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THE ILIAD

EDITED, WITH APPARATUS CRITICUS, PROLEGOMENA
NOTES,

AND APPENDICES

BY

WALTER

LEAF,

Litt.D

SOMETIME FELLOW OF TRINITY COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

VOL.

I

BOOKS

I-XII

SECOND EDITION

ILonlion

MACMILLAN AND
:

CO., Limited

NEW YORK THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

1900

URIS LibRARY
All rights reserved

SEP 1 2

1983

/

First Edition 1886

Second JEdition 1900

S^fs:^'??

I

FRAGILE PAPER Please handle this book with care, as the paper is fragile. A decision on replacement is pending.
I

v./

PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION
By
of

the rewriting of large portions of the notes, and the addition

an Apparatus Criticus and Appendices, the present volume has
into a

grown almost

new work.

The thirteen years which have

elapsed since the

first

edition appeared have naturally brought

with them
well as
still

many

modifications in the opinions then expressed, as

many

corrections of error.

But the Homeric problems
in

present themselves

substantially

the

same aspect

as

they did in 1886, and the only serious change in point of view

between this volume and
full

its

predecessor

is

that involved in the

acceptance of the Peisistratean recension as an all-important

factor in the constitution of the Iliad.

Among

books which have appeared since 1886 I

am

con-

scious of particular debts to

van Leeuwen's Enehiridium, Cauer's

Grwndfragen, Erhardt's Entstehung der Eomerischen Gedichte, and
Schulze's
Quaestiones Epicae.
Prof.
J.

A.

Piatt

has

by

his

published papers agara put

me

under

many

obligations,

among

others in caUing attention to Brandreth's edition of the Iliad,

which in 1841 surprisingly anticipated many
of

recej^t conjectures

the

"forward"

school.

It

is

impossible to specify obliga-

tions to papers in periodicals, but I

have

satisfaction in thinking

vi

THE ILIAD

that the proportion of valuable contributions from English scholars

has largely increased of late years.

My

warmest thanks are due

to

the French

Ministry of

Education, and to

M.

Delisle of the Biblioth^que Nationals, for

lending to the British

Museum

for

my
is

use the three valuable
I
all

MSS. quoted in this edition as P, Q, E.
regret, that

must add, with deep
the greater because

my
to

sense of obligation

England refuses similar courtesy to continental students.
I

have

express

my
with

special

gratitude

to

the

Eev.

M. A. Bayfield
sheets

of Eastbourne College,

who has

read the proof-

and

assisted

me

many

invaluable criticisms

and
;

suggestions beyond those to which his initials are appended

to

Mr.

T.

"W.

Allen for

much

valuable information from his unto the

rivalled

knowledge of the MSS. of the Iliad; and lastly

scholarly care
proof-reader.

and accuracy of Mr. Webb, Messrs. E.

&

E. Clark's

Decemler

9,

1899.

PEEFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
The
object of the present edition of the Iliad
is

to offer a guide

to students anxious to

know more

of

Homer than they can
that,
it is

learn

from elementary school-books.

It

must be confessed

when
hard

once the strict limits of a verbal commentary are passed,
to

know which path

to choose

from the many which open into the

world revealed to us by the Homeric poems.

We

find ourselves

at the starting-point of all that has given Greece her place in the

world

of

Greek

history,

of

Greek

art,

of

Greek philosophy,

theology,

and myth.

The poems

are our ultimate resource for
it is

the study of the history of the Greek language, and
that

to

them

we owe

all

our knowledge of the one great school of Greek
editor

criticism.

An
or

may

be pardoned

if,

at the risk of apparent to

superficiality

and discursiveness, he attempts, not of course
any
of these
lead.

follow

all

roads, but barely to indicate the

direction in

which they

Unfortunately for the English student, the works which he

must study
almost

if

he wishes to pursue these
in

lines

of inquiry

are

entirely

German; unfortunately

also for the

editor,

who can hardly
to

escape the appearance of pedantry

when he has
The

be

continually
is

quoting works in a foreign language.

difficulty

one, however,

which

it

lies

with English scholars

themselves to remove.

viii

THE ILIAD
Where
the

acumen and industry

of

Germany have heen

for
it

nearly a century so largely devoted to the Iliad and Odyssey,
is

not to be expected, or even desired, that in a commentary for

general use a
original.

new

editor should contribute
for

much
is

that

is

really

The proper place
and

new work

in the pages of
it is

philological journals
for

dissertations.

Indeed

not possible

any man

to be sure of the novelty of
is

any suggestion he may

make, so vast
annually

the mass of Homeric literature which has been
forth since

poured

Wolf revived the

study.

While

believing therefore that

some few improvements on old interpre-

tation will be found in the following pages, I

am

at no pains to

specify them,

and

shall be quite content if I see

them adopted

without

acknowledgment.

On

the other hand, I have freely

taken wherever I have found, only acknowledging in the case
of recent

work which has not yet passed

into the

common

stock,

and reserving
debts which I

for this place a general statement of the great

owe

to previous authors.
^

Prominent among these

I

must place Ameis's

edition of the
;

niad, and more particularly Dr. Hentze's Appendix thereto
references given in
it

the

are of inestimable value to the student.

Heyne's large Iliad, and the editions of Pierron, Diintzer, Paley,

La Eoche,
all

Christ,

Nauck, Nagelsbach,
;

Fasi,

and Mr. Monro, have

been consulted

the last two continually and with especial

respect.
possible,

Eeferences to

notes

on the Odyssey have, as

far as
first

been confined to Merry and EiddeU's edition of the

twelve books, but here again Ameis and Hentze have been valued
guides.

Ebeling's great Lexicon Homericum, at last completed, has
I

Mf
because

I

immense

trust that the continual references to debt to it.

do not place Mr. Monro's Homeric GramTnar in the first place, it is it will keep before the reader my

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION

ix

been of course an indispensable companion, though often usefully

supplemented by

Seller's smaller dictionary.
list

The other principal
;

authorities will be found in the
isolated papers

at the

end of the Introduction

and monographs can hardly be enumerated.
to

I

have further

express

my

thanks to Mr.

J.

A. Piatt,

Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, who has been so good as to
read through the proofs, and contribute
Finally, I have to
friend,

many

valuable remarks.

name with
Henry

affectionate

remembrance

my
his so

the late John

Pratt, Fellow of Trinity College,

Cambridge.
lamentable

The
death

eight

years

which have elapsed since
in the lake of

by drowning

Como have

greatly modified the

work which I inherited from him that I
for

have no right to make him responsible
in the following pages
;

any opinion expressed

but I would emphatically say that their

existence

is

entirely due to him,

and that

it

is

my

earnest hope

that I have said nothing which would not have met with his

approval had he lived.

]

[April 1886.]

LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS TO
FIO1.

THE APPENDICES
PAGE
.

Side view of a

2.

Mykenaean warrior Front view of a Mykenaean warrior (These two figs, were drawn to Mr.
Alice

.....
....
.
.

566 568

Knox on

Bayfield's instructions by Miss materials from Reiohel's Horn. Waffen)
.

3.
4.

Mykenaean
,,

battle-scene

569
569

.

.

(Figs. 3

from gold intaglios on rings found in the tombs at Mykene; Schuchhardt figs. 178, 221, pp. 197, 221)
4 are

and

5. 6.

Diagram

of the
,,
.,

Mykenaean
,,
.,

shield (M.A.B.)
,,

.

.

.

569

.

.

569
569

78.

Dagger-blade from Mykene, representing a hunting-scene. The picture is formed by differently coloured alloys in the bronze blade. An admirable reproduction in colours will be found in Perrot and Chipiez, Hist, de I' Art, vol, vi. See also Schuchh. pp. 229 ff.
.

570
571

9,

Back view of Mykenaean
Fragment of
silver
;

shield (M.A.B.)

.

.

.

10.

a besieged city
11.

bowl from Mykene, representing a sortie from reproduced from 'E0i)/i. 'Apx- 1891
.

572

Fragments from two

found at Mykene, representing warriors marching out, and warriors engaged in battle; Schuchh. p. 280.)
sides

of

a large vase

.....
Schuchh.
.

574

12.

Gold leg-guard found at Mykene
Plan of the Homeric house
.

;

see

p.

228

.

575
588
.

13. 14. 15. 16.

Cup from Mykene Cup from Caere
,,
,,

...
. • •

599
600

600

;

PKOLEGOMENA
I.

The Origin of the Iliad

It

is

impossible to approach either the textual criticism or the

exegesis of

Homer without some

theory as to the

the Iliad and Odyssey reached their present form.
;

question can here be but briefly touched upon attempted than to give the main points of the hypothesis adopted by the present editor; it will be stated in a categorical form for

in which The Homeric no more will be

way

convenience only, and with ho desire to disguise the undoubted fact that it is but one among many scores of theories, all of

which have had equal attraction for their own authors. It is a working hypothesis, which appears to answer the conditions of the problem. Greek tradition knows that the Hiad and Odyssey, with various other poems, were the work of a historical poet called Homer, whose birth, residence, and death are placed in various cities and islands, but by a preponderating authority are attriFor buted to Asia Minor, and in particular to Smyrna or Chios. reasons which will appear, the one poet can no longer be regarded
here put forward as
.

that in the fifth as historical; but this much at least is certain century and later nothing was known of any Epic poetry older As for date, we have the than that of the Ionian cities of Asia. opinion of Herodotos^ that Homer and Hesiod lived "400 definite

years before me, and no more."

examine the poems themselves, however, we find that they do not ostensibly shew signs of Asiatic origin.
to

When we come

The scene of the Iliad is of course laid in the Troad, but its point of view is professedly that of dwellers in Greece proper
1
ii.

53.

xiv
is

THE ILIAD
there that the heroes have their homes, and thither that

it

return after the war. The poems profess a close acquaintance with the topography of Greece, and almost completely ignore that of Asia. And in particular, there is no overt

they

mention of the great movement of peoples, generally called the Dorian invasion, which led, according to a tradition which has every sign of truth, to the presence of Greeks on the eastern
coasts of the Aegaean.

from the North, it was said, had descended into central and southern Greece, and had dispossessed

Eude mountaineers

the ancient lords of the

soil,

driving

them eastwards

in successive

They waves. Eecent discoveries have borne out this tradition. Greece proper, and indeed have shewn us that there was in through most lands bordering on the Aegaean, an extremely
which is now commonly We supposed to have fallen between 1500 and 1200 B.C. culture, and its discan in the remains trace the end of this placement by far ruder elements, which only slowly grow into the more perfect form which we call Hellenic. That the poems, when professing to depict the prae-Dorian age, are as a whole actually contemporary with it, has probably never been maintained. There can be no question that, at least in great part, they merely bring back in imagination the " good old days " which have passed away. In so doing they touch on countless details of daily life, which we can to some extent control by the monuments. We can give some sort of answer to
ancient
civilization,

the

zenith

of

the question whether they reproduce the real circumstances of the
old time, or only clothe the old tales with the garb of their
days.

own

For an uncritical age the latter supposition is a priori the most probable but it is not entirely borne out by facts. There is, on the whole, a striking similarity between the life of Homer's heroes in its material aspect and the remains which have been discovered at Tiryns, Mykene, and elsewhere. The two cultures are not identical, but, beyond a doubt, the Homeric resembles in the main the Mykenaean rather than that of the "Dipylon" (so far as
;

we know

it)

or the archaic Greek.

the whole truly kept in the Epos.
traces of apparent anachronism.

