560 Conglomerate 561 Conjectural behavior 562 CONJECTURAL VARIATION 563 Consistency 564 Consolidated fund 565 Consistent 566 Consolidated balance sheets 567 Consols 568 Consortium bank 569 Conspicuous consumption

Chi ph do tc nghn. Conglomerate; Tp on; T hp doanh nghip Hnh vi phng on. S thay i theo phng on. Tnh nht qun. Qu ngn kh. Thng nht/ nht qun. Bng cn i (k ton/ti sn) hp nht. Cng tri hp nht. Ngn hng Consortium. S tiu dng nhm th hin; S tiu dng nhm khoe khoang.

570 Constant capital Constant Elasticity of Substitution 571 (CES) Production Function Constant market share demand 572 curve 573 Constant returns to scale 574 Constrained optimization

T bn bt bin. Hm sn xut vi co gin thay th khng i.

ng cu vi th phn bt bin. Sinh li khng i theo qui m; Li tc c nh theo quy m Ti u ho c rng buc

575 Constraint 576 Consumer 577 Consumer credit

Rng buc Ngi tiu dng Tn dng tiu dng

578 Consumer demand theory 579 Consumer durable 580 Consumer equilibrium 581 Consumer expenditure 582 Consumer goods and services 583 Consumer price index

L thuyt cu tiu dng Hng tiu dng lu bn Cn bng tiu dng Chi tiu ca ngi tiu dng Hng v dch v tiu dng Ch s gi tiu dng Quyn ti thng ca ngi tiu dng; Ch quyn ca ngi tiu dng

584 Consumer sovereignty

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economic

585 Consumer's surplus 586 Consumption 587 Consumption expenditure 588 Consumption function

Thng d ca ngi tiu dng S tiu dng Chi tiu tiu dng Hm tiu dng

589 Consumption tax 590 Constestable market

Thu tiu dng Th trng c th cnh tranh c

591 Contingency reserve 592 Contingency table 593 Contingent valuation

D tr pht sinh Bng pht sinh; Bng s c nh gi (hin tng) pht sinh; Vic nh gi bt thng

594 Continuous variable

Bin s lin tc

595 Contract curve 596 Contractionary phase

ng hp ng Giai on suy gim; Giai on thu hp

597 Convergence thesis 598 Convergent cycle 599 Conversion

Lun chng hi t Chu k hi t S chuyn i

600 Convertibility 601 Convertible bond 602 Convertible loan stock 603 Convertible security 604 Convex function (convexity)

Kh nng chuyn i Tri khon chuyn i c. Khon vay chuyn i c. Chng khon chuyn i c. Hm li (tnh li).

605 Cooling off period 606 Co-ordinated wage policy 607 Core, the 608 Corner solution

Giai on lng du. Chnh sch tin lng phi hp Gi gc. p s gc.

609 Corn Laws

Cc b lut v Ng.

610 Corporate capitalism

Ch ngha t bn hp doanh; Ch ngha t bn doanh nghip.

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economic

611 Corporate conscience 612 Corporate risk 613 Corporate state 614 615 616 617 Complementary inputs Concesionary prices / rates Constant prices Constant returns to scale

Lng tm hp doanh; Lng tm doanh nghip. Ri ro hp doanh; Ri ro cng ty. a phn ca hp doanh; Nh nc cng ty. (Cc loi) u vo b tr; Nhp lng b tr. Gi / T sut u i. Gi c nh / gi bn khng i. Sinh li khng i theo quy m. Hn ch / Rng buc (khng chnh thc/ chnh thc) ngoi quy nh/ theo quy nh. H s chuyn i. Khon vay cho ngi tiu dng; Vay tiu dng. La chn ca ngi tiu dng. B hng tiu dng; im kt hp tiu dng. Nhng ngoi tc tiu dng. Hp doanh; Cng ty. Thu doanh nghip; Thu Cng ty.

618 Constraint (informal / formal) 619 Conversion factor 620 Consumer borrowing 621 Consumer choice 623 Consumption bundle 624 Consumption externalities 625 Corporation 626 Corporation tax

627 628 629 630

Correlation Positive correlation Nagative correlation Correlation of returns

S tng quan Tng quan ng bin. Tng quan nghch bin. Tng quan ca li tc. Biu tng quan

631 Correlogram

632 Correspondent banks

Cc ngn hng i l.

633 Corset 634 Cost 635 Cost - benefit analysis

Yu cu tht cht. Chi ph. Phn tch chi ph - li ch.

636 Cost - effectiveness analysis 637 Cost insurance freight 638 Cost minimization

Phn tch chi ph - hiu qu Ph, bo him, cc vn chuyn, gi CIF. Ti thiu ho chi ph.

639 Cost of capital

Chi ph vn.

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economic

640 Cost of living

Chi ph cho sinh hot; Gi sinh hot.

641 Cost of protection 642 Cost overrun

643 Cost - plus pricing 644 Cost - push inflation

Chi ph bo h. Chi ph pht sinh. Cch nh gi chi ph-cng li; Cch nh gi da vo chi ph v cng thm li nhun. Lm pht do chi ph y. Phn tch chi ph - cng dng; Phn tch tn dng chi ph.

645 Cost - utility analysis Council of Economic Advisors 646 (ECA).

Hi ng c vn kinh t.

Council for Mutual economic 647 Assitance (Comecon) 648 Countercyclical

Hi ng tng tr kinh t. Ngc chu k.

649 Countertrade

Thng mi i lu. Lc b i trng; Th lc lm cn bng. Thu chng bo h gi; thu nh vo hng xut/ nhp khu c tr gi. Phiu li, li sut tri phiu. Tin tr li theo nm

650 Countervailing power

651 Counter - vailing duty 652 Coupon 653 Coupon payments 654 Cournot, Antoine A. (1801-1877)

655 Cournot's duopoly model 656 Covariance 657 Covariance stationary

M hnh lng c quyn Cournot. Hip phng sai. Tnh theo hip phng sai. Mc li xut qui ngang; Ngang gi li sut. Xem CENTRAL POLICY REVIEW STAFF. Nghip on theo chuyn mn. Quy tc Cramer's.

658 Covered interest parity 659 CPRS 660 Craff unions 661 Cramer's Rule

662 Crawling peg

Ch neo t gi hi oi iu chnh dn.

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economic

663 Credit 664 Credit account

Tn dng. Ti khon tn dng.

665 Credit card

Th tn dng.

666 Credit celing

Trn tn dng.

667 Credit control

Kim sot tn dng.

668 Credit creation 669 Credit guarantee

S to ra tn dng. Bo m tn dng.

670 Credit multiplier 671 Credible threat 672 Creditor nation

S nhn tn dng. e do kh tin; e do c th thc hin c. Nc ch n.

673 Creditors

Cc ch n.

674 Credit rationing

nh mc tn dng

675 Credit restrictions 676 Credit squeeze 677 Credit transfer

Hn ch tn dng Hn ch tn dng Chuyn khon

678 Creeping inflation 679 Critical value 680 Cross elasticity of demand

Lm pht sn b; Lm pht b dn Gi tr ti hn co gin cho ca cu

681 Cross-entry 682 Cross partial derivative 683 Cross-sectional analysis

Nhp nghnh cho o hm ring Phn tch cho

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economic

Cross-section consumption 684 function 685 Cross-subsidization

Hm s tiu dng cho Tr cp cho

686 Crowding hypothesis 687 Crowding out 688 CSO 689 Cubic

Gi thuyt chn p Ln p; chn p Cc thng k trung ng Lp phng

690 Cultural change 691 Culture of poverty hypothesis

S thay i vn ho Gi thuyt v vn ho ngho kh

692 Cumulative causation model 693 Cumulative preference shares 694 Cumulative shares 695 Currency

M hnh nhn qu tch lu Cc c phiu u i C phiu c tr li theo tch lu Tin mt, tin t

696 Currency appreciation 697 Currency control 698 Currency depreciation

S tng gi tr ca mt ng tin Kim sot tin t S st gim gi tr tin t

699 Currency notes

Tin giy

700 Currency principle

Nguyn l tin t

701 Currency retention quota 702 Curency school

Hn mc gi ngoi t Trng phi tin t

703 Currency substitution

S thay th tin t

704 Current account

Ti khon vng lai/ ti khon hin hnh, cn cn ti khon vng lai.

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economic

705 706 707 708

Current assets Current cost accounting Current income Current liabilities

Ti sn lu ng. Hch ton theo chi ph hin ti. Thu nhp thng xuyn. Ti sn n ngn hn. Li nhun hin hnh Ti khon vng lai v ti khon vn. Gi hin hnh (thi gi). Tp qun v thng l Cc th trng khch hng. U ban hp tc Hi quan. Cc loi thu hi quan, thu tiu th c bit v thu bo h. Lin minh thu quan. Tht nghip chu k. Chu k. Chi ph bi thng thit hi; Chi ph b p thit hi; Chi ph thit hi Chu k (c bin ) gim dn; Chu k tt. S liu, d liu. Chng khon ghi ngy hon tr. Phng php phn tch chit khu lung tin. N "trng". Khon mt trng; khon tn tht v ch. Tin t. Tin kim loi. Tri khon cng ty.

709 Current profits 710 Current and capital account 711 Current prices 712 Custom and practice 713 Custom markets 714 Custom Co-operative Council Custom, excise and protective 715 duties 716 Custom union 717 Cyclical unemployment 718 Cycling

719 Damage cost 720 Damped cycle 721 Data 722 Dated securities 723 DCF 724 Deadweight debt 725 Deadweight - loss 726 Dear money 727 Debased coinage 728 Debentures

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economic

729 Debreu Gerard 730 Debt 731 Debt conversion

(1921-) N. Hon n; i n.

732 Debt finance

Ti tr bng vay n.

733 Debt for equity swaps

Hon chuyn n thnh c phn.

734 Debt management 735 Debtor nation 736 737 738 739 Debt ratio Decile Decimal coinage Decision function

Qun l n. Nc mc n. T s n gia vn vay v vn c phn Thp phn v Tin c c s mi Hm quyt nh

740 Decision lag 741 Decision rule 742 Decision theory 743 Decreasing cost industry 744 Decreasing returns

tr ca vic ra quyt nh Quy tc ra quyt nh L thuyt ra quyt nh Ngnh c chi ph gim dn Mc sinh li gim dn; Li tc gim dn Mc sinh li gim dn theo qui m; Li tc gim dn theo quy m C phiu thng li tr sau Thm ht Ti tr thm ht

745 Decreasing returns to scale 746 Deferred ordinary shares 747 Deficit 748 Deficit financing

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economic

749 Deficit units 750 Deflation

Cc n v thm ht Gim pht

751 Deflationnary gap

Chnh lch gy gim pht

752 Deflator 753 Degree of homogeneity 754 Degree of freedom

Ch s gim pht Mc ng nht Bc t do (df)

755 Deindustrialization

Phi cng nghip ho.

756 Delors Report 757 Demand

Bo co Delors. Cu

758 Demand curve 759 Demand deposits

ng cu. Tin gi khng k hn.

760 Demand - deficient unemployment Tht nghip do thiu cu. 761 Demand for inflation Cu i vi lm pht.

762 Demand function 763 Demand for exchange 764 Demand for money 765 Demand management 766 Demand - pull inflation 767 Demand schedule 768 Demand shift inflation 769 Demography 770 Density gradient

Hm cu Cu ngoi t. Cu tin t Qun l cu. Lm pht do cu ko. Biu cu Lm pht do dch chuyn cu. Nhn khu hc. Gradient mt .

771 Dependence structure 772 Demonetization 773 Dependency burden

Cu trc ph thuc. Qu trnh phi tin t ho; gim bt s dng tin mt. Gnh nng n theo.

774 Dependent variable

Bin s ph thuc.

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economic

775 Depletion allowance

u i ti nguyn

776 Deposit

Tin gi

777 Deposit account 778 Deposit money

Ti khon tin gi Tin gi ngn hng.

Depository Institution Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 779 (DIDMCA) 780 Depreciation 781 Depression 782 Deregulation Depletable and renewable 783 resources 784 Depreciation rate 785 Depressed area 786 Derivative 787 Derived demand

o lut phi iu tit v kim sot tin i vi cc nh ch nhn tin gi nm 1980. Khu hao; s st gim gi tr. Tnh trng suy thoi. D b iu tit; Xo iu tit; Phi iu tit. Cc ti nguyn khng th ti sinh v ti sinh. T l khu hao. Khu vc tr tr. o hm. Cu phi sinh, cu dn xut, cu th pht.

788 Deseasonalization 789 Desired capital stock 790 Determinant

Xo tnh cht thi v. Dung lng vn mong mun. nh thc (hay Del hoc c k hiu |A|). Kh khuynh hng; Gim khuynh hng. Ph gi Ph gi v nng gi.

791 Detrending 792 Devaluation 793 Devaluation and revaluation

794 Developing countries 795 Development area 796 Development planning 797 Development strategy 798 Deviation 799 Standard deviation 800 Dickey fuller test 801 Difference equation 802 Differencing

Cc nc ang pht trin. Vng cn pht trin. Hoch nh pht trin; Lp k hoch pht trin. Chin lc pht trin. lch. lch chun. Cc kim nh Dickey Fuller. Phng trnh vi phn Phng php vi phn

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economic

803 Difference principle Difference stationary process 804 (DSP) 805 Differentials

Nguyn l bt bng; Nguyn l khc bit Qu trnh vi phn tnh. Cc cung bc; Cc mc chnh lch.

806 Differentiated growth 807 Differentiation 808 Diffusion

Tng trng nh a dng ho Qu trnh a dng ho; Php vi phn Qu trnh truyn b; S ph bin

809 Dillon Round 810 Diminishing marginal utility 811 Diminishing returns Diminishing marginal rate of 812 substitution Diminishing marginal utility of 813 wealth 814 Direct costs

Vng m phn Dillon tho dng bin gim dn. Mc sinh li gim dn; Li tc gim dn (Quy lut v) t l thay th bin gim dn. (Qui lut v) gi tr tho dng bin gim dn ca ti sn/ca ci. Chi ph trc tip.

815 Direct debit 816 Direct taxes 817 Directors

Ghi n trc tip. Thu trc thu. Ban gim c.

818 Director's Law

Quy lut Director Th ni (kiu) bn; Th ni khng hon ton Cng nhn (c v th) bt li; Nhng cng nhn khng c li th. Nhng ngi b thi vic Dng tin chit khu; Lung tin chit khu Li tc lung tin chit khu Hng chit khu Chit khu Th trng chit khu. T l chit khu; sut chit khu Gi thuyt v cng nhn nn lng. Bin gin on

819 Dirty float

820 Disadvantaged workers 821 Discharges 822 Discounted cash flow (DCF) 823 Discounted cash flow yield 824 Discount house 825 Discounting 826 Discount market 827 Discount rate 828 Discouraged Worker Hypothesis 829 Discrete variable

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economic

830 Discretionary profits

Nhng mc li nhun vt tri

831 Discretionary stabilization 832 Discriminating monopoly 833 Discrimination 834 Discriminatory pricing 835 Diseconomies of growth 836 Diseconomies of scale

S n nh c can thip c quyn phn bit i x; c quyn c phn bit. S phn bit i s. nh gi c phn bit Tnh phi kinh t do tng trng Tnh phi kinh t do quy m. Tin b k thut ngoi ti; Tin b k thut tch ri. Trng thi bt cn; Trng thi khng cn bng Tht nghip tr hnh. Tr ngi Qu trnh gim lm pht.

837 Disembodied technical progress 838 839 840 841 Disequilibrium Disguised unemployment Disincentive Disinflation

842 Disintermediation 843 Disinvestment

Qu trnh xo b trung gian; Phi trung gian. Gim u t. Hiu ng chuyn di; Hiu ng thay i trng thi. Thu nhp kh dng; thu nhp kh tiu; Thu nhp kh dng. Gim tit kim. Ph vn chuyn. Chnh ph can thip. Sut chit khu. Ngi tht nghip do nn lng.

844 Displacement effect Disposable income Dissaving Distance cost Dirigiste Discount rate Discouraged worker / 850 unemployment 845 846 847 848 849

851 Distributed lags 852 Distributed profits 853 Distribution, theories of 854 Dispersion 855 Distortions 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 Distortions and market failures Distribution (stats) Continuous distribution Deterministic distribution Discrete distribution Normal distribution Probability distribution Step distribution Triangular distribution

tr c phn phi. Li nhun c phn phi. Cc l thuyt phn phi. Phn tn. Bin dng Cc bin dng v tht bi ca th trng. Phn phi. Phn phi lin tc Phn phi tt nh Phn phi ri rc Phn phi chun Phn phi xc sut Phn phi bc thang Phn phi tam gic

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economic

865 Union distribution 866 Distributional equity

Phn phi u. Cng bng trong phn phi.

867 Distributional wage 868 Distribution function

Trng s phn phi Chc nng phn phi.

869 Distributive judgement 870 Distributive justice 871 Disturbance term 872 Disutility 873 Divergent cycle 874 Divergence 875 Diversification 876 877 878 879 Diversifier Dividend Dividend cover Dividend payout ratio

S xem xt kha cnh phn phi; BIN MINH PHN PHi. Cng bng v kha cnh phn phi Sai s. bt tho dung. Chu k phn r; Chu k bng n. Phn r; phn k; Sai bit. a dng ho. Ngi u t a dng. C tc. Mc bo chng c tc. T s tr c tc Li c tc. Phn cng lao ng. Giy chng nhn tin gi la.

880 Dividend yield 881 Division of labour 882 Dollar certificate of deposite

883 Domar, Evsey D.

(1914-)

884 Domestic credit expansion 885 Dominant firm price leadership 886 Doolittle method 887 Double-coincidence of wants 888 Double counting

Tn dng trong nc (DCE). Gi ca hng khng ch. Phng php Doolittle S hi t lp v nhu cu; S trng hp nhu cu. Tnh hai ln; Tnh lp T gi ngoi thng c tnh n gi ca cc yu t sn xut ca c hai bn. Chuyn i tr li.

889 Double factorial terms of trade 890 Double switching

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economic

Double taxation and double 891 taxation relief.

nh thu hai ln v trnh nh thu hai ln.

892 Dow Jones index

Ch s Dow Jones.

893 Dual decision hypothesis

Gi thuyt quyt nh kp

894 Dualism, theory of

L thuyt nh nguyn

895 Duality

Phng php i ngu.

896 Dual labour market hypothesis 897 Dollar standard 898 Domestic absorption

899 Domestic - oriented growth 900 Domestic resources cost

Gi thit th trng lao ng hai cp. Bn v la S hp thu trong nc. Tng trng hng ni; Tng trng hng vo th trng ni a. Chi ph ti nguyn trong nc.

901 Dummy variable 902 Dumping

Bin gi. Bn ph gi.

903 Duopoly 904 Duopsony 905 Duration of unemployment

Lng c quyn bn. Lng c quyn mua. Thi gian tht nghip

906 Durbin h - statistic 907 Durbin- Watson

S thng k Durbin - h S thng k (d hoc D.W.).

908 909 910 911

Dynamic economics Dynamic model Dynamic peg Dynamic programming

Kinh t hc ng. M hnh kinh t ng. T gi hi oi neo ng. Quy hoch ng. Cc l thuyt ng v li th so snh. Dnh cho mc ch ring.

Dynamic theories of comparative 912 advantage. 913 Earmaking

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economic

914 915 916 917

Earning Earnings driff Earnings function Easy money

Easy / tight monetary or fiscal 918 policy 919 EC Agricultural Livies 920 ECGD 921 Econometric model

Thu nhp. Khuynh hng tng thu nhp. Hm thu nhp. Tin d vay. Chnh sch tin t v ti kho lng/cht; Chnh sch ni lng / tht cht tin t hay thu chi ngn sch. Thu nng nghip ca EC Xem EXPORT CREDITS GUARANTEE DEPARTMENT M hnh kinh t lng.

922 Econometrics

Mn kinh t lng.

923 Economic base 924 Economic base multiplier 925 Economic community Economic Co-operation 926 Administration 927 Economic development 928 929 930 931 Economic development Committee Economic development Institute Economic dynamics Economic efficiency

C s kinh t. Nhn t c s kinh t. Cng ng kinh t.

C quan Hp tc kinh t. Pht trin kinh t. U ban Pht trin kinh t. Vin Pht trin kinh t. ng hc kinh t. Hiu qu kinh t. Ngi theo thuyt Keynes chit trung. Chi ph kinh t.

932 Eclectic Keynesian 933 Economic cost

934 Economic growth 935 Economic good 936 Economic imperialism 937 Economic liberialism

Tng trng kinh t. Hng ho kinh t. quc kinh t. Ch ngha t do kinh t.

938 939 940 941 942

Economic man Economic planning Economic policy Economic price Economic profit

943 Economic rent

Con ngi kinh t. Hoch nh kinh t. Chnh sch kinh t. Gi kinh t. Li nhun kinh t. Tin thu kinh t, t kinh t, c li kinh t.

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economic

944 Economic rate of return 945 Economics

T sut li nhun kinh t. Kinh t hc.

946 Economic surplus 947 Economies of scale

Thng d kinh t. Tnh kinh t nh qui m; Li th kinh t nh quy m.

948 Economic theory of polities 949 Economic union 950 Economic welfare 951 Economies of learning 952 Economy of high wages 953 ECSC 954 ECU

L thuyt chnh tr da trn kinh t. Cng ng kinh t. Phc li kinh t. Tnh kinh t nh hc hnh; Li ch kinh t do hc tp Nn kinh t c tin cng cao.

955 Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro 956 EEC 957 Effective demand 958 Effective 959 Effective rate of protection 960 Effective rate of tax 961 Effective protection 962 Effective rate of return 963 Efficiency

(1845-1926).

Cu hu hiu. Hiu dng, hiu qu. T l bo h hu dng; Thu bo h hu hiu. Mc thu hu dng; Thu sut h hu hiu. Bo h hu dng; Bo h hu hiu. Sut sinh li hiu dng. Tnh hiu qu; Tnh hiu dng.

964 Efficiency coefficient of investment H s hiu qa u t.

965 Efficiency earnings 966 Efficiency units 967 Efficiency wages 968 Efficiency wage theory 969 Efficient asset market

Thu nhp hiu qu. n v hiu qu. Tin cng hiu qu; tin lng hiu dng/ hiu qu. L thuyt tin cng hiu qu. Th trng ti sn c hiu dng/ hiu qu. Gi thuyt v th trng c hiu qu. S phn b ngun lc c hiu qu

970 Efficient market hypothesis 971 Efficient resource allocation

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economic

972 Effort aversion 973 EFTA 974 EIB 975 Elastic and unit elastic demand 976 Inelastic and unit elastic demand 977 Elasticity 978 Elasticity of demand 979 Elasticity of input substitution 980 Eligible asset ratio

Ngn n lc; Khng thch n lc. Xem EUROPEAN FREE TRADE ASSOCIATION Xem EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK. Nhu cu co gin v co gin mt n v.

co gin co gin ca cu. co gin ca s thay th u vo. T s ti sn d tr.

981 Eligible paper 982 Elitist good 983 EMA 984 Embodied technical progress

Giy t tiu chun chit khu. Hng xa x Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY AGREEMENT Tin b k thut ni hm; Tin b hm cha k thut. Khon th lao; Th lao ngoi lng chnh Tiu dng ni sinh. K hoch S hu c phn cho ngi lm.

985 Emoluments 986 Endogeneous consumption Employee Stock Ownership plan 987 (ESOP)

988 Employment Act of 1946 989 Employment Service 990 Employment subsidies 991 EMS

o lut Vic lm nm 1946 Dch v vic lm. Tr cp vic lm. Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM Php kim nghim vy; Php kim nghim vng bin. Gi thit thu nhp ni sinh Cung tin t ni sinh. Bin ni sinh. Hiu ng hng c. Cng s dng nng lng.

992 Encompassing test 993 Endogenous income hypothesis 994 Endogenous money supply 995 Endogenous variable 996 Endowment effect 997 Energy intensity

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economic

Enfranchisement of the 998 nomenklatura 999 Engagements 1000 Engel curve

c quyn ca gii chc. Tuyn dng (hay thu mi). ng Engel.

1001 Engel's Law

Quy lut ca Engel.

1002 Engineering method

Phng php k thut.

1003 Entitlement principle

Nguyn tc c quyn.

1004 Entrepreneur 1005 Entrepreneurial supply price 1006 1007 1008 1009 Entrepreneurship Entry barriers Entry and exit Entry forestalling price

Ch doanh nghip. Gi cung ng ca doanh nghip. Kh nng, s lm ch ca doanh nghip. Ro cn nhp nghnh. Nhp nghnh v xut ngnh. Gi ngn chn nhp ngnh. Gi ngn chn nhp ngnh.

1010 Entry preventing price

1011 Environmental conditions 1012 Environmental determinism 1013 Environmental impact analysis 1014 EPU 1015 Equal advantage

Nhng iu kin mi trng. Quyt nh lun do mi trng. Phn tch tc ng mi trng. Li th bnh ng, Li th ngang bng.

Equal Employment Opportunity Act o lut v c hi vic lm /bnh ng/ngang bng nm 1972. 1016 of 1972 Equal Employment Opportunity 1017 Commision U ban C hi vic lm bnh ng/ngang bng.

1018 Equalization grants Equalizing differences, the theory 1019 of

Cc khon tr cp cn bng. Lhuyt cn bng chnh lch Tr lng ngang nhau; tr lng bnh ng. L thuyt hy sinh ngang nhau; l thuyt hy sinh bnh ng.

1020 Equal pay 1021 Equal sacrifice theories

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economic

1022 Equation of exchange

Phng trnh trao i.

1023 Equilibrium

Cn bng

1024 Equilibrium error Equilibrium level of national 1025 income 1026 Equilibrium price 1027 Equilibrium rate of inflation 1028 Equities 1029 Equity 1030 Equity capital

Sai s cn bng Mc cn bng ca thu nhp quc gia Gi cn bng T l lm pht cn bng. C phn Cng bng Vn c phn Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i mc sng tng ng; Quy m tng ng. Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i hng ho tiu dng tng ng. Thang/h s/ t l/qui m qui i thu nhp tng ng Mc bin ng tng ng Cc m hnh hiu chnh sai s; Cc m hnh sa cha sai s. Qu trnh nhn bit sai s. Sai s trong bin s (hay sai s trong cc php o).

1031 Equivalance scale

1032 Equivalent commodity scale 1033 Equivalent income scale 1034 Equivalent variation 1035 ERM 1036 Error correction models (ECMs) 1037 Error learning process

1038 Errors variables

1039 Escalators

iu khon di ng gi.

1040 Estate duty

Thu di sn (thu ti sn tha k).

1041 Estate economy 1042 Estimation

Nn kinh t n in. S c lng. Phng thc c lng; c lng. Xem EUROPEAN UNIT OF ACCOUNT nh l Euler Th trng tin t Chu U. ola Chu u. Qu Bo m v Hng dn Nng nghip Chu u.

1043 Estimator 1044 EUA 1045 Euler's theorem 1046 Eurocurrency market 1047 Eurodollars European Agricultural Guidance 1048 and Guaranted Fund

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economic

European Bank for Reconstruction Ngn hng ti thit v Pht trin Chu U. 1049 and Development European Coal and Steel Cng ng Than v thp Chu u. 1050 Community

1051 European Community Budget 1052 European Commom Market 1053 European Community 1054 European Currency Unit

Ngn sch Cng ng Chu u. Th trng chung Chu u. Cng ng Chu u. n v tin t Chu u.

1055 European Devolopment Fund

Qu pht trin Chu u.

1056 European Economic Community

Cng ng Kinh t Chu u.

1057 European Free Trade Association

Hip hi Mu dch t do Chu u.

1058 European Fund

Qu Chu u.

1059 European Investment Bank

Ngn hng u t Chu u.

1060 European Monetary Agreement European Monetary Co-operation 1061 Fund 1062 European Monetary Fund

Hip nh tin t Chu u.

Qu hp tc Tin t Chu U. Qu Tin t Chu U.

1063 European Monetary System (EMS) H thng tin t chu u. European Monetary Unit of n v K ton Tin t Chu u. 1064 Account

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economic

1065 European Payments Union

Lin minh Thanh ton Chu u.

1066 European Recovery Programme. European Regional Development 1067 Fund.

Chng trnh Phc hng Chu u. Qu Pht trin Khu vc Chu u.

1068 European Social Fund.

Qu X hi Chu U.

1069 European Unit of Account 1070 Eurostat

n v K ton Chu u.

1071 Exact test 1072 Ex ante

Kim nghim chnh xc. T trc; D tnh; d nh Cng sut d; cng sut tha; Tha nng lc, tha cng sut.

1073 Excess capacity

1074 Excess capacity theory 1075 Excess burden 1076 Excess demand Excess productive capacity (Idle 1077 Excess goods) 1078 Excess reserves 1079 Excess supply 1080 Excess profit 1081 Excess wage tax 1082 Exchange 1083 Exchange control

L thuyt cng sut d/tha; Thuyt tha cng sut. Gnh nng thu qu mc. Mc cu d; D cu. T liu sn xut nhn ri. Khon d tr d; D tr d. Mc cung d; D cung Li vt. Thu chng lng vt; Thu chng tng lng Trao i Qun l ngoi hi.

1084 Exchange Equalization Account 1085 Exchange rate

Qu bnh n Hi oi. T gi hi oi.

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1086 Exchange rate Mechanism 1087 Exchange reserves 1088 Exchequer 1089 Excise duty 1090 Exclusion 1091 Excludable

C ch t gi hi oi. D tr ngoi hi. Kho bc, ngn kh Anh. Thu tiu th c bit. Loi tr C th loi tr.

1092 Exclusion principle 1093 Executive 1094 Exempt goods 1095 Exhaustive voting

Nguyn tc loi tr. Ngi iu hnh. Hng ho c min thu gi tr gia tng. Cch b phiu thu o.

1096 Existence, theorem of

nh l v s tn ti.

1097 Exit-voice model 1098 Excise taxes 1099 Exchange rate speculation 1100 Effective exchange rate

M hnh ni rt lui. Cc mc thu trn tng mt hng. S u c t gi hi oi. T gi hi oi hiu dng

1101 Exogeneity 1102 Exogeneity of money supply 1103 Exogenous 1104 Exogenous variable 1105 Expansionary phase

Yu t ngoi sinh. S ngoi sinh ca cung tin t. (thuc) ngoi sinh. Bin ngoi sinh. Giai on bnh trng; Giai on tng trng. ng bnh trng; ng m rng Chuyn gia (t cc nc pht trin) K vng; d tnh. Bin b sung v d tnh.

1106 Expansion path

1107 Expatriate 1108 Expectations 1109 Expectations, augmented

1110 Expectations lag 1111 Expected inflation

tr k vng; tr d tnh Mc lmp pht k vng; Lm pht d tnh

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economic

1112 Expected net returns

Mc li tc rng k vng; Li tc rng d tnh.

1113 Expected utility theory 1114 Expected value 1115 Expenditure approach 1116 Expenditure-switching policies 1117 Expenditure tax

L thuyt tho dng k vng; Thuyt tho dng d tnh. Gi tr k vng; gi tr d tnh. Phng php da vo chi tiu ( tnh GDP). Cc chnh sch chuyn i chi tiu. Thu chi tiu Kim sot mc bin ng trong chi tiu; Kim sot s thay i ca chi tiu.

1118 Expenditure-variation controls

1119 Expense preference

u tin chi tiu.

1120 Explanatory variable

Bin gii thch

1121 Explicit function

Hm hin

1122 Exploitation 1123 Explosive cycle

Khai thc; bc lt. Chu k bng n.

1124 Exponential

Thuc s m, thuc hm m.

1125 Export

Xut khu, hng xut khu.

1126 Export-import bank 1127 Export-led growth

Ngn hng xut nhp khu. Tng trng da vo xut khu.

1128 Export promotion Export Credit Guarantee 1129 Department. 1130 Export-oriented industrialization 1131 Ex post 1132 Extensive margin

Khuyn khch xut khu.

Cc Bo m tn dng xut khu. Cng nghip ho theo hng xut khu. t sau; sau Mc cn bin qung canh.

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1133 External balace 1134 External deficit

1135 External diseconomy External economies & 1136 diseconomies of scale 1137 External economy 1138 External finance 1139 External financial limits 1140 External growth

Cn bng i ngoi; Cn bng bn ngoi. Thm ht i ngoi; Thm ht bn ngoi. nh hng phi kinh t t bn ngoi; Tnh phi kinh t t bn ngoi nh hng kinh t v phi kinh t t bn ngoi theo quy m. nh hng kinh t t bn ngoi; Tnh kinh t t bn ngoi (Ngun) ti chnh t bn ngoi. Mc gii hn ngun ti chnh t bn ngoi. Tng trng ngoi ng; Tng trng do bn ngoi.

1141 Externalities 1142 External labour market

Cc ngoi hng; Cc ngoi ng Th trng lao ng bn ngoi.

1143 External reserve 1144 Dynamic externalities

D tr ngoi hi. Cc ngoi hng ng; Ngoi ng ng.

1145 Extraneous information 1146 Extrapolative expectation 1148 Extrema 1149 Extrema Keynesian Factor augmenting technical 1150 progress

1152 Factor endowment 1153 Factor incomes 1154 Factoring

Thng tin khng lin quan K vng ngoi suy; Nhng d tnh ngoi suy. Cc cc tr. Ngi theo thuyt Keynes cc oan. Tin b k thut gia tng nh hng ca yu t. Ngun lc sn c; Ngun ti nguyn sn c; S s hu cc yu t sn xut; tnh sn c, lng cc yu t sn xut. Thu nhp t yu t sn xut. Bao thanh ton; mua n; Gii thot n.

1155 Factor-price equalization 1156 Factor-price frontier

S cn bng yu t sn xut - gi c. Gii hn yu t sn xut - gi c.

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1157 Factor intensity 1158 Factor proportion

Mc / cng huy ng (s dng) cc yu t sn xut. T l cc yu t sn xut. S o ngc cc yu t sn xut. Cc yu t sn xut. Tc ng thay th yu t sn xut. S s dng yu t sn xut. Giai tha. So snh cng ng. T sut li tc cng bng.

1159 Factor reverals 1160 Factors of production 1161 Factor substitution effect 1162 Factor utilization 1163 Factorial 1164 Fair comparisons 1165 Fair rate of return

1166 Fair trade law

Lut thng mi cng bng.

1167 Fair trading Act 1973

o lut thng mi cng bng 1973

1168 Fair trading, Office of 1169 Fair wages 1170 Fallacy of composition 1171 False trading 1172 Family expenditure survey 1173 Family credit

Vn phng thng mi cng bng. Tin cng cng bng. Ngu bin v hp th; 'Khi nim "sai lm do gm gp/ tng hp". Thng mi la di. iu tra chi tiu gia nh. Tn dng gia nh. (kinh t) nng nghip theo h gia nh; Nng nghip theo n v gia nh. Xem FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION. Xem FINANCIAL ACCOUNT STANDARDS BOARD Xem FINANCE FOR INDUSTRY. Bo h, bo v; To vic lm (nhi lng nm). T vit tt ca h thng d tr lin bang. Cng ty bo him tin gi Lin bang.

1174 Family-unit agriculture 1175 FAO 1176 FASB 1177 FCI 1178 Featherbedding 1179 Fed., the Federal Deposit Insurance 1180 Corporation (FDIC)

1181 Federal Fund Market Federal Home Loan Bank System 1182 (FHLBS) 1183 Feasibility study

Th trng Tin qu lin Bang. H thng ngn hng cho vay ni b ca lin bang. Nghin cu kh thi.

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Federal Nation Mortgage 1184 Association (FNMA) 1185 Federal Open Market Committee 1186 Federal Reserve Note

Hip hi Cm c Quc gia lin bang U ban Th trng m Lin bang. Chng n ca Cc d tr Lin Bang

1187 Federal Reserve System

H thng D tr Lin bang.

1188 Federal Trade Commission Act 1189 Feedback/entrapment effects

o lut v Hi ng thng mi Lin bang. Tc ng phn hi/by.

1190 Feudalism 1191 Fiat money

Ch ngha phong kin. Tin theo lut nh

1192 Fiduciary issue 1193 Filter

Tin khng c bo lnh. B lc.

1194 Filtering 1195 FIML

Qu trnh lc.

1196 Final goods

Hng ho cui cng. (Phng n) trng ti ra quyt nh cui cng.

1197 Final offer arbitration

1198 Final product

Sn phm cui cng.

1199 Finance

Ti chnh

1200 Finance Corporation for Industry

Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip.

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1201 Finance house

Nh cung cp ti chnh; Cng ty ti chnh. Th trng cc nh cung cp ti chnh; Th trng cng ty ti chnh. Vn ti chnh. Cng c ti chnh. Nguyn tc ti chnh; K thut ti chnh. Trung gian ti chnh. Gi ti chnh. T s ti chnh. Ri ro ti chnh. Ch s gi c phiu thng k ca bo Financial Times.

1202 Finance houses market 1203 Financial Capital 1204 Financial instrument 1205 Financial displine Financial intermediary Financial price Financial ratios Financial risk Financial Times Actuaries Share 1210 Indices 1206 1207 1208 1209

Financial Times Industrial Ordinary Ch s cng nghip ca bo Financial Times. 1211 Index 1212 1213 1214 1215 Financial year Financial statement Financial rate of return Finite memory Nm ti chnh. Bo co ti chnh. Sut sinh li ti chnh. B nh xc nh (hu hn). Hng sn xut.

1216 Firm

1217 Firm, theory of the 1218 Finite horizon 1219 Firm-specific human capital Fist-best and second-best 1220 efficiency 1221 First difference 1222 First order condition 1223 Fiscal policy 1224 Fiscal decentralization 1225 Fiscal drag

L thuyt v hng. Tm nhn/ khung tri hu hn. Vn nhn lc c th i vi hng. Tnh hiu dng / hiu qu tt nht v tt nh. Vi phn bc I. iu kin o hm bc I. Chnh sch thu kho; Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch. S phn cp thu kho; S phn cp ngn sch. Sc cn ca thu kho. Ch ti kho theo m hnh lin bang.

1226 Fiscal federalism

1227 Fiscal illusion 1228 Fiscal multiplier 1229 Fiscal walfare benefits 1230 Fisher, Irving

o gic thu kho. Nhn t thu kho. Li ch phc li thu kho. (1867-1947)

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1231 Fisher equation 1232 Fisher open

Phng trnh Fisher Xem UNCOVERED INTEREST PARITY.

1233 Fixed asset Fixed coenfficients production 1234 function 1235 Fixed cost 1236 Fixed exchange rate 1237 Fixed factors 1238 Fixed labour costs 1239 Fixed-price mdel 1240 Fixed / floating exchange rates 1241 Fixed proportions in production 1242 Fixprice and flexprice 1243 Flat yield 1244 Flexible exchange rate 1245 Flexitime 1246 Flight from cash 1247 Float

Ti sn c nh. Hm sn xut c cc h s c nh. Chi ph c nh; nh ph. T gi hi oi c nh. Cc yu t sn xut c nh; cc sn t c nh. Chi ph lao ng c nh. Cc m hnh mc gi c nh. T gi hi oi c nh / th ni. T l c nh trong sn xut. Gi bt bin v gi linh hot. Tin li ng lot. T gi hi oi linh hot. Thi gian lm vic linh hot. B tin mt. Tin tri ni.

1248 Floating capital 1249 Floating charge

Vn lun chuyn. Ph linh ng

1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255

Floating debt Floating exchange rate Floating pound Floor Flotation Flow

N th ni T gi hi oi th ni. ng bng Anh th ni. Sn. Pht hnh. Dng, lung, Lu lng. Phn tch lung tin qu Gi khng tnh ph vn ti, gi FOB.

1256 Flow of funds analysis

1257 FOB

Food and Agriculture Organization T chc Lng thc v Nng nghip ca Lin hp quc. 1258 (FAO) Ngng rng cng; Ngnh khng c nh. 1259 Footloose industries

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1260 "footsie"

1261 Forced riders

Ngi hng li bt buc.

1262 Forced saving 1263 Forecast error

Tit kim bt buc. Sai s d on.

1264 Forecasting 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 Foreign aid Foreign balance Foreign exchange Foreign exchange market Foreign exchange reserve

D on Vin tr nc ngoi. Cn cn thanh ton quc t. Ngoi hi. Th trng Ngoi hi. D tr ngoi hi. u t nc ngoi.

1270 Foreign investment

1271 Foreign payments 1272 Foreign trade mutiplier 1273 Forward contract 1274 Forward exchange market 1275 Forward intergration

Thanh ton vi nc ngoi. Nhn t ngoi thng. Hp ng nh trc; Hp ng k hn. Th trng hi oi nh trc; Th trng hi oi k hn. Lin kt xui.

1276 Forward linkage

Lin h xui. Th trng nh trc; Th trng k hn. T gi hi oi nh trc; t gi hi oi k hn. Cc th trng nh trc v bt trc. Cc th trng nh trc v th trng giao ngay.

1277 Forward market 1278 Forward rate 1279 Forward and contingent market Forward markets and spots 1280 markets

1281 Foundation grant 1282 Fourier analysis

Tr cp c bn. Phn tc Fourier Hot ng ngn hng bng cch d tr theo t l. Thu nhp u t c min thu. T gi hi oi t do

1283 Fractional reserve banking 1284 Franked investment income 1285 Free exchange rates

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1286 Freedom of entry 1287 Freed good 1288 Free market 1289 Free market economy 1290 Free on board 1291 Free reserves 1292 Free rider

T do nhp ngnh. Hng min ph; Hng khng phi tr tin Th trng t do. Nn kinh t th trng t do. Giao hng ti bn. D tr t do. Ngi xi cha; ngi n khng.

1293 Free trade 1294 Free trade area

Thng mi t do. Khu vc thng mi t do.

1295 Frequency distribution

Phn b theo tn sut.

1296 Frictional unemployment

Tht nghip do ch chuyn ngh

1297 Friedman, Milton (1912-) 1298 Fringe benefit Phc li phi tin t.

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1299 Frisch, Ragnar 1300 F-statistic

(1895-1973) Thng k F.

1301 FT-SE 100 1302 Full bodied money 1303 Full cost 1304 Full cost pricing 1305 Fractional reserve system 1306 Free-rider problem Frictional and structural 1307 unemployment

Tin quy c. Chi ph y . nh gi theo chi ph y . H thng d tr mt phn. Vn ngi "xi cha". Tht nghip do ch chuyn ngh v do ch chuyn ngh. Ngn sch mc nhn cng ton dng; Ngn sch khi c vic lm. Thng d ngn sch mc nhn cng ton dng; Thng d ngn sch khi c vic lm. Thu nhp quc dn mc nhn cng ton dng; Thu nhp quc dn khi c vic lm. T l tht nghip t nhin mc nhn cng ton dng; T l tht nghip t nhin khi c vic lm. c lng kh nng cc i khi c thng tin. Hm s. Lp chi ph theo chc nng. Quy tc hm ca mt hm s.

1308 Full-employment budget

1309 Full-employment budget surplus

1310 Full-employment national income

Full-employment unemployment 1311 rate Full information maximum likehood 1312 (FIML) 1313 Function 1314 Fuctional costing 1315 Function of function rule

1316 Funded debt 1317 Funding

N v thi hn; N c ti tr. i n, o n; cp vn, ti tr.

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1318 Function income distribution 1319 Futures contract 1320 Futures market 1321 Future value General Arangement to borrow 1322 (GAB) 1323 Gains from trade 1324 Galbraith, John Kenneth 1325 Galloping inflation

Phn phi thu nhp theo chc nng. Hp ng k hn Th trng k hn Gi tr tng lai. Hip c vay n chung. Li ch ca thng mi. (1908-) Lm pht phi m.

1326 1327 1328 1329

Game theory GATT Gauss- Markov Theorem GDP

L thuyt tr chi. inh l Gauss- Markov. Tng sn phm quc ni. S n khp, t s gia vn n v vn c phn T s n khp

1330 Gearing 1331 Gearing ratio

Hip nh chung v thu quan v thng mi. Tho thun Chung v i vay. S phn loi chung v cc hot General Classification of Economic ng kinh t trong Cng ng chu u. 1334 Activities in t Cn bng chung; Cn bng tng th. 1335 General equilibrium Tr cp chung. 1336 General grant General Agreement of Tariffs and 1332 Trade (GATT) 1333 General Agreement to Borrow

1337 Generalized least square (GLS) 1338 General linear model (GLM)

Bnh phng nh nht tng qut. M hnh tuyn tnh tng qut.

Generalized System of 1339 Preferences (GSP) 1340 General price level General Theory of Employment, 1341 Interest and Money

H thng u i ph cp; H thng u i chung. Mc gi chung. L thuyt tng qut v Vic lm, Li sut v Tin t. Vn nhn lc mang c im chung; vn nhn lc chung chung. Cc nghip on. Hi ngh Geneva.

1342 General human capital 1343 General union 1344 Geneva Conference

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1345 Geneva Round

Vng m phn Geneva.

1346 Geographic frontier 1347 Geometric lag Gilbrat's law of proportionate 1348 growth

Gii hn a l. tr cp s nhn. Lut Gilbrat v tng trng theo t l.

1349 Giffen good 1350 Gifts tax

Hng ho Giffen Thu qu tng. Chng khon vin vng; Chng khon ho hng. H s GINI.

1351 Gilt- edged securities 1352 Gini coefficient

1353 Giro system 1354 Glejser test 1355 GNP

H thng chuyn khon Giro Kim nh Glejser. Tng sn phm quc dn.

1356 Gold bricking 1357 Gold certificate

Hot ng la di. Giy chng gi vng.

1358 "gold age" growth 1359 Golden rule 1360 Golden rule of accumulation 1361 Gold exchange standard 1362 Gold export point 1363 Gold import point 1364 Goldfeld - Quandt 1365 Gold market

Tng trng "thi k hong kim". Nguyn tc vng; Quy tc vng. Nguyn tc vng v tch lu; Quy tc vng ca tch lu. Bn v trao i bng vng. im xut khu vng. im nhp khu vng. Kim nh Goldfeld - Quandt. Th trng vng.

1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371

Gold points GDP and nation income GDP at factor cost GDP at market prices GDP deflator Gold reserve

Cc im vng. GDP v thu nhp quc dn. GDP theo chi ph sn xut. GDP theo gi th trng. H s kh lm pht cho GDP. D tr vng.

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1372 Gold standard 1373 Goldbugs

Bn v vng. Nhng con mt vng.

1374 Goodhart's law 1375 Goodness of fit 1376 Goods

Lut Goodhart. Mc ph hp. Cc hng ho tt.

1377 Goodwill

Thin ch.

1378 Gosplan 1379 Government deficit

U ban k hoch (Lin X). Thm ht ca Chnh ph.

1380 Government expenditure Government Nation Mortgage 1381 Association (GNMA) 1382 Government regulation

Chi tiu ca chnh ph. Hip hi cm c quc gia ca Chnh ph. S iu tit ca chnh ph.

1383 Government securities Government spending and net 1384 taxes Government spending on goods 1385 and services

Chng khon ca chnh ph. Chi tiu ca chnh ph v thu rng. Chi tiu ca chnh ph cho hng ho v dch v. Trng phi tun tin; Ch ngha tun tin; thuyt tun tin. Ngi theo thuyt trng tin tun tin.

1386 Gradualism 1387 Gradualist monetarist

1388 Graduate tax 1389 Grand factor price frontier

Thu i hc Gii hn gi c nhn t chnh. iu khon dnh cho nhng ngi c chc. Tnh nhn qa Granger.

1390 Grandfather clause 1391 Granger causality

1392 Grant 1393 Grant in aid

Tr cp. Tr cp di dng vin tr.

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1394 Gravity model

M hnh lc hp dn.

1395 "Great Leap Forward"

i nhy vt

1396 Green pound

ng bng xanh

1397 Green revolution 1398 Gresham's Law 1399 Gross barter terms of trade Gross domestic fixed capital 1400 formation 1401 Gross domestic product (GDP) 1402 Gross domestic product deflator 1403 Gross investment 1404 Gross margin 1405 Gross national income 1406 Gross profit 1407 Gross trading profit 1408 Group of Ten

Cch mng Xanh. Lut Gresham. Tng t l hng i hng. Tng t bn c nh trong nc. Tng sn phm quc ni. Ch s kh lm pht cho tng sn phm quc ni. Tng u t. Mc chnh gi gp. Tng thu nhp quc dn. Tng li nhun Tng li nhun thng mi. Nhm G10.

1409 Group of Seven

Nhm G7.

1410 Group of 77 1411 Growth-gap unemployment 1412 Growth path 1413 Growth-profitability function

Nhm 77. Tht nghip do chnh lch v tng trng. ng tng trng. Hm li nhun - tng trng.

1414 Growth-stock paradox

Nghch l c phn tng trng.

1415 Growth theories of the firm

Cc l thuyt v s tng trng ca hng.

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1416 Growth theory 1417 Growth rate

L thuyt tng trng. Tc tng trng.

1418 Growth-valuation function 1419 G.7 1420 1421 1422 1423 Guaranteed week Guidelines Guidepost following behaviour Guideposts

Hm gi tr - tng trng. Xem GROUP OF SEVEN Tun l bo m. Nguyn tc ch o. Hnh vi theo hng ch dn. Cc ch dn.

1424 Haavelmo, Trygve

(1911-)

1425 Haberler, Gottfried 1426 Habit-creating demand function 1427 Halesbury Committee

(1900-) Hm cu do thi quen. U ban Halesbury.

1428 Hammered 1429 Hedgers 1430 Hard-core unemployed 1431 Hard currency 1432 Harmony of interests

B g ba. Nhng ngi t bo him. Nhng ngi tht nghip kh tm vic lm. Tin mnh. Hi ho quyn li.

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1433 Harrod, Sir Roy, F.

(1900-1978).

M hnh tng trng HarrodDomar. Tin b k thut trung tnh ca 1435 Harrod Neutral Technical Progress Harrod. iu l Havana. 1436 Havana Charter 1434 Harrod-Domar growth model

1437 Hayek, Friedrich A.Von

(1899-1992).

Heckscher-Ohlin approach to 1438 international trade 1439 Hedging

Phung php Heckscher-Ohlin v thng mi quc t. Lp hng ro.

1440 Hedonic price

Gi n.

1441 Hedonism 1442 Herfindahl index 1443 Heterogeneity

Ch ngha khoi lc. Ch s Herfindahl. Tnh khng ng nht.

1444 Heterogeneous capital

Vn khng ng nht.

1445 Heterogeneous product 1446 Heteroscedasticity

Sn phm khng ng nht. Hip phng sai khng ng nht.

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1447 Hicks. Sir John R. 1448 Hicks-Hansen diagram 1449 Hicks Neutral Technical Progress

(1904-1989). Biu Hicks-Hansen. Tin b k thut trung tnh Hicks.

1450 Hidden unemployment

Tht nghip n.

1451 High-powered money 1452 Hiring rate

Tin mnh. T l thu.

1453 Hiring standards

Cc tiu chun thu ngi.

1454 Histogram

Biu tn xut.

1455 Historical costs 1456 Historical model 1457 Historical school 1458 Historicism 1459 Hoarding 1460 Hoarding company 1461 Homogeneity 1462 Homogeneous functions

Chi ph lch s. Cc m hnh lch s. Trng phi lch s. Ch ngha lch s. u c tch tr. Cng ty nm gi. Tnh thun nht, tnh ng nht. Cc hm ng nht.

1463 Homogeneous product 1464 Homogeneous product functin 1465 Homoscedasticity 1466 Horizontal equity

Sn phm ng nht. Cc hm sn xut ng nht. Hip phng sai ng nht. Cng bng theo phng ngang.

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1467 Horizontal intergration Horizontal / vertical / conglomerate 1469 merger 1470 Hot money

Lin kt theo phng ngang. Hp nht theo tuyn ngang/ dc/ kt khi. Tin nng.

1471 Hotelling's Rule 1472 Housing benefit 1473 Human capital

Quy tc Hotelling. Li nhun nh . Vn nhn lc.

1474 Hume, David 1475 Hunt Commission

(1711-1776) U ban Hunt.

1476 Hunt Report 1477 Hiperbola 1478 Hyperinflation 1479 Hypothesis testing 1480 Hysteresis 1481 Human wealth 1482 ICOR 1483 IBBD 1484 ICFC 1485 IDA 1486 Identification problem 1487 Identity 1488 Identity matrix 1489 National Income Identities

Bo co Hunt. Hypecbn Siu lm pht. Kim nh gi thuyt. Hin tng tr. Ca ci ca con ngi. T l bin t gia vn v sn lng. Ngn hng Ti thit v Pht trin. Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi. Hip hi Pht trin quc t. Bi ton nhn dng. ng nht thc. Ma trn n v. ng nht thc ca thu nhp quc dn.

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1490 Idiosyncratic exchange 1491 Idle balances 1492 Illiquidity 1493 Ilo 1494 Imaginary number 1495 IMF

Trao i tnh cht ring; trao i t cht. Tin nhn ri. Khng tnh chuyn hon. Vn phng Lao ng Quc t. S o. Qu tin t quc t.

1496 Imitative growth

Tng trng m phng.

1497 Immiserizing growth

Tng trng lm khn kh.

1498 Impact analysis 1499 Impact multiplier 1500 Impact of taxation

Phn tch tc ng. S nhn tc ng Tc ng ca vic nh thu.

1501 Imperfect competition

Cnh tranh khng hon ho.

1502 Imperfect market

Th trng khng hon ho.

1503 Imperialism 1504 Implementation lag

Ch ngha quc. tr thc hin.

1505 Implicit contracts 1506 Implicit cost 1507 Implicit function 1508 Implicit price deflator

Cc hp ng n. Chi ph n. Hm n. Ch s gim pht gi n.

1509 Implicit rental value 1510 Import

Gi tr tin thu n. Hng nhp khu.

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1511 Import duty 1512 Import quota 1513 Import restrictions 1514 Import substitution 1515 Import tariff

Thu nhp khu. Hn ngch nhp khu. Cc hn ch nhp khu.

Thay th nhp khu. Thu quan nhp khu. Cng nghip ho bng thay th 1516 Import substitution industrialization hng nhp khu. nh l v tnh bt kh th; nh l v iu khng th c. 1517 Impossibility Theorem Hng ho cng cng khng thun tu. 1518 Impure public good 1519 Imputed rent 1520 Inactive money 1521 Incentive payment systems 1522 Incidence of taxation 1523 Income 1524 Income, circular flow of 1525 Income consumption curve 1526 Income determination Tin thu khng quy i. Tin nhn ri. H thng thanh ton khuyn khch. Phm vi tc ng ca vic nh thu, i tng chu thu. Thu nhp Lung lun chuyn ca thu nhp. ng tiu dng thu nhp. Xc nh thu nhp.

1527 Income differentials 1528 Income effect 1529 Income distribution 1530 Income elasticity of demand 1531 Income - expenditure model 1532 Income maintenance 1533 Income effect of wages 1534 Income approach 1535 Income-sales ratio 1536 Incomes policy 1537 Income and substitution effect 1538 Income support 1539 Income tax 1540 Income statement 1541 Income terms of trade

S khc bit v thu nhp. Hiu ng thu nhp, nh hng thu nhp. Phn phi thu nhp. Co gin ca cu theo thu nhp. M hnh thu nhp - chi tiu Duy tr thu nhp. nh hng thu nhp ca lng. Phng php da theo thu nhp ( tnh GDP). T s thu nhp / doanh thu. Chnh sch thu nhp. nh hng ca thu nhp v nh hng ca thay th. Tr gip thu nhp. Thu thu nhp Bo co thu nhp / Bn thu nhp. T gi thng mi theo thu nhp

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1542 Income velocity of circulation 1543 Increasing returns to scale 1544 Incremental capital-output ratio

Tc lu thng ca thu nhp. Li tc tng dn theo quy m. T s vn/ sn lng tng thm (ICOR).

1545 Independent variable 1546 Indexation Indexation of tax allowances and 1547 taxation. 1548 Index number

Bin c lp. Phng php ch s ho. Ch s ho vic tr cp thu v vic nh thu. S ch s.

1549 Index number problem 1550 Indicative planning 1551 Index of distortion 1552 Indifference 1553 Indifference curve

Vn ch s. K hoch ho ch dn. Ch s bin dng / bp mo / sai lch. Bng quan ng bng quan, ng ng dng. H ng bng quan, bn ng ng dng. Bnh phng ti thiu gin tip. Thu gin thu. Hm tho dng gin tip. Tnh bt kh chia; Tnh khng th phn chia c.

1554 Indifference map 1555 Indirect least squares (ILS) 1556 Indirect taxes 1557 Indirect utility function 1558 Indivisibilities

Trng pht lao ng. 1559 Industrial action Industrial and Commercial Finance Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi. 1560 Corporation 1561 Industrial bank Ngn hng cng nghip.

1562 Industrial complex analysis 1563 Industrial democracy

Phn tch t hp cng nghip. Dn ch cng nghip

1564 Industrial Development Certificate

Chng ch Pht trin cng nghip.

1565 Industrial dispute

Tranh chp lao ng

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economic

1566 Industrial concentration 1567 Inductive reasoning 1568 Industrial policy

S tp trung cng nghip. Lp lun quy np. Chnh sch cng nghip.

1569 Industrial inertia 1570 Industrialization

Tnh cng nghip. Cng nghip ho ( cc nc ang pht trin).

1571 Industrial organization 1572 Industrial relation

T chc cng nghip Cc quan h lao ng.

Industrial Reorganization 1573 Corporation 1574 Industrial unions 1575 Industrial wage differentials 1576 Industrial wage structure

Cng ty ci t cng nghip. Nghip on theo ngnh. Chnh lch v tin cng gia cc ngnh. C cu tin cng theo ngnh.

1577 Industry 1578 Industry-wide bargaining 1579 Inelastic 1580 Inequality 1581 Infant industry Infant industry argument for 1582 protection 1583 Infant industry tariff argument 1584 Inference 1585 Inferior good 1586 Infinite memory 1587 Inflation 1588 Inflation, suppressed 1589 Inflation accounting 1590 Inflationary gap 1591 Infinitely elastic 1592 Inflationary spiral

Ngnh cng nghip. Thng lng trong ton ngnh. Khng co gin. Bt ng thc. Ngnh cng nghip non tr. Lun im bo h ngnh cng nghip non tr. Lun im v lp thu quan bo h ngnh cng nghip non tr. Suy lun Hng ho h ng; hng ho th cp B nh v hn. Lm pht. Lm pht b nn. Hch ton lm pht. H cch / khong trng lm pht, chnh lch lm pht. Co gin hon ton. Vng xoy c ca lm pht.

1593 Inflation subsidy 1594 Inflation tax

Tr cp lm pht. Thu lm pht.

Page 69

economic

1595 Informal sector 1596 Information 1597 Information matrix 1598 Inflation rate 1599 Inflation-adjusted budget 1600 Informative economy analysis 1601 Infra-marginal externality 1602 Infrastructure

Khu vc khng chnh thc. Thng tin Ma trn Thng tin. T l lm pht. Ngn sch c iu chnh theo lm pht. Phn tch thng tin kinh t. Ngoi ng bin. H tng c s.

1603 Inheritance tax 1604 Initial claims series 1605 Injections 1606 In-kind redistribution 1607 Inland bill

Thu tha k. Nhm ngi yu cu u tin. S bm tin. Phn phi li bng hin vt. Hi phiu ni a.

1608 Innovations 1609 Input 1610 Input orientation

Pht kin; sng kin u vo. nh hng theo u vo. Cn tr v tnh i vi vic nhp ngnh; Cn tr ngu nhin i vi vic nhp ngnh. u vo - u ra (I-O), bng cn i lin ngnh. tr bn trong. Tin bn trong. Ngi trong cuc - ngi ngoi cuc.

1611 Innocent entry barrier

1612 Input - output 1613 Inside lag 1614 Inside money 1615 Insider - outsider

1616 Insider - outsider model

M hnh Ngi trong cuc - ngi ngoi cuc.

1617 Insolvency 1618 Instalment credit 1619 Institutional economics 1620 Institutional training 1621 Instrumental variables

Tnh trng khng tr c n. Tn dng tr dn. Kinh t hc th ch. o to th ch. Cc bin cng c (IV).

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economic

1622 Instruments 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 Insurance Insurance premium Intangible assets Intangible capital Integer

Cc cng c. Bo him Tin ng bo him. Ti sn v hnh. Vn v hnh. S nguyn

1628 Integerated economy 1629 Integerated time series 1630 Integration 1631 Intended inventory investment 1632 Intensive margin

Nn kinh t lin kt. Chui thi gian c ly tch phn. Tch phn ho. u t vo hng tn kho c ch Gii hn thm canh.

1633 Inter-Bank Market 1634 Intercept

Th trng Lin ngn hng. H s chn.

1635 Interdependent utility Interdistrict Settlement Account (or 1636 Fund) 1637 Interest

tho dng ph thuc ln nhau. Ti khon (hay qu) Thanh ton lin vng. Tin li, li sut.

1638 Interest equalization tax 1639 Interest sensitivity 1640 Intergenerational equity 1641 Intergovernmental grants 1642 Interlocking directorates 1643 Intermediate areas 1644 Intermediate goods 1645 Intermediate lag

Thuu san bng li sut. nhy theo li sut. Cng bng gia cc th h. Cc tr cp lin chnh quyn. Cc ban gim c chung, cc ban gim c kt hp. Cc vng trung gian. Hng ho trung gian. tr trung gian.

1646 Intermediate technology

Cng ngh trung gian.

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economic

Intermediate Technology 1647 Development Group 1648 Intermediate variables

Nhm Pht trin Cng ngh trung gian. Bin trung gian

Internal convertibility of soft 1649 currencies 1650 Internal drain

Kh nng chuyn i trong nc ca tin yu. S x tin trong nc.

1651 Internal growth

Tng trng nh ni ng.

1652 Internalization 1653 "internal" labuor market 1654 Internal finance 1655 Internal rate of return 1656 Internal wage differentials 1657 Internal balance 1658 External balance

Ni ho. Th trng lao ng ni vi. Ti chnh bn trong. Ni sut sinh li Cc mc chnh lch tin cng ni ti. Cn bng bn trong Cn bng bn ngoi.

International Bank for 1659 Reconstruction and Development

Ngb hng Ti thit v Pht trin Quc t.

1660 International cartel 1661 International clearing unions International commodity 1662 agreements International Development 1663 Association

Cartel quc t. Cc lin minh thanh ton quc t. Cc hip nh hng ho quc t.

Hip hi pht trin quc t

International Development Co1664 operation Agency (ID) 1665 International division of labour 1666 International economics

T chc hp tc pht trin quc t. S phn chia lao ng quc t. Kinh t hc quc t

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economic

1667 International Finance Corporation 1668 International debt crisis

Cng ty Ti chnh Quc t. Khng hong n quc t.

1669 International Labuor Office

Vn phng Lao ng quc t.

1670 International liquidity

Thanh khon quc t.

1671 International monetarism

Ch ngha trng tin quc t.

1672 International monetary Fund

(IMF) - Qu tin t quc t.

1673 International payments system International Standard Industrial 1674 Classification 1675 International trade

H thng thanh ton quc t. (ISIC)-Phn loi Ngnh Cng nghip theo C1683Tiu chun Quc t. Thng mi quc t. (ITO) - T chc thng mi quc t.

1676 International Trade Organization

Hi ng la m Quc t. So snh tho dng gia cc c 1678 Interpersonal comparisons of utility nhn. 1677 International Wheat Council

1679 Interquartile range 1680 Interstate Commerce Act 1681 Intersection 1682 Interval estimation

Khong cch gia cc t v phn v. o lut thng mi gia cc tiu bang. Giao c lng khong.

1683 "In the bank" 1684 Inventories 1685 Inventory cycle 1686 Inventory investment 1687 Inverse function rule

"ti Ngn hng". Hang tn kho, d tr. Chu k hng tn kho. u t tn kho Quy tc hm ngc.

Page 73

economic

1688 Investment 1689 Investment criteria 1690 Investment grants 1691 Investment trust

u t. Cc tiu chun u t. Tr cp u t. T-rt u t.

1692 Investors in Industry

Cc nh u t trong Cng nghip.

1693 Invisible hand, the 1694 Invisibles 1695 Involuntary unemployment 1696 Iron law of wages 1697 Irredeemable loan stock 1698 Irredeemable preference shares

Bn tay v hnh. Khon v hnh Tht nghip khng t nguyn. Quy lut st v tin cng. Lng cho vay khng tr c. Cc c phiu u tin khng tr c. Tnh bt kh o; Tnh khng th o ngc c. ng IS Phn loi Ngnh Cng nghip theo tiu chun Quc t. Ngn hng pht trin Hi gio.

1699 Irreversibility 1700 IS curve 1701 ISIC 1702 Islamic Development Bank

1703 IS- LM diagram 1704 Iso-cost curve 1705 Iso-outlay line

Lc IS - LM. ng ng ph. ng ng chi.

1706 Iso-product curve 1707 Iso-profit curve 1708 Isoquant 1709 Iso-revenue line (curve) 1710 Issued capital 1711 Issue department

ng ng sn phm. Cc ng ng nhun. ng lng. ng ng thu. Vn pht hnh. Cc pht hnh.

1712 Issuing broker

Ngi mi gii pht hnh.

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economic

1713 Issuing house

Nh pht hnh.

1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722

Issuing House Association ITO Inverse relation Invention and innovation Intra-industrial trade Invention and official financing Investment demand schedule IOU money IS and LM schedule

Hip hi cc Nh pht hnh. T chc thng mi Quc t. Tng quan nghch bin. Pht minh v pht kin. Thng mi trong ngnh. Can thip v ti tr chnh thc. Biu nhu cu u t. Tin da theo n. Biu IS v LM. ng ch J Vn "mm do".

1723 J curve 1724 "jelly" capital

1725 Jevon, W.Stanley 1726 Jobber

(1835-1882) Ngi bun bn chng khon.

1727 Job cluster

Nhm ngh.

1728 Job competition theory

Thuyt v cnh tranh vic lm.

1729 Job creation 1730 Job acceptance schedule 1731 Job dublication

To vic lm. Biu s ngi chp nhn cng vic. Vic lm kp.

1732 Job evaluation 1733 Job search

nh gi vic lm. Tm kim vic lm.

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economic

1734 Job search channels 1735 Job shopping

Cc knh tm vic. Chn vic lm.

1736 Johnson, Harry Gordon

(1923-77)

1737 Joint probability distributions 1738 Joint products 1739 Joint profit maximination 1740 Joint stock company

Cc phn phi xc sut kt hp. Cc sn phm lin kt. Ti a ho li nhun chung. Cng ty c phn.

1741 Joint venture Joint venture in European 1742 Countries 1743 J - test 1744 Juglar cycle 1745 Justice as fairness 1746 Just price 1747 Junk bonds

Lin doanh. Lin doanh cc nc ng u. Kim nh J. Chu k Juglar. Chn l nh l cng bng. Gi cng bng. Tri phiu li sut cao.

1748 Kahn, Richard F.

(1905-1989)

Page 76

economic

1749 Kaldor, Nicholas 1750 Kaldor - Hicks test

(1908-1986) Kim nh Kaldor - Hicks.

1751 Kalecki, Micheal 1752 Kalman filtering

(1899-1970) Php lc Kalman.

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economic

1753 Kantorovich, Leonid

(1912-1986)

1754 Kenedy Round

Vng m phn Kenedy.

1755 Key bargain 1756 Keynes, John Maynard 1757 Keynes effect 1758 Keynesian cross 1759 Keynesian economics 1760 Keynesian Growth Theory

Thng lng ch cht. (1883-1946) Hiu ng Keynes. im ct Keynes Kinh t hc trng phi Keynes L thuyt tn trng ca trng phi Keynes.

1761 Keynes Plan 1762 Key rates

K hoch Keynes. Cc mc lng then cht.

1763 Kinked demand curve

ng cu gp khc.

1764 Klein Goldberger model

M hnh Klein Goldberger.

Page 78

economic

1765 Klein, Lawrence R.

(1920-)

1766 Knife edge

im ta mng manh.

1767 Knight, Frank

(1895-1973)

1768 Kondratieff, Nicolai D.

(1892-..?)

Page 79

economic

1769 Koopmans, Tjalling

(1910-1985)

1770 Koych transformation

Php bin i Koyck

1771 Kuznets, Simon 1772 Labour Labour augmenting technical 1773 progress 1774 Labour economics 1775 Labour force

(1901-1985) Lao ng. Tin b k thut lm tng sc lao ng. Kinh t hc lao ng. Lc lng lao ng.

1776 Labour force participation rate 1777 Labour hoarding 1778 Labour force schedule 1779 Labour intensive

T l tham gia Lc lng lao ng. Tch tr lao ng. Biu v lc lng lao ng S dng nhiu lao ng, thm dng nhiu lao ng.

1780 Labour market 1781 Labour power 1782 Labour - saving techniques

Th trng lao ng. Sc lao ng. Cc k thut tit kim lao ng.

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economic

1783 Labour's share 1784 Labour standard 1785 Labour supply 1786 Labour surplus economy

T trng ca lao ng. Tiu chun lao ng. Cung lao ng. Nn kinh t tha lao ng.

1787 Labour theory of value 1788 Labour turnover 1789 Laffer curve 1790 Lagged relationship

L thuyt lao ng v gi tr. Mc thay lao ng. ng Laffer. Quan h tr.

1791 Lagrangean technique

Phng php nhn t Lagrange. Hc thuyt v nn kinh t t vn hnh. Nn kinh t t vn hnh (chnh ph t can thip).

1792 Laissez - faire 1793 Laissez - faire economy

1794 Land 1795 Land intensive

t ai. S dng nhiu t.

1796 Land reform and tenure 1797 Land tax

Bo h v ci cch rung t. Thu t.

1798 Lange, Oscar 1799 Laspeyres price index 1800 Latin American Economic System

(1904-1965) Ch s gi Laspeyres. H thng kinh t M Latinh.

Latin American Free Trade 1801 Association (LAFTA)

Hip hi thng mi t do M latinh.

1802 Lausanne School

Trng phi Lausanne.

1803 Law of demand

Quy lut ca cu.

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economic

1804 Law of diminishing returns 1805 Law of diminishing marginal utility 1806 Law of variable proprerties 1807 Law of one price

Quy lut li tc gim dn. Quy lut tho dng cn bin gim dn. Quy lut v cc c tnh bin i. Quy lut mt gi.

1808 Layfield Report 1809 Layoffs 1810 Leading links principle

Bo co Layfield. Sa thi tm thi Nguyn tc u mi hng u.

1811 Leading sector 1812 Leakages

Ngnh dn u. Nhng khon r r.

1813 Leap - frogging 1814 Learning learning by doing

S nhy cc. Hc hi Hc qua hnh

1815 Lease 1816 Least cost method of production 1817 Least squares 1818 Le Chatelier principle 1819 Lender of last resort

Thu Phng sn xut da trn gi thnh thp nht. Phng php bnh phng nh nht. Nguyn tc Le Chatelier. Ngi cho vay cu cnh cui cng.

1820 Leontief, Wassily W. 1821 Leontief inverse 1822 Leontief paradox

(1906-) S nghch o Leontief. Nghch l Leontief.

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economic

1823 Lerner, Abba P.

(19031983).

1824 Lerner case 1825 Lerner index 1826 Leger tender 1827 Less devoloped countries (LDCs)

Tnh hung Lerner. Ch s Lerner Phng tin thanh ton hp php (lut nh). Cc nc chm pht trin.

1828 Letter of credit 1829 Level of significance 1830 Level field

Th tn dng. Mc ngha. Sn chi cng bng / cng mt sn chi? T phn vn vay; n by v ti chnh; T l vn vay so vi tng vn.

1831 Leverage

1832 Lewis, Sir W.Arthur

(1919-1991).

1833 Lewis - Fei - Ranis model 1834 Leveraged buy out (LBO) 1835 Leveraged financing

M hnh Lewis - Fei - Ranis. Tng vay bng cch thay c phn Ti tr n by.

1836 Lexicographic preferences 1837 Liabilities

Th hiu thin lch. N.

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economic

1838 Liberalism

Ch ngha t do.

1839 LIBOR

Li sut lin ngn hng London.

1840 Licensed deposit takers

1841 Life-cycle hypothesis 1842 Life-cycle oriented expectation

C quan c cp giy php nhn tin gi. Gi thuyt v vng i, thu nhp theo vng i / Chu k tui th sn phm. K vng nh hng theo chu k i ngi.

1843 "Lifeboat"

"Thuyn cu sinh".

1844 Likehood function 1845 Likehood ratio test (LD) 1846 Limited company 1847 Limited dependent variables 1848 Limited information (LI) 1849 Limited liability

Hm hp l Kim nh t s hp l. Cng ty trch nhim hu hn. Cc bin s ph thuc hn ch. Thng tin hn ch. Trch nhim hu hn.

1850 Limit pricing 1851 Lindahl model

nh gi gii hn. M hnh Lindahl.

1853 Linder thesis 1854 Linear combination 1855 Linear dependence

Thuyt Linder. T hp tuyn tnh. Ph thuc tuyn tnh

1856 Linear estimator 1857 Linear expenditure systems 1858 Linear function 1859 Linear nomogenous

c lng tuyn tnh. Cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh. Hm tuyn tnh. ng nht tuyn tnh.

1860 Linear probability model

M hnh xc sut tuyn tnh.

1861 Linear programming

Quy hoch tuyn tnh.

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economic

1862 Liquid asset 1863 Liquid assets ratio

Ti sn d hon chuyn; Ti sn lng; ti sn d thanh tiu . T l ti sn d hon chuyn.

1864 Liquidation 1865 Liquility 1866 Liquidity 1867 Liquidity preference 1868 Liquidity ratio

Pht mi. Kh nng chuyn hon. Tnh thanh ton, thanh tiu. S a thch ti sn d thanh tiu T s v kh nng hon chuyn

1869 Liquidity trap 1870 Listed securities 1871 Little - Mirrlees method 1872 LM curve 1873 Loan 1874 1875 1876 1877 Loanable funds Loan capital Loan stock Loan facility

By tin mt; By thanh khon. Cc chng khon yt gi. Phng php Little - Mirrlees. ng LM. Khon cho vay. Cc qu c th cho vay. Vn vay. S vn vay. Chng trnh cho vay.

1878 Local authorities' market 1879 Local finance 1880 Local labour market 1881 Local mutiplier 1882 Local public good

Th trng ca chnh quyn a phng. Ti chnh a phng. Th trng lao ng a phng. S nhn a phng Hng ho cng cng a phng.

1883 Locational integration

Lin kt theo v tr.

1884 Locational interdependence

S ph thuc ln nhau v v tr.

1885 Location quotient 1886 Location theory 1887 Locking - in effect 1888 lockout 1889 Logarithm 1890 Logistic function

Thng s v tr. L thuyt v v tr. Hiu ng kt S ng ca gy p lc (i vi cng nhn). Lgart Hm Lgistic

Page 85

economic

1891 Logit analysis 1892 Log-linear

Php phn tch lgit Tuyn tnh lgarit S trao i phiu bu; b phiu gian ln. Ph Lombard.

1893 Logolling 1894 Lombard Street

1895 Lom Convention

Cng c Lom.

1896 Long-dated securities 1897 Long-haul economies 1898 Longitudinal data 1899 Long rate

Cc chng khon di hn. Tnh kinh t theo qung ng. D liu dc. Li sut di hn.

1900 1901 1902 1903

Long run Long run average cost (LAC) Long run comsumption function Long run marginal cost

Di hn. Chi ph trung bnh di hn. Hm tiu dng di hn. Chi ph cn bin di hn.

1904 Long term capital 1905 Lorenz curve 1906 Losch model 1907 Loss aversion 1908 Loss function

Vn di hn. ng Lorenz M hnh Losch S khng thch mt mt. Hm thua l.

1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914

Loss leader pricing Long run competitive Lon run total cost curve Long run Phillips curve Short run Phillp curve Lump - sum tax

Bn h gi trc. Cn bng cnh tranh di hn. ng tng chi ph di hn. ng Phillips di hn. ng Phillips ngn hn. Thu gp / khon. Cc iu khon b l. By cn bng mc thp. Thng mi lng thp.

1915 Loss offsetting provisions 1916 Low - level equilibrium trap 1917 Low wage trade

1918 Lucas critique 1919 LUS

Lun im ph phn ca Lucas S d tuyn tnh v hng khng chch.

1920 Luxury

Hng xa x (cng coi l hng thng lu).

1921 Luxury taxes

Thu hng xa x.

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economic

1922 M1 and M0

Mc cung tin M1 v M0.

1923 Macmillan Committee 1924 "Macmillan" gap

U ban Macmillan. L hng Macmillan.

1925 Mc Guire Act 1926 Macroeconomics Macroeconomics demand 1927 schedule

o lut Mc Guire. Kinh t hc v m. Biu cu mang tnh kinh t hc v m.

1928 Majority rule

Quy tc a s.

1929 Malleable capital

Vn uyn chuyn

1930 Malthus, Rev. Thomas Robert 1931 Malthus's law of population 1932 Management 1933 Management buyout 1934 Management board 1935 Managed or dirty floating

(1766-1834). Quy lut dn s ca Malthus. Ban qun l. Thu mua bng nghip v qun l. Ban qun l / Hi ng qun tr. S th ni c qun l hay khng thun khit.

1936 Management science

Khoa hc qun l.

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economic

1937 Manager controlled firm

Hng do nh qun l kim sot.

1938 Managerial capitalism 1939 Managerial discretion

Ch ngha t bn thin v qun l. S tu tin trong qun l.

1940 Managerial revolution 1941 Managerial slack

Cuc cch mng qun l. S lng lo trong qun l.

1942 Managerial theories of the firm 1943 Managerial utility function 1944 Marginal cost 1945 Marginal cost of labor 1946 Marginal cost pricing 1947 Marginal firm 1948 Marginal income tax rate 1949 Marginal principle 1950 Marginal product of labors Marginal propensity to comsume 1951 (MPC) 1952 Marginal propensity to import

Cc hc thuyt v hng thin v qun l. Hm tho dng trong qun l. Chi ph cn bin. Chi ph cn bin cho lao ng. nh gi theo chi ph cn bin. Xut bin? Mc thu sut cn bin nh vo thu nhp. Nguyn l cn bin. Sn phm cn bin ca lao ng. Thin hng tiu dng cn bin. Thin hng nhp khu cn bin.

1953 Marginal propensity to save (MPS) Thin hng tit kim cn bin.

1954 Marginal rate of substitution (MRS) T l thay th cn bin. 1955 Marginal rate of transformation 1956 Marginal revenue 1957 Marginal revenue product of labor 1958 Managing director T l chuyn i cn bin. Doanh thu cn bin. Mc doanh thu cn bin ca lao ng. Gim c iu hnh.

1959 Manoilescu argument 1960 Manpower policy 1961 Manual workers 1962 Margin, at the

Lp lun Manoilescu. Chnh sch v nhn lc. Lao ng chn tay. ti bin

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economic

1963 Marginal 1964 Marginal analysis 1965 Marginal cost of funds schedule 1966 Marginal damage cost 1967 Marginal disutility

Cn bin, gia lng. Phn tch cn bin. Biu chi ph cn bin ca vn. Chi ph thit hi cn bin. phi tho dng cn bin.

1968 Marginal efficiency of capital Marginal efficiency of capital 1969 schedule

Hiu sut cn bin ca vn. Biu hiu sut bin ca vn.

1970 Marginal efficiency of investment Marginal efficiency of investment 1971 schedule Marginal per capita reinvestment 1972 quotient criterio 1973 Marginal physical product 1974 Marginal product

Hiu sut cn bin ca u t. Biu hiu sut cn bin ca u t. Tiu chun v thng s ti u t cn bin theo u ngi. Sn phm vt cht cn bin. Sn phm cn bin.

1975 Marginal productivity doctrine 1976 Marginal propensity to tax 1977 Marginal propensity to withdraw 1978 Marginal rate of tax Marginal rate of technical 1979 substitution 1980 Marginal revenue product

Hc thuyt v nng sut cn bin. Thin hng nh thu cn bin. Thin hng rt tin cn bin. Thu sut cn bin. T sut thay th k thut cn bin; th sut k thut cn bin. Sn phm doanh thu cn bin.