The ancient tradition is on Yet in many points we can see But it is very difficult to say

in the

whether a departure from the Mykenaean culture as we know it monuments is due to a later development of that culture

PEOLEGOMENA
itself,

xv

or to an unintentional introduction of elements from the very different conditions of later Greece. In discussing such questions it is well always to remember that the epoch of

Mykenaean
Mykenaean
"

civilization

with which

we

are best acquainted, that

of the " shaft-tombs " of Mykene,
age.

from the end of the whole The Homeric stage is certainly later than the
is far
it

shaft-tombs," but

does not necessarily follow that

it is

post-

Mykenaean. It is quite possible that certain notable differences between the poems and the monuments, in burial, for instance, and in women's dress, may be due to changes which arose within the

Mykenaean age
ledge
" is

itself,

defective

in that later part of

it

of which our

know-

almost as defective as

it is of

the subsequent

Dipylon

" period.

On

the whole, the resemblance to the typical

Mykenaean culture is more striking than the difference. The inevitable conclusion seems to be that Epic poetry had its roots in the Mykenaean period, and that this true tradition
of the departed grandeur was carried across the Aegaean in lays which were the progenitors of the Homeric poetry. The whole

scenery

of

the

poems, the

details

of

armour, palaces, dress,

decoration,

must have been

so long the subjects of song before the

Dorian invasion that they had become stereotyped, and formed a foundation which the Epic poet dared not intentionally sap, easily though he slipped from time to time into involuntary anachronism. How far these oldest songs may have actually left traces of themselves in our " Homer " it is naturally impossible to say; but it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that some part of the most primitive Iliad may have been actually sung by the court

minstrel in the palace whose ruins can

stiU.

be seen in Mykene.
to

The Epic

dialect lends

some countenance

the belief that
It has

the lonians were not the originators of the Epos.

always

been recognized that the dialect is not pure Ionic, such as would be expected from the reputed birthplace of the poems and the Pick presence of " Aiolic " elements has been generally admitted.
;

published in

1882 and

following years elaborate disquisitions to

shew that the older parts of both Iliad and Odyssey had in fact been composed in pure Aiolic, and translated into Ionic, only those Aiolic forms being left untouched which were fixed by the and that only fact that the Ionic equivalent differed metrically The theory involves the later portions were composed in Ionic.
;

too

many

arbitrary alterations of the text to be accepted in the

xvi

THE ILIAD
states it;

form in which he

remains probable that the dialect is in fact the resultant of older poems composed in a The dialect which may, in the vaguest sense, be called Aiolic.
but
it

peculiarly non-Ionic

forms point rather to the Thessalian and Arkadio-Kyprian dialects, however, than to that of the Asiatic But it must be admitted, Aiolis as the precursor of the Epic.

which has taken place, that our knowledge Greek dialects is far too imperfect to enable us to base any far-reaching conclusions upon such hypotheses. It can only be said that they seem to correspond with the probabilities of the case, and in particular with the localization of " Homer " at Smyrna, the city which was taken by
after all the discussion

of the early state of the

the rising Ionic race from the decadent Aiolians.

assume, then, as a probable hypothesis that the old Greeks, expelled from their homes by the invading Dorians, carried

We

with them across the sea a body of Epic poetry, the outcome of
so long a

development that
find

of

what we

the legends of

had already stereotyped much that this poetry dealt with Greece proper, in particular the Trojan War,
it

to-day in

Homer

;

including the return of the heroes, the tale of Thebes, perhaps the

adventures of Herakles, and doubtless legends of the gods
it

;

that

was taken over by the lonians from the descendants of these emigrants, and cultivated by them on their own account, much of the old being faithfully preserved, though adapted to new hearers, but much new being added that the same scenery, spirit, and phraseology were retained, though with the admission of occasional anachronisms, which, of course, grew more frequent as time went on and that this Ionian development lasted from, perhaps, the ninth century B.C. to the seventh. But in all probability the corpus of Epic poetry had been brought substantially to completion some time before the latter date; as the creative and imaginative forces
;
;

of

the Ionian race turned to

other forms of expression,

it

is

probable that but small and unimportant additions were
"

made

to

after the end of the eighth century or thereabouts. The poems were all this time handed down orally only, by tradition among the singers who used to wander over Greece reciting them at popular festivals. Writing was indeed known in some form through the whole period of Epic development but it is in the highest degree unlikely that it was ever employed to form a standard text of the Epos or any portion of it. There can
;

Homer "

a

PROLEGOMENA

xvii

hardly have been any standard text ; at best there was a continuous tradition of those portions of the poems which were
especially popular,

and the knowledge of which was therefore a

valuable asset to the professional reciter.

By

the end of the seventh century there must have been in

existence a large
chiefly, so

amount

of

such Epic poetry, concerning

itself

far as

we know, with

the subjects previously named.

tale of Troy must have been infinitely the most imand the Iliad and Odyssey the most important poems on Some scholars have spoken as though they regarded the Troy. whole mass of this poetry as equally " Homeric" in the eyes of men of that day, and as approximately homogeneous in quality floating mass of which lengths were cut off more or less by chance, and labelled Hiad and Odyssey. Por such a supposition there are no grounds that parts at least of the mass had long before attained complete solidity and permanence is amply proved by the fact that the Biad is notably earlier in language than the Odyssey. The kernel of it must therefore have attained its permanent form at a time materially earlier than the beginning But though the kernel was thus solid, it was of the Odyssey. surrounded by a great deal of later addition which was in a more The rhapsodist, like the modern concert-giver, or less fluid state. had to consider his hearers' liking for "old friends" on the one He sought to hand, and their wish for novelty on the other. reconcile the two by inventing fresh episodes to continue and extend those tales which every one knew. Here and there such a new episode would survive and come into such general repute But it is easy to see how the as to ensure its permanence. repertoires of various rhapsodists would differ, though all were based on the same original story.

But the

portant,

;

vision as that ascribed

can now understand the reasonableness of such a proby a widely spread tradition to the Attic statesmen of the sixth century, a provision that the Iliad and
Odyssey should be recited at the Panathenaia in a regular and and we can also see that such a rule officially recognized order
;

We

involved

a

new

constitution

of

the text.

The most widely

But accepted tradition attributed the recension to Peisistratos. famous passage of Diogenes Laertios {Life of Solon is named in a
Solon L
hela-Oai,

57):
olov

rd

re
6

'OfiTJpov i^

v7ro/3oX^?

jiypa^e

pa'^ai-

ottov

irpMra

e\r)^ev

sKeWev

ap')(e<Tdac

tov


xviii

:

;

THE ILIAD
(laXKov
(prjai
eirr]

i')(6lJi,evov.

oZv

SoXtBi/
ev

"O/jirjpov
TrefiTTTcoi

€^(oti<t€v

tj

Jleio'i?iv

arparo^, w?
fiaXicTTa
e^fji;

Ateup^^tSa?

M-eyapiKtiv.
eiy^pv,

Be

Ta

ravTa-

oi
is

o

ap

Atfrjva<}

xai ra

(B 546-58).

There
is

unfortunately something lost in
interpolation of the lines

this

passage, asserting explicitly the

mentioned.

The

reference

to

the arbitration between Athens

and Megara

for the possession of Salamis,

when each

side brought

forward lines from Homer, the Athenians relying on

B 558

as

we have

it,

the Megarians accusing

them

of falsifying the text

and putting forward a
the passage as
of his
it

different version.
is

stands

this

:

" it

The natural sense of was not Peisistratos, as is

generally supposed, but Solon

who

collected the scattered

Homer

day

;

for

he

it
''

Catalogue of the Ships
this after

;

Tlet(Tt,aTpaTO<;

was who interpolated the lines in the so that we should add something like i/ceivo^ yap rjv 6 ra eTrrj et's tov

KaraXoyov ifi7roii]cra<;, koI ov Yi.eiaicrrparo';. Eitschl, however, gives the whole passage a quite different turn by inserting (in the same place) oairep ervWe^a'; ra 'Op,rjpov iveTroir/a-e riva el<; TTjv 'AOijvaicov 'xap''^This has been accepted by Wilamowitz and Cauer, but is clearly wrong. Tradition unanimously held that the recovery of Salamis took place in the time of Solon, while Peisistratos was still a boy. Dieuchidas, giving the Megarian version, must therefore have attributed the interpolation to Solon, and concluded that the compilation of the Athenian copy was due to him and not to his successor. But in any case the passage shews that the tradition about Peisistratos was
current in the fourth century B.C., when, as Wilamowitz has shewn, Dieuchidas must have written. There was yet another version which ascribed the collection to Hipparchos ^ but for us the names are comparatively a matter of indifference; the essential element is that all tradition points to Athens of the
;

sixth century.

once accepted
for

itself, and if The great problem those who maintain the gradual growth of the poems by a
is it

This tradition
explains

probable enough in

many

a difficulty.

process of crystallization has been to understand how a single version came to be accepted, where many rival versions must,

from the necessity

The assumption
but

of the case, have once existed side by side. of a school or guild of singers has been made the rare mention of 'OfirjpiBai in Chios gives no support
^

Pseudo-Plat. Hipparchos 228

c.

PROLEGOMENA
to
this

xix

hypothesis, which

lacks any other confirmation.

The
the

Peisistratean

recension

is

the

only

source,

other

than

autograph of a real Homer, which will account for the unity of the vulgate text. It agrees, too, with the constitution of the
Iliad
itself,

which in several

places-'

shews

such

a

piecing

together of parallel narrative as can hardly be credited to natural

growth in the hands of irresponsible rhapsodists, but involves the deliberate work of a literary editor based on a written text. This, too, accounts for the numerous traces in our text of an unobtrusive but sufficiently clear Attic influence. It agrees with the position of Athens as the first book-mart of Greece. It agrees with the evidence that the archetype of the vulgate was written in the old Attic alphabet. In fact we might almost reconstruct the necessity of such a " codification " of the text from An official copy of some sort is implied by the the conditions.
transformation of fluctuating oral compositions into such a vulgate
as

we

possess

;

it

must have taken place

at Athens, the

head of
it

the intellectual Greece and the centre of the publishing trade;

must have been created before the fifth century, and Plato already have Homer as we know him;

for
it

Herodotos

must have

taken place after the seventh, to which we can date some of the latest additions to the Iliad; therefore an official copy of Homer

was made in Athens in the time
fashionable
;

of Solon

and

Peisistratos.

Belief in the recension of Peisistratos was not so long ago un-

but in the

last

few years a clear reaction has set

in.^

The

chief reason for scepticism has been the complete silence of

the Aristarchean scholia respecting any edition of Peisistratos. This has been held to shew that the tradition is no more than a
late invention absolutely

unknown

to Aristarchos.

But now that

Wilamowitz has shewn that Dieuchidas wrote in the fourth century, it is no longer possible to hold that Aristarchos had which is moreover involved in the allusion never heard the story It to the Salamis arbitration by Aristotle (see note on B 558).

follows, therefore, either

the tradition
it

—which
1

that

Aristarchos deliberately ignored

is

hardly like him

or that

he dealt with

in his lost works.

The argument from

silence is especially

deceptive in the case of an author like Aristarchos, of whom we have nothing whatever preserved beyond excerpts of second-hand
See Introduations to B, N, T. from Seeck's Die QuelUn der Odyssee, 1887.