1981 Marginal user cost 1982 Marginal utility 1983 Marginal utility of income 1984 Marginal utility of money 1985 Marginal value product of capital 1986 Marginal value product of labor 1987 Margin requirement 1988 1989 1990 1991 Market Market classification Market clearing Market demand curve

Chi ph s dng cn bin. tho dng cn bin. tho dng cn bin ca thu nhp. tho dng cn bin ca tin. Sn phm gi tr bin ca vn. Sn phm gi tr bin ca lao ng. Yu cu v mc chnh lch. Th trng. Phn loi th trng. im th trng bn sch. ng cu ca th trng.

Page 89

economic

1992 Market demand curve for labour

ng cu ca th trng i vi lao ng.

1993 Market economy

Nn kinh t th trng S khim khuyt ca th trng; S trc trc ca th trng. Cc tc nhn th trng. S khng hon ho ca th trng. C ch th trng. Marketing

1994 Market failure 1995 Market forces 1996 Market imperfection 1997 Market mechanism 1998 Marketing

1999 Marketing boards.

Cc ban Marketing.

2000 Market maker

Hng lp th.

2001 Market orientation 2002 Market oriented reform 2003 Market power 2004 Market premium rate 2005 Black market premium rate 2006 Market share 2007 Market socialism 2008 Markov process

nh hng theo th trng. Ci cch theo nh hng th trng. Quyn lc th trng; Sc mnh i vi th trng. T l chnh lch gi. T l chnh lch gi trn th trng ch en. Th phn Ch ngha x hi theo c ch th trng. Qu trnh Markov.

2009 Markowitz, Harry

(1927-)

Page 90

economic

2010 Parallel market premium rate 2011 Market structure 2012 Mark-up

T l chnh lch gi ca th trng song hnh. C cu th trng. Phn thm vo gi vn; Phn thm vo chi ph kh bin.

2013 Marshall, Alfred 2014 Marshall Aid 2015 Marshallian demand curve 2016 Marshall - Lerner condition 2017 Marshall plan

(1842-1924) Vin tr Marshall. ng cu Marshall iu kin Marshall - Lerner. K hoch Marshall

2018 Marx, Karl 2019 C.mcist economics

(1818-1883) Kinh t hc Mac xt.

2020 Materials balance principle 2021 Material forces of production 2022 Mathematical expectation 2023 Matrix 2024 Maturity 2025 Maximax 2026 Maximin 2027 Maximum

Nguyn l cn bng vt cht. Lc lng sn xut vt cht. K vng ton hc. Ma trn. n hn, ht hn. Ti a ho cc i. Ti a ho cc tiu. Gi tr cc i.

2028 Maximum likelihood

Hp l cc i.

Page 91

economic

2029 Meade, James Edward 2030 Mean 2031 Means tested benefits 2032 Mean-variance analysis 2033 Measurement error 2034 Median

(1907- ) Trung bnh Tr cp theo mc trung bnh. Phn tch trung bnh - phng sai. Sai s o lng. Trung v.

2035 Median location principle

Nguyn l nh v trung bnh.

2036 Median Vote Theorem

nh l c tri trung dung.

2037 Mediation

Ho gii.

2038 Medium of exchange 2039 Median Voter

Phng tin trao i. C tri trung dung.

Medium term financial strategy 2040 (MTFS)

Chin lc ti chnh trung hn.

2041 Menger, Carl

(1840-1921)

Page 92

economic

2042 Mercantilism 2043 Merchant bank 2044 Merger 2045 Menu cost of inflation 2046 Merit goods 2047 Merit bad

Ch ngha trng thng. Ngn hng nh bun St nhp. Chi ph thc n ca lm pht. Hng khuyn dng; Hng c li. Hng khng khuyn dng.

2048 Methodology

Phng php lun.

2049 Metzler case 2050 M-form enterprise

Tnh hung Metzler. Doanh nghip dng M

2051 Microeconomics 2052 Microfoundations

Kinh t hc vi m. Cc c s vi m.

2053 Miller - Tydings Act of 1937 2054 Minimax regret 2055 Minimum 2056 Minimum efficient scale 2057 Minimum employment target

o lut Miller - Tydings nm 1937. Quy tc ti thiu ho mc ng tic ti a. Gi tr ti thiu. Quy m hiu qu ti thiu. Mc tiu ti thiu v vic lm.

2058 Minimum lending rate (MLR) 2059 Minimum wage

Li sut cho vay ti thiu. Tin lng ti thiu.

2060 Minimum wage legislation

Lut v mc lng ti thiu.

2061 2062 2063 2064

Minority control Mint Mis-specification Mixed estimation

Quyn kim sot ti thiu. Nh my c tin. Thng s sai lch. Phng php c tnh hn hp. Hng ho hn hp.

2065 Mixed good

Page 93

economic

2066 Mixed market economy 2067 Mode

Nn kinh t th trng hn hp. Mt.

2068 Model 2069 Modern quantity theory of money 2070 Modern sector 2071 Mode of production

M hnh Thuyt nh lng tin t hin i. Khu vc hin i. Phng thc sn xut.

2072 Modigliani, Franco Modigliani-Miller theory of cost of 2073 capital 2074 Modulus 2075 Moments 2076 Monetarism 2077 Money multiplier 2078 Mixed economy 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 Mix of fiscal and money policy Money price Money stock Mobility of labor Monetarists Monetary accommodation Monetary aggregate Monetary base Monetary overhang Monetary standard Monetary Union

(1918-) Hc thuyt v chi ph t bn ca Modigliani-Miller. Gi tr tuyt i. M men Ch ngha trng tin. S nhn tin t. Nn kinh t hn hp. S kt hp gia chnh sch thu kho v tin t. Gi ca tin. Dung lng tin. Tnh lun chuyn ca lao ng. Nhng ngi theo thuyt trng tin. S iu tit tin t. Cung tin (M1,M2,M3). C s tin t. S s dng qu nhiu tin mt. Bn v tin t. Lin minh tin t. Cung tin. (Biu th gi tr) bng tin.

2090 Money supply 2091 Money terms

2092 Monoculture

c canh

Monopolies and Merger Act 2093 in1965.

o lut v c quyn v st nhp nm 1965.

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economic

Monopolies and Merger 2094 Commission Monopolies and Restrictive 2095 Practices (Inquiry and

U ban v c quyn v St nhp. o lut c quyn v nhng thng l hn ch (iu tra v Kim sot) 1948.

2096 Monopolistic Competition

Cnh tranh c quyn.

2097 Monopoly 2098 Monopoly power 2099 Monetized economy 2100 Money illusion 2101 Money market equilibrium 2102 Monopoly profit 2103 Monopsony 2104 Monte Carlo method 2105 Moonlighting

c quyn. Quyn lc c quyn. Nn kinh t tin t ho. o tng v tin. S cn bng ca th trng tin t. Li nhun c quyn. c quyn mua. Phng php Monte Carlo. S lm thm

2106 Moral hazard

Mi nguy o c; S lm tn.

2107 Mortgage

Th chp.

2108 Most favoured nation clause 2109 Moving average 2110 Multicollitnearity 2111 Multilateral aid Multilateral Investment Guarantee 2112 Agency (MIGA)

iu khon ti hu quc. Trung bnh ng. Tnh a cng tuyn. Vin tr a phng C quan bo him u t a phng.

2113 Multilateral trade 2114 Multinational corporation 2115 Multiplant economies

Thng mi a phng Cng ty a quc gia. Tnh kinh t nh vn hnh nhiu nh my.

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economic

2116 Multiplant operations 2117 Multiple correlation coefficient 2118 Multiple regression 2119 Multiplier

S vn hnh a nh my. H s a tng quan. Hi quy bi s. S nhn. Tc ng qua li gia s nhn gia tc. M hnh gia tc theo tha s / h s nhn. Hng sn xut a sn phm H s khuych i. M hnh tng trng a ngnh. Phn tch a bin s.

2120 Multiplier - accelerator interaction 2121 Multiplier - accelerator model 2122 Multiproduct firm 2123 Multiplier coefficient 2124 Multisector growth model 2125 Multivariate analysis

2126 Mundell - Fleming model 2127 Mutually exclusive projects 2128 Mutually exclusive 2129 Naive accelerator

M hnh Mundell - Fleming. Cc d n loi t ln nhau. Loi t ln nhau. Gia tc dng n gin.

2130 Nash solution 2131 National accounts

Gii php Nash. H thng ti khon quc gia. Thng lng mang tnh quc gia. Phng nghin cu kinh t quc gia.

2132 National bargaining National Bureau for Economic 2133 Research

2134 National debt

N quc gia.

National Economic Development 2135 Council (NEDC)

Hi ng pht trin kinh t quc gia.

2136 National Enterprise Board (NEB) 2137 National income 2138 National income accounting 2139 National Girobank

Ban doanh nghip quc gia. Thu nhp quc dn. Hch ton Thu nhp quc dn. Ngn hng Giro quc gia.

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economic

National Institute for Economic and Vin Nghin cu Quc gia v Kinh t v X hi. 2140 Social Research

2141 Myrdal, Gunnar K.

(1898-1987)

2142 National Insurance Contributions 2143 National Insurance Fund

Cc khon ng gp bo him quc gia. Qu bo him quc gia.

2144 National Labor Relation Act

o lut quan h Lao ng Quc gia.

2145 Nationalized industry 2146 National product National Research Development 2147 Corporation 2148 National Saving Bank 2149 Natural law 2150 Natural logarithm 2151 Natural price 2152 Natural rate of growth

Ngnh b quc hu ho. Sn phm quc dn. Cng ty nghin cu pht trin quc gia. Ngn hng tit kim quc gia. Quy lut t nhin. Lgarit t nhin. Gi t nhin. T l tng trng t nhin.

2154 Natural rate of unemployment 2155 Natural resources

T l tht nghip t nhin. Ti nguyn thin nhin.

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economic

2156 Natural selection hypothesis 2157 Near money

Gi thuyt v s la chn t nhin. Tin cn; Chun t.

2158 Necessity 2159 NEDC 2160 "Neddy" 2161 NEDO

Hng thit yu. U ban pht trin kinh t quc gia.

Vn phng pht trin kinh t quc gia.

2162 Need

Nhu cu.

2163 Negative income tax 2164 Neighborhood effects

Thu thu nhp m. Nhng hiu ng n xung quanh.

2165 Neo-classical economics

Kinh t hc tn c in.

2166 Neo-classical growth theory

Hc thuyt tng trng tn c in.

2167 Neo-classical synthesis

Hp tn c in.

2168 Neo-imperialism 2169 Neo-orthodoxy

Ch ngha quc kiu mi. Trng phi tn chnh thng.

2170 Nested hypotheses 2171 Nationalized indentities 2172 Natural monopoly Net advantages, the equalisation 2173 of 2174 Net barter terms of trade 2175 Net book value

Cc gi thuyt lng nhau ng nht thc ca thu nhp quc dn. c quyn t nhin. S cn bng ho nhng li th rng. T gi trao i rng. Gi tr rng theo s sch.

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2176 Net economic welfare 2177 Net export 2178 Net present value 2179 Net investment

Phc li kinh t rng. Xut khu rng. Gi tr hin ti rng. u t rng ( Cn gi l s to vn rng) .

2180 2181 2182 2183

Net material product (NMP) Net national income Net national product Net profit

Sn phm vt cht rng. Thu nhp quc dn rng Sn phm quc dn rng. Li nhun rng.

2184 Net property income from abroad

Thu nhp ti sn rng t nc ngoi.

2185 Neutrality of money 2186 Neutralizing monetary flows 2187 "New classical macroeconomics" 2188 New Economic Policy (NEP)

Tnh cht trung lp ca tin. Trung ho cc lung tin t. "Kinh t hc v m c in mi" Chnh sch kinh t.

2189 New industrial state

Tnh trng cng nghip mi.

2190 New inflation

Lm pht kiu mi

2191 New issues market

Th trng cc chng khon mi pht hnh.

2192 New microeconomics

Kinh t hc vi m mi.

2193 New-new microeconomics 2194 New-orthodoxy 2195 New quantity theory of money 2196 New international economic order 2197 New protectionism Newly industrilizing countries 2198 (NICs)

Kinh t hc vi m mi-mi. Trng phi chnh thng mi. L thuyt nh lng mi v tin t. Trt t kinh t quc t mi. Ch ngha bo h mi. Cc nc mi cng nghip ho.

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2199 New view of investment

Quan nim mi v u t.

2200 "New view" on money supply 2201 New York Stock Exchange 2202 Nominal 2203 Nominal balances 2204 Nominal value 2205 Nominal yield Non-accelerating inflation rate of 2206 unemployment

"Quan im mi" v cung tin. S giao dch chng khon New York Danh ngha. S d tin mt danh ngha Gi tr danh ngha.

Li tc danh ngha. T l tht nghip khng lm tng lm pht. Li sut danh ngha v li sut thc t. 2207 Nominal and real interest rates S d tin mt danh ngha v thc 2208 Nominal and real money balances t. T gi hi oi danh ngha v thc t. 2209 Nominal and exchange rate Cc bin s danh ngha. 2210 Nominal variables Phi th trng. 2211 Non-market Cc t chc trung gian ti chnh 2212 Non-bank financial intermediaries phi ngn hng. 2213 Non-competing groups Cc nhm khng cnh tranh.

2214 Non-cumulative preference shares C phiu u i phi tch lu.

2215 Non-excludability 2216 Non-labor income 2217 Non-linear 2218 Non-linear function 2219 Non-manual workers

Tnh khng th khu bit; tnh khng th ngn cn. Thu nhp phi lao ng. Phi tuyn. Hm phi tuyn. Lao ng phi th cng; Lao ng tr c.

2220 Non-nested hypotheses 2221 Non-pecuniary goals 2222 Non-price competition

Cc gi thit khng b lng nhau. Nhng mc tiu phi tin t. Cnh tranh phi gi c.

2223 Non-profit institutions

Cc t chc phi li nhun

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2224 Non-renewable resource

Ti nguyn khng ti to c. S tiu dng khng b kn ca; S tiu dng khng b cnh tranh.

2225 Non-rival consumption

2226 Non-tariff barriers 2227 Non-uniqueness 2228 Non-wage attributes 2229 Non-wage labour costs 2230 Norm

Cc hng ro phi thu quan. Tnh phi c nht. Cc thuc tnh phi tin lng. Cc chi ph lao ng phi tin lng. nh mc tng lng. 'nh gi theo chi ph nh mc; nh gi theo chi ph thng thng. Phn phi chun.

2231 Normal cost pricing 2232 Normal distribution

2233 Normal equations 2234 Normal good 2235 Normal profits 2236 Normal unemployment 2237 Normal variable

Cc phng trnh chun. Hng ho thng thng. Cc khon li nhun thng thng. T l tht nghip thng thng. Bin thng thng.

2238 Normative costs of production 2239 Normative economics

Cc chi ph sn sut chun tc. Kinh t hc chun tc.

2240 Norm following behaviour 2241 Notional demand 2242 Null hypothesis 2243 Numbers equivalent index 2244 Numeraire 2245 OAPEC 2246 Objective function

Hnh vi theo nh mc lng. Cu tm tnh; Cu nim; cu t bin. Gi thit Khng. Ch s ng lng. n v tnh ton. T chc cc nc A-rp xut khu du Hm mc tiu.

2247 Occupational licensing

Cp bng hnh ngh.

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2248 Occupational wages differentials 2249 Occupational wages structure 2250 OECD 2251 OEEC 2252 Offer curve

Nhng chnh lch v mc lng theo ngh nghip. C cu lng theo ngh nghip. T chc hp tc v pht trin kinh t. T chc hp tc kinh t Chu u. ng cho hng.

2253 Offer for sale

Cho bn.

2254 Office of Fair Trading

Vn phng thng mi cng bng.

Office of Management and Budget Vn phng qun l v ngn sch. 2255 (OMB)

2256 Offshore investment centres

Cc trung tm u t hi ngoi.

2257 Ohlin, Bertil 2258 Okun's 'law'

(1899-1979) "lut" Okun.

2259 Oligopolistic 2260 Oligopoly 2261 Oligopsony

Hnh vi c quyn nhm bn (Th trng) c quyn nhm bn (Th trng) c quyn nhm mua.

2262 One sector growth model 2263 One tail tests 2264 On-the-job training 2265 OPEC 2266 Open access resource 2267 Open economy 2268 Opening prices

M hnh tng trng mt khu vc. Kim nh mt ui. o to ti ch. T chc cc nc xut khu du m. Ti nguyn c t do tip cn. Nn kinh t m. Gi m ca.

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2269 Open market operations

Cc nghip v th trng m, th trng t do.

2270 Open unemployment

Tht nghip m.

2271 Operating gearing 2272 Operating income 2273 Operating profit 2274 Opportunity cost Opportunity cost approach to 2275 international trade

T phn chi ph nghip v c nh. Thu nhp kinh doanh. Li nhun kinh doanh. Chi ph c hi. Phng ph s dng Chi ph c hi trong thng mi quc t.

2276 Opportunity cost of money holding Chi ph c hi ca vic gi tin.

2277 Opportunity wage 2278 Optimal 2279 Optimal capacity

Mc lng c hi. Ti u Cng sut ti u.

2280 Optimal distribution 2281 Optimal level of pollution 2282 Optimum 2283 Optimum of optimorum 2284 Optimum plant size 2285 Optimum tariff

S phn phi ti u. Mc nhim Ti u. Trng thi ti u. Trng thi ti u trong ti u. Quy m nh my mc ti u. Thu quan ti u.

2286 Option 2287 Option value 2288 Ordering 2289 Ordinalism

Hp ng mua bn trc. Gi tr ca quyn la chn. Xp th t. Ch ngha th t.

2290 Ordinal utility 2291 Ordinary least square (OLS) 2292 Ordinary share 2293 Ordinate

tho dng theo th t. Phng php bnh phng nh nht thng thng. C phiu thng. Tung .

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2294 Organic composition of capital Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development 2295 (OECD)

Thnh phn hu c ca vn.

T chc hp tc v pht trin kinh t.

Organization for European 2296 Economic Co-operation (OEEC) Organization of Arab Petroleum 2297 Exporting Countries Organization of Petroleum 2298 Exporting Countries 2299 2300 2301 2302 Outlier Outcome Basic Outcome Output

T chc hp tc kinh t chu u. (OAPEC) - T chc Cc nc rp xut khu du m. (OPEC) - T chc cc nc xut khu du m. Gi tr ngoi lai. Kt cc, kt qu. Kt cc, kt qu c s. Sn lng (hay u ra). Lp ngn sch theo Sn lng (hay u ra). tr bn ngoi.

2303 Output budgeting 2304 Outside lag

2305 Outside money 2306 Outstanding credit

Tin bn ngoi. Tn dng cha thanh ton.

2307 Overdraff

Chi di; Thu chi.

2308 Overfunding 2309 Overhead costs 2310 Overidentification 2311 Overnight money 2312 Overhead inputs 2313 Overall fit of regression 2314 Overpopulation

Vay qu mc. Chi ph duy tu S ng nht ho qu mc. Tin qua m. Nhp lng gin tip. Mc ph hp tng th ca phng trnh hi quy. Dn s qu ng.

2315 Overshooting

Tng qu cao (t gi hi oi).

2316 Over the counter market 2317 Overtime

Th trng khng ni giao dch. Lm vic thm ngoi gi.

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2318 Overvalued currency

Tin c nh gi qu cao. Cc hng do ngi ch s hu kim sot. Ch s gi Passche. Vn c huy ng D liu Panel Tin giy.

2319 Owner-controlled firms 2320 Passche price index 2321 Paid-up capital 2322 Panel data 2323 Paper money

2324 Paper profit 2325 Parabola 2326 Paradox of thrift 2327 Paradigm 2328 Par value of gold 2329 Paradox of voting 2330 Paradox of value 2331 Parameter

Li nhun trn giy. Dng Parabn. Nghch l ca tit kim. H thuyt; Lun thuyt. Gi tr ngang gi ca vng. Nghch l v b phiu. Nghch l v gi tr. Thng s.

2332 Paretian Liberal, Impossibility of

Tnh khng th ca t do Pareto.

2333 Pareto, Vilfredo 2334 Pareto conditions 2335 Pareto criterion 2336 Pareto improvement

(1848 - 1923) Cc iu kin Pareto. Tiu chun Pareto. S ci thin Pareto.

2337 Pareto non-comparability

Tnh khng th so snh Pareto. S phn phi li ti u theo Pareto.

2338 Pareto-optional redistribution

2339 Pareto optimum

Ti u Pareto.

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economic

Pareto efficiency of resource 2340 allocation 2341 Pareto-relevant externality 2342 Paris Club 2343 Parity price system 2344 Par rate of exchange 2345 Partial adjustment

Tnh hiu qu Pareto ca phn b ngun lc. Ngoi ng lin quan n Pareto. Cu lc b Paris. H thng gi tng ng. T gi hi oi tng ng. iu chnh tng phn.

2346 2347 2348 2349

Partial derivative Partial equilibrium Paricipating preference shares Paricipation rate

o hm ring phn. Cn bng b phn. C phiu u tin tham gia. T l tham gia.

2350 Partly rational expectations 2351 Par value 2352 Patent rights

Nhng k vng hp l ring phn. Gi tr danh ngha, mnh gi. Quyn tc gi. S c lp v ng tin trin; c lp v ng i. Thng lng theo m hnh. Bn tham gia; Hi chung vn. Bng sng ch. M hnh cch thc chi tiu ca chnh ph. M thc ngoi thng.

2353 Path independence 2354 Pattern bargaining 2355 Partnership 2356 Patents 2357 Path of government spending 2358 Patent of trade

2359 Pauper labour

Lao ng bn cng.

2360 Payback period

2361 Pay ceiling 2362 Pay freeze 2363 2364 2365 2366 2367 Payment - by - results Payments, balance of Pay-off Payout ratio Pay in kind

Thi k hon vn. Mc lng trn; gii hn trn ca tin lng; Gii hn cao nht ca tin lng. C nh tin lng. Tr theo kt qa. Cn cn thanh ton. Li ch rng. T l tr c tc. Tr bng hin vt. nh gi theo mc tiu th nh; nh gi theo tiu dng cao im. Cu lao ng thi k cao im; Cu lao ng k gip ht.

2368 Peak-load pricing

2369 Peak period labour demand

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economic

2370 Pecuniary external economy 2371 Peg-neo 2372 Pendulum arbitration

Tnh kinh t tin t bn ngoi. "ct vo" Trng ti con lc.

2373 Pension

Tin lng hu.

2374 Pension fund 2375 Per capita 2376 Per capita real GDP 2377 Percetile

Qu hu. Theo u ngi. THU NHP QUC DN thc t tnh theo u ngi. Phn v.

2378 Perestroika

i mi, ci t.

2379 Perfect competition 2380 Perfect markets 2381 Permanent comsumption

Cnh tranh hon ho. Cc th trng hon ho. Mc tiu dng thng xuyn.

2382 Permanent income 2383 Permanent income hypothesis 2384 Perpetuity 2385 Personal income

Thu nhp thng xuyn. Gi thuyt thu nhp thng xuyn. Khon chi tr vnh cu. Thu nhp c nhn.

2386 Personal loan 2387 Personal rate of substitution 2388 Personal saving 2389 Perverse migration 2390 PESC 2391 Petroleum revenue tax (PRI)

Khon vay cho c nhn. T l thay th c nhn. Tit kim c nhn. Di c ngc. U ban iu tra chi tiu cng cng. Thu thu nhp du la.

2392 Phillips curve

ng Philips

Page 107

economic

2393 Physiocrats 2394 Piece rates 2395 Piecework

Nhng ngi theo thuyt trng nng. Thu nhp tnh theo sn phm. Vic lm khon.

2396 Pigou, Arthur Cecil 2397 Pigou effect

(1877-1959) Hiu ng Pigou

2398 Pigovian tax

Thu Pigou.

2399 Pivot effect hypothesis

Gi thuyt v hiu ng quay.

2400 Placing

Nghip v by bn.

2401 Planned economy Planning programming budgeting 2402 system (PPBS) 2403 Planometrics

Nn kinh t k hoch ho. H thng lp ngn sch theo chng trnh k hoch ho. K hoch lng.

2404 Plant bargaining

S thng lng mt nh my.

2405 Plato 2406 Plurality 2407 Point elasticity of demand

(427-347BC) Quy tc a s. D co gin im ca cu.

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economic

2408 Point estimation 2409 Point of inflexion 2410 Point utility possibility curve

c lng im. im un. ng kh nng tho dng im.

2411 Point voting

B phiu theo im.

2412 Policy instruments 2413 Policy - off 2414 Policy coordination 2415 Policy targets 2416 2417 2418 2419 Political economy Political business cycle Poll tax Pooled lending / loan

Cc cng c chnh sch. Thi k khng p dng chnh sch. iu phi chnh sch. Cc mc tiu chnh sch. Kinh t chnh tr. Chu k kinh t chnh tr. Thu thn. Cho vay lin hip. Nguyn tc ngi gy nhim tr ph. nhim. Cc quyn c gy nhim. a thc; Biu thc i s. tr a thc; tr ca biu thc i s.

2420 Polluter pays principle 2421 Pollution 2422 Pollution rights 2423 Polynomial 2424 Polynomial lag

2425 Pooled data 2426 Population 2427 Population explosion 2428 Population policy

D liu gp. Dn s Bng n dn s. Chnh sch dn s.

2429 Population trap 2430 Porfolio 2431 Porfolio balance approach Porfolio balance approach to the balance of payments/ exchange 2432 rate 2433 Porfolio diversification

By dn s. Danh mc u t. Phng php cn i danh mc u t. Phng php cn i danh mc u t i vi cn cn thanh ton/ t gi hi oi. S a dng ho danh mc u t.

2434 Positional good

Hng ho theo v tr.

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economic

2435 Positive economics

Kinh t hc thc chng.

2436 Positivism

Ch ngha thc chng. Kinh t hc Hu-Keynes; Kinh t hc sau Keynes. Phn phi sau. Cc tn dng hu chin. S nhp ngnh tim nng. Thu nhp quc dn tim nng.

2437 Post-Keynesian economics 2438 Posterior distribution 2439 Postwar credits 2440 Potential entry 2441 Potential national income

2442 Potential output

Sn lng tim nng.

2443 Potential Pareto improvement 2444 Poverty

S ci thin Pareto tim nng. S ngho kh.

2445 Poverty trap 2446 Power function

By ngho kh. Hm lu tha.

2447 Prais - Winsten

Bin i Prais - Winsten.

2448 Prebisch thesis

Lun Prebisch

2449 Precautionary motive

ng c d phng.

2450 Precautionary unemployment 2451 Predatory pricing 2452 Prediction 2453 Pre-emption rights 2454 Preference

Tht nghip phng nga. nh gi bn ph gi. D bo. Cc quyn u tin mua c phiu. S thch; S u tin.

2455 Preference revelation 2456 Preference shares

S thch. C phiu u tin.

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economic

2457 Preferential hiring 2458 Preferred ordinary shares 2459 Premium 2460 Premium saving bonds 2461 Present value 2462 Price

S thu ngi u tin. C phiu thng c u tin. Tin tr thm hay ph bo him. Tri phiu tit kim c thng. Gi tr hin ti. Gi

2463 Price Commission

U ban vt gi.

2464 Price consumption curve 2465 Price control

ng tiu dng theo gi. Kim sot gi.

2466 Price-cost margin

Mc chnh lch gi-chi ph.

2467 Price discrimination 2468 Price/earning ratio 2469 Price effect 2470 Price elasticity of demand 2471 Price fixing agreement 2472 Price index 2473 Price leadership

Phn bit i x theo gi. T l gi / Li tc (t l P/E) Hiu ng gi. co gin ca cu theo gi. Tho thun c nh gi. Ch s gi. S dn gi.

2474 Price mechanism

C ch gi.

2475 Price-push 2476 Price revolution

Gi y. Cch mng gi.

2477 Price setter 2478 Price specie mechanism 2479 Price support scheme

Ngi t gi. C ch chy vng. K hoch tr gi.

2480 Price taker

Ngi chp nhn gi.

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economic

2481 2482 2483 2484 2485 2486

Price theory Price fixing Price volatility Price support High risk premia Primary commodities

L thuyt gi. S c nh gi Bin ng gi c. Tr gi. Ph thng ri ro cao. Hng s ch.

2487 Primary goods 2488 Primary market 2489 Primary money 2490 Primary of targeting

Cc hng ho c bn. Th trng s cp. Tin s cp. Nguyn tc hng ch.

2491 Primary securities 2492 Primary workers 2493 Principal

Chng khon s cp. Cc cng nhn s cp. Tin gc. Vn u thc v nhm thc; Vn ngi c vn v ngi i din. Phn phi trc.

2494 Principal-agent problem 2495 Prior distribution

2496 Prisoner's dilemma 2497 Private company

Th lng gii ca ngi t; Th tin thoi lng nan ca ngi t. Cng ty t nhn.

2498 Private good

Hng ho ring t.

2499 Privatization

T nhn ho

2500 Privatization in Eastern Europe Private and social cost of 2501 unemployment 2502 Private sector cash-deposite ratio 2503 Probability 2504 Conditional Probability 2505 Cumulative Probability

T nhn ho ng u. Thit hi / ph tn c nhn v x hi ca tht nghip. T s gia tin mt v s tin gi ca khu vc t nhn. Xc sut Xc sut c iu kin. Xc sut tch lu.

2506 Probability density function

Hm mt xc xut.

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economic

2507 Probability distribution 2508 Probit model 2509 Process 2510 Process innovation 2511 Producer's co-operatives

Phn phi Xc sut. M hnh Probit (hay m hnh xc sut n v). Qu trnh Pht kin v phung php (sn xut). Cc hp tc x ca nh sn xut.

2512 Producer's surplus 2513 Product cycle 2514 Product differentiation

Thng d ca nh sn xut. Chu k sn phm. S khc bit ho sn phm.

2515 Product innovation 2516 Production

Pht kin v sn phm. Sn xut.

2517 Production frontier 2518 Production externalities 2519 Production function 2520 Production incentives 2521 Production Possibility frontier 2522 Production Possibility curve

Gii hn sn xut. Nhng ngoi tc sn xut. Hm sn xut. Cc khuyn khch sn xut. ng gii hn kh nng sn xut. ng kh nng sn xut.

Production sphere and budgetary 2523 sphere

Lnh vc sn xut v lnh vc ngn sch. Lm nut qu trnh sn xut; Vic lm cho sn xut c tri chy. Nng sut.

2524 Production smoothing 2525 Productivity

2526 Productivity bargaining

Thng lng theo nng sut.

2527 Product proliferation 2528 Product rule

a dng ho sn phm. Quy tc tch s.

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economic

2529 Profits 2530 Profit, falling rate of

Li nhun. T l st gim li nhun. C im li nhun; Trung tm li nhun.

2531 Profit centre

2532 Profit constraint 2533 Profit function 2534 Profit margin 2535 Profit maximization 2536 Profit motive 2537 Profit rate 2538 Profits-push inflation 2539 Programme budgeting 2540 Programming methods

Rng buc v li nhun. Hm li nhun Chnh lch li nhun Ti a ho li nhun. ng c li nhun T l li nhun. Lm pht do li-nhun-y. Lp ngn sch theo chng trnh. Phng php quy hoch.

2541 Progressive tax 2542 Project appraisal 2543 Property rights

Thu lu tin. Thm nh d n. Cc quyn s hu ti sn.

2544 Proportional tax 2545 Propulsive industries 2546 Prospect theory 2547 Protection 2548 Proxy

Thu tnh theo t l. Cc ngnh ng lc. L thuyt vin cnh. Bo h. Tnh i din

2549 Proxy variable

Bin s i din.

2550 Pseudo-demand schedule 2551 Public choice 2552 Public company

Biu cu-gi. S la chn cng cng. Cng ty cng cng.

2553 Public Expediture

Chi tiu cng cng.

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economic

2555 Public good

Hng ho cng cng.

2556 Public issue Public Sector Borrowing 2557 Requirement (PSBR) Public Sector Debt Repayment 2558 (PSDR) 2559 Public utility

Pht hnh cng cng. Nhu cu vay ca khu vc cng cng. Hon tr n ca khu vc cng cng. Ngnh dch v cng cng

2560 Public utility regulation 2561 Public ownership 2562 Purchasing power parity

iu tit ngnh dch v cng cng. S hu cng cng Sc mua tng ng.

2563 Purchase tax 2564 Purchasing power of money 2565 Pure competition

Thu mua hng. Sc mua ca ng tin. Cnh tranh thun tu.

2566 Pure profit 2567 Pure inflation 2568 Put option

Li nhun thun tu. Lm pht thun tu. Hp ng bn trc. M hnh putty-clay; M hnh mt tt - t st. M hnh putty-putty; M hnh mt tt - mt tt. S thp ho; S chp ho; Vic hnh thnh hnh chp. Phng trnh bc hai Hm tho dng bc hai.

2569 Putty-clay 2570 Putty-putty 2571 Pyramiding 2572 Quadratic equation 2573 Quadratic utility function

2574 Qualitative choice models

M hnh la chn nh tnh.

2575 Quantity theory of money 2576 Quartile 2577 Quasi-option value

L thuyt nh lng v tin t. T phn v. Gi tr ca hp ng mua bn trc.

2578 Quasi-rent

Tin thu gi.

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economic

2579 Quesnay, Francois

(1694-1774).

2580 Quick assets ratio 2581 Quits 2582 Quota 2583 Import / Export quota

T l ti sn d chuyn hon. S ngi b vic. Hn nghch. Hn nghch xut khu / nhp khu.

2584 Quoted companies 2585 Quotient rule 2586 R2

Cc cng ty c nim yt gi. Quy tc thng s. H s xc nh.

2587 Radcliffe Committee

U ban Radcliffe.

2588 Radical economics 2589 Raider firm

Kinh t hc cp tin. Hng thu mua.

2590 Ramsey pricing 2591 R and D 2592 Random coefficient models

nh gi Ramsay. Nghin cu v trin khai. Cc m hnh h s ngu nhin.

2593 Random sample 2594 Random variable 2595 Random walk

Mu ngu nhin. Bin ngu nhin. Bc ngu nhin.

Page 116

economic

2596 Range 2597 Range (of a good) 2598 Rank correlation 2599 Ranking of projects 2600 Rank of a matrix Rank-tournament compensation 2601 rule 2602 Ratchet effect

Di, khong. Phm vi (ca mt hng ho). Tng quan bc. Xp hng cc d n. Hng ca ma trn. Quy tc n b theo xp hng thi ua Hiu ng bnh cc.

2603 Rate capping 2604 Rate of commodity 2605 Rate of interest 2606 Rate of return 2607 Rate of time preference

Hn ch t l chi tiu. T l thay th hng ho. Li xut. T sut li tc. T l u tin thi gian.

2608 Rates

Thu a c.

2609 Rate support grant 2610 Rational expectations 2611 Rationality 2612 Rational lags 2613 Rationing

Tr cp nng mc thu. K vng duy l. Tnh duy l. Tr hu t; Tr hp l. Chia khu phn.

2614 Rawlsian justice 2615 R,D and D 2616 Reaction functions

Bng ng Rawls Nghin cu, trin khai v trnh din. Cc hm phn ng.

Hiu ng s d tin. 2617 Real balance effect Real cost approach to international Phng php chi ph thc t i vi thng mi quc t. 2618 trade 2619 Real money balances Cc s d tin thc t.

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economic

2620 Real national output 2621 Real wages 2622 Receiver 2623 Recession 2624 Reciprocal 2625 Reciprocal demand

Sn lng quc dn thc t. Tin lng thc t. Ngi tip nhn (ti sn). Suy thoi. S nghch o. Cu qua li.

Reciprocal Trade Argreements Act o lut nm 1934 v cc hip nh Thng mi qua li. 2626 of 1934 (RTA)

2627 Recognition lag

Tr trong nhn thc.

2628 Recontract

Ti kh c.

2629 Recursive model 2630 Recursive residuals 2631 Redeemable loan stock

M hnh ni phn. S d ni phn. C phn vay c th hon tr.

2632 Redeemable securities

Chng khon c th hon tr.

2633 Redemption yield 2634 Redistribution

Tng li tc o hn. Ti phn phi.

2635 Reduced form (RF) 2636 Redundancies 2637 Redundancy payments 2638 Re-export

Dng rt gn. Nhn vin tha. Tr cp thi vic. Hng ti xut.

2639 Regional development grant

Tr cp pht trin vng.

2640 Regional economics

Kinh t hc khu vc.

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economic

2641 Regional emloyment premium 2642 Regional multiplier 2643 Regional policy 2644 Regional integration 2646 Regional wage differentials 2647 Regional wage structure 2648 Registered unemployed 2649 Regressand

Tr cp tuyn dng lao ng khu vc. S nhn khu vc. Chnh sch khu vc. Hi nhp khu vc. Nhng chnh lch tin lng gia cc khu vc. C cu tin lng theo khu vc. Nhng ngi tht nghip c ng k. Bin ph thuc (trong phn tch hi quy).

2650 Regression

Hi quy.

2651 2652 2653 2654

Regressive expectations Regressive tax Regressor Regret matrix

K vng hi quy. Thu lu thoi. c tnh hi quy. Ma trn hi tic. Quy ch Q. S iu tit. S lm quyn iu tit; "iu tit b tri". Chnh sch iu tit. Ti ph trung gian.

2655 Regulation Q 2656 Regulation 2657 Regulatory capture 2658 Regulatory policy 2659 Reintermediation

2660 Relative deprivation

Cm gic b tc ot.

2661 Relative income hypothesis 2662 Relative price

Gi thuyt v thu nhp tng i. Gi tng i.

2663 Relativities 2664 Renewable resource 2665 Rent

Chnh lch lng trong mt ngh. Ti nguyn ti to c. T, li, tin thu.

2666 Rent gradient

Gradient tin thu. Ch cho thu ti sn; Ch cho thu vn.

2667 Rentiers

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economic

2668 2669 2670 2671

Rent seeking Rent seeker Rental on capital Replacement cost

S tm kim c li; S tm kim tin thu. Ngi kim s c li. Tin thu vn. Chi ph thay th.

2672 Replacement cost accounting 2673 Replacement investment

Hch ton chi ph thay th. u t thay th.

2674 Replacement ratio 2675 Representative firm 2676 Repressed inflation

T s thay th. Hng i din. Lm pht b kim ch.

2677 Required reserves 2678 Required rate of return on capital Required real rate of return on 2679 capital 2680 Required reserve ratio

D tr bt buc. Sut sinh li cn c ca vn. Sut sinh li thc t cn c ca vn. T l d tr bt buc.

2681 Resale price mainternance 2682 Resale Prices Act 1964

Vic duy tr gi bn l. o lut nm 1964 v Gi bn l.

2683 Research and development (R&D) Nghin cu v trin khai.

2684 Reservation wage

Mc lng bo lu; Mc lng k vng ti thiu.

2685 Reserve assets ratio

T l ti sn d tr.

2686 Reserve base

C s d tr.

2687 Reserve currency

ng tin d tr.

2688 Reserve ratio 2689 Residual 2690 Resiliency 2691 Resource

T l d tr. S d. Tnh nhy bn. Ngun lc; Ngun ti nguyn.

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economic

2692 Restricted least squares (RLS) 2693 Restrictive Practices Court Restrictive Trade Practices Act 2694 1956 Restrictive Trade Practices Act 2695 1968

Bnh phng nh nht hn ch. To n v cc hot ng hn ch. o lut nm 1956 v nhng Thng l thng mi hn ch. o lut nm 1968 v nhng Thng l thng mi hn ch.

2696 Reswitching 2697 Retail

Ti chuyn i. Bn l.

2698 Retail banking

Nghip v ngn hng bn l.

2699 2700 2701 2702 2703

Retail price index (RPI) Retained earnings Retention ratio Retentions Return on capital employed

Ch s gi bn l. Thu nhp c gi li. T l gi li. Cc khon gi li. Li tc t vn c s dng. Li tc theo quy m. S nng gi tr; s tng gi.

2704 Returns to scale 2705 Revaluation

2706 Revealed preference 2707 Revenue 2708 Revenue maximization 2709 Reverse dumping 2710 Reverse yield gap

S thch c bc l. Doanh thu. Ti a ho doanh thu. Bn ph gi th trng nc ngoi. Chnh lch nghch o ca li tc. nh l Ricardo v tnh tng ng .

2711 Ricardian equivalence theorem

2712 Ricardo, David

(1772-1823).

Page 121

economic

2713 Right-to-work laws

Cc lut v quyn c lm vic.

2714 Rights issue 2715 Risk 2716 Risk aversion

Pht hnh quyn mua c phiu. Ri ro. S s ri ro, khng thch ri ro.

2717 Risk capital 2718 Risk attitude 2719 Risk character

Vn ri ro. Thi i vi ri ro. Thi i vi ri ro.

2720 2721 2722 2723 2724 2725

Risk premium Risk-spreading Risk-diversification Risk-loving Risk Master Risk-neutrality

Tin b cho ri ro, ph ri ro Dn tri ri ro. Phn tn ri ro. Thch ri ro. Phn mm Risk Master Bng quan vi ri ro. Chung ri ro; Gp chung ri ro. Chia x ri ro. Tnh hu tranh; Tnh cnh tranh (trong tiu dng).

2726 Risk-pool 2727 Risk-sharing 2728 Rival

2729 Robbins, Lionel

(1898-1984).

2730 Robinson, Joan V.

(1903-1983).

2731 Robinson-Patman Act

o lut Robinson-Patman.

Page 122

economic

2732 Roosa effect 2733 Roots

Hiu ng Roosa. Cc nghim, cn s.

2734 Rostow model

M hnh Rostow

2735 Roundaboutness

Phng php sn xut gin tip.

2736 Royalty 2737 Royalties 2738 RPI 2739 Rule-of-thumb

Thu ti nguyn. Tin hoa hng (cn c vo kt qu lm vic c nhn). Ch s gi bn l. Quy tc t t.

2740 Rybczcynski theorem Robustness of an exchange rate 2741 regime 2742 Run (a) 2743 Sackings

nh l Rybczcynski. Tnh thit thc ca mt ch t gi hi oi. (mt) cn st rt tin. Con s sa thi.

2744 St. Louis model 2745 St Petersburg paradox

M hnh St. Louis. Nghch l St Petersburg.

2746 Salary 2747 Sales maximization hypothesis 2748 Sales tax 2749 Salvage 2750 Sample 2751 Sample space

Lng Gi thuyt v ti a ho doanh thu. Thu bn hng. Gi tr thanh l. Mu. Khng gian mu.

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economic

2752 Samuelson, Paul

(1915-)

2753 Samuelson test 2754 Satiation

Kim nh Samuelson. Bo ho.

2755 Satisficing behaviour 2756 Savings 2757 Savings and loan associations 2758 Savings function

Hnh vi tho mn. Tit kim. Cc hip hi tit kim v cho vay. Hm Tit kim.

Savings-investment approach to 2759 the balance of payments

Phng php tit kim - u t i vi cn cn thanh ton.

2760 Say, Jean-Baptiste 2761 Scarcity 2762 Scarce currency

(1767-1832) S khan him. ng tin him.

2763 Scatter 2764 Scatter diagram 2765 Schooling functions

Biu tn x. th ri. Cc hm gio dc.

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economic

2766 Schultz, Theodore W.

(1902-)

2767 Schumpeter, Joseph A.

(1883-1950)

2768 Scientific tariff

Thu khoa hc.

2769 Scitovsky paradox

Nghch l Scitovsky.

2770 Scitovsky reversal criterion

Tiu ch nghch o Scitovsky.

2771 Screening hypothesis 2772 Scrip issue 2773 SDR 2774 Search costs 2775 Search unemployment 2776 Seasonal adjustment 2777 Seasonal unemployment

Gi thit sng lc. C phiu pht hnh cho c ng hin hnh. Quyn rt tin c bit. Chi ph tm kim (vic lm). Tht nghip do tm kim vic lm. iu chnh thi v. Tht nghip thi v.

2778 Secondary banks 2779 Secondary market 2780 Secondary worker

Cc ngn hng th cp. Th trng th cp. Cng nhn hng hai.

2781 Second-best 2782 Second order condition 2783 Secular supply curve 2784 Secular trend 2785 Secured

(Tnh trng) tt nh. iu kin o hm bc hai. ng cung lao ng trng k. Xu hng lu di Nhng khon vay c bo lnh.

Page 125

economic

2786 Securities Securities and Exchange 2787 Commission (SEC) Securities and Invesment Board 2788 (SIB)

Chng khon. U ban chng khon. Hi ng chng khon v u t.

2789 Securitization

Chng khon ho.

2790 Seignorage 2791 Self-liquidating 2792 Self-liquidating advances Self-regulating organzations 2793 (SROs) 2794 Semi log

Thu c tin, ph c tin. T thanh ton. Cc khon ng trc t thanh ton. Cc t chc t iu tit. Phng php bn Lgarit ho.

2795 Senior, Nassau W. 2796 Seniority practices

(1790-1864) Phng php thm nin.

2797 Sensitivity analysis 2798 Separability of preferences Separation of ownership from 2799 control

Phn tch nhy cm. Tnh phn chia ca s a thch. S tch bit gia quyn s hu v quyn kim sot.

2800 Serial correlation 2801 Service of debt

Tng quan chui. Tr li sut n.

2802 Services

Cc dch v.

2803 Severance pay

Bi thng mt vic.

2804 2805 2806 2807

Shadow economy Shadow price Shadow wage rate Share

Nn kinh t bng. Gi bng Mc tin cng bng. C phiu.

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economic

2808 2809 2810 2811

Share economy Share price Sharpe, William F. Sherman Act

Kinh t phn phi. Gi c phiu. (1934-) o lut Sherman.

2812 Shift effect hypothesis

Gi thuyt v hiu ng dch chuyn.

2813 Shift share analysis 2814 Shirking model 2815 Shock effect

Phn tch cc phn gy dch chuyn. M hnh v tnh li; M hnh v tnh ln trnh. Hiu ng sc

2816 Shop steward 2817 Short-dated securities 2818 Short run 2819 Short run average cost

i biu phn xng. Cc chng khon ngn hn. Ngn hn. Chi ph trung bnh ngn hn.

2820 Short run average fixed cost (AFC) nh ph bnh qun ngn hn. nh ph ngn hn. 2821 Short run fixed cost (AFC) Short run consumption function Short run marginal cost (SMC) Short run total cost (STC) Short run variable costs (SVC) Short run adjustments Long run adjustments Short run aggregate suply 2828 schedule 2822 2823 2824 2825 2826 2827 2829 Short-time working 2830 SIC 2831 Side payments Hm tiu dng ngn hn. Chi ph bin ngn hn. Tng ph ngn hn. Bin ph ngn hn. Nhng iu chnh gi ngn hn. Nhng iu chnh gi di hn. Biu cung gp ngn hn. Lm vic t gi. Phn loi nghnh chun. Cc khon tr thm.

2832 Sight deposits

Tin gi v k hn.

2833 Simon, Herbert A. 2834 Simplex alglorithm

(1916-) Thut ton n hnh.

2835 Simulation

S m phng.

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economic

2836 Simultaneous equation bias 2837 Simultaneous equations

lch do phng trnh ng thi. Cc phng trnh ng thi.

2838 Single European Atc (SEA) 2839 Shut down price 2840 Signaling and screening 2841 Significance of coefficients

o lut chu u. Gi ng ca, cui ngy (th trng chng khon). Pht tn hiu v sng lc. Mc c thng k ca h s.

2842 Singular matrix 2843 Single market 2844 Single-peaked preferences 2845 Sinking fund

Ma trn n. Th trng n nht. Cc s thch hi t; Nhng iu mun la chn c chung. Qu d phng hon tr.

2846 Sismondi, Jean 2847 Situation utility possibility frontier 2848 Size distribution of firms 2849 Skewed distribution

(1773-1842) ng gii hn kh nng tho dng tnh th. Phn phi theo quy m v hng. Phn phi lch. Cc chnh lch theo k nng lao ng. Cc k hoch lng; Cc k hoch tr tr. (Giai on) suy thoi; Khng hong kinh t.

2850 Skill differentials

2851 Slack plans 2852 Slump

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economic

2853 Slutsky, Eugen 2854 Slutsky equation

(1880-1948). Phng trnh Slutsky.

2855 Smith, Adam 2856 Snake

(1723-1790) Con rn.

2857 Snob effect 2858 Social cost of monopoly 2859 Social benefit 2860 Social choice

Hiu ng ua i. Ph tn x hi do c quyn. Li ch x hi. S la chn ca x hi.

2861 Social Contract

Tho thun x hi.

2862 Social cost

Ph tn x hi; Chi ph x hi.

2863 2864 2866 2867

Social decision rule Social discount rate Social economics Social Fund

Nguyn tc quyt nh x hi. T sut chit khu x hi. Kinh t hc x hi. Qu x hi.

2868 Socialism 2869 Socially necessary labour Social Marginal productivity 2870 criterion

Ch ngha x hi. Lao ng cn thit cho x hi. Tiu chun nng sut x hi cn bin.

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economic

2871 Social opportunity cost of capital 2872 Social optimum

Chi ph c hi x hi ca vn. Ti u i vi x hi.

2873 Social relations of production 2874 Social returns to education 2875 Social time preference rate 2876 Social welfare 2877 Social welfare function 2878 Soft currency 2879 Soft loan

Cc quan h x hi ca sn xut. Li tc x hi ca gio dc. T sut s thch theo thi gian ca x hi. Phc li x hi. Hm phc li x hi. ng tin yu. Vn vay u i.

2880 Solow, Robert 2881 Sole trader 2882 Solvent (= creditworthy) 2883 Spatial economics 2884 Spatial monopoly

(1924-) Ngi bun bn c th. C tn nhim, c kh nng thanh ton n. Kinh t hc khng gian. c quyn nh khng gian; c quyn vng.

2885 Spatial price discrimination 2886 Spearman's rank correlation

S phn bit gi c theo khu vc. Tng quan v th bc Spearman

2887 Special Areas 2888 Special drawing rights (SDRs)

Cc khu vc c bit. Quyn rt vn c bit.

2889 Special deposits

Cc khon k qu c bit.

2890 Special Development Areas 2891 Specialization

Cc Khu vc Pht trin c bit. Chuyn mn ho.

2892 Specialization, coefficient of

H s chuyn mn ho.

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economic

2893 Specie

Tin xu.

2894 Specie flow mechanism 2895 Specie points

C ch chy vng. Im chy vng.

2896 Specification error 2897 Specifix tax 2898 Specifix training 2899 Spectral analysis 2900 Speculation 2901 Speculative balances 2902 Speculative boom 2903 Speculative bubbles 2904 Speculative demand for money Speculative motive for holding 2905 money 2906 Speculative unemployment 2907 Spillover

Sai st k thut. Thu c th. o to c th. PHn tch quang ph. u c. Tin u c. S bng n do u c. Cc bong bng do u c. Cu v tin do u c. ng c u c tin. Tht nghip do u c. Hiu ng lan to.

2908 Spillover hypothesis 2909 Spot market 2910 Spread effects 2911 Spurious regression problem 2912 Sraffa, Piero

Gi thuyt v hiu ng lan to. Th trng giao ngay. Hiu ng lan trn. Bi ton hi quy gi. (1898-1938)

2913 Stability 2914 Stabilization 2915 Stabilization function

S n nh. S n nh ho. Chc nng n nh ho.

2916 Stackelberg's duopoly model 2917 Stabilization policy

M hnh lng c quyn ca Stackelberg. Chnh sch n nh ho . K ong hoa; Ngi bun bn chng khon ht ngn. Cc giai on tng trng. Suy thoi km lm pht.

2918 Stag 2919 Stages of growth 2920 Stagflation

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economic

2921 Stamp duty 2922 Standard commodity 2923 Standard deviation 2924 Standard error

Thu tem . Hng ha tiu chun. lch chun. Sai s chun

Standard Industrial Classification 2925 (SIC)

Phn loi Cng nghip theo Tiu chun.

2926 Standard of living 2927 Standard Regions

Mc sng. Cc khu vc chun.

2928 Standard weekly hours 2929 Standard working week

S gi lm vic chun hng tun. Tun lm vic chun.

State organization of production in 2930 Eastern Europe 2931 Static expectations 2932 Stationarity 2933 Stationary point 2934 Stationary state 2935 Statistic 2936 Statistical cost analysis

T chc sn xut quc doanh ng u. Cc k vng tnh. Tnh cht tnh ti. im tnh ti. Trng thi tnh ti. Thng k. Phn tch chi ph thng k.

2937 Statistical inference 2938 Statistical significance 2939 Steady-state growth 2940 Steady-state models

S suy lun thng k. ngha thng k. Tng trng mc n nh; Tng trng u n. Cc m hnh v tnh trng n nh.

2941 Stepwise regression 2942 Stereotypes 2943 Sterilization

Hi quy theo bc . Cc nh kin. Ht tc ng, v hiu ho (bng chnh sch tin t).

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economic

2944 Sterling area

Khu vc ng sterling .

2945 George, Joseph Stigler 2946 Stochastic 2947 Stochastic process

(1911-1991). Tnh ngu nhin thng k. Qu trnh ngu nhin thng k.

2948 Stock

C phn, c phiu, dung lng vn, tr lng.

Hm cu iu chnh theo lng 2949 Stock-adjustment demand function vn. 2950 Stock appreciation 2951 Stockbroker 2952 Stock diviend S ln gi hng tn kho. Nh mi gii chng khon. C tc bng c phn.

2953 Stock exchange 2954 Stock market 2955 Stock option 2956 Stocks

S giao dch chng khon. Th trng chng khon. Quyn mua/ bn chng khon. D tr.

2957 Stolper-Samuelson Theorem

nh l Stolper-Samuelson.

Page 133

economic

2958 Stone, Sir Richard

(1913-1991).

2959 "stop-go" 2960 Store of value

"Hn ch - thc y". Tch tr gi tr.

2961 Strategic voting 2962 Strike insurance

B phiu chin lc. Bo him nh cng.

2963 Strike measures

Cc thc o v nh cng.

2964 Strikes 2965 Strongly exogenous 2966 Strongly stationary 2967 Structural form

Cc cuc nh cng. Nng v ngoi ngoi sinh. Rt tnh ti. Dng c cu.

2968 Structural unemployment

Tht nghip c cu.

Structure-conduct-performance 2969 framework 2970 Structure of interest rates 2971 Structure of taxes

M hnh c cu -thc thi -kt qu. Biu khung li xut; C cu li sut. Biu khung thu; C cu thu.

2972 Subsidy 2973 Subsistence 2974 Subsistence expenditures 2975 Subsistence wage 2976 Substitute

Tr cp. Mc sng. Chi tiu cho mc sng. Tin cng sng. Hng thay th.

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economic

2977 Substitution effect 2978 Sum of squares 2979 Sunk costs

Hiu ng thay th. Tng cc bnh phng. Cc chi ph chm.

2980 Superconsistency 2981 Super-environment 2982 Superior goods

Siu nht qun. Siu mi trng. Siu hng ho.

2983 Super-neutrality

Siu trung lp.

2984 Super-normal profits 2985 Supernumerary expenditure

Li nhun siu ngch. Siu chi tiu.

2986 Supplementary benefit

Tr cp b sung.

2987 Supplementary special deposits 2988 Supply curve

Tin gi c bit b sung ng cung.

2989 Supply of effort 2990 Supply of inflation 2991 Supply of labour

Cung n lc. Cung lm pht. Cung lao ng.

2992 Supply-side economics 2993 Surplus unit

Kinh t hc trng cung. n v thng d.

2994 Surplus value

Gi tr thng d.

2995 Surrogate production function

Hm sn xut thay th.

2996 Survivor technique 2997 Sustainable development 2998 Swap arrangements

K thut sng st. Pht trin bn vng. Cc tho thun hon i.

Page 135

economic

2999 Paul Sweezy

(1910-)

3000 System estimator 3001 Taft-Hartley Act 3002 Take-Home pay 3003 Take-off 3004 Takeover 3005 Takeover and mergers 3006 Takeover bid 3007 Tangible assets 3008 Tangible wealth 3009 Tangency equilibrium 3010 Tap issue

c lng h thng. B lut Taft-Hartley. Thu nhp kh chi. Ct cnh . Thu mua. S mua t v hp nht . Tr gi thu mua. Ti sn hu hnh. Ca ci hu hnh. Tip im cn bng. Bn l chng khon lin tc.

3011 Targets 3012 Tariff

Mc tiu (nh lng). Thu quan.

3013 3014 3015 3016

Tariff factory Tariff Structure Tatonnement Taxable income

Nh my trnh thu quan. Khung biu thu quan. D dm. Thu nhp chu thu.

3017 Taxation 3018 Tax base 3019 Tax burden 3020 Tax credit 3021 Tax credit scheme

S nh thu. C s thu. Gnh nng thu. Ghi c thu. C ch ghi c thu. S lm gim khuyn khch ca thu. Chi tiu () trnh thu.

3022 Tax disincentive 3023 Tax expenditure

3024 Tax-push inflation

Lm pht do thu y.

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economic

3025 Tax shifting 3026 Tax yield

Chuyn y thu. Tin thu thu.

3027 T-distribution 3028 Technical progress 3029 Technological dualism 3030 Technological external effects

Phn phi T. Tin b k thut. M hnh nh nguyn v cng ngh. Ngoi ng ca cng ngh.

3031 Technological progress 3032 Technological unemployment

Tin b cng ngh. Tht nghip do cng ngh.

3033 Technology, choice of

S la chn cng ngh.

3034 Technology matrix

Ma trn cngngh.

3035 Technology transfer 3036 Technology 3037 Technostructure 3038 Temporary layoffs

Chuyn giao cng ngh. Cng ngh. Cu trc cng ngh. Sa thi tm thi.

3039 Term loan 3040 Terms of trade 3041 Term structure of interest rates

Khon vay k hn. T gi thng mi. C cu k hn ca li xut.

3042 Test discount rate 3043 Test statistic 3044 Threat effect 3045 Threat of pay off

Li xut chit khu kim nh. Thng k kim nh. Tc ng e do. Li ch e do.

3046 Three stage least squares

Bnh phng nh nht ca ba giai on.

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economic

3047 Threshold 3048 Threshold analys 3049 Threshold effect

Ngng. Phn tch ngng. Tc ng ngng.

3050 Threshold of a good

Ngng ca mt hng ho.

3051 Thunen, Johann Heinrich von

(1783-1850)

3052 Tiebout model 3053 Tight money 3054 Time, allocation of 3055 Time deposit 3056 Time preference 3057 Time series 3058 Time varying parameter models

M hn Tiebout. Tht cht tin t. Phn b thi gian. Tin gi c k hn. S thch theo thi gian. Chui s/d liu theo thi gian. Cc m hnh bin s thay i theo thi gian.

3059 Tinbergen, Jan

(1903-)

3060 Tobin, James

(1918-)

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economic

3061 Todaro model

M hnh Todaro.

3062 Token money

Tin quy c.

3063 Tokyo Round 3064 Total cost 3065 Total remuneration 3066 Total Revenue 3067 Trade

Vng m phn Tokyo. Tng ph; chi ph tng. Th lao tng. Doanh thu tng. Thng mi (hay mu dch).

3068 Trade bill

Hi phiu thng mi.

3069 Trade creation

S to lp thng mi.

3070 Trade credit

Tn dng thng mi.

3071 Trade cycle 3072 Trade-off 3073 3074 3075 3076 3077 Traditional sectors Transactions approach Transactions balances Transactions costs Transaction

Chu k thng mi. S nh i. Cc khu vc truyn thng. Phng php giao dch. Cc s d giao dch. Cc chi ph giao dch. Giao dch / thng v. Cu v tin giao dch. ng c gi tin giao dch.

3078 Transactions demand for money Transactions motive for holding 3079 money

3080 Transactions velocity of circulation Tc lu thng giao dch. Transcendental logarithMIC Hm sn xut tru tng dng logarit 3081 production function 3082 Transcendental production function Hm sn xut tru tng.

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economic

3083 Transferable rouble

Rp chuyn i c.

3084 Transfer costs 3085 Transfer deed 3086 Transfer earnings 3087 Transfer incomes

Chi ph vn chuyn. Chc b chuyn giao. Thng d kinh t. Thu nhp do chuyn nhng.

3088 Transfer of technology 3089 Transfer payment 3090 Transfer pricing

Chuyn giao cng ngh. Thanh ton chuyn nhng. nh gi chuyn nhng.

3091 Transfer problem 3092 Transformation function 3093 3094 3095 3096 Transformation problem Transitivity of preferences Transitory consumption Transitory income

Vn chuyn nhng. Hm chuyn i. Bi ton chuyn i. Tnh bc cu ca s thch. Tiu dng qa . Thu nhp qu . Hm sn xut chuyn dng l-gart. Cc im chuyn i phng tin vn chuyn. B ti chnh Anh. B ti chnh M.

3097 Translog production function 3098 Trans-shipment points 3099 Treasury, the 3100 Treasury US department of

3101 Treasury bill

Tn phiu b ti chnh.

3102 Treasury Deposit Receipt (TDR)

Bin nhn tin gi B ti chnh.

Tho thun gia b ti chnh v 3103 Treasury - Federal Reserve Accord Cc d tr lin bang. ng tin ca b ti chnh. 3104 Treasury note 3105 Treasury view 3106 Treaty of Rome Quan im ca b ti chnh. Hip c Rome.

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3107 Trend 3108 Trend stationary process (TSP) 3109 Trigonometric functions

Xu hng. Qu trnh tnh ti ca xu hng. Cc hm lng gic.

3110 Truncated earnings function

Hm thu nhp rt gn.

3111 Trust

T-rt.

3112 t-statistic

Thng k t.

3113 Turning point 3114 Turnover

im ngot Doanh thu, kim ngch.

3115 Turnover tax 3116 Turnpike theorems 3117 Twelve-month rule

Thu kim ngch. Cc nh l cng ngn. Quy tc mi hai thng.

3118 Two sector growth model Two stage leatst squares (TSLS 3119 hoc 2 SLS) 3120 Tying contract 3121 Type I/ type II 3122 U-form enterprise

M hnh tng trng hai khu vc. Bnh phng nh nht hai giai on Hp ng bn km. Sai s loi I / loi II. Doanh nghip dng ch U.

3123 Unanimity rule 3124 Unianticipated inflation 3125 Unbalanced economic growth 3126 Unbiased estimator 3127 Uncalled capital 3128 Uncertainty 3129 Unconvertible loan stock

Quy tc nht tr hon ton. Lm pht khng c lng trc. S tng trng kinh t khng cn i. c lng khng chch. Vn cha huy ng. S khng chc chn. C phn khng th chuyn i c

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3130 Unconvered interest parity 3131 UNCTAD 3132 Undated securities

Li sut ngang bng cha tnh. Din n ca Lin hip quc v thng mi v Pht trin. Chng khon khng ghi ngy.

3133 Underdeveloped countries 3134 Underdevelopment

Cc nc chm pht trin. S chm pht trin.

3135 Underemployed workers

Cc cng nhn phim dng.

3136 Underemployment 3137 Underidentification 3138 Undervalue currency 3139 Underwriter 3140 Undistributed profits 3141 Unearned income

S phim dng. S cha nhn dng. ng tin nh gi thp. Ngi bo him. Li nhun khng chia. Thu nhp phi tin lng.

3142 Unemployment 3143 Unemployment benefit

Tht nghip. Tr cp tht nghip.

3144 Unemployment equilibrium 3145 Unemployment rate 3146 Unequal exchange 3147 UNIDO guidelines Unintended inventory 3148 disinvestment 3149 Unintended inventory investment

Cn bng tht nghip. T l tht nghip. S trao i khng ngang bng. Cc hng dn ca UNIDO. Gim u t vo tn kho khng d kin. u t vo tn kho ngoi d kin.

3150 Union density 3151 Union market power

3152 Union/non-union differential 3153 Union pushfulness

T l tham gia cng on. Sc mnh ca cng on i vi th trng. Chnh lch tin lng gia cng nhn tham gia v khng tham gia cng on. Tnh thch tranh u ca cng on.

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3154 Union shop 3155 Uniqueness 3156 Unit root tests

"quy tri buc" Tnh c nht. Kim nh n v.

United Nations Capital 3157 Development Fund

Qu pht trin vn ca Lin hp quc.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development 3158 (UNCTAD)

Hi ngh Lin hip quc v Thng mi v Pht trin.

United Nationns Development 3159 Programme (UNDP) United Nationns Industrial Development Organization 3160 (UNIDO) 3161 Unit of account 3162 Unit tax

Chng trnh pht trin ca Lin hp quc. T chc pht trin cng nghip ca Lin hp quc. n v k ton. Thu n v.

3163 Unit Trust 3164 Unlisted Securities Market (USM) 3165 Unsecured loan stock 3166 Unvalidated inflation 3167 Urban economics 3168 Urbanization economies 3169 Uruguay Round 3170 User cost of capital 3171 Use value and exchange value 3172 U-shaped cost curves 3173 Utility 3174 Utility function

c quyn n v. Th trng chng khon khng nim yt. C phn vay khng bo lnh. Lm pht khng cho php. Kinh t hc th. Tnh kinh t ca th ho. Vng m phn Uruguay. Chi ph s dng vn. Gi tr s dng v gi tr trao i. Cc ng chi ph hnh ch U. tho dng. Hm tho dng.

3175 Utilitarianism 3176 Vacancies 3177 Vacancy rate

Ch ngha v li. Ch lm vic cn trng. T l ch lm vic cn trng.

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3178 Validated inflation 3179 Valuation curve 3180 Valuation ratio

Lm pht cho php. ng nh gi. T s nh gi.

3181 3182 3183 3184

Value, money, a standard of Value, theory of Value added Value-added tax

Tiu chun gi tr ca tin. L thuyt v gi tr. Gi tr gia tng. Thu Gi tr gia tng. nh gi ch quan. Sn phm vt cht gi tr bin. Vn (t bn) kh bin. Cc chi ph kh bin. (VES production function) - co gin kh bin ca hm sn xut thay th. Cc chi ph lao ng kh bin.

3185 Value judgement 3186 Value marginal physical product 3187 Variable capital 3188 Variable cost Variable elasticity of substitution 3190 production function 3191 Variable labour costs

3192 Variable parameter models 3193 Variance

Cc m hnh thng s kh bin. Phng sai Ma trn phng sai - hip phng sai. Bin ng.

3194 Variance-covariance matrix 3195 Variation

3196 Veblen, Thorstein B. 3197 Veblen effect 3198 Vector

(1857-1926) Hiu ng Veblen. Vc-t.

3199 Vector autoregression (VAR)

T hi quy vc t.

3200 Vehicle currency

ng tin phng tin.

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3201 Veil of ignorance 3202 Veil of money 3203 Velocity of circulation 3204 Venture capital 3205 Vertical equity 3206 Vertical integration 3207 Vertical merger 3208 Vertical Phillips curve 3209 VES production function

Mng che ngu dt. Mng che tin. Tc lu thng. Vn mo him. Cng bng theo chiu dc. Lin kt dc. Sp nhp chiu dc. ng Phillips thng ng. co gin kh bin hm sn xut thay th.

3210 Vicious circles 3211 Victim company 3212 Vintage growth models 3213 Virtuous circles 3214 Visibility hypothesis 3215 Visible balance

Cc vng lun qun. Cng ty nn nhn. M hnh tng trng theo thi gian. Vng thot. Gi thuyt v tnh minh bch. Cn cn hu hnh.

3216 Voluntary-exchange model 3217 Voluntary export restraint 3218 Voluntary unemployment

M hnh trao i t nguyn. Hn ch xut khu t nguyn. Tht nghip t nguyn. Tho dng Von NeumannMorgenstern. T s Von Neumann. Ngi mun ti a ho phiu bu. Trao i phiu bu. Cc c phiu c quyn b phiu v khng c quyn b phiu. Tem phiu. Cc chng trnh theo phiu. M hnh cnh tranh bng tin cng Vng tin cng.

3219 Von Neumann-Morgenstern utility 3220 Von Neumann ratio 3221 Vote maximizer 3222 Vote trading 3223 Voting and non-voting shares 3224 Voucher 3225 Voucher schemes 3226 Wage competition model 3227 Wage contour

3228 Wage contracts 3229 Wage differentials 3230 Wage discrimination

Hp ng tin cng Chnh lc tin cng Phn bit i x tin cng.

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3231 Wage drift

Mc trt tin cng.

3232 Wage fund 3233 Wage inflation 3234 Wage leadership

Qu lng. Lm pht tin cng. Xc nh tin cng theo mc tham kho.

3235 Wage-price spiral 3236 Wage-push inflation 3237 Wage rates 3238 Wage restraint

Vng xoy tin cng-gi Lm pht do tin cng y. Cc mc tin cng. Hn ch tin cng.

3239 Wage round 3240 Wage boards 3241 Wages Councils 3242 Wages freeze 3243 Wages fund doctrine 3244 Wages structure

Vng quay tin cng. Ban iu hnh tin cng. Cc hi ng tin cng. Hn mc tin cng. Hc thuyt qu lng. Cu trc tin cng

3245 Wage theory 3246 Wage-wage sprial

L thuyt tin cng. Vng xoy tin cng-tin cng.

3247 Wagner's law 3248 Wait umemployment

nh lut Wagner Tht nghip do ch vic.

3249 Wall Street

Ph Wall

3250 Walras, Lon

(1834-1910)

3251 Walras' law

nh lut Walras.

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3252 Want creation 3253 Warrant

To ra mong mun tiu dng. S m bo.

3254 Warranted rate of growth 3255 Warranted unemployment rate 3256 Waste 3257 Ways and means advandces 3258 Weakly stationary 3259 Weath

Tc tng trng m bo. T l tht nghip m bo. Cht thi. Tm ng. Khng chuyn ng hng tun. Ca ci.

3260 Weath effect

Hiu ng ca ci.

3261 Weath tax 3262 Wear and tear 3263 Weberian location theory 3264 Weighted average

Thu ca ci. Khu hao. L thuyt Weber v v tr . Bnh qun gia quyn.

3265 Weighted least squares 3266 Weighted mean

Bnh phng gia quyn nh nht. Trung bnh gia quyn.

3267 Welfare economics 3268 Welfare function 3269 Welfare state

Kinh t hc phc li. Hm phc li. Nh nc phc li.

3270 Well-behaved

C hnh vi tt.

3271 Wharton model

M hnh Wharton.

3272 Whipsawing 3273 White-collar worker

Ca ko. Cng nhn c trng, bn giy.

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3274 White noise 3275 White plan 3276 Wholesale

Nhiu trng. K hoch White. Bun bn, bn s.

3277 Wholesale banking

Dch v ngn hng bn bun.

3278 Wicksell, Knut

(1851-1926)

3279 Wicksell effects

Cc hiu ng ca Wicksell.

3280 Wieser, Friederich von

(1851-1926)

3281 Wildcat strike 3282 Willingness to pay

Bi cng "khng chnh thc" Mc sn sng tr.

3283 3284 3285 3286

Wilson Committee Windfall gain Windfall loss Winding up

U ban Wilson. Thu nhp bt thng. L bt thng. S pht mi.

3287 Window dressing

S "lm p" bo co ti chnh.

3288 Withdrawals 3289 Withholding tax

Cc con s tn rt. Thu chuyn li nhun v nc.

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3290 Workable competition 3291 Workers' co-operative 3292 Workers' partipation 3293 Working capital 3294 Working capital ratio 3295 Working population 3296 Work in progress 3297 Work-leisure model 3298 Work sharing 3299 Work to rule 3300 World Bank 3301 Writing-down allowance

Cnh tranh c th th thc hin c. Hp tc x ca cng nhn. S tham gia ca ngi lao ng. Vn lu ng. T s vn lu ng. Lc lng lao ng. Sn phm ang gia cng. M hnh lao ng - ngh ngi. Chia s cng vic. Lm vic theo quy nh. Ngn hng th gii. Khu hao, s xung gi.

3302 X-efficiency 3303 Y-efficiency 3304 Yeild 3305 Yeild gap 3306 Yeild gap on securities

Hiu qu X. Hiu qu Y. Li tc. Chnh lch li tc. Chnh lch li tc chng khon.

Quy c Zellner-Giesel. Cc hng ho c mc thu bng 0. 3308 Zero-rate goods Bin s Z. 3309 Z variable S lng lo v t chc. 3310 Organization slack Thng tin hon ho. 3311 Perfect information Gi thuyt v thu nhp lu di. 3312 Personal income Hypothesis Phn phi thu nhp cho c nhn. 3313 Personal income distribution Tc ng v hiu ho thm ht cn cn thanh ton bi dng vn 3314 Sterilization impact of capital inflow chy vo. nh hng/Tc ng thay th ca tin cng. 3315 Substitution effect of wages Dy s liu theo thi gian. 3316 Time series data Gi k ton. 3317 Accounting price Khu hao tch lu. 3318 Accumulated depreciation Phn tch tnh hung. 3319 Scenario analysis Phn tch nhy. 3320 Sensitivity analysis Thm nh. 3321 Appraisal Tng gi. 3322 Appreciation (currency) Tng gi v gim gi tr. 3323 Appreciation and depreciation Kinh doanh da vo chnh lch t gi. 3324 Arbitrage (GDP) c cn i. 3325 Balanced (GDP) 3307 Zellner-Giesel

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3326 Balanced equilibrium (GDP)

3327 Beta 3328 Black market premium 3329 Blue-chip stock 3330 3331 3332 3333 3334 3335 Gild-edged bonds Border price Multi-collinearity Combination Compensating differentials Constant returns to scale

(GDP) cn bng. Ch s tnh s bin ng li tc ca mt c phiu cng vi s bin ng li tc ca ton b th trng chng khon. Mc/ Khon chnh lc ca th trng ch en. C phiu sng gi. Tri phiu chnh ph c gi tr cao. Gi ca khu. a cng tuyn. T hp. Cc mc b thm lng. Sinh li c nh theo quy m. Hn ch/ rng buc (khng chnh thc/ chnh thc; ngoi quy nh/ theo quy nh). Ch quyn ngi tiu dng. Thng d ngi tiu dng. Tiu dng.

3336 3337 3338 3339

Constrain informal/ formal Consumer sovereignty Consumer surplus Consumption

3340 Independent/ induced consumption Tiu dng ph thuc / thay i. Hm Tiu dng. 3341 Consumption function Th trng c th cnh tranh c. 3342 Contestable market H s chuyn i. 3343 Conversion factor Gii php kh x. 3344 Cornor solution Quy l ti phm. 3345 Criminalization 3346 3347 3348 3349 3350 3351 3352 Cross price elasticity of demand Cross-section data Crowding-out effect Dead weight loss Dead weight tax burden Debt rescheduling Decile co gin theo gi cho ca cu. S liu cho/ mu/ c trng. Tc ng ln p, chn p. S/ mc mt mt v ch. Gnh nng v ch ca thu kho. Hon n/ gia hn n. Thnh mi nhm bng nhau. Hng ho cng loi mang nt c trng ring. Chnh ph can thip. Cc bin dng v tht bi ca th trng. Phn phi. Phn phi lin tc. Phn phi tt nh. Tng sn lng cn bng. Cn bng cc mc chnh lch tin cng. Vn c phn. S tin trin ca tnh hnh kinh t. Nhng d tnh ngoi sinh. Lm pht d tnh c. Lm pht bt thng.. Tin php nh. Hng ho cui cng.

3353 Differentiated goods 3354 Dirigiste 3355 3356 3357 3358 3365 Distortions and market failure Distribution Continuous distribution Deterministic distribution Equilibrium aggregate output

3366 Equilizing wage diffirentials 3367 Equity 3368 3369 3370 3371 3372 3373 Evolving market condition Exogenuos expectations Expected inflation Unexpected inflation Fiat (or token) money Final goods

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3374 3375 3376 3377

Finance deepening Fine turning Intermediate goods F-test

3378 Automatic fiscal policy 3379 Discretionary fiscal policy 3380 Expasionary fiscal policy 3381 3382 3383 3384 3385 3386 3387 3388 3389 3390 3391 3392 3393 3394 3395 3396 3397 3398 3399 3400 3401 3402 3403 3404 3405 3406 3407 3408 3409 Contractionary fiscal policy Flow variable Future value Sharp gyration Maturity Non performings assets Non performings loans Non trade Offer price Opportunity cost of capital Open economy economics Other thng equal Perceived Wealth Percentage change Perfect capital mobility Performance Physical and financial capital Positive bais Pre-commitment Conditional probality Cumulative probality Pure inflation Quadrant Quasiliquid asset Quick-disbursing fundss Quintile Ramdom events Range of values Rate of return on investment

3410 Interna Rate of return 3411 Rateable value 3412 Real / relative price 3413 3414 3415 3416 3417 3418 3419 Real balance effect Real interest rate. Real prices and real income Receipt Recessionary gap Secular stagnation Self-financing

Tng cng ti chnh; pht trin h thng ti chnh. Tinh chnh. Hng ho trung gian. Kim nh Fisher. Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch t ng. Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch ch ng. Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch m rng. Chnh sch thu chi ngn sch thu hp. Bin s mang tnh dng chy. Gi tr tng lai. Chu k vng xoay r rt. n hn thanh ton. Nhng ti sn khng sinh li. Nhng khon vay khng thc hin ng hp ng. Phi ngoi thng Gi cho. Chi ph c hi ca vn Kinh t hc v m ca nn kinh t m. Cc iu kin khc khng i. Ca ci d tnh c. Chnh lch tnh bng phn trm. Kh nng lu chuyn hon ho ca vn. Thnh qu. Vn hin vt v vn ti chnh. Thin lch ng bin. Cam kt trc. Xc sut c iu kin. Xc sut tch lu. Lm pht thun tu. Gc to / gc phn t. Ti sn bn thanh ton. Tin k pht nhanh. Thnh nm phn bng nhau. Cc bin c ngu nhin. Min gi tr. Sut sinh li t u t. Ni sut thu hi vn/ t l hon vn ni b. Gi tr c th nh thu. Cc gi thc t/ tng i. nh hng ca s d tin thc/ hiu ng tin thc. Mc li sut thc t. Gi thc t v thu nhp thc t S thu. H, khong trng suy thoi. S nh tr v lu di. T ti tr.

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3420 Shareholder 3421 Shoe-leather cost of inflation

C ng. Chi ph giy da ca lm pht.

3422 Stand-by arrangement/ agreement Hp ng d phng. thc h/ m hnh/kiu mu tiu chun. 3423 Standard paradigm Cn tr chin lc i vi nhp ngnh. 3424 Strategic entry barrier Ngn chn nhp ngnh c tnh chin lc. 3425 Strategic entry deterrence Chin lc. 3426 Strategy Cc khon vay iu chnh c cu kinh t. 3427 Structural adjustment loans Nng nghip t cung cp t liu. 3428 Subsistence agriculture V ma t tiu. 3429 Subsistence crop Lng va sng. 3430 Subsistence wage Hng thay th v hng b tr. 3431 Substitutes and complemnt S hiu lm v chi ph chm. 3432 Sunk cost fallacy Cc ngnh mi mc ln v cc ngnh sp ln (ht thi). 3433 Sunrise and sunset industries Siu li nhun/ Li nhun siu ngch. 3434 Supernormal profits Tr cp b sung. 3435 Supplementary benefit Kinh t hc trng cung. 3436 Supply-side economics i xng 3437 Symmetric Phii / bt i xng 3438 Non-symmetric Cho vay lin hip. 3439 Syndicate loan S thch, th hiu. 3440 Taste Ai phi chu thu. 3441 Tax incident Chnh lch gi do thu. 3442 Tax wedge Chnh sch thu nhp da vo thu. 3443 Tax-base incomes Policy Thay i cng ngh qua R&D. 3444 Technical change through R&D Tnh hiu dng v mt k thut. 3445 Technical efficiency Tri thc, kin thc, k thut 3446 Technical knowlwdge 3447 3448 3449 3450 3451 3452 3453 3454 3455 3456 3457 3458 3459 3460 3461 3462 3463 3464 Testing an economic model The Corset Tradable Trade balance Traded and non-traded (goods) Trade unions Transaction motives Precaution motives Assets motives Transfer in kind Transmission mechanism Trend output path Treasury Tow-path tariffs Unvoluntary unemployment Utility maximization Variable Variability Kim nghim mt m hnh thc t. K hoch Corset. Kh thng. Cn cn thng mi. Hng ngoi thng v phi ngoi thng. Cng on. Nhng ng c giao dch. Nhng ng c d phng. Nhng ng c ti sn. Tr cp bng hin vt. C ch lan chuyn. ng biu th xu th sn lng. B ti chnh, ngn kh. (h thng) gi hai phn. T l, s tht nghip bt buc. Ti a ho tho dng. Bin s. bin thin.

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3465 3466 3467 3468

Dummy Variable Stochastic Variable Variable factor Viability

3469 Velocity of money 3470 Volatility 3471 3472 3473 3474 3475 3476 3477 3478 3479 3480 3481 3482 3483 3484 3485 3486 3487 3488 3489 3490 3491 3492 3493 3494 3495 3496 3497 3498 3499 Wage and price flexibility Wage-rental ratio Yield on external debt Yield on investment Z-score Zero growth proposal Above the line Accrued Ad valoremAggregates rebate Avoidable costs Backwardation Balacing allowance Balacing item Bank overdraft Banking and currency schools Battle of the sexes Bearer securities Below the line Benelux BES Beveridge Bilateralism Bil of sale BIMBO Bundesbank Business angels Business finance Business taxation By-product

Bin s gi. Bin s ngu nhin. Cc yu t sn xut thay i. Kh nng thnh tu, tnh kh thi. Vng quay ca tin, tc lu chuyn ca tin. Tnh d bin ng. Tnh linh hot ca gi c v lng. T s tin cng- tin thu vn. Li trn n nc ngoi. Li nhun t u t. Gi tr ca Z. xut tng trng bng khng.

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giaithich Chi ph lm gim s kh chu nh nhim hay tc ng. Thc o v kh nng v trnh (hc vn) c tng quan cht ch vi nhau, lm tng kh nng l phn ln li tc c c tnh do gio dc trn thc t cng chnh l li tc do nng lc

Mt l thuyt v cch nh thu theo gnh nng v thu nn c phn b theo kh nng chi tr; v mt h thng thu kiu lu tin, t l hay lu thoi, tu thuc vo thc o c s dng v dc gi nh ca th tho dng bin ca thu nhp. Xem SUPER-NORMAL PROFITS Gi tr trn trc honh (trc X) ca mt im trn th hai chiu. S ngh lm, mc d cc iu khon ca hp ng lao ng yu cu ngi lao ng phi i lm v hp ng vn cn gi tr. Ngi ch s hu t hoc nh sng mt ni xa bt ng sn ca mnh, thu tin thu v qun l vic kinh doanh ca mnh thng qua trung gian hay ngi i din. Xem Comparative Advantage. Mt khi nim cp ti nhng li th ca cc hng thit lp, v th cc hng ny c th duy tr chi ph trung bnh thp hn so vi cc hng mi nhp ngnh khng ph thuc vo mc sn lng. (Xem Barriers to entry) Gi thuyt ny cho rng cc chi ph cho tiu dng (C) l mt hm s ca thu nhp kh dng ca c nhn (Yd): C = C (Yd). Xem Monopoly. Gi o bng tin ngc vi vi gi tng i. l gi ca cc hng ho, dch v c biu din trc tip di dng s lng ca n v tin t. Xem Price Xem Scarcity Gi tr ca mt bin b qua du ca n. Phng php phn tch tc ng ca s ph gi hoc gim t gi hi oi ca mt nc i vi cn cn thng mi. Mt thut ng miu t s cn thit gim bt tiu dng hin ti tch lu t bn. Xem DEPRECIATION S tng vt t l lm pht. Nu chnh ph c gi t l tht nghip di mc t l tht nghip t nhin th vic s dn ti lm pht gia tc. Xem Accelerator principle. Mt bi s theo u t mi s tng ln khi c s thay i v sn lng. Nguyn l cho rng mc u t rng ph thuc vo mc thay i d kin v sn lng. Hnh vi chp nhn mt hi phiu do c nhn hay c quan nhn hi phiu thc hin, bao gm k hi phiu v thng k trn mt hi phiu. Mt trong s cc NGN HNG THNG MI c tr s ti London, vi mc ch thu tin hoa hng ngn hng ny nhn tr cc hi phiu, ngha l chp nhn thanh ton chng khi o hn. S lng nhng ngi thu mi mi thng tnh theo t l phn trm tng s vic lm do B lao ng M thng k. Thu nh vo qu tng v ti sn tha k. Mt m hnh l thuyt c s dng (ch yu) trong phn tch a im dn c cc vng th, gii thch cc hnh thi v tr do nh i gia kh nng tip cn ca mt a im ti trung tm ca vng v khng gian ca a im . Xem VALIDATED INFLATION

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Trong CN CN THANH TON, mt loi giao dch t bn do CC C QUAN TIN T p dng hoc iu hnh lm i trng li tnh trng tn dng hoc tnh trng n nn ny sinh trong cc GIAO DCH T NH. 1.Mt ghi chp giao dch gia hai bn giao dch c th l hai b phn ca mt doanh nghip v l yu t c bn trong tt c cc h thng giao dch kinh doanh. 2.Cc giai on, thng l hai tun, theo nm kinh doanh ca S CHNG KHON LONDON c chia ra v qua cc giai on ny, vic thanh ton cc giao dch tr giao dch chng khon vin vng c tin hnh. Thng mc trong ti khon ca mt cng ty c ghi nh mt khon n ca cc dch v s dng nhng cha c thanh ton. y l tiu ca mt cun sch do gio s David C. Mc. Clelland ca trng i hc Harvard (Princeton, NJ, 1962) xut bn, trong ng nh ngha khi nim ng c thnh t o ngh tng tng v mc ca cc tng mi m ng coi l nhn cch cn thit i vi cc CH DOANH NGHIP v v vy c ngha i vi S PHT TRIN KINH T. Mt tnh hung khi tt c thu quan ca mt nc c tng hoc gim theo t l phn trm ngang bng. Mc tr gia vic quyt nh mt chnh sch (c bit trong kinh t hc v m) v vic thc hin chnh sch . Trong l thuyt tin t, mt vi m hnh gi thit chia mt cung ng tin t thnh D NGHCH, l tin d tr c a vo quay vng trong cc thi k c xc nh bi cc khong thi gian gia cc k thanh ton, v NGHCH NHN RI l tin d tr khng c s dng thanh ton thng xuyn. Xem LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Xem LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATE. S hnh thnh k vng v gi tr tng lai ca mt bin s ch da trn cc gi tr trc ca bin lin quan. Xem EULER'S THEREM Theo lp lun ny, thu nhp thc t ca gia nh gim trong thi k suy thoi theo chu k s gy ra HIU NG THU NHP. Mt quy tc xc nh O HM ca mt hm i vi mt bin s, trong hm ny bao gm php cng tuyn tnh ca 2 hm ring bit hoc nhiu hn tr ln ca cc bin. Mt dng hm tho dng : U=Ua +Ub+Uc . Trong U l tho dng a,b,c ;a hng ho thay th trong cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh, cc nhm hng ho ny khng th thay th cho nhau. Trong nn kinh t K HOCH HO nh Lin X trc y, mi mc tiu chin lc u c mt t chc hoc "a ch" chu trch nhim thc hin mc tiu

H thng ny c qu tin t quc t (IMF) a ra ti hi ngh Bretton Woods v cp n mt b T GI HI OI C NH hay c "neo" m v c bn l c nh nhng cho php iu chnh hoc thay i vi lng nh theo c 2 hng. Thi gian cn thit mt bin, v d nh DUNG LNG VN, iu chnh theo nhng thay i trong cc yu t quyt nh ca n. (Xem PARTIAL ADJUSTMENT, CAPITAL STOCK ADJUSTMENT PRINCIPLE). Thut ng chung ch cc c ch iu chnh hot ng trong nn kinh t th gii nhm loi b nhng mt cn i trong thanh ton vi nc ngoi. Nhng c ch lin quan n BN V VNG, CH BN V HI OI, THA S NGOI THNG, T GI HI OI TH NI. Cc mc gi c hnh thnh do quyt nh c thc ca c nhn hay hng no ch khng phi do cc yu t tc ng ca th trng.

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Mt trong nhng tr v thi gian nh hng n hiu lc ca mt CHNH SCH TIN T. l khong thi gian t lc cc c quan c thm quyn nhn thy cn c hnh ng n khi tin hnh thc s hnh ng . Mt loi thu da trn gi tr giao dch. thng l t l phn trm khi gi bn l, s, hay qu trnh sn xut, v l dng ph bin ca THU DOANH THU. Mt khon vay hoc da vo lung tin xc nh hoc d kin. (Xem BANK LOAN). L mt khon ng trc THU DOANH NGHIP v c ghi vo ti khon bn n ca doanh nghip i vi loi thu ny. l mt phng tin c th thu thu doanh nghip sm hn. K THUT QUN L CNG N mi c chnh ph lin bang, cc chnh quyn a phng v tiu bang ca M s dng.

THM HT CN CN THANH TON. Vn gp phi trong nghnh bo him. Hot ng ca mt hng nhm thc y vic bn sn phm ca mnh, mc tiu chnh l tng s lng ngi tiu dng thch nhng sn phm ca hng hn nhng hng khc. T l chi ph qung co ca cc hng trn tng doanh thu bn hng.

Mi quan h gia thu nhp v tui. Biu din qu trnh thu nhp theo tui n gin nht l mt ng nm ngang i t s 0 n tui ri trng hc, khong cch ca cc bc c quyt nh bi trnh hc vn. Xem INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CO-OPERATION AGENCY Yu cu cng nhn tham gia tuyn dng khng phi gia nhp cng on nhng phi ng cng on ph. Cc khon tit kim chi ph trong mt hot ng kinh t do cc x nghip hay cc hot ng gn v tr ca nhau. Biu chi tit v S LNG CA SN PHM QUC GIA RNG c th c mua mi mc gi chung.

L tng s chi tiu danh ngha cho hng ho v dch v trong mt nn kinh t. Xem INTERNATION INCOME Xem INTERNATION INCOME Mi quan h gia lu lng sn lng trong ton nn kinh t (Y), tng lc lng lao ng (L) v tng lng vn (K), cc u vo tham gia trc tip vo sn xut. Hm ny c th c m rng bao hm c T AI v CNG NGH VI danh ngha l u vo.

Vn xc nh hnh vi kinh t v m c th t d bo t hnh vi ca cc n v kinh t vi m ni bt. Tnh hung trong sn lng nng nghip tng ln r rt nh nhng thay i v t chc v k thut. Khon thu t nng nghip thng kh nh lng, c bit trong nn nng nghip t tc hoc nhng ni thu nhp pc tr bng hin vt ngha l nng sn.

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Cc sn phm nng nghip lm ra xut khu ch khng phi cho mc ch t cung t cp hay cho th trng trong nc L thi gian gia sn xut nng nghip thc t v sn xut nng nghip tim nng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN. Xem EC Agricultural levies. Mt trong nhng hn ch i vi PHT TRIN KINH T l vic s dng cc bin php s khai, khng hiu qu trong nng nghip. Cc ngnh nng thn nhng nc km pht trin cung cp thc phm ngy ngy cng tng cho dn c thnh ph. Cc phng php c, th s th km hiu qu , cn k thut c gii ho hin i th khng thch hp. V vy mt dng ci cch l p dng loi cng ngh nng nghip thch hp. Khu vc hoc mt b phn dn s tham gia vo ngh nng, cung cp lng thc, nguyn liu th nh bng, g cho tiu dng trong nc v xut khu. C quan qun l a phng ca CNG TY TN DNG HNG HO CA M Khon tin tr cho nng dn vi mc ch khuyn khch sn xut lng thc thc phm v tr gip thu nhp ca nng dn. Cc c quan do php lut quy nh mc lng ti thiu i vi nhng ngi lm nng nghip Anh, x Wales v Scotland cng mt cch chnh thc nh cc hi ng tin cng. Xem FOREIGN AID. Xem Generalized Least Squares. Thut ng c C.MC s dng miu t tnh trng tinh thn ca cng nhn trong mt x hi t bn. Nh kinh t hc ngi Php c nhn gii thng Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1988. Allais l mt k s, bng cch t hc v kinh t ch yu trong thi k c xm chim Php sut Chin tranh th gii th 2, khi ng t c tip cn vi cc n phm nc ngoi. Mc d vy, ng thnh cng trong vic t xy dng c nhng nn tng to ln v l thuyt CN BNG TNG TH HIN I v KINH T HC PHC LI. ng c coi l ngi cha v ngi dn u tr tu ca trng phi bin hc Php, sn sinh ra nhiu nh kinh t hc ni ting nh Debreu. Mc cho xu hng thin v l thuyt mnh m, Allais vn cho rng cc m hnh l thuyt c xy dng tr li nhng cu hi thc tin v nn c kim nghim qua thc t. Thnh tch ca ng c nhn gii Nobel ch yu l thnh tu nghin cu s bn v kinh t hc v ng gp c bn ca ng l cc cng thc ton hc v i v cn bng th trng v tnh cht hiu qu ca cc th trng. Nghin cu ca ng v phn tch ng thi v m tin t v l thuyt ri ro cng rt ni bt. Mi n khi kim tra thc nghim v hc thuyt tho dng k vng ca VON NEUMANNMORGENSTERN ng mi c ni ting, thc nghim c tiu l nghch l Allais. ng ch ra rng s la chn ca cc c nhn khi c yu cu sp xp mt cp d n ri ro u sp xp mt cch h thng v lp li (nh cc nghin cu khc la chn) mu thun vi d on ti a ho tho dng d kin. Cc cng trnh ca ng l Nghin cu v nguyn l Kinh t -1943 (sau cn c ti bn vi tiu X l Kinh t n thun-1952) v Kinh t v li nhun(1947). ng dy trng kinh t London t nm 1928, lm vic b Ti Chnh Anh v nm 1944 c phong l gio s thng k hc ti trng i hc London. Cc n phm ch yu ca ng bao gm: Phn tch ton hc cho cc nh kinh t hc(1938); Thng k hc cho cc nh kinh t hc(1949); Kinh t hc thuc ton (1956); Hc thuyt kinh t v m - X l bng ton hc (1967). Nm 1934 ng c ng gp to ln cho hc thuyt ngi tiu dng khi ng cho xut bn mt bi bo cng vi J.R.HICKS, bng cch s dng cc ng bng quan, bi bo ch ra rng gii thch s dc xung di ca ng cu s l vic gi nh y rng hng ho c th c phn loi theo th t.

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Mt b phn ca chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph lin quan ti vic chi phi cung cp hng ho v dch trong mt nn kinh t. Vi sn xut ra t hp sn phm tt nht hay ti u cc sn phm bng cc kt hp hiu qa nht cc u vo. Nhng chi ph cho php nht nh khi c khu tr t doanh thu ca cng ty l phn thu nhp b nh thu. H thng thu thu nhp bao gm h thng cc khon khu tr v chi ph. Chng c tr t tng thu nhp xc nh chu thu. Mt kiu tr phn phi trong trng s cc gi tr lin tc ca bin s tr theo sau mt do mt a thc gy ra. Xem CAPITAL ASSET PRINCING MODEL. Thut ng dng ch kiu cng ngh c mt vi hoc tt c thuc tnh sau: s dng ti thiu ti nguyn khng ti to c, gy nhim thp nht i vi mi trng, t cp t tc theo vng hoc theo a phng khng c s bc lt hoc c lp cc c nhn. (Xem INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY, APPROPIATE TECHNOLOGY, INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP). S quan tm ti phc li ca ngi khc. Xem MERGER. Chng khon m mt ngn hng M thng pht hnh cho cc c dn M, da vo vic c quan NM GI CC C PHIU thng ca mt cng ty ngoi quc. Ngi gi ADR c quyn hng c tc ca cng ty ngoi quc. Bn thn ADR c th trao i c. u im ca vic lm ny l TH TRNG VN c m rng i vi cc cng ty khng phi ca M trong khi c th p ng c mong mun ca ngi M v mt loi c phiu "nng" trao i. (Mt ADR c th c ng trn gi c quyn vi nhiu chng khon thng). c thnh lp trong thi k t nm 1881 n 1886, lin on ny tp trung cc cng on ln M li vi nhau. y l mt h thng trong thu quan ca M i vi mt s mt hng nhp khu c tnh trn c s gi tr ca mt hng thay th trong nc so vi gi tr ca hng nhp khu. (Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE). S GIAO DCH c t chc ln th hai M, tin hnh mua bn gn 1/10 tng s c phiu c mua bn M. S giao dch l c s vt cht cho cc giao dch CHNG KHON din ra. S giao dch chng khon M c t lu v bt u t khi nhng ngi mi gii gp nhau ngoi ph mua bn cc c phn chng khon. l ngun gc ca mt ci tn khc ca n :"S giao dch l ng". Tn hiu bng tay c dng thng bo cho nhn vin giao dch. n tn th k XX, S giao dch chng khon M mi chuyn vo phng.(Xem STOCK MARKET). Phng thc thanh ton n trn c s tr dn. Thnh thong chi tr tng k c s dng nh thut ng thay th cho khu hao. Thut ng s dng trong mt CHU K KINH DOANH miu t khong cch gia im cc i v cc tiu ca bt k chu k no. C quan ngoi thng ca Lin X trc y. C c quan chi nhnh ti nhiu nc. Phn chia bin ng tng th trong mt bin s ph thuc (vi bin ng tng th c nh ngha l tng ca bnh phng ca cc lch so vi trung bnh ca bin) thnh cc cu thnh c tnh cho bin ng ca cc bin s ring hay NHM BIn GII THCH v nhng bin khng c gii thch hay bin ng D/ Hc thuyt cho rng cc s kin chnh tr v x hi ca cc c nhn khng nn b km hm bi bt c s can thip no ca chnh ph. l mt quan im cc oan hn quan im ch ngha t do, vn cn cho php s dng quyn lc c ti iu hnh cc hot ng m cc c nhn khng th t hon thnh mt cch c hiu qu c.

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Mt trong cc vn lin quan n bin ng t do ca T GI HI OI l lun im cho rng t gi hi oi t do s lm gim thm ht vi bn ngoi v v vy tc ot ca cc c quan tin t ci neo (chnh tr) nhm hn ch tin t m rng. i lp vi lun im ny l vic b chic neo tin t ca t gi hi oi c nh l mt vic tt v n ch cc tr nhng nh hoch nh chnh sch mi c bu bng cch khng cho h hon ton t do vi CHNH SCH TIN T. Mt cch k gii cho U T phn bc cc m hnh ton hc v chng t tc dng. Thay vo l phn tch u t bt ngun t thuc tnh lm theo ca cc ch doanh nghip. Cm thut ng ny c J.M.Keynes s dng ln u tin trong L THUYT TNG QUT V VIC LM, LI SUT V TIN (1936). Nhng t c Joan Robinson ph bin rng ri. Risk analysis: phn tch ri ro. Scenario analysis:Phn tch kch bn. Sensitivity analysis: Phn tch nhy. Vng th hai (1949) ca cuc m phn thng mi theo HIP C CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH (GATT). Xem CAPITAL ALLOWANCE. Mt k thut thm nh d n vn c s dng chit khu v cng nhn rng vic s dng vn i hi tr tin li i vi lng vn s dng v khu hao. Li ha tr mt khon no mi thi k trong mt s cc thi k m khon tr cho mi thi k l c nh. S ngt qung trong mi lin kt chnh thc gia mc lng ca cc nhm thng lng khc nhau nh p dng CHNH SCH THU NHP. Xem EXPECTED INFLATION. Mt cm thut ng ca M ch h thng php lut nhm kim sot s tng trng quyn lc i vi th trng ca cc hng. Cm thut ng ny khng ch lin quan ti chnh sch chng c quyn m c cc hot ng km hm ca cc hng ring l, cc nhm cng ty hp nht (Trt) v nhm cc cng ty cng tc (Catel). Tng v gi tr ca ti sn, i lp li l s mt gi tr. Mt ti sn c th tng gi tr bi v gi ca n (v do gi th trng ca n) tng do lm pht hay thay i v cu ti sn dn ti mc khan him. (Xem MONEY APPRECIATION). Xem GENERAL TRAINING.

Ni chung c dng ch nhng sn phm thch hp cho s dng cc nc ang pht trin. Vic ng dng mt cng ngh thch hp vi yu t sn c. (Xem ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY. INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY, INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT GROUP). Cc doanh nghip duy tr cc ti khon ny cho thy li nhun sau khi tr thu c phn phi hay s dng nh th no. (Xem ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES CORPORATION TAX, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES INCOME TAX, TAXABLE INCOME. Mt dng ra quyt nh trong mi c nhn b phiu cho mt nhm phng n m ngi tn thnh. (Xem BORDA COUNT, CONDORCET CRITERION, SOCIAL DECISION RULE. SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION). Mt cm thut ng miu t qu trnh suy lun phn on t gi thuyt ban u cho n kt lun. Phng php ny c th i lp vi cch tip cn da trn nhng c liu rt ra t thc t quan st.

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Mt hc gi ngi , ng l ngi c ng gp chnh vo t tng kinh t ca hn lm vin. Xt v kinh t hc, ng tha nhn phn ln hc thuyt ca Aristotle, bao gm khi nim v gi cng bng. ng cng phn bit GI C v GI TR, i tng ca rt nhi cch din gii khc nhau. tng v gi tr hay gi cng bng khng khc hn gi thng thng (cnh tranh) vn c mt mt hng v gi c a ra vt qu mc gi ny l s vi phm quy tc o c. Thng mi vn xu xa nhng c bo cha bi HNG HA CNG CNG. Tng t, ca ci ti sn v hnh ng ca chnh ph c bin h bi hng ho cng cng. Cho vay nng li b ch trch l khon thu cho vic s dng tin m khng c gi tr s dng. Nhng ng gp ch yu ca ng i vi lch s t tng kinh t c bao qut trong cun SUMMA THEOLOGICA ca ng. Mt nghip v bao gm vic mua bn mt ti sn, v d mt hng ho hay tin t hai hay nhiu th trng, gia chng c s khc nhau hay chnh lch v gi. S can thip ca mt bn th ba vo mt TRANH CHP V CNG NGHIP theo yu cu ca cc bn tranh ci v a ra nhng gi cho vic gii quyt tranh chp, sau s rng buc c hai bn (Xem CONCILI-ATION, FINAL OFFER ARBITRATION). Xem ELASTICITY OF DEMAND ch phng sai ca sai s thay i iu kin t nhin gim, l mt trc nghim phn bit gia tng quan chui trong iu kin xo trn v hiu ng ny sinh t s bin i ca xo ng c gi l hiu ng ARCH. Xem ARCH. Nh trit hc HY LP, cc cng trnh ca ng bao gm c cc vn kinh t v trong nhng bi vit ca ng c th thy nhng phn tch v sn xut, phn phi v trao i. Trong phn tch v trao i, ng phn bit gia gi tr s dng v gi tr trao i Xem MEAN. Mt dy s hay nhng biu thc i s trong mi thn phn mang mt mi lin h cng thm i vi mi thnh phn ng trc v sau n. Nh kinh t hc ngi M ng gii Nobel v kinh t hc vi hun tc John Hicks nm 1972. ng c bit n nhiu nht do cng trnh v cc h thng CN BNG TNG QUT v trnh by v cc iu kin ton hc cn thit cho mt h thng nh vy c nghim c ngha v kinh t. ng cng c cng trnh tin phong v vic ra quyt nh trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn. Trong cun S LA CHN X HI V CC GI TR C NHN (1951), ng trnh by kinh t hc phc li vi mt tnh trng tin thoi lng nan, khi da trn c s nhng gi nh m bo s t ch ca ngi tiu dng cng thm s hp l, ng chng minh rng khng th xc nh c s xp hng x hi v cc phng n la chn tng ng vi s xp hng ca cc c nhn, v nh vy cng khng th a ra c CHC NNG PHC LI X HI . Chc nng ny lin quan mt cch tch cc ti la chn c nhn, x hi khng th quyt nh n mun g. Arrow cng c cng trong vic a vo hc thuyt tng trng gi thuyt hc qua hnh vi t cch l mt ngun tng nng sut. Cc n phm chnh ca ng l : Nghin cu trong l thuyt ton hc v d tr v sn xut (1958); S la chn x hi v cc gi tr c nhn (1951); Cc tiu lun v l thuyt chu ri ro (1970); Phn tch da trn tng hp (vi F.H.Hahn) (1971). Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. U ban kinh t chu v Vin ng ca Lin hp quc khuyn co thnh lp ngn hng ny khuyn khch tng trng kinh t v hp tc chu v Vin ng, thc y kinh t cc nc ang pht trin trong vng. Ngn hng pht trin chu c thnh lp nm 1966. Ngun vn ban u l nh ng gp ca cc nc trong khu vc vi s gip ca M, CHLB c, Anh v Canada. Xem TAXABLE INCOME, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES FOR CORPORATION TAX, ALLOWANCES AND EXPENSES FOR INCOME TAX.

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Xem TAXABLE INCOME. Mt thc th c gi tr th trng hoc gi tr trao i, v l b phn cu thnh CA CI hay ti sn ca ch s hu. Vic mt cng ty thn tnh bn nhng ti sn ca CNG TY NN NHN sau khi thu mua. iu ny c th thc hin c mc li nhun ng k khi ti sn b nh gi thp S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON. Tn c t cho cu hi liu vic kt ni mt bin chnh sch, v d CHNH SCH TIN T mt cch duy nht t c mt mc tiu chnh sch, v d cn cn thanh ton quc t di cc ch v t gi HI OI c th c hay khng. Kt lun l khng th lm c nh vy. Cc vng trong nc m hot ng kinh t hot ng kinh t c h tr bi chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph. Xem DEPRESSED AREAS, REGIONAL EMPLOYMENT PREMIUM, REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT GRANT. C quan thnh lp nm 1969, thu thp v cho nim yt li nhun v bo gi th trng hin hnh vi cc loi pht hnh ca TRI KHON CHU U. Hip hi c cc B trng ngoi giao Indonesia, Malaysia, Phillipines, Singapore v Thi Lan thnh lp nm 1967. Mc ch chung ca hip hi l thc y tng trng kinh t, tin b x hi v pht trin vn ho khu vc ng Nam . Mt loi bo him lin quan n tnh hung trong bo him cho s kin khng th trnh khi. iu ny c th do hp ng lin quan ti vic tr mt khon xc nh vo mt ngy no hoc l v "ci cht" ca ngi c bo him. S khc nhau v thng tin m cc bn tham gia giao dch trn th trng c c. Xem INSIDER - OUTSIDER MODELS. Gi tr m bin ph thuc ca mt hm tin n khi bin t do tr nn rt ln hoc rt nh. PHN PHI XC XUT m mt bin THNG K hng ti khi kch thc ca mu tin ti v cng. Khi nim rt hu ch trong nh gi cc c th ca chn mu trong kinh t lng. Mt c cu th trng trong s lng cc hng rt ln, do mi hng cnh tranh mt cch c lp. (Xem PERFECT COMPETITION). Mt nt c trng hay thuc tnh ca hng ho. Xem CHARACTERISICS THEORY. Mt thut ng chung ch nhn vin bn u gi, ti nhng ngi mua tng lai u vi nhau bng cch t gi, vt u gi s thuc v ngi no t gi cao nht. Mt th trng c t chc ti gi c c iu chnh lin tc theo bin i ca cung v cu. Nt c trng c bn ca cc th trng u gi l cc hng mc hng ho c chun ho, mua bn v danh v s lng m bo hnh vi cnh tranh. Mt kiu th trng trong ngi mua tim tng t gi cho hng ho ch khng phi n thun tr theo. Kim nh ny l mt phin bn ca kim nh Dickey Fuller i vi mt n v gc khi tiu thc xo ng l tng quan theo chui sau khi xem xt s khc nhau trong qu trnh tnh khc (DSP). Vic a bin gi c vo ng Phillips gc dch chuyn hc thuyt mt cc hiu qu t mt gii thch v tin cng bng tin thnh cch gii thch theo ngha thc t. Tn trng phi ny c s dng ch cc nh kinh t hc t Menger, Wieser v Bohm-Bawerk tr i, h phn ln nghin cu Vin v theo mt kiu phn tch ring bit. Tnh trng trong mt nc t tch khi thng mi quc t bng nhng hn ch nh thu quan nhm t tc, thng do nguyn nhn lm vic hoc chnh tr. Xem SERIAL CORRELATION.

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Cc mi quan h lm gim bin ca bin ng chu k trong mt nn kinh t m khng cn hnh ng trc tip ca chnh ph. Trong khi c s dng theo nhiu cch, cm thut ng "t ng ho" ni chung c coi l ng ngha vi vic thay th lao ng bng qu trnh t ng. Cc khon chi tiu c coi l c lp vi mc thu nhp.

Cm thut ng ny c dng trong hc thuyt v CN CN THANH TON xc nh nhng loi giao dch din ra t pht v l do li nhun t pha cc hng hoc tho dng c tng t pha cc c nhn . Xem EXOGENOUS VARIABLES. S HI QUY ca mt bin s trn gi tr hay cc gi tr tr ca n. Xem SERIAL CORRELATION AND ARIMA. Cc tc ng ca nhng thay i v s lng tn dng c sn, ch khng phi tc ng thng qua gi, ngha l li sut. Xem MEAN. Chi ph trn mt n v sn lng trong bao gm chi ph ca tt c u vo (cc yu t sn xut). Quy tc nh gi cng nhn rng cc hng cng chi ph kh bin vo chi ph trung bnh trang tri tng chi ph trung bnh ca n. Xem PERMANENT INCOME. Chi ph c nh trn mi n v sn lng. Tng sn lng c c t vic s dng mt tp hp u vo chia cho s lng ca bt c mt loi u vo no c dng. Xem PRODUCTIVITY. Phn ca tng thu nhp Y c chi cho tiu dng hng ho hoc dch v C, thay v u t I. Phn ca tng thu nhp Y c a vo tit kim S, tc khng c s dng cho mc ch tiu dng. Khuynh hng tit kim bnh qun bng S/Y. Xem SAVING FUNCTION, MARGINAL PROPENSITY TO SAVE. c s dng khi ni v THU THU NHP C NHN nhng cng c th p dng vi cc loi thu khc. Thng c dng ch tng thu thu nhp di dng mt phn ca thu nhp. Doanh thu trn mt n v sn lng. Sn phm doanh thu trung bnh ca mt u vo (yu t sn xut) nhn vi doanh thu bnh qun. Xem AVERAGE COST. CHI PH KH BN trn mt n v sn lng. ch s phn ng ti a ho li nhun ca cc hng b kim sot, khi phi t c t l li tc xc nh v vn c ng lc la chn kt hp u vo nng v vn hn c th khng c s dng khi khng phi t t l li tc xc nh . Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. Trong l thuyt CU CA NGI TIU DNG, cc c nhn c gi nh l tun th cc nguyn tc v hnh vi duy l v cc tin khc v hnh vi. L tp qun theo c quan chnh ph M vay b Ti chnh M ch khng yu cu biu quyt ngn sch ca quc hi.

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Cc ph hay vn chuyn thp hn i vi vn chuyn theo mt hng ny so vi hng khc. Mt cng ngh thay th tr nn kh thi v mt kinh t khi gi ca ti nguyn THIN NHIN KHNG TH TI TO tng n mt mc no do s khai thc tng dn. Quan h gia cung lao ng, bt lun c xc nh bng cch no, v tin lng lao ng. Xem VERTICAL INTERGRATION. Mi lin h gia mt nghnh hay mt hng vi nhng nh cung cp u vo ca h. Hiu ng ngc xy ra khi tng trng kinh t mt vng ca mt nn kinh t c nhng tc ng ngc ti tng trng ca cc vng khc. Mt mt hng hay sn phm gy ra PHN THO DNG i vi ngi tiu dng. (Xem EXTERNALITY). Xem GRESHAM'S LAW. L bin tp vin v ng bin tp vin ca t The Economist t 1860-1877. ng l nh bnh lun c nh hng ln ng thi v tc phm ca ng hin vn c trch dn rng ri. Tc phm ni ting nht ca ng l Ph Lombard: Miu t v th trng tin t(1873). Thu nhp hin ti ng bng chi tiu hin ti ca CHNH PH. T s bin ng thu nhp ca thu nhp thc t so vi bin ng chi tiu chnh ph khi chi tiu ca chnh ph thu t thu thay i mt lng bng nhau. Quan nim cho rng tt c cc thnh phn ca nn kinh t nn c pht trin mt cch ng thi t c mt dng pht trin cn i. Xem BALANCED GROWTH, BIG PUSH. Trong HC THUYT TNG TRNG, iu kin nng ng ca nn kinh t trong tt c cc bin thc t tng ln lin tc cng mt t l (c th bng 0, hay m). Xem STAEDY GROWTH. Cm thut ng ny c s dng vi hn mt ngha, hai cch din gii ph bin nht l: "Cn cn thanh ton th trng" v "Cn cn thanh ton k ton". Thng ch cn cn mu dch "hu hnh", l bun bn hng ho trong mt giai on nht nh. Trn thc t cn cn mu dch ch l mt yu t, cc yu t khc l v hnh trong "Cn cn thanh ton vng lai" m n ch l mt phn ca ton b CN CN THANH TON ca mt nc. Mt phng php c bn ca k hoch X Vit l k ton s kp bng gi c hay vt cht.Mc ch ca cn i l m bo s ng b trong cc k hoch. Cc cn i ny t phc tp hn trong bng cn i LIN NGNH thc hin vai tr tng t trong lp k k hoch. V ngha ring xem MATERIALS BALANCE PRINCIPLE. Mt bng bo co ti sn ca mt thng nhn hoc mt cng ty vo mt ngy nht nh. Mt ci tn c Keynes a ra ch tin t quc t m ng cho rng nn c to bi mt ngn hng quc t, c s dng thanh ton cc khon n quc t v mt phn to nn nng lc chuyn ho quc t nhng b phn i. Hiu ng nh khi gi c hng ho gim v cu ca mt vi b phn hay cc c nhn trong cng ng tng, cc c nhn hoc b phn "bt chc" cch phn ng ny v cng tng cu ca h.

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Mt trung gian ti chnh huy ng qu gc v c bn thng qua nhng khon tin c th hon tr theo yu cu hay trong thi gian ngn v dng ng trc bng khu chi v cc khon vay v bng cc hi phiu chit khu, nn gi cc khon khc ch yu l tch ti sn ti chnh nh chng khon khng bun bn c. Mt chc nng quan trng ca ngn hng l duy tr h thng chuyn i tin bng cch chp nhn tin gi vo ti khon vng lai v iu hnh h thng chuyn qu bng chuyn sc, chuyn khon hay chuyn tin in t.Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CNTL, RETAIL BANKING, WHOLE SALE BANKING. Mt cm thut ng chung dng cho bt k mt loi vay ngn hng no. Xem BANK LOAN. Theo truyn thng, trn th trng hi phiu London, mt HI PHIU c chp nhn bi mt NGN HNG NHN THANH TON, MT NGN HNG THANH TON B TR hay mt nhm cc ngn hng ca Anh hoc cc ngn hng Dominions hp thnh, thay mt khch hng m tn dng chp nhn. Xem ACCEPTANCE, DISCOUNT HOUSE. Thng ch o lut ngn hng nm 1844 do chnh quyn ca hun tc Robert Peel thng qua. Vic cho vay t h thng ngn hng bng bt k phng thc no:TIN CHO VAY CA NGN HNG, HI PHIU CHIT KHU hay chng khon mua. Xem MONEY MULTIPLIER, MONEY SUPPLY, "NEW VIEW". Theo ngi gin n, l cc khon tin gi trong ti khon ngn hng. Trong thc t chng n gin l nhng ghi chp v tnh trng n ca mt ngn hng i vi nhng ngi gi, v chng ny sinh t tnh cht ca ngn hng vi vai tr l TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH. Mt nh ch ti chnh lin chnh ph thnh lp u tin vo nm 1930 h tr v iu phi vic chuyn khon thanh ton bi thng chin tranh th gii th nht gia cc ngn hng quc gia trung ng. Ngn hng ny cng tp hp v ph bin thng tin v cc ch kinh t v m v cc vn tin t quc t. Mt tnh hung trong c s mt t tin ca mt hay nhiu ngn hng gy nn s " x" bt ng v lan rng ca cng chng ti cc ngn hng ni chung rt tin gi hoc vo nhng lc khi pht hnh lnh phiu t nhn l ph bin yu cu thanh ton cc hi phiu ny bng phng tin khc. Mt tp hp cc kin lin quan n cuc tranh lun v quy tc iu tit pht hnh giy bc ca ngn hng Anh trong na u th k XIX. ch bt c khon ng trc no ca ngn hng, nhung c s phn bit trong vic cho vay ca ngn hng gia iu kin MC THU CHI v iu kin cho vay. Mt dng tin t pht hnh bi mt ngn hng v v bn cht lm bng chng "c th thng lng" (ngha l c th chuyn i n gin bng cp pht) v tnh trng n ca ngn hng i vi mnh gi ca giy bc. Giy bc ca ngn hng c pht trin t HI PHIU, v v nguyn tc l hi phiu c th tr "trc tip" (theo yu cu) bng phng tin khc. L ngn hng TRUNG NG ca Anh. Do thng nhn London xng nh mt ngn hng thng mi v c thnh lp theo o lut ca Quc hi nm 1694. T nm 1791-1811 v t nm 1816-1836 mt s chc nng ngn hng trung ng M c ln lt do ngn hng th nht th hai thc hin. Trong mt thi gian khong 30 nm (n khi c o lut ngn hng quc gia nm 1864) hu nh khng c chc nng ngn hng trung ng M. Trn thc t, phi n lc c o lut d tr lin bang nm 1913 m mi c mt ngn hng trung ng thc s. Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL, MONETARY POLICY. Mt th tc php l trong ti sn ca con n khng tr c n b tch thu v li ch ca cc ch n ni chung.

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Thu c p t bi mt nc cng c v tr ca n trong m phn thng mi vi cc nc khc, khi cc nc ny s dng li ha chit khu thu t c s nhng b trong thng mi. Tin cng c c nh trong mt qu trnh thng lng tp th, mt s dn xp v mt c ch so vi qu trnh iu chnh cung cu chnh thng. L thuyt thng lng v tin cng ch nhng m hnh ca qu trnh thng lng p dng cho mi quan h ca s qun l ca cng on vt ra ngoi m hnh C QUYN SONG PHNG, trong kt qu cui cng ca thng lng vn cn m h, rt ra mt gii php r rng.Xem STRIKES, WAGE THEORY. Mt n v i din cho quyn li ca ngi lao ng trong thng lng v qun l lao ng M. Cc n v ny c th l rt nh, l cc nhn vin c tuyn trong mt hng n l hay rt ln, tt c nhng ngi c tuyn dng trong mt ngnh trn khp t nc. Cc n v thng lng khc nhau v quy m v c cu.

Nhng kt qu phn tch ca mt u ban hong gia Anh v s phn b a l ca ngnh cng nghip Anh v c nh hng mnh m n s pht trin ca chnh sch khu vc hu cng nghip Chin tranh Anh. Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP. Cc yu t y nhng ngi mi nhp ngnh vo mt mc gi khng thun li so vi cc hng thit lp trong mt ngnh. Chng no cc hng thit lp t gi mt mc di im ti thiu ca chi ph trung bnh di hn ca hng tim tng hiu qu nht, cc hng thit lp c th t c mc siu li nhun v lu di m khng phi lo s v s gia nhp ngnh mi. Phng php trao i hng ho v dch v trc tip ly cc hng ho v dch v khc, khng s dng mt n v k ton hay phng tin trao i no c. Hip nh gia cc quc gia, thng gp kh khn v CN CN THANH TON, id vi vic trao i trc tip cc lng hng ho Nn kinh t m hng ho v dch v c thc hin thng qua vic I HNG, iu dn ti rt t chuyn mn ho hoc phn cng lc lng lao ng do yu cu ca s trng lp mun. Mt thi im c dng tham kho khi so snh vi giai on sau. Sau khi bi b nhng hip nh v tin gi v tin vay nm 1971, CC NGN HNG THANH TON B TR CA ANH p dng tp qun xc nh v thng bo "li sut gc".Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL. Xem ECONOMIC BASE. Tn gi ca cc hng xut khu s ch ca cc nc km pht trin. Xem ECONOMIC BASE. L chin lc pht trin c tho lun nhiu trong nhng nm gn y. Khc vi cc l thuyt tch lu c in, n nhn mnh rng c mt s mc cn phi u tin. l (1) cung cp cc hng tiu dng c bn nh thc n, qun o v ch , (2) cc dch v cn thit nh nc, gio dc, y t, (3) quyn c vic lm vi thu nhp m bo cc nhu cu c bn, (4) c s h tng p ng cho nhu cu c bn v hng ho v dch v v (5) tham gia vo qu trnh ra quyt nh. Chin lc ny hng vo sn xut. Trit l ny c c cc trit gia bo th v cc trit gia cp tin ng h. N cng vp phi cc ch trch l khng y v khng c g thc s l mi m. Xem Wage Rate. Mt cch nh gi trong nhng ngi bn hng khc nhau trong mt th trng thng nht rng mc gi i vi mt hng ho s c tnh bng tng gi c nh v mc ph vn chuyn c thng nht lin quan n khong cch gia ngi tiu dng v im gn nht trong mt s cc a im c tho thun gi l "cc im nh v c s".

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Cc phng php phn tch thng k (bao gm C LNG v SUY LUN THNG K) trong thng tin trc y c kt hp vi s liu mu a ra nhng c tnh hay cc gi thuyt kim nghim. Mt loi tri khon khng yu cu c chng th chuyn nhng v ngi gi c quyn s hu hp php. Nhng c nhn tin rng gi chng khon hoc tri khon s gim v do bn nhng chng khon hy vng rng c th mua li mc gi thp hn. Nhng bin php kinh t m mt nc thc hin nhm ci thin tnh hnh trong nc, thng l gim tht nghip v c nhng tc ng bt li vi cc nn kinh t khc. Mt mi quan h ton hc trong mt m hnh kinh t hay kinh t lng, phn nh s phn ng ca mt c nhn hay mt tp hp cc c nhn i vi cc khuyn khch kinh t (v d HM TIU DNG). Mt quan im v s hnh thnh cc k vng da trn cc yu t tm l v x hi. Mt nhm cc l thuyt coi hng nh mt lin minh ca cc phn nhm m mc ch ca chng vn d mu thun nhau. Xem XEFFICIENCY. Xem COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Xem COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS. Mt l thuyt truyn thng v NH THU cho rng gnh nng v thu nn c phn b gia nhng ngi tr thu theo li ch m h nhn c t vic cung cp hng ho cng cng. Mt lin minh v hi quan ban u c thit lp do cng c vo nm 1932 gia chnh ph B,Luch Xm Bua v H Lan. T chc hin ti c thnh lp theo hip nh lin minh kinh t Benelux vo nm 1958. Mt nh khoa hc x hi ngi anh HM PHC LI X HI Bergson l mt hm gi tr thc m bin s ca n bao gm cc i lng th hin cc mt khc nhau ca tnh trng x hi, thng l o tho dng ca mi c nhn hay mi h gia nh. Daniel Bernoulli l mt nh ton hc th k XIX a ra mt li gii cho mt nghch l c ca ngi. Bi ton ny l mt trong s cc bi ton gii thch ti sao cc c nhn s khng tr mt khon cc ln chi tr chi xp nga ca mt ng xu. M hnh v mt th trng c hai hng do J.Bertrand a ra nm 1883. ON S (C LNG S) ny c PHNG SAI nh nht trong tt c cc c lng TUYN TNH v cng khng chch (ngha l gi tr k vng ca n bng vi gi tr tham s thc). Xem GAUSS-MARKOV THEOREM, ORDINARY LEAST SQUARES. Ch s tnh s bin ng li tc ca mt c phiu cng vi s bin ng li tc ca ton b th trng chng khon. Bn bo co v chnh sch x hi ca Anh c nhan "Bo him x hi v cc dch v lin kt" do Hun tc William Beveridge chun b cho chnh quyn lin minh thi chin nm 1942. Mc m gi tr k vng ca mt ON S (C LNG S) khc so vi gi tr tham s thc ca n. Xem (BEST LINEAR UNBIASED ESTIMATOR). Mt ngh tr m mt c nhn hay t chc a ra s hu hoc kim sot ti sn, cc u vo, hng ho hay dch v. Mi quan h ch ra khon tin m mt gia nh hoc hng c th tr s dng mt mnh t nht nh vi cc khong khc nhau so vi trung tm ca mt vng th trong khi vn duy tr mc khng i THO DNG hay L NHUN.

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Gi thuyt cho rng trong khi mc di do v chi ph TI CHNH NGOI HI l yu t quyt nh quan trng ti u t trong thi k bng n tng trng, cn thu nhp gi vai tr quan trng nht khi suy thoi. Mt cm thut ng ph bin dng miu t nhng thay i v cc quy ch Londontrung tm ti chnh ca Anh vo thng 10/1986. mt ng gp vo cuc tranh lun din ra vo thp k 1950 v 1960 v vic tng trng cn i hay khng cn i l ph hp nht cho cc nc ang pht trin. S tr gip hay vin tr da trn mt tho thun trc tip gia hai nc; khc vi vin tr a phng n t mt nhm cc nc hay t mt t chc quc t. Xem FOREING AID, TIED AID. Th trng trong mt ngi mua n c i mt vi ngi bn n c. Mu dch, thng l cc ch m phn chnh ph gia hai nc, bng cch mt nc xut khu mt lng hay gi tr hng ho nht nh sang cc nc i tc i ly mt lng hay gi tr hng nhp khu tho thun t nc i tc. Cng c ngn hn di dng lnh tr yu cu ngi b k Ngi chuyn chp ni ngi mua v ngi bn hi phiu li vi nhau ly tin hoa hng. Xem DISCUONT HOUSE. Hi phiu c rt cp tin cho giao dch ngoi thng. Ch thuyt thnh hnh M nhng nm 1950, cho rng khi tham gia vo CC NGHIP V TH TRNG M, H THNG D TR LIN BANG ch tin hnh cc nghip v mua bn hi phiu. iu ny da trn quan im rng bng cc tp trung vo th trng vn ngn hn, nhng nghip v ny s t c nh hng d tnh trc i vi kh nng chuyn hon ca ngn hng vi t xo trn nht i vi th trng ti chnh ni chung. ng thi nhng thay i din ra vi li sut ngn hn s nh hng n cc th trng khc thng qua phng tin "thng thng" ca cc iu chnh danh mc u t ca ngi nc ngoi nm gi. Mt bin s ch c th c 2 gi tr (v d 0 v 1), thng s dng xc nh nhng nh hng mang tnh nh tnh hay nh lng trong phn tch HI QUY. Xem DUMMY VARIABLE. Mt gi tr cho li sut trong thuyt tng trng, trong gia tt c ng TNG TRNG CN I, th TIU DNG theo u ngi co nht t c v duy tr c bng mt ng trn nng sut vn bin (bng T L LI NHUN trong CNH TRANH HON HO) bng t l tng trng khng i ca lc lng lao ng c xc nh bng cch ngoi sinh. Xem GOLDEN RULE OF ACCUMULATION. c nh ngha l s ngi sinh sng st trung bnh trn 1000 dn mi nm. Xem BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS Phn tch ch lin quan n hai bin s Bt c th trng bt hp php no c thnh lp trong mt hon cnh m thng c chnh ph c nh gi mc ti a hoc ti thiu. Thng ch CN BNG TIU DNG trong ngi tiu dng hon ton tho mn i vi hng ho c tiu dng v im ny nm trong GII HN NGN SCH ca anh ta. Ni chung l mt khon tr cp khng t cc ca chnh ph cp cho chnh quyn a phng Mt cm thut ng ch C PHN hng nht c t ri ro v mt vn. Mt ci tn quen thuc cho n phm ca Cc thng k trung ng bao gm ng ti nhng ti khon chi tiu v thu nhp quc dn hng nm ca Anh. Ngi lao ng tham gia vo cng vic no m v bn cht l lao ng chn tay, v cng khc vi cng nhn c trng.(Xem MANUAL WORKERS) Cc s d khng chch, tuyn tnh, tt nht v vi mt ma trn hip phng sai v hng

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Mt nh kinh t hc v chnh khch ngi o. ng l ngi c hoan nghnh nht trong trng phi o. ng b sung mt phn nh hc thuyt ca Menger v Wieser v gi tr v gi c, nhng ng pht trin ton din din bin kinh t trong cng trnh ca mnh v vn v tin li, t tc phm ny ng c ngi ta gi l "nh t sn C.Mc". Trong cng trnh ny ng ng thi xc nh lng hng ho, giai on sn xut, tin lng v tin li. S quan tm c tp trung ch yu vo vn v li. ng gii thch rng, li sut l s tng tc gia S A THCH THEO THI GIAN v HIU SUT U T VT CHT. ng a ra 2 l do: mi ngi mong mun c kh gi hn trong tng lai v h cng nh gi qu thp nhng nhu cu trong tng lai. C hai iu trn lm gim tho dng bin ca hng ho tng lai.Bohm-Bawerk gii thch hiu sut u t vt cht di dng tnh u vit ca phng php sn xut vng trn, v d bt c th dng cn cu hu hiu hn l bt trc tip bng tay. ng cho rng, S VNG VO l hiu qa nhng phi chu mc li tc gim dn. S vng vo c m rng n khi nng sut bin t s ko di cho php cui cng ca qu trnh sn xut bng li phi tr t c cc khon cho hng ho lng ca ngi lao ng ko di qu trnh sn xut. Khi nin s vnh vo l c tnh ca hc thuyt trng phi o v vn, chu rt nhiu tranh ci, v khng c thc o no r rng v n. Mc d n c mt s ngha hp hn v chnh xc hn v mt php l, cm thut ng ny c dng chung hn v lng lo hn ch bt c chng khon li sut c nh (n) no, v d: chng khon VIN VNG hay TRI KHON CNG TY. Cm thut ng ny miu t bt c ni no hoc s giao dch no, trong bt k loi tri khon no c chuyn qua tay: v d r nht l S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON ch c phiu pht hnh bi mt cng ty cho cc c ng hin ti khng phi dui dng mua vn mi m l VN HO d tr. Cm thut ng ny dng trong k ton. xc nh gi tr trn s sch ca mt c phiu, tt c tqi sn ca cng ty c cng li, tt c cng n v n c tr i, bao gm gi pht mi ca c phiu u i GIAI ON M RNG ca CHU K KINH DOANH. Cm thut ng ny ch p dng vi tc i hng i ln nhanh chng no so vi CHIU HNG TRNG K. Mt h thng v s LA CHN TP TH trong mi c tri xp hng tng v tr trong nhm.(Xem APPROVAL VOTING, CONDORCET CRITERION, SOCIAL DECISION RULE, SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION) Qu trnh thng lng tp th v cc iu khon v iu kin tuyn dng thng l tho hip v nhng b. Mt khi nim c H.A.SIMON a ra cho rng mc du cc c nhn c x theo l tr theo s sp t s thch cho d l hon chnh, nht qun v kn k, nhng kh nng thu nhp v x l thng tin ca h li b hn ch, ngha l n b gii hn bi kh nng tnh ton ca tr c con ngi. Cm thut ng ny c s dng ch mt b phn ca x hi cng nghip thng th trong cuc cch mng Cng nghip nh ch hng v cc nh chuyn mn. Mt phng php d bo da trn m hnh CHUI THI GIAN ARIMA. S di c ca nhng ngui lao ng c trnh v tay ngh t cc nc ngho sang cc nc giu hn. Vic cung cp cc dch v ngn hng thng qua mng li ngn hng chi nhnh s hu bi mt cng ty ngn hng. S trung thnh v tm l i vi s kt hp biu tng ca mt sn phm c nhn hiu.

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Chi ph sn xut mt hng ho c th chia thnh hai phn chnh: CHI PH C NH v CHI PH KH BIN. t quan im ca ngi k ton v chi ph, s lng doanh thu ti im ho vn l s lng m bo rng tt c chi ph c nh v kh bin u c trang tri mc gi bn c th. Mt im ti chi tiu cho tiu dng ng bng thu nhp nh c minh ho ti im m HM TIU DNG ct ng 45 trong M HNH THU NHP CHI TIU. (Xem CONSUMPTION FUNCTION) Khu du lch New Hampshire M, ti y Hi ngh ti chnh ca Lin hp quc c t chc vo nm 1944 tho lun vn thanh ton quc t sau chin tranh. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. mt ngha hp l ngi trung gian chp ni ngi bn v ngi mua vi nhau, hoc ngi hot ng nh mt i in cho ngi ny hay cho ngi kia, tin hnh mt giao dch mua bn v nhn tin th lao hoa hng hay mi gii. Tuy nhin, my s trng phi khi nim ny ch ngi mua hoc ngi bn gc, d cch dng ny xut pht t giai on ban u ca ngi mi gii thc s. Mt khon tin c yu cu bi mt ngi mi gii v thc hin vic mua bn thay mt mt khch hng. M hnh ny c s dng phn tch cu trc ca CHU K KINH DOANH v cho nh gi CHNH SCH TIN T, TI CHNH v TNG TRNG KINH T. M hnh nh du mt bc quan trng trong vic thng nht nhiu thnh phn khc nhau ca nn kinh t thnh mt quy m ln nhng qun l c, y l mt ct mc trong vic pht trin cc m hnh kinh t lng. Mt hip c h tr ln nhau gia Anh, php v cc nc Benelux k nm 1948. Hip c c xem nh mt bc tin trong nh hng hi nhp ca chu U i trc Hip nh Roma (1957) v s khi u ca CNG NG KINH T CHU U (EEC), ngy nay l cng ng CHU U (EC). Xem EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Hi ngh tin t quc t c t chc Brussel nm 1920 di s bo tr ca cc nc ng minh, nu ln vn n nh ngoi hi. Xem GENEVA CONFERENCE. S phn loi tiu chun hng ho, c chp nhn bi a s cc nc trn th gii, v nhng mc ch v thu quan. Nh kinh t hc ngi M t gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1986 v nhng ng gp ca ng i vi l thuyt ra quyt nh chnh tr v S LA CHN CNG CNG. Trong khi l thuyt kinh t truyn thng c th l gia cch thc NHNG NGI TIU DNG v cc nh sn xut ra quyt nh v mua hng ho v CC YU T SN XUT,l thuyt ny li khng cp ti vic a ra quyt nh kinh t trong KHU VC CNG CNG. B nh hng bi M HNH TRAO I T NGUYN CA WICKSELL, Buchanan coi din bin chnh tr nh mt phng tin hp tc t c nhng li th c i c li. ng thi v kt qu ca qu trnh ny s ph thuc vo "lut chi", do Buchanan nhn mnh tm quan trng ca s la chn nhng quy tc t chc ny: Kt qu c th ca cc chnh sch u c th on c v c nh trc bi chnh cc quy tc trn. Buchanan c hn 20 cun sch v 300 bi bo c xut bn. Mt ngn sch c 3 b phn l B PHN PHN B, B PHN PHN PHI v B PHN T N NH. Chng c kt thnh mt ngn sch v nhng l do v phng din qun l. Mi b phn i hi c phng php qun l ring ca n. Chi tiu hin ti vt thu nhp hin ti. Thng c s dng nhiu nht c miu t tnh trng trong thu nhp ca chnh ph, thu t thu khng trang tri chi tiu ca chnh ph. Mt ng trong Khng gian hng ho ch ra nhng t hp m ngi tiu dng c th mua c mc thu nhp nht nh.

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Thu nhp hin ti vt chi tiu hin ti. Thng c s dng nhiu nht c miu t tnh trng trong thu nhp ca chnh ph, thu t thu vt chi tiu ca chnh ph. Mt h thng qua kim tra c tin hnh i vi cc ngun thu v chi cho cc mc tiu c nh ra trong ngn sch. Mc ch l khm ph xem kt qu chch hng mc tiu mc no c nhng hnh ng vo thi gian thch hp nhm a cc lung ph hp vi mc tiu mong mun. Cc lng hng ho c d tr khc phc bin ng gi c i vi cc mt hng c bn. Mt nh ch ti cnh chp nhn cc qu di dng "c phn" v tin gi cho ch s hu vay li hu nh ton b mua nh hoc cn h. Xem AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS Kim loi qu nh vng hoc bc c gi vi s lng ln di dng thi hay thanh. Thoi vng c dng giao dch tin t gia cc quc t gia cc ngn hng v chnh ph. Cc c nhn tin rng chng khon hoc tri khon s tng gi v do mua chng v hy vng c th bn vi gi cao hn sau . Ngi u c gi xung gi l NGI BN KHNG. M hnh ny gi nh rng cc c quan nh nc s c x nh nhng tc nhn ti a ho ngn sch. Ngn sch ln hn cho php cc cng chc tho mn thch ca mnh v lng, chc tc, bo m vic lm v nhng li ch phi tin t nh quyn lc, danh ting v c hi phn b cc hp ng. Trong HC THUYT KINH T V S QUAN LIU, nhng t chc phi li nhun c ti tr, t nht mt phn t tr cp nh k v cung ng mt tng sn lng i ly mt ngn sch ch khng phi nhng n v sn phm theo gi. Xem TRADE CYCLE. Mc ti mt nghnh t c kt qu hay mc tiu m cc hng thnh vin theo ui. Xem STRUCTURE - CONDUCT - PERFORMANCE - FRAMEWORK). Xem CORPORATE RISK. ch mc m tng giao dch trn mt th trng b thng tr bi mt vi ngi mua ln nht. Mt th trng c c trng l d cung, trong ngi bn v vy phi gp kh khn khi bn tt c sn phm ca h theo gi d kin. Mt php tnh ca nghnh ton hc lin quan n vic tnh ton cc o hm hay tch phn. Cc khon tin m cc NGN HNG CHIT KHU vay t cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr v ngn hng khc London v chng c s dng gi cc danh mc u t ti sn. Rt nhiu khon tin gi ca cc ng tin Chu u cng dng ny. Mt hp ng cho php la chn mua c phiu vo mt ngy trong tng lai gii hn c nh trc. Xem PUT OPTION, OPTION. Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Mt nhm cc nh kinh t hc b nh hng ca nhng bi vit v mi lin h vi A.MARSHALL. Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Xem COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY. M hnh gii thch s t l u t c quan h mt thit vi m hnh GIA TC v c bit vi m hnh IU CHNH LNG VN. L t l sn lng thc t so vi sn lng tin nng. Xem EXCESS CAPACITY.

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1)Mt t dng ch mt yu t sn xut do h thng kinh t to ra. 2)Mt t cng c s dng lm thut ng ch cc ti sn TI CHNH. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL, CAPITAL CONTROVERSY, FINANCE. Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENT. Qu trnh tch lu vn qua u t rng dng. Xem GOLDEN RULE OF ACCUMULATION Min thu i vi thu cng ty lin quan n chi tiu cho vn ca hng. Mt ti sn khng c mua bn nh mt phn ca cng vic kinh doanh hng ngy. V d: nh xng, my mc, t ai hoc chng khon. M hnh ra i vo nhng nm 1960 v a ra mt dng c th ca khi nim chung v s nh i gia ri ro v li tc. Qu trnh phn b vn c th u t cho cc vn d n. Cc chi ph m cc cng ty v c nhn a vo ti khon ca h tr li vn vay, khu hao ti sn v tr n vay. Xem ANNUAL CAPITAL CHARGE. Xem CAPITAL - OUTPUT RATIO Mc chnh lch gia tng sn phm quc dn (GNP) v sn phm quc dn rng trong khun kh hch ton thu nhp quc dn M. Xem NATION IMCOME Mt cuc tranh lun gia trng phi Cambridge (c trung tm ti trng i hc Cambridge, Anh ) v trng phi tn c in ca vin Cng ngh Massachusetts (MIT), Cambridge v tnh xc ng ca cc quan im tn c in v kinh t hc. Qu trnh tch lu vn vi tc nhanh hn so vi mc tng trng ca lc lng lao ng. Xem CAPITAL WIDENING. Xem CAPITAL Chi tiu cho t liu sn xut ca cc hng, chnh ph, cc c quan chnh ph hay h gia nh, nhm mc ch thay th vn khu hao hay to vn mi. Xem CAPITAL INVESTMENT. Lng b sung vo DUNG LNG VN sau khi khu hao. Xem INVESMENT. Chnh lc gia gi mua mt ti sn v gi bn li vo mt ngy no m chnh lch ny l dng. Thu nh vo s tng thm ca ti sn Xem GEARING. Xem CAPITAL. T s vn so vi lao ng c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut. Xem PRODUCTION FUNCTION. Mt k thut sn xut A c coi l s dng nhiu vn hn so vi k thut tng ng B nu t s vn so vi CC YU T SN XUT khc ca A ln hn B. Mt nn kinh t trong a s cc k thut sn xut l s dng NHIU VN.(Xem CAPITAL INTENSITY) Mt ngnh kinh t trong cc k thut sn xut ch yu BAO HM NHIU VN (Xem CAPITAL INTENSITY, CAPITAL INTENSIVE TECHNIQUES, APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY). Mt phng php sn xut c t trng VN cao hn bt c yu t sn xut no khc. (Xem CAPITAL, FACTORS OF PRODUC-TION). Xem MARGINAL EFFICIENCY OF CAPITAL Mt h thng chnh tr, x hi v kinh t, trong phn ln l ti sn bao gm ti sn vn c s hu v kim sot bi cc c nhn.(Xem MARKET ECONOMY, MIXED MARKET ECONOMY AND FREE ENTERPRISE). Tng s v c cu VN c phiu ca mt cng ty Xem BONUS ISSUE Mt khi nim lin quan n t trng ca mi loi c phiu hay vn n trong mt cng ty so vi tng VN C PHN trn th trng ca n.

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Tr gi c nh cho mt ti sn theo mc li nhun hin ti v li sut th trng hin hnh. T s m LAO NG v VN c kt hp trong qu trnh sn xut.(Xem INVESTMENT). Xem CAPITAL GAIN L th trng, hay ng hn l mt nhm cc th trng lin quan ti nhau, trong , vn dng ti chnh (tin t) c em cho vay, vay hoc "huy ng" vi cc iu kin khc nhau v trong thi hn khc nhau.(Xem TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES). Cc lung vn quc t c th c c nhn hay chnh ph tin hnh T l ca lng vn trn sn lng m vn to ra. (Xem INCREMENTAL CAPITALOUTPUT RATIO). c dng xc nh mt tnh hung, trong s hn hp ngn sch v lng tin sn c cho u t v cc d n trn mc rng buc th trng thng thng c quyt nh bi mi lin h gia chi ph vn v li tc d kin. Vic c tnh cc yu cu v vn l cn thit xc nh T S VN GIA TNG SN LNG, tc l mi lin h gia u t v tng thu nhp nh u t . Vic p dng mt phng php sn xut khi gi tr ca lng vn lin quan v t sut li nhun cng tng ln. Lung dch v qua thi gian bt ngun t dung lng vn thit b (Xem CAPITAL). Tng s T LIU SN XUT trong mt nn kinh t.(Xem CAPITAL CONTROVERSY) Mt l thuyt cho rng mc U T RNG l mt phn chnh lch gia DUNG LNG VN mong mun v dung lng vn thc t, n phn nh kh nng iu chnh khng hon ho ti mt mc ti u trong bt c khong thi gian c hn no . (Xem ACCELERATOR PRINCIPLE). Thnh phn VN ca mt cng ty (Xem COST OF CAPITAL) Xem WEALTH TAX Mt cch tip cn kinh t hc xem tt c cc ngun lc nh VN , ngha l gi tr hin ti rng ca lung thu nhp tng lai ca chng. Xem CAPITAL CONTROVERSY Thu nh vo vic chuyn giao TI SN p dng Anh t nm 1974 thay th THU BT NG SN v c t tn li l thu tha k nm 1986.Thu chuyn giao vn bao gm thu qu tng cho sut i v thu tha k. Mt tiu chun u t c xut t lu s dng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN. xut ny cho rng cc d n c la chn ph hp vi T S VN GIA TNG - SN LNG ca chng v nhng d n c t s thp nht s c u tin. Qu trnh tch lu VN tng cng vi tc gia tng LC LNG LAO NG T S VN- LAO NG khng i (Xem CAPITAL DEEPENING) Xem POOL TAX. L thuyt v iu tit do Geogre Stigler a ra. V c bn, mt ngnh b iu tit c th thu li t s iu tit bng cch "nm gi" c quan iu tit c lin quan.

Thu nh vo cc nhin liu ho thch nhm gim lng thi CO2 gim s nng ln ca ton cu. Xem EXTERNALITIES, INTERNALIZATION. Trng phi cho rng THO DNG c th o lng c bng cc n v s m. Xem CARDINAL UNTILITY.

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C th phn bit hai ngha ca cm thut ng ny.1)t c s dng hn l tho dng gn vi mt nhm hng ho c th o c mt cch tuyt i bng n v nh 'util' (mt thut ng c Jevons dng trong thuyt kinh t chnh tr ca ng nm 1871). 2)c s dng rng ri hn, lin quan ch n khong cch gia cc mc tho dng. Tho thun chnh thc gia cc hng trong mt th trng c quyn nhm kt hp cc th tc c thng nht v cc bin nh gi c v sn lng. Xem OLIGOPOLY. Cc hnh pht p t bi cc thnh vin ca Cartel nhm t c s kt dnh vi mc tiu chung ca c nhm. Theo ngha chung nht, thut ng ch tin bao gm TIN MT v TIN GI NGN HNG. Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Cm thut ng ny ch cc loi hoa mu c nng dn trng bn trn th trng ch khng phi tiu dng trc tip CHO CC MC CH T CUNG T CP.

Tng thu nhp gi li v khon khu hao cn li ca mt hng.

Mt dng kim sot CHI TIU CNG CNG thc hin Anh. T s m cc ngn hng duy tr gia s tin mt v tng s tin gi ca chng, v thnh thong c gi l t l d tr tin mt. Tnh trng c vic lm tm thi m khng c gi lm u dn hay hp ng lng. Xem GRANT Mt khi nim ny sinh t vic xem xt cc gi nh ni bt ca m hnh kinh t lng c lng t s hiu chui thi gian m bn cht l khng th nghim. Xem CONFEDERATION OF BRITISH INDUSTRY. Gii hn tng sn lng trong thuyt CHU K KINH DOANH. Trn t c khi tt c cc yu t sn xut t ti mc ton nng. Ban hnh M nm 1950 vi t cch l mt sa i O LUT CLAYTON. Mc ch ca o lut ny l tng cng php lut chng li s st nhp phn cnh tranh. Mt c quan c trch nhim kim sot h thng ngn hng v tin t ca mt nc, mc d c chc ng khc ph thuc vo mi trng v c cu ti chnh. Xem BANK FOR INTERNATIONAL SETTLEMENTS v INTERNATIONAL MONETATY FUND. Mt khu vc trung tm cc thnh ph v a s th trn ln c s dng cho cc hot ng thng mi. Xem ACCESS/SPACE TRADE - OFF MODEL. nh l ni rng tng (v trung bnh) ca mt nhm cc bin ngu nhin s tun theo phn phi chun nu mu chn ln, khng ph thuc vo dng phn phi m cc bin ring bit c. Xem LOCATION THEORY. Xem PLANNED ECONOMY. Mt vn phng c thnh lp Anh nm 1970 chu trch nhim tin hnh cc vn chnh sch kinh t chnh cho vn phng ni cc. Mt cc ca chnh ph Anh c trch nhim thu thp, tng hp xut bn cc s liu thng k do vn phng chnh ph v cc c quan khng chnh thc v bn chnh thc Anh cung cp. Trong nhng bi cnh RI RO hay khng chc chn, cc bin s s mang cc gi tr vi t nht 2 c tnh:

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Mt chng t do mt ngn hng pht hnh chng nhn khon tin gi ngn hng v l mt li ha tr li khon tin cho ngi cm phiu vo mt ngy xc nh trong tng lai. Xem CONSTANT ELASTICITY OF SUBTITUTION PRODUCTION FUNCTION. Mt cm thut ng la tinh ngha l "mi th khc khng i". Phn tch kinh t thng tin hnh bng cch xem xt nh hng ca mt vi bin c lp trong khi cc yu t khc khng i. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm vi mt bin s, trong hm l hm ca mt bin s.

Mt nh kinh t ngi M ni ting vi L thuyt cnh tranh c quyn (1933). Trong l thuyt ny, ng phn tch tnh hnh th trng gia cnh tranh HON HO v C QUYN c lp vi cng trnh Anh ca Joaobinson. ng cho rng cc hng cnh tranh vi nhau v cu ni vi sn phm ca h b tc ng bi s tn ti ca cc hng khc, nhng mi hng li c mc c quyn no v chng c cc sn phm ring mnh. Cnh tranh c th di dng cnh tranh sn phm, trong qung co rt quan trng cng nh i vi cnh tranh bng gi vy. Chanberlin nhn mnh tnh bin d sn phm i lp vi s khng hon ho ca th trng, bao gm yu t nh tn nhn mc, cht lng c bit, mu, bao b v dch v bn hng. Mt trong nhng kt lun ni ln t s phn tch ca ng l cnh tranh c quyn c th c c trng tha nng lc, mt kt qu b thch thc v n c v ph thuc vo gi nh rng tt c thnh vin ca mt nhm hot ng di nhng iu kin chi ph ging nhau. L thuyt ny lin quan ti l thuyt cu tiu dng v cng trnh ca K.lancaster. tng chnh l nhng ngi tiu dng khng yu cu sn phm m l c tnh ca sn phm. Xem HEDONIC PRICES. Mt phng tin tn dng ngi bn l dnh cho khch hng. Ch mt giai on trong cc khon vay sn c li sut thp hay mt chnh sch to nn tnh hung ny. Vic ch thu tr trc tip ph cng on t lng nhn vin. Ph ny sau c tr cho cng on. Th do cc ngn hng cp cho cc khch hng c TI KHON vng lai m bo vic thanh ton sc c rt bi cc khch hng ny theo nhng gii hn nht nh. Mt loi chng t thng c cp di dng in sn bi mt ngn hng, yu cu ngn hng chuyn t ti khon VNG LAI ca ngi rt sang ngi nh danh c tr. Tn ch cc nh kinh t hc c chung 4 nim tin c bn sau. Th nht, h tin rng kinh t hc l (hoc c th l ) khng gi tr theo cch tng t nh cc ngnh khoa hc vt l. Th hai, h tin rng l thuyt gi c Tn c in l mt l gii chnh xc v cch thc hot ng ca cc h thng kinh t. Th ba, h tin rng s hot ng ca th trng cnh tranh, t do l gii php kh d nht cho vn phn b cc ngun lc. Cui cng, h l nhng ngi trung thnh vng vng vi CH NGHA TRNG TIN. Tt c nhng iu ny a h n ch ng h s can thip hn ch ca chnh ph vo h tng kinh t. Tn gi ny bt ngun t thc t l nhiu thnh vin ni bt ca "trng phi" ny (v d FRIEDMAN, KNIGHT, SCHULTZ v STIGLER) gn b vi trng i hc Chicago. Trong hu ht cc h thng THU THU NHP u tr cp cho tr em n theo. tng ny l gim nh gnh nng chi ph nui dy con ci m gia nh phi gnh chu.

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Mt phn b xc sut vi tham s n bc t do ca tham s. Xem CONTINGENCY TABLES. Xem TECHNOLOGY, CHOICE OF. Mt bin trong bi ton ti u m gi tr ca bin c "chn" ti u ho gi tr ca HM MC TIU. Cc bin la chn thng l bin c lp ca hm mc tiu.

Xem AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOUR. Lung tin thu v chi gia cc hng v h gia nh trong nc.

Xem WORRKING CAPITAL. c phong gio s ti trng i hc Columbia nm 1895. Nhng n phm chnh ca ng bao gm Trit l v ca ci (1885), Phn phi ca ci (1899),Cc yu t ct yu ca thuyt kinh t (1897), v Cc vn c quyn (1904). ng c ng gp trong vic khm ph c lp v nguyn l phn tch bin v c coi l ngi sng lp ra HC THUYT NNG SUT BIN M. Con ng ring ca ng tin ti l thuyt nng sut bin l i t vic khi qut ho khi nim ca RICARDO v gi thu. ng tin xa hn VON THUNEN, JEVONS, MENGER v WALRAS bng vic tuyn b rng phn phi thu nhp theo quy lut nng sut bin l "cng bng". Vic xc nh ring bit v c lp gi tng i v tuyt i trong KINH T HC C IN v TN C IN.(Xem NEO-CLASSICAL SYNTHESIS). Mt t tng kinh t t gia th k XVIII n gia th k XIX, m phn ln t tng ny ni ln t Anh. Xem Classical economics. Xem CORPORATION TAX Mt cm thut ng dng miu t k thut thng k chun nhm phn bit chng c th vi cc k thut BAYES.

Mt kha cnh ca HM SN XUT trong THUYT TNG TRNG khng cho php t l vn - lao ng bin i trc hoc sau khi thc hin u t. Cm thut ng "t st" dng ch vn, do t st c cho l km tnh cn mng hn so vi "mt tt" (Xem PUTTY-CLAY and PUTTY- PUTTY). c thng qua M nm 1914. Mc ch ca o lut l xc nh c th nhng vi phm chng c quyn nhm lm cho o lut Sherman r rng hn. (Xem CELLERKEFAUVER ACT and ROB INSON- PATMEN ATC). Khi T GI TH NI c bin i mt cch t do khi bt c nh hng can thip no cc CO QUAN QUN L TIN T. (Xem DIRTY FLOAT) Anh, cm thut ng ny dng ch cc NGN HNG THNG MI theo truyn thng iu hnh v c th tip cn vi mt PHNG THANH TON B TR hay cc c quan tng ng vi mc ch thanh ton b tr cc t SC ca nhau. Mt a danh ca London m cc NGN HNG THANH TON B TR LONDON, NGN HNG ANH v Edinburgh, ngn hng c phn Scotland tin hnh thanh ton b tr sc v cc khiu n khc vi nhau Tn mn lch s kinh t "mi", s dng KINH T LNG nghin cu v cc vn c cc nh s hc cp Khi nim s dng ch yu trong cc m hnh l thuyt ch mt nn kinh t khng c quan h ngoi thng m hon ton t tc v tch bit vi cc tc nhn bn ngoi.

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Theo ngha s dng M, cm thut ng ny ch mt tho thun yu cu cc cng nhn tr thnh thnh vin ca cng on trc khi c mt hng thu lm vic. Anh, mt khc, cm thut ng ny thng phn bit gia cc hnh thc ca hng ng trc khi vo lm v sau khi vo lm li. c s dng ph bin cng vi TH TRNG CHNG KHON ch gi CHNG KHON v C PHIU ti thi im kt thc bun bn ca mt ngy. Mt dng trung gian gia HNG HO CNG CNG thun tu v hng ho t nhn (Xem CLUBS, THEORY OF) Thuyt cu lc b l mt phn ca thuyt HNG HO CNG CNG KHNG THUN TU Mt nh kinh t hc sinh ti Anh c tng gi thng Nobel kinh t hc nm 1991 cho cng trnh chuyn ca ng v L THUYT V HNG v kinh t hc v NGOI NG. Coase, ngi c dy trong mt thi gian ti Trng kinh t London, lm vic ti trng i hc Chicago trong hu ht qung i ca ng. Nm 1937 trong bi bo "Bn cht ca hn" (tp ch Economica s IV), ng nu ra cu hi ti sao cc hot ng kinh t nht nh b ph mc cho s trao i ca th trng, cn s khc li c tin hnh bn trong hng. Khi th trng v cc hng l cc cch t chc c th thay th nhau, th ci g s quyt nh cch no c s dng? Coase tr li cu hi ny bng cch cho rng hng s m rng ti mt im ti chi ph tin hnh hot ng trong hng bng vi chi ph thc hin qua giao dch th trng. y chnh l xut pht im xem mt t chc cng nghip t gc chi ph giao dch, tc l kiu t chc c chn l kiu t chc lm ti a ho chi ph ca mt giao dch kinh t. Nm 1906, trong bi bo "Vn la chn x hi", Tp ch Php lut v Kinh t hc s 3, Coase lp lun ci tr thnh NH L COASE rng tnh ti u Pareto vn c th c khi c cc ngoi ng v khng c can thip ca nh nc, nu c th thng lng c gia nh sn xut v ngi tip nhn tc ng ngoi ng QUYN S HU TI SN c xc nh r. nh l ny da trn lp lun rng cc NGOI NG khng gy ra s phn b sai cc ngun lc khi khng c CHI PH GIAO DCH v khi quyn s hu ti sn c s hu r rng v c hiu lc.

Dng n gin nht ca M HNH NG trong , cung ca mt hng ho trong nm t l mt hm ca gi hng ho trong nm t-1 v trong bt k giai on no th gi c u c iu chnh "cn i th trng". Tn dng ph bin cho th tc c thit k c tnh cc thng s ca mt phng trnh m s d ca n tun theo TNG QUAN CHUI. Xem PRAISWINSTEN. S tham gia ca cng nhn vo qu trnh a ra quyt nh chnh sch trong cc hng. Mt thng k tm tt nng lc gii thch ca mt phng trnh. Thng dng o mc phn tn ca cc bin xung quanh gi tr trung bnh ca n. S so snh gia cc mc lng ca nhng nhm cng nhn khc nhau v c ngi i din ca ca cc nhn vin s dng nh l s kim chng v tng lng. Xem COMPARABILITY. ng h s ca mt phn t trong mt ma trn l NH THC ca ma trn mi c to nn bng cch xo hng v ct ca ma trn gc c cha phn t . Mt phn ca tin trao tay gm cc ng tin kim loi. Mt dy s liu kinh t bin ng theo cng chu k kinh doanh, ngha l tng ln cng mt lc vi giai on tng ln ca chu k kinh doanh v tt xung khi chu k kinh doanh tt xun. y l mt phng php xc nh mi quan h di hn gia mt nhm cc bin CHUI THI GIAN.

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Xem ESCALATORS. Khi c ngha rng, c dng ch bt c vt th chp no (nhng khng phi m bo c nhn nh bo lnh) m mt ngn hng nhn khi n cho mt khch hng vay v ngn hng c quyn i trong trng hp v n. m phn gia ch v cc cng nhn v vic hnh thnh cc th tc v lut l bao hm cc iu kin v lm vic v lng. Xem NATIONAL BARGAINING, COMPANY BARGAINING v PLANT BARGAINING. i khi c gi l s la chn x hi. Mt quyt nh do mt nhm hay nhng ngi thay mt cho mt nhm a ra. Hng ho hay dch v mang tnh cht KHNG LOI TR. Xem PUBLIC GOODS Xem MULTICOLLINEARITY, LINEAR DEPENDENCE. Tho thun gia cc hng trnh cnh tranh phng hi ln nhau. Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP. Xem COLLUSION. Xem PRICE LEADERSHIP. Xem COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE. Xem PLANNED ECONOMY. Mt cm thut ng chung, khng xc nh, ch nhng ngn hng thng trong khu vc kinh t t nhn tin hnh kinh doanh tng hp ch khng chuyn doanh. Mt HI PHIU c rt ti tr cho cc hot ng sn xut, bun bn hoc thng mi khc. N khc vi HI PHIU B TI CHNH hay hi phiu ca chnh quyn a phng v l cng c ca cc nghip v ti chnh cng cng. Mt cm thut ng chung ch HI PHIU THNG MI Cc quy tc c mt nc p dng iu hnh hay qun l chi tiu v cc hot ng ngoi thng ca mnh

Bt k vt no c sn xut ra phc v tiu dng hay trao i trn th trng Tp qun bn hng hay dch v trn gi. Mt cng ty ca M c thnh lp nm 1933 nhm to ra mt th trng c trt t v n nh hn cho hng ho nng sn. (Xem PARTY PRICE SYSTEM) Mt h thng tin t da trn mt hng ho c th. Gii hn gia hai trc biu th lng hng ho hay dch v sn c tim nng ngi tiu dng mua. Xem TERM OF TRADE. H thng chung v tr gi v tr cp nng nghip do CNG NG CHU U p dng. Chnh sch ny nhm khuyn khch iu kin th trng nng nghip n nh, m bo li ch cng bng cho nng dn, duy tr gi c hp l cho ngi tiu dng v p dng cc chnh sch c xy dng tng sn lng v nng sut lao ng trong ngnh nng nghip ca cng ng. Mc THU QUAN ngoi b chung ca CNG NG CHU U (EC). Mc THU QUAN do cc thnh vin ca mt lin minh thu quan, mt TH TRNG CHUNG hay mt CNG NG KINH T p dng mt mc c thng nht v ging nhau i vi hng nhp khu t cc nc khng phi l thnh vin. Mt bin php chnh sch c xy dng nhm to iu kin cho vic tng cng cng ngh tin tin bng cch thnh lp cc hp tc x s dng nhng trang thit b chung hay cc cng xng sn xut chung nng cao nng sut ca th th cng lnh ngh a phng v ngnh cng nghip. Xem ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGY.