2

Dating,

I think,

XX

THE ILIAD

It is accounts of his commentaries, with some titles of lost works. likely enough that he dealt with the Attic recension somewhere,

and having settled the matter one way or the other found no On the other side of the need to refer to it in his critical notes. account we must set the facts that he believed Homer to have been an Athenian, and that he often assumes the transliteration
of the

poems from the old Attic alphabet

into the

new

indirect

which he dealt The scholia to have reached him from purely Attic sources. can therefore count neither one way or the other; and the
proofs at least that he held the vulgate text with

hypothesis

of
it

the

Peisistratean

recension

appears

so

highly

probable that

will be adopted as a postulate in the following

commentary.

which Eecent discoveries in Egypt have shewn, indeed, that there was a time when different texts, altered from the vulgate chiefly by the insertion of additional lines of no intrinsic importance, had attained a great This is certain to be the case with all vogue, at least in Egypt. highly popular books reproduced in large quantities for an uncritical public. The rise of criticism at Alexandria put an end to these commercial texts, and established the vulgate in its In this sense only can Aristarchos and rightful position again. they his predecessors be said to have altered the Homeric text did not work upon these inferior copies and decide which lines were to be expelled, but they gave the weight of their authority to a demand for copies of MSS. of approved antiquity and correct-

The

Peisistratean text is identical with the vulgate,
its

has

held

own through

all

time.

;

ness.
critic

The

position of Aristarchos was, in fact, precisely that of a
correct text of Firdausi's

who would make a
The

Shahnamah
is

to-day.

variation between different copies of the Persian

incomparably greater than that between the prae-Aristarchean papyri and the vulgate, though here there was undoubtedly one

common
existence

source in
of

the

poet's

own

MS.

Even the unbroken
been able to save
task

a

written tradition has not
will

Firdausi from the interpolations of popular reciters; the
of

the

Persian Aristarchos

be to point out which MSS.

contain the ancient and pure tradition, and to stop the
for copies of

demand

any

others.

it

still

Such as the vulgate was before the days of Aristarchos, such remains. In only an infinitesimal number of cases can


PROLEGOMENA
it

xxi

be shewn that he produced any

effect

upon the current
;

reading.

Lines of which he disapproved remain uncancelled

the readings

he preferred do not therefore in any appreciable degree supplant The MSS. in our libraries differ those which he held inferior. from one another in the same degree as those of Aristarchos, and with fresh collations the number of variants which we know through Aristarchos alone is constantly dwindling it may not be long before we are able to point to an existing MS. representative of almost every variant mentioned by Didymos and Aristonikos. The great addition to our knowledge of the
;

tradition

made by

the

discoveries

of

papyri has shewn
scribe.

how

wonderfully tenacious and correct was the mediaeval

II.

Analysis of the Iliad

Two
section
:

cardinal assumptions have been

made

in the preceding

\:first,

that the Iliad was not composed by a single poet,

but was the growth of a long period r^and secondly, that this growth took place by gradual accretion i5r crystallization about a central nucleus, which was from the first something fixed amid
later

nature, though

expansions and accretions of a more or less fluctuating some of these in time gained a solidity almost

equal to that of the original kernel.
are set out in detail in the

The arguments on which these two assumptions are founded commentary which follows. With
first it is sufficient

regard to the

to say here that the discrepancies

and contradictions which seem to disprove unity of authorship are those which go deep into the structure of the poem, not The casual mistakes of detail to which all authors are liable. most significant of these is undoubtedly the contradiction involved in the Embassy of the ninth book, which is completely ignored The tenth book is so loosely in the eleventh and sixteenth. Iliad that doubts as to its rights date from inserted into the
very early days.

Wider but perhaps

less glaring

discrepancy

is.

involved in the fact that the promise of Zeus to Thetis is entirely forgotten from the first book to the eleventh, and that the whole balance of the story is disturbed by the way in which
the exploits of Achilles, the real hero, are outdone by Diomedes
in E.

\

The kernel
VOL,
I

of the Iliad

is,

beyond a doubt, the story of the
c

xxii

THE ILIAD
Mrjvi';

Wrath, the
is

which

is

announced in the Prologue.

This tale
received

given in the following books
of

— A, A, O,
as

11,

T-X,

or rather in

toarts

them, for there

is

not one which has
is

large

additions.

The
of his

plot

follows:

—Agamemnon

not

has

received

booty from a foray the daughter of Chryses, priest of Apollo, and refused her to the petition of her Apollo father, who thereupon prays to his god for vengeance.
as part

answers his prayer by sending a pestilence upon the Greek army. An assembly is held to discuss the position, and Kalchas the

augur explains

Agamemnon
through his
satisfy his

why the host is suffering. Achilles calls on This appease the god by sending Chryseis back. to
;

leads to a quarrel

in the issue Achilles withdraws in anger, and mother Thetis obtains a promise from Zeus that, to
pride, the Trojans shall defeat the hitherto

wounded

,

Agamemnon is therefore lured to victorious Greeks (Book A). battle by a deceptive dream, which promises him victory (B 1-50). He begins by driving the Trojans before him. Presently, however, he is wounded and has to leave the field; the other chief Greek heroes suffer the same fate, and the whole army is driven back to the ships, which are attacked by Hector. He is at length disarmed for Aias alone holds his ground (A). moment, and fire is set to the ship of Protesilaos (O 592 ff.). a Achilles thereupon, though he will not fight himself, relents so far as to send Patroklos with the Myrmidons to the rescue. Patroklos drives the Trojans back, and among many others slays Sarpedon; but he presses his advantage too far, and is himself slain by Hector (H). Achilles on hearing of his death sallies forth to avenge it, and after making havoc of the Trojans, chases Hector thrice round the walls of Troy, and finally slays him (parts of T, $, X). The story ends with the dragging of Hector's body
(X 404).
This
is

the backbone of the Iliad as
it

we have
;

it,

whether or

no
to

it

be the earliest portion of
all

historically

it is

the main plot

an episodical relation. That it is no doubt. The conditions of the M^i/t? have been imposed on all the rest of the book. The absence of Achilles from the field is everywhere either tacitly assumed or expressly alluded to. It is in the story of the Wrath
else stands in

which

also the oldest kernel I feel

that the real unity of the

we need

Miad is to be found. Here, at least, not hesitate to see the work of a single poet, perhaps


PROLEGOMENA
the greatest in
all

;

'

xxiii

may have beyond our powers of analysis to say.-^ The story is organically and indissolubly bound together; the arguments which are still brought forward to separate the Patrokleia and the death of Hector from the earlier part, the Mi^i^t? proper, seem to me wholly inadequate and improbable.
the world's history.
pre-existing
far

How

he

made

his

poem from

materials

it

is

From
that the
of
(ii)

the several Introductions to the books,

it

will be seen

main episodes included in this volume are (i) the duel Menelaos and Paris, and the treachery of Pandaros in T—A
the Diomedeia in

E

and

Z,

itself

a composition shewing
(iii)

continuous growth from the earliest days to the latest;
duel of Aias and Hector in
I

the the

H

;

(iv) the

Embassy
wall in

to Achilles in

with

its

prologue, the defeat of the Greeks in

@

;

(v)

Doloneia in

K;

(vi)

the battle

at

the

M, with an
relation of

introduction, the

building of the wall in H.
will be

The

these episodes and the Mijvt^ to one another and to the whole
structure of the

Hiad

more conveniently discussed

in the

next volume.

III.

The Text of the Iliad
editor

From what has been said, the aim of an Homeric text clearly follows. He must endeavour
the Attic text as transliterated into the
ofl&cial

of

the

to reconstitute

new

alphabet from the
it

for

Athenian original. him to attempt to go,

Farther back than this

is

useless

I

for this is the earliest date

at

which
I

It is true indeed that many the Iliad, as we know it, existed. portions of the Iliad bear signs of greater antiquity; we can trace with coniidence not only the older form of the story, but

remains of an older form of dialect, corrupted in the course of transmission in the mouths of rhapsodists and editors, to whom But it is a complete error to it was virtually a dead language.
try,

from these indications, however numerous

and

clear,

to
j

introduce into

In Homer, as
existed.
1

Homer a we know

uniformity of " Proto-Epic " language, it, no such uniformity can ever have

The

later parts of the poems,

such for instance as the

one point only do I now feel It will be seen from the Introduction to B that there is some ground for supposing that the oldest

On

hesitation.

form of the Wrath did not contain the it was a promise of Zeus to Thetis tale played exclusively on the earthly
;

stage.

xxiv

THE ILIAD
all

Doloneia, were in
as that

probability composed originally in almost

exactly the same form, allowing for the difference of alphabet,

which we now have. Even if it were not so, our means do not permit us to reconstruct the more ancient dialect with
;

any approach to confidence. Our only guide in so doing is the metre and though in many matters this is a safe test, yet it is
impossible for us to say in

how many

others

it

may

leave us in

To take an obvious instance, it enables us to restore an initial digamma in a large number of cases, but leaves us almost always uncertain as to whether we should at the same
the lurch.

time restore the

letter internally.

For these reasons

all

attempts

to introduce the

digamma without exception

in all words

where

we know

it

once to have existed are interesting and instructive
exercises,

but lie outside the province of the His business is to take the text as he finds it, and to indicate from time to time where it shews traces of a more ancient form, but to accept as a part of it the constant inequalities and anachronisms with which it abounds.
philological

commentator.

The materials
the works
of
;

for the constitution

of the text are

found in

(1) Mss. of all ages; (2) the scholia, especially the excerpts

from
of

Didymos and Aristonikos on the writings

Aristarchos
present

(3) quotations in ancient authors.
is

On
is

these the

text

entirely based.
;

Little

weight

given to the
it

evidence of quotations

interesting though they often are,

is

impossible to be sure in any case of the accuracy of the author who is quoting. Of mss. of the Iliad some hundreds exist, from
the third century
B.C.
;

to the sixteenth a.d.

Of most

of these

very

little is

known

of complete mss. only thirteen have been

collated throughout,

and of these five are now for the first time Of fragmentary mss., however, earlier than the Venetus A, we have full information; the papyri are now so numerous that we know something of the tradition of every
published.

century since the third
three

B.C., with the exception of the two or which intervene between the Syrian palimpsest in the seventh and A in the tenth a.d. The value of the various MSS. and scholia will be treated in

'

J
,

It may be said here that readings of Aristarchos are taken as equal to those of the best MSS. ; readings of Zenodotos are treated as of the second rank. Between the

detail in the next volume.

'

variants thus attested

we

are at liberty to choose with the aid of


PROLEGOMENA
modern
critical lights.

xxv

cases will

Only in an extremely small minority of any reading be found which has not the certificate of one or other of these authorities, and then generally in matters It is, for instance, where the ms. tradition leaves us in doubt. almost indifferent even to our best mss. whether they write ei Thus or rji, or whether they write a liquid single or double. readings such as 7r€(j)VKrii, for 7r6<pvicei (A 483), or tmv rjSv/io? for T&v vijBvfio'; (K 187), can hardly be regarded as departures the two readings would certainly have even from our mss. The most serious been indistinguishable in the old alphabet. departure from tradition is the acceptance of Kauck's icofii, I could not make up my mind for LKafiai of all MSS. in I 414 to leave the unmetrical reading, though I have endured ew? as a trochee rather than go to pure conjecture and write eZo? or ^09.^ Generally speaking I have endeavoured to choose in each particular case what seemed to me to be the best reading among those current in the fifth century and I have not hesitated in many cases to give a reading in the text which is described in the notes as clearly wrong a corruption, that is, as old as the fifth century, of an older form which we can confidently restore. For the adscription in place of the subscription of t in the at all events I shall diphthongs di, rji, cot no apology is needed
;

;

;

offer

none.

It

is

curious
of

that

a

twelfth -century

device

for far

correcting

the blunders

copyists

should have been so

canonised as to lead the unthinking to suppose that it has some It is typographically ugly as well as philoancient authority.
logically misleading.

IV.