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Mt khu vc thng kt hp mt s nc, trong tt c u c th mua bn theo nhng iu kin ngang nhau. Xem EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET. Mt cng c ti chnh (tho thun ti chnh) mang li quyn s hu v quyn b phiu trong mt cng ty cho ngi ch cng c ny. Xem PREFERENCE SHARES, EQUITIES. Theo mt ngha hp, y l mt giai on pht trin kinh t c cho l din ra khi tt c cc tng lp trong x hi b thu ht vo GIAI CP V SN. Cm thut ng ny, d vy, thng c dng ch mt h thng kinh t k hoch ho c iu hnh ti cc nc thuc HI NG TNG TR KINH T (trc khi cc cuc cch mng ng u n ra vo cui thp k 80). Mt loi thu p dng Anh cui thp k 80 thay th cho cc loi thu khc. Mt ng da trn mi c nhn trong mt cng ng nhn c mt mc tho dng khng i. Thng ch cng ty C PHN, y l mt thc th php l c thnh lp tin hnh cc hot ng cng nghip, thng mi vn c chia thnh C PHIU do cc thnh vin ca cng ty nm gi. M PHN TP TH gia cc i din ca mt cng ty, c th c mt hoc nhiu hn cc nh my trn khp t nc v nhng ngi i din cho cng nhn vin chc, a ra mc lng v iu kin lm vic trong cng ty. Xem PLANT BARGAINING. Ngi do cc c ng bu ra tham gia cng cc gim c khc iu hnh cng ty. So snh chnh thc hay khng chnh thc do cc nhm lao ng rt ra v mc lng ca v ca nhng ngi cng nhn khc. Xem RELATIVE DEPRIVATION, COERCIVE COMPARISIONS. Mt s tin tng rng cc c nhn lm cng cng vic v sn xut cng lng sn phm nn c tr cng mt mc lng. Lng ngang nhau tr cho cng vic c gi tr ngang nhau. David RIVIRDO khm ph ra l thuyt v li th tng i. y l c s ca CHUYN MN HO cho mt b phn cc quc gia, cc c nhn v cho t do thng mi. L thuyt hin i, khng cn da vo l thuyt v lao ng ca RICARDO, to lp iu kin cn duy nht cho kh nng thu li t THNG MI l t s gi c phi khc nhau gia cc quc gia. T gi hi oi sau khi bun bn gia cc hng ho m s xc nh ca n Ricardo khng th gii thch c, thit lp bi QUY LUT CU QUA LI. Xem COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Mt phng php s dng trong KINH T HC NG vi nt c bit l mc thay i v gi tr ca cc THAM S v v gi tr cn bng ca cc bin l khng i. So snh mt v tr CN BNG mi vi v tr cn bng c sau khi c thay i no trong cc bin s m khng i chiu vi cch t c v tr mi v thng khng c kha cnh nh lng. Mt ng cu trong HIU NG THU NHP ca thay i gi c loi b thu nhp thc t dc ng cu khng i. Xem CONSUMER'S SURPLUS. Xem COMPENSATION TESTS. Mt cng thc xc nh thu nhp ca c nhn. 1)Da trn thi gian lm vic ca c nhn. 2)Da trn kt qu hon thnh cng vic ca c nhn. 3)Da trn c s kt qa thc hin ca mt i nh trong ch chia li nhun hay thng theo i. 4)Da trn kt qu thc hin so snh ca c nhn nh i vi quy tc TH LAO THEO XP HNG TRONG THI U. Nhng cuc kim nghim nh vy t ra cu hi liu nhng ngi gy thit hi do thay i no c c n b cho thit hi ca h hay khng trong khi vn nhng ngi c li khm kh hn trc khi c thay i . Kim nghim c bit n nhiu nht l KIM NGHIM KALLDOR - HICHS.

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o lut ny nhn mnh tm quan trng trong chnh sch cnh tranh ca cc tp qun v iu kin kinh doanh.(Xem RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1956, MONOPOLIES AND MERGERS ACT 1965, RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1968, FAIR TRADING ACT 1973, COMPETITION ACT 1980 ) Tn ca mt ti liu tham vn do NGN HNG ANH pht hnh gia nm 1971, ti liu ny tm lc nhng xut cho vic xem xt nhng tho thun tn dng p dng i vi cc NGN HNG v c quan ti chnh khc v bt u p dng vo cui nm . Bn cht ca nhng thay i ny l ch chng cho php kt thc vic kim sot v s lng cho vay dc bit ca cc NGN HNG THANH TON B TR v chng p dng vi cc ngn hng v CNG TY TI CHNH theo cch thc cng ln v cng khng phn bit cng tt (Xem MONETARY MANAGEMENT). Mt th trng trong mt s ln nhng ngi mua v bn nh bun bn mt cch c lp v do , khng ai c th chi phi gi c mt cch ng k.(Xem PERFECT COMPETITION). Mt hng ho c xu hng c mua theo km vi hng ho khc c mua v n "b tr" cho hng ho th nht Cc s bao gm nhng phn t TNG TNG, ngha l n cha cn bc hai ca m mt. Theo J.R.HICKS (Gi tr v t bn, i hc Oxford,1939), nh l ny ni rng nu c mt s hng ho m gi tng i ca chng (tc l gi ca hng ho ny so vi gi ca hng ho kia) khng i th nhng hng ho c th coi l mt hng ho c tn "hng ho a hp" Trnh t m theo TIN LI tng lai c tr trn mc li trong qu kh (li m li con).

Mt hm lm v v trs gc, v vy O HM BC 2 ca n l m. mt hm nh vy cng c th li t gc to . 1).Mt cm thut ng ch tnh trng cc iu kin cnh tranh ph bin trong mt ngnh. 2).Mt khi nim s dng khi ni ti PHN PHI QUY M CA HNG trong mt ngnh ca nn kinh t, hoc lin quan n v tr ca ngnh cng nghip. Mt s o thng k v mc hot ng kinh t hay mt c tnh kinh t c tp trung v mt a l, chng hn trong mt quc gia. Xem LOCATION QUOTIENT, SPECIALIZATION, COFFICIENT OF. T l phn trm tng quy m cng nghip do mt vi hng ln trong ngnh chim. Xem STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSICATION. y l tn t cho mt phng n ca CHNH SCH THU NHP CA C m chnh ph, mc d khng phi l mt bn tham gia qu trnh m phn tp th, t ra nhng tiu chun gn tng tin lng vi mc ch n nh v tng trng. Mt qu trnh gim thu quan, ct gim thu sut cao trong khi khng thay i thu sut thp, do chnh lch gia cc mc thu quan gim i. Xem ACROSS-THEBOARD TARIFF CHANGES. S can thip vo mt TRANH CHP V LAO NG theo yu cu ca cc bn lin quan bng mt bn th ba c lp v khng thin v nhm ho gii cc quan im ca hai bn. Xem MEDIATION, ARBITRATION. Mt h thng la chn tp th, trong phng n c la chn l phng n nh bi tt c nhng phng n khc trong chui cc cuc la chn tng i mt s dng nhng quy tc a s. Mt t chc ca gii ch Anh thnh lp nm 1965 bng cch st nhp 3 hip hi trc y i din cho cc li ch ca ngnh cng nghip. Khong tin cy alpha ca mt tham s gm 2 con s m gia chng ta c tin cy alpha%, ngha l gi tr thc ca tham s nm . Xem STATISTICAL INFERENCE, INTERVAL ESTIMATION.

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Mt trong nhng vn ca h thng tin t quc t ny sinh khi ngi ta cho rng mt ng tin s b ph gi, vn ngn hn sau s b rt khi nc , xut hin s mt lng tin vo ng tin ca nc . Khi vic s dng mt phng tin hay dch v ang c nhiu ngi dng tng ln, s xut hin mt chi ph (khng nht thit bng tin) i vi ngi ang s dng chng, th phng tin gi l "tc nghn". Mt hng bao gm cng ty m v cc cng ty con m chng khng lin quan vi nhau trong cc hot ng v th trng. Xem CONJECTURAL VARIATION. Ch hnh vi ca hng trong TH TRNG C QUYN NHM. Xem OLIGOPOLY. Mt tnh cht mong mun ca cc c lng kinh t lng. Mt cm thut ng khc cho NGN KH Anh. l mt ti khon ca chnh ph bao gm thu nhp t thu.

Ngy nay, thut ng ny ch loi cng tri 2,5% li sut. Mt kiu ngn hng quc t hnh thnh bng cch tp hp cc ngn hng vn ang tn ti t cc nc khc nhau. Xem LIBOR. Xem VEBLEN. Theo hc thuyt ca C.Mc, t bn bt bin l mt phn ca T BN c th hin bng phng tin sn xut, nguyn liu th v cng c lao ng. Xem VARIABLE CAPITAL. Hm sn xut CES l mt hm sn xut NG NHT TUYN TNH c co gin thay th u vo khng i. Mi quan h gia lng bn v gi m hng phi i mt nu tt c cc i th cnh tranh ca n thch ng vi bt c s thay i v gi no do hng ny a ra.(Xem ELASTICITY) Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE Cc i ho hay cc tiu ho mt HM MC TIU, trong CC BIN LA CHN tun theo mt s RNG BUC no . (Xem LINEAR PROGRAMMING). Thng l mt mi quan h ton hc gia CC BIN LA CHN ca mt bi ton ti u ho; trong mt hm no ca bin (v d HM TUYN TNH) khng bng mt hng s. Bt c n v kinh t no c nhu cu tiu dng hng ho v dch v cui cng. Mt cm thut ng chung ch vic cho NGI TIU DNG vay mua hng ho dch v, nhng thng khng bao gi gm vic mua nh. Lnh vc ca mn kinh t hc xc nh nhng l thuyt c th kim nghim v cch ngi tiu dng phn ng li vi nhng thay i trong cc bin nh gi c, cc gi khc, thay i v thu nhp L bt c hng tiu dng no c "tui th di", do khng c tiu dng ngay lp tc (nh thc n). Tnh hung m ngi tiu dng ti a ho THO DNG ca mnh theo RNG BUC NGN SCH. Xem CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE. HNG HO hu hnh v v hnh c tiu dng theo li ch ca bn thn tho mn nhng nhu cu hin ti. Xem RETAIL PRICE INDEX

tng cho rng NGI TIU DNG l quan to tt nht i vi bn thn h.

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c dng ph bin ch khu vc nm di ng cu MARSHALL ca mt c nhn gia hai mc gi. Hnh ng s dng hng ho v dch v tho mn nhu cu hin ti. Tng chi tiu vo hng ho v dch v nhm tho mn nhu cu hin ti (Xem CONSUMPTION). Mt th chi tit ho v quan h gia tng CHI TIU TIU DNG v THU NHP, ngha l C = C(Y). Thu ny c th c hai dng: mt l, khi bn thn ngi tiu dng b nh thu nh vi THU CHI TIU v hai l, khi hng ho v dch v ngi tiu dng mua b nh thu. Trong trng hp u thu c nh vo hng cung cp dch v hay hng ho. Mt TH TRNG trong c s t do nhp th, s gia nhp v rt lui khng mt chi ph. D tr khng phn b dnh cho s c bt thng v cc nhu cu khc, n khng th c nh lng khi xem xt cc k hoch chi tiu nh lng ca Anh. Mt cng c m theo mc lin h hay ph thuc gia hai bin s hay hai c tnh c nh gi. Vic lm r gi tr tiu dng ca hng ho v dch v khng c trao i trn th trng. Mt bin s c th ly bt c gi tr no (ngha l n c th thay i m khng gin on) gia nhng gii hn xc nh (c th l v hn) (Xem DISCRETE VARIABLE). Trong trng hp hai ngi tiu dng trao i hai mt hng, ng ny l qu tch cc im ti T L THAY TH BIN gia hai mt hng l nh nhau i vi hai ngi tiu dng (Xem EDGEWORTH BOX). Giai on ca CHU K KINH DOANH sau khi t n im cao nht v ko di cho n im thp nht sau . N nh du s suy gim ca hot ng kinh t. tng cho rng cc nn kinh t x hi ch ngha v t bn ch ngha i ra khi cc dng "l tng" tng ng ca chng v tin ho theo nhng hnh thi, suy ngh, th ch v phng php ngy cng ging nhau. Xem DAMPED CYCLE. Tp qun pht hnh CHNG KHON v C PHIU mi thay th ci c. Mt thuc tnh ca mt ng tin c th trao i mt cch thoi mi vi mt ng tin khc hay vi vng. (Xem EXCHANGE RATES, GOLD STANDARD, EXCHANGE RESERVES, GOLD RESERVES). Xem CONVERTIBLE SECURITY. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Mt loi chng khon, tc l mt khiu n i vi ngi pht hnh, c th chuyn i sang cc loi khc trong c tin mt. Mt hm li so vi gc to , do , O HM bc hai ca n l dng. Mt giai on tr hon c tin hnh hp php trc khi hot ng nh cng c th bt u gim bt cng thng hay lm lng ng cm xc v do n c cho thi gian nh gi hp l hn v vn c tranh ci. S phi hp gia gii ch v cng on gii quyt ln lt nhng ngh hay yu cu v lng ca cng on. Xem GAME THEORY. Trong bi ton ti u, mt tnh th m mt hoc hn cc bin LA CHN c gi tr bng 0 ti mc TI U. Cc b lut p dng Anh t nm 1815 v c bi b t nm 1846 nhm duy tr gi ng cc bng cch cm nhp khu khi gi trong nc gim xung di mt mc nht nh. Mt quan im ng thi v cc nn kinh t pht trin phng Ty, trong khu vc sn xut do cc cng ty ln thng tr m c im cc cng ty ny l s tch ri gia quyn s hu v qun l. Xem MANAGERIAL THEORIES OF THE FIRM.

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Vi s tch ri gia quyn s hu v qun l, mt s nh phn tch lp lun rng, cc nh qun l ca cc cng ty ln tch khi "lng tm v c ng" v thay vo p dng mt thc ph bin v trch nhim i vi cng chng ni chung. Xem Corporate capitalism. Ton b ri ro lin quan ti mt doanh nghip.

Xem COMPANY. Thu nh vo doanh thu ca cc cng ty sau khi tr i chi ph hot ng, LI SUT, PHN GIM THU CHO U T VN v MC GIM VN. Mc m hai bin tng quan vi nhau mt cch tuyn tnh, hoc l thng qua quan h nhn qu trc tip, gin tip hay xc sut thng k. Xem Rank Correlation.

Mt th biu th H S TNG QUAN gia gi tr hin ti ca mt bin v cc gi tr tr ca chnh n so vi tr di. Mt ngn hng hot ng nh mt i l cho mt ngn hng khc ni m ngn hng ny khng c vn phng hoc v l do no ngn hng khng th tin hnh cho cc nghip v ca bn thn n. Mt tn lng thng thng trn th trng ch yu cu phi c cc khon TIN GI C BIT B SUNG, c p dng t nm 1973 nhm tng cng kim sot ca NGN HNG ANH i vi cc khon gi ngn hng. Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL. Ni chung y l mt thc o nng g phi tr c c mt ci g , hoc bng cch mua, trao i hay sn xut. Khung khi nim nh gi cc d n u t trong khu vc chnh ph, mc d n c th c m rng sang bt c d n khu vc t nhn no. Gn ging nh Phn tch chi ph - li ch nhng khc ch n i hi mt yu cu khc. l, nu xt v mt mc tiu, lm cch no t c mc tiu mc chi ph thp nht. Xem CIF. i vi bt k mc sn lng no, l vic la chn t hp u vo sn xut mt lng u ra nht nh vi mc ph thp nht. L chi ph c tnh bng t l phn trm, ca cc ngun VN khc nhau cn thit tr cho vic chi dng vn.Tt c cc ngun vn u c gi v c th tnh c trc tip nh lhon vay n.

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Xem RETAIL PRICE INDEX. Vic bo h nn cng nghip trong nc bng thu quan, hn nghch hoc hn ch khc thng p t chi ph ln nn kinh t c bo h di 2 hnh thc: s phn b sai ngun lc v bp mo c cu tiu dng.

L nh gi bng cch cng thm mt khon li nhun vo CHI PH KH BIN BNH QUN nhm trang tri CHI PH C NH v mt mc li nhun hp l no . L s gia tng c duy tr ca mc gi chung do s gia tng t nh ca cc chi ph. Xem DEMAND-FULL INFLATION, THE WAGE-WAGE SPIRAL. L mt phn tch CHI PH - HIU QU trong kinh t hc y t, trong kt qu hay li ch c tnh bng Tui th iu chnh theo cht lng hoc mt s o phi tin t ch phc li ca bnh nhn. L c quan tha hnh ca chnh ph M c thnh lp theo LUT V LAO NG nm 1946. T chc ny hot ng vi t cch l c vn cho tng thng M. L mt Hi ng lin chnh ph c thnh lp theo s tho thun vo nm 1949 gia Bungary, Tip Khc, Hungary, Balan, Rumani v Lin X. Mc ch l tng cng s pht trin kinh t v s hi nhp ca cc nc thnh vin. Hi ng nay tan r vo thng 2/1991. Xem PLANNED ECONOMY, TRANSFERABLE ROUBLE. Vn ng ngc chiu vi mt pha no trong CHU K KINH DOANH. L cc hinh thc thng mi quc t, khng bnh thng t nhng hnh thc n gin nhng t gp nh HNG I HNG cho n cc hnh thc cn bng cng nghip phc tp. Th lc lm cn bng thng thy khi sc mnh th trng ca mt nhm n v kinh t hay ca mt hng c cn bng bi sc mnh th trng ca mt nhm cc n v kinh t khc mua hoc bn cho cc nhm k trn.

L mt loi chng thc dng cho vic nhn tin li i vi mt chng khon c li c nh nh tri phiu thu m t tri phiu , phiu li c th c x ra. Xem YIELD. M hnh ny da trn gi thit hnh vi cho rng mt trong hai hng s ti a ho li nhun nu sn lng ca i th cnh tranh vn gi mc gi khng i. Xem PROFIT MAXIMIZATION, BERTRAND'S DUOPOLY MODEL, STACKELBERG'S DUOPOLY MODEL. Thc o mc tng quan ca 2 bin. Xem VARIANCE-COVARIANCE MATRIX. Xem STATIONARITY. Trong mt CH T GI HI OI LINH HOT, l khi mc li sut hai nc c lm cn bng nh mt t l chit khu hp l hoc mt khon ph i vi t gi hi oi di hn. Xem FORWARD RATE.

Nghip on tp hp tt c cc cng nhn c mt k nng hay mt s k nng c lin quan vi nhau bt k h lm trong ngnh no. L phng php dng gii h phng trnh tuyn tnh ng thi. L phng php t gi hi oi. y l mt cm thut ng chung p dng cho bt k mt ngh no c c trng NGANG GI - t gi hi oi chnh thc do qu tin t quc t a ra - c th iu chnh theo thi gian, mc thay i cn thit c th phn nh v ko d trong sut mt thi k nht nh. Xem DEVALUATION.

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L mt cm thut ng ngha rng lin quan n hot ng kinh doanh hay cc bn k khai c lin quan n vic cho vay tin, thng l cho vay ngn hn. Xem BANK CREDIT, MONEY SUPPLY. Xem CHARGE ACCOUNT. L mt th do mt ngn hng, mt nhm cc ngn hng, hay mt t chc pht hnh ti chnh pht hnh cho khch hng ca n m ngi ny c th s dng TN DNG trc tip chu tin mua hng mt ngi bn l, chu tin khch sn Trong CHNH SCH TIN T, mt gii hn c thng bo i vi lng tn dng m cc th ch, thng l cc ngn hng m rng cho khch hng trong cc giai on hn ch tin t. L mt cm thut ng chung ch mt lot cc bin php do cc t chc tin t s dng kim sot s lng tin do mt nhm hoc do cc t chc ti chnh cho vay. Qu trnh m cc t chc gi tin v rt tin, cc t chc cho vay hot ng da trn T L D TR, trn c s tng cc ti sn d tr ca chng, c th tng s lng tin m chng cho vay, v cc khon n tin gi tng ln mt lng ln hn mc tng ca d tr. L loi hnh bo him m mt hip hi bo lnh tn dng ng ra bo him khi khng tr c n. Ni mt cch cht ch, s nhn tn dng l t s gia s thay i s lng tin do mt nhm cc t chc TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH gi tin, rt tin cho vay i vi mc thay i trong ti sn d tr gy ra thay i .

Mt nc c coi nh mt n v, l ch cho vay rng hoc nh u t rng vo cc nc khc bng cch tch lu s khiu n i vi cc nc ny. L cc c nhn hay cc t chc cho vay tin c ngi hoc t chc vay ha tr mt khon tin nht nh hng nm theo LI SUT v hon tr GC vo mt ngy no trong tng lai. L vic phn b tin vay bng cc phng tin phi gi c trong cc trng hp vt cu tn dng ca cc TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH. Cm thut ng ny c ngha l t chc c lin quan, v d nh ngn hng hoc ngn hng pht trin c x, khng c gng lm gim d cu bng cch tng li sut. Cc bin php do cc c quan tin t a ra, bin php ny c th l cc nghip v nhm hn ch hoc gim lng tn dng do cc ngn hng hoc cc t chc ti chnh khc m rng ra (Xem COMPETITION AND CREDIT CONTROL). L mt giai on ca chnh sch hn ch tn dng (Xem MONETARY POLICY, OPEN MARKET OPERATIONS). L mt h thng qua tin c chuyn trc tip qua h thng ngn hng ti mt ti khon c th ca ngi nhn (Xem CLEARING). L tnh trng lm pht trong mc chung ca gi c tng ln chm nhng lin tc, c th do tng TNG CU (Xem DEMAND-PULL INFLATION, COST-PUSH INFLATION). Gi tr ti hn L t l thay i trong lng cu i vi mt hng theo thay i gi ca mt hng ho khc. L mt khi nim ch cc hng mi nhp ngnh nhng c thit lp trong cc nghnh s dng cc cng ngh tng t vi cng ngh m cc hng mi nhp th ny tin hnh. O HM ca mt hm s ln th nht ly theo mt BIN C LP v sau ly theo mt bin khc. L vic phn tch mt lot cc s liu ca nhng quan st c lin quan xy ra ti mt thi im (Xem TIME SERIES).

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L mi quan h hm s gia tiu th v thu nhp c tnh cho cc nhm c thu nhp khc nhau ti mt thi im (Xem CONSUMPTION FUNCTION, LONG-RUN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION, SHORT-RUN CONSUMPTION FUNCTION). Khi s dng i vi cc doanh nghip a sn phm, l s tr cp l ca mt mt hng ny bng SIU LI NHUN trong khi kinh doanh cc mt hng khc. Cho rng cc hng ro NGN CN NHP NGNH v s thiu hon chnh thng tin s c khuynh hng nhi nht mt vi nhm ngi, ch yu l ph n v ngi da en, vo cc ngh b hn ch v c nhn lng thp hn t cc ngh nghip ny. Vic gim TIU DNG hay U T ca t nhn do tng chi tiu ca chnh ph (Xem FISCAL POLICY). Xem CENTRAL STATISTICAL OFFICE Phng trnh lp phng l phng trnh m trong s m cao nht ca BIN C LP l 3 (c ngha l lp phng ca n). Mt trong nhng ph phn v cc loi hnh pht trin kinh t l n ph hu nn vn ho bn a. Nhng s thay i cng ngh v PHT TRIN KINH T c th t c m khng cn ti thay i vn ho c bn. Xem FEEDBACK/ ENTRAPMENT EFFECTS Mt phng php phn tch tng trng kinh t khu vc do G.MYRDAL a ra. M hnh ny cho rng cc lc lng th trng c khuynh hng lm tng bt bnh ng v kinh t gia cc khu vc ca mt nn kinh t. N cng cho rng nu mt khu vc c t l tng trng cao hn cc khu vc khc s khin cho cc yu t sn xut trong khu vc tng tng chm chy sang khu vc tng trng nhanh. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Theo ngha hp, thut ng ny ch mt lng tin ca mt nc thc s c trao i qua tay (Xem CASH). S tng gi tr ca mt NG TIN ny so vi gi tr ng tin khc, c ngha l tng T GI HI OI trong iu kin T GI HI OI TH NI. (Xem CURRENCY DEPRECIATION). L nhng kim sot v quyn hn ca NGN HNG TRUNG NG hay c quan pht hnh tin t trong vic pht hnh tin (Xem CASH BASE). L s gim gi tr ca mt ng tin so vi ng tin khc, c ngha l s gim T GI HI OI trong h thng T GI HI OI TH NI. V mt lch s, tin giy l giy bc 1 bng v 10 shilling do B Ti chnh Anh pht hnh sau khi xy ra cuc chin tranh vaod nm 1914 bo tn s vng trong kho v p ng nhu cu v ng tin vng hay m vng ca cng chng trong cn hong lon ban u. L hc thuyt v tin t thnh hnh gia th k XIX do TRNG PHI TIN T xng, hc thuyt cho rng s n nh tin t c c tt nht bng vic kim sot s lng tin t, nht l lng tin giy, ang lu thng bng cc bin php ca cc quy tc t ng (ngha l khng th tu ). Quyn mt s nc xut khu, phn ln l cc nc XHCN, c mua li mt t l nht nh s thu nhp NGOI HI ca mnh, do m khng b l thuc vo vic phn b nhp khu t trung ng. L mt nhm cc nh chnh tr, cc nh kinh t v cc ch ngn hng quan tm n chnh sch tin t Anh na u th k XIX. L hnh thc thay i cc ng tin c th chuyn i trong cc ng tin t quc t vi mc ch sinh li hay trnh s tn tht trong vic thay i gi tr TIN T. Trong ngnh Ngn hng Anh, mt ti khon m khch hng rt SC ln ti s d tn dng hoc vt qu s d tn dng gii hn THU CHI C THO THUN. M, y l tin gi ngn hng linh hot nht v c trong tt c cc nh ngha v cung tin.

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Gm 3 loi ti sn chnh: 1)"D tr" bao gm cc hng ho c hon thin, ang c sn xut v cc nguyn vt liu th. 2)Khon tin s thu c hay khon n ngn hn. 3)Tin mt v u t ngn hn. Xem INFLATION ACCOUNTING. Xem PERMANENT INCOME HYPOTHESIS. Dng ch nhng khon n ca cng ty s phi thanh ton trong nm sau. L doanh s tr i ton b CHI PH C HI thu c trong giai on k hoch hin ti ca hng.

L nhng quy tc khng chnh thc v v tr lm vic chi phi vic phn cng v thc hin cc nhim v. L cc th trng trong gi c khng nh gi bng cung v cu. Mt u ban c thnh lp nm 1950 nhm ci thin v lm ho hp cc hot ng hi quan. y l cc loi thu p dng cho nhp khu hay vic bn cc hng ho c th. Nhng th tc c bit c p dng cho vic nhp khu cc hng ho nng nghip. Xem EC ARRICULTURAL LEVIES. L mt t chc gm mt s nc, trong hn ch v mu dch gia chng c loi b. L loi tht nghip do THIU CU NGN HN. Xem PARADOX OF VOTING.

L chi ph phi tr cho thit hi gy ra, thng l thit hi do nhim. Cn gi l chu k ng quy. Mt trong mt lot cc bin ng chu k vi mt bin GIM DN theo thi gian. Cc quan st v ln ca cc hin tng kinh t nh THU NHP QUC DN, THT NGHIP, MC GI BN L Cc chng khon oc ghi thnh chng khon hon tr ngn hn, trung hn v di hn tu thuc vo thi gian o hn Xem DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW ANALYSIS. L khon n khng c bo lnh bng mt ti sn thc no c, n ny c dng tr cho cc chi tiu thng xuyn. Cm thut ng thng c s dng ch s mt mt thng d ca ngi tiu dng m ngi mua phi chu ch khng phi ngi sn xut. LI SUT cao hn so vi gi tr trung bnh vn c ca n. Xem COINAGE, GRESHAM'S LAW, BAD MONEY DRIVES OUT GOOD. Cc chng khon N c li sut c nh thng do mt cng ty pht hnh v bo lnh bng ti sn. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL.

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Nh kinh t ton hc ngi M gc, Php, ngi ginh gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1983 nh cng trnh nghin cu v thuyt "Cn bng tng th". Debreu xem xt chi tit vn m SMITH v WALRAS nu ra, c th l mt h thng th trng phi tp trung c th em li s phi hp mong mun ca cc k hoch c nhn nh thno. Trong nghin cu cng vi ARROW, ng chng minh c s tn ti ca cc gi c to ra cn bng, bng cch khng nh logic trong quan im ca SMITH WALRAS. Debreu tr li c 2 vn tip theo trong lnh vc ny. Th nhtt ng xc nh c cc iu kin m BN TAY V HNH ca NN KINH T TH TRNG s m bo HIU QU PHN PHI. Th hai, ng phn tch vn n nh cn bng ca mt nn kinh t th trng ch ra rng trong cc nn kinh t ln c nhiu tc nhn th trng th cn bng th trng c th n nh c. Cun sch chnh ca ng HC THUYT V GI TR (1959) gy c ting vang ln v tnh ton th v cch tip cn phn tch vn . i vi Debreu, mt m hnh cn bng tng th nh th c th ho nhp vi l thuyt phn b, l thuyt v vn v l thuyt hnh vi trong iu kin khng chc chn. Trch nhim hoc khon tin n ny sinh do vay mn v ti chnh hay nhn cc hng ho hoc dch v di dng tn dng tc l s tr sau. Xem CONVERSION Khi nim ny c hai ngha ring bit nhng u lin quan n vic vay mn. Khi nim ny ch cc cng ty i vay ti tr cho cc nghip v ca mnh. Cc chnh ph cng i vay ti tr cho cc hot ng ca mnh v iu chnh cc hot ng tngt th ca nn kinh t. K thut c ra gip cc nc thuc khi pha ng v cc nc km pht trin gim bt gnh nng n nn bng cch chuyn i cc khon n ca mt hng hay chnh ph thnh vn c phn. Cm thut ng ny c s dng thng lin quan n cng n, ch cc hot ng ca c quan cho vay n ca NGN HNG trung ng, thay mt cho c quan vay n, iu chnh quy m v c cu cc khon n cha tr. Nc vay rng t cc nc khc hoc nhn u t t cc doanh nghip nc ngoi v do tng s lng n rng v cc ngha v khc i vi nc ny. Xem GEARING. L s liu mu hoc l s o v tr ca mt phn phi. H thng tin t da vo c s s mi. ng ngha vi HM MC TIU. Khong thi gian gia vic nhn bit nhu cu phi hnh ng gii quyt mt vn kinh t (c bit l kinh t v m) vi vic quyt nh chnh sch v vn . Mt tiu chun s dng trong vic chn la, nh c tin hnh mt d n hay khng hoc nh gi cc sn phm u ra nh th no. L thuyt lin quan n vic hnh thnh cc qu trnh hnh ng thch hp nhm t c cc mc tiu trong cc hon cnh c th c th khng n nh. Mt ngnh m ng cung di hn dc xung. iu ny xy ra nu c nhng yu t to hiu qu kinh t nm ngoi hng m li nm trong ngnh. Xem LAW OF DIMINSHING RETURNS, RETURNS TO SCALE.

Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL Tnh trng chi tiu vt qu thu nhp, trong mt bi cnh hin hu no , hoc khon n vt qu ti sn ti mt thi im no . Khon ti tr cn thit trong tnh hung cc khon chi tiu c c cho vt qu thu nhp.

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Cc n v kinh t m thu nhp trong mt giai on no khng th p ng chi tiu trong giai on . L s gim st lin tc trong mc gi chung. Tnh trng m trong TNG CHI TIU thp hn mc chi tiu cn phi c to ra mt mc THU NHP QUC DN c th m bo TON DNG NHN CNG. Mt CH S GI C r rng hay hm c s dng phn bit gia nhng thay i trong gi tr bng tin ca tng sn phm quc dn do c mt thay i v gi v nhng thay i do mt thay i ca sn lng vt cht. Xem HOMOGENNOEUS FUNCTIONS. S lng cc thng tin c th thay i mt cch c lp vi nhau. S pht trin trong mt nn kinh t quc dn theo hng tng t trng ca nghnh dch v trong tng sn phm quc ni hoc trong s vic lm trong cc ngnh dch v. Bn bo co ny c trnh ln Hi ng Chu u ti cuc hp Madrid thng 6/1989, l mt phn k hoch LIN MINH TIN T giai on hin ti trong CNG NG CHU U. Lng hng ho hoc dch v m mt c nhn hay mt nhm ngi mun c mc hin hnh. Mt minh ho th v s cu hay hm cu vi iu kin th ny ch c v trong mt khng gian hai hoc ba chiu, biu hin mi quan h gia cu v ch mt hoc hai bin s nh hng n cu, cc nhn t khc khng i. Xem SIGHT DEPOSITE. Trng hp trong tng cu qu thp khng to vic lm cho tt c nhng ai mun lm vic ti mc lng thc t hin hnh bt k trnh o to hoc b tr nh th no i na. Mt khi nim cho rng c nhng khon thu li tim tng i vi mt s nhm ngi no nh cc chnh sch tng lm pht. Mt biu thc i s ca BIU CU c din t bng cc s hng tng qut hoc vi cc gi tr bng cc con s c th cho cc tham s khc nhau v thng bao gm cc yu t nh hng n cu. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Vic kim sot mc tng cu trong mt nn kinh t thng qua vic s dng CHNH SCH TIN T, CHNH SCH TI CHNH. S gia tng bn vng ca tng cu dn n s gia tng bn vng ca mc gi chung. Mt bng cho thy mc cu i vi mt lai hng ho no ti cc mc gi khc nhau. Mt l thuyt kt hp cc yu t ca lm pht cu ko vi lm pht chi ph y, cho thy rng lm pht l do thay i c cu ca tng cu. Nghin cu c im ca dn s. T l m cng s dng t thay i theo khong cch hng knh t trung tm ca mt vng th. Cc nc th gii th ba l mt phn ca cu trc rng ln v s ph thuc kinh t, x hi v chnh tr gia cc nhm quyn lc cc nc tin tin, c bit l cc cng ty a quc gia v nhm li ch ch yu cc nc ngho.

Mt tnh hun trong t l tr em rt cao trong ton b dn s sng ph thuc vo mt t l ngi ln nh hn nhiu. Mt bin bn tri du bng ca mt phng trnh, gi nh vy bi v gi tr ca n "ph thuc" hay c nh bi cc gi tr ca cc BIN C LP hay BIN GII THCH bn phi.

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Mt u i v thu cho php ngi ch s hu cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin c tr khi tng thu nhp khon gi tr b suy gim ca mt ti sn khng ti sinh nh qung, du m, kh t Khon tin cho cc nh ch ti chnh no vay, v d nh cc NGN HNG, NGN HNG PHT TRIN GIA C v CNG TY TI CHNH, vi iu kin rt c bo trc hoc khng, hay hon tr sau mt thi gian nht nh. Trong nghip v ngn hng Anh, mt kiu ti khon c thit k thu ht cc s d t hot ng ca khch hng, v hot ng nh l mt phng tin tit kin. ch mt bp phn ca dung lng tin di dng tin gi ngn hng. o lut ny c Quc hi M thng qua nm 1980, DIDMCA, c coi l o lut v th trng ti chnh v ngn hng k t sau khi o lut v d tr lin bang nm 1913 v cc o lut ngn hng 1933 v 1934. o lut ny ra i sau tnh hung gn khng hong thp k 70, khi li sut M lm cho cc nh ch ti chnh to lp mt lot cng c ti chnh cnh tranh v c gng thu ht vn. S gim gi tr ti sn ni chung pht sinh t s hao mn hay h hng. Xem Slump. Vic d b cc lut v di lut ca chnh ph trung ng hay a phng hn ch s tham gia vo cc hot ng nht nh. Xem PRIVATIZATION.

Mt vng a l hay khu vc trong mt nc t kt qu hot ng kinh t km hn mt cch ng k so vi c nc. Mc thay i ca BIN PH THUC ca mt hm trn mt n v ca thay i trong BIN C LP c tnh trong mt khong v cng nh vi bin c lp. Cu i vi mt yu t sn xut. Diu ny c ngha l cu pht sinh t nhu cu i vi hng ho cui cng m yu t gp phn sn xut ra. Qu trnh loi b nhng nh hng ca ma v, nhng hin tng xy ra thng xuyn theo ma lm mo m xu th ni bt khi cc s liu. Xem FILTER. Dung lng di hn ti u.

Qu trnh m mt khuynh hng v thi gian c loi b khi s liu, thng bng vic trc tin c tnh mt khuynh hng theo thi gian v tnh ton cc s d. Xem FILTER. Gim t gi hi oi c nh gia mt ng tin v cc ng tin khc. miu t tnh trng kinh t ca cc nc ngho hn ca th gii, c bt u s dng trong nhng nm 1960 thay th cc cm thut ng t hon chnh hn nh "km pht trin" hoc "lc hu". Xem ADVANCED COUNTRIES. Cc vng Anh c nhiu hnh thc h tr ca chnh ph i vi cng nghip. Mt k hoch vi mt lot cc mc tiu nhm pht trin tim nng kinh t v x hi ca ton b nn kinh t hay mt vng nht nh. Cch tip cn vn chm pht trin, ph thuc vo m hnh tng trng no c s dng. Mc chnh lch gi gi tr ca mt bi s v TRUNG BNH ca n. Xem Standard deviation, Variace. Mt tp hp cc kim nh s tn ti ca n v gc trong chui thi gian. Mt phng trnh trong gi tr hin ti ca BIN PH THUC c biu din di dng mt hm ca cc gi tr trc ca n. Phng php dng nhn din mt phng trnh vi phn tnh.

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Xem RAWLSIAN JUSTICE

Xem WAGE DIFFERENTIALS. Mt kha cnh ca tng trng ca hng bng A DNG HO, ch s tng trng c thc y bi a ra nhng sn phm khc bit vi nhng sn phm khc v c khch hng cng nh hng c coi l mi. 1) Xem PRODUCT DIFFERENTIATION. 2) Qu trnh tnh o hm ca mt hm. Trong bi cnh ph bin k thut, cm thut ng ny ch mc truyn b cc sng ch sang cc hng. Tn thng dng cho vng dm phn thng mi th nm t chc di s bo tr ca HIP NH CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH GENEVA (1960-1961) Hin tng theo gi nh rng tho dng gia tng i vi mt n v hng ho gim khi cng nhiu hng ho c mua hn. Xem LAW OF DIMINISHING RETURNS.

Xem VARIABLE COSTS. Mt h thng pht trin mi y v thanh ton qua h thng ngn hng. Theo ngn hng ca mt ngi giao dch sp nhn mt khon thanh ton s a ra khiu n cu trc tip i vi ngn hng ca bn phi tr n thanh ton, n lt mnh ngn hng ca bn n s ghi n vo ti khon ngi tr. L thu nh trc tip vo c nhn hay hng. Thu ny ngc vi thu gin thu. Xem COMPANY DIRECTOR. Mt gi thuyt do Aaron Director a ra, cho rng trong mt h thng dn ch, chnh ph c xu hng theo ui nhng chnh sch phn phi li thu nhp t nhng ngi kh giu v ngi ngho sang nhng nhm thu nhp trung bnh. Mt loi hnh T GI HI OI TH NI nhng khng c hon ton t do, bi v cc NGN HNG TRUNG NG thnh thong li can thip nhm lm cho t gi lch khi t gi ca th trng t do. Nhng ngi cng nhn m xt v tay ngh h a ra th trng lao ng hoc cc "tn hiu" h chuyn ti nhng ngi ch tng lai tnh th tng i bt li. Tng s ngi ri b cng vic mt cch khng tnh nguyn trong bt k mt thi k no. Mt phng php nh gi cc d n da trn tng CHIT KHU chi ph v li nhun tng lai xung gi tr hin ti ca chng. Xem RATE OF RETURN. Mt TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH trong th trng tin t London thu v cc ti sn ngn hn cng vi tin s tr khi c thng bo ngn hn Qu trnh p dng mt li sut i vi khon vn. Theo ngha hp l th trng London m ti HI PHIU THNG MI v HI PHIU B TI CHNH c mua bn . T l m li nhun hay chi ph tng lai s c chit khu do S THCH HIN TI HN TNG LAI hoc v s tn ti ca LI SUT DNG. Nhng cng nhn ri b th trng lao ng khi tht nghip tng ln. Mt bin ch nhn mt s gi tr nht nh.

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Li nhun vt qu mc ti thiu cn thit t c s chp nhn ca cc c ng. S can thip trc tip ca chnh ph thng dng CHNH SCH TI CHNH hay CHNH SCH TIN T nhm n nh tng trng hay mc THU NHP QUC DN. (Ngc li vi AUTOMATIC STABILIZERS). Xem PRICE DISCRIMINATION. i s khng cng bng i vi nhng th nh nhau. Xem PRICE DISCRIMINATION. Nhng rng buc mnh m pht sinh khi tc tng trng cao hn mt mc no v lm mt tnh hiu qu ca cc hot ng ca hng. Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE. Tin b k thut t c m khng tn km tin u t, nh mt dng "lc tri cho", hon ton khng ph thuc tch lu vn hay bt k bin no khc trong h thng kinh t. Mt trng thi khng cn bng. Xem HIDDEN UNEMPLOYMENT. Xem TAX DISINCENTIVE. Qu trnh lm mt dn hay gim LM PHT. Qu trnh theo vn m t trc i t ngi cung cp cui cng n ngi s dng cui cng thng qua TRUNG GIAN TI CHNH, c bit l cc ngn hng v cc l do lin quan n li sut tng i hay kim sot kh nng m rng cc khon tin gi ca cc ngn hng, by gi oc tin hnh trc tip. Vic c gim mt phn DUNG LNG VN hay s tht bi c d nh hoc khng d inh v u t thay th trang tri khu hao. Xu hng quan st c v tng chi tiu cng cng trong sut mt cuc chin tranh hay cuc khng hong quc gia khc nhng khng tr v mc ban u sau khng hong. Thu nhp cn li sau khi tr thu. Xem PERSONAL INCOME. Tiu dng vt thu nhp hin ti. Xem TRANSFER COSTS.

S xc nh v cc mi quan h kinh t lng thng i hi rng mt bin gii thch khng ch tn ti di gi tr hin ti m cn di dng mt chui trc (tr). Phn li nhun rng do hng phn phi di dng tr li c tc cho nhng ngi s hu vn c phiu cng ty. Xem DIVIDEND PAY. Cc l thuyt lin quan n c ch theo THU NHP quc dn c phn phi gia cc c nhn v cc nhm trong nn kinh t.

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S ng mc hay cng bng theo cch m sn phm ca mt nn kinh t c phn phi gia cc c nhn. Mt h s bng s p dng i vi nhng thay i trong thu nhp ca cc c nhn hay nhm c nhn v bao gm s BIN MINH PHN PHI no vi mc ch nh gi hiu qu ng gp ca mt chnh sch hay d n. Mt phn ca chnh sch chi tiu v thu ca chnh ph lin quan ti iu chnh phn phi thu nhp hoc ca ci trong x hi. Khi cc nh kinh t nh gi cc chnh sch hay d n, h gp phi nhng kh khn nh cc chnh sch nh hng khng ch i vi tng sn lng ca nn kinh t m c cch thc sn lng v li ch c phn phi gia c c nhn. Mt khi nim hay nguyn tc nh gi cc phng n phn phi thu nhp hoc ca ci gia cc c nhn. Xem Distributive judgement. Sai s trong mt phng trnh hi quy (hay cn gi l nhiu ngu nhin). S khng tho mn hoc khng hi lng do mt sn phm hay "hng xu" gy ra.Xem Utility. Xem EXPLOSIVE CYCLE. Hoc c nhiu ngnh trong mt khu vc hoc c mt lot sn phm do mt hng bn ra. Mt nh u t gi mt phn ca ci ca mnh di dng tin v phn cn li l cng tri hp nht. Phn tr cho c ng di dng tin hay c phiu. T s li nhun trn c phiu thng thng so vi tng li tc trn c phiu. Phn li tc thanh ton C TC. Li c tc cho thy t l % li tc m nh u t c th thu ti mc gi hin hnh. Qu trnh phn b lao ng cho hot ng no c nng sut cao nht, tc l vo hot ng s dng tt nht cc k nng ca n. Giy chng nhn tin gi (CD) ghi bng ola v c pht hnh c pht hnh i ly tin gi bng la. Nh kinh t ngi M gc Ba Lan, ni ting v cng trnh ca ng v THUYT TNG TRNG KINH T. ng nhn mnh rng chi tiu u t c hai hiu ng, c th l hiu ng to thu nhp v hiu ng tng nng lc. Kinh t hc KEYNES ch cng nhn hiu ng th nht v Domar a ra khng nh v nhng iu kin cn tng cu v tng nng lc pht trin mt cch cn i. Kt qu m ng thu c ging vi nhng g HARROD thu c mt cch c lp n ngy nay chng c bit n nh nhng iu kin ca Harrod/Domar. Tc phm chnh ca ng l Cc tiu lun v thuyt tng trng kinh t (1957). Mt ch s v thay i tin t trong mt nn kinh t, do QU TIN T QUC T a ra v ng h trong nhng nm 1960, nh mt thc o hin hnh ng hn v cc tc nhn m rng trong h thng tin t so vi nhng thay i tnh c trong dung lng tin. Xem Price leadership. Mt cch tip cn c h thng gii cc h phng trnh c 4 phng trnh hoc c 4 phng trnh tr ln do M.H.Doolittle a ra. Nu vic mua bn c tin hnh theo PHNG PHP HNG I HNG th cn thit phi c s trng hp hai ln nhu cu gia hai bn tham gia trao i. Vic tnh mt yu t chi ph hay li ch nhiu hn mt ln trong PHN TCH CHI PHLI CH.

Xem TERMS OF TRADE. Xem RESWITCHING.

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Mt c nhn hay t chc c thu nhp nc ngoi c th phi chu THU thu nhp c nc ngoi v nc bn a. S CH BO gi c phiu trn S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON PH WALL. l thut ng tng ng ca M cho CH S C PHIU THNG CA THI BO TI CHNH. Trong nhng pht trin hin i ca KINH T HC KEYNES c lp lun cho rng hm cung v cu thng thng khng cho thy nhng tn hiu xc ng v im cn bng trn th trng. Thuyt ny ban u do Mathus xng, ng xem nn kinh t gm 2 khu vc chnh: nng nghip v cng nghip; chia nn kinh t thnh 2 khu vc v xem xt s tc ng qua li gia chng c coi l lm tng s hiu bit v qu trnh pht trin. Phng ph dn xut cc h phng trnh cu phi sinh ph hp vi hnh vi ti u ho ca ngi tiu dng hay sn xut bng cch n gin l vi phn ha mt hm thay th cho vic gii mt bi ton ti u c rng buc. Gi thuyt cho rng th trng lao ng c phn thnh 2 cp: Cp mt v cp hai.Nhng cng vic c lng cao, c trin vng v bt, an ton v tr cp cao, to thnh khu vc cp mt ca mt nn kinh t lng cp. Trong khu vc cp hai, tin lng c hnh thnh do cnh tranh, cng vic nhiu c th s dng ht tt c cng nhn, tuy nhin nhng cng vic ny c lng thp, khng n nh v ni chung l khng hp dn. Nhng cng nhn trong khu vc cp hai do phi chu tnh trng hu nghip phim dng.

Mt bin nh phn (c - khng) c a ra xem xt nhng dch chuyn (dch chuyn gi) hay thay i ngoi sinh ca dc ( c gi) trong mi quan h kinh t lng. Vic bn mt hng ho nc ngoi mc gi thp hn so vi mc gi th trng trong nc. Mt c cu th trng ch c 2 hng. Cc m hnh l gii c gii thch s xc nh sn lng v gi c trn c cu th trng ny t c s phn tch ca mnh ln nhng gi nh xem xt n vic a ra quyt nh trong c s ph thuc ln nhau c thy r. Mt th trng ch c hai ngi mua cng mt loi sn phm hay dch v em trao i. Khong thi gian trung bnh m mt c nhn tri qua khi ng k tht nghip. S thng k d bo bi ton TNG QUAN CHUI hay cc h s sai s trong php hi quy, bao gm mt bin ni sinh tr hon trong trng hp s thng k Durbin Watson-d thng dng hn khng th p dng c. Mt s thng k d bo v bi ton TNG QUAN CHUI ca cc h s sai s trong php hi quy. Phn tch lin thi gian v h thng kinh t. Nn kinh t c th i t mt im cn bng ny sang im cn bng khc (tc l hai im CN BNG TNH SO SNH) hoc c th lin tc khng t n im cn bng tnh no. Xem Dynamic economic. Xem EXCHANGE RATE. Mt tp hp cc k thut ton hc gii cc loi bi ton chui ra quyt nh. Cc l thuyt mi v thng mi quc t, nhn mnh vai tr ca tnh r rng v s truyn b thnh tin trong vic gii thch hnh thi thng mi quc t v sn xut. Vic gn nhng yu t c th trong CHI TIU CNG CNG vi cc khon thu nhp huy ng t mt s c th. Xem BENEFIT PRINCIPLE.

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Cn thut ng c s dng theo hai cch: mt miu t phn li tc i vi n lc ca con ngi, th lao cho u vo ca yu t lao ng sn xut v ngha th hai miu t thu nhp ca mt doanh nghip. Tng thu nhp hng tun vt mc tng MC LNG tho tho thun. Mi quan h hm s gia cc mc thu nhp v cc yu t quyt nh chng. Tnh trng chung ca vic vay tin d dng v r trong h thng ti chnh.

Thu do cc thnh vin ca CNG NG CHU U (EC) nh vo hng nng phm nhp khu t cc nc khng phi l thnh vin.

Mt M HNH ton hc ca mt nn kinh t hay mt b phn ca mt nn kinh t m cc tham s ca n c c tnh bng phng php kinh t lng. Mt nghnh ca thng k hc lin quan ti kim nghim cc gi thuyt kinh t v c tnh cc tham s kinh t ch y thng qua phng php HI QUY BI S, mc d i khi thng qua vic s dng phng php lun phc tp hn. Nhng hot ng kinh t m s tng trng v pht trin ca chng c coi l c vai tr quyt ng i vi tng trng kinh t ca mt vng hay ca mt th trn. Mt dng ca NHN T KHU VC c tnh nh hng ca nhng thay i trong mt C S KINH T vng i vi ton b nn kinh t ca vng. Mt lin minh kinh t gia cc nc c biu thu quan v chnh sch thng mi chung d b cc hn ch i vi thng mi gia cc nc thnh vin. Mt c quan vin tr kinh t, thnh lp nm 1948 do o lut Tr gip nc ngoi ca M, qun l K HOCH MARSHALL i vi vic phc hi kinh t Chu u sau chin tranh th gii th hai. Qu trnh ci thin mc snngs v s sung tc ca dn chng ca cc nc ang pht trin bng cch tng thu nhp trn u ngi. Xem NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL. Xem INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT Xem DYNAMIC ECONOMICS Xem ALLCATIVE EFFICIENCY

Thng ch mc tng sn lng thc t ca SN PHM QUC DN RNG, mc d thc o ny s nhy cm vi cch tnh sn phm quc dn. Xem GROWTH THEORY Mt mt hng khan him v mt hng m ngi ta s la chn nhiu hn nu c th. Xem FREE GOOD. Xem IMPERIALISM Hc thuyt ng h kh nng s dng nhiu nht cc th trng v cc tc nhn cnh tranh iu phi hot ng kinh t. Tn t cho "vt oc c sng to" trong kinh t hc, bng cch , cc c nhn c gi nh l c s nh th h ti a ho tho dng, chu chi phi bi nhng rng buc, trong hin nhin nht l thu nhp. S phi hp mt cc c t chc cc hot ng kinh t. S iu hnh ca nh nc i vi nn kinh t ca mt quc gia.

Khon tri tr cho mt yu t sn xut vt mc cn thit gi yu t mc s dng hin ti.

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Mt ngnh nghin cu v cch thc con ngi t t chc gii quyt vn c bn v s khan him. Chnh lc gia sn lng ca mt nn kinh t v chi ph cn thit sn xut ra sn lng , m chi ph cn thit l TIN CNG, KHU HAO VN, chi ph nguyn vt liu. Gim chi ph trung bnh ca mt sn phm xt trong di hn nh tng sn lng. Mt m hnh v hnh vi chnh tr gi nh rng l c tri l nhng ngi ti a ho THO DNG v cc ng phi chnh tr l nhng T CHC TI A HO PHIU BU. Xem ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Phn phc li ca con ngi xut phts t vic tiu dng hng ho v dch v. Xem LEARNING Mt nhn nh rng, tin cng cao s dn n nng sut cao; tin cng v sn phm lao ng bin c coi l c lin h thun vi nhau. Xem EUROPEAN COAL AND STEEL COMMUNITY Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM Gio s kinh t chnh tr hc trng i hc Oxford 1891-1922 v l ngi theo ch ngha v li, l ngi pht minh ra cng c v ng bng quan v ng hp ng m s dng trong thuyt hng i hng. ng cng ni ting vi cng trnh v cc phng php thng k v c bit l quy lut chung ca sai s, ch s v hm s. ng m rng QUY LUT LI TC GIM DN t nng nghip sang ch to nh mt nguyn l chung. Xem EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY Tng cu i vi hng ho v dch v c h tr bi cc ngun lc mua chng. Xem DUAL DECISION HYPOTHESIS. c nh ngha l phn gi tr gia tng, do c cu thu quan mang li, l mt phn gi tr gia tng ca thng mi t do. Xem AVERAGE RATE OF TAX

Mt cm thut ng c cc nh kinh t ng U s dng ch T S SN LNG/ VN GIA TNG. Thu nhp trn mt N V HIU QU. Khi cc nh kinh t hc ni v khuynh hng cnh tranh cn bng thu nhp trn cng mt TH TRNG LAO NG TRONG NC ngha l h mun ni n thu nhp hiu qa. Mt phng php o lng lc lng lao ng thng qua u vo dch v lao ng c s dng.

Theo hc thuyt ny, SN PHM BIN ca ngi lao ng v tin cng m h c tr c lin quan vi nhau.

Mt quan im cho rng gi c phiu trn th trng chng khon l nhng c tnh tt nht v gi tr thc ca c phiu v th trng chng khon c c ch nh gi tt nht.

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Mt khi nim chnh thc dng biu th gi nh rng s n lc l mt bin s c tc ng m trong HM THO DNG ca cc c nhn, tc l s n lc to ra trong s PHI THO DNG BIN.

Mt thc o t l phn trm thay i ca mt bin s i vi mt t l % thay i ca mt bin s khc. Xem PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND. Thng dng ch CO GIN CA CU THEO GI, nhng cn phi xc nh r ca gin ca cu no ang c cp n. Mt thc o s phn ng ca s kt hp lao ng TI U i vi thay i gi tng i ca hai u vo ny (hoc ch hai yu t u vo bt k). Xem RESERVE ASSET RATIO. Cc TI SN ti chnh m NGN HNG TRUNG NG sn sng mua (ti chit khu) hay chp nhn lm vt th chp cho cc khon vay, trong mt s trng hp c bit, v thng l khi giao dch vi cc c quan oc nh r. Xem Luxury

Tin b k thut m khng th c c nu khng hm cha ngun vn mi. c nh ngha l mt phn tin lng ca ban qun l v cc li ch PHI TIN T m li ch ny khng phi l mt phn gi cung cp ca doanh nghip (lng chnh ). Mt k hoch cho php cc nhn vin trong cc hng ca M c hng li nhun v s tng trng ca doanh nghip bng cch s hu cc c phn trong c phn chung ca cng ty. Tit mt ca o lut ny quy nh rng, trong quyn hn ca mnh, chnh ph lin bang M lm mi vic to ra v duy tr c hi v vic lm, tng trng bn vng v sc mua n nh cho ng tin ca M. Cc vn phong nh nc hay t nhn c gng sp xp nhng ngi xin vic vo cc ch trng hin c. Xem JOB CREATION

Php kim nghim khng tp trung ny da trn nguyn tc cho rng mt m hnh nn c cc c im ni bt ca cc m hnh khc nhau v c th l cc m hnh nghch. Mt gi thit cho rng tho dng l mt hm ca chi tiu TIU DNG v CA CI. Theo quan im ny, mc cung tin c quyt nh bi cc tc nhn bn trong nn kinh t, chng hn nh li sut v mc hot ng kinh doanh. Mt bin s m gi tr ca n c xc nh trong khun kh ca mt m hnh kinh t hay kinh t lng. Cc c nhn i hi nhiu hn c th li ko h t b mt hng ho m h c so vi s tin m h sn lng tr c c hng ha tng t. Mt ch bo v tnh hiu qu trong vic s dng nng lng c bn trong sn xut mt n v tng sn phm quc ni.

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Mt cch tip cn khng chnh thc v khng r rng i vi qu trnh T NHN HO nhanh chng ti sn nh nc cc nc x hi ch ngha trc y (v mt vi nc khc), qua cc nh hot ng ng phi trc y v quan chc nh nc c th mua ti sn nh nc vi gi thp hn gi th trng. Thut ng nomenklatura ch nhng ngi c la chn vo cc chc v cao, nhng khng phi do cng trng m do s phn quyt ca ng cm quyn. Tng s ngi tham gia i ng c vic l trong bt c thi k no. Mt ng biu th mi quan h gia thu nhp v tiu dng ca mt c nhn v mt hng ho c th. Mt "quy lut" tiu dng thc nghim do Ernst Engel xng. tng y l phn thu nhp quc gia c chi tiu cho lng thc l mt ch s tt v phc li ca quc gia . Mt phng php c dng trong PHN TCH CHI PH THNG K, trong nhng c tnh ca ngi k s v mi lin h u vo- u ra l c s tnh ton chi ph sn xut ti thiu ti cc mc sn lng khc nhau. Mt nguyn tc v s cng bng trong phn phi cho rng, cc c nhn c coi l "c quyn" i vi nhng vt s hu chng no s hu c c nh, do trao i t nguyn hay do qu biu. Mt nhn t t chc trong mt qu trnh sn xut. Ch doanh nghip chu trch nhim v cc quyt nh kinh t nh sn xut ci g, sn xut bao nhiu v phng php sn xut no c p dng. Li tc va gi mt ngi iu hnh vi mt s phm cht no li vi cng vic hin ti ca ngi . Xem Entrepreneur. Xem BARRIERS TO ENTRY. Xem LIMIT PRICING. Gi m cc hng thit lp trong mt ngnh nh ra mc khng s nhng doanh nghip m nhp ngnh. Mc d trnh hiu bit khoa hc v k thut ca th gii ang gia tng, vn cn chnh lch ln v kin thc ny, c bit lin quan n iu kin mi trng CC NC ANG PHT TRIN. Gi thuyt cho rng mi trng vt cht l yu t chnh quyt nh ti trnh pht trin kinh t ca mt quc gia. Mt phn tch tm cch xc nh r rng nhng nh hng ln ton b mi trng ca mt d n u t. Xem EUROPEAN PAYMENTS UNION. Xem COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Mt o lut m rng vi phm ca mc VII ca o lut Quyn dn s ca M nm 1964 sang cc chnh quyn tiu bang v a phng v cho php U ban c hi vic lm ngang nhau lp h s kin tng cho bn thn h. Mt u ban c thnh lp gii quyt nhng khiu ni bt ngun t s thng qua o lut Quyn dn s ca M nm 1964. o lut ny nghim cm hnh ng phn bit i x ca cc ng ch. Cc qu do mt chnh ph cp cho cc chnh quyn a phng vi mc ch gim mc khng cn bng trong thu nhp hay doanh thu do chnh quyn a phng thu c. Xem NET ADVANTAGES. S cng bng gia cc gii v iu khon v iu kin vic lm: mt khi nim v tr lng ngang nhau cho cng vic c gi tr ngang nhau, mc d nh ngha v "tr lng" v "cng vic ngang nhau" khng ging nhau gia cc nc. S hy sinh cng THO DNG ca nhng ngi tr thu.

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Xem QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY. Mt cm thut ng mn t mn vt l miu t tnh hung, trong cc tc nhn kinh t hay tng tc nhn kinh t nh th trng, khng c ng lc g thay i hnh vi kinh t ca mnh. Khi mt nhm cc bin s c lin kt vi nhau trong mt m hnh HI QUY l ng lin kt (xem COINTEGRATION) th thnh phn nhiu c gi l sai s cn bng. Mc cn bng ca THU NHP QUC GIA khng biu hin cc xu hng thay i. Gi ti TH TRNG trng thi CN BNG. T l LM PHT c hon ton d bo trc. T l lm pht gi c m ti cc k vng c th tr thnh hin thc. Cn c gi l c phiu thng, l nhng c phiu dng vn pht hnh ca mt cng ty. Cng l hay l phi. Xem EQUYTIES. Mt h s hoc mt "quyn s" c dng nh gi mc thu nhp hoc tiu dng m cc gia nh bt buc phi c trong cc hon cnh khc nhau t c mt "mc sng" nht nh. Mt h s biu th bng s p dng cho mc tiu dng cc hng ho nht nh ca cc gi nh trong cc hon cnh khc nhau ch ra mc tiu dng m mi gia nh cn c t c mc sng nht nh. Mt h s bng s p dng i vi mc thu nhp ca cc gia nh cn c t ti mc sng nht nh. Xem CONSUMER'S SURPLUS. Xem EXCHANGE RATE MECHANISM. Trong phn tch v hi quy mt ECMs kt hp cc s tc ng qua li ngn hn v di hn gia cc bin s, Xem ADAPTIVE EXPECTATIONS. Mt bi ton kinh t lng, theo cc bin gii thch trong phn tch HI QUY c o mt cch khng hon ho do gi tr thc t ca chng khng th quan st c, hay do s khng chnh xc khi ghi chp. Cc iu khon v ph sinh hot trong cc ghi tho thun thng lng tp th. Cc iu khon l mt c ch iu chnh nh k mc lng da trn nhng bin ng ca mt ch s gi c nht nh. Dng ch yu ca thu ca ci Anh trc khi n c thay th bng thu CHUYN GIAO VN nm 1974. Thu ny c dnh gi theo sut lu tin vo cc ti sn ca ngi ch khi ngi ny qua i. Thu lu tin c p dng cho ton b ti sn ch khng ch cho lng gia tng ca ci. Thut ng ni v mt khu vc hay ton b nn kinh t mt nc chm pht trin c s dng sn xut i quy m ln nng sn xut khu, thng do cc th lc nc ngoi s hu hoc qun l; nn kinh t ny rt ph bin trong thi k thuc a. S xc nh mang tnh nh lng cc tham s trong cc m hnh kinh t thng qua cc s liu thng k. Mt cng thc hay mt quy trnh c lng cc con s thng k (chng hn nh TRUNG BNH hay PHNG SAI ca mt bin s) hoc cc tham s ca mt phng trnh nhn c t s liu.

Mt th trng quc t nc ngoi ca cc ng tin ca cc nc cng nghip ln (phng Ty). Xem EUROCURRENCY MARKET. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U c thnh lp nm 1962 nhm ti tr vn cho chnh sch nng nghip chung ca cng ng.

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c thnh lp nm 1991 vi s vn 10 t n v tin t Chu u nhm thc y s pht trin cc nc thuc khi ng u. T chc thc hin v qun l TH TRNG CHUNG v than & thp gia 6 nc thnh vin sng lp ca CNG NG CHU U. Mt ngn sch do cc nc thnh vin ca cng ng Chu u ng gp nhm ti tr cho cc hot ng ca cng ng. Cc khon ng gp t cc thnh vin dng 90% l doanh thu t thu NNG NGHIP v BIU THU QUAN CHUNG v di 1% doanh thu t thu GI TR GIA TNG c tnh cho mc ch lm hi ho thu gia cc nc thnh vin. Xem European Economic Community. Mt tn gi chung ca 3 t chc: Cng ng Than v thp Chu u, Cng ng kinh t chu u v cng ng nng lng nguyn t Chu u. Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM. Mt qu c bit do CNG NG KINH T CHU U thnh lp cung cp vin tr ti chnh v k thut cho cc nc lin kt vi Cng ng Chu u theo Hip c ROME, cc hip nh YAOUND v LOM. Xem EUROPEAN INVESTMENT BANK. Cng ng Kinh t Chu u c cnhthwcs thnh lp ngy 25-3-1957 theo hip c Rome do chnh ph cc nc B, H Lan, Cng ho lin bang c, Italia, Lucxmbua. Hip c ny a li s pht trin t do lin minh thu quan, loi b mi ro cn i vi s vn ng t do ca VN, LAO NG v DCH V v hnh thnh cc chnh sch vn ti v nng nghip gia cc nc thnh vin. c thnh lp nm 1960 sau Hip nh Stockholm, c o, an mch, Nauy. B o Nha, Thu in, Thu S, Anh thng qua. Hip hi t c cc mc tiu ban u ca mnh l thit lp bun bn hng ho cng nghip t do gia cc mc tiu ban u ca mnh l thit lp bun bn hng ho cng nghip t do gia cc thnh vin v m phn mt hip c thng mi ton din vi cng ng chu u (EC). HIP C TIN T CHU U c hi ng OEEC thng qua vo nm 1955, cho php qu Chu u gip ti tr thm ht CN CN THANH TON tm thi pht sinh t quyt nh ca cc nc thnh vin lm cho ng tin ca mnh c kh nng chuyn i vi ng la. Mt ngn hng pht trin c thnh lp nm 1957 theo HIP C ROME, cho ra i CNG NG KINH T CHU U. Chc nng c bn ca ngn hng ny l thc y s pht trin ca h trng chung Chu u bng cch cp cp cc khon vay di hn, bo lnh cc khon vay to iu kin ti tr u t cho cc vng km pht trin, cc k hoch hin i ho cng nghip v cc d n cng nghip. Hip nh c Hi ng T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U thng qua nm 1955. Hip nh l quyt nh ca cc nc Chu u nhm lm cho ng tin ca cc nc dn dn chuyn i c i vi ng la, bng cch thay th LIN MINH THANH TON CHU U bng mt h thng thanh ton quc t mi, trong mi giao dch phi c tin hnh bng vng hoc cc ng tin c th chuyn i. Mt qu c bit ca EC hnh thnh nm 1973 nhm p dng HIP NH BASLE 1972, hip nh ny quy nh cc mc dao ng trong trao i ca cc ng tin c qun l, oc bit n nh "con rn tin t" chu u. Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY FUND. c p dng vo thng 3-1979, h thng ny (EMS) l mt n lc nhm to nn mt khu vc n nh v t gi hi oi gia cc nc thnh vin, v hu ht cc thnh vin u tin hnh vic hn ch bin ng t gi hi oi ca mnh mc (+) hoc (-) 2,25% gi trung tm, thng nht cho ng tin ca h. Xem EUROPEAN UNIT OF ACCOUNT.

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Nm 1950, T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U thnh lp Lin minh Thanh ton Chu u, thay th cho h thng cc t chc thanh ton Chu u do cc hip nh thanh ton trong Chu u nm 1948 v nm 1949 a vo p dng. Mc ch ca lin minh ny to iu kin choa thanh ton thng d hay thm ht a phng gia cc nc Chu u (v cc khu vc tin t nc ngoi tng ng ca chng) v khuyn khch cc chnh sch t do ho mu dch bng cch a ra cc phng tn tn dng t ng cho cc thnh vin gp phi thm ht cn cn thanh ton. Nm 1947, B trng ngoi giao M, tng George Marshall pht biu trong mt bi din vn ti trng i hc Harvard, ngh gip ca M i vi chng trnh phc hi nn kinh t Chu u do cc nc Chu u iu phi. Sau bi din vn ny, cc i din ca 16 nc Ty u thnh lp U ban v Hp tc Kinh t Chu u, T CHC HP TC KINH T CHU U c thnh lp nm 1948 iu hnh mt chng trnh phc hng chu u cng vi U BAN HP TC KINH T CA M. Chng trnh ny thng c gi l VIN TR MARSHALL. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U, thnh lp nm 1975, nhm lm gim s chnh lch v pht trin kinh t gia cc khu vc trong cng ng. Mt qu c bit ca CNG NG CHU U, nhm mc ch tng cng c hi tm kim vic lm trong cng ng bng cch m bo h tr ti chnh o to li cng nhn, c bit l nhng ai b thu hp cng vic do hot ng ca Th trng chung Chu u. L n v k ton c s dng trong CNG NG CHU U cho cc mc ch nh chun b ngn sch cng ng v nh gi sn phm nng nghip thng qua CHNH SCH NNG NGHIP CHUNG. V cc nc thnh vin ca C dng cc ng tin khc nhau, nn cn thit phi to ra mt n v k ton chung trao i bun bn cng ng. Cc Thng k ca CNG NG CHU U. Khi PHN PHI XC SUT ca mt thng k kim nh c bit mt cch chnh xc, thay cho vic mt phn phi ch bit dng gn ng, nh vy vng ti hn c th xc nh c th kim nh y c gi l kim nh chnh xc. L mc c d tnh, d nh hay mong mun ca mt hot ng no . Ni mt cch cht ch, khi mt doanh nghip c coi l sn xut tha nng lc l khi mc SN LNG c sn xut ra thp hn mc sn lng ti chi ph trung bnh thp nht. c dng miu t d bo m hnh CNH TRANH C QUYN, trong cc hng trong iu kin cn bng di hn sn xut trn on xung dc ca NG CHI PH TRUG BNH di hn, do sn xut mc chi ph cao hn chi ph ti thiu. L tnh trng CU vt CUNG mt mc gi no .

Mc chnh lch gia tng s d tr m ngn hng gi tin M ang gi v D TR BT BUC do lut php yu cu tr n. L tnh trng CUNG vt CU mt mc gi no .

L thu a ra chng vic tng lng qu cao nhm lm gim lm pht. Xem TRADE. L mt h thng m nh nc s dng kim sot cc giao dch bng ngoi t v vng. L mt h thng hay dn xp c NGN HNG hnh thnh nm 1932, nhm qun l nhng bin ng khng mong mun trong t gi hi oi ca ng bng, sau khi Anh b CH BN V VNG vo nm 1931. L gi ca ng tin mt nc c tnh bng ng tin ca mt nc khc.

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C ch t gi hi oi (ERM) l mt h thng m theo cc thnh vin ca H THNG TIN T CHU U (ENS) buc phi duy tr t gi hi oi ca h trong nhng mc nht nh. Xem EXTERNAL RESERVES L ti khon trung ng ca chnh ph Anh c B ti chnh gi trong ngn hng Anh. Xem CONSOLIDATED FUND. Xem CUSTOMS, EXCISE AND PROTECTIVE DUTIES. L mt tnh trng m ngi tiu dng "b loi tr" khng c mua mt loi hng ho no v gi m ngi sn sng tr thp hn gi th trng. Xem EXCLUSSION PRINCIPLE. L mt tiu chun chng ta phn bit HNG HO CNG CNG v hng ho phi cng cng. Khi mt ngi sn xut hay mt ngi bn c th ngn cn mt s ngi no khng cho h mua hng ca mnh - ni chung l nhng ngi khng tin mua hng - th hng ho c cung cp theo cch ca th trng. L mt c nhn chu trch nhim i vi mt mt hay kha cnh no trong cc hot ng ca mt hng. Xem VALUE - ADDED TAX L hnh thc la chn tp th m trong ngi b phiu th hin phng n t thch nht ca mnh. Bt k mt nh l no tm cch lp lun rng, trong bi cnh cn bng tng th, tn ti mt lot gi v lng cn bng. Xem EQUYLIBRUM, GENERAL EQUIBRIUM. L s phn loi cc h thng, m cc c nhn s dng by t thch ca h phn bit nhng ngi mun tham gia vo hay rt lui khi nhng th cn s giao tip bng li ni.

Nu cc bin s gii thch trong mt phng trnh M HNH KINH T LNG c th c coi l c nh trong cc mu c lp li, chng c coi l cc bin ngoi sinh. Xem MONEY SUPPLY. L mt cm thut ng miu t bt k ci g c quy nh hoc cho trc ca mt phn tch kinh t. L mt bin s m gi tr ca n khng c xc nh trong m hnh kinh t, nhng li ng vai tr quan trong trong vic xc nh gi tr ca cc bin ni sinh. L mt giai on trong CHU K KINH DOANH tip theo sau mt im thp nht ca chu k v ko di n im tip theo cao nht ca chu k. Lin quan n HNG, y l ng ni cc la chn yu t u vo mi mc sn lng nh trong th, ngha l qu tch ca cc tip im gia NG NG PH v NG NG LNG. L thut ng chung ch ngi mang quc tch nc ngoi, thng dng ch nhng ngi t CC NC PHT TRIN n lm vic ti CC NC KM PHT TRIN. L cc quan im hay s tin tng vo cc gi tr tng lai ca cc bin s kinh t. L cc bin i i vi mt m hnh kinh t tnh n hiu ng ca cc d tnh. tr trong vic xem xt li gi tr k vng ca mt bin s do cc thay i trong gi tr hin ti ca n. tr d tnh thng c gii thch bng GI THIT K VNG PHNG THEO. T L LM PHT no c d tnh trong tng lai.

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L tng cc thu nhp d tnh tr i cc chi ph d tnh, tc l li nhun d tnh ca mt d n u t. L thuyt v cc hnh vi c nhn trong iu kin KHNG CHC CHN ca VON NEUMANN v MORGENSTERN. Thuyt a ra s m t logic rng mi ngi duy l c th c x nh th no trong mt th gii khng chc chn. Phn chnh ca thuyt ny cho thy rng mt c nhn c nhng s thch tho mn mt s nh (thng l v trt t, tip tc v dc lp) s la chn ti a ho tho dng d tnh. Cn c gi TRUNG BNH, k vng ton hc.Gi tr k vng ca mt BIN S NGU NHIN l gi tr trung bnh ca phn phi ca bin y.

L mt trong cc chnh sch cn thit loi b s khng cn bng thng mi quc t. L loi thu nh vo chi tiu ca ngi tiu dng.N l hnh thc thay th cho THU THU NHP v c th c nh mc da trn c s lu tin. iu chnh li s mt cn bng kinh doanh bng cch thay i mc v thnh phn ca ngn sch v bng cch kim sot quy m v chi ph ca tn dng. L mt khi nim ni v s hi lng ca cc nh qun l tc trong vic chi tiu cho mt s cng vic ca hng nh chi tiu cho vic Marketing v cho i ng nhn vin. L bin s ng vai tr trong vic "gii thch" s bin i ca mt bin c lp trong phn tch hi quy, bin s gii thch xut hin bn phi ca phng trnh hi quy. Dng thng thng nht ca mt hm s trong bin s PH THUC c vit bn tri ca du bng v cc BIN C LP vit bn phi, thng ch mi lin h nhn qu hoc xc nh. Trong kinh t hc, thut ng ny c hai ngha. Th nht, l vic s dng ti nguyn thin nhin hay nhn lc. Th hai, mt cng nhn c gi l b bc lt nu s tin chi tr cho cng vic lm t hn gi tr ca cng vic . L chu k c trng bi vic bin tng theo hm m, v d, qua thi gian. N c xem nh chu k phn k. Hm s m l mt HM LU THA, thng ch s lin quan gia bin s c lp v s e tng ln mt lu tha cha BIN S C LP khi e = 2,718, v l c s ca LOGARIT T NHIN. Mt hng ho hoc dch v sn xut ti mt nc c bn v tiu dng nc khc. Xut khu hu hnh l xut khu hng ho, cn xut khu v hnh l xut khu dch v cho ngi nc khc mua. Ngn hng do chnh ph M thnh lp nam 1937, nhm thc y ngoi thng ca M bng cch cung cp vn di dng cc khon tin cho vay trc tip c bo m cho cc cng ty nc ngoi. L s tng trng c thc y bi s gia tng hng xut khu. L s pht trin ca nhng ngnh m thtng chnh l nc ngoi. y l mt chin lc thay th chnh i vi CHIN LC THAY TH NHP KHU cc nc km pht trin. L mt t chc c chnh ph Anh thnh lp nm 1930, a ra cc hnh thc BO HIM khc nhau nhm chng li nhng ri ro m cc nh xut khu Anh pha chu ng.

Sau khi xy ra mt s kin no hoc sau mt quyt nh thc hin mt vic g . Xem EX ANTE. L tnh trng LI TC GIM DN i vi t ai.

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Thng c nh ngha l mt tnh trng trong CN CN THANH TON ca mt nc l CN BNG, theo ngha lung tin vo t nh bng vi lung ra t nh m khng cn iu chnh cc lung b sung vo hoc rt ra t d tr NGOI HI hay d tr vng. Thm ht CN CN THANH TON.

Xem EXTERNALITIES. Nhng nh hng c li hay c hi m cc hot ng sn xut ca mt hng ny gy ra cho cc hot ng sn xut ca hng khc. Xem EXTERNALITIES. Qu c huy ng bi cc hng bng cch pht hnh C PHIU (vn c phn) hoc i vay ti tr cho cc hot ng ca hng. Chnh ph Anh t gii hn i vi cc NGUN TI CHNH T BN NGOI m cc cng ty quc doanh c th huy ng trong nc. S m rng ca mt hng c mang li do SP NHP hay thu mua. c bit n vi nhng tn khc nhau, nh tc ng ngoi lai, nh hng t bn ngoi, bt li t bn ngoi,nh hng tro ra bn ngoi v NH HNG N VNG LN CN. Ngi ta phn bit ngoi ng bin v ngoi ng trong bin. Mt th trng cho mt s ngi lao ng nht nh, hoc l sn ngay hoc tim tng cho cc cng vic mi. Thng ch mc nm gi cc phng tin thanh ton ca mt nc c quc t chp nhn, vi mc ch trang tri lm thm ht ngn hn v trung hn ca CN CN THANH TON VI BN NGOI, ng thi nhm mc ch kim sot s thay i T GI HI OI ng tin ca nc ny.

Nhng thng tin ban u (c th l c lng v tham s trc ) c kt hp vi thng tin mu vi mc ch suy lun thng k hay c tnh tham s trong phn tch hi quy thng ci thin d bo hay khc phc nhng vn nh A CNG TUYN TNH.

Cc gi tr thp nht v cao nht ca mt hm s.

Tin b k thut dn n vic gia tng mc sn lng khi VN v LC LNG LAO NG KHNG I.

Mc sn c cc yu t sn xut trong mt vng hay mt nc thng l t ai, lao ng, vn v k thut. Thu nhp trc tip c c nho sn xut hng ho v dch v hin ti. Phng php gii thot s n thng mi thng qua mt cng ty c th "bn" c s n ny cho mt th ch ti chnh. Mt nh ny sinh t CCH TIP CN HECKSCHER - OHLIN V THNG MI QUC T cho rng vi mt s gi thit hn ch, THNG MI T DO l s thay th hon ho cho vic di chuyn yu t sn xut v s c tc dng san bng mc thanh ton cho bt k mt yu t sn xut no trn phm vi ton th gii, chng hn nh mc tin cng ca tt c cc nc phi bng nhau. Thut ng ny do PAUL SAMUELSON a ra, ch mi quan h t l nghch gia mc tin cng v li nhun trong l thuyt tng trng.