The Apparatus Ceiticus
the

In

compiling

Apparatus

Criticus

I

have

aimed at

compression and

brevity, not only from considerations of space,

but in a firm belief that for the purposes of the critic a small selection of readings is more useful than approximate completeness.
I

have

therefore

only orthographical

omitted as a rule all variants which affect questions, or which, to the best of my

judgment, were mere blunders of no critical interest. omissions under the head of orthography include all
1

The
such

The only other readings

in the text

the

tt;i /t^i

or

'/i^i

which no ancient authority can be quoted are, I believe, ttji. ifiiji in I 654 for
for

A

608)

;

and
56.

i<rTa(Tav

of the Mss. (compare for Saratrav or

iaraaav

M


xxvi


of
/i,

THE ILIAD
v
v,

matters as accentuation, breathings, omission or addition
€(f)eX,Kva-TLK6v or iota subscript, single or
a-,

double writing of X,
e/iot

p,

itacism, confusion of o

and

»,

and many cases
ii'a-rjv

of difference

in the division of words, especially such forms as
fioi, S'

S'

or Si
'^(ttjv.

e<pe^ovTO or Be ^e^ovro, irdvroa

or Trdvroa-e

In
to

all

these the testimony of MSS.

is

practically indifferent,
it
;

and

it is

waste of space and energy to accumulate
It is in the omission of

our choice has

be made on other grounds.

what

I believe to

have been mere

copyists'

mistakes

variant.

which acuter eyes The risk
the

may have neglected something in than my own might detect traces of a genuine
that I
of
this

must be

preferred,

however,

to
it

the accumulation of ridiculous blunders such as would
difficult to see

make

wood

for the trees.

For similar reasons, namely, at once to save space and to give weight of testimony, I have as a rule quoted only one of each group of related MSS. My P and La Eoche's L, for instance, are so closely connected, coming evidently from a common archetype, that I have not quoted L except where it differs from P. So I quote only G- and omit its satellites " Mor Bar " except where they differ from it the three can only be weighed as a single MS. Thus though my Apparatus seems brief in comparison with
a clearer view of the
;

La

Eoche's, I feel confident that

it

gives all that

is

really of

importance for the constitution of the text, and indeed adds a very considerable amount of new matter. Our knowledge of the
MSS. will soon be greatly enlarged

meantime there can be no

loss in this

by other hands but in the humble contribution to a
;

strangely neglected field of Homeric criticism.

V.

Manuscripts
:

The

MSS. quoted in the Apparatus Criticus are the following
A. Papyri

Pap. a = Petrie, Hawara Biahmu and Arsinoe, pp. 24-8 (collated also by myself) contains part of B 1-877. 5tli cent. a.d. 6 = Britisli Museum cxxvi. {Classical Texts from Papyri in the B. M. p. „ B 101-A 40. 4th. or Sth cent. A.D. 81) r = B. M. cxxxvi. {Class. Texts p. 93); parts of T 317-A 544. 3rd „
; ;

cent. A.D.

PROLEGOMENA
Pap. 5

e

xxvii
other

= Bodleian =

d 20

(Grenfell
;

An

Alexandrian Erotic Fragment and

Greek Papyri p. 6) parts of 64-75, 96-116. 2nd cent. a.d. B. M. dclxxxix. (Grenfell Ch-eeh Papyri, Second Series p. 4)

;

,,

z=

217-9, 249-53. 3rd cent. B.C. Mahaffy Flinders Petrie Papyri PL 503-37. 2nd cent. B.C.
;

iii.

(4);

fragments from

A

,,

H = Genavensis Nicole Rev. de Philologie, Jan. 1894 (Kenyon 0. R. viii. pp. 134-6); small fragments from A, A, and Z, and A 788-M 11. 2nd cent. b.c. ? e = Louvre; La Roche Homerische Textkritik p. 448; N 1-175. 1st
cent. B.C.
?
i

,,

= B.
B.

M.

cvii.

(Harris Papyrus);
i.
:

Catalogue
;

of Ancient

MS8.

in the

B. M., part

Greek, pp.

1-6

2
;

1-218, 311-617.

1st cent. B.C.

,,

,,

M. cxxvii. (Glass. Texts p. 98) small fragments from E, Z, 2. 3rd or 4th cent. a.d. \ = Bodleian b 3 (Grenfell Greek Papyri, Second Series p. 5) ; fragments of *, X, •*•. 3rd cent. B.c. JUi = B. M. cxxviii. {Class. Texts p. 100 ; /. P. xxi. pp. 17-24, 2961st cent. B.C. 343) ; large parts of •* 1-79, 402-12 759. N = B. M. cxiv. (Bankes Papyrus); Catal. of Anc. MSS. p. 6, Phil. Mus. i. p. 177, and my own collation; i2 127-end. 2nd cent. a.d. s = Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri -p. 46; B 730-828. 2nd
cent. A.D.

K=


o

= B. =

n

M. dccxxxii. (Hunt A New Homeric Papyrus in /. P. xxvi. pp. 1st cent. a.d. 25-59) most of N 2-775, 3 120-522. E 1-303 and a Grenfell and Hunt Oxyrhynchus Papyri ii. p. 96 few fragments from E 329-705. Beginning of 3rd cent. a.d. For readings see App. F.
; ;

B.

Uncial
Milan consisting of leaves

Ambr. = Ambrosianus

Pictus, saec. v.-vi., a MS. at

containing illustrations of the Iliad and accompanying portions It contains pieces from all the books except V, 2, of the text. 800 lines in all. Published by Angelo Mai, 1819, Iliadis T,

Y—

frctgmenta antiquissima

Syr.

=B. M. Add.

cum pieturis. 210 Catal. of Anc. MSS. p. 6, and Fragments of the Edited by W. Gureton Iliad of Homer from a Syriac Palimpsest. to 12. See It contains 3873 lines from (saec. vi. or vii.). Hoffmann, 31*'^ und 22^^ Buch der Ilias pp. 3 ff.. La R. H. T. p. 454 no. 5.
17,
;

M

C.

La Roche's MSS.
Venice,
saec. x.

A = Venetus

454, in the Marcian Library at published by Villoison Homeri Ilias ad Scholia in earn antiquissima recensita.
collation in

First

veteris codicis
.
. .

Veneti fidem

Homeri

Ilias

(1873-6)

is

followed

1788. La Roche's but I have to ;

thank Mr. T. W. Allen for some valuable additions and corrections, which are distinguished by his initials. (Hoffmann pp. 12 ff.)

xxviii

THE ILIAD
of the above MS. which have been supplied by a later hand, the original leaves having been lost. The supplements consist of

A = portions
= Cod.

D=
Z)

E 336-6.35, P 277-577, 729-61, T 126-326, fi 405-504. Laurentianus xxxii. 3, in the Medicean Library at Florence, saec. xi. La R. Horn. Texikritik no. 14 p. 460, Hoffmann p. 28. Cod. Laurentianus xxxii. 15, saec. xi.-xii. La R. ibid. no. 15, Hoffmann
p. 31.

= portions

of the above supplied by later hands. These are not mentioned by La Roche or Hoffmann. Mr. T. W. Allen has kindly given me the following valuable list of the passages thus

supplied.

" (1)
different
(2)
(3)
•*•

38,

[E] {Note.

—La

(4)

A hand coeval or nearly so with D, though markedly from it 388-11 167. A hand of s. xii. or xiii. books A-A and N 96-160. A hand of s. xv. 390-525, P 359-2 192, 593-T 652-719, 854-i2 85, 219-348, 754-804. Another s. xv. hand supplies 2 326-93 and 538-92."
; ;
;

Roche's

E

refers to the printed text of the

Roman
of

edition
critical

of Eustathius, 1542,
value.)
0-

and

is

not quoted here as

it is

no

= Vindobonensis

H=

La R. H. T. p. 472 no. 92. 39, saec. xiv. First published by Alter, Vienna 1789. Vindobonensis 117, saec. xiii. La R. H. T. p. 473 no. 95, Hofifmann From '^ 648 to the end is in another hand, noted as H.^ p. 33.
5, saec. xiv.-xv. p. 40.

L = Vindobonensis

This MS.

is

La R. H. T. p. 476 no. 105, Hoffmann almost identical with my P, and is only

M = Venetus

quoted when it differs from P. 456, saec. xv. La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 107. La R. has published a collation of three books only, A-Z. This MS. is almost identical with Harl. a I have ascertained that they agree for all readings of given in my Apparatus, except where a
;

M

difference

is

noted.

N and

= Venetus
xiv.).

459, which consists of portions of two Mss., one (N) containing A 1-H 392 (saec. xv.), the other (0) 214-M (saec.

A

La R. H.

T. p.

459

no. 10.

The

collation of books

A-Z

S

=

only has been published. Stuttgartensis 5 (saec. xv. ?).

La R. H. T. p. 478 no. 111. La R. follows the collation of the Iliad published by Eieckher in Eos,
1865.

D. Manuscripts
(See J. P. XX. pp. 237-51.

now Added
are collated

The

first five

by myself.)

J

= B.

M. Harley 1771
containing

—a

ink, mostly rhetorical

A
A

with glosses in red and black and grammatical. Leaves have been lost 622-653, 31-62, J2 719-end.
different hand. should therefore be read for throughout this book.

late xv. cent. MS.,

regret that I overlooked Hoffmann's statement that Book is also in a
1

I

H

H

PROLEGOMENA
P = Paris,
greo

xxix

2766

late xv. cent, (so dated

from the watermark).

The

Ms.

is

nearly identical with L.

by Sir B. Maunde Thompson The

writing is often very small, and ei, r], and a are frequently almost or quite indistinguishable from one another. La R. H. T.
p.

471

no. 88.

Q = Paris,

grec 2767.

A
lines

good

many

1-118, 204-233, 12 673-end are missing, and a have been lost by mutilation of the lower margin,
;

xiv. cent, (so Catalogue

rather, late xv.).

E = Paris,

greo 1805, saec. xv., written
clear hand.

La E. ibid. no. 89. by Georgios Gregoropulos, in a neat

T = Townleianus,

La E. p. 470 no. 80. M. Burney 86 saec. xiiLI This was very imperfectly collated by Heyne in 1802; my own collation is independent, but I have used (and checked) Heyne's as well. See Heyne vol. iii. E. M. Thompson in G. R. ii. p. 103 La Eoche E. T. p. 467 p. c. no. 65 Maass in Scholia Graeca in Homeri Iliadem Tovmleyana i.
B.
; ; ; ;

U=

the Oxford ed.) pp. vii. ff. ; Gardthausen Gr. Palaogr. p. C. R. iii. p. 156. I have occasionally named John Ehosos of Crete as responsible for some added lines, etc., as his handwriting is unmistakable. Genavensis, for which I have of course followed the laboriously minute
(vol
V. of

405 myself in
;

ii. pp. 219 flf. T£e MS. is exhaustively described in the Introduction to that work.

collation of Nicole Scolies Genevoises de I'lliade

Z7= portions supplied by later hands, viz. A 1-54, 109-66, B 506-877, e 214-565, I 1-63, 706-13, K 1-50, O 576-617, il 707-62.
All the Mss. hitherto
out.

named except M, N,
is

In aU that follow the collation

have been collated throughpresumably or certainly only partial.

Harl. a = B. M. Harl. 5693 ; saec. xiv.-xv. This is the "Harl." of Heyne, who took his readings from Bentley's MS. notes (vol. iii. pp. xcvii. See also G. R. iii. 295. I have repeated Heyne's readings flf.). where I found them correct, after checking the whole with the and added a few of my own. a very necessary precaution MS. (see above). In A-Z Harl. a is quoted only where differing from The following B. M. and Paris mss. I have collated only in

M

selected passages (about 2000).

b = HarL 5600, by John Ehosos,

J,

finished 16th May 1466. based on T and another MS. not yet identified. Contains A, c = Harl. 5672, also in the hand of Ehosos. 490-594, r 123-461, A 1-246. This is not based on T.
saec. xv.-xvi.

It is

B

1-9,

d = HarL 5601,

King's
Par.