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T l kt hp cc YU T CA SN XUT. Mt trong cc gi thit caCCH TIP CN HECKSCHER - OHLIN V THNG MI QUC T l cc hm sn xut hng ho khc nhau t s, cng s dng cc yu t sn xut v mt hng ho s dng. Cc ngun lc ca x hi c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut.

Lng cc yu t c th s dng trn thc t. So snh tin cng da trn c s cho rng cng nhn lm nhng cng vic gn tng t nh nhau phi c tr cng mc tin cng. Nguyn tc ch o trong vic iu tit ngnh cng ch M l t l thu li hp l i vi gi tr ca vn c s dng trong vic sn xut cc dch v dn dng. M c mt s n lc nhm thit lp cc mc gi bn l ti thiu theo khun kh php lut (cc tho thun c duy tr mc gi bn li) i vi cc hng ho c nhn hiu v tn gi. o lut ny ca Anh m rng chnh sch cnh tranh i vi cc th trng c quyn, v trch nhim tp trung trong vic thc hin lut c qun v hot ng hn ch vi vn phng mi ca Tng gim c Vn phng Thng mi Cng bng. c ra i theo o lut thng mi bnh ng 1973, vn phng ny c trch nhim thu thp thng tin lin quan n c cu ca cc nghnh v vic tin hnh kinh doanh. NHn chung, tin cng cng bng l tin cng c c nh theo LUT TIN CNG TI THIU quc gia.

Hot ng thng mi theo mc gi phi cn bng. Mt cuc iu tra chn mu hng nm v xu hng chi tiu ca cc h gia nh do chnh ph Anh tin hnh. XemBEVERIGDE REPORT

H thng nng nghip ph bin cc vng chm pht trin da trn c s gia nh.

Nhng cch to vic lm bng cch dng qu nhiu sc lao ng v/ hoc khng dng cng ngh tin tin.

Mt cng ty M c trch nhim bo him cc khon tin gi trong cc NGN HNG THNG MI v cc hip hi tit kim v cho vay ln ti 100.000 la trong mt ti khon ti mt th ch. Th trng M, trong "nhng khon tin c th c s dng ngay lp tc" c em cho vay hay i vay, ch yu l qua m gia cc Ngn hng thnh vin ca H THNG D TR LIN BANG, cc th ch ti chnh ch yu khc cc chi nhnh v c quan ca cc ngn hng khng phi ca M. C quan ca chnh ph M s dng quyn lc ca mnh trn th trng tin t cung cp cc khon thanh khon cho Hip hi tit kim v cho vay.

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Mt t chc do chnh ph M thnh lp nm 1938, nhm tr gip th trng i vi cc ti sn cm c c chnh ph ti tr Xem FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM. Mt cng c chng n do H THNG D TR LIN BANG pht hnh di nhiu hnh thc khc nhau. H thng ny c thnh lp M nm 1913 thc hin chc nng ca mt NGN HNG TRUNG NG v xy dng mt khun kh mnh nhm kim sot h thng ngn hng thng mi. H thng ny c cu trc quy m lin bang, gm c 12 Ngn hng d tr Lin bang, mi ngn hng c trch nhim v cc hot ng hng ngy trong khu vc v hot ng ging nh knh lin h hai chiu gia h thng ny v cng ng lin doanh. o lut ny c ban hnh M vo nm 1914, nhm thit lp mt hi ng (FTC) c kh nng trong cc cng vic kinh doanh iu tra "vic t chc, ch o kinh doanh, th tc v qun l" ca cc cng ty hot ng thng mi gia cc tiu bang v chng li "cc phng php cnh tranh khng cng bng". FTC cng c nhim v chng li "cc hot ng hoc th tc khng cng bng, di tr hoc c lin quan n thng mi". Gi thit cho rng nhng iu kin trong th trng lao ng th cp (cp hai) lm cho cng nhn c nhng thi quen lao ng xu. Mt dng h thng chnh tr v kinh t thng tr Chu u thi k trung c. Ch ngha phong kin c c trng bi mt thp x hi bt u t ngi nng dn l thuc thng qua cc cha t v tc hu "thi p" ln n tn nh vua. Tin c v th c lut php quy nh. Mt b phn ca tin do ngn hng Anh pht hnh theo O LUT QUY CH NGN HNG ca Hun tc Robert Peel nm 1844, c kh nng i ly tri phiu ca chnh ph, v khc vi tin vng (v tin bc trn mt phm vi nht nh) v thoi vng. Tn gi ca mt cng thc hay mt phng thc nhm loi b nhng bin ng khng mong mun ca s liu. Mt cm thut ng c s dng trong KINH T HC TH m t qu trnh thay i v cht lng nh , nhn chung l din ra thng qua vic chuyn nh ca nhm ngi c thu nhp cao sang nhm ngi c thu nhp thp hn. Xem FULL INFORMATION MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD. Nhng hng ho c s dng cho mc ch tiu dng ch khng dng nh l U VO trong qu trnh sn xut cc cng ty. Do hng ho cui cng khc vi SN PHM TRUNG GIAN. S can thip vo TRANH CHP LAO NG ca mt bn th ba c lp v cng bng, bn th ba ny xem xt cc l l ca hai bn v xut kin cui cng, quan im cui cng ca mt trong cc bn tranh chp s c thc hin. (Cn c gi l tng sn phm quc ni) Tt c cc loi hng ho v dch v c ngi cui cng mua. Tng sn lng ca mt nn kinh t sau khi tr i SN PHM TRUNG GIAN. Theo ngha hp, n c ngha l VN di dng tin, tc l di dng s tin cho vay hoc i vay nhm mc ch to vn thng qua cc thi trng hay th ch ti chnh. Theo cch ni thng thng th cm thut ng ny dng ch s tin t bt k mt ngun no c s dng cho bt k mt khon chi tiu no. Mt tng cng ty c phn c lp vo nm 1973 t Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip (FCI) v Cng ty Ti chnh Cng nghip v Thng mi (ICFC), FCI v ICFC c thnh lp nm 1946 bi Ngn hng Anh, cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London v cc Ngn hng Scotland nhm cung cp cc khon vay cho trung v di hn cho cc cng ty ang gp kh khn trong vic tng s vn t cc ngun khc.

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Mt t chc trung gian ti chnh, khng phi Ngn hng, c th huy ng cc ngun tin t vn ca ring mnh, thng qua vic tip nhn tin gi (thng l trong khong thi gian c nh), hay thm ch bng cch vay t cc th ch khc, ri cho vay vi nhiu mc ch khc nhau, c bit l cp tin cho cc hp ng thu mua v cng c th l cho thu. Mt nhm Th trng tin t c lin quan vi nhau v xut hin London vo nhng nm 1960. Ti sn c kh nng chuyn hon khc vi ti sn vt cht ca mt cng ty. Bt k mt loi giy t no c s dng vi t cch l bng chng n v vic bn v chuyn nhng n cho php ngi bn c c mt ngun ti chnh.

Theo mt ngha rng, l bt k mt ngi no c vai tr phi hp ngi cung cp c bn v ngi s dng c bn ngun vn TI CHNH.

Xem CORPORATE RISK Tp hp cc ch s gi v thu nhp trung bnh v tin li ca cc chng khon Anh trong s giao dch chng khon. Trc khi xut hin ch s FT - SE 100 vo nm 1984, th ch s ny l ch s gi c phiu c s dng ph bin nht vi t cch l ch tiu tng qut v tnh hnh ca Th trng chng khon ca Anh. Cc c quan khc nhau s dng cc nm ti chnh khc nhau hch ton ti chnh v khng cn phi trng hp vi nm lch s tiu chun.

Mt tnh cht ca QU TRNH XU TH TNH. Trong kinh t hc tn c in, l tn gi c tnh cht phn tch ca mt th ch thc hin nhim v chuyn cc u vo thnh u ra. L thuyt v hng l ch quan trng trong KINH T HC VI M cp n vic gii thch v d on hnh vi ca hng, c bit l trn phng din cc yu t quyt nh gi c v sn lng.

Hiu s gia mt bin v gi tr tr mt bc v thi gian ca n. Nhn chung, iu kin ny ni rng cc o hm bc nht ca HM MC TIU theo BIN LA CHN phi bng 0 xc nh GI TR CC TR. Ni chn cp n vic s dng thu v chi tiu chnh ph iu tit tng mc cc hot ng kinh t. Xem FISCAL FEDERALISM. nh hng ca Lm pht i vi thu sut hu hiu hay trung bnh. Mt h thng thu v chi tiu cng cng trong nhng khi kh nng thu nhp tng v quyn kim sot chi tiu c giao cho cc cp khc nhau trong mt quc gia, t chnh ph n cc n v nh nht chnh quyn a phng. Tnh hung trong nhng li ch ca chi tiu chnh ph c nhng ngi hng chi tiu ny xc nh mt cc r rng nhng chi ph khng xc nh r c, nhng chi ph ny b phn tn theo thi gian v trong cng ng dn c. H s cho bit mt mc gia tng ca chi tiu ti chnh tc ng n mc thu nhp cn bng nh th no. Xem TAX EXPENDITURES Nh kinh t

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Xem Fisher, Irving; CAMBRIDGE SCHOOL, FRIEDMAN, QUANTITY THEORY OF MONEY.

Bt k ti sn vn phi ti chnh no ca cng ty c tui th kh di, chuyn dng cho cc qu trnh sn xut nht nh v chi ph ca n thn c trang tri ch sau mt thi k hot ng tng i di, v d nh my mc, nh xng. Hm sn xut, trong cc u vo phi c kt hp theo cc t l c nh. i vi mt hng ngn hn c nh ngha l mt khong thi gian trong mt s YU T SN XUT khng th thay i c. Xem EXCHANGE RATE. Nhng yu t sn xut khng th thay i v s lng. Bao gm cc chi ph v vic lm v thay i theo t l t hn so vi s gi lm vic. Cc m hnh gi thit rng cc giao dch c thc hin ti nhng mc gi khng cn bng v nhng mc gi ny c gi c nh. Phn nh qu trnh trong , t s VN/ LAO NG l c nh, ngha l chng ch c th c s dng theo nhng t l c nh. S phn bit ln u tin do J.R.HICKS a ra gia nhng gi khng phn ng vi nhng thay i c bn trong cung v cu. Mt khon tin hng nm c tnh vo tin li ca mt chng khon biu hin bng t l % ca gi mua. Xem EXCHANGE RATE. L thuyt kinh t ch ra rng nu thc hin thi gian linh hot s c li v cc cng nhn khc nhau c nhng khu v v s thch khc nhau. Ch s chuyn CA CI t tin mt thnh cc ti sn sinh li. S chnh lch gia khon tin cha thu c hay khon tin ang trong qu trnh thu v khon tin phi n nhng chm. Cm thut ng c cng ngha c cng ngha nh vn lu ng, ch s tin c u t vo cng vic ang c thc hin, tin cng cn tr hay bt k mt loi u t no khc khng phi l ti sn c nh. Mt dng m bo ca ngi i vay i vi cc khon vay hay cc khon n khc, v d nh c phiu cng ty. Mt phn N QUC GIA c vay di dng cc CHNG KHON ngn hn thng thng dng ch b phn c th hin bi HI PHIU B TI CHNH. S n ny l "th ni" theo ngha l n lin tc gim cho qu trnh thanh ton n. Xem EXCHANGE RATE Xem EXCHANGE RATE. Gii hn s i xung ca sn lng theo l thuyt CHU K KINH DOANH. Hot ng pht hnh c phn cho cng chng nhm huy ng VN mi. Lng ca mt bin kinh t c o lng trong mt khong thi gian. S phn tch trn cc gic tng hp khc nhau, lung tin qu t cc khu vc thng d v ti chnh ti cc khu vc thm ht. Cm thut ng ny ch gi hay gi tr ca mt hng ho c tnh trn c s qu trnh sn xut v khng bao gm chi ph vn chuyn hng ho n ngi tiu dng. c thnh lp nm 1954, FAO c tr s Rome. Vi nh ci tin vic sn xut v phn phi lng thc v cc sn phm nng nghip, t chc ny c giao nhim v thu thp v nghin cu cc s liu thch hp v thc y cc hip nh trao i hng ho quc t v tr gip k thut. Nhng ngnh khng b rng buc vo mt ni nht nh nhm p ng yu cu v v tr a l v do vy c th b tr bt c ni no.

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Tn gi thng dng ca CH S C PHIU FT-SE 100. Hnh nh ngc ca NGI XI CHA (free-rider). Ngi hng li bt buc l nhng ngi nh gi li ch bng tin v khng phi bng tin ca vic tr thnh thnh vin ca mt t chc thp hn chi ph bng tin v chi ph khng phi bng tin. Mt dng tit kim pht sinh do ngi tiu dng khng c kh nng tiu tin ca mnh vo nhng hng tiu dng m mnh mun, n thun l v nhng hng ho ny khng c. Chnh lch gia gi tr d on ca mt bin thu c bng cc phng php d on kt qa t thc t. Mt phng php c h thng nhm c c c lng v gi tr tng lai ca mt bin, thng l da trn vic phn tch cc quan st v bin ng qu kh ca n. Mt lung vn vo hoc mt s tr gip no cho mt nc khng do cc tc nhn th trng t nhin cung cp. Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENT. TIN hoc cc TRI PHIU sinh li ca mt nc khc. Th trng quc t trong cc ng tin c chuyn giao gia cc nc. Xem EXTERNAL RESERVE. Thng ch l u t ca mt nc khc do cc cng ty hay c nhn tin hnh v khc vi vin tr chnh ph. Bt k khon thanh ton no c tin hnh vi nc ngoi d i ly hng ha v dch v, hay thanh ton n; vic thanh ton ny phi c thanh ton bng tin mnh. Xem Foreign aid. T s phn nh s thay i ca thu nhp c c t s thay i ca xut khu so vi s thay i ca thu nhp. Cn gi l hp ng tng lai. Xem Forward market. Th trng trong cc ng tin c mua v bn theo nhng t gi hi oi c c nh t by gi v giao vo mt thi gian nht nh trong tng lai. Xem VERTICAL INTERGRATION. Mi h gia mt ngnh hay mt cng ty v cc ngnh hay cng ty v cc ngnh hay cc cng ty khc s dng u ra ca mt ngnh hay cng ty ny nh l U VO ca mnh. Bt k mt giao dch no c lin quan n mt hp ng mua hay bn hng ho, hoc chng khon vo mt ngy c nh theo mc gi c tho thun trong hp ng, l mt b phn ca th trng k hn. T gi hi oi theo mt ng tin c th c mua hay bn c giao trong tng lai trn th trng k hn.

Mt dng tr cp gia cc chnh quyn c s dng rng ri M nhm mc ch san bng chi ph i vi tng cng ng a phng (v phng din thu sut t ra cho tng a phng) trong vic cung cp mt mc dch v cng cng ti thiu. Mt phng php c th chuyn s liu CHUI THI GIAN thnh khong tn s. Hot ng m cc ngn hng THNG MI thc hin duy tr d tr cc ti sn c kh nng chuyn hon cao mt mc no , thng l mc thp nht trong tng danh mc ti sn ca h. Nhn chung l ch thu nhp chu thu cng ty v v vy khng l i tng tnh thu cng ty na, thu nhp ny l thuc v cng ty nhn n. Xem EXCHANGE RATES.

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Kh nng ca mt cng ty mi gia nhp mt th trng hng ho v dch v. Nu hon ton khng c cc HNG RO GIA NHP th vic gia nhp l t do. Mt hng ho m cung ca n t nht l bng cu ti mc gi bng khng. Th trng khng c s can thip ca chnh ph v ti cc tc nhn cung v cu c php hot ng t do. Xem MARKET ECONOMY. Xem FOB. Tng d tr php nh ti mt th ch nhn tin gi tr i lng d tr yu cu v tr i lng d tr vay c t Qu D tr Lin bang. Mt hin tng ny sinh t c im ca HNG HO CNG CNG. Chnh sch khng can thip ca chnh ph trong thng mi gia cc nc nhng nc m thng mi din ra theo PHN CNG LAO NG quc t v l thuyt LI TH SO SNH. Mt s phn nhm khng cht ch gia cc nc loi b THU QUAN v cc hng ro thng mi khc. Th hin tm tt thng l di dng bng s hoc BIU TN SUT, th hin s ln m mt BIN NGU NHIN nhn mt gi tr nht nh hay khong gi tr trong mt mu quan st. Thng c hiu l THT NGHIP TM KIM, ngha l s lng tht nghip tng ng vi ch khuyt vic lm trn cng mt loi vic lm v TH TRNG LAO NG A PHNG. c phong l gio s kinh t ti trng i hc Chicago nm 1948 v l ngi lnh o ca TRNG PHI CHICAGO.ng c tng gi Nobel kinh t nm 1976. Cc tc phm ch yu ca ng v kinh t h gm: nh thu phng nga lm pht (1953), L thuyt v yu t tiu dng (1957), L thuyt v gi c (1962), Lch s tin t ca M 1867-1960, Nhng nguyn nhn v hu qu ca lm pht (1963). Friedman l ngi i tin phong trong vic pht trin t tng v VN NHN LC v cng trnh ca ng v hm tiu dng a n vic hnh thnh GI THIT THU NHP SUT I. Lp trng phng php lun KINH T HC THC CHNG, h t tng t do v vic xy dng nn T L THT NGHIP T NHIN ca ng gp phn ch ra cc hn ch ca cc chnh sch N NH HO ca trng phi Keynes. Cng vi Anna Schwartz, ng vit nn mt lch s tin t s ca M gp phn cung cp c s cho vic pht trin L THUYT NH LNG TIN T v lm sng li s tin tng vo cc hc thuyt trc Keynes vo s n nh t ng ca h thng kinh t. ng m rng PHNG TRNH FISHER bao hm cc bin nh ca ci, li sut v t l lm pht, gi c d kin v iu ny dn n s pht trin ca vn chng theo ch ngha trng tin v kinh t hc v m. Tt c cc yu t phi tin cng hay tin lng trong tng li ch bng tin m mt ngi i lm nhn c t cng vic ca mnh.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi Na uy v l ngi chung gii Nobel kinh t ln u tin vo nm 1969 cng vi Jan Tinbergen nh nhng kt qu ca ng trong vic din t L thuyt kinh t chnh xc hn v ton hc v a ra dng th hin ca n to kh nng nghin cu thc nghim bng s lng v tin hnh kim nh thng k. Vo u nhng nm 1930, Frisch i u trong nghin cu s hnh thnh dng ng cc chu k thng mi, trong ng chng minh mt h thng ng vi mt s c tnh ton hc to ra mt bin ng c tnh chu k tt dn vi chiu di bc sng l 4 n 8 nm. Khi h thng ny gp phi nhng c scngu nhin th nhng dao ng hnh sng tr thnh hin thc v lu di. Cc thnh tu ca Frisch l ch ng l ngi tin a ra cc phng php kim nh cc gi thuyt thng k. Trong lnh vc chnh sch kinh t, ng a ra h thng hch ton quc gia rt c ch cho cc chnh sch n nh ho v k hoch ho kinh t, gii thiu cc phng php quy hoch ton hc s dng trong cc k thut my tnh in t hin i. Nhng cng trnh ch yu ca ng l Phn tch hp lu thng k bng cc h thng hi quy hon chnh (1943), Cc i v cc tiu (1966), L thuyt v sn xut (1965). Thng k tun theo phn phi F. Thng c s dng kim nh ngha chung ca mt tp hp cc bin gii thch trong phn tch hi quy. Mt ch s gi ca 100 c phiu quan trng nht c nim yt ti S giao dch chng kon London, Ch s ny c a ra vo nm 1984 vi ch s gi gc l 1000, bi v lc ngi ta c cm gic rng Ch s cng nghip ca bo Financial Times b thin lch qu nhiu v pha cc cng ty thuc nghnh ch to. Xem TOKEN MONEY. Ti bt k mc sn lng no, chi ph y l tng chi ph kh bin trung bnh, chi ph c nh trung bnh v phn li nhun rng. Quy tc nh gi theo cc cng ty tnh thm phn li nhun rng vo chi ph n v trong khi vic tnh chi ph n v th bao gm tt c cc chi ph.

S o tc ng ca chnh sch ti chnh, khng ch n thun da vo quy m ca thng d ngn sch. L s o cc gi tr thc t ca hng ho v dch v c th c sn xut ra khi cc yu t sn xut ca t nc c s dng ht, khi nn kinh t mc tht nghip t nhin.

Xem NATURAL RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT. Mt k thut c lng h thng cc phng trnh ng thi, tuyn tnh hay phi tuyn tnh. Xem maximum likehood. Mt cng thc ton hc c th ho mi lin h gia cc gi tr ca mt tp hp cc bin c lp xc nh gi tr cc bin ph thuc. Xem OUTPUT BUDGETING. Xem CHAIN RULE. Thng thng n ca chnh ph khng nh ngy tr li theo hp ng. Lc u, cm thut ng ny ch hot ng ca thay th n c ti tr cho n vi mt ngy tr nht nh. Gi y, n c s dng rng ri hn ch s thay th ca cc khon n di hn cho cc khon n ngn hn.

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Nh Forward contract. Nhng c kh nng chuyn nhng hoc hu b. Xem Forward contract. Xem Forward market.

Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. Phc li tng ln ca nn kinh t th gii ni chung hay i vi mt nc ring, tu thuc vo quan im, do kt qu ca vic tham gia vo thng mi quc t. Xem HYPER INFLATION. L thuyt v vic ra quyt nh hp l ca c nhn c thc hin trong nhng iu kin khng thnh tin lin quan n nhng kt qu ca cc quyt nh ny. Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE. Xem GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Ch tiu th hin t l tng i ca vn n v vn c phn. T s ca ti chnh n vi tng s ca n v ti chnh vn c phiu thng thng. Hip nh c k ti Hi ngh Geneva nm 1947 v c hiu lc t ngy 1/1/1948. y l mt hip nh thng mi a phng ra cc quy tc tin hnh cc quan h thng mi quc t v cung cp mt din n cho s m phn a phng v cc gii php cho cc vn thng mi v gim dn THU QUAN v cc rng buc khc i vi thng mi. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. S phn loi cng nghip ca cc hot ng kinh t trong Cng ng chu u l cch khc ca s phn loi cng nghip theo tiu chun quc t. Tnh hung trong tt c cc th trng trong nn kinh t ng thi trng thi cn bng, ngha l gi c v s lng khng i. Xem GRANT. Cn gi l c lng Aitken. Mt dng c lng theo kiu BNH PHNG NH NHT p dng cho cc trng hp trong Ma trn phng sai - Hip phng sai ca Thnh phn nhiu ca phng trnh hi quy khng c s 0 trong cc v tr ngoi ng cho, v/ hoc khng c cc phn t thuc ng cho ging nhau. Dng hm s c s dng ph bin nht trong phn tch kinh t lng, n c bit coi bin ph thuc l mt hm tuyn tnh ca tp hp cc bin c lp. Theo GSP, c ngh ti hi ngh ca Lin hp quc v thng mi v pht trin ln u tin nm 1964 v c chp thun ti hi ngh ln th hai vo nm 1968, cc nc cng nghip ng khng nh thu nhp khu t cc nc ang pht trin, trong khi vn nh thu nhp khu i vi cc nc cng nghip khc, do to ra mt chnh lch u i cho cc nc ang pht trin. Mc gi chung ca tt c hng ho trong nn kinh t. Xem Keynes.

Nghip on l t chc tp hp cng nhn cc ngnh v bao gm nhiu ngh nghip khc nhau. Xem GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE.

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Tn thng gi cho c vng m phn th nht (1947) v ln m phn th t (195556) trong khun kh v Hip nh chung v thu quan v thng mi. Cm thut ng c s dng trong l thuyt pht trin kinh t m t mt khu vc trong s vi s dn, kh nng k thut, s thch v khu v nht nh, s xut hin li tc tng dn t lao ng v t bn. Cn gi l tr gim dn theo s m. R.Grilbrat (cc nn kinh t khng cn i, Paris, 1931) c cng xy dng mt m hnh m t qu trnh tng trng ngu nhin bng cch no c th to ra c phn b chun LOG quy m hng. Mt hng m cu v n c xu hng gim khi gi gim, v vy, r rng l mu thun vi quy lut cu. Hng ho ny mang tn ca Robert Giffen (1937-1910), ng quan st thy rng ngi ngho mua bnh m nhiu hn khi gi tng. Tnh hung ny xy ra khi tr s tuyt i ca NH HNG THU NHP (so vi gi) ln hn nh hng thay th. Co gin ca cu i vi thu nhp i vi hng ho th cp l m. Xem CAPITAL TRANSFER TAX. Tt c s n chnh ph, khng tnh tri phiu B ti chnh, di dng cc chng khon c th trao i c, (ngha l c th bn c trn th trng chng khon). Ch s v mc bt bnh ng (thng l) ca phn phi thu nhp. Mt h thng thanh ton thng qua chuyn khon cc khon tin gi "ghi s", c th thng thch vi h thng SEC ngn hng truyn thng nhng khc v c cu. Php kim nh c s dng nhn dng vn phng sai KHNG THUN NHT trong S d ca mt phng trnh hi quy. Xem GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT. S hn ch sn lng do cng nhn gy ra trong khun kh H THNG THANH TON KHUYN KHCH trnh vic p dng cc tiu chun n lc lm vic cao hn trn mt n v thanh ton. Mt phng tin ghi n hay giy bc do B ti chnh pht hnh th hin mun ca B ti chnh bin mt lng vng nht nh thnh tin. Trong l thuyt tng trng, l mt tnh hung TNG TRNG CN I trong T L TNG TRNG C BO M bng vi T l tng trng t nhin khi c vic lm. Con ng tng trng ti u a ra mc tiu dng u ngi l bn vng v ti a trong mt nn kinh t. Con ng tng trng cn i trong mi mt th h tit kim th h mai sau phn thu nhp m cc th h trc tit kim c. Mt dng BN V VNG, theo mt nc neo gi tr ng tin ca mnh theo gi tr ng tin ca mt nc trung tm. Xem Gold point. Xem Gold point. Tn ca mt php kim nh c s dng nhn dng vn Phng sai khng thun nht trong S d ca mt phng trnh Hi quy. Th trng bun bn vng kim loi, tin vng hay vng nn. Cc mc t gi trao i m ti khi mt ng tin mt BN V VNG, th vic mua vng t Ngn hng trung ng v xut khu vng (im xut khu vng) hay nhp khu v bn n cho ngn hng trung ng (im nhp khu vng) l c l nhun.

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H thng t chc tin t theo gi tr tin ca mt nc l c xc nh theo lut bng mt lng vng c nh, v ng tin trong nc c dng tin vng v/ hoc tin giy khi cn c th chuyn i thnh vi t l c xc nh theo lut. Mt quy lut mang tn nh kinh t Goodhart cho rng bt c tng lng tin no c chn lm bin mc tiu th cng u b bp mo bi chnh nhng hnh ng vo mc tiu . Mt cm thut ng chung m t mc ph hp s liu ca mt phng trnh kinh t lng c c lng. Cc hng ho hu hnh c ng gp tch cc vo PHC LI KINH T. Phn bit vi hng xu. Mt thut ng c s dng trong hch ton ti sn v hnh thng c o bng s chnh lch gia gi tr cho mt cng vic ang tin hnh v gi tr trn giy ca n. Mt thut ng ting Nga ch U ban k hoch nh nc trc y Lin X. N c trch nhim ra cc k hoch sn xut v chuyn cho cc t chc thch hp thi hnh. Xem BUDGET DEFICIT. Mun tm hiu chi tit hn, xem CHI TIU CNG CNG. Nhng chi tiu ny to nn mt phn quan trng ca TNG CHI TIU v may mc d c coi l ngoi sinh trong M HNH CHI TIU THU NHP n gin, vn chim gi mt vai tr quan trng trong m hnh Keynes trong vic xc nh MC THU NHP QUC DN CN BNG. C quan ca chnh ph M tr gip th trng cm c nh . Mt cm thut ng chung ch s n c th trao i c ca chnh ph trung ng, t thi hn ngn nht, ngha l HI PHIU B TI CHNH ti thi hn rt di v nhng khon n khng xc nh ngy.

Mt quan im ca chnh sch pht trin kinh t cho rng qu trnh pht trin kinh t l mt hin tng tng trng t t, chc chn, chm chp v do vy cc bin php chnh sch cn thit cng phi mang c trng nay.

Mt k hoch ti tr cho gio dc i hc thng qua sinh vin c vay tin p ng cc chi ph v gio dc v/ hoc cuc sng trong khi nghin cu v s thanh ton li mt phn bng thu nhp trong tng lai. Mt khi nim do P.SAMUELSON S DNG nhm khi phc li vic s dng tng t bn trong cc m hnh kinh t tn c in. Mt s dn xp qua cc thnh vin hin hnh thuc mt ngh nghip c min p dng cc bn v CP BNG NGH NGHIP cao hn t ra cho ngh nghip ny. Xem CAUSALITY. Khon tin do mt t chc hay c nhn cp cho cc t chc v cc c nhn khc m n khng to thnh mt b phn trao i no , nhng ch l mt thanh ton chuyn khon mt chiu. Xem INTER-GOVERNMENTAL GRANTS.

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Mt cch tip cn c s dng rng ri nhm gii mt s bi ton trong Kinh t hc khu vc v nghin cu vn ti, th hin c s lng quan h tng tc ln nhau gia 2 v tr v c xc nh bi quy m tng tc hoc tm quan trng ca cc v tr ny v khong cchgia chng. Mt dng tng tc ny l s di chuyn v dn s. Cc quan h tng tc khc l i li bng t hay i li bng my bay. Tn gi ca mt chnh sch pht trin c pht ng Trung Quc vo cui nm 1957 nhm y nhanh qu trnh pht trin vi t l tng trng cng nghip l 2030%. Rt kh nh gi thnh cng ca chnh sch mo him ny do c nhng s kin khc xut hin ng thi vo qung thi gian ny. T gi hi oi ca ng bng Sterling s dng chuyn i gi c nng nghip c chp thun bi chnh sch nng nghip chung tnh theo n v tin t chu u thnh gi c nc Anh. Mt cm thut ng c s dng trong trng hp c s tng mnh trong nng sut nng nghip cc nc ang pht trin bng cch a vo p dng cc loi ging chng c bnh tt, c nng sut cao. Mt quy lut do Hun tc Thomas Gresham (1591-1579), nh kinh doanh v vin chc ngi Anh a ra. Xem TERMS OF TRADE. Xem GROSS INVESTMENT Xem NATIONAL INCOME. Mt ch s gi c s dng iu chnh gi tr bng tin ca tt c hng ho v dch v tham gia vo tng sn phm quc ni khi gi c thay i. Tng u t ny sinh trong nn kinh t trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Mc chnh lch gia gi tr cho ngi bn bun cung cp v gi nhn c ca ngi bn l. Xem NATIONAL INCOME. Xem PROFIT. Li nhun kim c t nhng nghip v trc khi tr i KHU HAO v li i vi ti chnh n v mc tng gi c phn. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. By nc cng nghip ch yu (Canada, Php, c, Italia, Nht, Anh v M), nhng ngi ng u chnh ph cc b trng kinh t ca nhng nc ny thng xuyn gp nhau nhm phi hp chnh sch kinh t v m, c bit l v t gi hi oi ph hp gia cc nc. Hin nay c thm Nga gia nhp thnh cc nc G8. Mt lin minh lng lo ca hn 100 nc ch yu l ang pht trin, lc u l do 77 nc thnh lp ti HI NGH LIN HP QUC THNG MI V PHT TRIN vo nm 1964 biu th hn na mi quan tm tp th ca h v s pht trin th ch ca h thng kinh t th gii. Tht nghip do thiu ht cu di hn. y l mt hnh thi thay i ca mt bin theo thi gian. cp n T sut li nhun ti a m mt hng c th duy tr c cc t l tng trng khc nhau. cp n mt tnh hung trong do T l chit khu hin hnh nh hn t l tng trng ca c tc hng nm khng i d kin ca mt hng, gi tr c phn s tin n v hn. Nh cng trnh i u ca E.T. Penrose (l thuyt tng trng ca hng, Blackwell, Oxford,1959) v R.L.Marris (l thuyt kinh t ca ch ngha t bn "qun l", Macmillan, London, 1964) cc l thuyt tng trng tr thnh mt ngnh ca cc l thuyt v QUN L HNG v c coi l ph hp i vi mt nn kinh t hng trong cc nh qun l ca cc hng c quyn t do trong vic ra cc mc tiu m h mun theo ui.

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Cc m hnh ny sinh t vic nghin cu nn kinh t khi c s thay i v lng t bn, quy m dn s v ko theo p lc v s lng v c cu tui ca lc lng lao ng v tin b k thut. C 2 nhm l thuyt chnh: 1)L thuyt tng trng tn c in. 2)L thuyt tng trng ca Keynes (v Keynes mi). Hm ny to ra T S GI TR cc i m mt hng c th duy tr c ti cc mc t l tng trng khc nhau v l mt c im chung ca cc L THUYT TNG TRNG CA HNG. Thanh ton tr cho nhng cng nhn ch lm vic trong thi gian ngn m khng phi do li ca h. Xem INCOMES POLICY. Xem NORM FOLLOWING BEHAVIOUR. Xem INCOMES POLICY. Nh kinh t ngi Nauy, c gii thng Nobel kinh t nm 1989 v cng trnh nghin cu v c s mn kinh t lng. ng gp quan trng nht ca ng th hin trong bn lun n lm ti trn i hc Harvard, sau c xut bn di nhan : "Nghin cu xc sut trong kinh t lng". Tp ch Econometrica tp 12, tr.118 (1944). Tc phm cho thy trong vic lp cng thc l thuyt kinh t bng ngn ng xc sut c th s dng cc phng php suy lun thng k rt ra cc kt lun chnh xc v cc quan h c bn t mt "mu ngu nhin" trong nhng quan st theo thc nghim. iu ny cho php rt ra nhng m hnh kinh t, kim nghim v s dng chng trong d bo. Lun n ca ng cng a ra nhng tin b trong vic gii bi ton v s ph thuc ln nhau gia cc bin s kinh t, v ng ngh cc phng php xc nh r vic nhn dng v nh giaccs quan h kinh t khi c s ph thuc ln nhau. Phng php ca ng c cc nh kinh t lng khc cng nhn v pht trin. Ngoi cng trnh v l thuyt kinh t lng, Haavelmo cn c nhiu ng gp quan trng v l thuyt u t v tng trng kinh t. Ngoi bn lun n, nhng sch xut bn ca ng l: Nghin cu v l thuyt pht trin kinh t(1954), Nghin cu v l thuyt u t (1960). Nh kinh t hc ngi M sinh ra o, ni ting v nghin cu thng mi quc t. Trong cun L thuyt thng mi quc t (1936), ng a ra mt cch chng minh khc v li ch thng mi bng chi ph c hi ca sn xut cc hng ho v xem nh hng ho khc khng c s xut. iu ny b qua trng hp gi thc t trong nghin cu ca Ricardo. Mt tc phm khc ca ng l Thnh vng v nh n (1935), trong c xem xt ti liu v chu k kinh doanh. Cc tc phm ln khc ca ng l Thng mi quc t; Cc chuyn kho gy ting vang; Nghin cu v l thuyt thng mi quc t (1961) v Tin t trong nn kinh t (1965). Mt HM CU i vi hng ho khng lu bn, cho thy rng cu trong bt k giai on no cng c th b nh hng bi vic mua hng t trc. U ban t vn ca chnh ph Anh c lp ra t vn v t chc mt h thng TIEN T BI S MI. Thnh lp nm 1961 v ngng hot ng nm 1963. Trc s kin Big Bang nm 1986, khi mt cng ty mi gii chng khon khng o kh nng tr n cho khch hng hoc NHNG NGI MI GII CHNG KHON th quyn kinh doanh trn th trng chng khon ca cng ty b nh ch. Nhng ngi tht nghip c ng k cm thy do cc iu kin v th cht v tinh thn, do thi i vi cng vic hoc do tui tc nn rt kh tm vic lm. Mt loi tin t c mc cu cao lin tc so vi cung trn trn th trng hi oi. Xem INVISIBLE HAND.

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Sau khi dy trng dng Oxford t nm 1922, ng c b nhim lm ph gio s Vin kinh t quc t nm 1952. ng l biien tp t Economic Journal t nm 19451961. Cc sch xut bn ca ng bao gm: Chu k thng mi (1936), Tin ti kinh t hc ng (1948), Cuc i ca John Maynard Keynes (1951), Mt b sung vo thuyt kinh t ng (1952), Chnh sch chng lm pht (1958), Tham lun th hai v l thuyt kinh t ng (1961) v ng lc kinh t (1973). M hnh tng trng mt khu vc do R.F.Harrod v E.Domar pht trin vo nhng nm 1940, v c bn xut pht t cc cuc cch mng Keynes, v n c lin quan ti s n nh kinh t v tht nghip cng nh nhng gi thit cng nhc dng cho phn tch ngn hn. Mt loi tin b k thut c lp so snh cc im trong qu trnh tng trng t l sn lng so vi vn khng thay i. Xem INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION. Sinh ra v hc ti Vin, Hayek l ngi lnh o mt s c s ca trng kinh t London v cc trng i hc Chicago, Freiburg v Salzburg. Nm 1974, ng c trao gii Nobel kinh t cng vi G.MYRDAL. Li dn khi trao gii Nobal cng nhn cng hin m ng ca ng v l thuyt tin t v lao ng, v hiu qu lao ng ca cc h thng kinh t khc nhau, v lnh vc nghin cu ca ng bao gm c c cu lut php trong h thng kinh t. Trong cun Gi c v sn xut (1931), ng kt hp l thuyt tin t vi l thuyt ca trng phi o v vn. Vi tc phm The Road to Serfdom (ng Xung Kip Lao T) (1944), ng chuyn sang lnh vc trit hc chnh tr v lut php, trong ng phn tch vn t do, mt ch c nng ln trong (Constitution of Liberty) Hin Php T do (1960). Ngoi ra, Hayek c nhiu ng gp trong lch s t duy tr tu nh trong tc phm John Stuart Mill v Harriet Taylor (1951) v trong phng php lun nh Cuc phn cch mng khoa hc. (Xem AUSTRIAN SCHOOL) Nghin cu ny do nh kinh t ngi Thu in Heckcher khi xng, sau c ngi ng hng ca ng l Ohlin pht trin (trong Thng mi quc t v gia cc vng, 1935), cng nhn rng thng mi quc t da trn s khc nhau ca chi ph tng i nhng c gng gii thch cc yu t to ra s khc nhau trong gi tng i ny. Mt hnh ng do ngi mua hoc ngi bn thc hin t bo v thu nhp ca mnh khi c s tng gi xy ra tong tng lai. Gi n hay GI BNG l tnh cht ca mt hng ho. Mt phn gi ca loi hng ho c lin quan n mi tnh cht ca n v do vy c th nh gi s thay i v cht lng. Trit l cho rng hnh vi ca con ngi b chi phi bi su tm kim th vui. Tuy nhin, vi t cch l mt trit l, ch ngha khoi lc b thay i rt nhiu bi khi nim v ngha v, trch nhim Mt thc o tp trung ca th trng cng nghip. Cht lng ca hng ho, dch v hoc cc yu t to ra s khc nhau trong quan nim ca ngi tiu dng v ngi sn xut. VN vt cht thuc nhiu loi c trng ring cho tng qu trnh sn xut v khng c chuyn sang qu trnh khc. Khi nim ny tr nn lng lo vi tng rng mt hng ho vn d chia nh c th s dng cho sn xut nhiu hng ho trong nhiu qu trnh. Cc hng ho hay dch v do cc i v kinh t a ra trn mt th trng nht nh m c t hp thuc tnh khng ging nhau di con mt ca ngi mua sn phm . Mt bi ton kinh t lng trong phng sai ca sai s trong mt m hnh hi quy khng ng nht gia cc quan st.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, ng gii Nobel kinh t 1972, cng vi Kenneth ARROW ng dy ti trng Kinh t London v cc trng i hc: Cambridge, Manchester v Oxford. ng nhn c gi Nobel do nghin cu v l thuyt CN BNG TNG TH trong Gi tr v t bn (1939), c bit v vn n nh h thng cn bng tng th trc cc c sc t bn ngoi; v nghin cu trong KINH T HC PHC LI, THNG D CA NGI TIU DNG. Tuy nhin, Hicks cn nghin cu nhiu lnh vc khc. L tuyt tin lng (1932) ca ng nu ra phng php NNG SUT BIN ng dng trong xc nh tin lng theo quan nim c in. Trong bi Keynes v cc phng php c in (1937), ng khc phc c vn bt nh ca thu Keynes v qu c th cho vay v LI SUT bng cch a vo cc ng IS/LM, cc ng IS/LM tr thnh cng c dng trong phn tch l thuyt Keynes. Nm 1950, ng tng hp cc tng Keynes (Phng php QU TRNH S NHN) ca cc nh kinh t lng ( tr) ca qu trng gia tc v ca Harrod (tng trng v h thng khng n nh) vo m hnh ca chu k kinh doanh trong Mt ng gp vo l thuyt vo chu k kinh doanh. ng cng xut bn cc cun sch v L thuyt cu v hin trng ca kinh t hc Keynes. Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM. Mt phn loi ca tin b k thut pht trin c lp so snh cc im trong qu trnh tng trng m t l VN/ LAO NG l khng i. Cn gi l tht nghip tr hnh. V lc lng lao ng bin i tun hon, nn ngi ta lp lun rng s ngi tht nghip c thng bo phn nh khng ht lng ngi tht nghip thc s do khng tnh nhng cng nhn chn nn. Trong l thuyt truyn thng v s nhn tn dng, ti sn d tr m da vo h thng ngn hng to ra tin gi ngn hng rng buc cc hot ng cho vay ca ngn hng v dn n to ra tin gi gp chung c gi l "tin mnh". Xem ACCESSION RATE. Kh khn trong tuyn ngi i vi ngi ch khng phi l tip xc vi nhiu ng c vin nht, m vn l tm s ng c vin xng ng dnh thi gian xem xt. Mt minh ho bng th ca phn phi theo tn xut ( hay PHN PHI XC SUT), trong tn sut (hay xc sut) l mt bin ly gi tr gia cc gii hn c tnh bng chiu cao ca mt ct trn trc honh gia cc gii hn . Chi ph xy ra vo thi im mt yu t u vo hoc ngun liu c mua vo v v vy khng bng chi ph thay th u vo (chi ph thay th) nu gi tng ln vo thi im . Cc m hnh kinh t c kh nng phn tch cc bin i vtnh hnh trong th gii hin thc, i lp vi cc m hnh CN BNG thng nng tnh l thuyt. Mt nhm cc nh kinh t c th k XIX m phng php lun v phn tch ca h c nh hng ln trong cc nc ni ting c. Xem Historical school. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Mt cng ty kim sot mt s cng ty khc thng qua s hu mt t l trong vn c phn chung ca cc cng ty . Tnh cht ca hng ho dch v hoc cc yu t ging nhau theo cch suy ngh ca nh phn phi v ngi tiu dng. Mt hm c coi l ng nht bc n nu nhn tt c cc bin C LP vi mt hng s Lamda c kt qu bng BIN PH THUC nhn vi Lamda. Khi cc n v kinh t a ra trn mt th trng nht nh mt lot cc sn phm v dch v ging nhau di con mt ca ngi mua th sn phm c gi l ng nht. Xem PRODUCTION FUNCTION. Mt tnh cht ca phng sai ca thnh phn nhiu trong cc phng trnh hi quy khi n c nh trong tt c cc quan st. Tnh cng bng hoc cng l p dng vi cc c nhn trong cng mt hon cnh.

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Lin kt theo phng ngang xy ra khi hai hng cng mt giai on trong qu trnh sn xut st nhp vi nhau lp ra mt doanh nghip duy nht. Xem MERGER.

Mt quc gia c li sut cao s thu ht tin t nc ngoi vo. Mt quy tc v s dng ti u cc ti nguyn thin nhin khng ti to c do H.Hotelling a ra nm 1931 (Kinh t hc v ti nguyn c th b cn kit, Tp ch kinh t chnh tr , tp 39, trang 137-175). Xem BEVERIDGE REPORT. Ct yu ca vn nhn lc l ch u t co ngun nhn lc s lm tng nng sut lao ng. Nh t tng ln ngi Scotland. ng c nhiu ng gp i vi kinh t chnh tr trong tc phm Thuyt trnh chnh tr (1752). ng nhn mnh (theo sau LOCKE) rng khi lng tin t trong nc khng c vai tr g i vi ca ci thc t ca nc v hon thin THUYT TIN T NH LNG. ng b sung v cng ph nhn l thuyt ca LOCKE rng mt quc gia c th cao thng d hoc thm ht thng mi thng xuyn. C CH CHY VNG m bo rng thng mi quc t lun cn bng. L thuyt cung cu ca ng rt c quan tm. Nhu cu v vay tin thng b nh hng mt phn bi cc k vng v kinh doanh v do vy t l li nhun v li sut c quan h mt thit vi nhau. ng cho rng phng php lun khoa hc x hi l mt ngnh ca tm l hc ng dng. Trit l ny v quan im ca ng v li ch ring v nhu cu tch tr vi t cch l ng lc thc y cho cc hot ng kinh t c nh hng quan trng n A.SMITH v cc nh kinh t hc tip theo. U ban ca tng thng v c cu v lut l ti chnh a ra bo co nm 1972, ku gi ci t dn dn cc nghnh dch v ti chnh M. Kt qu lm vic ca u ban Hong gia Anh, c lp ra xem xt kh khn ca a phng nc Anh c gi l trung gian - tc l nm gia cc vng thnh vng v cc vng tr tr v c nhn tr cp nh CHNH SCH A PHNG U ban hong gia (HMSO) v cc vng trung gian Cmnd, 3998, London, 1969. Tnh trng lm pht tng nhanh khi c siu lm pht, gi c tng ln 10 ln, thm ch 100 ln ch trong vng 1 thng. Mt cm thut ng chung miu t cc th tc thng k xc nh tnh ng n ca mt gi thuyt. Cc nh khoa hc s dng thut ng ny miu t mt trng thi trong cn bng ca mt h thng ph thuc vo lch s ca h thng .

Xem INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT. Xem INVESTOR OF INDUSTRIES. Xem INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION. Bi ton kinh t lng ny sinh trong qu trnh c lng cc tham s ca cc phng trnh ng thi. Mt phng trnh ng theo nh ngha hay c tc dng xc nh mt bin no . Thng k hiu l I. L mt ma trn c cc phn t nm trn ng cho bng 1 cn cc phn t nm ngoi ng cho bng 0.

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Bn cht c o ca cc nhim v v do vy cc k nng ca tng cng nhn gip cho cc cng nhn v cc ng ch c c cc t do nht nh khi ra mc tin cng. Tin c rt ra khi lu thng v c lu di dng tin tch tr ca ci. Vic thiu tnh chuyn hon ca mt ti sn nht nh hoc ca mt danh mc ti sn do mt ngi giao dch nm gi. Xem INTERNATIONAL LABOR OFFICE. Con s c cn bc hai ca m mt, v thng k hiu l i. Xem COMPLEX NUMBER. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. Mt hng tng trng ca HNG thng qua A DNG HO chi mt qu trnh tng trng c kch thch bng cch a vo nhng sn phm c c tnh sao cho ngi tiu dng khng nhn thc c sn phm ny l mi; ngha l chng khng thc tnh v tho mn CC NHU CU TIM N. Mt trng hp c th xy ra nhng khng chc chn, trong mt s gia tng sn lng kinh t trong mt nc thng qua tc ng phn hi ca thng mi s dn n mt tnh hung trong PHC LI KINH T b gim st. Mt tn gi chung cho nhng k thut dng o lng nh hng ca mt thay i nht nh trong hot ng kinh t n mt nn kinh t cp vng hay cp a phng. Tc ng ngay tc th ca mt thay i trong BIN NGOI SINH ln BIN NI SINH, tng phn vi tc ng tng hp hay di hn ca s thay i ny. cp n mt ngi, mt cng ty hay mt giao dch b nh thu. Mt cm thut ng chung c th c s dng theo 2 cch. 1)Dng ch bt k mt dng c cu th trng no khng pah l cnh tranh hon ho v do vy n bao gm CNH TRANH C QUYN, C QUYN NHM v C QUYN. 2)Dng ch bt k mt c cu th trng no khng phi l CNH TRANH HON HO v C QUYN. L th trng trong cc iu kin sau y ca mt th trng hon ho khng c tho mn: 1)Sn phm ng nht. 2)Mt s ln ngi mua v ngi bn. 3)Ngi mua v ngi bn c quyn t do nhp v ra khi th trng. 4)Tt c ngi mua v ngi bn u c thng tin hon ho v thy c trc tp hp cc mc gi hin ti v tng lai. 5)Lng mua v lng bn ca tng thnh vin th trng l khng ng k so vi tng khi lng giao dch. 6)Khng c s kt cu gia ngi bn v ngi mua. 7)Ngi tiu dng cc i ho tng THO DNG v ngi bn cc i ho TNG L NHUN. 8)Hng ho c kh nng chuyn nhng. Theo t tng Mac-xt hay t tng X hi ch ngha th Ch ngha quc l mt chnh sch ca nc ngoi nhm tm cch p dng s kim sot v chnh tr v kinh t i vi khu vc lc hu m bo cho nc ch c c mt th trng tng i vi nhng khon tin tit kim nhn ri v cc hng ho ch to d tha nhm i ly cc nguyn vt liu chin lc. Thi gian cn c thc thi CHNH SCH TIN T, v cn c gi l tr bn trong. Khi nim hp ng n c s dng nhm cung cp mt c s cho vic tn ti tin cng v gi c t bin i v c da trn nhng c tnh KHNG THCH RI RO khc nhau ca chu doanh nghip v ngi lm thu. Chi ph c hi ca vic s dng cc yu t sn xut m mt nh sn xut khng phi mua hay thu m li s hu chng. Hm s c biu din di dng khng c BIN PH THUC. Mt ch s gi c s dng gim pht mt hay nhiu thnh phn ca ti khon thu nhp quc dn. Gi c m ngi ch mt yu t sn xut di dng vt cht chng hn nh t bn, tnh i vi mt hng cho vic s dng yu t ny. Xem USER COST OF CAPITAL. Hng ho hay dch v c tiu dng mt nc nhng mua t nc khc.

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Xem TARIFFS. Xem QUOTA. Cc hn ch v s lng hoc chng loi hng ho c nhp khu vo mt nc thng qua vic s dng thu quan hay hn ngch. Mt trong nhng chin lc pht trin ch yu c cc nc ang pht trin la chn. Xem TARIFFS.

Xem SOCIAL WELFARE FUNCTION. Xem MIXED GOOD. Khi nim tin thu do doanh nhip t tr cho mnh trong vic s dng t ai m doanh nghip s hu. Xe, IMPLICIT COST. Xem IDLE BALANCES. Xem PAYMENT BY RESULTS. Ch s phn phi cui cng gnh nng ca mt khon thu. Cm thut ng ny cp n nhng ngi c thu nhp thc t b gim do vic nh thu. S lng tin, hng ho hoc dch v do mt c nhn, hay cng ty hay mt nn kinh t nhn c trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Xem Circular flow of Income. Tip im ca ng BNG QUAN ca ngi tiu dng v NG NGN SCH xc nh v tr cn bng ca ngi tiu dng. Xem INCOME - EXPENDITURE MODEL. S khc nhau v mc thu nhp gia nhng ngi khc nhau. S khc nhau ny thng l do cc loi cng vic nh s khc bit v k nng lm vic, v v tr a l trong mt s vng c th c mc tin cng cao hn vng khc, hay c th c s khc nhau gia mc tin cng thnh th v nng thn. Mt s thay i gi c ca mt hng ho s lm gim hay tng thu nhp thc t ca ngi tiu dng. o lng mc phn ng ca lng cu v mt hng ho i vi mt mc thay i v mc thu nhp ca nhng ngi c yu cu v hng ho ny. M hnh mt khu vc dng Keynes n gin cho php xc nh c MC THU NHP QUC DN CN BNG. Cc chnh sch c ra nhm nng mc thu nhp ca mt s nhm ngi hay c nhn no .

T s gia gi tr gia tng v tng doanh thu ca mt doanh nghip hay mt ngnh. nh ca chnh ph mun kim sot tin cng bng mt hnh thc can thip no vo qu trnh thng thuyt v tin cng.

Xem BEVERIDGE REPORT. y l mt loi thu quan trng nht Ah v ng mt vai tr quan trng trong cc ch ti chnh ca tt c cc nc phng Ty.

Xem TERM OF TRADE.

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S o tc lu thng ca tin c ngun gc t s phn tch ca trng phi Cambridge (xem QUANTITY, THEORY OF MONEY ), trong s lng tin mt trung bnh c quan h vi mc thu nhp trong mt thi k nht nh. Xem ECONOMIES OF SCALE, RETURNS TO SCALE. S n v VN tng thm cn thit sn xut ra mt n v sn lng tng thm. Bin xut hin v phi ca du phng trnh, gi l bin khng ph thuc bi v gi tr ca n c xc nh "mt cch c lp" hoc c xc nh ngoi phng trnh ny. Mt c ch iu chnh theo tng thi k gi tr danh ngha ca cc hp ng theo s bin ng ca CH S GI c xc nh. Ch s ho cc khon tr cp thu l qu trnh gi cho s lng tr cp thu khng i tnh theo gi tr thc t. Con s th hin gi tr ca mt i lng no . Vn ch s c th ny sinh khi mun so snh hai tp hp bin s ti hai thi im khc nhau nhng s dng mt ch s thi v c nhiu cch khc nhau tng hp cc bin s vo cng mt s o. Vic s dng cc mc tiu c xc nh t trung ng phi hp cc k hoch sn lng, U T CA KHU VC CNG CNG v u t t nhn.

Mt nhn nh cho rng mt HNG HO, mt s kin hay mt d n va c a thch hn va khng c a thch hn mt hng ho khc

Tp hp cc ng BNG QUAN, trong mi ng k tip nm pha ngoi ng trc theo hng ng bc. Cc ng bng quan cao hn ch mc tho dng cao hn. Mt cch c lng cc tham s ca cac PHNG TRNH NG THI trnh c S CHCH CA CC PHNG TRNH NG THI. Thng thng, y c coi l nhng loi thu nh vo hng ho v dch v v do vy, vic tr thu ch l gin tip. Hm tho dng biu hin tho dng thu c t mt tp hp hng ho c xc nh bi gi c ca nhng hng ho ny v mc thu nhp. c tnh ca mt yu t sn xut hay mt hng ho khng cho php s dng n di mt php ti thiu no . Hnh pht do mt s c nhn hay cc nhm ngi mu toan gii quyt BT NG V LAO NG trong doanh nghip ca h. Xem INVESTORS INDUSTRY. Mt tn gi khc ca mt CNG TY TI CHNH, chng hn nh mt t chc to tn dng THU MUA. Mt k thut c s dng trong k hoch ho vng lnh th, n tp trung vo phn tch mi quan h tng tc gia cc hot ng cng nghip c thc hin trn cng mt vng a l. Mt s m rng qu trnh ra quyt nh trong phm vi mt x nghip t mt nhm nh theo hng cho ton th lc lng lam vic. Mt s kim sot trc y v xy dng cng nghip c hnh thnh theo o lut K hoch ho qun v th x nm 1947, i hi phi c mt chng ch (IDC) trc khi xy dng hay m rng mt khu cng nghip qu mt quy m nht nh. Sau khi thng qua Lut Cng nghip nm 1972, IDCS khng cn cn cho s pht trin trong CC KHU VC CN PHT TRIN hay cc KHU VC C BIT CN PHT TRIN v IDCS thc t b b t nm 1982. Mi s bt ng hay s bt ho hoc l gia ch v ngi lm thu hoc l gia nhng ngi lm thu v thi hn v iu kin lm vic ca mt ngi, mt nhm ngi hay l tnh trng khng c vic lm ca mt ngi.

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Mt cm thut ng c s dng m t mt hin tng, cc doanh nghip khng thay i c v tr a l khi v tr hin ti khng cn l mt v tr mang li nhiu li nhun nht na. S pht trin ca cc ngnh cng nghip c coi l chin lc pht trin chung. Thng thng, y l lnh vc ca L THUYT GI C NG DNG. N quan tm n s vn hnh ca nn kinh t th trng v nhn chung l n tip cn theo c cu th trng, s iu hnh v kt qu ca th trng. Nghin cu v thc hnh cc quy tc chi phi vic lm. Mt t chc c lp c mt chnh ph Anh lp ra vo nm 1966 ri sau b mt chnh ph Anh khc gii tn vo nm 1971. Mc ch ca t chc l tng hiu qu ca khu vc cng nghip trong nn kinh t thng qua vic khuyn khich hp l ho v hp nht cc doanh nghip "nh" thnh cc n v ln hn v hy vng c hiu qu ln hn. Nghip on l t chc ca tt c cc cng nhn trong mt ngnh bt k chuyn mn ca h l g. Xem GENERAL, UNION AND CRAFT UNIONS. Cc chnh lch v mc tr cng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn c phn loi theo ngnh m h lm vic. Vic xp hng mc tr cng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn khc nhau c phn loi theo ngnh m h lm vic. Mt ngnh trong khun kh C CU TH TRNG CNH TRANH HON HO c th c nh ngha l mt s ln doanh nghip cnh tranh vi nhau trong vic sn xut MT SN PHM NG NHT. Xem NATIONAL BARGAINING Xem Elasticity. Quan h ni ln mt hm s ca mt bin (hay mt tp hp cc bin) ln hn hay nh hn mt s no . Ngnh cng nghip trong thi k u pht trin, th phn ni a ca n hin cn nh do s cnh tranh ca cc i th nc ngoi. Mt trong nhng l l bo h lu i nht cho rng mt ngnh cng nghip l mi i vi t nc v nh hn quy m ti u c th khng c kh ng ng vng trong cnh tranh vi nc ngoi trong thi k non tr.

Xem STATISTIC INFERENCE. Hng c nh thu nhp m, ngha l khi thu nhp tng ln, cc yu t khc khng i, lng cu i vi hng ho gim. Mt C TNH CA QU TRNH TNH SAI PHN . S gia tng ng k trong mc gi chung hay t l tng ca mc gi chung trn mt n v thi gian. Lm pht b nn ny sinh nu vic kim sot gi gi gi c mc thp trong khi nn kinh t ang c xu hng lm pht ni chung. Xem Inflation. Ch cc k thut xc nh tc ng ca lm pht n cc ti khon v cc th tc hch ton. Tng chi tiu vt qu mc sn lng ti a c th t c dn n kt qu gy sc p lm cho gi c tng ln. Xem HYPERINFLATION, INFLATION. Do tnh khng linh hot v th ch m li sut v thanh ton n c th khng cng tng vi lm pht, do LI SUT THC T v gi tr thc t ca n gim xung. Tnh hung khi chnh ph thc hin chnh sch tng lm pht thay cho vic tng thu thanh ton cho cc khon chi tiu ca mnh.

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Ch mt s lng ln nhng ngi t lm vic cho mnh trong mt nc ang pht trin, nhng ngi ny tham gia vo cc cng vic quy m nh, chng hn ch may v, dch v n ung, bun bn, sa cha giy dp. Xem PERFECT INFORMATION. Ma trn gm cc o hm bc hai ca HM XC SUT trong c lng xc sut ln nht ca m hinh kinh t lng.

Xem EXTERNALITIES. Cc yu t c cu ca mt nn kinh t to iu kin thun li cho vic lun chuyn hng ho v dch v gia ngi mua v ngi bn. y l mt loi thu nh vo ca ci Anh v n tn nm 1986 vn c coi l THU CHUYN NHNG VN, thu ny thay th cho THU BT NG SN nm 1974. Bo co thng k s ngi ln u tin xin tr cp tht nghip M. S b sung ngoi sinh vo s thu nhp ca cc doanh nghip v h gia nh. Bao gm tt c cc dng phn phi li khng phi bng chuyn tin mt hay thu nhp. Mt hi phiu c rt nhm ti tr cho sn xut v bun bn trong nc. Thng c s dng thay cho t "pht minh" v ch nhng tin b v cng ngh trong qu trnh sn xut cng nh vic to ra nhng thuc tnh khc nhau v kt hp cc thuc tnh trong cc sn phm c th trao i c. Xem FACTOR OF PRODUCTION. Xu hng ca mt s phng thc sn xut v ch to mun gn ngun nguyn vt liu hay u vo.

Mt phng php phn tch trong nn kinh t c th hin bng mt tp hp cc HM SN XUT TUYN TNH m t mi quan h tng tc gia cc ngnh. S chm tr gia vic nhn thc ra nhu cu phi c hnh ng chnh sch v s thc hin chnh sch. Cc dng tin da trn s n ca khu vc t nhn , v d quan trng nht l tin gi ngn hng thng mi ng vi s tin ngn hng cho khu vc t nhn vay.

Cc m hnh phn bit nhng ngi hin ang lm vic, gi l nhng ngi bn trong - nhng ngi ny c coi l c mt t sc mnh i vi th trng - vi nhng ngi khng c vic lm nhng ang mun lm vic, gi l nhng ngi bn ngoi. Mt ngi hay cng ty khng tr c n, sau khi qua cc khu xem xt v lut php, c th c tuyn b Ph sn hay h c th dn xp vi nhng ngi cho vay xo n. Cm thut ng chung ch ti chnh cho vay theo cc iu kin v vic tr gc v li lm nhiu ln. Mt loi phn tch kinh t nhn mnh n vai tr ca cc t chc x hi, chnh tr v kinh t trong vic hnh thnh cc s kin kinh t. Thng c s dng m t s o to vic lm do chnh ph trc tip cung cp. Bin s thay th BIN GII THCH THC T lm trng s trong phn tch hi quy.

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Cn gi l cc CNG C CHNH SCH. Thut ng ny xut pht t vic phn loi cc bin trong qu trnh n nh ho kinh t thnh cc cng c chnh sch, mc tiu chnh sch v cc bin ngoi sinh. Bo him cho php mi ngi i ri ro ca vic thua thit ln ly s chc chn ca vic thua thit nh. Xem INSURANCE. Xem TANGIBLE ASSETS, GOODWILL. Mt s trn, khng c phn thp phn hay phn s. Cm thut ng ch tnh hung khi m cc khu vc t nhn khc nhau ca mt nn kinh t, thng l cc khu vc cng nghip v nng nghip, hot ng phi hp vi nhau mt cch c hiu qu v ph thuc ln nhau.

y l qu trnh ngc li ca vi phn. Xem DERIVATIVE. S gia tng d tr c ch tm. Xem INVESTORIES. Trng hp gim li tc vt cht i vi vn v lao ng khi t ai l c nh. Mt trong cc nhm TH TRNG TIN T c quan h ln nhau London. Th trng ny pht trin vo nhng nm 1960 v l mt th trng trong CC NGN HNG KHNG THANH TON B TR cho vay ln nhau, nhng ri n tr thnh mt th trng tin ln c rt nhiu th ch ti chnh s dng trong vic cho vay v i vay. Trong HM TUYN TNH h s chn l mt hng s, ngha l s hng khng cha BIN C LP. Nu tho dng ca mt nhi b tc ng bi s lng hng ho v dch v m nhng ngi khc tiu dng th ny sinh trng hp tho dng ph thuc ln nhau. Mt ti khon c bit ca s thanh ton b tr c s dng iu tit s chuyn tin gia 12 Ngn hng vng thuc H THNG D TR LIN BANG. Xem RATE OF INTEREST. Vo u nhng nm 1960, nc M tri qua mt thi k cn cn thanh ton lin tc thm ht vi s lng ln do vn chay khi t nc. Thu san bng li sut l mt nh nhm ngn lung vn i ra ny bng cch nh thu vo vic cng dn M mua tri phiu v ti sn nc ngoi. Tnh cng bng trong vic s dng cc ngun ti nguyn thin nhin gia cc th h khc nhau. S tin do mt cp chnh ph mt nc (v d chnh ph trung ng) cp cho mt chnh ph nc khc. Ch tnh hung trong mt hay nhiu ngi tham gia vo ban gim c ca hai hay nhiu cng ty. Xem HUNT REPORT, ASSISTED AREAS. Hng ho c s dng vo mt thi im no trong qu trnh sn xut cc hng ho khc ch khng phi cho tiu dng cui cng. y l mt phn tr ca tr hot ng c lin quan vi CHNH SCH TIN T. Tp hp cc k thut v qu trnh cng ngh nm gia cng ngh DNG NHIU VN ca th gii phng Ty v cc k thut ni sinh, th s ca cc nc ang pht trin.

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Nhm do E.F.Schumacher thnh lp vo nm 1965 London. C 3 hot ng chnh. 1)K hoch thu thp v th mc ho s liu v cc k thut DNG NHIU LAO NG c hiu qu ph hp vi vic p dng quy m nh. 2)Xut bn cc tng v CNG NGH TRUNG GIAN thng qua cc bi bo, sch, bi ging, tp ch ring v thng qua c n lc gy nh hng i vi chnh sch vin tr ca cc chnh ph v cc t chc quc t. 3)C mt chng trnh cung cp vin tr cho cc d n c bit cc nc chm pht trin, cc d n ny nhn mnh n qu trnh t gip thng qua vic s dng cng ngh thch hp cho cc cng ng dn c nh. Xem Intermediate lag. iu kin d dng cho cng dn mt nc mun i ni t vi khi lng tin khng hn ch ly ngoi t theo mt t gi do ngn hng trung ng quy nh nhng ni v vic s dng ngoi t c hn ch trong cc giao dch thuc TI KHON VNG LAI. S vn ng ca tin mt, tc l mt phng tin lu thng, t cc ngn hng vo lu thng trong nc. Phn m rng ca mt doanh nghip c to ra bi u t trong ni b doanh nghip ch khng phi u t c c thng qua thu mua ca cc doanh nghip khc v hot ng hp nht, ngha l TNG TRNG T BN NGOI. Mt tnh hung trong mt ngoi ng, thng l ngoi ng phi kinh t, c tnh ton n v SN LNG ca hng ho gy ra tc ng khng tt c gim xung mc ti u, ng thi vn tn ti mt lng ngoi ng ti u, ngha l chi ph ca vic gim ngoi ng i thm mt n v na ln hn li ch thu c t vic lm nh vy. Mt dn xp qua lao ng c cung v cu trong phm vi mt doanh nghip m khng c s tham gia trc tip vo TH TRNG LAO NG BN NGOI. Khon tin gi li t LI NHUN RNG s dng cho vic ti tr cc hot ng ca mt doanh nghip. Xem External finance. Xem RATE OF RETURN. Xem RELATIVITIES.

Mt ngn hng pht trin quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1945 cng vi Qu tin t quc t IMF theo cc iu khon ca hip nh c k trong Hi ngh v Ti chnh v Tin t ca Lin hp quc t chc ti BRETTON WOODS, New Hampshire thng 7 nm 1944. Mt hip nh gia cc nh sn xut, khi s lng sn xut ca h cn nh, phn chia vi nhau th trng th gii v mt loi hng ho nhm thu c li nhun trn mc cnh tranh v khi suy thoi th li trnh c cnh tranh khc lit. Xem KEYNES PLAN Cc hip nh gia cc nc sn xut v tiu dng, nhng i khi ch l hip nh ca cc bn sn xut, nhm bo m n nh gi c cc hng ha s ch. Mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin hp quc c thnh lp vo nm 1960 vi t cch l mt phn hiu ca NGN HNG TI THIT V PHT TRIN QUC T hay Ngn hng th gii. Mt t chc hnh chnh c thnh lp nm 1970 nhm gim st tt c cc hnh thc tr gip ca M i vi cc nc chm pht trin, bao gm tin vin tr nc ngoi, cc khon cho vay u i, vin tr lng thc, thc phm theo Lut cng chng 480, tr gip k thut v chuyn giao nhn lc (v d nh cc i qun gn gi ho bnh). Chuyn mn ho trong sn xut trn c s quc gia. B phn ca kinh t hc nghin cu cc giao dch gia cc nc trong lnh vc hng ho v dch v, lu thng ti chnh v di chuyn cc yu t sn xut.

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Mt t chc pht trin quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1956 v sau tr thnh mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin hp quc vo nm 1957. Mt t chc lin chnh ph c thnh lp nm 1919 theo hip c Versaille, sau tr thanh mt c quan chuyn mn ca Lin Hp Qucvo nm 1946. T chc ny mong mun xc tin s hp tc quc t theo cc chnh sch c ra mhm mc ch t c mc tiu vic lm, ci thin iu kin lm vic, m rng bo him x hi v nng cao mc sng ni chung. Phn tch n cng, cc khon n gia cc nc khc nhau c gii quyt bng cch chuyn giao cc phng tin thanh ton c quc t chp nhn nh: vng, mt hoc nhiu NG TIN D TR ch yu, hoc trong phm vi hp hn l cc QUYN RT TIN C BIT (SDRs). Mt trng phi t tng cho rng nhng thay i ca MC CUNG TIN th gii l ngun gc c bn to ra sc p lm pht v gim pht trong nn kinh t th gii. (IMF) - Qu tin t quc t c thnh lp vo 12/1945 theo s ph chun cc iu khon ca Hip nh v qu, c lp ra ti Hi ngh Ti chnh v Tin t ca Lin hp quc t chc ti BRETTON WOODS, New Hampshire, 1944. Mc ch ca qu l khuyn khch s hp tc v tin t quc t, to iu kin cho vic m rng tng trng cn i trong THNG MI QUC T, gip cc nc thnh vin trong vic khc phc CN CN THANH TON v xc tin vic n nh NGOI T. Mt cm thut ng chung ch cch thc tin hnh cc giao dch ti chnh quc t, ngha l cc thanh ton gia cng dn ca cc nc ang gi cc ng ni t khc nhau. S phn loi cng nghip v cc hot ng kinh t c ra nhm tng cng kh nng so snh quc t ca cc s liu thng k do Lin hp quc tp hp v xut bn. Trao i bun bn hng ho v dch v gia cc quc gia. Nm 1947, Hi ng Kinh t v X hi ca Lin hp quc nhm hp Havana, Cuba, mt hi ngh quc t v Thng mi v Pht trin "nhm mc ch thc y sn xut, trao i v tiu dng hng ho". Mt t chc hnh ho quc t c thnh lp nm 1979 theo Hip nh v la m Quc t ln th nht nhm iu hnh Cng c Bun bn la m theo Hip nh v la m quc t nm 1971. Xem WELFARE ECONOMICS. Mt thc o s phn tn ca s liu mu hoc phn phi, thut ng ny c nh ngha nh s chnh lch gia gi tr cao nht v thp nht ca cc t phn v, v v vy n cha 50% gi tr trung tm cc quan st ca cc bin s lin quan. o lut ny thit lp U ban Thng mi gia cc Bang (ICC) M nm 1887. ICC l t chc iu tit lin bang u tin.

c lng mt khong trong gi tr ca THAM S thc t c kh nng ri vo. TH TRNG CHIT KHU LONDON c gi l "ti Ngn hng" khi tt c hay mt s TR S CHIT KHU buc phi vay hay gim chit khu hi phiu ti Vn phng Chit khu ca NGN HNG ANH do cc ngn hng rt tin THEO YU CU ca chng. D tr hay mc duy tr hnh ho ca cc doanh nghip p ng nhng dao ng tht thng tm thi trong sn xut hay kinh doanh. Nhng dao ng ca mc sn lng do nhng thay i ca LNG TN KHO. S tch lu hng tn kho khi sn xut vt qu sn lng bn thc t. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm s, trong bin s m chng ta mun ly o hm c biu din di dng bin ph thuc.

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Thut ng ny c s dng ph bin nht m t lu lng chi tiu c dng tng hay duy tr DUNG LNG VN thc t. (i vi cc nc ANG PHT TRIN). Cc tiu chun c ra nhm lm c s cho vic phn b cc ngun lc u t. Cc khon tin do chnh ph hay cc t chc khc cung cp nhm mc ch khuyn khch cc doanh nghip chi tiu mua VND vt cht. Mt cng ty vi chc nng u t vo cc t chc khc. Mt cng ty ti chnh pht trin c ngn hng Anh v Ngn hng thanh ton London v Scotland thnh lp nm 1946 gi l HIP HI TI CHNH CNG NGHIP V THNG MI (ICFC) vi s tr gip ca chnh ph Anh nhm lp mt trong nhng "l hng" ca th trng vn Anh do u ban MACMILLAN xc nh. Mt cm thut ng ch mt qu trnh phi hp khng trng thy c nhm m bo cho s nht qun ca cc k hoch c nhn trong nn kinh t th trng phi tp trung. Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENTS, BALANCE OF TRADE, CURRENT ACCOUNT, EXPORTS. Tht nghip s c loi b khi tng cu tng ln, tng cu lm cho gi c tng ln v tin cng thc t thp i. Gi thit rng, vi bt k kh nng tng tin cng trong ngn hn, tin cng chc chn s tr li mc va sng trong di hn. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Xt v phng din TI NGUYN THIN NHIN v mi trng, thut ng ny ch mt hnh ng no c nhng tc ng khng th o ngc c mt cch tuyt i hoc do chi ph lm nh vy l qu ln. Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM Xem INTERNATIONAL STANDARD INDUSTRAL CLASSIFICATION Mt ngn hng pht trin khu vc c T chc Hi ngh o hi thnh lp nm 1974 nhm khuyn khch tng trng kinh t cc nc v cng ng hi gio. Lc m t vic xc nh ng thicc gi tr cn bng ca li sut v mc thu nhp quc dn do kt qu thc hin cc iu kin trong th trng hng ho v tin t. ng cong hay ng thng m t t hp ca hai u vo bt k c th mua c vi mt s tin c nh. (Cn c gi l ng cong ng chi). Xem ISO-COST CURVE. (Cn c gi l ng bng quan ca ngi sn xut hay ng ng lng). Mt ng ng sn phm l tp hp cc t hp ca hai hay nhiu U VO to ra cng mt mc SN LNG. Qu tch cc t hp ca hai hay nhiu bin ph thuc ca HM LI NHUN to nn mt mc li nhun nh nhau. Xem Iso-profit curve. Qu tch cc t hp SN LNG v ph tn tip th to nn mt mc TNG DOANH THU nht nh. Khi mt cng ty c hn ch v c phn c thnh lp, cng ty ny c php tng vn bng cch pht hnh c phiu vi mt s lng nht nh. Mt cc thuc Ngn hng Anh c trch nhim trong vic pht hnh giy bc ngn hng. Mt s loi chng khon pht hnh mi ca cc cng ty v cc t chc khc c nhng ngi mi gii chng khon iu khin v trn phng din ny th h hot ng ging nh nh pht hnh.

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Mt t chc, thng l mt ngn hng thng mi, bn cnh cc hot ng khc cn chuyn mn ho trong qun l vic pht hnh c phn mi, tri phiu cng ty hoc tri phiu nhn danh cc cng ty hoc cc t chc khc c nhu cu v ti chnh, v d nh chnh ph v cc cp chnh quyn a phng. Mt hip hi c thnh lp vo nm 1945 t chc mt din n nhm tng cng nhng li ch ca cc ngn hng thng mi v cc t chc khc hot ng vi t cch l cc nh pht hnh. Xem INTERNATIONAL TRADE ORGANIZATION.

Thi k ngay sau khi ng tin ca mt quc gia b mt gi hay ph gi, quc gia c th tri qua mt thi k thm ht CN CN THANH TON. Cm thut ng miu t vn khi phng din l thuyt ngi ta gi nh rng T S VN - LAO NG c th c thay i ngay lp tc. Mt cng chc v sau l mt gio s u tin ti trng i hc Owens, Manchester v sau ti trng i hc tng hp London, Jevon l mt nh kinh t y nng lc c tng ban u rt v i, mc du ng khng pht trin ht nhng tng ca mnh mt cch rt y . Trong cc tc phm chnh ca mnh, Hc thuyt kinh t chnh tr (1871), Jevon ch yu vit v nhng tng ca TRNG PHI O v phn tch gi tr tho dng bin v l thuyt v vn v li. L mt trong ba nh sng lp phng php tho dng bin, (nhng ngi khc l Merger v Walras), Jevon l ngi u tin cng b hc thuyt ny vo nm 1862. ng cng a ra khi nim phi tho dng ca lao ng. ng gn thi gian vo qu trnh sn xut v vo l thuyt v vn trc Bohm Bawerk. ng coi u t c hai kha cnh, dung lng vn v thi gian u t. ng cho rng tng vn ng ngha vi vic ko di thi gian u t v rng nng sut ca vn l mt hm s thi gian. Li sut th ph thuc vo sn phm bin ca vn. Jevon cng ng gp nhiu vo vn cc s ch s. ng xy dng ch s gi c bnh qun gia quyn v thuyt chu k thng mi vi thuyt "vng nng nng" ca mnh. Vng nng nng b nh hng n thi tit v nh hng n ma v cy trng v do vy nh hng n nn kinh t ni chung. Thut ng trc khi c khi nim v n ln vo nm 1986, ch mt nh lp th trng ti s chng khon London. Mt nhm n nh cc ngh nghip hay cng vic nm trong mt th trng lao ng ni b lin kt cht ch vi nhau n mc chng c cng cc c im quy nh v lng bng. Mt nh thay th cnh tranh lng bng chnh thng m trong cng nhn cnh tranh vi nhau ginh ly vic lm bng vic thay i mc lng m h sn sng lm vic. Hnh ng c hiu theo ngha rng nht l gim s ngi tht nghip trong thi k suy thoi, hoc bng cch gim tc ngi b sa thi do d tha hoc bng cch tng tc ngi tht nghip tm kim c vic lm.

iu ny din ra khi mt c nhn ng thi c hn mt vic lm v do vy khng ph thuc vo mt ngun thu nhp duy nht. Mt qu trnh m trong cc yu t khc nhau ca mt vic lm lm nh k nng, kin thc tch lu, trch nhim v cc iu kin lm vic - c nh gi, cho im v a ra mt im chung cho vic lm . L qu trnh thu thp thng tin v nhng c hi vic lm v mc lng ca mi c hi c hi vic lm trong th trng lao ng.

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Cc phng php tm vic hoc nhn vic lm c phn loi thnh "chnh quy" v "khng chnh quy". Mt xu hng trong gii cng nhn tr, v c bit trong s nhng ngi v thnh nin tm kim vic lm thch hp trn c s th nghim. L nh kinh t hc ngi Canada c b nhim l ch nhim cng trnh v thuyt kinh t ti Manchester nm 1956. nh dy hc ti Chicago, Trng Kinh t London v Geneva. ng l bin tp vin ca nhiu thi bo khc nhau nh Thi bo kinh t, Tp san Kinh t chnh tr v Kinh t hc quc t. Cc tc phm ni ting ca ng bao gm Thng mi quc t v tng trng kinh t, Nhng nghin cu v l lun thun tu (1958), cc tiu lun tip theo v kinh t hc tin t (1972), Kinh t hc v X hi (1975). L thnh vin ca TRNG PHA CHICAGO, ngoi nhng ng gp ban u vo lnh vc cn cn thanh ton, thu quan v thanh ton cho cc yu t sn xut, ng tng hp nhiu tc phm ng thi v kinh t hc quc t v kinh t hc tin t quc t. Cc phn phi xc sut m cho bit xc sut vi hai hay nhiu hn cc bin s nhn ng thi nhng gi tr nht nh (hoc nm trong nhng khong nht nh). Cc hng ho c c tnh l nu c s thay i trong tc sn lng ca mt sn phm th s em li s thay i tng t i vi cc sn phm kia. Ti a ho li nhun kt hp ca mt nhm doanh nghip. Cng ty c phn c thnh lp m khng phi tun theo nhng i hi phi cam kt nhiu vn ti chnh. Mt tnh hung trong c khu vc cng cng v t nhn hp tc vi nhau trong mt hot ng kinh t; iu ny c bit ph bin trong cc nc km pht trin ni m vn rt khan him trong khu vc t nhn v cc qu ca chnh ph thng c dng pht trin cng nghip hay dch v ngn hng Mt hnh thc hp tc kinh doanh quc t gia cc cng ty Phng Ty v cc cng ty ng u v l m hnh u t nc ngoi chnh cc nc ng u. Mt php kim nh c to ra gii quyt cc gi thit khng c bin chung trong khun kh ca m hnh hi quy. Mt chu k trong thng mi trong mc hot ng kinh t vi thi gian t 9 ti 10 nm. Xem RAWLSIAN JUSTICE. Mt tiu chun o c v gi tr ca mt hng ho hay dch v - ngha l mt mc gi m c coi l "ng v o l". Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, ngi c nh hng ln ti Cambridge, t nhng nm 1930 ti nhng nm 70. Uy tn v nh hng ca ng vt xa nhng tc phm xut bn ca mnh m trong tc phm Cc tiu lun la chn v vic lm v tng trng (1973) miu t nhng ng gp ch yu ca ng.ng c cho l ngi a ra khi nim s nhn v c ghi nhn v nhng ng gp quan trng trong nhng nm 1930 v KINH T HC PHC LI trong vic xc nh nhng iu kin c mt S TI U V X HI.

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Sinh ra Hungary, Kaldor hc v dy Anh t nhng nm 1920. ng ta c mt s ng gp cho l thuyt kinh t v i khi l nhn vt quan trng trong vic t vn cho cc chnh ph v chnh sch kinh t. ng c ng gp vo l thuyt kinh t trong lnh vc KINH T HC PHC LI m theo ng cng vi J.R.Hicks pht trin m hnh KIM NH N B phc li thu c. ng ta l ngi ng h chnh i vi cuc tranh ci v vn v cng vi Joan Robinson v nhng ngi khc ng tn cng hc thuyt tn c in v phn phi thu nhp v tin b k thut da trn phn tch bin thay th chng vi cc m hnh da trn phn tch ca J.M.Keynes, David Ricardo v Pireo Sraffa. Trong khi lm c vn cho b trng b ti chnh Anh v cc chnh sch thu kho t nm 1964-1968 v 1974-1976, ng ngh s dng THU LI VN phn phi li thu nhp v thu s dng lao ng chn lc khuyn khch thuyn chuyn lao ng sang ngnh ch to. L ngi bo v chung thnh kinh t hc Keynes, ng c nh hng rt ln trong mt s lnh vc c bit trong cc tc phm ca Nhm chnh sch kinh t Cambridge, ch yu l ca Kaldor v CU HIU LC v s cn thit ca chnh ph cn phi can thip vo nn kinh t n nh nn kinh t v c bn trong v bn ngoi v khuyn khch tng trng. Cc tc phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Thu chi tiu (1955), Cc tiu lun v tng trng v n nh kinh t (1960), Cc tiu lun v gi tr v phn phi (1960), Tch lu vn v tng trng kinh t (1961), Nguyn nhn ca t l tng trng chm Anh (1966), Mu thun ca cc mc tiu chnh sch (1971), Cc tiu lun v kinh t c thu thp, tp 5 (1978). Kim nh ny c Kaldor v Hicks a ra trong cc bi bo c in Tp ch Kinh t nm 1939. Xem COMPENSATION TESTS. Nh kinh t hc ngi Balan, trong u nhng nm 30 ng c lp pht trin thuyt ca Keynes. Kalecki cng l ngi a ra khi nim "mc c quyn" c xc nh bi t l gia mc li sut trn gi bn, iu ny cho thy khng c s cnh tranh v gi c. Khi nim ny c dng gii thch ti sao gi c li khng gim xung trong thi k suy thoi v cng gii t trng ca li nhun v lng trong THU NHP QUC DN. Kelecki cng l ngi a ra khi nim "ngi cng nhn tiu ci g m h kim c v cc nh t bn kim ci g h chi tiu". Nu ngi cng nhn tiu ton b tin lng ca vo mua hng ho th phn cn li ca thu nhp quc dn, li nhun phi c sn cho u t v tiu dng ca nh t bn. Nu cc nh t bn tng tiu dng ca mnh th n s tr li vi h di dng li nhun cao hn. Nm 1943, Kalecki cng d on chu k ngng tng trng chnh tr. iu xy ra Anh t cui Chin tranh th gii th hai. Ti cui i mnh, Balan, Kalecki quan tm n NG HC KINH T v s tng trng cc nc X hi ch ngha. Cc n phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Cc tiu lun v l thuyt giao ng kinh t (1939), L thuyt ng hc kinh t (1945), L thuyt tng trng mt nn kinh t X hi ch ngha (1969) v cc tiu lun la chn v ng hc ca nn kinh t t bn ch ngha (1971). y l phng php ti u d on CC BIN S NI SINH v cp nht nhng THNG S C LNG trong cc phng trnh d on.

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Nh kinh t hc v ton hc ngi Nga l ngi khi xng QUY HOCH TUYN TNH trong nhng nm 1930. Kantorovich ng dng thuyt ny khng nhng i vi vn kt hp cc yu t sn xut sn c trong mt nh my ti a sn lng, m cn p dng thuyt ny vo vn k hoch ho kinh t v m mt nn kinh t x hi ch ngha. Kt lun ca ng l c th phi tp trung ho cc quyt nh sn xut m vn duy tr hiu qu nu gi c bng (dn xut t p s ca cc bi ton quy hoch tuyn tnh) c s dng cc mc thp ca qu trnh quyt nh. Lun im chnh trong tc phm ca ng v cc nh kinh t khc Nga, nhng ngi chu nh hng ca ng l: mt nn kinh t k hoch ho tp trung thnh cng cn phi s dng h thng gi c xy dng bao gm t l chit khu x hi hay li sut x hi. ng ngh ci cch k thut k hoch ho khi ang c dng Lin X. ng c tng gii Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1975 (cng vi T.KOOPMANS). Cc tc phm chnh ca ng bao gm: Cc phng php ton hc trong lp k hoch t chc sn xut (1939), Cc s dng tt nht cc ngun lc kinh t (1965) v Quyt nh ti u trong kinh t hc (1972) (vi A.G.Gorstko). Vng thng thuyt mu dch a phng ln th su, tin hnh di s bo tr ca HIP NH CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH din ra Geneva t 1964-1967. Khng ging cc vng thng thuyt mu dch trc thng khuyn khch gim hng ro mu dch a phng, vng Kenedy dn ti vic thng lng gim thu quan i vi nhng nhm hng ho c th ch khng thng lng v mt mt hng. Mt hnh thc ch o tin lng c th m trong mt khon thanh ton tin lng c dng lm tham chiu cho ton b nhng khon lng phi tr sau . L mt hc tr ca Alffred Marshall. Mt thay i ca cu i vi hng ho l kt qu ca s thay i trong mc gi chung. Xem INCOME - EXPENDITURE MODEL. Mt cm thut ng dng miu t cc l thuyt kinh t v m v mc hot ng kinh t s dng cc k thut do J.M.Keynes a ra. Xem HARROD DOMAR GROWTH MODEL. B ti chnh Anh a ra nhng ngh v vic thit lp mt lin minh Thanh ton B tr quc t ti Hi ngh Ti chnh v tin t ca Lin hp quc BRETTON WOOD, New Hampshire nm 1944. John Maynard Keynes l ngi chu trch nhim ch yu v vic to lp cc ngh nn c gi chung l K hoch Keynes. Cc mc lng ca ngh nghip trong th trng LAO NG NI B lm im tip xc vi th trng bn ngoi. Da trn gi thuyt rng trong cc th trng c c im c quyn nhm, s ph thuc ln nhau buc cc doanh nghip phi tin rng gim gi xung di mc hin hnh s b cc i th lm theo, nhng tnh hnh s khng din ra i vi trng hp tng gi. Mt m hnh KINH T LNG c va ca nn kinh t M cho giai on 1929-1952 (khng k c giai on 1942-1945) c nh hng rt quan trng i vi vic xy m hnh kinh t lng t thi gian xut bn nm 1955 n nay.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi M v l gio s kinh t ti trng i hc Pennsylvania; c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1980 v tc phm tin phong ca mnh trong vic pht trin cc m hnh d bo kinh t nh lng, c th c dng d bo cc bin s nh tng sn phm quc dn, xut khu, u t v cc tc ng ca cc bin php trong cc chnh sch i vi cc bin s ny. Trong s nhiu m hnh c lin quan n tn ny th m hnh thnh cng v ni ting nht l m hnh D bo Kinh t Lng Wharton i vi nn kinh t M, a ra ti trng i hc Pennsylvania. Klein quan tm nhiu n vic p dng cc pht trin l thuyt trong kinh t lng vo cng vic ng dng hn l vic a ra thuyt kinh t nh lng. S nghip ca ng gp phn pht trin lnh vc ny v nh hng ti vic xy dng m hnh trn quy m ton th gii. Thnh tu c mt khng hai ca Klein ni chung l vic dch chuyn m hnh Keynes sang lnh vc thng k. Hai cun sch ni ting nht ca ng l Cuc cch mng Keynes (1947) v Sch gio khoa v Kinh t lng (1953). Trong THUYT TNG TRNG, mt vt cn i vi tng trng n nh khi Tc tng trng m bo l khng n nh, ngoi vn na l liu tc m bo c ngang bng Tc tng trng t nhin hay khng. L mt nh kinh t hc ngi M, Knight c b nhim lm gio s kinh t ti Chicago nm 1928. ng c ng gp quan trng vo o l v PHNG PHP LUN ca kinh t hc cng nh i vi vic nh ngha v gii thch CHI PH X HI. ng gp ln nht ca ng i vi kinh t tc phm Ri ro, S khng chc chn v li nhun (1921). Cc n phm chnh khc ca ng bao gm T chc Kinh t (1933), Lun l v cnh tranh (1935), T do v i mi (1947), Nhng bi lun v lch s v Cc phng php kinh t hc (1956), v Tnh bo v Hnh ng dn ch (1960). L mt nh sng lp trng phi cc nh kinh t "T DO" CHICAGO, Knight c nh hng ng k i vi cc thnh vin ca trng phi , mc du ng ta b ph phn v quyn hnh ca nh nc, ng ta nghi ng kh nng ca mt x nghip t do hot ng hiu qu v theo mt cch thc hp o l. c bit ng b ph phn v cc tc ng ca kinh doanh t do i vi thu nhp. Mt nh kinh t ngi Nga c ng gp ng k vo kinh t nng nghip v pht trin k hoch ho kinh t Lin X. Nm 1952 ng xut bn cun Nhng ln sng di trong cuc sng kinh t, m nh ng tr nn ni ting. ng tm ra nhng chu k di t cui nhng nm 1780 n 1844-51, t 1844-51 n 1914-20. ng cho rng s tn ti ca cc ln sng di l "t nht c kh nng" nhng khng a ra thuyt h thng, ch n thun a ra mt s yu t lin quan. Cc nghin cu sau ny cho thy rng cc ln sng tm c c th l do cc k thut thng k c Kondratieff s dng to nn. Mong mun phn tch cc iu kin kinh t mt cch khch quan ca ng v hnh lm cho ng mu thun vi cc chnh sch ca Lin X. ng b bt nm 1930, v khng c a ra x cng khai, v sau cht trong t khng ai bit ti.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi M sinh ra Halan. Koopmans l gio s kinh t ti Chicago (1948-1955), gim c COWLES FOUNDATION (1961-1967), v l gio s kinh t ti Harvard (1960-1961). L ngi c cng c lp pht trin QUY HOCH TUYN TNH, Koopmans gn lin quy hoch tuyn tnh vi thuyt kinh t vi m truyn thng v pht trin mt m hnh phn b ngun lc trong mt nn kinh t cnh tranh. ng cho rng mt m hnh sn xut nh vy c th lm c s cho vic thit lp nn mt l thuyt cn bng tng th. Nm 1951, ng trnh by quan in ny trong phn tch hot ng v sn xut v phn b, trong ng a ra cng c phn tch hot ng. Kt lun ca tc phm ny l vic s dng gi bng to ra cc kh nng phi tp trung ho cc quyt nh sn xut trong nn kinh t. Koopmans c ng gp quan trng vo thuyt tng trng ti u v thuyt kinh t lng. ng a ra mt s nh l quan trng v vic phn chia ti u thu nhp quc dn gia u t v tiu dng thng qua thi gian v cho thy kt qu ca nhng la chn i vi vic phn b phc li gia cc th h. ng c tng gii thng Nobel nm 1975 (cng vi L.KANTOROVICH). Cc tc phm chnh khc ca ng bao gm Ba tiu lun v tnh trng khoa hc kinh t (1957). Mt lot cc bin i m trong mt phng trnh cha mt tr phn phi gim theo cp s nhn c di v hn c bin i thnh mt s s lng hu hn cc bin s, bao gm mt tr khng ng nht. Nh kinh t hc ngi M gc Nga, ngi c tng gii thng Nobel kinh t nm 1971 do ng gp vo vic thu thp, c lng v gii thch cc s liu lin quan n qu trnh thay i x hi. ng gp ca ng chiu mt lung nh sng mi vo tng trng kinh t. ng quan tm n chu k tng trng di m c v b nh hng mnh m bi nhng thay i trong tc tng dn s, s n nh trong hu ht cc nc cng nghip trong nhiu thp k ca t l gia tiu dng v thu nhp v vic ng pht hin ra rng s lng vn thc s cn sn xut ra mt lng hng ho nht nh c xu hng i xung. C mt s tranh ci v vic liu cc chu k m ng tm ra c th khng phi l v k thut thng k m ng s dng. Xem Fishman, G.S, Nhng phng php ph bin trong kinh t lng. Harvard University press (1969). Cc n phm chnh ca Kuznuts l Thu nhp quc dn v Thnh phn ca n (1941), Sn phm quc dn t nm 1869 (1946) v S tng trng kinh t ca cc dn tc (1971). Ton b ngun nhn lc sn c trong x hi dng vo qu trnh sn xut. Tin b k thut lm tng sn lng ging nh kiu tng sn lng nh tng LC LNG LAO NG m khng c s thay i thc s no v s lng ngi trong lc lng lao ng tham gia thc hin. S nghin cu bn cht v cc yu t quyt nh tin lng v vic lm. Lc lng lao ng bao gm nhng ngi ang lm vic v ang tm vic, n bao gm nhng ngi c vic lm v c nhng ngi tht nghip. i vi ton b dn s hay i vi mt b phn ca dn s tnh theo tui tc, gii tnh hay chng tc, t l tham gia lao ng c nh ngha l t l gia s dn (c vic hay tht nghip) c kh nng hot ng kinh t so vi tng s dn cng loi. Khi cc hng u t mnh vo vic thu v o to mt cng nhn, h s khng mun sa thi ngi trong thi k kinh t suy thoi.

Mt th trng lao ng bao gm cc hot ng thu v cung ng lao ng nht nh thc hin nhng cng vic nht nh, v l qu trnh xc nh s tr bao nhiu cho ngi lm vic. Mt cm thut ng c C.Mc dng miu t hng ho m ngi cng nhn bn cho cc nh t bn. Cc quy trnh cng ngh hay phng php sn xut thin v hng c gii ho v s dng t lao ng hn.

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T trng tin lng trong THU NHP QUC DN. Mt cm thut ng do J.H.HICKS pht trin th hin cch gii thch c bit ca ng v cch thc m tin lng (v do vy, gi c) c n nh. Xem SUPPLT OF LABOUR. Xem LEWIS-FEI - RANIS MODEL Mt hc thuyt c CC NH KINH T HC C IN, nh RICARDO v c bit l C.Mc s dng gii thch vic n nh cc gi c tng i trn c s s lng lao ng, hin ti v tch dn, c bao hm trong hng ho. Mt cm thut ng p dng cho cc doanh nghip miu t s vic lm thay i, nhng ngi thi lm vic v nhng ngi mi c thu mn. Mi quan h gia cc bin m trong gi tr hin ti ca BIN PH THUC c quan h vi cc gi tr trc ca mt hay nhiu BIN C LP. Mt phng php gii quyt cc bi ton ti u ho c rng buc, trong cc rng buc c vit thnh HM N gp cng vi HM MC TIU to ra phng trnh gi l "phng trnh Lagrange". Mt hc thuyt cho rng cc vn kinh t ca x hi c nh hng tt nht bi quyt nh ca cc c nhn m khng c s can thip ca cc c quan chnh quyn.

Mt thut ng s dng trong kinh t hc miu t khng ch phn b mt tri t khng tnh n bin m cn bao gm ton b ti nguyn thin nhin nh rng, khong sn, ngun lc bin, mu ca t c th c s dng trong qu trnh sn xut. Mt cm thut ng rng thng thng m ch cc kh nng tng s phn thnh cc vng nng thn (thng l cc nc ang pht trin) thng qua cc thay i v th ch trong khu vc nng nghip. Mt loi thu nh vo gi tr hoc kch thc ca mnh t. Nh kinh t ngi Balan dy mt vi trng i hc M v gi v tr cao trong trng i hc Chicago. ng l mt trong nhng nh sng lp kinh t lng v l ngi ng h kinh t hc Keynes (Gi linh hot v ton dng cng nhn, 1944), mc d vn coi kinh t hc Keynes l mt trng hp c bit ca Walras. Tuy ng c ng gp ng k vo nhiu lnh vc nhng ng c ngi ta nh n nhiu nht trong cuc tranh lun trong nhng nm 1930 v vn liu rng cc tnh ton kinh t hp l c th xy ra trong nn KINH T HOCH HO hay khng. ng cho rng iu ny c th xy ra, v gi c cn tnh ch s khan him c th c tnh ton bn ngoi H THNG TH TRNG m khng cn bt k hnh ng trao i no, mc du trong thc t c c h thng gi c ca mnh, Lange i hi to ra mt th ch v th ch ny ging mt th trng. Tc phm Kinh t chnh tr ca ng, mc d khng hon chnh (bn dch ting Anh nm 1963), nhng l tng hp ln u tin v KINH T HC MC XT. Mt ch s bnh qun gia quyn so vi nm gc. Mt t chc lin chnh ph c thnh Lp nm 1975 khuyn khch hp tc v hi nhp kinh t trong khu vc M Latinh. Hip hi thng mi t do c thnh lp nm 1961 cn c vo s chun y ca Hip c Motevideo nm 1960, nh du s kt thc hng lot cuc hi tho s b di s bo tr ca U BAN KINH T M LATINH, LIN HP QUC. Mt trng phi t duy kinh t c ngun gc ti trng i hc Lausanne Thu s nhn mnh vo vic s dng cc k thut ton hc th hin s ph thuc ln nhau trong mt th trng. Mt quan im c cng nhn rng ri, nu mi yu t khc khng i th hng ho s c mua nhiu hn nu gi c thp hn, v hng ho s c mua t hn nu gi c tng ln.

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Khi s lng ngy cng nhiu ca mt yu t kh bin c thm vo s lng c nh ca mt yu t no khc, th trc hts l li tc bin, v sau l li tc trung bnh i vi yu t bin i s, sau mt im no gim dn

Xem Law of diminishing returns. Mt bn bo co ca chnh ph Anh v thu v chi tiuu ca cc chnh ph a phng Anh xut bn nm 1976 (HMSO, Ti chinh chnh quyn a phng, bo co theo yu cu U ban iu tra, London, 1976). Xem TEMPORARY LAYOFFS. Trong nn kinh t k hoch ho, chnh quyn c th gn tm quan trng c bit cho mt mc tiu c th no . Mc thanh ton lng bng chung trong mt ngnh kinh t c coi l im tham kho v lng cho cc khu vc khc (v d nghip on trong mt khu vc cng cng c th ly mc thanh ton lng bng trong khu vc t nhn tham kho). Xem Withdrawals. Mt qu trnh c coi l s xoy trn c lng/ lng v c cho l mt l do c lp dn n lm pht lng v gi c bi nhng ngi to lp thuyt LM PHT DO CHI PH Y. Mt cch gii thch v TIN B K THUT (nh thy trong s gim dn u vo lao ng trn mi n v u ra) xt theo kinh nghim thc hin cng vic .

Mt tho thun trong mt bn c quyn s dng ti n no thuc v quyn s hu ca ngi khc trong mt thi gian nht nh, i li ngi s dng ti sn ny phi tr mt khon ph c nh tho thun, thng tr thnh nhiu ln theo nh k. Xem COST MINIMIZATION. Mt cm thut ng chung miu t c s ca mt nhm cc k thut c lng kinh t lng. Mt m hnh ton hc c s dng rng ri trong kinh t hc, gii quyt cc tc ng ca cc rng buc i vi vic ti a ho hnh vi. Mt trong nhng chc nng, v l mt trong nhng l do tn ti ca mt NGN HNG TRUNG NG HIN I. Sinh ra Lin X, Leontief tr thnh gio s kinh t ti Harvard nm 1946. Tc phm chnh ca ng l mt bi phn tch v ph thuc ln nhau bn trong mt nn kinh t, v c bit l bn trong khu vc sn xut, s dng mt k thut m ng ta gi l phn tch u ra - u vo. Trong cc tc phm nh Cc nghin cu v c cu kinh t M (1953) v Kinh t hc u vo - u ra (1966), ng m rng m hnh tc ng qua li ca QUESNAY v cnhngx ngi kc thnh mt m hnh ton cao cp cho thy mi quan h gia cc thnh phn ca mt h thng kinh t. Leontief p dng k thut vo nn kinh t M, v to ra cc kt qa l th trong lnh vc thng mi quc t v kinh t ti nguyn thin nhin. K thut tr thnh c s ca k hoch ho trong nhiu nn kinh t phi th trng. Leontief c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1973. Xem HECKSCHER - OHLIN APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL TRADE.

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Sinh ra Nga v hc Anh, s nghip nghin cu ca ng din ra mt s trng i hc M. Tc phm ban u ca ng bao gm vic miu t bng th v m rng thuyt gi tr ca Marshall bao gm nhng nghin cu v cnh tranh khng hon ho ca Joan ROBINSON v CHAMBERLIN. Tc phm ny tp trung vo vic tm kim mt khi nim y v quyn lc c quyn v bo v ch ngha bnh qun bng cch s dng quy lut li tc bin gim dn. Tc phm chnh ca ng l Kinh t hc kim sot (1944) s dng nhiu nhng phn tch ca Marshall to ra mt tnh hung ng h CH NGHA X HI TH TRNG. ng cng a ra nhng iu kin m theo mt s thay i v t gi hi oi ca mt quc gia s ci thin c cn cn thng mi ca n. iu kin ny thng c gi l IU KIN MARSHALL - LERNER. Ngoi ra, Lerner cn l ngi ng h v bo v kinh t hc KEYNES. Tnh hung do Lerner phn tch trong thuyt v thu quan trong vic p dng mt loi thu quan vo mt mt hng nhp khu c nhu cu trong nc khng co gin theo gi th kt qu s dn ti cn cn thng mi ti t hn v cu i vi sn phm tng ln. Khi CNH TRANH HON HO tn ti th gi bn chi ph bin; do vy ch s ny s c gi tr bng 0.

Xem DEVOLOPING COUNTRIES. Mt vn bn do mt ngn hng pht hnh thay mt khch hng bo m rng ngn hng s thanh ton cc sc do khch hng rt, hay ph bin hn ngy nay gi l cc hi phiu do cc bn m khch hng mua hng rt theo tn ca khch hng. Mt khi nim s dng trong kim nh gi thuyt xc nh cc gi tr ti hn nhm so snh thng k kim nh vi chng.

Mt ch s v mi quan h gia n di hn v vn s dng. Nh kinh t hc Ty n v l ngi cng c tng gii thng Nobel vi Theodore Schultz v kinh t nm 1979. Hun tc W.Athur c o to ti trng kinh t London v l trng khoa kinh t ti trng i hc Manchester v Princeton. Mi quan tm chnh ca ng l chnh sch cng cng v kinh t ca cc nc km pht trin v m hnh pht trin ca Lewis, trong gi nh mt nn kinh t hai khu vc hin i ang pht trin, trong li nhun c ti u t, v hp th s lao ng khng hn ch t khu vc nng nghip truyn thng, c chp nhn rng ri. Tc phm chnh ca ng l L thuyt v tng trng kinh t (1955), trnh by nhng phn tch tng hp v pht trin kinh t cho n thi gian . Trong k hoch pht trin: s ct yu ca chnh sch kinh t (1966), ng a ra nhng hng dn v cch thc to lp v nh gi mt k hoch kinh t. Cc n phm khc ca ng l Kho st kinh t, 1948 - 1935 (1949), phn tch v xem xt cc s kin v chnh sch ca giai on , Chi ph c nh (1949) v Cc nguyn tc k hoch ho kinh t (1949). Mt m hnh kinh t v tht nghip cc nc ang pht trin c A.Lewis gii thiu nm 1954 v 1958 v sau ch chn thc ho bi Fei v Ranis nm 1964.

S thch ca mt c nhn i vi mt nhm hng ho ny so vi mt hng ho khc, nu n cha nhiu hn mt hng ho c th no v bt k s lng ca cc hng ho khc trong nhm nh th no. Mi tri quyn, thc ti hay tng lai, i vi mt c nhn hay t chc.

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Xem ECONOMIC LIBERALISM. Li sut cho vay lin ngn hng London London l li sut khc nhau trong nhng hon cnh khc nhau m cc ngn hng c th cho vay nhng loi tin no vi s lng v thi hn no , trong th trng tin t Chu u. Theo Lut ngn hng ca Anh nm 1979, mt loi t chc tn dng c php nhn tin gi. B lut nhm thit lp mt h thng quy nh v kim sot bo v cng chng c tin gi, v c tc dng lm hn ch cc hot ng nhn tin gi hai loi t chc tn dng, "cc ngn hng c cng nhn" v "cc c quan c php nhn tin gi". Gi thit cho rng c nhn tiu dng mt t l c nh gi tr hin ti ca thu nhp ca c i h trong mi thi k.

T lng ch nghip v vo thng 12/1973 ca ngn hng trung ng Anh, cng vi s gip ca cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London v Scotland, gii quyt ci gi l khng hong NGN HNG CP HAI, din ra trong thng 12/1973. Trong kinh t lng, mt trung bnh m theo m hnh c kh nng thc nht c th c suy ra t mt tp hp hu hn cc quan st i vi cc s kin c cho l do m hnh to ra. C hai loi cng ty trch nhim hu hn Anh: Cng ty trch nhim hu hn cng cng v cng ty trch nhim hu hn t nhn. Xy ra trong m hnh hi quy theo bin ph thuc b hn ch mt s khong gi tr no . Mt cm thut ng miu t mt nhm k thut c tnh kinh t lng s dng trong vic c tnh cc bin s ca cc hm ng thi.

Cc cch thc m cc hng thit lp cho mt nghnh cng nghip c th nh gi vi mc ch ngn cn nhng i th cnh tranh mi mun thm nhp vo th trng. Xem VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE MODEL. Thuyt ca nh kinh t Thy in c tn l Linder cho rng cc nc cng c thu nhp bnh qun u ngi ging nhau th lng bun bn v hng ch to gia cc nc cng cao v ngoi thng c coi l vic m rng tiu dng v sn xut trong nc. Tng ca mt dy bin s (hoc cc VECT) c nhn vi mt s hng s no . Mt tnh cht ca mt tp hp cc vect trong mt trong cc vect c th c biu din bng mt t hp tuyn tnh ca cc vect khc. Mt cng thc c tnh cc tham s ca phng trnh hi quy, trong cc c tnh c tm ra nh l cc hm tuyn tnh ca cc gi tr bin ph thuc c lng OLS l mt cch c lng tuyn tnh. Trong cc h thng chi tiu tuyn tnh, cc HM CU c din t i vi cc nhm hng ho, chc khng phi vi cc hng ha n l. Mt mi quan h ton hc trong cc bin s xut hin nh l cc yu t cng, khng c cc thnh phn s m hay nhn. Xem HOMOGENEOUS FUNCTION. Cng gi l m hnh PROBIT - m hnh xc sut n v. Mt m hnh trong bin ph thuc l mt bin gi hay bin nh nguyn v c biu din bng mt hm tuyn tnh ca mt hay nhiu bin c lp. Mt k thut to lp v phn tch cc bi ton ti u hc rng buc trong hm mc tiu l mt hm tuyn tnh v c ti a ho hay ti thiu ho tu thuc v s lng cc bt ng thc rng buc tuyn tnh.

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Xem LIQUIDITY. y l qu trnh chm dt s tn ti ca mt cng ty, ti sn ca n c pht mi v phn chia cho cc ch n ca n v trong trng hp cn d tha th c chia cho cc thnh vin trong cng ty. Tnh cht ca ti sn "gn" ti mc mua t do, TIN c nh ngha l c kh nng chuyn hon cao nht.

Xem MONEY, DEMAND FOR. Anh, cc ngn hng phi tun th mt t l chuyn hon ti thiu l 30%, sau li gim xung cn 28%. Xem MONEY MULTIPLIER, FUNDING. Tnh hung m trong vic tng cung tin khng dn ti vic gim li sut m n thun ch dn n vic tng s d tin nhn ri; co gin cu v tin i vi li sut tr thnh v hn. Tn ch cc chng khon c bun bn trn s giao dch chng khon Anh quc. Mt k thut nh gi d n trong cc NC ANG PHT TRIN c ch rng ri. Xem IS - LM DIAGRAM. Mt khon tin do ngi cho vay ng cho ngi vay. Cm thut ng ny c ngha l cc khon tin sn c cho vay trn th trng ti chnh, nhng thng n ny sinh trong vn cnh l thuyt li sut. Xem DEBENTURES. Xem DEBENTURES, FINANCIAL CAPITAL TH TRNG TIN T bn bun London, gn b cht ch vi cc th trng cng ty ti chnh, tin t Chu u v Lin ngn hng, trong ngi ta cho cc c quan chnh quyn a phng vay cc khon vay ngn hn, thng qua cc cng ty mi gii tin t. Thu nhp v chi tiu ca chnh quyn khu vc (a phng). S phn chia nh theo a l ca TH TRNG LAO NG ch yu l hu qu ca cc chi ph v tm l v c bit ca vic i li nhiu n ch lm. Xem REGIONAL MUTIPLIER Hng ho cng cng ca mt cng ng, chng hn h thng n ng. Mt tp hp nhng u mi quan h tn ti gia mt s ngnh va gn nhau v mt v tr a l va lin quan vi nhau do sn phm ca mt s ngnh l u vo ca ngnh khc. Mi quan h tng h gia cc hng trong quyt nh ca mt loi hng v vic la chn v tr cho mt nh my ca n b tc ng bi nhng la chn v v tr ca cc i th cnh tranh. Thc o thng k v mc chnh lch m mt lot hot ng kinh t c th c nh gi trong mt vng ca nn kinh t so vi ton b nn kinh t ni chung. Hc thuyt phn tch nhng tc ng quyt nh n v tr ca hot ng kinh t, gii thch v on trc hnh thi v tr ca cc n v kinh t. Hiu ng lm cho mt ngi c mt ti sn khng bn ti sn na v gi tr th trng ca n gim xung v s gy ra thua l. Vic ngi ch ng ca ni lm vic buc cng nhn tha nhn cc iu khon tuyn dng ca ban lnh o. Lgart ca mt s l mt s m khi c s ca n nng ln s m l gi tr ca lgarit th bng s . th ca hm ny c hnh ch S, v n c s dng biu din mi quan h gia gi tr ca mt bin s kinh t v thi gian.

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Mt mi quan h ton hc m nu biu din bng lgarit th l mt hm tuyn tnh. L t tn cho qu trnh "trao i l phiu" trong mt ngi ng ng h mt ngi khc i vi mt vn nht nh i li ngi kia s ng h anh ta i vi mt vn khc. L ph trung tm ca ngn hng v ti chnh ca thnh ph London. Cng c hp tc kinh t v thng mi c k kt nm 1975 Lom, th ca Togo, gia cc nc thnh vin ca Cng ng Chu u (EC) v 46 nc ang pht trin Chu Phi, Caribe v Thi bnh Dng (ACP). Cc chng khon dng n ch khng phi dng c phn - v d nh chng khon vin vng hay tri khn cng ty - c ngy o hn di, thng l hn 10 nm. Xu hng chi ph vn ti tng t hn v t l so vi qung ng chuyn ch. Mt kiu d liu PANEL, trong cc thng tin trong giai on trc thi im thu thp c a vo. Mt lot cc li sut c th thu c t cc chng khon di hn, v do c th tr cho cc khon vay di hn mi. Khong thi gian lin quan n qu trnh sn xut trong c thi gian thay i tt c cc yu t sn xut, nhng khng thi gian thay i quy trnh cng ngh c bn c s dng. Trong di hn tt c cc chi ph c xu hng l chi ph kh bin. Mi quan h hm s gia tiu dng v thu nhp trong giai on hn 50 nm. Chi ph tng thm khi sn sut thm mt n v sn phm trong di hn. Vn di dng ti chnh (tin) nu c vay theo cc iu khon vay n, c k hn tr n di, thng trn 10 nm; hoc theo cch khc nu ai huy ng bng cch pht hnh c phn th s khng c hon tr, tr khi cng ty ng ca. Mt th dng tnh mc bt bnh ng. Xem LOCATION THEORY. Mt gi thit cho rng PHI THO DNG do b mt mt hng ho nhiu hn so vi tho dng ca hng ho y. Mt hm phi tho dng m mt nh lp chnh sch mun ti thiu ho. Khi cc doanh nghip c hng ho a dng cho bn mt phn trong lot sn phm ca h mc gi thp hn chi ph, v tin rng iu ny s thc y vic tiu th cc sn phm c chnh lch li nhun cao hn.

Thng ni n tho thun, theo cc khon l ca mt d n c th c b li bi thu nhp t cc ngun khc. Xem POPULATION POLYCY, POPULATION. Xem DYNAMIC THEORIES OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE. Bi ph bnh v vic s dng m hnh kinh t lng nh gi kt qu ca cc quyt nh chnh sch v cc tham s c lng ngm bao hm nh hng ca chnh sch. Tnh t dng m t cc s d tuyn tnh (L), khng chch (U) v c ma trn hip phng sai cho v hng (S)> Mt thut ng khng c s dng rng ri trong kinh t hc hin i, nhng nu c dng th ch mt hng ho c co gin cu theo thu nhp ln hn 1, do khi thu nhp tng th hng chim mt t l cao hn trong thu nhp ca ngi tiu dng. Tng thu cho ngn sch chnh ph c th rt rc ri cc nc km pht trin, nhiu ngi t hnh ngh hoc c tr bng hin vt v khng th nh thu thu nhp c.

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U ban iu tra ca Anh c thnh lp nm 1929 vi tn gi "U ban Ti chnh v Cng nghip", do H.P Macmillan (sau ny l Hun tc) lm ch tch, nhm nghin cu h thng ti chnh v ngn hng trong cc nghip v trong nc v quc t ca n, v nhm a ra nhng khuyn ngh v vic lm th no h thng ny c th thc y "vic pht trin ni thng v ngoi thng v vic tuyn dng lao ng". Xem Macmillan Committee. S sa i vo nm 1952 i vi o lut v U ban thng mi Lin bang Hoa k, o lut Mc Guire c ban hnh nhm cng ch cc nh bn l khng k kt cc tho thun v cch nh gi cng nh nhng ngi c k kt tho thun phi nh gi trn nguyn tc "thng mi cng bng". L khoa hc nghin cu hnh vi ca ton b nn kinh t ni chung.

L mt hnh thc LA CHN TP TH hoc QUY TC QUYT NH X HI m theo bt k ngh no c s ng h ca hn mt na s "ngi biu quyt" s c chn. L mt gi nh v bn cht ca vn hin vt thng s dng trong kinh t hc c in, theo cc vt liu hnh thnh nn mt c my c th c th c thay i ngay lp tc v khng h tn km thnh mt c my khc.

Malthus l mt mc s v cng l mt gio s mn lch s hin i v kinh t chnh tr (l ngi u tin c cp danh hiu ny ti Anh). Tuy nhin, ng cng c nhng ng gp cho vic phn tch tin t v cho "hc thuyt v tnh trng d tha" v tham gia v mt cuc tranh lun ni ting vi ngi bn ca ng lad Ricardo, ng c bit n nhiu nht vi t tng l tc gi ca Tiu lun v nguyn tc dn s (1798). Trong tc phm nay, ng thch thc quan im truyn thng ca cc nh kinh t hc dn s cho rng dn s ng v ng cng gia tng ng ngha vi s giu c v ng lp lun rng dn s s tng ln cho n khi t ti mc rng buc v cung cp lng thc. ng cho rng dn s c xu hng gia tng theo cp s nhn v ngun lng thc li tng theo cp s cng. S tng dn s c th c km hm hoc l mt cch tch cc (ngha l qua s t vong tng ln) thng qua nhng hnh thc nh chin tranh, bnh dch hoc mt cch tiu cc (ngha l qua vic sinh t i) thng qua cc hnh thc nh hn ch bng o c, kt hn mun Hc thuyt ny ca Malthus v tin lng t ra mt mc lng khng thay i mt mc tn ti. Tri vi d on ca ng, c dn s v mc lng u c xu hng gia tng cc nc cng nghip pht trin; s d nh vy l do tin b khoa hc k thut, m Malthus nh gi thp vai tr ca n i vi vic qun gim t l sinh khi thu nhp tng v i vi vic khai thc cc vng t mi. Ni m nh v vn ca Malthus cho n nay vn cn tn ti cc nc chm pht trin khi h mun nhp khu cc loi thuc m em li cho nc cng nghip pht trin nhng t l t vong tng ng vi cc t l sinh ca nc ang pht trin. Vn ny cng c mt s nh sinh tha hc a ra trn phm vi ton cu khi h cn tin on rn dn s v sn lng cng nghip tng s khin cho th gii b cn kit cc ngun ti nguyn. Xem IRON LAW OF WAGE. L nhng nhn vin trong mt hng c quyn thay mt cho cc ch s hu kim sot cc hot ng ca hng. L vic ban qun l thu mua cc ti sn ca mt cng ty.

Trong khun kh ca vic nghin cu doanh nghip, mn hc ny p dng cc nguyn tc khoa hc nhm h tr cho vic t c hiu qu hot ng trong vic thc hin cc mc tiu kinh doanh.

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L mt cng ty khng c mt c ng hoc mt nhm c ng no chim c t l biu quyt cao nm quyn kim sot cc chnh sch ca cng ty. Vic t chc nn kinh t thnh cc tp on ln, trong quyn nh ot cc ngun lc nm trong tay mt tng lp qun l c th xc nh c tch bit khi gii ch s hu ti sn v hu nh khng chu s kim sot ca h. L kh nng ca cc nh qun l ca mt cng ty thc hin nhng mc tiu m h t thy l c li hn cho h. L mt khi nim gn vi tng ca Galbraith cho rng quyn lc kinh t chuyn t vn sang ch s hu ca cc b quyt k thut, tc l tng lp qun l. Xem X - EFFICIENCY. L cc hc thuyt bt ngun t quan nim cho rng CH NGHA T BN ng thi c c trng bi s khng ch trong khu vc sn xut ca cc tp on ln, ni m quyn s hu v quyn kim sot c phn tch r rng gia cc c ng v cc nh qun l. Mi quan h ny quy nh c th nhng lun chng m th t u tin ca cc nh qun l ca doanh nghip ph thuc vo . L chi ph tng thm cho vic sn xut thm mt n v sn lng. L mt phng php nh gi ca cc hng t nhn hoc cc cng ty nh nc theo c xc nh bng chi ph bin.

L mc thay i trong tiu dng do tng thm mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i nhp khu do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i tit kim do thay i mt n v thu nhp. Trong hc thuyt v cu ca ngi tiu dng, t l thay th bin cp n s lng ca mt loi hng ho, b p cho ngi tiu dng i vi vic t b s lng mt loi hng ho khc sao cho vn c c mc phc li (tho dng ) nh trc. L gi tr biu hin bng s ca dc ca ng GII HN KH NNG SN XUT. L mc thay i trong tng doanh thu pht sinh t vic bn thm mt n v sn lng.

L mt ngi c b nhim l gim c mt cng ty trch nhim hu hn, c trch nhim chnh l iu hnh cc hot ng hng ngy ca cng ty. L mt phin bn, do nh kinh t Manoilescu a ra, v lun chng v NGNH CNG NGHIP NON TR, da vo nhn nh rt ra t thc t rng mc lng trung bnh trong khu vc ch to mt nc chm pht trin cao hn mc lng trung bnh trong khu vc nng nghip mc d nng sut lao ng c th nh nhau. L mt n lc nhm tng cng hot ng ca th trng lao ng, v nu c th, l s nh i gia tht nghip v lam pht. L nhng nhn vin lm cc cng vic chn tay v c tr tin cng theo tun. Trong kinh t hc, "ti bin" c ngha l ti im m n v sn phm cui cng c sn xut hoc tiu th.

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Mt n v bin l n v tng thn\m ca mt ci g , chng hn nh vi CHI PH BIN, THO DNG BIN.. Xem NEO - CLASSICAL ECONOMICS L biu xc nh chi tit chi ph thc s ca vn ti chnh ca doanh nghip. L chi ph tng thm cho mt thit hi pht sinh, thng do nhim gy ra, t mt n v tng thm ca hot ng gy hi. L phi tho dng tng thm pht sinh t mt thay i nh trong mt bin s no . L T L CHIT KHU c nht c th khin cho gi tr hin ti ca li ch rng d kin t mt ti sn vn bng ng vi gi cung cp n khi gi cung cp ti sn khng h tng. L biu trnh by chi tit mi quan h cn bng di hn gia s vn cn c v li sut. Cn gi l t st li tc ni hon. L t l chit khu lm cho gi tr hin ti ca li tc rng d kin t mt ti sn vn bng ng gi cung cp ca n trong trng hp mc gi ny c cng nhn s tng ln trong ngn hn. L ng cu v u t. L biu trnh by chi tit mi quan h gia hiu sut bin ca u t v t l li sut. L mt tiu chun v u t vi mc tiu ti a ho thu nhp bnh qun u ngi ti mt thi im trong tng lai. L mc tng thm tng sn lng nh vic s dng thm mt n v lao ng v c th dn xut t hm sn xut, vi iu kin cc yu t khc khng i. L sn lng tng thm do s dng thm mt n v u vo. Hc thuyt ny cho rng mt ch s dng lao ng mong mun ti a ho li nhun ca mnh s chu s chi phi ca quy lut v nng sut bin gim dn, theo cc n v lao ng ln lt c s dng s to ra cc n v SN LNG gim dn tng ng. L mc thay i trong thu nhp v thu do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thay i nhng khon rt tin do thay i mt n v thu nhp. L mc thu i vi mt n v thu nhp tng thm, nhng khi nin ny cng c p dng tng ng vi vic tng thm ca chi tiu, ca qu tng. L t l thay th k thut bin ca hai yu t u vo. L sn phm vt cht bin nhn vi doanh thu bin t vic bn thm mt n v sn phm nh vic s dng thm mt n v u vo. Trong kinh t hc ti nguyn, l li ch rng (vic nh gi mt n v ti nguyn, tc l gi ca n tr i chi ph khai thc) m th h tng lai khng c c do th h hin ti s dng mt n v ti nguyn hu hn. L tho dng ph thm c c t vic thm mt n v ca bt k loai hng ho no. Xem Marginal utility of money. L t l gia tng tho dng ca mt c nhn khi ngn sch ca ring ngi (thu nhp) tng thm 1 n v.

L t l gi tr th trng ca 1 chng khon m ngi mua c th vay c khi mua chng khon . Thng thng, l bt k khung cnh no trong din ra vic mua bn cc loi hng ho v dch v. C rt nhiu cch khc nhau phn loi th trng. L tng hp ca mt lot cc ng cu ring r i vi mt loi hng ho.

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Vi mt mc gi bn sn phm khng i, ng cu ca th trng hay ca mt nghnh sn xut chnh l s tng hp theo chiu ngang cc ng DOANH THU SN PHM BIN ca cc doanh nghip tham gia. L mt h thng kinh t trong cc quyt nh v vic phn b ngun lc v sn xut c din ra trn c s cc mc gi c xc nh qua nhng giao dch t nguyn gia cc nh sn xut, ngi tiu dng, cng nhn v ch s hu cc yu t sn xut. L vic mt h thng cc th trng t nhn khng c kh nng cung cp mt s mt hng nht nh cho d l mt phn nh hay vi mc hp l nht nh hoc ti u nht. L nhng tc nhn pht sinh t quan h t do gia cung v cu ca th tng dn n vic phi iu chnh gi bn v/hoc s lng c giao dch. L bt k s sai lch no khi cc iu kin cn thit c c cnh tranh hon ho. L mt thut ng dng ch nhng hot ng ca cc doanh nghip lin quan n vic bn v phn phi sn phm. Cc ban ny c thnh lp ti mt s nc chu Phi, v chng p ng c nhiu mc ch khc nhau. Chng mang li cho cc tiu nng mt th trng chc chn v n nh i vi cc sn phm ca h v v sau hng ha c bn trn quy m ln trn cc th trng quc t nn cc nh chc trch c c c s hp l hn mc c gi bn hp l. L tn gi xut hin ti S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON London k t nm 1986, t cho hng to ra c mt th trng mua bn cc loi chng khon khc nhau thng qua vic lun sn sng mua hoc bn nhng loi chng khon ny. L vic cc nh sn xut c xu hng t nh my ca h gn th trng tiu th sn phm ch khng phi ni khc, chng hn nh gn ngung nguyn liu.

L vic nhm ngi mua hoc bn c kh nng tc ng n gi c ca sn phm hoc dch v m h ang mua bn.

L t trng ca tng s hng ho bn trn th trng ca mt doanh nghip. L mt h thng kinh t x hi ch ngha nhng li nhng quyn iu hnh cc hot ng hng ngy ca nn kinh t cho c ch th trng. L mt qu trnh lin kt gi tr hin ti ca mt bin s vi nhng gi tr trc ca chnh n v mt sai s ngu nhin. L mt nh kinh t ngi M ng ot gii Nobel v kinh t nm 1990 (cng vi M.Miller v W.F.Sharp). Cng vic quan trng m ng thc hin trong nhng nm 1950 t nn mng cho hc thuyt hin i v DANH MC U T. Hc thuyt ban u ca ng v s la chn danh mc u t c da trn m hnh chun tc dnh cho cc nh qun l u t. ng gp quan trng ca ng l vic pht trin thuyt nghip v c tnh ton chnh xc v s la chn danh mc u t trong iu kin khng chc chn. Markowitz ch ra rng trong nhng iu kin nht nh, s la chn danh mc u t ca mt nh u t b hn ch vic cn bng gia li tc d kin thu t danh mc u t vi sai s ca n. V mt nguyn tc, s la chn phc tp gia nhiu ti sn vi nhng thuc tnh khc nhau ca chng c xem nh mt bi ton khng gian hai chiu, thng gi l php phn tch phng sai trung bnh. Cc n phm ln trung bnh ca Markowitz bao gm: S la chn danh mc u t: S a dng ho c hiu qu u t, Wiley (1959), v Php phn tch phng sai - trung bnh trong vic la chn danh mc u t v cc th trng vn, Blackwell (1987)>

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L mt phn cng thm vo cc chi ph kh bin trung bnh hnh thnh gi bn do ngi bn xc nh nhm trang tri cc chi ph c nh v c c li nhun. L nh kinh t hc ngi Anh m c s nghip ca mnh dnh cho cng vic ca mt gio s kinh t ti aih hc Cambridge (1885-1908).ng coi yu t gi thnh sn xut quan trng khng km g tho dng trong hc thuyt v gi tr ca ng. tng c bn trong cng vic ca ng l kh nng ca cung v cu trong vic to ra nhng mc gi cn bng trn th trng. Marshall c v nh cu ni gia hc thuyt kinh t c in vi hc thuyt tn c in ca Jevon v hc thuyt v cn bng tng qut ca Walras. Cc tc phm ca Marshall khng ch c nh hng ng k n chnh sch kinh t cho n hin nay m cn gy nh hng ng k n cc th h nh kinh t ca Anh. L vin tr ca M v Canada cho Anh v cc nc khc tr gip h phc hi nn kinh t sau chin tranh th gii th hai. L ng cu c s dng rng ri nht trong phn ng ca lng cu i vi mc gi chu nh hng ca c hiu ng thu nhp ln hiu ng thay th. Trong nhng iu kin nht nh, vic ph ga ng tin c th ci thin c cn cn thanh ton. iu kin Marshall - Lerner l mt iu kin ging nh vy. Xem EUROPEAN RECOVERY PROGRAMME. L nh trit hc, X hi hc, s hc, l lun chnh tr hc, kinh t hc ngi c. T 1849, sng ti Anh vi s gip ca ng-ghen, mt nh t bn cng nghip. Chu nh hng su sc t tng H-ghen v t a ra lun thuyt v x hi t bn, v lun im tng hp v ch ngha cng sn. Nhng tin on ca C.Mc v ch ngha t bn vn cha tr thnh hin thc nhng nhng thnh tu ca Mc l ht sc to ln khin chi Mc t ti nh co ca mt nh phn tch kinh t. L mt trng phi t duy kinh t c mc ch phn tch s pht trin kinh t v x hi ca h thng kinh t t bn ch ngha. L mt nguyn tc trong kinh t hc mi trng, theo khi lng cht thi ra mi trng t qu trnh sn xut c coi l xp x khi lng cc ti nguyn c s dng sn xut ra hng ho. L cm thut ng c C.Mc s dng xc nh nn tng kinh t thc t ca mt x hi. Xem EXPECTED VALUE. L ngy m khon n ca ngi pht hnh tri phiu n hn phi thanh ton hoc l ngy n hn thanh ton tin n gc. L mt quy tc trong l thuyt RA QUYT NH gip cho vic la chn trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn. L mt quy tc trong l thuyt RA QUYT NH gip cho vic la chn trong nhng iu kin khng chc chn. L gi tr ln nht ca mt hm s hoc ca bin s. L mt cm thut ng m t k thut c lng kinh t lng chung bao gm vic ti a ho hm hp l ca nhng quan st mu v cc gi tr ca cc tham s ca cc phng trnh ang c c tnh.

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L trng phng kinh t thuc vn phng ni cc Anh t nm 1940 n nm 1945, gio s kinh t hc thuc trng Kinh t London t nm 1947 n nm 1957, gio s kinh t chnh tr thuc trng i hc Cambridge t nm 1957 n nm 1969. ng c trao tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t hc vo nm 1977. Nhng tc phm ni ting ca ng l: Hc thuyt v chnh sch kinh t: Cn cn thanh ton (1951), H thng thng mi quc t (1952); Hc thuyt v chnh sch quc t.v cc h thng khc nhau v kinh doanh v tr lng cho cng nhn (1986). Tc phm ni ting nht ca ng thuc v lnh vc chnh sch v hc thuyt thng mi quc t. Nhng vn ca cc chnh sch N NH HO trong NN KINH T M l trng tm ca nhng tc phm u tin ca ng, c bit l nhng iu kin c c mt s cn bng trong nn kinh t trong nc v trong giao dch vi nc ngoi. ng nhn mnh n nhng mu thun v chnh sch c th xy ra gia cn cn thng mi quc t vi cn cn tng cung v tng cu trong nc trong mt h thng t gi hi oi c nh. ng cng tin hnh phn tch v kinh t hc phc li ca lin minh thu quan v thu quan trong nhng iu kin m s cnh tranh hon ho s khng dn n kh nng ti a ho phc li. Mt s o thng c s dng tnh xu hng tp trung ca mt bin s, c th dng tnh cho mt mu nht nh hoc ton b tn th. L nhng tr cp m ch c th nhn c nu nh thu nhp ca ngi xin c hng tr cp thp hn mt gi tr nht nh. L phng php tm ra DANH MC cc ti sn c hiu qu cao. Xem ERRORS IN VARIABLES. Mt s o xu hng tp trung. L mt quy tc dng tm ra a im m ti tng khi lng vn chuyn cn phi thc hin phc v cho mt nhm cc th trng phn tn v v tr a l c gi tr ti thiu. L mt nh l lin quan n s LA CHN TP TH trong mt x hi dn ch, n d on rng cc chnh tr gia hu ht u s i din cho quan im ca nhng c tri trung tm ca ph chnh tr hoc x hi . L s can thip vo CUC TRANH CHP LAO NG bi mt bn th ba c lp khch quan, l bn xem xt lp lun ca c hai pha v a ra khuyn ngh gii quyt tranh chp. L bt k ti sn hoc phng tin no c chc nng trung gian trong qu trnh trao i, ngha l mt vt m ngi bn hang hoc cung cp dch v chp nhn thay th, khng phi cho bn thn n m l v thc rng n c th s dng trong nhng cuc trao i mua bt k ci g m anh ta cn.

L mt chnh sch do chnh ph Anh xng trong k hoch ngn sch nm 1980 theo cc t l tng mc cung tin gim dn hng nm c n nh nhm kim ch lm pht. Vo thng 10/1985, chin lc ny trn thc t b t b khi mc tiu t ra cho ng Sterling M3, bn v tin c a chung b nh li. L nh kinh t ngi o, ngi sng lp ra trng phi o. ng l mt trong nhng tc gi ca hc thuyt v gi tr THO DNG BIN, cn nhng ngi khc c lp nghin cu hc thuyt ny l Jevons v Walras. Menger lp lun rng gi tr mc gia tng ca mt hng ho khi c cung, c th hin bi cng dng km quan trng nht m mc gia tng c s dng. ng cng xy dng nn mt hc thuyt quy trch nhim v phn phi (tc l th lao cho yu t sn xut) theo gi tr v a c ca phng tin sn xut bt ngun t vai tr ca chng trong vic sn xut cc mt hng cn mua trc tin ngha l hng tiu dng. Gi tr pht sinh t tho dng v t cc chi ph sn xut cho php; gi tr khng bt ngun t cc chi ph sn xut, c bit l lao ng ch khng theo quan im, chng hn nh KINH T HC C IN ANH. Tc phm ln ca ng mang ta Grundsatze Der Volkwirtschaftslehre.

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Trit l kinh t ca cc nh bun v cc chnh khch th k XVI v XVII. T tng ny ph thuc vo mt nh nc mnh v can thip su vo hot ng kinh t. L mt nhm trong s cc th ch ti chnh Anh tin hnh mt lot cc hot ng a dng v ti chnh hoc lin quan n ti chnh. L vic hai doanh nghip sat nhp li vi nhau, trong cc c ng ca hai bn cng ty ng kt hp gp vn ca mnh li hnh thnh mt cng ty mi. L mt mt hng m xt v bn cht c coi l ng tiu dng. L mt loi hng ho m ngi ta lp lun rng khng nn khuyn khch tiu dng hoc cm tiu dng cho d nhiu ngi vn thch th hng ho . L mt thut ng thng c s dng mt cch khng cht ch trong kinh t hc m t cch thc m cc nh kinh t s dng trong cch phn tch vn . L tnh hung trong hc thuyt THU QUAN c nh kinh t Metzler phn tch, theo vic nh thu vo mt hng nhp khu s ci thin t gi thng mi theo hng khng ch t gi trao i ngoi nc m ngay c t gi trao i trong nc tnh c thu quan cng c ci thin. L hnh thc t chc ni b rt ph bin c cc cng ty ln p dng nhm phi hp nhm i ph vi tnh trng QUN L LNG LO. L thut ng s dng m t nhng phn trong phn tch kinh t quan tm n hnh vi ca nhng n v n l, c th l nhng ngi tiu dng v cc doanh nghip. L n lc tm ra c nhng mi qun h v hnh vi ca kinh t hc v m t nhng m hnh hnh vi ca cc c th m kinh t hc vi m bn n. L o lut v "bun bn cng bng", nh ra quyn ca mt nh sn xut M trong vic quy nh nhng mc gi bn l ti thiu cho cc mt hng c nhn hiu thng mi v c ng k vo nm 1972, quc hi tuyn b nhng o lut trn u v hiu. L mt quy tc trong l thuyt v qu trnh ra quyt nh trong nhng diu kin khng chc chn. Gi tr nh nht ca mt bin hay mt hm. L: quy m ca mt nh my hoc doanh nghip m ti cc chi ph trung bnh di hn t c mc ti thiu. Trong cc k hoch pht trin ca ccc nc chm pht trin thng xc nh nhng mc ch tiu ti thiu v vi lm. Cm thut ng c a vo thng 10/1971 thay th cho cm thut ng "li sut ngn hng", tn gi ca li sut m ngn hng Anh s h tr bng cc khon tin vay hoc bng cch ti chit khu cc hi phiu cho cc NGN HNG CHIT KHU do thiu vn trn th trng tin t buc phi ti ngn hng trung ng nh l NGI CHO VAY CU CNH CUI CNG. Vo thng 8/1981 MLR b xa b, d vn cn quy nh s s dng n trong nhng trng hp khn cp.

Cc lut nhm vi thin iu kin sng ca ngi cng nhn bng cch n nh mt mc thp nht i vi lng theo gi m cc doanh nghip tr cho cng nhn. L kh nng ca mt c nhn hoc mt t chc nm c quyn kim sot mt cng ty, mc d s hu t hn 51% s c phiu thng thng c quyn b phiu ca cng ty. L ni tin kim loi c sn xut ra. Xem Specification error. L phng php c tnh trong c s dng thng tin ph. L loi hng ho m li ch c c t vic tiu dng n khng ch thuc v mt c nhn m cn c san s cho nhiu ngi.

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L mt h thng kt hp cc doanh nghip t nhn mang tnh cnh tranh vi mt mc kim sot nht nh t trung ng. L thc o xu hng tp trung ca mt bin s. LA mt khung mu chnh quy hoc khng chnh quy ca php phn tch nhm rt ra t nhng hin tng phc tp ca th gii thc ti nhng c im ca mt h thng kinh t c ngha quan trng trong vic gip nm gi c nhng mi quan h v hnh vi, th ch v k thut l nn tng ca h thng .' Xem MONETARISM, MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Mt tn gi khc ca khu vc cng nghip, hoc i khi dng gi khu vc chnh ph. L cm thut ng m C.Mc dng ch c s kinh t ca x hi, l yu t m ng cho rng c nh hng ln nht trong vic quyt nh c cu x hi. L nh kinh t hc ngi M gc Italia c trao gii thng Nobel kinh t vo nm 1985 chnh nh tc phm v hm tiu dng, trong sng to ln nht ca ng l gi thit v chu k sng. Modigliani cng c nhng ng gp quan trng vo hc thuyt t bn, c bit l v chi ph t bn trong hc thuyt MODIGLIANI - MULLER. Xem CAPITAL STRUCTURE. Xem CAPITAL STRUCTURE. Xem ABSOLUTE VALUE. L mt thut ng m t THNG K tng c tc dng biu th c im hnh dng v v tr ca mt PHN PHI XC SUT, hoc mt mu s liu. L mt trng phi t duy kinh t lp lun rng nhng xo trn trong lnh vc tin t l nguyn nhn ch yu ca s bt n trong nn kinh t. 1)Xem CREDIT MULTIPLIER. 2)L h s ca mc cung tin thc t trong phng trnh thu nhp dng n gin rt gn trong m hnh kinh t v m.

Xem PRICE. L mt cch gi khc ca cung tin.

L s lng tin trong mt nn kinh t, c nhiu nh ngha khc nhau lin quan n cc ti sn c kh nng chuyn hon m c coi l tin t. L vic biu hin nhng gi tr ca mt loi hng ho theo tin trn danh ngha - hay n cch khc l bao gm c nhng thay i trong mc gi chung. L tp qun canh tc mt loi hoa mu trn mt din tch t ai nht nh, tp qun ny xut hin ti Anh trc cch mng rung t v hin vn cn ph bin cc vng nhit i. o lut ny c hai quan im mi quan trng trong chnh sch cnh tranh ca Anh. Th nht, CC CUC ST NHP ln u phi chu s iu tra ca c quan hu trch lc c tn l U ban v c quyn. Th hai l quy nh cho U ban v c quyn c quyn iu tra chung v cc v vic lin quan n cung cp cc dch v cng nh cung cp hng ho.

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Tng gim c v thng mi cng bng v B thng mi v cng nghip l nhng ngi c th a cc HNG C QUYN V CC V ST NHP ra iu tra ti U ban v c quyn v st nhp, mt t chc xt x hnh chnh c lp c thnh lp vo nm 1973 thay th cho U ban v c quyn trc c thnh lp vo nm 1948. o lut ny nh du s ra i mt chnh sch v cnh tranh ca Anh vi vic thnh lp U ban v c quyn v nhng thng l hn ch. L mt hc thuyt do E.H.Chamberlin (THUYT V CNH TRANH V C QUYN, nh xut bn Harvard University, 1933) v J.Robinson (Kinh t hc v cnh tranh khng hon ho, Macmillan,1933) khi xng. Theo ngha chnh xc nht ca cm thut ng ny th mt doanh nghip c coi l c quyn nu n l nh cung cp duy nht mt lot sn phm ng nht m khng c mt hng no c th thay th v c rt nhiu ngi mua. L kh nng ca mt doanh nghip hoc mt nhm cc doanh nghip trong vic tc ng n gi c th trng ca mt loi hng ha hoc dch v m h bn.

Xem SUPER-NORMAL PROFITS Theo ngha cht ch th mt nh c quyn mua l ngi mua duy nht i vi mt yu t sn xut. L mt k thut nhm khm ph ra nhng tnh cht nh ca mu ca cc c tnh kinh t lng. Xem UNDEREMPLOYED WORKERS. L nh hng ca mt s loi hnh nht nh ca cc h thng bo him trong vic gy ra s chnh lc gia chi ph bin c nhn ca mt hnh ng v Chi ph bin x hi ca hnh ng , do vy dn n vic phn b cc ngun lc khng ti u. L mt s thu xp v mt php l theo mt hnh thc s hu mt loi ti sn no c ngi i vay chuyn cho ngi cho vay nh mt s bo m i vi khon vay . L iu khon trong mt hp ng thng mi quc t quy nh rng cc bn tham gia hp ng c ngha v phi dnh cho nhau s i x m h dnh cho bt k nc no khc trong lnh vc thu XUT NHP KHU v trong cc quy nh khc v thng mi. L mt phng php nhm loi bt nhng bin ng s liu. L mt bi ton kinh t lng trong hai hoc nhiu BIN S GII THCH trong mt phn tch hi quy c tng quan mt thit vi nhau. L vin tr bng tin hoc hin vt do mt nhm cc nc cng nhau cung cp hoc thng qua mt t chc quc t cho mt nhm cc nc khc. L mt thnh vin ca Ngn hng th gii. MIGA c hnh thnh lp vo nm 1988 vi chc nng chuyn trch l khuyn khch u t c phn v cc u t trc tip vo cc nc ang pht trin. L hnh thc thng mi gia mt s nc vi nhau, nhng lng hng xut v nhp ca cc nc ny khng cn bng gia tng cp nc vi nhau, mc d nc no cng c xu hng cn bng trong tng chi ngoi thng v tng thu ngoi thng. L mt doanh nghip ln ng tr s ti mt nc nhng li iu hnh cc cng ty con thuc s hu hon ton hoc mt phn ca hc cc nc khc. L vic gim c tng chi ph trung bnh nh vn hnh nhiu hn mt nh my.

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Nhng yu t thng thng khuyn khch hnh thc hot ng ni trn l cc th trng phn tn v mt a l cng vi chi ph vn chuyn cao, tnh kinh t v chi ph vn cho s hot ng a nh my v mc linh hot cao hn trong vic p ng nhng i hi ca nhu cu m hnh thc hot ng a nh my c th c c. Xem Multiplant economies. Xem Coefficient determi-nation. Xem REGRESSION ANALYSIS. L t s thay i trong thu nhp vi thay i ban u trong chi tiu m to ra thay i thu nhp ni trn. Mt phng php dng gii thch nhng bin ng trong mc pht trin ca hot ng kinh t - CHU K KINH DOANH - vn ph thuc vo nhng tc ng qua li gia S NHN v GIA TC.

L mt doanh nghip kt hp cc yu t sn xut vi nhau sn xut ra nhiu loi sn phm. L m hnh c s dng trong l thuyt tng trng theo cho php sn xut nhiu loi hng ho. L mt phn tch (thng l mang tnh thng k) trong c t hai bin s tr ln. L mt M hnh do hai nh kinh t hc Mundell v Fleming xy dng mt cch c lp, n cho thy tc ng m rng ca cc bin s chnh sch, CHNH SCH TI CHNH v CHNH SCH TIN T u bin i tu thuc vo ch t gi hi oi c gi nh. y l ni ti tnh hung trong c hai hoc nhiu d n khng th cng thc thi v chng cn c mt u vo m ch c th c dng cho mt d n. Xem ACCELERATOR PRINCIPLE Trong L THUYT TR CHI khi nim ny c p dng trong nhng iu kin nht nh tm ra cch gii quyt cho nhng tr chi hai ngi hp tc vi nhau. L vic son tho cc ti khon nhm a ra c nhng c tnh v THU NHP QUC DN. L s thng lng tp th gia nhng ngi lm cng n lng v i din ca gii ch ra mc lng v nhng iu kin lm vic trong mt ngnh hoc mt nhm ngnh trn ton quc. L mt t chc t nhn phi li nhun ca M c thnh lp nm 1920 di hnh thc mt trung tm nghin cu c lp v khch quan. Theo nh ngha thng thng th khi nim ny phn nh tng s ngha v n cn tn ng ca chnh quyn trung ng v c chia l hai loi: n c th bn c, tc l CHNG KHON c trao i ; v n khng th bn c, v d nh giy chng nhn tit kim quc gia. L mt hi ng Anh, ch tch ca hi ng l B trng Ti chnh, l mt din n cho cc i din ca chnh ph, cc doanh nghip nh nc v t nhn, cc nghip on v gii hc gi nhm ra v nh gi cc chnh sch lin quan n hot ng v s tng trng nn kinh t Anh vo nm 1962. L mt t chc ca nh nc c thnh lp bi o lut cng nghip nm 1975. Chc nng chnh ca NEB l tng cng hiu qu sn xut cng nghip v tnh cnh tranh quc t, tip qun cc c phn hin c ca chnh ph m bo mc sinh li. L thc o gi tr tin t v hng ho v dch v c cung cp trn ton quc t hot ng kinh t. Xem GIRO SYSTEM.

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L mt t chc phi li nhun c lp ca Anh c thnh lp vo nm 1938 nhm mc ch nng cao kin thc v cc iu kin kinh t v x hi ca x hi ng thi. L mt nh kinh t hc, chnh tr gia v nh hot ng quc t ngi Thu in, Myrdal kin nh thch thc t duy kinh t chnh thng trn mt lot cc ch . Trong cc lnh vc, Myrdal u by t quan im rng cc yu t v th ch quan trng hn cc quan h th trng trong vic quyt nh nhng s kin kinh t. Myrdal cng c nhng ng gp cho hc thuyt kinh t "thun tu", v nhng tc phm trc ca ng, c bit l cc tc phm Cn bng tin t (1931) pht trin thm kinh t hc ca Knut Wicksell v d bo c phn ln nhng nghin cu sau ny ca J.M.Keynes. Trong phm vi vn ny, Myrdal l ngi a ra nhng khi nim EX ANTE V EX POST. ng s dng nhng tng ny bn v nhng quyt nh u t ch cht v mi quan h ca chng vi tng sn lng quc dn im cn bng theo cch thc m ngi ta cho l ging ca Keynes. Nhng tc phm quan trng khc ca ng bao gm: Mt nn kinh t quc t: Nhng vn v trin vng (1956); Hc thuyt kinh t v cc khu vc km pht trin (1957); Thch thc vi s phong lu (1963); v Li ngc dng (1973). Myrdal c trao gii thng Nobel kinh t (cng vi F.A.von HAYEK) vo nm 1974 do c nhng n lc m rng phm vi nghin cu kinh t hc. L mt hnh thc thu lao ng ti Anh, nh vo c gii ch ln ngi lao ng. Cc khon np trn c dnh ring dng vo vic chi tr cho tr cp bo him quc gia nhng chng khng to ra c ton b ngun thu cn thit thc hin vic chi tr ny. L mt qu tip nhn cc khon ng gp bo him quc gia v thc hin thanh ton tr cp bo him x hi. "o lut Wager" c quc hi M thng qua vo nm 1935. N l kt qu ca mt Lch s lu di trong vic gia tng sc p ca chnh quyn lin bang nhm ng h nguyn tc thng lng tp th. Ch yu nh ao lut m s thnh vin ca cc nghip on ca M tng mt cch nhanh chng t 3,9 triu nm 1935 ln ti 15 triu nm 1947 khi m a lut Wagner c sa i theo cc quy nh ca o lut Taft-Harley. Ngnh sn xut ra cc sn phm bn cho ngi tiu dng v cc nh sn xut khc thng qua cc th trng nhng li thuc s hu duy nht ca chnh ph v chu s kim sot ca chnh ph. Xem NATION INCOME. L mt cng ty nh nc c lp c thnh lp vo nm 1949 nhm khuyn khch vic trin khai v khai thc cng ngh mi. y l mt ngn hng tit kim ca nh nc Anh hot ng thng qua mng li bu in. L mt tp hp cc quy tc t nhin t ra i vi con ngi v do khng bao gi thay i c. Xem LOGARITHM. L mt cm thut ng c Adam Smith dng m t gi tr ca mt loi hng ho m cc mc gi th trng dao ng xung quanh gi tr ny. L t l tng trng ca lc lng lao ng c lm vic trong m hnh tng trng HARROD - DOMAR. L t l tht nghip c ngm hiu theo c cu hin i ca nn kinh t. T l tht nghip ny c xc nh bi cc tc nhn c cu v tc nhn dai dng trong nn kinh t, nhng tc nhn nay khng h gim bt khi tng tng cu ng Philips thng ng cho ta thy rng bt k n lc no trong vic gi cho vic gi cho mc tht nghip thp hn t l t nhin ca n s lm gia tng lm pht. L nhng hin tng vt cht ca thin nhin ny sinh mt cch t do trong phm v nhng ranh gii ca hot ng ca con ngi.

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Gi thit ny cp n lun im cho rng cc th trng vn hoc cc th trng sn phm mang tnh cnh tranh m bo hnh vi ti a ho li nhun thay cho cc doanh nghip. L ca ci c nm gi di mt hnh thc m c th chuyn i mt cch nhanh chng v d dng thnh tin. y khng phi l mt thut ng c s dng rng ri trong kinh t hc hin i, nhng nu s dng, l cp ti mt loi hng ho c co gin thu nhp ca cu nh hn 1. Xem NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL. L tn gi khng chnh thc ca c hi ng pht trin kinh t quc gia cng nh Vn phng pht trin kinh t quc gia. Xem NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL. i khi ngi ta lp lun rng trong mt th trng t do, cc c nhn s khng c cu i vi mt s hng ho no nhiu n mc m "x hi" hay "cng ng" cho l h cn phi tiu dng. L mt chng trnh h tr thu nhp trong cc c nhn hoc h gia nh c thu nhp thp hn mc "ho vn" nht nh s nhn c cc khon thanh ton, mc thanh ton lin quan n mc thu nhp. Do vy, nhng ngi khng c khon thu nhp no khc s nhn c mt khon tin ti thiu c bo m. L mt cm thut ng khc dng thay cho thut ng NHNG NGOI NG, khi ngoi ng c tnh khng gian. L mt phn ca hc thuyt kinh t trong c s dng nhng k thut v phng php tip cn tng hp ca cc nh kinh t hc u tin theo trng phi bin th k XIX. L cm thut ng tng hp cp n nhng m hnh tng trng kinh t c xy dng trong khun kh hc thuyt tn c in, trong ch trng n vic thc y kh nng thay th gia vn v lao ng trong hm sn xut m bo s tng trng n trng thi bn vng, cho nn tnh trng mt n nh c pht hin ra trong m hnh tng trng HARROD - DOMAR do gi nh v h s c nh gia vn v lao ng gy ra. Lun chng cho rng s tn ti ca CN BNG THT NGHIP pht sinh t gi nh v mc lng cng nhc ca Keynes. y l s kt hp gia mt bn l vic lng ghp ca Keynes i vi cc khu vc thc t v khu vc tin t ca mt nn kinh t, nhm chng minh cho s quyt nh cng mt lc ca thu nhp danh ngha v li sut vi pha bn kia l cc quan im c in cho rng xu hng t ti im cn bng ton dng nhn cng ch c th b cn tr bi tnh cng nhc trong h thng kinh t. Theo cc tc phm ca phi MC XT v X HI CH NGHA th l s kim sot nn kinh t ca cc nc chm pht trin bi cc tp on t bn khng l c tr s ti cc nc t bn pht trin. L tn gi c t cho nhng ngi phn i phi CHNH THNG MI trong cuc tranh lun v vic kim sot cung tin t. Trong M HNH HI QUY, CC GI THIT c coi l "lng nhau trong" nu CC BIN GII THCH trong mt gi thit l mt tp hp con ca cc bin s gii thch trong cc bin khc.

L gi thuyt cho rng s cnh tranh trong CC TH TRNG LAO NG s m bo rng ton b nhng li th v bt li ca cc cng vic khc nhau s hoc l hon ton ngang bng nhau hoc lin tc c xu hng ngang bng nhau. Xem TERMS OF TRADE. L bo co v gi tr ca cc ti sn c nh c dng trong k ton.

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L kt qu thu c khi ly gi tr trit khu ca cc khon li nhun d kin tr i gi tr chit khu ca cc chi ph u t d kin. L vic b sung thm vo tng ngun vn ca nn kinh t, hay ni cch khc l gi tr ca vn u t tr khu. Xem INVESTMENT. L thc o c s dng ti cc nc x hi ch ngha (ch yu l Khi ng u) nh gi sn lng hng nm ca ci gi l "lnh vc sn xut", bao gm nng nghip, lm nghip, ng nghip, ngnh ch to, xy dng, vn ti v mt s "dch v mang tnh sn xut" nh du lch, n ung v ngn hng. Xem NATIONAL INCOME. Xem NATIONAL INCOME. L phn cn li ca tng s li nhun sau khi tr i thu v khu hao. L mc chnh lch gia LI NHUN, C TC v LI SUT nhn c t cc ti sn nc ngoi ca cc c dn trong nc v li nhun, c tc v li sut thanh ton ra nc ngoi cho cc TI SN ca cc c dn ngi nc ngoi nn kinh t TRONG NC. nh l ny cho rng nh cc tc ng S D THC T TRN TH TRNG TIN T m c mi khi cung tin t tng ln mt mc bao nhiu th gi tin t ti im cn bng cng tng ln mt mc by nhiu. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARISM V c bn th y l s trnh by li di mt hnh thc t m hn v KINH T HC C IM chnh thng. L mt thut ng c s dng m t c ch hot ng ca h thng kinh t Lin X trong nhng nm 20. Cm thut ng ny c lin quan n cng trnh nghin cu ca J.KGALBRAITH, ngi lp lun rng cc nn kinh t t bn ch ngha pht trin hin i tri qua mt s chuyn i trong quyn lc kinh t v chnh tr t nhng nh s hu vn sang ci m ng gi l C CU CNG NGH. L quan nim cho rng lm pht hin ti m kinh t cc nc phng Ty tri qua k t sau Chin tranh th gii th hai c bn cht hoc ngun gc khc so vi cc kiu lm pht trc y trong lch s. L th trng s cp, khng xc nh c r rng lm, trong ngi ta bn cc loi CHNG KHON mi c to ra, hoc l cc chng khon trc cha c nim yt chnh thc v do vy cha c trao i ti s giao dch chng khon: bng cch cho cng khai ti dn chng, ti cc c ng c c phn trong trng hp "pht hnh c phiu c quyn", hoc bn ring cho mt s c nhn v t chc c la chn c kh nng mua vi s lng ln i vi cc chng khon ca cc cng ty t nhn hoc ca cc cng ty nh nc khng c nim yt chnh thc. L tn gi c t cho cc ti liu kinh t thc hin vic phn bit kinh t hc v m; c th l a mt c s kinh t hc vi m vng chc cho nhng c cu lm nn tng cho mi quan h tng hp gia nhng thay i v gi v tht nghip. L tn gi c t cho nhng phng php xy dng m hnh trong tm cch gii thch nhng hp ng v lng v gi trn c s xem xt hnh vi ti u ho ca kinh t hc vi m. S tch ri khi quan im chnh thng cho rng cc nh chc trch khng kim sot c cung tin. Xem Quantity theory of money.

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L quan nim v u t trong cc M HNH TNG TRNG THEO GIAI ON trong ghi nhn rng TIN B K THUT lm gim tui th trung bnh ca ngun vn v tng t l ca NGUN VN m c hm cha yu t cng ngh mi. L hc thuyt v bn cht ca tin t v s to ra tin, trong bc b phn ln hc thuyt truyn thng v s to ra tn dng v v S NHN TN DNG, nh l mt l do c gi tr gii thch cc thc xc nh s lng cc khon tin gi ngn hng - yu t c bn ca lng tin. L th trng chng khon chnh M, ti c nim yt hn 1000 loi chng khon. L tnh t m t s anh gi v mt i lng kinh t trong cc mc gi hin ti. Xem MONEY BALANCES. L gi tr c ghi trn mt t chng khon hoc mnh gi ca n, tri vi gi tr danh ngha l gi th trng. Trong trng hp mt c phiu thng, c tc c cng b v c tnh theo t l phn trm ca MNH GI ca n. ng ngha vi t l tht nghip t nhin.

L nhng t chc trung gian ti chnh m cc ti sn n ca chng khng c tnh vo trong cung tin theo nhng nh ngha thng thng. c c nhng mc chnh lch v ngh nghip c tc dng cn bng, m bo rng cc c nhn c th t do la chn ngh nghip. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. Mt loi hng ho c coi l khng th khu bit c nu vic cung cp hng ho cho bt k ngi no s t ng khin cho nhng ngi khc cng c c hng ho . Tnh khng loi tr l mt c im ca HNG HO CNG CNG. L khon thu nhp pht sinh ngoi th trng lao ng, c th l t cc khon u t hay quan trng hn l t cc khon THANH TON CHUYN NHNG. L thut ng thng c gn vi mt hm s m th ca n khng phi l mt ng thng. L mi quan h ton hc gia cc bin s m mi quan h ny li khng phi l mt hm tuyn tnh. L nhng ngi lao ng v ch s dng lao ng lm cng n lng v cng vic ca h l lao ng tr c ch khng phi l lao ng chn tay. Trong m hnh hi quy, hai gi thit c ci l khng lng trong nhau nu cc bin s gii thch trong mt gi thit khng phi l mt tp hp con ca cc bin s gii thch trong gi thit kia. L nhng mc tiu m mt c nhn hay t chc anh theo ui, nhng mc tiu nay khng th c xc nh mt cch trc tip thnh nhng n v tin t. L vic p dng bt k chnh sch no ngoi tr chnh sch gim gi, nhm mc ch li ko nhng khch hng mi t cc i th ca mnh. L cc t chc khng tn ti v mc ch kim li nhun d l tuyn b mt cch cng khai hay ngm hiu nh vy, v d nh nhiu t chc chm sc sc kho v gio dc.