= B. M. a = Paris,

King's 16.

Written in 1431.
?

grec 2681, saec. xiv.-xv.

The

MS. has large gaps filled

up

in another „

hand on

different paper (/. P. xx. p. 244,

La

E. H. T.

p. 470 no. 81). b = Paris, supplement grec 497, saec. not in La E. J. P. XX. p. 250
;

xiii. (?)

;

a fragmentary MS., see


c e

= Paris
= Paris

2894, 2682,

saec. xiii.
saec. xv.
saec.

d = Paris 2680,

(?) (La E. H. T. p. 475 no. 103). (La E. E. T. p. 476 no. 100). xiv.-xv. (La E. E. T. p. 471 no. 82).

XXX
Par.

THE ILIAD
g

f= Paris = Paris

2683, 2684,

saec. xiv. saec.

are supplied
Iliad).

A 1-583 by another hand, but the MS. contains the whole
xiv. (La B. p.
;

(La

R

H.

T. p.

471 no. 83). 471 no. 84 is wrong


h = Paris 2685,

= Paris k = Paris
j

(La K. p. 471 no. 85). (La R. p. 472 no. 90). only; 2697 (not in La R.), 'saec. xiii.' {% Contains I is in a different hand (/. P. xx. p. 246). {Note. Paris suppl. grec 144 is in the hand of George Gregoropulos, like R, and is identical in its readings with that
saec. xv.

2768,

saec. xiii. (??)

A-M

MS. as far as

Y

367.

with

P

as far as the

end

After that line it is practically identical of #, and apparently to the end of J2.

It is therefore not quoted here.)

E.

Heyne's MSS.
above
;

("HarL," Vr. a

see Harl. a

"Townl.," see T.)

= Vratislaviensisi
La

Heyne does a (La R. H. T. p. 477 no. 106). Contains A-Z 356 and the Odyssey. not give any date.

b, ace. to

R

(ff.

T. p.



,,

c (no date) contains

A-K

469 no. 72) saec. xiii. -xiv. 377, with Eustathios.

(no date) contains N-i2. It is practically identical with La Roche's H. A, written by Michael Apostolis, who died a.d. 1472. Contains Iliad and Odyssey. The above mss. were collated for Heyne by Prof. F. Jacobs of Gotha (vol. iii. pp. Ixxxvii. S.). Mosc. 1, in the Archives of the Imperial College at Moscow, saec. xiv., contains A-B 434 (La H. T. p. 470 no. 76). 2, in the Library of the Holy Synod, saec. xii. (?), contains A 195-331, ,, 604-B 304, 391-406, 424-40, E 438-Z 97, 234-301, 438H 24, A 65-133, 340-M 60, 3 237-522, 11, Y-J2 475.

d

R

3 ("recentior" Heyne), in the Library of the Imperial Archive, contains A-B 26, V 1-323, A-A 688. For these three Heyne used a collation made by C. F. Matthaei
(vol.

frag.

Mosc,

iii. pp. xc. fif.). portions of a MS. of which

we

are told nothing more, con-

61-467, 0, P, 2, T. These fit so exactly into lacunae of Mosc. 2 that one would naturally suppose them to belong to that MS. ; but Heyne does not suggest this. The collation is due to Heyne's pupil Nohden (ibid. p. xci.) Eton., in the Library of Eton College, saec. xiii. (?), contains A-E 84. Collated by Nohden (Heyne iii. p. ex.). Mor. (saec. xv.), called from its owner, John More, Bishop of Ely at his death it was bought by Bentley, and is now in the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge. This MS. and the next coincide so closely with G that only their differences from it are quoted. Heyne's collation is from Bentley's notes (iii. p. xcvi.).
taining
;

M

^

Vratislavia

is

the Latin

name

of Breslau.


PROLEGOMENA
(Heyne iii. p. xL). Xaud., Laudianus (from the library of Abp. Laud), in the Bodleian,
contains, with, other matter,

xxxi

Bar., Baroccianus 203 in the Bodleian at Oxford, collated by T. Hearne
no. 731,

A-B

493.

Cant., in the Library of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. This contains Iliad and Odyssey. It was first used by Barnes, and afterwards by Bentley, on whose notes Heyne's readings seem to be based (iii. pp. xl., xcvi.). It is almost identical with S, and is quoted only when differing. Iiips. =Lipsiensis 1275. This consists of two parts, A-P 89 and P 90-i2, on different paper and from different sources. The former is the older about 1300 ace. to Hoffmann; the latter, here distinguished as Lips., about 1350. It was collated by Ernesti for his ed. of Clarke's Iliad; Heyne follows him with additions from Bentley, who apparently had notes from Mencken or Bergler ; Heyne iii. See Hoffmann pp. 46 ft'. Lips, is closely related to P, and is p. c. quoted only in the rare event of a difference. Ven. B = Venetus (Marcianus) 453, saec. xi. See Hoffmann p. 22, La R. H. r. p. 458 no. 7. Heyne rarely cites this MS., and it is not clear whence he got his readings. Hoffmann has given a full collation for $ and as in the case of the other MSS. for which his name has been cited above, viz. Syr. AC DHL Lips. Vat. Heyne quotes occasional readings under this title, but I have been unable to find anything to identify the MS. referred to. He mentions Vatican Mss. on pp. xlii., xlvii., c, but none of them seems to

X—

suit.

VI.

Explanation of Signs and Contkactions
(the excerpts
a-qfieimv).

An.

= Aristonikos

in

the

scholia from

his

book

irepi

twv

'ApUTrdpxov

Antim. = Antimachos. Ap. iex. = ApoUonii Sophistae Lexicon. Ap. Bhod. = Apollonios Rhodios.
{Note. In the scholion on I 153 ' K.TroXXmvio'i ("Apollon.") is probably a mistake of the Ms. for 'AttoXAoScu/dos, which Schol.

L
Aph.
Ar.

reads.)

= Aristophanes
scholia as

Byzantius.

= Aristarchos.
Ixion,

Argol., Chia,

Dem.
Did.,

Cypr., Mass., Sinop., the ancient editions quoted in the StvwTriKij. 97 ' Kpyokucrj, Xta, KvTrpia, Macro-aAtuTtKij, Bern. Skeps., Demetrios of Skepsis Ar//i^T/)tos 6 'l^lwv
:

(the excerpts in the scholia from his work irepi, rrj's Api(TTap\€LOV Siopduxreois). Dion. Sid., Dionysios Sidonios (see Ludw. i. 50), to be distinguished from

Didymos

Dion. Thrax
Et.

(ibid. p. 49).

Mag.

= Etymologicum Magnum.


xxxii


THE ILIAD

:

Et. Gud.

Herod.

= Etymologicum Gudianum. = Herodianos (generally the excerpts
irpoo-miBia).

in the scholia from his 'IXiaKr/

Nik. = Nikanor (the excerpts from his irepl cmy/tijs). Porph. = Porphyrios (the fragments of his ZrjTrifiaTa 'OfiripiKa).
Ptol.

Ask.

Ehi. Zen.

=

= IlToAe/xaios o 'A(TKaXwviTrjs Ptol. Oroand. = nToA,e/iaros o 'OpodvSov, also called IItoA. IlivSapiwv (Ludw. L 50) ; both to be distinguished from XlToAe/iafos 6 'EwLdeTrjs (ibid. 48). Rhianos.
:

= Sosigenes. = Zenodotos. &o. = dOeTet, dOeTovcri. rp. = ypd(j)eTai, ypdcJMvcri,
Sosig.

ypwirTeov.

hvyfix indicates different readings in the two editions of Ar. ap. = apud ; generally of readings mentioned or implied, but not adopted,

by an
cm.

author.

= omittit, omittunt. supr. = supra scriptum, supra scripto. C^ etc. = the first hand of C D^ etc. = the Gr' = G in the text, G" = G in the margin,
;

second hand of D.

[H], the square brackets indicate a reading of one of La Roche's mss. inferred from his silence only i.e. he does not quote the MS. for

any other
doubtful.

alternative.

The

inference

is,

however, often highly

n

indicates, according to circumstances, " all mss.'' or " all mss. other

those explicitly quoted for a different reading "
course,
*,

than

in both cases, of

with the qualification "so

far as I

am

aware."

the asterisk indicates erasure of one letter.

All

" suprascript " readings, on account of their generally secondary
occurring in a series of quotations. no explicit statement is made) or the text. similar reference is implied imply a reading of H"", P*, which wiU be

value, are enclosed in parentheses

when

They
in

are to be understood as implying (where
12

that the MS. itself agrees with

A

So also H', clear on the same grounds.
etc.

C\ D2

P™

the

All parentheses in a series of mss. (when they do not themselves include name of a Ms. ) refer to the MS. immediately preceding, and to no other.

J2

r

Take then the following (imaginary) note " 999 om. CD* CTeixei Ar. CTe{xH(i) D^G^H^J (yp. crefxei) (L supr.) P [supr. €i), cv aXAut
:
||
:

A, yp. Harl. a." This conveys the following statements

C

omits the line entirely. omits the line in the text but has
it

D
am

supplied in the margin.

Aristarchos reads a-Tetx^i (as in the text), and so do all mss. (so far as I aware) other than those which follow. These read either u-rdxqL or
:

a-TuxV (which for the purposes of this Apparatus need not be distinguished)

namely The

line supplied in the margin of D (probably by a later hand, though information on this point is too often deficient).

PROLEGOMENA
The second hand of G but the first hand had The first hand of H but the second hand has
J

xxxiii

—but with P —but with

crretj^et.

altered

it

to o-Tei'xei.

oTeix^' given as a marginal variant. ei written over rj{i).
a,

7j(i) written over it. while reading <rreix^i, have the marginal variant CTTEtX'jCOj introduced in one case by ev aWtjyi, the formula peculiar to A, in the other case by the ordinary yp.

L, while reading trreixei, has (7TeiX5j(i) or simply

A

and Harl.

INDEX TO ABBEEVIATED EEFEEENCES^
zur grieohischen und lateinischen Etymologie, von Leipzig, Teubner, 1879. Erstes Heft. American Journal of Philology (from 1880). A. J. P. Homers Ilias filr den Schulgebrauch erkliirt von K. F. Ameis. (Recent Ameis. editions, which are numerous, are "hesorgt von Dr. C. Hentze.") Anhang zu Homers Ilias, Schulausgabe von K. F. Ameis. (Third Anil. ,, ed. of part i. , second ed. of subsequent parts, ' besorgt von Prof. Dr.

Ahrens

— —

Beitrage Beitrdge. H. L. Ahrens.

'

Bekker H. B.
Bergk
P.
L.'^

— 1872. — Poetae Lyrici
vol.
ii.

C. Hentze."

Frequently cited as "Hentze" only.) Bonn, vol. Homerische Blatter, von Imman. Bekker.
Graeci.
Tertiis curis recensuit Th. Bergk.

i.

1863,

Lipsiae,

Teubner, 1866.

Brandreth.

'Ojrqpov FCKtas littera

notatione brevi London, Pickering, 1841. Bruginan(n) Proh. Bin Problem der Homerisohen Kritik und der vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft. Von Karl Brugman (sic. The author is however identical with the Brugmann of the following work). Leipzig, 1876. Gr. Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der Indogermanischen ,, Sprachen (vols. i. and ii.). Strassburg, Triibner, 1886-92 (see Delbriick Gr.). Buchholz H. R. Die Horaerischen Realien. Von Dr. E. Buchholz. Leipzig, 6 parts in three vols. 1871-85. for Homer and Hesiod. Buttmann Lexil. Lexilogus By Philip Buttmann. Translated and edited by the Rev. J. R. Fishlake. 5th edition.

digamma restituta ad metri leges illustravit Thomas Shaw Brandreth.

redegit et

,

— — —

.