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L bt k ngun ti nguyn no tn ti di mt hnh thc c hn - hay ni cch khc l vi mt s lng hn ch m khng c b sung thm ngoi cch ti ch. Khi s tiu dng ca mt c nhn i vi mt loi hng ho khng h lm gim i ngun cung cp hng ho cho nhng c nhn khc th hng ho c coi l khng cnh tranh trong tiu dng. L nhng hn ch i vi thng mi quc t nh hn ngch, cc chnh sch thu mua trong nc ca chnh ph v cc tiu chun v k thut v an ton nhm gip cho cc nh sn xut trong nc c li th hn so vi cc nh sn xut nc ngoi. Trong l thuyt cn bng b phn v cn bng tng th, y l mt tnh hung trong tn ti t hai mc gi ti im cn bng tr ln. L cc c im phi tin t ca mt quan h hp ng lao ng, chng hn nh cc iu kin lm vic, uy tn v c hi thng tin. L nhng chi ph lao ng m doanh nghip phi tr ngoi mc thu nhp tnh theo gi. L mc tng lng thng thng c xc nh ti tng thi im trong chnh sch thu nhp. L gi thit cho rng qu trnh nh gi c cn c trn chi ph ca mc sn lng gi thit ch khng da trn nhng chi ph hin ti hay mc d cu. L mt hm phn ph xc sut i xng hnh chung, vi cc thng s l trung bnh v phng sai. L mt nhm cc phng trnh ng thi, nhm phng trnh nay c gii c c c lng bnh phng nh nht ca cc thng s trong mt phn tch hi quy, bao gm tng ca cc bnh phng v tch cho ca cc bin s trong phng trnh hi quy. L loi hng ho m cu i vi n s gim i khi thu nhp gim xung. L mc li nhun ti thiu m mt doanh nghip phi t c khin cho doanh nghip cn c th tip tc hot ng c. Xem NATURAL RATE OF UNMENPLOYMENT. L mt bin ngu nhin c phn phi chun. L nhng chi ph c tnh, dn sut t nhng c s cng nghip n l c cc nh k honh ho tp trung cc nc X hi ch ngha (trc y) s dng lm c s cho vic n nh mc li nhun v mc thu ca doanh nghip trong vic hon thnh k hoch. L phn tch kinh t a ra nhng quy nh hoc nhng tuyn b v vic iu "cn phi nh th no" ch khng phi iu "l nh th no". Lp lun cho rng trong mt giai on ca chnh sch thu nhp khi tn ti mt nh mc lng do lut nh hoc c p dng mt cch t nguyn th inh mc ny trn thc t s tr thnh ci ch cho mi tho thun v lng, hay ni cch khc n s tr thnh mc lng c bn. Xem EFFECTIVE DEMAND. Trong nhng kim nh gi thuyt, l gi thit m trong thng k kim nh s da vo mt hm phn phi xc sut cho trc. Xem HERFINDAHL INDEX. L mt n v hch ton, hoc l mt biu thc ca tiu chun gi tr.

L mt hm s lin h mc tiu (bin s cn ti u ho) vi bin s la chn trong mt bi ton ti u ho. L mt s tho thun trong nhng ngi hnh ngh thuc mt lnh vc ngh nghip no cp bng hnh ngh trong lnh vc ni trn bng cch quy nh v tiu chun gia nhp v quyn hn.

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L chnh lch trong tin lng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn c phn loi theo ngh nghip m h ang lm. L vic phn hng nhng mc lng trung bnh tr cho cc nhm cng nhn khc nhau c phn loi theo ngh nghip m h lm. Xem ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, trc y l OEEC. Hin nay c gi l OECD. Xem ORGANIZATION FOR EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COOPERATION. L mt k thut th do EDGEWORTH to ra nhm minh ho cho nhng tc nhn ca cu tng h. L phng thc tin hnh mt t pht hnh chng khon mi, theo chng khon c mt nh pht hnh mua li t ngi pht hnh, sau c cho bn cho cng chng. L mt c quan chnh ph ca Anh, ng u l mt tng gim c v thng cng bng, chu trch nhim thc thi mt lot chc nng khc nhau v chng c quyn . c thnh lp nm 1921 vi tn gi lc l vn phng ngn sch M, OMB l mt b phn trong vn phng iu hnh ca tng thng v h tr tng thng trong vic vhun b mt bn ngn sch lin bang tng hp trnh ln quc hi. L nhng ni m ti , do thu nh vo thu nhp v ti sn rt thp hoc khng c, v ti c cc o lut hon chnh v c quyn, nn vic gi ti sn ti l c bit c li; hoc l t ni cc cng vic kinh doanh, c bit l kinh doanh ti chnh c th c tin hnh vi nhng li th v thu. Nh kinh t hc Thu in, c nhn chung gii thng Nobel v kinh t hc nm 1977. ng gp ch yu ca ng vo kinh t hc c th hin trong tc phm Thng mi quc t v lin khu vc (1933), trong ng pht trin v bn lun v phng php tip cn thng mi quc t v lin khu vc do ngi ng hng vi ng l Eli Heckscher xng. Da trn gi nh v cc hnh thi cu tng t cc nc c quan h thng mi vi nhau, m hnh Heckscher - Ohlin cho thy mt nc s xut khu nhng mt hng m c s dng nhiu cc yu t sn xut m nc d tha v s nhp khu nhng mt hng s dng nhiu nhng yu t m nc khan him. L tnh trng gim st tng sn lng m v mt thng k c lin quan n t l tht nghip tng ln mt mc nht nh trong ngn hn. L hnh vi ca cc doanh nghip c c trng bi s ph thuc ln nhau trong vic ra quyt nh v nhng linh vc chnh sch ln, chng hn nh nh gi, qung co v u t. L mt c cu th trng trong cc doanh nghip u thc c s ph thuc ln nhau trong cc k hoch bn hng, sn xut , u t v qung co. L mt th trng m ti c t ngi mua trong khi c rt nhiu ngi bn. L mt m hnh c s dng trong thuyt tng trng, trong mt sn phm ng nht duy nht c sn xut ra v ng thi c hai tc dng tng ng nhau - tc dng nh mt loi hng ho tiu dng v tc dng nh mt loi hng ho u t. L nhng kim nh gi thit trong php nh hng c p dng cho gi thit i. L hnh thc o to chnh quy hoc khng chnh quy c tin hnh ti ngay ni lm vic.

L mt ti nguyn thin nhin m khng thuc quyn s hu ca mt ai. L mt nn kinh t tham gia vo thng mi quc t. L mc gi quy nh cho cc giao dch khi mt ngy kinh doanh bt u trn mt th trng.

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L vic bn hoc mua li cc loi chng khon c th bn c, vic ny c ngn hng trung ng tin hnh ti mt th trng m v c coi nh mt cng c kim sot h thng tin t. L mt cm thut ng thng c s dng trong bi cnh ca cc nc ang pht trin. L tnh trng m mt c nhn tha nhn rng anh ta ang khg c cng n vic lm v sau anh ta c th ng k vi mt c s giao dch lao ng. L mt s o t l phn trm cc nghip v ca mt doanh nghip cu thnh nn cc chi ph c nh, php phn tch im ho vn c th c s dng xc nh t s ny. L thu nhp pht sinh t hot ng kinh doanh bnh thng ca mt doanh nghip. L khon li nhun m doanh nghip s kim c nu khng c ngun lc no dnh cho vic m rng doanh nghip trong tng lai. L gi tr ca hnh ng thay th b b qua khng lm. Phng php ny coi chi ph sn xut ra mt hng ho c th khng phi s lng chi ph thc t nht nh m l hng ho khc phi t b c c hng ho ni trn. Chi ph ny thng c phn nh trong li sut th trng, theo chi ph c hi ca vic gi tin l mc li sut m l ra c c nu nh tin c u t vo cc ti sn sinh li thay v c gi di dng tin mt. L mc lng m mt c nhn c th kim c nu anh ta chn lm mt cng vic khc "tt nht" sau cng vic ang lm; l mc lng cao nht phi t b do vn li lm cng vic hin ti. Xem OPTMUM. L sn lng tng ng vi im ti thiu ca mt biu ca tng chi ph trung bnh. L hnh thc phn phi (thng thng l) thu nhp hoc ca ci "tt nht" hay ng c mong mun nht cho cc c nhn trong mt x hi hoc trong mt cng ng. L mc nhim m bt k chi ph thm no c b ra l gim thiu nhim li ng bng vi gi tr thit hi do nhim gy ra. L tnh hnh hay tnh trng "tt nht" ca cng vic. Xem OPTMUM. L quy m ca nh my m vi quy m ny mc chi ph trung bnh di hn l mc ti thiu. L thu quan c tc dng ti a ho phc li hay tho dng ca mt quc gia. L mt hp ng trong mt bn cho php bn kia c mau hoc bn hng ho hoc chng khon trong mt thi hn nht nh vi mt mc gi tho thun. L gi tr m ngi tiu dng c c trong vic c quyn chn mua mt loi hng ho. L vic lit k cc s kin, hng ho, d n sao cho ci g c a thch nht th c a ln u danh sch. L hc thuyt cho rng cc tho dng ch c th c xp theo s th t. Hng ha no c tho dng cao nht th c xp trn hng ho c tho dng cao nht tip theo v c tip tc nh vy. tho dng theo th t l nn tng cho hc thuyt tn c in v cu ca ngi tiu dng. L phng php ph bin nht c s dng c lng nhng thng s trong mt phng trnh hi quy tuyn tnh. Xem EQUITIES, FINANCIAL CAPITAL. L gi tr trn trc tung ca mt im trn mt th hai chiu.

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L thut ng do C.MC dng gi t s gia vn c nh vi vn kh bin v l khi nim gn ging nhng khng hon ton ng ngha vi khi nim hin i v t sut VN-LAO NG v vn c nh ch th hin c vn v nguyn liu c s dng trong qu trnh sn sut ch khong th hin c tng s vn v nguyn liu sn c cho lao ng. L mt t chc lin chinh ph c thnh lp nm 1961 thay th v m rng t chc hp tc kinh t chu u (OEEC) theo cc iu khon ca cong c k ti Paris nm 1960 bi cc nc thnh vin ban u ca OEEC gm Canada, Ty ban nha v M. Nm 1947, sau khi c s gi ban u ca Marshall, b trng ngoi giao M v mt chng trnh h tr ca M nhm phc hi ca kinh t chu u sau chin tranh, 16 nc chu u thnh lp U ban hp tc kinh t chu u qun l v iu phi CHNG TRNH PHC HI CHU U. L mt t chc hng ho quc t c thnh lp vo nm 1968, c nhim v iu phi cc chnh sch kinh t v du m v khuyn khch hp tc kinh t gia cc nc rp sn xut du m. L mt t chc hng ho quc t c nhim v iu phi cc chnh sch sn xut v nh gi du m ti cc nc thnh vin ca cc nc xut khu du m. L mt thut ng c dng m t mt im s liu m cch xa mt cch bt thng trung tm ca quan st.

L sn phm cui cng ca qu trnh chuyn i u vo thnh hng ho. L mt h thng k ton phn loi cc chi ph theo sn lng c sn xut ra da vo qu trnh sn xut ch khng da theo nhng u vo c mua. L s tr gia vic thc thi mt chnh sch (kinh t v m) v tc ng ton b hay hon ton ca n. Cm thut ng ny ni n tin m gi tr ca n da vo nhng ti sn khng phi l ti sn n theo ngha l nhng ti sn khng to ra mt khiu n i vi cc c nhn trong nn kinh t. L h thng cho vay trong ngn hng, do cc ngn hng ca Xctlen khi xng, theo ngi i vay c php rt sc vt qu s d tn dng trong ti khon ca mnh, cho n mt hn mc c tho thun v ch phi tr hng ngy tnh trn s tin rt qu s d. L mt thut ng m t hnh ng ca cc c quan qun l tin t ca Anh vo u nhng nm 80 trong vic bn ra cc khon n ca chnh ph cho cc t chc v c nhn khng phi ngn hng nhiu hn so vi quy nh p ng c yu cu vay n ca khu vc cng cng trong nhng nm . Xem FIXED COSTS Xem IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM. Tin cho vay mt th trng no trong CC TH TRNG TIN T vi thi hn tr ngn nht.

Di ch T GI HI OI LINH HOT, l hin tng c thy thng xuyn phn ng li mt cn sc ca gi tr thc t ca t gi hi oi vt qu gi tr cn bng mi khi m gi tr ny c xc nh da vo cc nguyn tc c bn chng hn nh s ngang bng sc mua. L mt th trng c phiu, phn ln ca cc cng ty loi nh, c phn bit bng thc t l th trng ny khng c tr s giao dch; vic mua bn c thu xp bng vin thng, mc d khch hng c th mua bn c phiu ngay trn bn lm vic ca mnh. S gi lm vic qu tun l lm vic tiu chun.

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Mt loi tin m t gi hi oi c quy nh vt trn t gi cn bng ca th trng t do. NHng cng ty c mt nhm cc c ng r rng l ng quyn li, chim hu mt t l c phn c b phiu kh ln, lm cho h c kh nng kim sot hu hiu chnh sch cng ty. Ch s gi gia quyn theo nm hin hnh. Phn vn pht hnh ca mt cng ty m nhng ngi gp vn yu cu phi thanh ton. Mt kiu d liu trong trong tin cho cc c nhn c ly mu vi cc khong thi gian u n. Thut ng khi qut ch tin dng giy bc ngn hng. Khi mt ti sn tng ln v gi tr danh ngha. iu ny c th biu hin hoc khng biu hin hoc khng biu hin mt li nhun thc t, tu thuc vo t l lm pht. Thng thng trong kinh t hc (mc d khng nht thit) l th hnh ch U hoc ch U ngc ca mt phng trnh bc hai. Trong mt nn kinh t khng c vic lm, cc h gia nh cng tit kim th sn lng v vic lm cng thp.

Kh nng h thng quy tc a s n gin c th khng a ra mt s la chn r rng gia nhiu gii php. Xem USE VALUE, EXCHANGE VALUE. Mt lng khng i mt bi cnh no . Tn t cho mt nh l do A.K.Sen trnh by. nh l chng minh rng khng th c QUY TC QUYT NH X HI no c th ng thi tho mn tiu chun Pareto v cho php cc c nhn c nhng quyt nh v mt s vn "ring t" m khng tnh n (bt k) nguyn vng ca nhng ngi khc (t do c nhn). Nh kinh t hc ngi Italia c o to su v ton hc, l hc v k thut. Pareto l ngi k tc Leon Walras v tr ch nhim khoa kinh t hc trng i hc Lausanne nm 1892. S quan tm n vic ng dng ton hc v thng k hc vo kinh t ca ng dn n vic m rng cc iu kin ton hc cho h thng cn bng tng th ca Walras, t thnh lp mt trng phi Lausanne r rng. Trong gio dc kinh t chnh tr hc, ng nu ln quan nim l cc iu kin ton hc ca mt h tng cn bng tng th da trn s ph thuc ln nhau ca tt c cc i lng kinh t. Ngoi vic nhn mnh vo bn cht chnh ca mt khoa hc hc kinh t thc chng loi b mi yu t o c, Pareto cng bc b ch ngha x hi trn cc c s chun tc v bin minh cho s bt bnh ng thu nhp da trn c s ca mt s bt bin gi nh v phn phi thu nhp cc nc v qua thi gian. (nh lut Pareto). Mt lot cc quy tc t ra trong kinh t hc phc li, nu thc hin c s a n mt ti u Pareto. Xem PARETO OPTIMUM. Mt s phn phi li cc ngun lc lm cho t nht mt ngi kh ln m khng lm cho bt c ai km i. Mt tnh trng x hi m mt s c nhn thch tnh trng ny hn v mt s khc li thch tnh trng kia hn th hai tnh trng ny c coi l tnh trng khng th so snh Pareto. S dch chuyn thu nhp hoc ca ci t mt c nhn ny sang mt c nhn khc lm tng tho dng, hoc tho mn ca c ngi cho ln ngi nhn, do em li s ci thin Pareto. Khi cc ngun lc v sn lng ca mt nn kinh t c phn chia m khng c s phn chia li no lm cho bt c ai kh ln m cng khng l cho t nht l bt c mt ngi no khc km i th lc l c s hin hu ca mt ti u Pareto.

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Xem EXTENALITIES. Tn t cho din n - ni m cc nc ch n thng lng vi cc nc vay n v vic nh li thi gian cho cc khon n chnh thc. Mt h thng h tr gi i vi nn nng nghip M ln u tin c thit lp vi o lut iu chnh nng nghip nm 1933. Vic th hin cc t gi hi oi bng vng hoc ng M. Mt qu trnh m theo hnh vi c iu chnh mt cch khng hon chnh hng ti mt mc mong mun no . Trong cc hm s c hai bin s c lp hay c nhiu hn, o hm ny tnh theo mt trong nhng bin s ny, trong khi coi cc bin s c lp khc l hng s. Vic nghin cu th trng cho mt hng ho trong iu kin tch bit. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL Xem LABOUR FORCE PARTICIPA-TION RATE. Mt gi nh rng ngi ta k vng mt cch hp l s cn bng di hn nhng li khng chc chn v con ng m nn kinh t s i n v tr , cho nn cc k vng s c xem xt li tng thi k tnh n s khng nht qun gia gi tr thc t v gi tr k vng. Gi tr danh ngha, mnh gi ca mt c phiu hoc chng khon. C quan cp bng sng ch cp c quyn c bit cho mt sng ch quy trnh. ni din ra s so snh nhm la chn mt s cc gii php, s la chn ny c gi l c lp v ng i khi gii php c la chn c lp vi mt trt t xem xt cc gii php ny. Nhiu khi cc nghip on trong cc nghnh c quyn nhm s chn mt cng ty c th lm mc tiu thng lng.

Gii lao ng cc nc giu cho rng vic nhp khu hng ho t nhng nc c lng thp s ph dn ph hoi mc lng v vic lm nhng nc giu. Mt phng php k ton truyn thng thm nh cc d n u t. Thi gian cn thit cho mt d n sinh ra lng tin tng thm b cc chi tiu v vn ban u.

Mt gii hn cao nht c hiu lc v mc tin lng. Xem INCOMES POLICYM. Cn gi l h thng tr lng theo khuyn khch. H thng tr lng theo cng vic ca cng nhn. Xem BALANCE OF PAYMENTS. Li ch rng c c khi thc hin mt qu trnh hnh ng c th. Phn trm ca li rng m mt x nghip thanh ton di dng c tc. Mt loi thu da vo tin lng (thng) v tin cng do ngi ch thanh ton. Vn tnh gi theo tiu dng im nh xut pht khi m cu v sn lng (u ra) ca mt x nghip cng cng c th c nhng bin ng ln. Mc cu v lao ng thi im cao nht, cm thut ng ny thng c ni n vic lm trong nng nghip c tnh cht chu k vi nhng nh im xy ra vo thi gian thu hoch.

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Miu t mt tnh hung trong li nhun ca mt doanh nghip ph thuc khng nhng vo u vo v u ra ca ring doanh nghip m cn ph thuc vo u vo v u ra ca cc doanh nghip khc. Xem EXCHANGE RATES. S phn x trong trng ti vin c yu cu chn mt trong nhng v tr ca cc bn tranh chp hn l i n mt v tr tho hip trung gian. C ch lng hu gm hai kiu, c phm vi rng: 1)H thng vn d tr lin quan n vic phn phi li sut i mt c nhn, da vo tit kim ca ngi lao ng tch lu vn v sau vn c tiu dng trong thi gian v hu; 2)H thng thanh ton cho ngi v hu, a n s phn phi li mt thi im gia cc c nhn sao cho nhng ngi lm vic h tr nhng ngi v hu. Vi s tng trng nhanh chng ca cc c ch lng hu ca cng nhn vin trong nhng thp k gn y, qu hu ca cc c quan ln cc khu vc nh nc v x nghip khu vc t nhn tr thnh nhng th ch ti chnh quan trng, u t nhng khon tin ln hng nm. Theo u ngi, chng hn nh THU NHP QUC DN tnh theo u ngi.

Mt cch o tnh v tr cc d liu mu hoc cc phn phi. Mt thut ng th hin s thay i c cu Lin bang X vit v gn lin vi Mihail Gorbachev. Trong giai on u t gia nhng nm 1980 n 1987, qu trnh ci cch phn ln ch mang tnh cht trang im tp trung vo vic ci thin h thng k hoch ho ch huy ang tn ti v t nhng kt qu khng gy n tng ln. Mt c cu th trng hon ton c tnh cnh tranh nu c nhng iu sau y duy tr: vi mt th phn ng k. Cc doanh nghip ny to ra mt sn phm ng nht s dng cc qu trnh sn xut ging ht nhau v c thng tin hon ho. Xem PERFECT COMPETITION. Mc tiu dng trung bnh m mt c nhn hoc h gia nh d nh thc hin trong mt s nm. Cng c ngha l thu nhp bnh thng v thu nhp d kin v trung bnh. Thu nhp trung bnh m c nhn hoc h gia nh d kin nhn c trong mt s nm trong khi vn gi nguyn ca ci ca mnh. Gi thit cho rng tiu dng ca c nhn hoc hc gia nh ph thuc vo thu nhp thng xuyn ca c nhn y hoc h y. Xem ANNUITY. Lu lng thu nhp tch lu li ca mt c nhn hoc h gia nh. Khon vay do ngn hng v mt s th ch ti chnh khc quy nh cho nhng ngi i vay mang tnh c nhn (c ngha l khng kinh doanh) mua hng tiu dng, sa cha nh ca. V c th c thanh ton li trong mt khong thi gian. Xem MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTI-TUTION. Phn ca thu nhp c nhn khng thanh ton tr thu cng khng chi cho hng ho v dch v (tiu dng hin ti). Di c ca c nhn, c bit l cng nhn t khu vc c iu kin (hiu sut) kinh t tng i tt n khu vc c iu kin kinh t thp km hn. Xem PUBLIC EXPENDITURE SURVEY COMMITTEE. ay l loi thu c bit do chnh ph Anh a ra i vi thu nhp do khai thc du bin Bc, thu ny cng thm vo tin thu m v thu li tc. Mt quan st c tnh thng k ca A.W.Philips (1958) rng c mt mi quan h nghch gia t l thay i ca mc lng bng tin v t l tht nghip Anh trong giai on 1861-1957

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Mt trng phi v k thuyt kinh t c a ra Php vo th k 18. Trng phi ny ch yu gn vi tn ca F.QUESNAY v TURGOT. Xem COMPENSATION RULES. Mt h thng thanh ton trong c nhn c thanh ton theo khi lng sn phm lm ra. Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh k tc Marshall v tr ch nhim khoa kinh t chnh tr hc ca trng i hc Cambridge nm 1908. Pigou m rng cng vic ca Marshall, c bit l s phn tch cc nghnh m chi ph gia tng v gim st. S phn bit gia chi ph c nhn v x hi v liu php sa cha bng cch nh thu do ng xut to nn c s cho thuyt cc ngoi ng, v phng php ca ng nhm loi tr chng c bit n vi tn gi l thu PIGOU. Cng trnh ca ng v thuyt tin t v v thu nhp quc dn ch yu l mt l thuyt C in v vic lm v thu nhp. Do , Pigou phi chu sc mnh ca cuc tin cng ca Keynes i vi h thng ny. Tuy nhin, Pigou a ra mt c ch t c vic lm y thm ch c trong h thng ca Keynes. iu ny c bit n vi ci tn l hiu ng Pigou. Trong iu kin khng c vic lm, gi c gim s lm tng thm gi tr ca s d tin gi. iu ny to ra s gia tng v cu i vi hng ho v do to ra mt s gia tng v vic lm. ngha ca c ch ny ny thm ch n nay vn cn tranh ci. Xem REAL BALANCE EFFECT. Mt loi thu nh vo ngi sn xut do to ra mt ngoi ng theo mt cch m sau khi thu ny c p dng th cc chi ph c nhn do bn to ra ngoi ng cm nhn c bng vi CHI PH X HI ca hot ng ny. Lp lun cho rng CHNH SCH THU NHP khng nhng to nn cc hiu ng dch chuyn trong qu trnh iu chnh tin lng m cn c th lm thay i dc ca ng cong Phillips, hoc ni mt cch chuyn mn hn, lm thay i ln ca s phn ng ca t l thay i v lng i vi cc yu t quyt nh gy ra s thay i . Mt phng php thc hin mt cuc pht hnh mi v CHNG KHAN, C PHN HOC TRI PHIU CNG TY, bng phng php ny cc chng khon u tin c mt nh pht hnh mua, sau c bn thng qua tho thun t nhn, cho cc th ch, cc ch u t t nhn vcng cho nhng ngi bun bn c phn s giao dch chng khon London. Mt nn kinh t trong cc qu trnh kinh t ch yu c quyt nh mt mc ln khng phi do cc tc nhn th trng, m do mt c quan k hoch ho kinh t, c quan ny thc hin cc mc tiu kinh t ch yu ca x hi. Xem OUTPUT BUDGETING Mt nghnh kinh t hc c bit quan tm n vic xy dng cc k hoch kinh t v m ti u. THNG LNG TP TH gia ngi ch ca mt nh my vi cc i din ca cng nhn vin thit lp cc mc lng v iu kin lm vic nh my . Nh trit hc Hy Lp phn ng li thi k ri ren trc ay v ng cho rng chnh s tng trng kinh t chu mt phn trch nhim v s ri ren , nn ng xut kin rng nh nc l tng phi l mt nh nc vng vng da trn mt h thng ng cp v giai cp thng tr thc hin mt cch sng mang tnh cng ng. Thnh tu kinh t ca ng bao gm s phn tch s phn cng lao ng v phn tch vai tr ca tin quy c. Mt h thng gia s la chn tp th trong gii php c chn l gii php xp u tin do c s ngi b phiu ln nht. Xem PRICE ELASTICITY OF DEMAND.

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S c lng ca gi tr thc t ca mt thng s, khc bit vi C LNG KHONG CCH, n bao gm vic tnh ton cc khong tin cy (thng thng) i vi gi tr thc ca thng s. Mt in trn th, hoc hm s m t l thay i ca dc ca hm s i du. iu ny cho thy rng khi o hm th hai ca hm s bng 0. Mt ng kh nng tho dng im c th c v cho mi gi hng ho. Mt h thng la chn tp th trong mi c nhn bt u vi mt s im bng nhau m c nhn c t do phn phi theo bt c cch thc no m h chn gia cc phng n la chn v nhng vn khc nhau tho lun. Cc bin s kinh t v x hi c chnh ph vn dng tc ng n cc bin s ca chnh sch, n c gi l cng c v ta c th phn bit bn hng mc kinh t ch yu: CHNH SCH TI CHNH; CHNH SCH TIN T, CHNH SCH T GI HI OI v CHNH SCH GI C V THU NHP. Thi k "c s thng lng tp th t do". thi k ny khng c s tn ti chnh sch thu nhp. Xem TARGETS. Cm thut ng bao hm mi lin quan gia kha cnh thc tin ca hot ng chnh tr v l thuyt kinh t hc thun tu. Thu tnh c gi m s thanh ton khng lin quan n thu nhp hoc chi tiu.

tng cho rng gy nhim phi tr ph cho vic gy nhim mi trng. Mt hot ng lm nhim mt hoc nhiu mi trng. tng cho rng cn phi cp giy chng nhn cho ngi ch s hu "quyn c gy nhim" mt mi trng nht nh, chng hn mt dng sng. Mt phng trnh m ni chung nhiu hng s trong mt bin s c lp c nng ln nhiu lu tha khc nhau. Xem ALMON LAG. D liu kiu hnh thnh khi (a) S LIU CHO v (b) D LIU CHUI THI GIAN c sp nhp vo cng b d liu, thng thng khi khng c d liu kiu (a) hoc (b) ring, c lng cc thng s ca mt m hnh do khng cc bc t do. Tn gi t l tng trng ngy mt ln hn ca dn s th gii, c bit cc nc ang pht trin. Mt chnh ph c th t ra mt chnh sch c th lin quan n mc dn s do chnh ph cai qun. Cng cn gi l by cn bng mc thp. Mt nn kinh t c mc thu nhp tnh theo u ngi thp c th thy r rng t l tng trng dn s vt qu mc t l tng trng ca thu nhp thc t. Tp hp cc ti sn ca mt c nhn hoc t chc. Mt phng php phn tch tin t nhn mnh vo ngha cc quyt ca nhng ngi c ti sn v thnh phn danh mc u t ca h. Mt phng n ca phng php tin t i vi cn cn thanh ton cho rng cc ti sn l cc vt thay th khng hon ho. Xem DIVERSIFIER. Mt thut ng ca F.Hirsch s dng trong cc gii hn x hi i vi tng trng (1976) ch mt loi hng ho b gii hn v kh nng cung cp tuyt i hoc mt cch t nhin hoc thng qua cc kha cnh x hi v c th b tc nghn nu s dng rng ri hn.

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B phn khoa hc kinh t quan tm n cc nh c th kim tra c bng i chiu vi thc t. Hc thuyt trit hc cho rng cc nh m khng th xc minh c khi i chiu vi bng chng thc tin th ch t phi coi l khng th chp nhn c nh l mt b phn ca khoa hc hoc mc cao nht l v ngha. Mt nhm cc nh kinh t hc coi s nhn nhn ca J.M.KEYNES v M.KALECKI l khi im ca mt s ph bnh phn tch s cn bng thng thng v l c s cho mn kinh t hc v m mi. Phn phi xc sut ca mt bin s hoc thng k l kt qu ca s phi hp gia phn phi trc v thng tin mu trong k thut BAYES. Mt hnh thc tit kim bt buc c p dung Anh trong chin tranh th gii th hai trong ng sch nm 1941. i vi mt ngnh c th, l kh nng cnh tranh mi ca cc hng - cc hng cha sn xut cc sn phm cnh tranh. Xem FULL EMPLOYMENT NATIONAL INCOME. Sn lng kh thi ti a ca mt doanh nghip, mt ngnh, mt khu vc ca mt nn kinh t hoc ton b mt nn kinh t l mc c xc nh ca cc yu t sn xut. Mt s ci thin Pareto tim nng tn ti khi nhng ngi kim c li do mt s thay i, th vi tnh cht gi thit c th b p cho ngi thua thit, v c th khng ai b km i sau s thay i hoc sao cho t nht cng c mt ngi c kh ln. S ngho kh c th c xem xt vi mt quan nim tuyt i hoc tng i. Vic tn ti ca nhiu li ch KIM NH BNG BIN PHP ni ln rng ngi c tr lng thp c th i u vi mt t l thu bin hiu lc - tc l mc thu i vi mt n v thu nhp thm - vt xa t l 34% ca thu thu nhp v s ng gp bo him quc gia i vi phn ln ngi lm cng n lng. Mt hm s trong bin s c lp c nng ln ti mt lu tha no . Bin i Prais - Winsten c s dng trong phng php COCHRANE-ORCUTT c tnh cc thng s ca mt phng trnh m s d ca chng tun theo MI TNG QUAN TO THNH DY. Mt quan im cho rng tin b k thut cc nc pht trin thng c kt qa l lng ca lc lng lao ng cao hn v c nhng ci thin trong mc sng nhng khng lm cho mc gi ca cc hng ho thp hn (mt s hng ho ny c xut khu n cc nc ang pht trin). Mt trong nhng ng c gi tin l d phng chi ph cho cc tnh hung xy ra ngoi d kin nu khng c khon d phng th vic chuyn i ca ci t mt dng khng phi l tin mt c th gy ra ph chuyn i ln v gy mt nhiu th gi. Cng cn gi l "tht nghip ch vic". Mt yu t ca tht nghip dai dng, c xut hin khi tnh cht ca nhim v cng vic hoc hnh thc ca hp ng lao ng bt buc ngi cng nhn khi nhn mt cng vic no khng tranh th nhn c mt cng vic m mt thi gian sau mi xut hin. Cch y gi xung ti mc khng th c li trong mt thi k nhm lm suy yu hoc loi tr cc i th cnh tranh. Xem FORECASTING. Cc quyn dnh cho ngi c c phiu thng mua cc t pht hnh mi da trn c s theo t l. C quan im cho rng mt th hng ho, s kin hoc d n no c a chung hn mt hoc cc hng ho khc l s sp xp cc s thch. S bc l thng c dn ra nh mt vn lin quan ti s cung cp hng ho cng cng, (n cng c th l mt vn vi HNG HO T NHN nu con s nhng ngi c nhu cu rt nh). C phiu trong mt cng ty xp loi ng trc c phn nhng ng sau tri phiu cng ty i vi vic thanh ton c tc.

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Mt ngi ch dnh u tin cho vic thu nhng cng on vin mc d ng ta khng tho thun ch thu cng on vin hoc iu khin mt doanh nghip ch dng thnh vin cng on. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL Mt tri phiu tit kim ca Anh, c th mua bu in, li tc ca n l c hi trng thng s x hng thng. Gi tr ca mt lung li tc hoc ph tng lai tnh bng gi tr hin ti ca chng. Gi ca mt loi hng ho hoc gi u vo cho thy ci phi chi c c mt th hng ho hay dch v. Mt u ban c lp do Chnh ph Anh thnh lp nm 1973 thc hin cc chnh sch kim sot gi c biu hin trong cc b lut v gi do B Ti Chnh son v Quc hi thng qua. U ban ny chnh thc c bi b vo nm 1980. Cn c bit vi tn NG CHO GI. Tip im ca ng BNG QUAN ca ngi tiu dng v ng ngn sch ca h xc nh s cn bng ca ngi tiu dng. Ni chung thng lin quan ti vic quy nh gi c bng lut php ca nh nc. Cc s o thc nghim ca CHNH LCH LI NHUN ni m cc s liu k ton c s dng v do ta khng th trc tip quan st c nh ngha kinh t v li nhun. C hai hnh thc ch yu v Phn bit i x theo gi : Th nht, vic cc hng tnh gi khc nhau cho tng nhm ngi mua khc nhau v th hai tnh cho cng loi ngi tiu dng cc gi khc nhau i vi cc lng khc nhau ca cng mt loi hng. T s ca gi mt c phiu bnh thng i vi mi c phiu bnh thng. S thay i ca cu i vi mt hng ho xy ra do c mt thay i ca gi hng ho . phn ng ca lng cu ca mt hng ho i vi gi ca chnh n. Mt s tho thun gia hai nh sn xut hoc nhiu hn bn vi gi quy nh trc, ni chung nhm thc thi sc mnh i vi th trng. Mt s ch s cho thy gi ca mt "tp hp" hng ho thay i th no t mt thi k no ti thi k tip theo. Tnh hung trong mt nghnh m mt hng c sng kin to ra cc thay i v gi v cc hng khc sau lm theo. c dng lin quan n h thng th trng t do v cch thc m gi hnh ng nh nhng tn hiu t ng phi hp hnh ng ca cc n v ra quyt nh. Tn gi mt dng lm pht ging nh chi ph y trong cc ch doanh nghip b ch trch gy ra lm pht bng cch tnh gi cao mt cch khng cn thit nhm kim li nhun ln. Tn t cho dng chy ca vng v bc t cc nc mi khm ph chu M trong cc th k 15 v 16 lm cho gi c tng gp 3 ln. Mt hng hot ng mt th trng kng cnh tranh i din vi mt ng cu dc xung i vi sn phm v do c quyn c quyt nh gi bn hng ch khng pah l ngi chp nhn gi. Xem SPECIE FLOW MECHANISM Mt phng php nng gi mt hng ho trn th trng mt cch gi to. Mt n v kinh t c quy m hot ng khng ng k so vi quy m ca th trng cho nn hot ng ca n v y khng gy nh hng g n gi th trng thnh hnh.

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Cc l thuyt bao gm trong t duy c th c chia lm ba mc chnh: Cc l thuyt lin quan n s xc nh cc gi ring l, cc thuyt lin quan n cc thay i trong mc gi tng hp v cc thuyt p dng cho vic phn b ngun lc.

Nh c nh ngha trong thuyt v cng bng do John Rawls a ra, nhng loi hng ho ny l nhng quyn c bn, cc quyn t do, thu nhp v ca ci sn c phn phi trong mt x hi. Mt s ti sn khi bn ln u th khng c bn th trng ni m sau chng c bun bn. Mt tn gi khc cho tin c bn hoc TIN C QUYN LC, tc l loi tin do cc nh chc trch v tin t pht hnh. Mt cm thut ng c John G.Gurley v Edward S.Shaw a ra trong tc phm Tin trong mt thuyt v ti chnh (1960) v c ngha l mi hnh thc n c th c em bn hoc pht hnh bi "nhng ngi vay n" tc l nhng ngi i vay cn ngun vn ti chnh mua ti sn thc t. Nhng c nhn vn trong lc lng lao ng, c thu mn hoch khng thu mn, bt lun nhng thay i ngn hn v lng v iu kin th trng. S tin thanh ton cho mt ngi gi mt tri phiu khi O HN xo n. iu ny ni n tnh hung trong l thuyt hng khi li ch ca ngi qun l v ca c ng khc bit nhau. Phn phi xc xut ca mt bin s hoc thng k, l c trng ca ca thng tin tin nghim cn kt hp vi thng tin mu trong cc k thut Bayes. Cm thut ng ny xut hin t mt s xem xt cc vn v quyt nh ca nhng ti phm b bt g v thm vn ring r. Xem GAME THEORY. M hnh ny cho thy mt cch x s hp l tng vi m s dn n mt hu qa v m bt hp l. Xem COMPANY. Mt hng ho s th hin s cnh tranh (Xem RIVAL) trong tiu dng v l loi hng ho m ngi sn v ngi tiu dng u c kh nng thc hin c s loi tr. Chnh sch chuyn i s hu cng cng ca mt ti sn thnh s hu t nhn hoc cho php mt t chc kinh doanh khu vc t nhn hc hin mt hot ng no cho n lc y vn c tin hnh bi mt t chc cng cng. chuyn hot ng t khu vc nh nc sang khu vc t nhn ng u vi nim tin rng s kim sot v s hu t nhn s c hiu qu hn v vic phn b ngun lc so vi s hu nh nc.

Mt hm s nm gia 0 v 1 (i khi c biu hin bng mt s phn trm) ch r kh nng m mt s kin s xy ra.

Mt hm s miu t hnh dng ca mt phn phi xc sut m khi a vo gia cc gii hn no s cho xc sut m vi xc sut ny bin s ca n s c nhng tr s gia nhng gii hn y.

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Mt s tm tt di dng mt dng bng s hoc di dng mt quan h ton hc a ra XC SUT m vi xc sut ny mt bin s ngu nhin c phn phi s nhn c nhng gi tr no , hoc ri vo gia mt s gii hn nht nh. Xem LINEAR PROBABILITY MODEL. Mt s phi hp c bit ca cc u vo c th thay i v quy m sn xut cc mc cao hn ca u ra. Mt thay i trong quan h gia cc t l u vo ca cc yu t xn xut mt mc sn lng nht nh. S hp nht ca cc doanh nghip ring bit c gng cung cp sn phm chung ca chng, mc d c bin ng trong sn xut. Mt thng d xy ra i vi nhng ngi ch s hu cc yu t sn xut do mt c nhn thng nhn c mt ci g c tho dng trc tip hoc gin tip ln hn tho dng ca ci m ngi y t b. Cm thut ng ny miu t hnh thi v qu trnh i qua ca cc sn phm mi, sau tri qua giai on ca hon thin v chun ho sn phm. iu ny tn ti trong phm vi mt ngnh khi mi nh sn xut bn mt sn phm m cc c trng ca n phn bit vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. S thay i ca mt doanh ghip i vi sn phm c th bn c ca n v s thay i c th xut hin do mt s b sung v cng ngh, hoc mt s thay i v cc gi tng i c th l s thay i s thch ca ngi tiu dng. Hnh ng bin i cc yu t sn xut thnh hng ho v dch v do yu cu ca tiu dng v u t. Cn gi l ng gii hn nng lc sn xut hoc l hm s ca s bin i. ng ny cho thy cc kh nng m ra cho vic gia tng sn lng ca mt hng ho bng cch gim sn lng ca mt hng ho khc. Mi lin h gia SN LNG (u ra) ca mt hng ho v u vo (nhn t sn xut) c yu cu lm ra hng ho .

Xem Production frontier. Mt cch phn loi vic lm c s dng cc nc X hi ch ngha v (vn cn) s dng mt s nc ng u. Lnh vc sn xut bao gm vic lm trong nng nghip, lm nghip, ng nghip, cng nghip, xy dng, vn ti, thng nghip, cc nghnh gi l dch v sn xut v trong khu vc t nhn. Lnh vc ngn sch bao gm vic lm trong hnh chinh, lc lng v trang, cng an, to n, trng cng, vin nghin cu, c quan y t nh nc, thu quan..

Sn lng ca mt n v u vo c s dng. Xem AVERAGE PRODUCT. Theo truyn thng y l mt tho thun lao ng theo nhng thun li loi ny hoc loi khc, chng hn lng cao hn hoc c ngh nhiu hn dnh cho cng nhn i ly nhng thay i trong cch lm vic hoc t chc cng vic nhm to ra lao ng hiu qu hn. Mt chin lc ngn chn vic gia nhp ngnh do mt s doanh nghip thit lp nhm theo ui lm bo ho th trng vi mt s ln cc nhn hiu khc nhau n mc bt k ngi no mi gia nhp cng thy kh m kim c li trong vic a ra th trng mt sn phm vi mt t hp thuc tnh c th phn bit vi lot nhn hiu c sn. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm theo mt bin, khi hm s bao gm tch ca hai hoc nhiu hm s ring bit ca bin s.

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Chnh lch gia doanh thu t vic bn hng sn xut ra v tt c cc chi ph c hi ca cc yu t c s dng to ra sn lng . Mt xu hng i vi t l li tc ca vn st gim theo thi gian. Khi mt cng ty c phn tn thnh nhiu n v nh, th nhng n v ny c gi l trung tm li nhun nu chng c tnh t lp tnh c li tc ring cho mi n v do u t. Mt khi nim thng c s dng trong cc thuyt QUN L DOANH NGHIP. N l li nhun ti thiu i hi m bo s ng ca c ng i vi chnh sch ca cng ty. Mi quan h c trng gia li nhun v cc bin s nh sn lng v qung co m tc ng n quy m ca li nhun. Li nhun ca tng n v sn lng c biu hin di dng mt s phn trm ca gi. Gi thit cho rng cc doanh nghip u nhm ti a ho li nhun. S xy ra khi li nhun mang li s thc y quyt nh Li nhun c th hin di dng mt t l ca gi tr ghi trong s sch ca cc ti sn vn. Mt bin th ca lm pht chi ph y, quy ngun gc ca qu trnh lm pht cho cc nh t bn nh tm mt phn gia tng trong thu nhp quc dn. Xem OUTPUT BUDGETING. Mt tn chung gi mt lot cc k thut ti u ho, thng bao gm cc phng php gii php lp li, mt v d l QUY HOCH TUYN. Ni chung cp n mt tnh hung trong t l ca thu nhp c tnh thu tng ln t l ca thu nhp c tnh thu tng ln t l thu cng vi thu nhp hoc sc mnh chi tiu. Xem CAPITAL BUDGETING, DISCOU-TED CASH FLOW, NET PRESENT VALUE, RATE OF RETURN. Nhng quyn ny ni n vic cho php s dng ti nguyn, hng ho v dch v. Trc ht, ni m t l ca thu nhp c ly ra np thu vn gi nguyn khi thu nhp tng, th c mt THU SUT BIN khng thay i bng vi thu sut trung bnh hoc thu sut hiu lc. nh ngha th hai l mt th thu t l nu thu sut khng i khi c s thu tng ln. Mt ngnh then cht m s tng tc v s m rng ca chng c th to nn s kch thch tng trng trong mt nn kinh t. Mt l thuyt v vic ra quyt nh trong tnh trng khng chc chn. L thuyt ny gn vi Kahneman v Tversky. Xem EFFECTIVE RATE OF PROTEC-TION, TARIFS , QUOTAS. Mt bin s c s dng trong vic phn tch hi quy thay th "thay mt" mt bin s khc v mt l thuyt tho ng hn trong nhng trng hp m cc d liu khng c c i vi bin s ny hoc bin s ny khng th quan st c (chng hn mc tiu dng mong mun hoc thu nhp thng xuyn. Mi quan h hm s cho bit s tin mt c nhn mun thanh ton cho mt lot cc n v k tip ca mt hng ho cng cng hoc cho cc n v tiu dng k tip ca hng ho bi cc c nhn khc (nh kt qu s tn ti ca mt ngoi ng c li). Mt ngnh kinh t hc lin quan n vic p dng kinh t hc vo vic phn tch s quyt nh "Phi th trng". Xem COMPANY. Ni mt cch rng ri, chi tiu ca cc c quan chnh quyn a phng v quc gia c phn bit vi chi tiu t nhn, nhng t chc hoc doanh nghip t nhn.

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Mt hng ho hoc dch v m nu cung cp cho mt ngi no th i vi nhng ngi khc cng c cung cp nh vy m khng phi chu bt c chi ph no thm. Phng php thc hin mt s pht hnh mi v CHNG KHON trong c quan pht hnh, chng hn mt cng ty hoc mt chnh quyn a phng bn cc chng khon mt cch trc tip cho cng chng vi mc gi n nh. Tng gi tr m s thu ca cc t chc Khu vc cng cng thiu ht so vi s chi. Xem Pulic Sector Borrowing Requirement (PSBR). Mt cng ty hay x nghip l ngi cung cp duy nht mt loi hng ho hoc dch v thit yu no , do phi chu hnh thc kim sot ca chnh ph. Quy nh ca chnh ph v vic kim sot i vi cc Dch v cng cng c nhng yu t ca sc mnh c quyn; mc ch nhm hi ho qun l kinh doanh vi li ch cng cng. Mt hc thuyt khng nh rng mt n v tin t phi c kh nng mua cng c mt gi hng ho mi nc. Mt loi thu doanh thu.N tn ti nc Anh trc khi p dng thu gi tr gia tng vo nm 1973. N l loi thu tnh theo tng gi tr nh vo mt s hng c bit mc bn bun. Xem PERFECT COMPETITION. Mt s d tin c li khi doanh thu pht sinh t mt hot ng no c tr cho tt c cc chi ph c hi ca sn xut c th xy ra, li nhun thng thng cn thit duy tr s kinh doanh ca ngi sn xut. Xem OPTIONS Mt hnh thi ca HN SN XUT cho php thay vn bng lao ng v ngc li trc khi u t thc t c thc hin, nhng mt khi my mc c lp t th t s Vn/ lao ng khng th thay i c. Mt kha cnh ca hm sn xut trong l thuyt tng trng cho php vn c lin tc i hnh dng c trc v sau khi u t thc hin. Xem HOLDING COMPANY. Mt phng trnh cha bnh phng ca mt bin s nh lu tha cao nht. Mt HM THO DNG m dng i s ca n l dng ca mt PHNG TRNH BC HAI. y l cc m hnh c a ra gii quyt nhng d liu phn ng khng lin tc, chng hn nh quyt nh mua hay khng mua xe t, thay i vic lm, hoc i hc i hc. L thuyt v CU TIN T to nn yu t quan trng nht ca phn tch kinh t v m trc ca Keynes: L thuyt tng qut v vic lm, li sut v tin t (1936). Mt phng tin xc nh v tr ca d liu hoc phn phi mu. Xem OPTION VALUE. Thu nhp ca mt ngi bn mt loi hng ho hoc dch v qu mc v trn CHI PH C HI c th xy ra khi hng ho tm thi c cung cp vi lng c nh.

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Nhn vt ch yu trong nhm cc nh kinh t hc Php th k XVIII c gi l nhng ngi theo ch ngha TRNG NNG. L mt bc s phu thut, tc phm ca ng v kinh t hc xut hin trong BCH KHOA TON TH nm 1756 v 1757, TP CH NNG NGHIP, THNG NGHIP V TI CHNH nm 1765 v 1767, v BIU KINH T (1758). L ngi chng li trng phi TRNG THNG, ng sm ng h cc u im t do cnh tranh trong cng nghip. Bi Biu kinh t a ra mt m hnh trao i gia ba giai cp x hi: a ch, cng nhn nng nghip v ci gi l giai cp "khng sinh li". Ch nng nghip l c kh nng sn xut s thng d so vi cc yu cu tiu dng v do l ng lc thc y nn kinh t. Biu kinh t a ra m hnh U VO U RA ca nn kinh t cho thy thng d hoc sn phm dng c phn phi th no gia 3 giai cp. Nh vy n l tin thn ca m hnh ti sn xut ca C.Mc v m hnh phc tp hn nhiu ca WASSILY LEONTIEF. Quesnay xut rng do nng nghip l ngun ca ca cui cng, cho nn ti chnh cng cng c th n gin ho rt nhiu bng mt th thu duy nht nh vo nn nghip. S ng h ca ng i vi t do kinh doanh v cnh tranh khng hn ch c nh hng n kinh t hc c in Anh v c bit n ADAM SMITH. y l t s ti sn d chuyn hon vi s n hin i. Ti sn d chuyn hon l tin mt, phn ln cc u t c k hn c th thc hin nhanh chng v ti khon cc khon phi thu tr n kh i. Nhng nhn vin t nguyn ri b cng vic hin ti thay i cng vic hoc rt khi lc lng lao ng. Mt gii hn bt buc t ra i vi s lng hng ho sn xut hoc mua.

Nhng cng ty m vn c phiu c th c bn t do S GIAO DCH CHNG KHON. London, vic giao dch c c quy ch nh vy i hi phi a ra mt thng bo gi ca U ban nim yt ca S giao dch chng khon. Mt quy tc xc nh o hm ca mt hm s theo mt bin s, trong hm s bao gm thng (ngha l t l) gia hai hm s ring r ca bin s. Xem COEFFICIENT OF DETERMINATION. "U ban v s hot ng ca h thng tin t" c thnh lp nm 1957, do lut gia, hun tc Radcliffe lm ch tch, U ban ny tng trnh nm 1959 (Bo co Cmnd.827). y ban trong c hai nh kinh t hc xut sc, gio s Alec Cairncross v gio s R.S.Sayers tin hnh mt cuc kho st phm vi rng v c thm quyn v h thng tin t v ti chnh. Tn chung cho cc tc phm theo truyn thng x hi ch ngha hoc Macxits, lin quan ch yu n ch ngha Mc nhng chp nhn v s dng cc ngun t tng khc, chng hn nh thuyt v chnh ph v thuyt t do bnh ng. Nhng tc phm ny thng c gi l "cnh t mi". L mt cng ty c tim nng cng c a v nh s thu mua i vi mt cng ty khc. c s dng rng ri trong thyt ngoi ng mi trng, mt qui tc c th cn thit p dng cho mi mc gi trong mt nn kinh t, khi t nht c mt th hng ho l hng cng cng khng th cn kit c. Xem RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Xem VARIABLE PARAMETER MODELS. Mt mu m t cch ca cc thnh vin c xc nh bng xc sut v l ni mt quan st c thc hin mt cch c lp i vi tt c cc quan st khc mu ny. Mt bin chp nhn nhng tr s tu theo phn phi xc sut ca n. Mt th d v m hnh dy thi gian trong gi tr hin ti ca mt bin s bng gi tr mi nht ca n cng thm mt yu t ngu nhin.

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Mt thc o mc phn tn ca mt mu cc quan st hoc ca mt s phn phi c tnh nh chnh lch gia cc gi tr ln nht v nh nht ca bin s . Trong kinh t hc, vng khong cch ti a m ngi ta s i mua mt hng ho c th no . Phng php o mc m hai bin s lin quan vi nhau, khng nht thit theo gi tr m theo bc. Xem MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE, PROJECTS, CAPITAL RATIONING. Con s ti a ca hng hay ct c lp tuyn tnh ca ma trn. Mt quy tc theo vic ngi ch thanh ton cho nhn vin ph thuc vo th hng ca nhn vin trong cuc ganh ua. Xem RELATIVE INCOME HYPOTHESIS. Mt th tc m B trng Mi trng ca Anh dng hn ch t l gia tng chi tiu ca nh chc trch a phng. Th tc ny c coi nh bin php thay th cho cc phng php truyn thng kim sot s chi tiu ca chnh quyn a phng chng hn nh vic iu hnh T L H TR BNG TR CP. Xem MARGINAL RATE OF SUBSTITUTION. Gi c ca dch v tin t. Mt khi nim chung ni n s Tin thu c t s u t vn, khi tin ny c coi nh mt phn ca kinh ph. Xem TIME PREFERENCE. Mt h thu da trn gi tr c th b nh thu ca t ai v nh , c thay th bng ph cng ng vo cui nhng nm 80 Anh. Khi p dng PH CNG NG cho c nhn th mt thu kinh doanh ng nht c p dng cho mi doanh nghip. Trong khi m trc mc thu tnh theo ng bng do cc doanh nghip tr thay i tu theo tng chnh quyn a phng th loi thu ng nht c ngha l mi doanh nghip trong nc s thanh ton cng mc thu tnh theo ng bng, mc d hin nay c s thay i gia Scotland, Anh v X Wales. Mt c ch chuyn vn t chnh ph trung ng cho cc chnh quyn a phng Anh. Ngy nay s tr cp cho cc chnh quyn ny to nn ngun thu nhp ch yu ca cc chnh quyn a phng Anh. l s p dng phn ch yu ca hnh vi duy l ti a ho vo vic thu thp v x l thng tin cho mc ch to nn mt quan im v tng lai. Hnh vi ca mt tc nhn kinh t (ngi tiu dng, chnh ph ) nht qun vi mt lot cc quy tc chi phi cc s thch. Mt cng thc TR PHN PHI trong , cc gi tr k tip ca mt bin s b tr c xc nh bng t l ca hai m hnh tr a thc. Bt c phng php no phn b mt sn phm hoc dch v khan him khc vi cch dng ca c ch gi. Mt cch tip cn vn ca mt x hi bnh ng, v c bit l BNH NG PHN PHI c pht trin bi nh trit hc John Rawls i hc Harvard, ng lp lun rng bnh ng x hi l x hi m trong c th la chn nu h b chi phi hon ton bi quyn li c nhn. Xem RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. Gip cho doanh nghip xc nh gi tr ti u cho mt bin s la chn khi bit c gi tr ny ca cc hng cnh tranh. Cm thut ng ny thng c s dng m t trng hp khi cu i vi hng ho thay i do c s thay i s d tin thc t. Hc thuyt v li th so snh ca Ricardo c da trn mt phng php chi ph thc t. L gi tr ca cc lng tin c nm gi c xc nh bng s lng hng ho v dch v m chng c th mua c.

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Gi tr ca tng sn lng - THU NHP QUC DN - c tnh theo "gi c nh" tc l tr i t l lm pht chung tnh c hiu qu thc t ca vic s dng cc ngun lc. L tin lng c tnh theo gi tr hng ho v dch v m s tin c th mua c. L ngi c b nhim tip qun ti sn ca mt con n, ng thi thu nhn hoa li t ti sn ni trn nhm thanh ton n. L giai on gim st ca chu k thng mi xy ra sau mt nh im v kt thc ti im thp nht ca chu k. L mt s c s m m mt. L cu ca mt nc i vi hng ho ca mt nc khc trong quan h trao i hng gia hai nc. o lut thu quan Smoot-Hawley nm 1930 p t biu thu nhp khu cao n mc cc hot ng thng mi quc t ca Hoa K hu nh khng c. n nm 1962, tc ng ca RTA lm gim mc thu quan trung bnh xung cn 11,1%. Nm 1990, mc thu quan trung bnh cho hng cng nghip ch cn mc 5%. Lag khong thi gian k t t khi mt yu t c kh nng gy bt n xy ra cho n khi n c cc nh hoch nh chnh sch nhn nh l c kh nng gy bt n. L tho thun m theo bn mua hoc bn bn c th thay i s lng hng mua bn nu biu gi tho thun khng gip cho hng c tiu th ht trn th trng: s lng hng s c iu chnh tu thuc vo vic xy ra tnh trng d cu hay d cung. L mt m hnh trong nhng gi tr hin ti ca mt tp hp cc bin s quyt nh gi tr hin ti ca mt tp hp khc trong khi cc gi tr trc (gi tr tr) ca tp hp sau li quyt nh cc gi tr hin ti ca gi tr trc. Xem KALMAN FILTERING. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. C th l chng khon m s c tr li - thanh ton - vo mt ngy nht nh, hoc c th l chng khon m c th c tr li tu theo hp ng ca ngi vay tin. Nu mt nh u t mua mt c phiu c k hn vi gi thp hn gi danh ngha ca n m gi c phn n khi o hn th s c hng mt khon li tc ngoi tin li hng nm tr cho c phn . L qu trnh iu chnh li s phn phi (thng l) thu nhp hoc ca ci trong mt x hi. L cc dng ca mt tp hp CC PHNG TRNH NG THI trong cc bin s ni sinh c biu th nh l cc hm ca cc BIN S NGOI SINH, ngha l khng c bin s ni sinh no xut hin pha bn phi ca cc phng trnh. Nhng ngi mt vic khng t nguyn do yu cu v nhn lc ca doanh nghip gim. Xem SEVERANCE PAY. L hng c nhp t mt nc sang mt nc khc nhng khng c tiu th nc nhp hng m c xut ti mt nc th ba. L cc khon tin m trc y chnh ph Anh cung cp cho cc hng tin hnh u t vo sn xut ti nhng vng no c coi l CC KHU VC CN PHT TRIN v VC KHU VC PHT TRIN C BIT. Cc khon tr cp pht trin khu vc dn b ct b k t thng 3 nm 1988. Kinh t hc khu vc l chuyn nghnh phn tch kinh lin quan n vic phn phi hot ng kinh t theo khng gian v s khc nhau v khng gian trong kt qu ca hot ng kinh t.

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L khon tr cp cho cc hng sn xut ti cc khu vc cn pht trin v cc khu vc c bit Anh t nm 1967 n nm 1977 da trn c s s cng nhn c tuyn dng, ban du l 1,5 bng cho mt cng nhn v sau l 3 bng cho mt cng nhn, hy vng s khuyn khch cc hng cc khu vc c t l tht nghip cao thu thm nhiu lao ng. L mt phin bn ca s nhn c s dng trong vic phn tch cc nn kinh t khu vc. L mt dng ca chnh sch kinh t ca chnh ph nhm iu chnh hnh thi hot ng kinh t hoc kt qu kinh t ca khu vc. L nhng chnh lch v mc lng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn c phn loi theo khu vc m h ang lm vic ti . L vic xp th t cc mc lng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn c phn loi theo khu vc m h ang lm vic ti . L tng s ngi Anh ng k ti cc Vn phng tht nghip c hng tr cp.

L mt php phn tch bng cch ghp mt phng trnh hi quy quy (hoc mt quan h ton hc) vo mt tp hp cc im s liu, thng l bng phng php BNH PHNG TI THIU THNG THNG, thit lp cc mi quan h kinh t lng (c tnh gi tr ca cc thng s), hoc kim nh cc gi thit kinh t. L k vng cho rng s bin i ca gi tr thc t ca mt bin s tch ra khi gi tr ti im cn bng ca n, thng l mt gi tr mi, s c tip ni bi vic quay tr li gi tr ti im cn bng. L trng hp thu sut trung bnh gim khi thu nhp tng ln. L mt BIN C LP trong mt php phn tch hi quy. Xem MINIMAX REGRET. L mt quy ch ca Hoa K do H THNG D TR LIN BANG t ra vo nm 1933 i vi cc mc li m cc ngn hng phi tr cho cc tin gi nh.

Xem DISINTERMEDIATION. L mt khi nim c cc nh kinh t hc th ch vay mn t x hi hc to ra nn tng v hnh vi vi m ca qu trnh c coi l phi th trng m tin lng c xc nh trong (Xem SPILLOVER HYPOTHESIS). L gi thuyt cho rng tiu dng ca c nhn v / hoc h gia nh l hm s ca thu nhp ca c nhn/ h gia nh trong mi quan h vi thu nhp ca cc c nhn hoc h gia nh khc, ng thi cng l hm s ca thu nhp hin ti trong mi quan h vi mc thu nhp trong cc giai on ngay trc . Xem PRICE. L thut ng c s dng m t nhng chnh lch gia cc mc lng trung bnh ca cc nhm cng nhn trong cng mt ngh, do cc nhm ch khc nhau tr. L bt c ti nguyn no c kh nng ti to li, mt phn hoc ton b, mt cch "t nhin". Xem ECONOMIC RENT. L mt mi quan h c s dng trong KINH T HC TH, biu th mc t phi tr cho mt n v t ai nh mt hm s ca khong cch t mt im tham chiu nht nh - thng l mt thnh ph hoc trung tm th x. L nhng ch s hu vn m ton b hoc hu ht thu nhp ca h c c t ngun ny nhng h li chn cch khng p t quyn kim sot ca mnh i vi vic s dng n.

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L vic s dng cc ngun lc thc t nhm thu c thng d di hnh thc mt khon c li.

Xem HISTORICAL COST. L mt phng php k ton c iu chnh theo nhng thay i v gi c bng cch tnh li nhun nh l khon chnh lch gia gi bn mt mt hng v chi ph thay th ca n ti thi im bn hng. L khon tin cn thit thay th phn vn u t c bn c s dng ht trong qu trnh sn xut. L t s gia tng thu nhp rng (thu nhp cng vi phc li tr thu v tin nh , cho php hon tr li tin thu) khi tht nghip v tng thu nhp thun khi ang lm vic. L mt hng tiu biu cho mt ngnh hay mt khu vc ca nn kinh t ang c phn tch. L trng hp vic n nh gi kim sot c tc thay i ca gi c m khng tc ng n nhng xu hng lm pht ang din ra. Trong ngnh ngn hng M, cc t chc nhn tin gi phi duy tr mt t l phn trm nht nh ca s n m cc t chc ny pht hnh (v c bn gm c sc, s tit kim v giy chng nhn ti khon tin gi) di dng s d nhn ri.

L tho thun theo cc nh sn xut xc nh mt cch c lp hoc tp th nhng mc gi ti thiu m cc sn phm ca h c th c bn li ti cc nh bn bun v bn l. L o lut ca Anh cm vic duy tr gi bn l bi mt hng ring l. L hot ng nhm nng cao trnh khoa hc hoc k thut v ng dng trnh vo vic to ra cc sn phm mi v phng tin sn xut mi cng nh ci tin cc sn phm v qui trnh sn xut hin ti. Ngi cng nhn tm vic trn TH TRNG LAO NG s c mt tng nht nh v mc lng m anh ta mong mun hoc xng ng c hng, da trn mc lng trc y ca anh ta v nhng ngh tr lng c bit n theo mt ngha k vng nht nh. L t l ti thiu m tt c cc ngn hng v cc CNG TY TI CHNH c quy m ln hn hot ng ti Anh trong thi gian t 1971 n 1981 phi duy tr gia cc ti sn c xc nh l hp l v cc khon n c xc nh bng cch tng t l hp l. L s lng nhng ti sn trong h thng ti chnh m xt trn thc t hoc v mt php l, c th hnh thnh nn d tr ca h thng ngn hng, v theo l thuyt truyn thng v S NHN TN DNG, hnh thnh nn s b nhn gip cho vic s dng s nhn xc nh tng s tin gi ngn hng. L tn gi c t cho mt NG TIN nc ngoi m mt chnh ph sn sng gi lm mt phn d tr ca mnh; s tin ny c s dng ti tr cho thng mi quc t. L t l gia mt ti sn, hoc mt nhm cc ti sn, c gi lm qu d tr so vi tng s cc khon n hoc cam kt nht nh, v xt v mt mc no th y l i tng ca chnh sch hot ng ca cc t chc c lin quan. Chnh lch gia mt im s liu trn thc t vi gi tr c a ra bi mt phng trnh c tnh.

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L mt phng php c tnh cc thng s ca mt phng trnh, trong c tnh n mt loi thng tin u tin. Xem RESTRICTIVE TRADE PRACTICES ACT 1956. L o lut ca Anh quy nh vic cc hng sn xut tho thun vi nhau duy tr gi bn l l bt hp php. im chnh ca o lut ny l mt iu khon ni lng vic ng k bt buc cc tho thun theo quy nh ca o lut nm 1956 v nhng Thng l thng mi hn ch. Trong CUC TRANH LUN V VN, quan im cho rng mt phng php sn xut b t b khi t l li nhun thp c th c a ra khi t l li nhun tng ln ti nhng mc cao hn nhiu, cng vi vic mt (hoc nhiu) Phng php sn xut thay th c kh nng sinh li cao hn c s dng trong giai on chuyn tip. L giai on cui cng trong dy chuyn phn phi t nh sn xut n ngi tiu dng. Thut ng ny c p dng cho cc nghip v ngn hng chuyn thng do cc NGN HNG THANH TON B TR v ngy cng nhiu cc ngn hng khc tin hnh, thng qua h thng chi nhnh ca h ti mi i tng. L mt ch s gi hng ho c cp n nh l ch s gi sinh hot. Ch s ny o lng nhng thay i tng i trong cc mc gi ca mt nhm hng tiu dng c th m mt h gia nh trung bnh mua mt cch thng xuyn. Xem INTERNAL FINANCE. L t l li nhun rng c tnh lm thu nhp gi li. L tn gi khc ca THU NHP GI LI hoc LI NHUN KHNG CHIA. Xem RATE OF RETURN. L t l m theo sn lng thay i khi s lng ca tt c cc u vo thay i. L mt thay i theo hng i ln ca sc mua ngang gi i vi mt ng tin trong mt h thng t gi hi oi c nh. L mt phng thc tip cn hc thuyt v cu ca SAMUELSON, da trn nhng nhn nh v cch thc m ngi tiu dng phn ng i vi nhng thay i v gi c v thu nhp. Xem SALES MAXIMIZATION HYPOTHESIS. L vic bn mt loi hng ho nc ngoi vi mt mc gi cao hn gi mt hng ti th trng trong nc li dng v tr c quyn. Xem Yield gap. Theo nh l ny, vic nh thu v vic pht hnh n ca nhnh ph, khi c s dng nh mt cng c ti tr cho chi tiu ngn hn ca chnh ph, u c cc hiu ng tng ng vi nhau i vi nn kinh t. L nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, c nhc n nhiu nht do hc thuyt v TIN THU v hc thuyt v CHI PH SO SNH ca ng. Nm 1819, ng c bu vo H ngh vin. S quan tm ca ng i vi kinh t hc bt u t khi ng c tc phm Ca ci ca cc dn tc ca Smith m sau tr thnh c s cho tc phm Gi cao ca vng (1810), trong ng lp lun rng tnh trng lm pht hin ti l do vic ngn hng trung ng Anh khng hn ch c vic pht hnh tin v mt u ban chnh thc cng a ra mt kt lun tng t vo nm 1811. Tc phm ch yu ca ng l Nhng nguyn tc ca kinh t chnh tr v thu (1817). Ricardo cng c bit n v thnh cng ca ng trong vic to ra mt "c my phn tch' v l ngi u tin s dng phng php xy dng cc m hnh phn tch gin n dac trn nhng gi nh to bo p dng trc tip vo vic gii quyt cc vn quan trng.

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M, ni pht sinh cm thut ng ny, vic buc cng nhn phi gia nhp cc nghip on l bt hp php v cc tiu ban c quyn cm vic p dng quy nh v gia nhp nghip on. Trong mt t pht hnh c phiu mi ca mt cng ty, cc c ng hin ti c quyn mua c phiu mi theo t l gp vn ca tng c ng, l vi nhng iu kin u i. L hon cnh trong mt s kin xy ra vi mt xc sut nht nh hoc trong trng hp quy m ca s kin c mt PHN PHI XC SUT. L k vng ca nh u t mun c li tc d kin cao hn b p s gia tng ri ro. Thng thng cm thut ng ny ni n mt khon vn c u t vo mt doanh nghip m ch s hu ca n chp nhn ri ro l cng ty c th b ph sn.

1.L mt khon b sung vo T L CHIT KHU "thun tu" tnh n s khng chc chn ca nhng li ch hoc doanh thu ca mt d n trong tng lai; 2.Trong mt th gii khng chc chn, l phn li tc b p cho ch s hu vn v nhng ri ro trong vic s dng s vn trong kinh doanh. Xem INSURANCE.

Khi s tiu dng ca mt c nhn v mt hng ho lm gim s lng hng ho m nhng ngi khc c th tiu dng. L nh kinh t hc ngi Anh v l mt nhn vt c nhiu nh hng, l gio s kinh t ti trng Kinh t London t nm 1929 n nm 1961. Trong thi gian ny, Robbins c nh hng to ln i vi c sinh vin ln chnh ph, l ngi i u trong vic hi sinh t duy kinh t "t do". ng nhn mnh s cn thit v mt l thuyt v thc t gia kinh t hc CHUN TC v THC CHNG. Trong tc phm Lun bn v bn cht v ngha ca khoa hc kinh t (1953), nhn mnh n kha cnh s khan him trong mi hnh vi kinh t. Cu ni ni ting ca Robbins tm li quan im ny v tr thnh mt nh ngha chun v phm vi nghin cu ca kinh t hc:"Khoa hc nghin cu hnh vi ca con ngi da trn c s mi quan h gia nhng mc tiu v cng c khan him vi nhng cng dng khc nhau". Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh v l mt trong nhng l thuyt gia kinh t c nh hng nht trong giai on hu Keynes. L gio s ging dy ti trng i hc Cambrigde (1931-1971). ng gp gp quan trng u tin ca b l s ph bnh v s din gii li hc thuyt truyn thng v gi tr da trn khi nim. Tc phm sau ny ca b chuyn t phng php im cn bng tng phn ca Marshall sang phng php phn tch c inca Keynes v nhng vn kinh t v m nng ng, c bit l vn tng trng v phn phi. Tc phm S tch lu vn (1956), ng gp quan trng ca b cho hc thuyt tng trng kinh t, vn dng t tng ca J.Mkeynes, Harrod, C.Mc v David Ricardo. Robinson l mt ngi i u trong nhng cuc tranh lun gay gt v ngha ca vn vo nhng nm 50 v 60. L o lut ra i nm 1936 sa i mc 2 ca o lut Clayton ca Hoa K. Ni dung ch yu ca n l vic cm t cc mc gi khc nhau cho cc khch hng khc nhau i vi nhng hng ho m c bn ging nhau v chng loi v cht lng, trong trng hp tc ng s l vic gim ng k mc cnh tranh hoc c xu hng c quyn.

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Cm thut ng ny trc y dng ch iu m ngy nay thng c gi l "HIU NG KHO". N c mang tn ch ngn hng - Nh kinh t hc Robert V.Roosa, ngi u tin ng h ngha ca n. Cc nghim ca mt hm l cc gi tr ca bin c lp lm cho bin ph thuc bng khng. Mt thuyt tng trng kinh t do gio s W.W Rostow a ra nm 1961. ng phn chia qu trnh tng trng thnh 5 giai on: 1)X hi truyn thng; 2)Cc iu kin tin quyt ct cnh;3)Ct cnh;4)Tin ti trng thnh;5)Giai on tiu dng cao. Thut ng ny dng ch phng php sn xut tn nhiu thi gian hn v hiu qu hn. Khi nim nng sut cao hn ca phng php sn xut l gio l trung tm ca trng phi o trong khi tho lun vn. Anh, y l loi thu phi tr cho chnh ph Anh bi cc t chc khai khong sn v mi quyn khai khong u thuc v Hong gia. nhiu nc, mt s hnh thc thu tinh vi hn v thng cn c vo li nhun ang tr nn quan trng hn vi t cch l thu nh vo ti nguyn thin nhin. Xem COMPENSATION RULES. Xem RETAIL PRICE INDEX. Mt cng thc hay th tc m to c s cho vic ra quyt nh ca cc tc nhn kinh t. nh l, do nh kinh t Rybczcynski a ra, cho rng nu trong m hnh HECKSCHEROHLIN, mt trong hai yu t sn xut c tng duy tr gi c hng ho v cc yu t sn xut khng i th lng hng ho dng nhiu yu t sn xut c tng ln phi m rng sn lng hng ho kia, dng nhiu hn trong yu t sn xut khng i phi gim xung.

Con s thi vic c l do. Mt yu t trong chu chuyn lao ng. Mt m hnh kinh t lng tuyn tnh nh ca nn kinh t M c a ra ti Ngn hng d tr Lin bang St.Louis chng li xu hng dng cc m hnh phi tuyn tnh v ln hn c a ra cc ni khc t m hnh ban u v nn kinh t M ca Tinbergen v Klein-Goldberger. Xem BERNOULLI HYPOTHESIS. Tin tr cho hu nh ton b cng nhn khng lm vic chn tay v mt s nhn vin lm vic chn tay i ly cung lao ng ca h, thng thng vic thanh ton c tin hnh sau mi thnh v, ngc vi tin cng ca nhn cng lm vic chn tay, khng thay i theo s gi lm vic hay mc n lc trong nhng gi lm vic vi iu kin mt s ngha v hp ng ti thiu phi c tn trng. Do W.J.Baumol, a ra gi thit ny l tinh thn thuyt QUN TR CA HNG. Mt loi thu nh vo giao dch th trng. Khi xem xt ngn sch vn, gi tr ca ti sn vn vo cui i d n phi c xem xt. Mi tp cc quan st hay cc s liu o c i vi mt bin c th no , m khng gm tt c cc quan st c th c.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi M, gio s ti hc vin Cng ngh Massachusetts, v l ngi c gii Nobel v kinh t nm 1970 v c cng nng cao phn tch tng qut v mc phng php lun trong kinh t hc vi s gip ca ton hc. Trong KINH T H NG, ng nghin cu xem mt h thng kinh t c s nh th no khi bn ngoi im cn bng v mt nn kinh t pht trin nh th no t giai on n sang giai on kia trong mt chui cc giai on pht trin. Trong L THUYT CNG TIU DNG, cch tip cn ca ng hon ton i lp vi phng php tip cn c chp nhn rng ri nht, l vic xy dng cc nh l v hnh vi tiu dng da trn cc phng php suy din, v ng xc nh nhng s thch trn c s nhng hnh vi quan st c hay "Nhng s thch c bc l" nh chng c gi. Trong KINH T HC QUC T, lp lun ca ng v vn chuyn nhng v nhng li ch thu c t thng mi u rt chnh xc v l nhng tuyn b kinh in v kinh t hc hin i. Mc d l ngi vit nhu, nhng Samuelson ch vit, ch khng phi bin son, hai cun sch l: Nhng nn tng ca phn tch kinh t (1948) v mt cun sch nhp mn rt thnh cng l Kinh t hc (1945) v hin ang c ti bn ln th 15. Theo kim nh ny th mt trng thi c kh nng c phc li tt hn mt trng thi khc nu i vi mi s phn phi gi hng ho trong tnh trng th nht c tn ti mt s phn b gi hng ho th hai, trong t nht c mt phc li tng ln m khng c ngi no b gim phc li. Hin tng " c " mt hng ho no . Hnh vi hng ti vic t c nhng mc kht vng trong cc mc tiu ra quyt nh v hnh vi khng nht thit phi lin quan ti vic ti a ho bt k mt yu t no. Mi thu nhp khng tiu dng vo hng ho v dch v cho nhu cu hin ti. Cc cng ty c thnh lp di hnh thc tng h hay c phn nhn tit kim t dn c v u t ch yu vo cc khon cho vay th chp. Hm ch r mi quan h gia tng tit kim (S) v thu nhp (Y), Tc l S = S(Y). Phng php tit kim - u t i vi cn bng cn cn thanh ton tp trung vo mi quan h do Keynes nu ra gia tit kim v u t gii thch v tr ca ti khon vng lai trong cn cn thanh ton, v chnh lch gia xut khu v nhp khu hng ho v dch v. L mt doanh nhn ngi php tr thnh nh kinh t hc, Say c b nhim lm ch nhim khoa kinh t Cng nghip thuc trng i hc Convervatoire National des et Mtier (1819) v tr thnh gio s kinh t nm 1931. im quan trng trong cng trnh ca ng l vic ng phn i thuyt gi tr c in da trn gi tr lao ng ca ngi Anh. V mt phng php lun, Say l ngi i tin phong trong trng phi TN C IN v phn tch cn bng ca h. Say ni ting nht vi l thuyt v th trng c ng xy dng trong cun Trait d'economie politique (1803). Say pht hin s ph thuc ln nhau gia cung v cu t nn kinh t hng i hng, ti mi hng ng bn u lin quan n cu v mt gi tr tng ng, khng tn ti bt k mt d cung hay cu no v khng c mt hng ho no c sn xut ra m khng c mt mc cu tiu th no tng ng, thnh l thuyt chung v th trng. Trong kinh t hc, s khan him thng s dng trong trng hp cc ngun lc sn c sn xut ra sn phm khng tho mn cc mong mun. Mt tn gi khc ca ng tin mnh. S biu din d liu bng th trong cc gi tr quan st c ca mt bin c v thnh tng im so vi cc gi tr ca bin kia m khng ni cc im li vi nhau bng ng ni. Mi quan h hm s gia trnh hc vn t c v cc yu t quyt nh ca cc trnh .

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Nh kinh t hc v gio s ti trng i hc Chicago, ng l ng tc gi ot gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1979. Nhng cng trnh ch yu ca ng thuc lnh vc kinh t nng nghip nhng ng cng c bit ti nh mt ngi tin phong trong lnh vc Vn nhn lc. Sinh trng v hc tp Vin, Schumpeter l mt mn ca WALRAS ch khng phi trng phi o. ng l ngi tin phong trong phn tch CHU K THNG MI v PHT TRIN KINH T, trong c hai tc phm ny, ch doanh nghip gi vai tr ch o, chu trch nhim cho vic sng ch. Hnh ng ca anh ta sau s b bt chc, nh vy sng ch v c th gy ra s bng n mang li. L mt tc gi c tm nhn ln, ng lp lun trong cun CH NGHA T BN, CH NGHA X HI V NN DN CH (1947) rng ch ngha t bn s nhng ch cho ch ngha x hi khng phi v n tht bi nh C.Mc lp lun m bi v thnh cng ca n. Cng trnh cui cng ca ng, n lc mt vn cha hon thnh l mt tc phm v i: Lch s phn tch kinh t (1954). Thu hay cu trc thu t c mc tiu chnh sch, thng l phi kinh t nh c lp quc gia hay s sn sng v qun s, vi chi ph ti thiu cho x hi. Nghch l ny sinh nu bc chuyn t phn b A sang phn b B th hin mt ci thin Pareto TIM NNG nhng nhng ngi chu thit thi t bc chuyn ny s thu li t khi li chuyn v A to iu kin cho h mua chuc nhng ngi c li tre li t s phn b ban u. Scitovsky lu rng vic p dng kim nh KALDOR-HICKS c th dn n quan im coi nc B hn nc A nhng c khi nc B vic p dng kim nh ny c th ch ra rng A tt hn B. Lp lun rng gio dc t c tc ng trc tip n hiu qu tng nng sut lao ng m gio dc ch yu ng vai tr ca mt b lc, hay thit b sng lc m nhm pht hin ra nhng ti nng sn c, s bn tr, ng c m ngi s dung lao ng thy hp dn. Xem BONUS ISSUE. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. Xem JOB SEARCH. Xem JOB SEARCH. Tn gi ca bt k mt quy trnh no trong c tc ng thi v c tnh n hoc thng hay c loi b khi d liu. Tht nghip do nguyn nhn t hnh thi cng vic theo thi v ca mt s nghnh. Mt cm thut ng dng ch mt nhm ln cc t chc ti chnh chuyn nhn tin gi, rt nhiu t chc trong s l chi nhnh hoc c lin quan n cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr, nh bun, ngn hng nc ngoi mc ln nhanh chng trong nhng nm 1960 v u nhng nm 1970 c tr gip bi nhng quy nh v s lng i vi cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr. Xem PRIMARY MARKET. Nhng nhm cng nhn m vic c tham gia vo lc lng lao ng khng chc chn bng nhng nhm cng nhn hng nht. nh l tnh trng tt nh do R.G.Lipsey v K.Lancaster a ra, cho rng nu mt trong nhng iu kin ca ti u PARETO khng th thc hin c th ni chung tnh th c th t c tt nht (phng n tt nht th hai) ch c th t c bng cch thot khi mi iu kin Pareto khc. Du ca o hm bc hai ca hm mc tiu ca cc bin la chn cho thy cc tr l cc i hay cc tiu. Khi nim cung trong on thut ng ny thng c hiu l tng t l tham gia vo lc lng lao ng. T "secular" ch ra rng l xu hng tnh ton cho nhng d liu di hn. Xem FINANCE CAPITAL.