.

Cauer Grundfr.
I. =

London, 1861. Grundfragen der Homerkritik.

Von Paul

Cauer.

Leipzig,

Hirzel, 1895.

Corpus Inscriptionnm Graecarum. C. Gierke (Miss) Fam. Studies. Familiar Studies in Homer. By Agnes M. Gierke, Longmans, 1892. Cobet M. C. Miscellanea Critica. Scripsit C. G. Cobet. Lugd. Batavorum, 1876. Collitz. Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. Herausg. von Dr, Hermann Collitz. Gottingen, Vandenhoeck, 1884 on. London, D. Nutt, 1887 on. C Pi,. Classical Review. Curtius Et. Grundziige der griechischen Etymologie, von G. Curtius. 5th ed.

,,

,,

SI.

— Leipzig, 1879. Vb. — Das Verbum der Sprache, seinem Baue nach dargestellt. Von G. Curtius. Vol. 2nd Leipzig, 1877 1876. — Studien zur griechischen und lateinischen Grammatik, herausg. von
gr.
i.,

ed.,

;

vol.

ii.

G. Curtius.
1 This index hibliography.

Leipzig, 1868-78.
list of

is

not intended for a complete

works cited

in the notes, umcli less for a

——
INDEX TO ABBREVIATED REFERENCES
Darbishire
Rell.

xxxv

Phil. Philology,

— Relliquiae
by the
late

Pliilologicae,

or

H. D. Darbishire.

Essays in Comparative Edited by R. S. Conway.

Delbriick

Cambridge, 1895. Syntaktisohe Forschungen, von B. Delbriiok und E. Windisch. i, Der Gebrauch des Conjunctivs und Optativs im Sanskrit und Griechischen, von B. Delbriick Halle, 1871. iv, Die Grundlagen der griechisohen Syntax, erortert von B. Delbriick, 1879. Gr. Grundriss der vergl. Gramm. der Indogermanisohen Spraohen (see ,, under Brugmann Gr.), vols, iii., iv., 1893, 1897. Doderlein Gloss. Homerisohes Glossarium, von L. Doderlein. Erlangen, 1850-58. Erhardt. Die Eutstehung der Homerischen Gedichte. Von Louis Erhardt.
S.

F.

;

Leipzig, 1894.

Fasi.

Homers

Iliade.

Erklart von
Berlin, 1871. do.

J.

U. Fasi.

Fiinfte Auflage besorgt

von

Franke. Frazer Pmis.
Gladstone,

F. R. Franke.

J.

—Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a commentary by G. Frazer. London, Macmillan, 1898. M. — Juventus Mundi, the Gods and Men of the Heroic Age. By the
J.

Do.

6 vols.

Right Hon. William Ewart Gladstone.

London, Macmillan, 1869.
;

H. H. G.


S.

Homer.

A Grammar
edition.

Hartel H.

pf the Homeric Dialect. By D. B. Monro second Oxford, 1891. Homerische Studien . von Wilhelm Hartel. Zweite Auflage.
.

Helm.

Kulturpflanzen und Hausthiere Historisch - linguistische Skizzen von Victor Hehn. Fiinfte Auflage. Berlin, 1887. Helbig S. E. Das Homerische Epos aus den Denkmalern erlautert. Archaologische Dntersuchungen von W. Helbig. Zweite Auflage. Teubner, Leipzig, 1887. Hentze. See Ameis. De Homericae elocutionis vestigiis Aeolicis. Hinrichs Horn. M. Scripsit G. Hinrichs. Jena, 1875. = Journal of Philology. J. P. Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. H. S. = Kuos de dig. De digammo Homerico quaestiones. Scripsit Olaus Vilelmus Knos. Upsala, vol. i. 1872, ii. 1873, iii. 1878. Ausfuhrliche Grammatik der griechischen Sprache von Dr. Raphael Kiihner. Zweite Auflage. Hannover, 1869, 1870. Kiihner. and Robert A Greek-English Lexicon compiled by H. G. Liddell L. and S. Seventh edition. Oxford, 1883. Scott Lange EI. Der homerische Gebrauch der Partikel EI. Von Ludwig Lange. Leipzig, 1872. ii, c! kcv (dv) i, Einleitung und d mit dem Optativ. (No more mit dem Optativ, und el ohne Verbum Finitum, 1873. published.) La R. IT. T. Die Homerische Textkritik im Alterthum, von Jacob La Roche. Leipzig, Teubner, 1866. S, JJ. Homerische Untersuchungen von Jacob La Roche. Leipzig, 1869. ^, Lehrs Ar. De Aristarehi Studiis Homericis. Scripsit K. Lehrs. Editio recognita.
.
.

Berlin, Vahlen, 1873.

— — —

.

.

.

.

— —

Aristarehs Homerische Textkritik nach den Fragmenten des Didymos Leipzig, Teubner, dargestellt und beurtheilt von Arthur Ludwich. vol. i. 1884, vol. ii. 1885. Die Homervulgata als voralexandrinisch erwiesen von Arthur S;, V. Ludwich. Teubner, 1898. by W. W. Merry and the late James and R. Homer's Odyssey, edited Oxford, 1876. Vol. i., Books i.-xii. (all published). Riddell. M. and T. Syntax of the Moods and Tenses of the Greek Verb. By W. W. Goodwin. Macmillan, 1889. dargestellt von Richard Meister. . Meister Dial. Die griechischen Dialekte Vol. i. 1882, vol. ii. 1889. Gbttingen, Vandenhoeck. Menrad Oontr. De Contractionis et Synizeseos usu Homerico. Scripsit Jos. Menrad. Munich, Buchholz, 1886.

Ludw.

Lipsiae, 1865.

M

— —

.

.

— —

.

xxxvi
G.

THE ILIAD
ffr.— Griechische

Meyer

Grammatik von Gustav Meyer.

Dritte Auflage.

Leipzig, Breitkopf, 1896.
d. Kunst. Die Anfange der Kunst in Griechenland. Studien von Dr. A. Milchhofer. Leipzig, Brockhaus, 1883. Nagelsbach H. T.—C. F. von Niigelsbach's Homerische Theologie. Dritte Auflage, bearbeitet von Dr. G. Autenrieth. Niirnberg, 1884. Mtzseli SrM. 'Atwi. Erkliirende Anmerkungen zu Homer's Odyssee. Von G. W. Nitzsoh (3 vols.). Hannover, 1826-40. Preller G. Griechisohe Mythologie von L. Preller. Vierte Auflage bearbeitet von Carl Robert. Erster Band, Berlin, 1894 (Zweiter Band, dritte Aufl. bearb. von E. Plew, 1875).

Milchhofer Anf.

MJ—

Reichel

ff.

W. Ueber Homerische Waffen. Archaologische Untersuchungen von Wolfgang Reichel. Wien, 1894.

Roscher Lex.

Schrader
,,

Lexicon der griechischen und rbmischen Mythologie herausg. von W. H. Roscher. Leipzig, Teubner (in progress, from 1884). Havdelsg. Linguistisch-historische Forschungen zur Handelsgeaohichte und Warenkunde von Dr. 0. Schrader. Erster Teil. Jena, 1886. S. und U. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte . . von Dr. 0. Schrader. Jena, 1883.
. .

—Ausfiihrliches —

,,

Porph.

—Porphyrii

reliquias

collegit disposuit

quaestionum Homericarum ad Iliadem pertinentium Teubner, edidit Hermannus Schrader.

Sohuchh.

Schliemaun's Excavations, an Archaeological and Historical Study, by Dr. 0. Schuchhardt. Translated from the German by Eugenie Sellers. Macmillan, 1891. Schulze Q. E. Quaestiones Epicae. Scripsit Guilelmus Schulze. Gueterslohae,

1880.

1892. Studniczka. Beitrage zur Geschichte der altgriechischen Traoht, Studniczka. Wien, 1886. Thompson Gloss.— Glossary of Greek Birds, by D'Arcy Wentworth Oxford, 1895.

von Franz Thompson.

A

Tsountas-Manatt.— The Mycenaean Age

:

A

Van

Carmina cum Apparatu Critico ediderunt J. van F. et M. B. Mendes da Costa. Editio altera. Lugd. Batavoram, 1895, 1896. Ench. Enchiridium Dictionis Epicae. Scripsit J. van Leeuwen J. F. ,, Lugd. Batavorum, 1894. Veitch. Greek Verbs Irregular and Defective by William Veitch. New ed. Oxford, 1871. W.-M. H. U. Philologische Untersuchungen herausgegeben von A. Kiessling und
L.
Iliadis
J.

of Pre-Homeric Greece. By Dr. Manatt. Macmillan, 1897.

Study of the Monuments and Culture Chrestos Tsountas and J. Irving

Homeri Leeuwen

.

.


U.

von Wilamowitz - MbllendorfF. Siebentes Heft. Homerische Untersuchungen [von Wilamowitz-MollendorfiFl. Berlin, Weidmann,
1884.

,,

^e?'.— Euripides Herakles erklart von Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Mbllendorff'. Zweite Bearbeitung. Berlin, Weidmann, 1895.

Note.— The books of the Iliad are referred to by the capitals, and those of the Odyssey by the minuscules, of the Greek alphabet.

;

INTEODUCTI0N
The problem
and
it is

of the composition of the

difficult aspect

seems, even to

lUad meets us in a peculiarly subtle on the very threshold of the poem. The first book a careful reader, to be a perfect and indivisible whole ; yet

and

critic have been fought. Lachmann have rightly felt that if the book could once be disintegrated in spite of its apparent solidity, the task of separation would be dis-

here that the severest battles of the

his school

proportionately facilitated for the rest of the Iliad.

The weak points on which Lachmann fixed are two. The first is the inconsistency involved in 423, where it is said that all the gods went 'yesterday' to the Aethiopians ; whereas Apollo is elsewhere conceived as still shooting his darts at the Greeks, and in 474 as present at Chryse while Hera and Athene are watching the strife in the assembly, the latter
descending to Troy and returning to Olympos jxera. Sai/xovai 6.X.X.0VS. The second is found in e/c roto 493, which refers back, not to the day indicated in the preceding lines, as we should expect, but to the interview between Thetis and her son which ended in 424, and since which at least one night, and apparently several, have passed. The conclusion drawn by Lachmann is that the first book consists of an

two 'continuations,' (a) 430-92, (6) 348-429 Of these he thinks that (a) rnay be by the poet of the original lay, but that (6) is certainly of different origin, and not very skilfully adapted to the place where it is found.
original 'lay,' 1-347, with
to the end.

and 493

We

will first take

(a),

the episode of the restoration of Chryseis.

The

va<me reference of «k tow, though not indefensible (as the preceding lines naturally lead the thought back to the point to which Ik to to belongs, cf. 488 with 422), is certainly not what we should expect. Further, the whole we have only to make 490 episode can be cut out without being missed and is of no importance to the story. A large follow 429 immediately portion consists of lines which are found in other parts of the Homeric poems ; and of these one at least, 463, seems to be more at home in the third book of the Odyssey than here, while 469-70 are not in harmony with a well-marked Homeric custom. According to the usual Greek ritual, the purifications of 312-17 should not precede but foUow the removal of There is therefore very strong ground for holding the plague by Apollo. Lachmann is right in saying that continuation (a) is not an integral that but if the two are once separated, we can no part of the original lay

'

'

;

B

2

lAIAAOC

A

(i)

longer admit the possibility that they are
it
is

by the same author

;

the continua-

tion must, from the evidence of borrowing, be of a very

much

later date.

But

most skilfully introduced into a pause in the main action, and offers a pleasing contrast, with its peace and feasting, to the stormy scenes with which the book opens and continues. the real question is, whether This, however, is a subordinate matter the original story of the Menis contained the promise of Zeus to Thetis that he would bring disaster upon the Greeks to revenge the insult offered to Achilles. The inconsistency as to the whereabouts of the gods cannot be denied We can hardly say so. The consistency is it inexplicable 1 with which the Epic poet, composing for hearers and not for readers, is
; ;

concerned,

is

the consistency of the moment.

The consistency

of details in

different scenes is of less importance, so long as they are not conspicuous

enough to aflfect our understanding of the main story. This is not the only place where the poet may have hovered vaguely between the divine power We will of omnipresence and the limitations of the anthropomorphic body. say, then, that the contradiction is real and disquieting, but not convincing. That Lachmann's original lay was ever really an independent poem, as he would have us believe, it is hard to think, and few are now found to hold that a great poet, such as he who composed this debate, would have That the opening of left the quarrel truncated and without a conclusion. the book, prologue and all, is the beginning of a poem of the Wrath, which went on through the defeat of the Greeks and the death of Patroklos to the slaying of Hector, seems as certain as anything in this thorny and obscure matter can be certain. But we must not forget that the more ancient any and portion of the Iliad is, the more it has been exposed to weathering that one effect of the continual process of growth and adaptation has been Hence in this oldest portion to obscure and smooth down the rough joints. critical analysis is peculiarly difficult. But one consideration must be added which lends some weight to Lachmann's separation of continuation (b).' In the Introduction to B it will be pointed out that there is some evidence of a different continuation of the quarrel scene a continuation in which the dispute is laid at once before an assembly of the whole army, and the visit This version was a parallel one, and of Thetis to Zeus left unnoticed. A, as it stands, may have been adapted from the two. It is not in our power to say which of the two was older time has effected a union which shews but the slightest scar, yet we cannot deny the mark, and can only interpret it in the way which seems best to account for the facts. And the facts are certainly to be accounted for on this supposition. The first part
;
'

;

;

of

A

really belongs closely to a certain part of the assembly scene in B,
;

especially to the speech of Thersites

it

does not belong so closely to the

and Thetis, and between Thetis and Zeus. In this form of the story it was the mere absence of Achilles from the field, not the interposition of Zeus, which brought about the rout of the Greek army in A. This is mere hypothesis, but it is a possible hypothesis, and it agrees with
scenes between AchiUes

much
Iliad

that

we

shall find later, all pointing to the gradual composition of the
less perfect fusion of different versions,

by the more or from the first by the

knitted together

fact that all alike are

outgrowths from the Story of the

Wrath, but otherwise independent.

'

;

lAIAAOC A
Aoiu6c.
aeiBe,
rj

Mhnic.

M.7JVIV

6ed, TlTfKTjidheas

Aj^tXijo?
edTjKe,
irpoi'a'ijrev

ovXofievrjv,

fivpC ^A'^atol<; akye
tjrv'x^a'i
'

iroSXd^ B
Tfpdxov,
olcovoicri T6

i(j>6bfj,ov<}

AiBi,

avTov<i Be eXcopia Tevj(e Kwecrcrip
Tracn,

Aio? B
'XKids^
ij

ereXetero ^ovKrj,
Xeyofi^vq 'AireWtKiovTos {dir' i\LKWvos MS.
corr.

1.

^ 5^ SoKouffa dpx^'^^

Nauck), vpooi/uov Ix" touto' MoOcac deidca koI 'An6\XcoNa k\ut6toson, us Kal
^iKdvuip iiifwrfraL Kal Kpdryjs iv tois SiopBariKoh' ' Kpiarb^evos S' iv a.' Xipa^iSanavTlwv (frriirl Kard nvas ^xeiv "Ecnere nOn uoi, MoOcai 'OXOjunia dc6uaT' Sx""*^"*' Snnuc hh uhnCc tc xi^Xoc e' SXe riHXefuNa, AhtoOc t' drXabN ui6N- 6 rbp BaciXfi'i xo^^^seic,

Osann Anec. Romanum
ipuxciC
:

p. 5.
;

3.
of.

noWac
(v.

:

noXXciN Matranga Anec. 500.
d0. Zen.
:

||

Keq)aXiic
5.

Ap. Rhod.

A

55.
?

4-5
infra)
\\

1. 3' iKKii)p\a

CHPST al.

naci

:

Zen. aatra

BouXri

BouXAi Nik. ap. Bust.

1. eed, the MoOira of a 1, who tells the poet the history which he has to relate ; see B 484-92, and compare x 347

a&TodiSa.KT05 5'
otfuis

elfii,

8eb^ 5^

/iot

^i^

^pealv
44, 64,

vavToias
a-i

ivicjyvaev,

and

ye MoDo-' eSLda^e, Ai6s irdXs, ij cri y' 'A.TrbXKiav. riHXHTdBeeo, originally no doubt U.Ti\riCdSa(o). This is one of a class of patronymics formed with a double sufBx, the adjectival -to- and the purely patronymic -aSij-s while the commoner form Iirj\e-lSTi-s has only one. Cf. B 566. bears it accursed 2. o6XoJui^NHN, the same relation to the curse dlXoio as dv^fievos (/3 33) to the blessing 6vai.o, and means that of which we say 6X010. It is best regarded as a purely metrical variant of 6\6iiei>os, which occurs in the same sense in Trag, (Eur. Set. 231, Phoen. 1029, Or. 1363, fferc. 1061) see uupia, Schulze Qu. Up. pp. 192 ff.

488

ij

:

;

'

3. V^eiuoc here, as in 24 other places (Knos), does not admit an initial F and never requires it. Thus connexion with Fls, Flipios is impossible, in spite of the For a suggested nearness of sense. etymology see Collitz in AJP. viii. 214-7. The feminine Itpdl/j-r; is also found, but only applied to women e.g. T 116. "AT3i, a metaplastic dative of 'AfSijs, which in H. always means the with the exception, god, not his realm npo'taij/e apparently, of 'J' 244. irpo implies 'forth on their way,' as in vpolair- = iriixireiv, vpoiivai (195, 442, etc.). iac-, so that irpdta^ev =pro-iec-it exactly. the body is to Homer the 4. aOTOiic


:

:

real self, the
cf.

;

fvxn is a mere shadow where the soul of Patroklos is TvdvT aOrffli eUvia, like the real man. 5. n&a, i.e. all that chose to come

* 65,

:

coimtless; in its later sense, 10,000, the

word

is

accented

fuipioi.

The a perfectly natural expression. reading daira ascribed to Zen. is not mentioned in the scholia, which merely

lAIAAOC A
6^ ov
T^9
Sr)

(i)

TO,

irpwTa

SiaerTijTTjv

epiaavre

ArpeiBri^ re ava^ avSpwv koL Sto?

A^tXXev?.
;

Tap

cr^coe

de&v

epiBi,

^vverjKe fid'^ecr6ai

ArjTOV'i

Kal Ato? v/o?.

o ryap ^aa-iXTJi ^dXcoffel^
"Kaov, 10

vovaov ava crTparov &pae KaKrjv, oKeKovro he
ovveKa Tov
Ar/jei'Sij?.

X.pvcrr)v

^rlfiacrev aprjTrjpa

o ryap

?jk6e Qoa'^ iirl vrjat; 'A'^aiuv
airepeitTt

Xvao/jLevo^ re
(TTe/jy/jiaT

Ovyarpa ^epcov t

airoiva,

ej^cov

iv vepcrlv SKfj^oXov

AttoXXcbj'o?

Tivh yp. bih cti^thn £picaNTO Eust. 8. c^AT^n) Zen. and others. Ambr.^: ArijuacEN ARP(?) Ambr.i Lips.^ Vr. a: fniuac' L: AtIuhcen cr^ujuid t' Eton. Vr. a. iniuHc' 14. ct^uuot' Ar. Q
6.

11.

DU

a

:

The only say that he athetized 4-5. authority for the statement is Athenaeus (i. p. 12), on whom no reliance can be placed. But the reading is in itself In fact the vigorous and poetical. metaphor is so natural that we cannot even argue with confidence that Aisohylos had dcuTo, before him when he wrote (Supp. 800) Kvalv S' iirei.B' l\upa kAttlXfopiots
I

6pvL(n

Seiirvov

oiiK

dvaivofj.ai
o-ifxiKrav

ireXeli/

:

or

Eur.

Sec.

1077

Kvffl

re

fpovlav
i^iijpi(re

daiT^

dv^fiepov^

Ion 505

Solvav B'qpai re tpoLviav dtuTa (Soph, is neutral, Aj. 830 pi^ffw
TTTavots
KVfflv Trp6^\r}Tos olojvoU 6' ^\tap).

In

all

B 761, T 226, favourite in questions SpiSi goes with ^vviTiKe, 656, etc. 'pitted them in strife.' cfcoe: according to the rule of Ar. this form belongs to the 3rd person. Zen. here and elsewhere read a(j>C>C, which Ar. confined to the 2nd person. It is, however, possible that the distinction is a mere fiction. Cf. Brugmann Gr. ii. p. 804, and App. A. 11. Both drifidu and drt/itifw occur in our texts, but the aor. is elsewhere only riTl/iritrev, and dri/idfu is peculiar to the Odyssey. Rhythm, however, is a strong argument here in favour of AiiuaceN in place of the
;

A

these cases there is an apparent echo of the present passage, and SaTra if a real The variant is much older than Zen. argument against it in Athenaeus (often ascribed, though without ground, to Ar.), that H. never uses Sols except of human banquets, is not even based on On the whole Soira fact, see R 43. seems intrinsically a better reading, but we have no right to leave the uniform tradition of the MSS. 6. is oO may refer to the preceding line, the will of Zeus was being fulfilled from the time when ' (so Ar. ) ; or better, to 8.aSe in the first line, ' take up the song from the point when, as in 8 500 ipaive 8' AoiS-ffli, (vBev iXdv, lis o! The extraordinary variant lUv, ktX. 5ii (TTijrrjv {ipicravTo) was explained to mean on account of a woman ' ( !) 8. T<ip an enclitic particle recognised by Herod, (and perhaps Ar. ), from t &p, as ydp from 7' 8.p. It does not of course make any perceptible difference here if we write t' &p (with MSS. except A);
' ' ' :

vulgate

^i/tjjff-'.

to expel drifida from the text of

Nauck indeed wishes Homer
VT>.
:

altogether

;

but
.

v.
.

Curtius

i.

p.

341 n.

t6n XpiicHN dpHTHpa a use of the article which 'is scarcely to be paralleled in Homer.' In other examples with a proper noun it is used with an adversative particle (airdp, lUv, Si), and only of a person already mentioned, e.g. B 105 (Monro). It would
simplify this passage
XpOffijs as
if

we could take
'

an appellative, 'that man of Chryse, even the priest ; but there seems to be no other instance either of a local name thus formed in -1;$, or of a person addressed directly by a local name, as in 442 Xpiio-i;. Payne Knight conj.
ffl

Toi,

Nauck
offers

ToC, for rbv.

but see 65,

93.

The combination

is

a

: the mid. of the person the ransom, the act. of him accepts it, e.g. 20. 14. 'i^tau is subordinate to the preceding participles, indicating a detail, and not co-ordinate with Xvcrb/xevoi, expressing the main object of his journey. It is therefore best to retain the vulg. instead

13.

\uc6ueNoc

who who

'

lAIAAOC A
)(^pva-eo)i

(i)

5

ova

cricrjirTpmi,

koX XLcrcreTO 7rdvTa<; 'Aj^atoi!?,

15

Arpei'Sa Se jxaXtaTa Sveo, Koafj/rjTope Tuimv

" ArpetBat re Kal
v/juv fiev
iicirepcrat

aWoi

eu/ci/jj/itSe?