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Mt thut ng dng ch mt lot cc ti sn ti chnh, v cc c phiu vin vng, c phn, v tri khon. Mt t chc c lp ca chnh ph M c thnh lp nm 1934 hot ng nh c quan iu hnh chnh ca nganh chng khon. Xem BIG BANG. Mt thut ng khc dng ch s t b i vay qua trung gian, m t vic ti tr nhng nhu cu tin t ca cng ty trc tip thng qua th trng vn v thng qua vic s dng cc cng c nh hi phiu, chp thun ca ngn hng v pht hnh tri phiu thay v vay t cc ngn hng thng mi. T xa xa v p dng i vi tin, y l mt loi thu nh vo nhng kim loi c mang n xng c tin, nhm trang tri cc chi ph c tin v l mt ngun thu cho nh cm quyn, ngi cho l mt c quyn. Mt khon vay hay lao dch ti chnh khc c ri ro thp v c mt th tc gn lin v vic kt thc khon vay v thanh ton n nn. Mt cu chm ngn truyn thng trn ngnh ngn hng ca Anh l cc hnh hc tn dng "t thanh ton" l hnh thc cho vay an ton nht cho ngn hng. Xem BIG BANG. Phng php minh ho nhng bin s kinh t c th thay i theo thi gian. L nh kinh t hc ngi Anh, hai ln c phong gio s kinh t ca Khoa kinh t chnh tr ti Oxford. ng sa i thuyt dn s ca Malthus. Tng trng dn s c th din ra m khng c s gim bt ca dn s xung ti mc c th sng c v mi th h u c c mun ci thin mc sng. Senior l ngi tiu biu cho thuyt gi tr ch quan v c gng dung ho thuyt gi tr ca Ricardo vi s phn tch ca THO DNG. Theo quan im ca Senior, king khem ni n vic hy sinh to ra vn mi. Chi ph cho s king khem gp vo gi tr hng ho. Li sut c xem nh l phn thng cho s khng tiu dng . Cng trnh ln ca Senior v kinh t hc l cng Khoa hc kinh t chnh tr (1936). Cc phng php iu chnh vic thng chc, ging chc v sa thi trong mt b phn ca hng theo mc thm nin ca ngi lao ng. Phn tch nhy cm lin quan n vic thay i cc thng s theo bi ton ra quyt nh v nghin cu xem vic thay i ny nh hng n kt qu nh th no. Trong l thuyt tiu dng, vic chia hng ho cho nhiu nhm khc nhau sao cho s thch tiu dng ca mi nhm c x l c lp vi cc nhm cn li. iu ny xy ra trong nhng cng ty c phn ln, trong nhng c phn c quyn b phiu c chia cho mt s lng ln c ng. Cn c gi l tng quan t nh. Mt bi ton kinh t lng, trong gi tr hin ti ca mt sai s trong mt phng trnh tng quan v nhng gi tr trong qu kh ca n, ch ch ra rng, mt s nh hng h thng no b loi b khi phng trnh. Vic thanh ton li cc khon li sut ca n. Trn gic kinh t, dch v l cc chc nng hoc cc nhim v c thc hin m ngi ta c cu v do to ra gi c hnh thnh nn mt th trng thch hp. Cng gi l tr cp mt vic Anh, mt phng php hp ng ci thin chi ph kinh t ca vic sa thi vnh vin bng vic bi thng cho nhng ngi lao ng b mt vic. Mt b phn ca nn kinh t m sn lng ca n khng c tnh vo con s thng k v thu nhp quc dn bi v n c giu i chnh quyn khng thy c. Vic nh gi mt hng ho hay dch v m khng c gi th trng. Gi bng ca lao ng. Xem EQUITIES.

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Mt nn kinh t trong tin tr cho ngi lao ng c gn bi mt cng thc vi doanh thu hay li nhun ca cng ty m hc lm vic. Gi th trng hin hnh ca mt n v vn c phn ca mt cng ty. Mt trong nhng nn tng ca lut chng T-rt M c thi hnh nm 1890. Lp lun cho rng chnh sch thu nhp c th nh hng n vic dch chuyn ng Phillips sang bn tri, do to ra mt mc tin lng thp hn v / hoc lm lm pht gi i vi nhng gi tr cho trc ca cc yu t quyt nh chng trc ht l mc tht nghip. Mt k thut c s dng trong phn tch tng trng kinh t khu vc trong c gng tch mt phn ca s tng trng khu vc m c th gii thch bng s pha trn cc ngnh trong khu vc (cu trc ngnh) v phn c th gii thch theo cc anh hng "khu vc" c th. Xem EFFICIENCY WAGE THEORY. Mt lp lun tng t nh lp lun c s dng trong nn kinh t c tin lng cao. Mt i biu c bu ra i din cho mt nhm cng nhn, ngi ny s thc y nhng mi quan tm ca nhng ngi lao ng trong nh my hoc phn xng nh tin cng hoc cc iu kin lm vic. Cc chng khon n, v d nh tri khon cng ty hay chng khon vin vng m thi gian n ngy thanh ton ngn, thg khng qu 5 nm. Khong thi gian trong qu trnh sn xut trong cc yu t sn xut c nh khng thay i, nhng mc s dng cc yu t kh bin c th b thay i. Xem Average cost.

Mi quan h hm s gia tiu dng v thu nhp trong khong thi gian ca chu k kinh doanh. Xem Marginal cost.

cp n nhng cng nhn lm vic t gi hn TUN LM VIC CHUN c nu trong trong hp ng lao ng ca h. Xem STANDARD INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION. Nhng trao i gia cc c nhn trong mt nhm nhm mc ch khuyn khch thc hin bn phn cho mt hoc nhiu mc tiu chung. Nhng khon tin gi ti cc ngn hng v nhng th ch nhn tin gi tng t c th chuyn i sang sc hoc c th rt bng tin mt m khng cn bo trc. L nh kinh t hc ngi M, t gii Nobel kinh t 1978 do cng trnh nghin cu i tin phonng trong qu trnh to ra quyt nh ti nhng t chc v kinh t v hng ni ring.L lun ca Simon v nhng quan st v vic ra quyt nh ti cc t chc ph hp vi thc t v to nn nn tng hu ch cho vic nghin cu thc nghim. Xem LINEAR PROGRAMMING. Mt hnh thc d on a ra mt tp hp nhng phng n d on da trn nhng gi thit khc nhau v cc tnh hung tng lai, c th l tr li cu hi "ci g s xy ra nu?", thay v cu hi "ci g s xy ra?".

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lch trong nhng c lng bng phng php bnh phng nh nht thng thng l kt qa ca nhng tc ng phn hi gia cc phng trnhkhi m hnh c d on bao gm mt tp hp nhng PHNG TRNH NG THI. Mt tp hp gm hai hay nhiu hn cc phng trnh c chung nhng bin s m gi tr ca cc bin s ny phi ng thi tho mn tt c cc phng trnh. Bn tho thun ny thuc phm vi h thng CNG NG CHU U (EC), bt u c hiu lc t 1/7/1987. SEA d nh rng cho ti cui 1992, s pht trin trong chnh sch ni b EC cn t ra mc tiu cho mt th trng duy nht, vi s di chuyn t do ca vn, lao ng, dch v v hng ho thay th cho nhng tho thun khng mang tnh phi hp tng tn ti n nm 1987.

Mt ma trn m nh thc ca n bng 0, do tnh ph thuc tuyn tnh gia mt s hng hoc ct ca n, c ngha l mt ma trn m hng ca n khng bng kch thc ca n.

Phn qu thng xuyn ring nhm mc ch tr n, hoc khu hao phn vn nm trong thit b. Mt nh nh kinh t hc ngi Thu S. Trong tc phm u tin ca ng, ng th hin mnh l ngi k tc ca Adam Smith, nhn mnh ti s kt hp hi ho v li ch, s cn thit cuat QUAN IM T DO KINH T v tnh v l ca s can thip ca chnh ph. 16 nm sau, trong cun "Nhng nguyn l mi ca Kinh t chnh tr hc" (1819), ng tht vng vi quan im t do kinh t v ng nhn mnh v nhng t nn ra i t s cnh tranh khng gii hn, c bit l sn xut tha hng ho v dch v m ng coi y trc tip l hu qu ca S PHN CNG LAO NG v sn xut quy m ln. ng cho rng khi lm vic cho bn thn mnh, cong ngi bit khi no sn xut d, cn khi lm vic cho ngi khc anh ta li khng bit. T do kinh t dn ti s chu ng cho nn phi c s can thip ca chnh ph ch o v iu ho nhng bc theo ui s giu c. Sismondi phn bc nhng sng ch ht b nhng qu trnh sn xut ang tn ti v ch ng h nhng sng ch phc v cho nhng nhu cu ang m rng. L lun ca ng th hin mt ting ni phn khng hn l mt hc thuyt v gy nh hng ti nhng nh vn x hi ch nngha sau ny. ng bao ca mt tp hp nhng NG BAO KH NNG THO DNG. Phn phi tn xut m trong cc hng thuc mt ngnh hay mt khu vc kinh t c phn chia theo quy m. Mt phn phi khng i xng xung quanh gi tr trung bnh ca n. Nhng chnh lch gia cc mc lng trung bnh ca cc nhm lao ng thot u phn loi theo ngh nghip, sau phn loi tip thnh nhng nhm k nng c th. Mt nt c trng ca cc nn kinh t k hoch ho tp trung l xu hng cc doanh nghip c gng vch ra mt k hoch nhm t c sn lng sn xut thp hn mc c th t c v/ hoc s dng nhiu u hn mc cn thit. Mt giai on i xung hoc suy thoi trong chu k kinh doanh.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi Nga v l nh nh ton hc kinh t, l gio s ti trng i hc Kiev v Vin ton hc thuc Hc vin hn lm khoa hc Lin X, danh ting c bit qua l thuyt v cu ni ting ca ng. ng cho rng l thuyt cu c th da trn khi nim tho dng theo s th t. V sau c Hicks pht trin thm, l s tha k v pht trin hc thuyt Marshall, nhng b qua gi thit mang tnh hn ch v tho dng c th lng ho c. Slutsky c nhng ng gp quan trong vo l thuyt kinh t lng, c bit l vic biu hin nhng dao ng mang tnh chu k trong nhng s bnh qun di ng ca mt chui thi gian rt ra t nhng con s ngu nhin. Thng c xc nh nh sau: Hiu ng ca gi = Hiu ng thu nhp + Hiu ng thay th.

Nh trit gia v kinh t hc Scotland, hc ti cc trng i hc Glasgow v Oxford, sau tr thnh Gio s lun l ti trng i hc Glasgow. Quan im ca ng v t chc kinh t ch yu b chi phi bi lng tin vo Quy lut t nhin, rng trong cc hin tng t nhin c tn ti mt trt t c th thy c qua quan st hoc bng cm gic o c v rng t chc x hi v php lut tch cc nn tun theo thay v i ngc li trt t ny. Tc phm nghin cu v bn cht v nguyn nhn ca ci ca cc dn tc (1766) l lun thuyt quy m ln u tin ca ng v kinh t hc, bao hm l lun v sn xut v phn phi. Mi quan tm chnh ca ng thuc v tng trng kinh t, v ng tm thy ng lc tng trng kinh t l s phn cng lao ng, tin b k thut v tch lu vn. Ngoi m hnh tng trng mnh, Smith cng nghin cu nhng vn kinh t vi m. ng cho rng GI l do chi ph sn xut quyt nh. Tin thu l do gi c quyt nh ch khng phi quyt nh gi c. Thnh tu mang tnh l lun chnh ca Smith l lt nhng vin gch u tin xy dng l thuyt phn b ngun lc hiu qu ti u trong iu kin t do cnh tranh. Ngi ta ni rng trc Smith c nhng lun bn kinh t v sau Smith th ngi ta lun bn v kinh t hc. Xem EUROPEAN MONETARY SYSTEM. Hiu ng xy ra khi gi ca mt hng ho gim xung v mt s b phn ca cng ng tng cu v hng ho ny, ng thi mt s b phn hoc c nhn khc th gim cu nhm mc ch tch bit h ra khi xu th chung. Tng nhng li ch t c t mt hnh ng hoc mt d n dnh cho bt k ngi no. Xem PUBLIC CHOICE. Mt tho thun khng thng nht (thng mang tnh gi thit hoc tng tng) gia tt c cc c nhn to nn mt x hi lin quan ti nhng nguyn tc c bn lm nn tng cho x hi vn ng. Chi ph x hi ca mt sn lng no c coi l s tin va n b phc hi tho dng ban u mt i ca bt k ngi no do hu qu ca vic sn xut ra sn lng . Mt th tc hay phng php thc hn s la chn gia cc gii php m phi c thc hin bi mt nhm hoc i din cho mt nhm cc c nhn thay v mt c nhn. y l t sut dng chit khu nhng khon u t cng cng hoc tp th. L s p dng l thuytt kinh t hc TN C IN vo chnh sch x hi. Xem BEVERIDGE REPORT. Mt thut ng dng m t hc thuyt chung cho rng quyn s hu v kim sot cc t liu sn xut - vn v t ai- phi do ton cng ng nm gi v qun l phc v tt c mi ngi. Xem LABOUR THEORY OF VALUE. Tiu chun ny quy nh rng tng nhng ng gp rng ca mt n v u t vo sn lng phi c tnh ti khi phn b ngun lc ch khng ch n thun l phn c phn b cho nhng nh u t t nhn.

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Ngi ta lp lun cch ng n nh ga nhng khon u t trong khu vc cng cng l qua vic xem xt CHI PH C HI i vi x hi bng cch chuyn hng cc ngun lc t nhng d n trong khu vc t nhn ti hn sang nhng khu vc cng cng. L s phn b ngun lc ca mt x hi, m hnh sn xut v s phn phi sn phm c th t c mc tt nht theo mt s mc tiu nh. Cm thut ng c C.Mc dng nh ngha nhng mi quan h x hi gia ngi vi ngi, pht sinh t mt tp hp c th tc nhn VT CHT C TH CA SN XUT. Li tc c u t vo gio dc vt trn bt k mc thu nhp ph no t c do c o to. T sut s thch theo thi gian ca x hi biu th t sut ti x hi sn sng chuyn i s tiu dng gia nhng khong thi gian khc nhau. Phc li x hi hoc cng ng ni chung. Ni chung phc li x hi c coi l tng phc li ca cc c nhn trong mt x hi. S biu th cc mc tiu ca x hi trong mc phc li x hi c trnh by di dng mt hm s ca cch phn b ngun lc. ng tin c t gi hi oi gim do lin tc xy ra thm ht CN CN THANH TON. Mt khon vay khng li hoc c li sut thp hn mc chi ph vn vay. Mt nh kinh t hc ngi M ot gii Nobel kinh t nm 1987 do nhng cng trnh nghin cu ca ng trong l lun v o lng v tng trng kinh t. M hnh tng trng tn c in ca Solow c tnh n kh nng thay th ca vn cho lao ng, mt nt c trng xo b c vn IM TA MONG MANH trong m hnh HARROD-DOMAR v cho php phn tch mt cch h thng nhng c tnh ca s tng trng vng chc.

Xem REGIONAL ECONOMICS. Mt yu t ca quyn lc c quyn m mt ngi bn l hay mt nh sn xut bn c do nm cch xa nhng i th cnh tranh vi mnh. Mt chin lc nh gi m trong chin lc cc cng ty bn hng cho nhng ngi tiu dng nm cch xa ngi sn xut khng t cho mi ngi tiu dng mt mc gi trang tri gi tr tng ng tng mc gi "ti cng nh my" (gi FOB) v nhng chi ph vn chuyn thc khi vn chuyn hng ho. Xem RANK CORRELATION. L hnh thi u tin ca KHU VC C TR GIP, c thnh lp Anh. Vic to ra cc khu vc c bit Scotland, Wales, v Bc Ireland l kt qu ca tnh trng tht nghip a phng ny tng cao v n cng th hin mt bc tin ng k trong CHNH SCH KHU VC ca Anh quc. Xem INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND. L mt bin php kim sot tn dng do NGN HNG ANH a ra vo nm 1958 v sau c p dng ti cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London v Scotland, sau vo nm 1971c nhn rng ra cho tt c cc ngn hng hot ng ti Anh v mt s cc T CHC TI CHNH ln. L cc vng Anh m cc hng ti cho n nm 1984 vn c t cch c hng s tr gip ti a ca chnh ph nh l mt phn ca CHNH SCH KHU VC. Tp trung hot ng vo cc dy chuyn sn xut trong mi c nhn hoc hng c c hay t c vi th mnh ring. Mt ch s thng kc tnh ton ch ra mc chuyn mn ho trn mt s lnh vc kinh t nht nh theo tng vng. Chuyn mn ha c hiu nh l nn kinh t ca khu vc c xem xt bao gm tng hp cc nghnh, khc vi trong mt quc gia, s tng hp ny ch l mt b phn.

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Kim loi qu di dng tin c. Theo quan im truyn thng v hot ng ca ch BN V VNG, mt c ch hiu chnh trong thng d hay thm ht CN CN THANH TON c xu hng b xo b bi cc dng lun chuyn vng. L cc mc T GI HI OI ca mt ng tin theo ch BN V VNG m ti vic a vng vo v ra khi quc gia u sinh li. Mt bi ton kinh t lng trong xc nh sai hnh thc lin kt cn c lng, hoc do xc nh sai dng ca hm s (v d nh TUYN TNH thay v PHI TUYN) hoc do b st cc bin s lin quan hay do thm vo cc bin s khng lin quan. Ni chung, l th thu c p dng trn mi n v sn phm ch khng phi trn gi tr ca sn phm. o to k nng nhm nng cao nng sut lao ng ca cng nhn lm vic ti hng ni cung cp o to. Mt k thut trong cc c tnh tun hon ca mt bin s c th c thit lp t s liu chui thi gian. Vic mua hoc bn nhm mc ch sau bn hoc mua v kim li khi gi c hoc t gi hi oi thay i. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. u t vo cc d n c ri ro cao nhng vi t sut li nhun hay li vn c cho l cao trong thi k kinh t tng trng mnh hoc bng n. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Mt thnh phn ca tht nghip dai dng. Xem EXTERNALITIES. Gi thuyt cho rng cc khon thanh ton lng quan trng s to ra mt hnh mu cho cc khon thanh ton sau noi theo, hoc ch t c nh hng n chng. Mt th trng trong , hng ha v tin t c bun bn giao ngay khc vi th trng tng lai hoc th trng k hn. Cc tc ng c li ca s tng trng ca mt nn kinh t, ca mt khu vc i vi cc nn kinh t, cc khu vc khc. Bi ton ny sinh khi cc bin s lin kt vi cc bc khc nhau trong mt s m hnh hi quy. Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh Thng thng c dng trong ng cnh h thng CN BNG TNG TH hay TNG PHN ch mc m gi hoc b gi ti mc CN BNG s c m bo bt k c "c sc" no xy ra n i vi h thng m tm thi lm cho gi c chuyn ng ra xa mc cn bng . Mt phng php chun tc nghin cu s bin ng trong mc hot ng kinh t. Vai tr ca chnh ph trong vic s dng cc CHNH SCH TI KHO V CHNH SCH TIN T nhm duy tr mt mc hot ng kinh t cao v u n. Mt m hnh v th trng bao gm hai hng do Stackelberg a ra. N l s m rng ca m hnh c quyn song phng COURNOT c kt hp tng ca mt nh c quyn song phng "gi dn" cng nhn rng i th cnh tranh hnh ng theo nhng gi nh Cournot. Mt t lng ca th trng chng khon ch mt ngi ng k mua cc chng khon mi vi mong i rng chng s tng gi ngay lp tc so vi gi pht hnh, v c th bn c ly li trc khi t c gi pht hnh. Xem ROSTOW MODEL. Cc thi k suy thoi v tht nghip gia tng i km vi mc LM PHT dng.

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Mt loi thu c ln u tin p dng Anh nm 1694. Nhiu loi giy t php l v thng mi phi c ng du tr th. Mt thut ng do P.SRAFFA dng tm hiu quan h gia gi c tng i vi phn phi thu nhp gia tin cng v li nhun. Mt i lng thng dng o mc m mt bin s phn tn xung quanh gi tr trung bnh ca n Mt s o mc m mt THNG K c tnh ton phn tn xung quanh TRUNG BNH ca n. S phn loi theo s cc nghnh cng nghip c p dng Anh nm 1948. Cc c s c phn b theo hng s theo mcc sn phm chnh ca c s. iu ny dn n kh khn cho vic o quy m ca nghnh, s dng gii thch cc h s tp trung. Gi l mc MC PHC LI X HI, THO DNG hay thu nhp thc t. Mc phc li vt cht ca mt c nhn hay h gia nh, thng c tnh bng s lng hnh ho v dch v c tiu dng. Cc din tch a l m nc Anh c phn chia nhm mc ch thng k v kinh t x hi khc nhau. S gi ny thng c xc nh trong cc hp ng tp th hay cc chnh sch ca cng ty v l s gi m trn mc tin cng ngoi gi c p dng. S gi lm vic ti thiu m nhn vin ng lm vic cho ng ch ca mnh trong mi tun. T cui chin tranh th gii th hai n u nhng nm 1990, s hu nh nc i vi t liu sn xut tt c cc khu vc ca nn kinh t l phng thc t chc chim u th ng u. Sn xut cng nghip c t chc thnh cc cng ty nh nc ln v "nh my lin hp" m u vo ca chng c n nh bi cc nh hoch nh trung ng. K vng rng gi tr hin ti ca mt bin s s khng thay i. Mt im trn th m dc(tc thay i) i vi BIN THIN C LP bng khng, thng l gi tr cc i hay cc tiu ca hm . Mt nn kinh t s trong trng thi tnh ti khi sn lng trong mi giai on c tiu dng ht trong giai on . Bt k mt s lng no c tnh ton di dng tm tt d liu. l vic s dng k thut thng k v dng ch cc k thut s dng trong nghin cu chi ph nh PHNG PHP K THUT V K THUT SURVIVOR Qu trnh tm kim thng tin v mt TNG TH(bao gm cc c im v THNG S v phn phi ca n) t cc mu cc gi tr quan st t mt tng th . Mt khi nim s dng trong KIM NH GI THIT ch mc m cc d liu khng thng nht vi GI THIT KHNG. Trong L THUT TNG TRNG, mt iu kin nng ng ca nn kinh t m tt c cc bin s thc u tng vi tc t l khng i. Xem COMPARATIVE DYNAMICS. Mt kiu phn tch HI QUY trong cc BIN GII THCH c cng ln lt vo phng trnh hi quy cho n khi tiu ch MC PH HP c tho mn. Ngun gc ca s phn bit c th ny sinh t nhng thng tin khng hon ho trong th trng lao ng. Vic i trng li cc tc ng tin t ca thng d hay thm ht CN CN THANH TON i vi CUNG TIN trong nc ca mt quc gia.

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Ban u khu vc ng Sterling bao gm mt nhm cc nc v vng lnh th m do c quan h ti chnh v thpng mi mnh vi Anh quc c xu hng lm n nh T GI HI OI tin t ca h vi sterling v nm mt phn hay ton b D TR NGOI T bng ng sterling. Vi s yu i lin tc trong v th quc t ca ng sterling v c bit sau cuc khng hong v ph gi nm 1967, nhiu nc thnh vin c ca "khu vc" thi khng nm d tr ca mnh bng ng sterling na, v kh c th ni rng "khu vc sterling" hin nay cn tn ti. Nh kinh t hc ngi M v danh hiu gio s xut sc Charles R. Walgreen ti trng i hc Chicago. ng c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1982 cho tc phm "Nghin cu v cu trc cng nghip, chc nng ca cc th trng, nguyn nhn v nh hng ca lut l cng cng". ng gp ca ng vo lch s t duy kinh t hc cng rt ng k, bt u vi cun sch u tay ca ng: L thuyt v sn xut v phn phi (1941) v cc bi vit ca ng v t chc cng nghip. Tuy nhin, vic ng da nhiu vo d liu thc nghip v phn tch su sc lm cho cun sch ny ca ng t ph bin. Mt bi vit c bit ca ng nhan "Kinh t hc thng tin" c Vin hn lm Thu in chn ra, bn v chi ph cn thit ca vic "tm kim" trong s cc gi c do nh cung ng khc nhau tnh cho cng mt hnh ho hay dch v. Phn tch c th c p dng i vi cc vn gi c cng nhc, s bin thin trong thi k giao hng, vic xp hng v cc ngun lc khng c s dng. Phn ln nghin cu ca ng v kinh t hc v s iu tit u nm trong tc phm Nhn dn v nh nc (1975), trong ng ku gi s dng phng php nh lng trong nghin cu v s iu tit. Chnh v c quan im ca nh kinh t hc vi m m cui i ng chuyn s ch ca mnh sang h thng chnh tr khm ph ra nhng cch m qu trnh lp php l mt yu t NI SINH ch khng phi l yu t NGOI SINH ca nn kinh t. Tun theo bin thin ngu nhin (c th phn tch v mt thng k nhng khng th d bo chnh xc c). Thng thng l mt chui s c lin quan n thi gian tun theo bin thin ngu nhin thng k. 1.VN PHT HNH ca mt cng ty hay mt t pht hnh CHNG KHON c th no , v d, do chnh ph pht hnh, c hnh thc tng hp chng c th c nm gi hay chuyn nhng vi bt k gi tr no. 2.Mt bin s m gi tr ca n khng c kha cnh thi gian (v d vn). Ngc li l LU LNG. p dng i vi cu v hng tiu dng lu bn. y l mt hm cu m trong bt k giai on no php nh mc chnh lch gia s lng thc c v mt mc hng tiu dng lu bn "ti u" mong mun. Vic tng gi tr danh ngha HNG TN KHO do tng gi c trong giai on c lin quan.(Xem NATIONAL INCOME). Mt nh trung gian mua bn chng khon v c phiu vi t cch l i l thay mt cho khch hng, n ho hng cho cng vic . Mt phng php tr c tc bng vic pht hnh thm cc c phiu thay cho vic tr bng tin mt. Mt th trng m bun bn cc chng khon ch khng phi l hi phiu hay cc cng c ngn hn khc do chnh ph, cc a phng v CC CNG TY CNG CNG pht hnh. Mt th ch m qua cc C PHN v C PHIU c mua bn. Quyn mua mt chng khon cho trc hoc bn n ti mt mc gi c c nh trc trong mt giai on. Xem INVENTORIES. S dng m hnh ca HECKSCHER-OHLIN, Stolper v Samuelson chng minh rng trn c s mt s cc gi thit hn ch, thng mi quc t nht thit lm gim tin thu thc t i vi YU T SN XUT khan him m khng nht thit phi ch ra hnh thi tiu dng ca n.

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Nh kinh t hc ngi Anh c tng gii thng Nobel v kinh t nm 1984 v nghin cu tin phong vo vic pht trin h thng TI KHON QUC GIA, c v kha cnh l thuyt v ng dng ca chng. Tc phm u tay ca ng cng vi J. E. MEADE, c phn tch kinh t v m theo trng phi KEYNES tip sc v dn n vic xut bn cun Sch trng u tin v THU NHP QUC DN v chi ph ca Anh quc nm 1941. ay l t ph ca mt phng php lun mi, v cc nguyn tc c a ra vo thi gian c nh hng ln n thng l hch ton quc gia hu ht cc nc trn th gii. Nghin cu chnh cui cng ca ng l nghiien cu trn c s d liu thc nghim i vi vn tng trung trong D n tng trung Cambridge. Cc n phm chnh ca ng l Thu nhp v chi tiu quc dn (1944), o lng chi tiu v hnh vi ca ngi tiu dng Anh 1920-1938 v v Hnh ng ca chnh ph nhm gim tng cu, v d, do thm ht CN CN THANH TON, v chng bao lu sau c km theo hnh ng vi tc dng ngc li nhm lm gim tc gia tng tht nghip do chnh sch th nht em li. Mt trong cc chc nng ca gi tr khng ging nh trong h thng hng i hng, tin t cho php ca ci hay gi tr c th tch tr c. Mt thng l i khi c s dng trong cc th tc LA CHN TP TH, trong cc c nhn khng n thun b phiu theo s thch thc s ca mnh m ni di s thch ca mnh nhm la gt nhng ngi b phiu khc, hay nhm gy nh hng i vi kt qu b phiu. Mt hnh thc h tr ln nhau gia cc tp on cng nghip nhm t bo v khi cc chin thut nh cng chn lc. C 4 thc o v mc v s nghim trng ca nh cng: S cng nhn tham gia nh cng; s cuc nh cng; s ngy cng mt i do nh cng; v t l gi lm vic mt i trong nh cng. Vic lao ng rt lui, gn lin vi b tc trong qu trnh THNG LNG TP TH, v vic tho thun hp ng lao ng mi hay v vic din gii hp ng sn c. Cc cuc nh cng c th c phn loi l: chnh thc v khng chnh thc. Xem EXOGENEITY. Xem stationarity. Dng ca mt h cc PHNG TRNH NG THI, trong cc quan h nhn qu v nh ngha gia cc BIN NI SINH c xem xt. Theo quan im ca KEYNES, hnh thc tht nghip ny l do s cng tn ti nhng khng khp nhau gia nhng ngi tht nghip v nhng ch VIC TRNG hin c. L bin php phn loi v l khun kh cho phn tch kinh t cng nghip. Phng php truyn thng l tm ra cc yu t nhn qu ni cc kha cnh ca kinh t th trng nh S TP TRUNG v CC HNG RO CN NHP NGHNH vi cc yu t thc hin kinh doanh -nh QUNG CO v NGHIN CU V TRIN KHAI - v kt qu hot ng. Xem TERM STRUCTURE OF INTEREST RATES. Mi nc c mt h thng cc loi thu khc nhau. C cu ca h thng thu ch hn hp ny. Khon thanh ton ca chnh ph (hay bi cc c nhn) to thnh mt khon m gia gi m ngi tiu dng phi tr v chi ph ngi sn xut sao cho gi thp hn CHI PH BIN. Mc tiu dng ti thiu cn c tn ti. Khi nim ny c cc nh KINH T HC C IN dng gii thch mc tin cng di hn. Mt mc chi tiu cn thit duy tr mc tn ti hay mc sng "sng st". Xem IRON LAW OF WAGES. Mt hng ho c th c thay th cho mt hng ho khc hoc mt u vo c th c thay th cho mt u vo khc.

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Tc ng i vi cu v mt hng ho no khi c mt s thay i trong gi c ca hng ho vi gi thit thu nhp thc t khng i. Hiu ng thay th lun lun m, ngha l khi gi c tng th lng cu gim. Tng cc gi tr bnh phng ca mt dy cc gi tr quan st ca mt bin s, thng thng l cc gi tr sai lch so vi gi tr TRUNG BNH. Chi ph khng th thu hi c khi mt hng rt khi nghnh ca mnh. Mt tnh th trong cc c lng BNH PHNG NH NHT THNG THNG hi t nhanh hn v gi tr tng th thc s ca chng khi kch thc mu tng ln hn l trong trng hp nht qun. Ch cc yu t nm ngoi tm kim sot ca mt hng "i in" trong di hn. Xem NORMAL GOODS. Tin c cho l c tnh cht ny nu mt thay i trong tc tng trng cung tin khng c tc ng n tc tng trng ca SN LNG THC T trong di hn. Tng ng vi nh ngha li nhun, s khc bit ch hon ton l ch ngha. Cc hng trong mt nghnh to ra doanh thu to qu ton b cc chi ph c hi thng c gi l kim c siu li nhun. Chi tiu i vi mt hng ho hay nhm hng ho vt qu mc ti thiu hay mc CHI TIU TN TI. Khon thanh ton duy tr thu nhp m c lc to thnh mt phn ca h thng an sinh x hi ca Anh quc. Cc khon thanh ton c tr cho nhng ngi khng c vic lm ng thi khng i hc chnh quy v nhng ngi m ngun lc ti chnh ca h t hn mt mc tnh ton v "nhu cu". Mt hnh thc kim sot hot ng cho vay v nhn tin gica cc ngn hng v mt s cng ty ti chnh ln hn c ngn hng Anh p dng 1973 nh mt b sung ln cho h thng kim sot tn dng p dng nm 1971 nhng b bi b nm 1980. th th hin quan h gia cung mt hng ho v gi ca n. Cung gi hay cung n lc thng c coi l ng ngha. Quy c ny c l khi n lc trong cng vic c kim sot trong cng ngh. Trong thc t u vo thi gian bng nhau c th c gi tr nng sut rt khc nhau. Mc d tc tng trng ca CUNG TIN c coi l yu t quyt nh trc tip chnh ca LM PHT. S lao ng cung cp cho nn kinh t ch yu c quyt nh bi s lng dn tui lm vic. Mt trng phi t duy nhn mnh rng yu t quyt nh chnh i vi tc tng trng sn phm quc dn c trong ngn hn v di hn l vic phn b v s dng hiu qu lao ng v vn trong nn kinh t. Bt k n v kinh t no m ti sn nhiu hn n v do vy sn sng cho vay, cp tn dng hay mua cc cng c ti chnh. C.MC p dng THUYT GI TR LAO NG i vi lao ng vi ngha l gi tr ca ton b lc lng lao ng bng s lng gi lm vic cn sn xut ra s hng ho duy tr s nguyn vn ca lc lng lao ng. Trong cuc tranh ci xung quanh CUC TRANH LUN V T BN, khi nim v hm sn xut m ch c mt s thay th no gia vn v lao ng trong di hn c a vo vi mc ch cho php s dng cc hm cu dn sut cho cc lc lng sn xut trong nghin cu kinh t lng. Mt phng php thng k nhm tm ra QUY M NH NHT HIU QU CA HNG HAY NH MY, c da trn nim tin rng trong th trng cnh tranh nhng hng, nh my no sng st tt nht trn th trng l nhng hng, nh my co chi ph nh nht. Vic ti a ho li ch rng ca pht trin kinh t km theo vic duy tr dch v v cht lng ca ti nguyn thin nhin trong di hn . Mt phng php tng tnh chuyn hon c pht trin trong nhng nm 1960 bng vic hon i cc ng tin .

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Nh kinh t hc Mcxt ngi M, l ngi ng sng lp tp ch Monthly Review. ng c bit n nhiu nht do cng vic din gii v trnh by Thuyt kinh t ca C.Mc theo cch cho php so snh vi Thuyt kinh t hc hin i. ng l lun rng v bn cht c Mc v Keynes u phn tch s xut hin ca tht nghip theo cng mt cch. Tc phm: T bn c quyn: Bi lun v trt t v kinh t x hi M(1966) vit cng vi Paul Baran gii thch li thuyt kinh t ca Mc di nh sng ca cc din bin trong kinh t Th Gii th k XX. Baran v Sweezy thay th quy lut v t l thng d kinh t so vi tng sn phm ngy cng tng cho quy lut c ca Mc v t l li nhun ngy cng gim. Cn gi l c lng vi y thng tin. Mt c lng dng c lng ton b cc tham s trong mt h phng trnh ng thi cng mt lc, v c tnh n s tng quan gia cc s d ca cc phng trnh khc nhau. L bn sa i vo nm 1947 ca LUT QUAN H LAO NG QUC GIA (cn gi l lut Wagner), c a ra nhm hn ch quyn lc ca cng on. Thu nhp c th s dng; thu nhp th tr thu v ng gp bo him x hi. Xem ROSTOW MODEL. Vc mt cng ty "Tn cng" mua hn 51% c phiu c quyn b phiu mt cng ty khc . N lc ca mt c nhn, mt nhm ngi, hay mt cng ty nhm mua c phiu c quyn b phiu mt cng ty khc. Cc ti sn vt cht nh nh my, my mc, c th c phn bit vi ti sn v hnh nh gi tr ca mt bng pht minh hay ting tm ca mt cng ty.

H thng m chng khon vin vng c th mua c t c quan mi gii chnh ph mua trn s giao dch chng khon London. Cn gi l mc tiu chnh sch. L mt lot cc mc tiu nh lng ca chnh sch kinh t phi t c bng vic la chn cc gi tr ca CNG C CHNH SCH. Thu nh vo mt hng ho nhp khu mt quc gia. Vic thay i a im sn xut mt hng ho t mt ni c gi thnh thp ti mt ni c gi thnh cao mt nc khc- ni m khng th bn mt hng ny c do thu quan cao. Hnh thi ton b ca cc mc thu quan. Qu trnh mc c qua im cn bng t c trn th trng Walras. Tng thu nhp tr i cc khon tr cp v cc khon cng tc ph . Cc khon thanh ton m chnh ph bt buc cc c nhn v cng ty phi np nhm huy ng ngun thu tr cho cc chi ph v hng ho cng cng v dch v, v kim sot lng chi ph ca khu vc t nhn trong nn kinh t. Xem TAXABLE INCOME. Xem AVERAGE RATE OF TAX. y l khon ghi c trc tip i vi mt loi thu: khon thu phi tr c gim i bng khon ghi c. Mt chng trnh DUY TR THU NHP, trong mi ngi c bo m mt khon thu nhp ti thiu trong khi thu nhp trn mc s b nh thu. THU THU NHP c th lm cho ngi ta lm vic t hn. S tn ti ca n lm cho gii tr hp dn hn v n khng chu thu. iu ny c gi l HIU NG THAY TH ca thu. Cm thut ng dng ch cc khon khu tr m c dng gim ngha v np thu - ni chung l ngha v np thu thu nhp. Lm pht ny lin quan n quan tm ca cng nhn trong vic duy tr mc tng tin cng thc t sau thu v l mt trong cc yu t b cho l lm thay i trong tin cng km nhy bn vi cc iu kin ca chiu k kinh doanh.

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HIn tng m trong nhng ngi phi chu thu c th chuyn gnh nng mt phn hay ton b cho nhng ngi khc. Doanh thu c c t mt loi thu. (Cng cn goi l phn phi Student). Mt PHN PHI XC SUT thng c dng trong KIM NH GI THIT i vi cc mu nh v trong PHNG SAI ca bin s lin quan phi c c lng t d liu thu c. Mt yu t trung tm trong TNG TRNG KINH T cho php sn xut ra mc sn lng cao hn so vi s lng u vo lao ng v vn khng i. Qu trnh kt hp cng nghip nng cn nhiu vn vi cc phng php cn nhiu lao ng ni khc s dng lao ng tha. Mt cch gi khc ca ngoi ng. Tnh t "cng ngh" c a vo phn bit cc hiu ng nh vy vi TNH KINH PH THUC BN NGOI. Hu ht cc l thuyt pht trin kinh t nhn mnh s cn thit ca tin b k thut, v thng s gia tng trong tc tin b k thut c khi i hi s tng tc. Tht nghip xy ra do p dng thit b tit kim lao ng khi nn kinh t tng trng. Mt kha cnh then cht ca chin lc pht trin l vic la chn k thut. cc nc ang pht trin, mc sn c ca cc yu t thng ngc li ch vn th khan him v t cn lao ng th tha, r. Trong phn tch u vo - u ra, mt ma trn (thng c k hiu l An) m phn t th ij (ngha l phn t hng i v ct j) cho bit gi tr ca sn lng nghnh i c s dng nh mt u vo ngay lp tc trong vic sn xut ra mt n v u ra ca ngnh j ca nn kinh t. Theo ngha rng nht l s trao i gia cc nc v kin thc s tn ti v vn hnh ca cc loi my mc v trong nhiu trng hp l s trao i ca bn thnh my mc. Lp hc qun l v k nng hoch nh v k thut m sn xut cng nghip hin i i hi. Cc nhn vin b gii ch sa thi nhng bit rng h c th tr li cng vic ca mnh vo lc no trong tng lai gn. Khon cho vay ngn hng trong mt s nm c nh, thng l ba n nm nm hoc lu hn, vi mc li xut c nh, v thng c tr gp thnh cc phn nh tri di trong sut mt thi k. Quan h gia gi hng xut khu v gi hng nhp khu. C cu hay quan h gia cc li sut, hay ni mt cch cht ch hn tng li tc lc o hn, trn cc chng khon c k hn khc nhau. Mc li xut m mt thi c dng trong vic thm nh U T T BN bi cc ngnh cng nghip quc hu ho Anh, s dng k thut chit khu lung tin. Tiu tri ny tr nn lc hu trong mt s nm. Do vy, ngi ta chuyn s ch sang cc phng php khc xem xt chi ph vn trong cc quyt nh u t, v chnh ph yu cu cc ngnh cng nghip quc hu ho c c li tc trc thu l 5% (8% k t nm 1989) i vi tt c cc khon u t mi (ch khng phi l i vi cc d n n l). Mt thng k c tnh cho kim nh gi thit. Tc ng m gii ch phi nghip on tr tin cng nghip on, hay xp s nh vy, hng ngn chn vic thnh lp nghip on ca nhn vin mnh. Xem NASH SOLUTIONS (3SLS hay Th SLS). Mt gi tr ca h cc c lng theo phng php bnh phng nh nht p dng i vi vic c lng cc thng s ca h phng trnh ng thi, m trong cc h s nhiu c th tng quan vi cc phng trnh.

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im m bn ngoi s c thay i trong hnh vi ca tc nhn kinh t, v d nh mt ngng i vi k vng gi c, c ngha l k vng s khng lin tc c thay i di nh sng ca cc bng chng tch t, nhng s c thay i trong cc khong thi gian khi tc thay i gi vt qu mt im no . Mt k thut dng trong hoch nh vt cht tm ra quy m mong mun ca cng ng v vic cung cp cc dch v cng cng. S tng mc thu m mt cng ng c cho sn l sn sng tr do c khng hong hay khn cp quc gia. Trong kinh t hc khu vc, dn s ti thiu c th to mt th trng cho mt hng ho hay dch v. Khi dn s ca mt khu vc (nh mt th trn) di mc ngng, cu i hng ho s thp n mc m vic cung cp hng ho s khng kh thi v mt kinh t. Von Thunen - nh kinh t hc nng nghip ngi c a ra m hnh l thuyt da trn kinh nghim canh tc nhm tm ra v tr ti u i vi mt loi cy trng no , c bit v khong cch t trung tm c nhu cu i n. ng a ra thuyt TIN THU T tng t vi thuyt ca Ricardo, v thuyt phn phi da trn nng sut bin. Vic ng dng nng sutbin vo tin cng v vn, s dng cc o hm v lgich cn bin nhm tm ra cc nghim cn bng cho cc bin s kinh t, v tuyn b ca ng v quy lut T L BIN THIN cho php ng ta c bit n nh nh sng lp ra phn tch bin. A.MARSHALL ca ngi ng gp ln ca ng. Mt phn tch vic cung cp HNG HO CNG CNG lp lun rng nu mt s dch v cng cng no c chnh quyn a phng cung cp th cc c nhn c th th hin s thch ca mnh v cc dch v ny v c c mt kt hp ca dch v cng ngh v thu tng ng vi s thch ca h bng vic di chuyn gia cc a phng. Mt bin php ca chnh sch tin t khi m cung cp tn dng b hn ch v li sut mc cao. M hnh thi gian gii tr truyn thng v cung gi gi nh rng ton b thi gian c phn b hoc lm vic kim tin hoc cho gii tr. Khon tin gi mt ngn hng m ch c th c rt ra sau khi c thng bo trc. Cc c nhn c mc s thch theo thi gian dng nh gi cc n v tiu dng hay thu nhp hin ti cao hn cc n v trong tng lai. Mt chui cc gi tr quan stm mt bin nhn cc thi im khc nhau (thng l trong cc giai on k tip nhau). Xem VARIABLE PARAMETER MODELS. Nh kinh t hc H LAN cng vi R.FRISCH c trao gii Nobel kinh t nm 1969 v nghin cu tin phong trong kinh t lng. Nghin cu u tay c ni n nhiu nht l nghin cu v bin ng chu k M, m trong ng c gng ch ra theo cch nh lng tm quan trng ca cc yu t khc nhau trong ch k kinh doanh M. Mt tc phm c nh hng khc ca Tinbergen l L thuyt v chnh sch kinh t nh mc tiu chnh sch. ng c ng gp quan trng vo khi nim GI "BNG". Nh kinh t hc ngi M, gio s kinh t ti i hc Yale; c trao gii Nobel kinh t v nghin cu trong "L thuyt v th trng ti chnh v quan h ca n vi quyt nh tiu dng v u t; sn xut, vic lm v gi c". Nghin cu c ngha nht ca ng l v la chn danh mc u t, trong ng nhn mnh s nh i gia ri ro v li tc trong mt lot cc ti sn, bao gm c tin, c th c coi l ti thit lp li s tn trng tri thc ca t tng Keynes v s a thch thnh khon. Hu ht cc nghin cu ca ng c trnh by trong cc tp tr hay cc b su tp ch khng c trnh by trong cc cun sch v mt ch n l.

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M hnh kinh t ni ting nht v di c trong nc cc nc ang pht trin. Tc gi l Miche Todaro - nh kinh t hc ngi M tng lm vic Chu Phi. M hnh ny gii thch hin tng di c t nng thn ra thnh th cao hu ht cc nc ang pht trin l hp l xt t quan im kinh t. im quan trng l c mc chnh lc ln gia thu nhp khu vc cng nghip hin i v thu nhp nng thn.Thng thng, thu nhp khu cng nghip trn mc cn bng th trng v mt s l do. Cu tr li di hn cho cc vn l to ra cc chnh sch c thnh th v nng thn gim mc chnh lch trong thu nhp thc t gia hai khu vc. Mi loi tin no m gi tr ca n vi t cch lm phng tin thanh ton da vo cc quy nh ca php lut, v d, mt ng tin php nh, hay da vo s chp nhn truyn thng, v gi tr ca n khng c quan h g vi gi tr vt lm ra tin. Vng m phn thng mi a phng, t chc di s bo tr ca HIP NH CHUNG V THU QUAN V MU DCH (GATT) din ra Tokyo t 1973-1979. Vng m phn Tokyo gii quyt cc vn cn tr thng mi thu quan v phi thu quan. Tng chi ph sn xut ra mt sn lng xc nh. Tng cc li ch bng tin m ngi cng nhn nhn c t vic lm ca mnh. Tng thu t vic bn mt hay nhiu sn phm ca mt hng hay mt nghnh. Vic trao i hng ho gia cc c nhn hay cc nhm hoc trc tip thng qua HNG I HNG, hoc gin tip qua mt phng tin thanh ton nh tin. Trn th trng chit khu Lodon, mt hi phiu pht hnh ti tro mt giao dch thng mi thc s nh trang tri cho giai on vn ti hng, v m vn cha c mt ngn hng chp nhn , khi c gi l HI PHIU NGN HNG. Vic thay th trong thng mi quc t ngun sn xut c chi ph cao hn bng ngun chi ph thp hn do thay i trong thu quan, hay hn ngch hay cc hng ro thng mi khc trn c s a l, nh to lp mt lin minh thu quan. Tn dng do mt nh bun hay nh sn xut cung cp cho khch hng ca mnh qua cc iu khon bn hng cho php thanh ton vo mt thi gian no sau khi thc s giao hng ho. Cng cn gi l chu k kinh doanh hay chu k kinh t. S bin ng trong mc hot ng kinh t (thng th hin di dng thu nhp quc dn) to thnh mt hnh thi u n, vi vic m rng hot ng theo mt qu trnh thu hp, sau l tip tc m rng. Mu thun gia cc mc tiu chnh sch vi kt qu l mt mc tiu ch c th t c vi vic hy sinh mt mc tiu khc. Xem AGRICULTURAL SECTOR, DUALISM, THEORY OF, INFORMAL SECTOR, LEWIS-FEI-RANIS MODEL. Tn phin bn ca Newcomb v Fisher v THUYT NH LNG TIN. Xem MONEY, THE DEMAND FOR. Cc chi ph khng phi gi pht sinh trong khi trao i hng ho v dch v. Mt ng c i hi c tin phc v mc ch giao dch, ngha l thanh ton v nhn thanh ton, s dng tin vi chc nng ca n l phng tin trao i. Xem Transactions demand for money, Transactions balances, Money, the demand for. Xem INCOME VELOCITY OF CIRCULATION. Xem TRANSLOG PRODUCTION FUNCTION.

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Mt n v tin t k ton do Lin X a ra nm 1963 cho vic thanh ton s d thng mi gia cc nc trong hi ng tng tr kinh t. Chi ph lin quan n vic vn chuyn hng ho t a im ny n a im khc bao gm cc chi ph trc tip ca vic di chuyn m thay i vi khong cch di chuyn (v do vy c th gi l "chi ph khong cch"), v ton b chi ph xp hng, d hng, x l v qun l mi u ca hn trnh. Mt chng t m qua quyn s hu CHNG KHON c chuyn giao theo ngha php l t ngi bn sang ngi mua. Xem ECONOMIC RENT. Thu nhp khng th coi l thanh ton cho dch v hn ti v do vy khng to thnh mt phn ca thu nhp quc dn. Cng ngh l mt yu t chnh trong vic thc y TNG TRNG KINH T. Vic chuyn giao cng ngh khng thch hp c th lm mo m hnh thi pht trin, dn ti vic sn xut cc sn phm khng thch hp. Khon thanh ton (thng do chnh ph) cho mt c nhn m khng to thnh mt phn ca vic trao i hng ho v dch v. H thng n nh gi cho cc giao dch gia cc cng ty con ca mt cng ty a quc gia, trong gi khng ph thuc vo yu t th trng. Thut ng trong kinh t hc quc t v vic liu mt nc, phi bi thng cho mt nc khc, v d tin sa cha, phi gnh nng qu mc hay th cp, ngha l gnh nng hn tc thanh ton, m thc hin vic chuyn giao bng vic kim c khon thng d trn thanh ton quc t. Xem PRODUCTION FRONTIER. Bi ton trong kinh t hc C.Mc nhm tm ra mt b gi duy nht t cc gi tr, ngha l u vo lao ng. Xem AXIOMS OF PREFERENCE. S tng hay gim khng d tnh trong tiu dng. Thu nhp khng d tnh. Khon thu hay l bt thng. Hm sn xut tru tng dng l-ga-rt.L dng tng qut ca hm sn xut COBBDOUGLAS. Cc a im m ti vn ti thay i t loi ny sang loi khc. Mt b trong chnh ph Anh kim sot chnh sch kinh t v chi tiu cng cng. Mt b trong chnh ph M qun l hu ht vic thu ngn sch, sn xut tin kim loi v tin giy v thi hnh mt s lut l. Mt phng tin vay ngn hn ca chnh ph Anh c a vo nm 1877 v vo thi gian l m hnh theo hi phiu thng mi. m cng c cng c tng ng. Tn phiu b ti chnh M do b ti chnh pht hnh c thi hn ba, su, chn v mi hai thng. Cc chng khon ny l s u t khng c ri ro, nhng vn c ri ro trn th trng th cp trc khi o hn, bi v gi bin ng vi thay i trong li xut th trng. y l chng khon khng bun bn ngn hn (6 thng) c chnh ph Anh p dng nm 1940 vi t cch l cng c ti chnh thi chin, v bn ra gi tr hng tun nh cho ngn hng. Loi chng khon ny gim dn v b loi b vo nm 1953. T nm 1942-51, H THNG D TR LIN BANG M nng gi tri phiu chnh ph M nhm to thun li cho vic vay mn ca chnh ph lin bang. Nm 1952 D tr lin bang v B ti chnh k mt "tho thun" - gii phng D tr lin bang khi trch nhim mua tri phiu. Xem CURRENCY NOTE. Mt quan im ca b ti chnh Anh vo u th k XX cho rng chi tiu b sung ca chnh ph s c cn bng bi vic suy gim trong t nhn. Xem EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

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Cn gi l xu hng theo thi gian. 1)Thnh phn di hn, c s trong d liu CHUI THI GIAN, thng c tnh th hin hng vn ng di hn ca mt bin s. 2)Mt s o mc trung bnh ca mt i lng kinh t ti mt thi im no . Cc hm c nh ngha bi cc tnh cht trong mt tam gic vung bao gm sin, cosin v tang. Mt kim nghim gi thuyt ca th trng lao ng NH NGUYN rng c ch quyt nh tin cng khc nhau gia khu vc "th nht" v "th hai" ca th trng lao ng, khu vc th nht tr cho VN NHN LC, khu vc th hai tr cho nhng ngi va khng c kinh nghim v khng c hc vn. Vi t cch l mt thut ng ca lut hc, thut ng ny p dng cho cc tho thun c php lut quy nh khc nhau m theo ti sn thuc v mt c nhn hay nhm ngi c t trong tay nhng ngi u thcm, tu thuc vo lo trt, c th thc s qun l chng v li ch ca nhng ngi ch s hu ti sn . Mt thng k tun theo phn phi T. Thng k t thng c dng trong kim nh gi thit xc nh MC NGHA THNG K ca cc tham s trong cc m hnh kinh t lng, v c tnh bng t s gia gi tr tham s c tnh v sai s chun ca n. im trong chu k kinh doanh khi TRNG THI M RNG ca chu k c thay th bng trng thi thu hp hoc ngc li. im nh v im y c goi l cc bc ngot. Xem TOTAL REVENUE. i khi c goi l thu theo t. y l loi hnh ban u ca thu doanh thu. Ngi ta nhn thy nhc im ca thu ny v trong nhng nm gn y nhiu nc i sang loi thu khng c nhc im ny. Mt loi nh trong thuyt tng trng lin quan n s gn gi ca cc ng tng trng ti u vi tng trng cn bng vi tc cao nht. Xem INCOMES POLICY. Mt mo hnh dng trong thuyt tng trng, trong s khc bit c bn gia hng tiu dng v hng t liu sn xut c cng nhn, vi mt khu vc c quan tm n mi mt trong hai hng ho ny. Mt phng php kinh t lng c lng cc tham s dng c cu ca h phng trnh ng thi, trong trnh s thin lch ca phng trnh ng thi. Mt iu kin bn hng i hi ngi mua mt sn phm no phi mua thm mt sn phm khc, thng l b sung cho sn phm u tin. Cc loi sai s c th phm trong kim nh gi thit. Mt cng ty m mi quyt nh u do mt ban iu hnh ban ra. Mt th tc la chn tp th m i hi rng trc khi mt chnh sch c chp nhn, n phi c mi thnh vin ca cng ng b tc ng bi quyt nh ny thng qua. L phn lm pht c tht m con ngi khng d kin; trong thc t tr i lm pht k vng. Xem BALANCED ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH PATH. Xem BEST LINEAR UNBIASED ESTIMATOR. Xem PAID-UP CAPITAL. L mt tnh hung m trong kh nng xut hin ca mt s kin s khng c bit, c ngha l khng c phn phi xc sut gn vi kt cc. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL.

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Trong mt ch t gi hi oi linh hot khi cc nh u t bng quan vi ri ro v khng t bo v h khi nhng ri ro ca t gi trong TH TRNG K HN, yu cu rng gi giao ngay trong tng lai ca mt ng ting khc vi gi giao ngay hin ti bng mt lng va ng lm i trong vi mc chnh lch li sut gia hai quc gia. Xem UNITED NATIONS CONFE-RENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT. Xem Dated securities Mt cm thut ng dng ch cc nc ang pht trin; nhng hin nay gi y ngi ta t dng cm thut ng ny m dng cc thut ng khc t mang tnh mit th hn. Xem DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. L hnh nh phn chiu ca nhng cng nhn qu dng. Cng nhn phim dng l ngi coi gi tr ca thu nhp cao hn gi tr ca ngh ngi hn so vi cc cng nhn bnh thng. Theo gi thit th trng lao ng Nh nguyn, th trng lao ng cp hai bao gm nhiu cng nhn, nhng ngi c tay ngh gip h c th hon thnh cng vic trong th trng cp mt, hoc l nhng ngi c th c o to thnh cng nhn c tay ngh cao vi chi ph thp hn so vi mc trung bnh. c xem nh khng c nhn dng. Xem IDENTIFICATION PROBLEM. Trong mt h thng t gi hi oi c nh, mt ng tin c sc mua ngang gi to ra thng d cn cn thanh ton dai dng. L ngi ng chu s ri ro hoc mt phn ri ro v i li c nhn mt khon gi l ph bo him. L mt t l li nhun c gi li khng phn chia cho cc c ng di dng c tc cng nh khng dng tr cc khon thu. L cc ngun thu ngoi tin lng, tin cng thng l cc ngun li nhun hoc tin li hoc tin cho thu. L nhng ngi lao ng khng c vic lm, bao gm c nhng ngi ang trong giai on tm vic lm mi hoc nhng ngi khng th tm c vic lm vi ng lng thc t hin hnh. Khon thanh ton cho mt c nhn tht nghip. nh trung tm ca Keynes trong cun L thuyt tng qut rng ngay c khi tin cng v gi c hon ton linh hot nh c gi nh trong thuyt c in, nn kinh t vn khng lun lun tr v im y vic lm. Anh, l t l ngi trong lc lng lao ng khng c vic lm v tch cc tm kim vic lm. Ni mt cch chnh xc theo quan im ca C.Mc, l s trao i sn phm ca cc nn kinh t pht trin vi gi cao hn gi tr lao ng ca chng. Mt k thut thm nh d n cc nc ang pht trin v l mt phin bn ca phng php LITTLE-MIRRLEES. Gim hng tn kho do mc bn hng tng ln khng d tnh trc hay do gim st trong sn xut. Tng hng tn kho do cc n t hng d tnh khng thnh hin thc. T l lc lng lao ng tham gia cng on thay i mnh gia nhng cc nghnh v gia cc nc do khc bit trong chi ph v li ch ca vic tham gia cng on. Sc mnh ca cng on i vi th trng l mt hm ca co gin ca cu pht sinh i vi lao ng cng on. Chnh lch ny o mc m cc cng on tng tin lng ca thnh vin so vi lao ng khng tham gia cng on tng ng. Xu hng ca cc cng on tham gia i tng lng, ngha l tm trng thch hnh ng tranh u.

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Mt tho thun theo ngi cng nhn phi tham gia cng on trong mt thi k nh sau khi bt u lm vic. Ni chung c dng trong thuyt cn bng tng qut ch s tn ti ca mt b gi cn bng th trng c nht. Php kim nh xc nh xem liu mt chui thi gian l tnh ti v chnh lch hay khng. Mt c quan c bit c hi ng bo an Lin hp quc thnh lp nm 1966 thc y tng trng kinh t cc nc ang pht trin bng vic b sung cc ngun h tr vn hin c vi cc khon cho vay v vin tr; ch yu ti tr cc d n pht trin nng thn quy m nh m khng th c c ngun ti chnh no khc do khng c ti sn th chp hay khng c uy tn tn dng i vi bn vay. Hi ngh c triu tp ln u tin vo nm 1964, hin nay l mt b phn vnh cu ca i hi ng bo an v sau hp vo nm 1968. 1972, 1976, 1979, 1983 v 1987. Tt c cc thnh vin ca lin hp quc hay ca cc c quan chuyn mn ca h l thnh vin ca hi ngh v n c mt ban chp hnh v mt ban th k vnh vin. Nm 1966, chng trnh H tr ti chnh m rng ca Lin hp quc v qu c bit ca Lin hp quc c sp nhp to nn chng trnh pht trin ca lin hp quc, c quan c bit ca Lin hp quc chu trch nhim qun l v iu phi cc d n pht trin v h tr k thut c cung cp di s bo tr hay lin lc vi h thng cc c quan pht trin ca Lin hp quc. c thnh lp vo nm 1966, l mt c quan c bit ca Lin hp quc sau ngh quyt ca hi ng bo an, t chc ny cung cp h tr k thut nhm thc y cng nghip ho cc nc ang pht trin. Xem Money. Xem CUSTOMS, EXCISE AND PROTECTIVE DUTIES. Mt cm thut ng dng Anh ch mt th ch, ging nh mt c quyn u t, m to iu kin cho cc nh u t phn tn ri ro bng vic mua c phn trong mt danh mc chng khon. Do s giao dch chng khon London (l c quan qun l) thnh lp nm 1980, USM l mt th trng t t chc hn so vi s giao dch chng khon. Xem FINANCIAL CAPITAL. T l lm pht m khng i km theo vi mt t l gia tng tng t trong cung tin. Mt nhnh ca kinh t hc p dng cc cng c nh t duy vo phn tch hot ng kinh t v cc vn kinh t thnh th. Tit kim chi ph ny sinh khi cc hot ng kinh t c tp trung cc khu vc th. Gi tr thu dch v vn, hay gi m mt hng phi tr cho vic s dng dung lng vn m n s hu hay xem xt mua. Mt s phn bit, m lm ch tho lun t thi AISTOTLE n C.Mc, gia tho dng c c t hng ha v gi c ca n. Cc ng miu t bng cc no chi ph trung bnh ca mt hng hay mt nghnh thay i vi mc sn lng. c hiu rng ri trong kinh t hc nh l ng ngha vi "phc li", PHC LI KINH T ,s tho mn v i khi l hnh phc. Mt hm cho rng tho dng ca mt c nhn ph thuc vo hng ho v s lng hng ho m ngi tiu. Thut g chnh tr v trit hc miu t cc thuyt ca BENTHAM v cc cng s ca ng, nhng ngi ly nguyn tc hnh phc ln nht ca s ng nht lm tiu tr nh gi hnh ng. Nhu cu ca gii ch cn thu thm lao ng. Mt ch s v cu lao ng ti mc tin cng hin hnh.

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Lm pht c cho php tn ti v chnh ph cho php cung tin m rng vi cc tc nh lm pht. Xem GROWTH - VALUATION FUNCTION. T s gia th gi c phn ca hng, V, vi gi tr s sch ti sn ca n, K. Mt trong cc chc nng ca tin l vai tr tiu chun gi tr. Ngha l n to mt h thng n v k ton m qua gi c c biu hin v cc khon tr chm nh n c xc nh. Ga tr ni ti ca mt hng ho. Gi tr sn lng ca mt hng tr i gi tr u vo n mua t cc hng khc. V mt khi nm y l loi thu da trn gi tr gia tng trong mt quc gia. Mt nhn nh m ni chung c th c tm tt l "X l tt (hay xu)". Cm thut ng ch quan gy nhiu nhm ln trong kinh t hc. Xem MARGINAL REVENUE PRODUCT. Trong hc thuyt ca C.Mc, vn kh bin m ch phn vn, i din bi sc lao ng, m lm thay i gi tr trong qu trnh sn xut. Chi ph bin i vi mc sn lng, v d chi ph lao ng. y l dng tng qut ca CO GIN KHNG I CA HM SN XUT THAY TH cho php co gin ca thay th bin i vi t s yu t u vo. Chi ph thu mn cng nhn thay i t l thun hay hn t l thun vi s gi lm vic. Cc m hnh kinh t lng, trong cc thng s v dn s cn c c lng, c gi nh l bin s, khng ging nh trong phn tch hi quy m trong cc thng s c coi l c nh. Mt s o c s dng ph bin o mc m mt bin s ngu nhin (hoc mt thng k) phn tn xung quanh gi tr ttrung bnh ca n. Ma trn phng sai v cc hip phng sai. ca mt dy cc bin s ngu nhin cng phn phi, phng sai to nn ng cho, trong khi hip phng sai l cc ct v cc dng lin quan. Xem VARIANCE, ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE, SUM OF SQUARES. Veblen, Thorstein B. l nh kinh t hc v x hi hc ngi M, Gio s kinh t ti trng i hc Chicago t 1892. L nh sng lp ra KINH T HC TH CH, ng rt ph phn khi nim khoi lc v nguyn t trong kinh t hc TN C IN. tng ca ng v khoa hc kinh t l s tm hiu v pht trin cc th ch kinh t. i vi Veblen, th ch kinh t khng hn g thi v o c m chng tm lc. Nhiu thut ng ca Veblen m ng dng ch giai cp gii tr trong thi k ng sng tr thnh ting Anh thng dng ngy nay. Khng ging quan im ca Marx v mu thun gia giai cp T sn v V sn, Veblen tm thy mu thun gia "cc vic lm tin ti" v "cc vic lm cng nghp", tc l lm ra tin v lm ra hng ho. i vi Veblen, mu thun l gia cc nh doanh nghip, nhng ngi kim sot ti chnh ca cng nghip v quan tm n li nhun, v cc k s v lc lng lao ng, l nhng ngi quan tm n hiu qu c th v th cht. Mu thun gia hai nhm ngi ny ny sinh t mong munca gii k s v lao ng mun i mi, v do vy lin tc ph hu gi tr t bn m gii doanh nhn s hu. Hin tng trong khi gi c ca mt hng ho gim i th mt s ngi tiu dng cho rng hng ho gim cht lng v khng mua n na. Mt dy s hay phn t mt chiu c th t m c th vit ngang (vct dng) hay dc (vc t ct). Mt trong nhng k thut d bo s dng rng ri nht trong kinh t hc. Nh vi hu ht cc phng php chui thi gian n thun khc, n c cho l trung lp i vi bt k mt thuyt kinh t c th no. Trong cc trung tm bun bn ngoi hi ln, hu ht mi giao dch c thc hin vi mt s ng tin ch cht, nhng ngi nm gi cc loi tin khc chuyn i chng sang mt hay vi loi ng tin ch cht ny thc hin giao dch thng mi ca mnh.

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Xem RAWLSIAN JUSTICE. Xem CLASSICAL DICHOTOMY. Tc m ti mt s tin no lu thng thng trong nn kinh t - ngha l s ln trung bnh mt n v tin t trao tay trong mt thi k xc nh. Xem RISK CAPITAL. S cng bng hay khng cng bng trong vic i x vi cc cs nhn trong cc tnh hung khc nhau. Mt tnh hung trong hot ng ca mt hng m rng ra hn mt giai on lin tc trong mt qu trnh chuyn ho nguyn liu thnh sn phm cui cng. Vic sp nhp hai hng sn xut cc sn phm thuc v nhiu giai on khc nhau ca cng mt qu trnh sn xut. Gi thit cho rng trong di hn, khng c s nh i gia t l thay i mc tin cng v mc tht nghip nh ng Phillips ban u gi . Xem Variable elasticity of substitution production function. Cm thut ng ny thng ch quan im v cc nc ang pht trin cho rng mt nn kinh t tn ti s ng yn, bi v tng sn lng thp ti mc hu nh khng c d tr. Mt cng ty l i tng ca mt u thu thu mua. M hnh tng trng kinh t cho php vn v tin b k thut km theo n gim i theo thi gian. Xem Vicious circles. Chnh sch thu nhp c xu hng da nhiu vo k thut cng khai v khin trch. Phn ca ti khon vng lai ca mt bo co v cn cn thanh ton cho bit quan h gia ga tr hng ho vt cht xut khu v hng ho vt cht nhp khu. Mt php tip cn i vi phn tch vic cung cp Hng ho cng cng nhm thit lp cc iu kin m qua cc hng ho ny c th cung cp trn c s tho thun hon ton nht tr - ngha l khng c cng p. Mt gii hn do chnh cc nh xut khu mt nc t a ra i vi hng xut khu ngn chn hnh ng bo h chnh thc ca mt nc nhp khu. Phn Tht nghip ny sinh t qu trnh tm vic v tht nghip tm thi v tr hnh. Theo tn t ca J. von Neumann (1903-57) v O.Morgenstern (1902-77), y l cch tip cn i vi thuyt cu m c cho l ng khi p dng cc tnh hung ri ro. Mt thng k kim nh c tnh tm s hin din ca s TNG QUAN CHUI CA CC SAI S trong phn tch hi quy. Ngi mun ti a ho phiu bu chnh tr cho mnh. Xem LOGROLLING. Cc ch s hu c phiu thng ca mt cng ty thng c quyn b phiu dy d ti cc cuc hp cng ty. Mt phng php cung cp dch v v hng ho ca chnh ph, trong c nhn c cho tin ch mua hng ho v dch v nh trc. Cc loi tem phiu l mt phng php phn phi li bng hin vt. Xem JOB COMPETITION THEORY. Mt tp hp cc mc lng mt s th trng lao ng ni b. Tho thun chnh thc hoc khng chnh thc gia mt bn l ngi s dng lao ng vi mt bn l ngi i din lao ng v s gi lm vic, khi lng cng vic v tin lng. Cc mc Chnh lc lng trung bnh tr cho cc lao ng c phn chia theo nghnh hoc a im lm vic hoc theo mu da ho a im ca h. Cm thut ng dng m t tnh trng trong cc cng nhn c nng sut lao ng nh nhau c tr cc mc lng khc nhau.

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Vic tng mc lng hiu lc tng n v u vo lao ng theo tho thun nm ngoi s kim sot ca cc th tc v nh mc lng. Theo hc thuyt kinh t hc c in, mt qu dng thanh ton tin lng. Ti bt k mt thi im no, qu ny cng vi cung lao ng cho trc s xc nh mc lng trung bnh. S tng ca lng danh ngha theo thi gian. Tnh th trong vic tr lng cho mt hoc mt s ngi trong mt khu vc c th c coi l mc tham kho cho mi yu cu lng sau ny. Khi nim cho rng s tng lng s dn ti s tng gi do chi ph sn xut tng v li gy nh hng n tin lng bi v cng nhn mun duy tr sc mua ca ng tin. Mt biu hin ca lm pht do chi ph y, coi nguyn nhn ca qu trnh lm pht l do p lc ca nghip on vi th trng lao ng. Mc lng m mt c nhn c nhn do c sung cp mt s gi lao ng ti thiu quy nh trong hp ng lng. Xem INCOMES POLICY. Gi thuyt cho rng tn ti nhng mi lin kt cht ch gia cc mc tin lng thanh ton cho cc nhm m phn trong nn kinh t, kt qa l vic thanh ton lng tun theo nhng hnh thi nht nh mi nm. Cc c quan php quy tng t nh cc hi ng lng qun l iu hnh v iu kin lao ng trong ngnh nng nghip. Cc c quan php quy c chnh ph giao nhim v xut v lng v s gi lao ng trong mt s ngnh nc Anh. Xem INCOMES POLICY. Xem IRON LAW OF WAGE. Cc th hng tin lng ca cc nhm cng nhn phn theo nghnh, a im lm vic theo nhm ngh nghip hoc chng tc. L thuyt tn c in ngy nay l mt m hnh khoa hc ch yu trong phn tch xc nh lng. Tuy nhin, u th ca l thuyt tn c in v lao ng tuyt nhin khng lin tc v t n b l thuyt tn c in i trc. Xem Leap-frogging. Mt gi thuyt, nh kinh t hc c Adolph Wagner do xy dng vo cui th k XIX, ni rng s pht trin ca nn kinh t cng nghip ho s i i vi vic tng phn chi tiu cng cng trong tng sn phm quc dn. Mt ph h Mahattan, Newyork chy qua trung tm khu ti chnh ca thnh ph. S giao dch chng khon Newyork nm trn ph Wall v thnh thong tn ph c dng nh mt t ng ngha cho th trng nay. Sinh ra ti Paris, vo nm 1970 ng l gio s ch nhim u tin b mn Kinh t ti chnh i hc Lausanne Thu S. Cng hin u tin l vic ng c lp xy dng phng php tip cn tho dng bin vo l lun gi tr nm 1973, mt thnh tu c Jevons d on trc. Cng hin th hai v em li s ni ting hn l vic pht trin l thuyt v vic cn bng tng th, trong mi loi th trng trong nn kinh t u c xem xt v trong mi gi c hng ho, cc nhn t v u ra ca mi hng ho v cung cp nhn t c quyt nh ng thi. Tm li, ng xy dng mt m hnh tin phong vi nhng cng c ton hc nguyn thu. Cournot, mt nh ton hc gii hn v l mt trong nhng ngi c nh hng ti ng n trnh vn ny v rt kh. Mc d m hnh ny v cc c tnh ca n vn tip tc c cht lc, gt gia, ngi ta vn cha nm c khi nim cung ca n. Hnh thi chung ca nh lut Walras l cho n th trng, nu n-1 th trng t trng thi cn bng th trng cn li cng phi t trng thi cn bng bi v khng th c s d tha rng cung hay cu cho hng ho (k c tin t).

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Vic cc cng ty xc nh ra nhng nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng cn tim tng v vic bin n thnh mong mun tiu dng c thc bng vic tip th mnh m cc sn phm c ch to nhm p ng nhng nhu cu tim n ca ngi tiu dng. Vic mua mt tho thun trong to ngi s hu bn tho thun c hi mua vn c phn. Tc tng trng ca thu nhp quc dn duy tr c s cn bng gia tit kim t nh v u t t nh theo thi gian, bng cch pht trin tng ca Keynes v thu nhp cn bng sang trng thi si ng. Xem NATURAL RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT. Mt th sn phm khng th trnh khi ca hot ng kinh t. Tm ng tin ca ngn hng Trung ng Anh cho chnh ph p ng nhu cu chi tiu ca cc b, ngnh trong ngn hn. Xem STATIONARITY. Bt k ci g c gi tr th trng v c th i ly tin hoc hng ho u c th coi l ca ci. S gia tng trong tng chi tiu do mc gi c hoc li xut gim xung. Ngi ta cho rng, bt c mt s gim xung ca tng cu s c o ngc li do cc tc ng gy ra khi mc gi c hoc li sut gim xung. Thu nh vo gi tr ca ci rng. N thng nh vo nhng thi k u n thng l mt nm trn nhng ti sn rng ca cc c nhn, mc d mt s nc nh Nauy thu ny cng c do cng ty tr. Xem DEPRECIATION. Xem LOCATION THEORY. Bnh qun trong mi hng c nhn vi mt h s trc khi tnh ton v tn cc h s ny l mt n v. Mt phin bn ca bnh phng thng thng nh nht trong mi bin s c nhn vi mt h s no , c th l mt hm ca mt trong nhng bin s trong phng trnh. Xem WEIGHTED AVERAGE. Cm thut ng chung ch kha cnh chun tc ca kinh t hc. Nhng gi nh c bn ca kinh t phc li l cc nh gi ch quan m bt k mt nh kinh t hc no cng c th chp nhn hoc bc b. i vi mt c nhn, l mi quan h gia tnh trng kho mnh, hnh phc. Phc li hoc tho dng v nhng yu t gp phn to nn nhng iu . Thng c hiu l mt quc gia c chnh ph ng mt vai tr tch cc trong vic ch trng pht trin phc li x hi. Mt thuc tnh ca hm sn xut v tho dng. N i hi sn xut ( tho dng) bng 0 nu mt trong nhng u vo (hng ho) bng 0 v n cng i hi sn phm bin ( tho dng lun lun dng nhng gim dn khi nhng lng ca mt yu t sn xut (hng ho) cho no tng dn. Mt m hnh gm 76 phng trnh v nn kinh t M pht trin t m hnh KLEINGOLDBERGER (K-G) nhng c 4 im khc bit: 1)M hnh ny s dng d liu tnh ton trn c s qu, M hn K-G tnh trn c s nm. 2)m hnh ny c thit k ch yu c dng d on hnh vi kinh t c th l thu nhp quc dn v mc vic lm. 3)M hnh ny c phn tn ti mt mc ln hn nhiu v c mt khu vc tin t pht trin hn nhiu. 4)Hm sn xut c thit lp da trn cc hm kiu COBB-DOUGLAS. Mt bin php m mt s cc cng on s dng dnh c s nhng b ca ngi s dng lao ng bng cch e do s bi cng trong khi cc cng ty ch th cnh tranh khc vn tip tc hot ng, v sau khi ng ta nhng b s c gng p buc s dng ngi lao ng th hai a ra nhng iu khon iu kin tng t hoc thm ch tt hn v vic lm nu khng s i mt vi mt cuc bi cng khc. Ngi lao ng v ngi s dng lao ng khng tham gia vo lao ng chn tay v nhng ngi thc hin nhng cng vic mang chc nng lnh o.

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M t s bin thin hon ton mang tnh ngu nhin v khng c cc phn t mang tnh h thng no. K hoch ca M cho Qu n nh quc t c xut ti hi ngh ti chnh v tin t Lin hp quc t chc ti Bretton Woods, New Hampshire nm 1944. Giai on trung gian trong qu trnh phn phi sn phm Cc giao dch quy m ln ca cc khon tin gi ch yu tp trung vo nhm cc th trng vn c lin quan mt thit vi nhau v pht trin mnh t gia nhng nm 60 - cc th trng lin ngn hng, chnh quyn a phng, chng ch tin gi v ng tin Chu u. Mt nh kinh t hc ngi Thu in. Wicksell hc ton v trit hc, l ch nhim b mn kinh t trng i hc Lund nm 1904. Tc phm ca ng gii thch, tng hp v pht trin thuyt tn c in v sn xut v phn phi. ng bn lun v li tc ca vn v mi quan h ca n vi li sut. Ngc li vi hc thuyt ng thi, ng ch ra rng trong cn bng, trng gi tr ca sn phm x hi bin ca vn thp hn li xut. iu ny c th ng do tng hiu ng ca ln b sung ring bit vo Dung lng vn c th lm tng gi tr ca tng dung lng vn v do lm gim gi tr ca phn tng thm. iu ny c gi l hiu ng Wicksell. Wicksell gii thch s tn ti ca li sut cao trong nhng giai on lm pht bng vic phn tch cc yu t quyt nh cung tin ti nhiu th ch tin t khc nhau. Qu tnh lu tch lm pht c nhiu im chung vi chnh lch lm pht ca Keynes. Thc t, G.Myrdal v Lindahl , k tc thuyt ca ng pht trin s khc bit gia u t k hoch v u t thc tin c ngm th hin trong s phn bit ca Wicksell gia thi hn u t v tit kim. Cc hiu ng ca Wicksell ch ra rng ngc li vi thuyt hiu sut bin ca vn, li sut thc t trong nn kinh t c th khc vi tng sn phm bin ca vn. L mt nh kinh t hc, mt chnh tr gia v mt thnh vin ca trng phi O. ng hon thin hn hc thuyt THO DNG BIN do Menger khi xng nhng ng gp chnh ca ng nm trong hc thuyt "quy gi tr" hoc "gn gi tr".Wieser cng l ngi u tin nhn thy rng logic chung ca hnh vi kinh t nhm ti a ho li ch, ti thiu ho chi ph v ch ti t sut bin sinh ra thuyt kinh t X hi ch ngha. L cuc bi cng do cc nhm thnh vin cng on a phng t chc, v mt hnh thc khng c s cho php chnh thc ca ban lnh o cng on v tri vi nhng nguyn tc nh. Vic nh gi ca mt c nhn i vi mt hng ho hoc mt dch v bng tin. U ban n gi hot ng ca cc th ch ti chnh c ni cc cng ng thnh lp nm 1977, di s ch o ca Hun tc Harold Wilson, cu th tng nhm xem xt vai tr v chc nng ca cc th ch ti chnh Anh v vic cung ng vn cho Cng nghip v thng mi, xut nhng thay i cn thit gim st cc th ch ny. Mt khon thu nhp thm khng lng trc c. Mt khon suy gim khng lng trc c ca thu nhp.

Mt thng l Anh b xo b nm 1946, m theo cc ngn hng thanh ton b tr London ly tin vay t nhng th trng chit khu vo nhng ngy m h phi "lm p" bo co ti chnh tun (hoc thng t sau nhng nm 1939) nhm mc ch th hin trng thi tin mt cao hn h s bnh qun m chng thc gi. Cng c th c bit n nh l cc s d r. Bt k mt khon thu nhp no, khng c i tip trong vng lun chuyn thu nhp v do khng c dng chi ph cho nhng hng ho v dch v hin ang sn xut. Thng thng l th thu nh vo c tc v tin li do mt cng ty tr ra nc ngoi.

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Vic xy dng v chn lc ra khi nim v Cnh tranh c th th thc hin c hnh thnh trn quan im rng m hnh tru tng v cnh tranh hon ho l mt tng khng thc tin v khng th a ra mt cn c hot ng cho chnh sch cnh tranh. L mt doanh nghip trong ngi lao ng nm gi c phn. Xem INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY. Thng l nhng khon ca ti sn ngn hn do ngun vn di hn to nn. c tnh bng cch chia n ngn hn ch ti sn ngn hn. L nhng ngi c kh nng v sn sng lao ng k c nhng ngi c vic lm v nhng ngi b coi l tht nghip. Phn sn phm vn cha c hon thanh ti thi im cui k k ton. L vic p dng n gin l thuyt v hnh vi tiu dng cho vn phn b thi gian. L vc duy tr t l c vic lm bng cch ct gim gi lao ng ca mi cng nhn. L mt dng bn nh cng, dn n sn xut suy gim ch cha n mc chm dt hon ton. Xem International Bank For Reconstruction And Development. Xem DEPRECIATION. L mt tnh hung, trong tng chi ph ca mt hng khng th gim n mc ti thiu v sn lng thc t t cc u vo xc nh nh hn mc kh thi ln nht. Hiu qu trong cc c hi thu li nhun trn th trng c khai thc. T l thu hng nm i vi mt chng khon c tnh bng t l % so vi th gi hin ti. Mc khc bit gia li tc trung bnh i vi c phn v t l thu hi tng ng i vi cc chng khon di hn c li sut c nh. Xem Mt phng php c thit k c bit cho c lng nht qun cc thng s ca phng trnh tr phn phi sau khi bin i KOYCH m c tnh n thc t l bin i c th a vo tng quan chui ca thnh phn nhiu. Xem VALUE-ADDED TAX. Xem NORMAL DISTRIBUTION.

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