Aj(at,oi,
e'^ovre'i

6eol

Boiev 'OXvfMiria Bco/mit
ti)

Hpidfioio irdXtv,
ifwl Xvcraire

S

oiKaB' iKecrOaiS'

TralBa B

i^iX/qv,

rk

airoiva Sey^eo'Oai,,

20

d^ofievoi Ato9 viov Iktj^oKov 'ATroWoova."
evO'

oKKob
6'

fiev

•7rdvTe<;

eirev^rjp/qaav 'A'^aiol

alBeicrdab

leprja koX

dr/\ad Biydai dnroiva'
rfvBave 6vfimt,
eTrl

dXX ovK 'ArpetBTii Aya/jLefivovi, dXKd icaKW d^tei, Kparepov 8'
" p/q
ere,

fw9ov ereXXevrjval

i^tiu^-c

25

lyepov,

Ko'CXqicnv
7]

iyw irapd

/ct^etw

^ vvv BrjOvvovT
16.

varepov avrts lovra.
^Xiccero
ii.

Xfccero
iiiiiN P.
c)

AT
II

{supr. e)

:

16. nvis
||

drpeidac An.
{sujyr.

20.
e)

luo\

:

XiicaTs
:

CDVr

Vr.

c

:

Xiica*Te E.

d^Eceai Ai>H
27. aSeic

J^TiJ (supr.
Schol. T.

bi^ecee Q: rb Sk d^x^'^^"' Vr. c 24. 'Arpeideca 'Arau^NONOc Zen,

'^'"'

'irpoaTanriKoO iirapifuparov

CHE

Bar.

of reading ariixiia r' with Beutley (to agree with o-T^/t/ta in 28). The cr^uua is the ApolHnis infula of Aen. ii. 430, a wreath of wool wrapped round the staff in token of suppliantship ; cf. the ipi.1)It is ffTeTTToj kAoSos of Aisch. Supp. 23. probably the fillet worn, in ordinary circumstances, by the priest himself, or possibly, as has been suggested, the wreath from the image of the god. 15. See on r 152. Wccero is preferable to iJdaaero, as it is very rare to find a vowel left short before the first letter of 46. But v. this word (H. G. % 371). 18. Bentley conj. Hij-iu $eol fih SoUv, as the synizesis of Bebs in H. is very improbable (f 251 is the only other case) ; but Piatt points out that this puts lUv in the wrong place. He suggests Tot for diol (which can be spared, of. E 115, etc., and particularly Hymn. 383, But Plato had BeoL, Rep. iii. Cer. 135).

See M. G. § 299 *, and for the 5' Avotva, on the other hand accept ransom,' § 259. 1. 22. £neu9i4uHcaN, gave pious assent, probably by shouting hardly by silence, For the as in the later use of the word. use of the infin. to express purpose,
harsh.
article to.
' ;

S.

n

Brandreth Soiev ft^v 0eol iiiifuv. 393. 20. Mss. are divided between Xiicaixe and \i<raT€. The former is practically equivalent to yMiral re, the reading of

Apio and Herodoros adopted by Wolf. This involves changing xi V into t6, t (with Wolf) or Kal (with Ap. and Her.). But the text Bentley conj. Xiiiracre.
pass, as the opt. is well suited to a As between Sixe<r6e and suppliant. dix^a-Bai there is nothing to choose ; in either case the change of mood is rather

' whole and part construction with 'Aya/i.4iivo>iL, but a locative, in Ms soul, as appears from numerous other passages. 26. For Kixeicd many would read Kixn'i't hut we have no right to neglect the consistent ancient rule by which in such forms « is written before w and o, as it may represent a real difierence of It is not pronunciation (H. G. App. C). necessary to supply any verb before ii-fi, which is an independent prohibitive particle ; the literal meaning is Far be the thought that I shall find thee.' E. G. § 278; Delbiiick S. F. i. 22. Thus the constr. supplies the missing imperative for the 1st person {M. wnd The same explanation can T. § 257). be given in 28, though here the /iij-clause is obviously far on its way to become The progress of /j.^ oi to subordinate. complete subordination may be followed
'

G. % 231. 24. eujuci^i is not a

may

through 565,

K 89, 164, fi 569 (the only other cases in H. of jut; oi with subj.) to the change of mood in Q 684
{M^ and
T. § 263).

' ;

:

lAIAAOC A
fir]

(i)

vv Toi ov
S'

j(pai(yfi/r)L

a-KrfirTpov

koX

crrefifia

ffeoio.

TTjv

e'^w
ivl

ov Xvcrw
o'Ikwi,

irpiv fiiv koX

jrjpa';

eTreicriv

rjfieTepcoi,

ev "Apye'i, TrjXoOi

"Trdrprji;,

30

KTrov

eTTOt'^ofiev'rjv

koL

ijjLov

Xe^o? avTt,o(oaav.

aXK
^rj
B'

Wi,

p,ri

fjb

ipeOi^e,
B'

aaa>Tepo<i

w?

/ce

verjai.
jjLvdcoi,

w? e^ar',

eBSeicrev

6 yepwv Koi eireWeTO

aKecov irapa Qlva ttoXv^Xolo-^oio
B
eireuT

6aXd(T<T7]<;.
35

iroWa

dtrdvevOe kiwv rjpad' o jepaio'i

AiroWcovi, dvuKTi, rbv r/vKO/io^ Te«e Ar/rco' " kKvOL fjuev, dpjvpoTO^ 09 ^pvarfv dfi<f>i^e^rjKa^
,

KtXXai/ re ^adeijv TeveBoio re
2i/j,i,v0ev,

l(f>i,

dvacyaet,^,
vrjov

ei

iroTe

toi '^apuevT

iirl

epe-^a,

(see Did.

29-31 de. Ar. (see below). ^BeiCGN Ar. gddeiCE(N) fi 33. oic 90x0 L. on 34. ^x^con Zen. 123). 39. IpElJfa : [gpejsa H">.
||

:

?

28. xP°f"JiH> : app. an aor. but irregular in stem (ff. O. § 32, 3). There is
,

no clear evidence for a pres. XP'*'"'/''^'"'! though we have fut. jc/)a«rfiV" 296), and aor. x?"''-''!''')'"'' (A 120, etc.). 29-31 d^eroOprat, Srt dvoXitovai t7]v

^

iirlTaaiv
(T/iivure

tov voO Kal

tt)v

direikiiit,

tj-

of the Troad, though others, hard put to it to explain why Chryseis was captured Thebe (see 366), knew of a Chryse close to Killa,.afterwards deserted (Strabo pp. 604, 612-3). The alternative explanation was that she was on a visit to relatives at Thebe. Cf. note on 184. &U91at

yap Kal
?

6

Xpiyc77;s

eliroia-qi

[an

Cobet) aur^s rut ^cttriXei. dirpeirh Si Kal t& rbv 'Ayafi^nvova roiavra
Gvvoiaris
^iyeiv.
'

BeBHKQc, standest round about, as protecting deity, like a warrior protecting a fallen friend, e.g. P 4. Cf. Aisch. Sept. 174 id)
<j>iXoi

esse filiam

Quod autem dixit patri gratum suam esse Regis concubinam,
fortasse

daifioves Xvnfipwi dfupi^Avres irSKiv. 38. imitaietc, protectest by thy might,
;

in aula dissoluta non apud heroicae aetatis homines' Cobet (M. 0. p. 230, in an amusing essay on dTrpeTr^). It is in such judgments that Ar. appears at his worst.

Alexandriae

rather than rulest
39.

verum

esse poterat, sed

see note on Z 402. 'Mouse-god'; Apollo was worshipped under this title in the

JjuiNeeO,

lit.

Troad, as at
JIapvdirios.

Smyrna
Strabo
(p.

as 'Locust-god,'

several places

aco. only here Soph. Aj. 491 t6 (riv X^x"' fw^XSov, Track. 159 d7wi'as ^^tt6f [going forth to meet), Find. N. i. 67 iTav Beol yLydvrecmv liAxav avTid^uKTiv, Eur. Phoen. 817 i) Sk (ivaifiov \4xos fjKdev. This suggests that the ace. is that of the end, after the implied verb of motion (coming to my bed to meet m«), rather than the adverbial ace. of ^. (?. §136 (1). ^noixoJu^NHN implies the walking backwards and forwards which was necessary with the ancient loom. 33. KBciceN if read by Ar., must be a piece of genuine tradition from the form IdFeta-ev. For the article in 6 r^pcoN and 6 repai6c see H. G. § 261, 3. 37. Killa is placed by Strabo on the gulf of Adramytteion, near Thebe. The historical Chryse was on the west coast
cf.
'

31. dNTi6cocaN

with

Rhodes.

606) knows of named Sminthia, as far as The Sminthian temple near
;

Cape Lekton existed to historical times and even on late coins of Alexandria Troas Apollo appears with a mouse at his feet. Mr. Lang argues that this indicates the amalgamation of the Greek Apollo with a local mouse -god, originally a tribal totem. The common explanation is that the word is a familiar abbreviation
of 'Zfu!'do<l>$6pos, destroying the field-mice or voles which ravaged the vineyards ol ykp Kp^Tcs Tois /ii5as afilvBom Ka\ov<Tiv Schol. A (see Frazer's note on Pans. x. 12. 5). Only a few yearsago Thessalywas seriously injured by an invasion of these little pests. Others see in the mouse the symbol of plague, which would be especially suitable here. In Herodotos the destruction of the armv of Sennacherib

;

lAIAAOC A
rj

(i)

et Brj Trore rot Kara iriova fJ-'tjpi eKrja ravpmv ^S aly&v, ToBe i^oi KprjTjvov ieXBcopneretav Aavaol i/jua SaKpva aolcri ^eXeacrtv." w? e<f)aT ev'xpfievo';, tov S' e'«Xve <J>oty8o9 'ATroWmv, ^rj Se KUT OvKvfnroiQ KaprjVfOv '^aofievo'; Krjp,

40

To^'

w/jboia-ty

e'x^cov

afi^i]petf)ia

re (paperprjv.

45

eKXay^av S ap oicrrol avTOv KivrjdevTO<;' o 8
e^er
BeiVT)

eV
rji'e

mficov '^a)o/j,evoio,
vvictI
ioi,Ka)<;.

eireiT

airavevOe veSiV, fiera B

Ibv er/Ke'

Be KKayjf) yever

apyvpioio ^loio.
50

ovprja^ fiev irp&TOv eTrdi'xero icaL Kvva<s apyov<;,

avrap

eireiT

avTolcro /SeXo? ep^eTreu/ee? i^iel';

^dXX
Ttji

alel Be irvpal
fiev

evvrj/Map
Beicar7]i

K

veKvmv KaiovTO 0afietaL ava arpaTov cof^ero KrjXa Oeolo, aryoprjvBe KaXecrcraro Xaov 'A^tXXei/?'
55

TWt yap
41.

eirl

^pecrl OrJKe 6ea XevKcoXevo^ 'UpTj-

T6de

:

t6 3^ Ar.
46.
61.

42. ricEiaN Zen.

(?)

0: tIcoten Ar.
47. ^OlKcoc
:

?

(see

Ludw. ad

loc).

46-7

0.8.

Zen.

^KXasoN
r' S.
||

T^

Lips. ^

a^ucecic Zen. (Sohol.

M 463).
is

B^oc

fivieic

S Mosc.

3.

attributed not to a plague but to a host of field-mice which gnawed the Assyrian bow-strings in the night. A somewhat similar story connected with the colonization of the Troad is told by In 1 Sara. vi. 4 golden Strabo (p. 604). mice are offered as a propitiation when visited by a plague (W. Robertson Smith Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia p. 302, where further evidence is given Speipo seems for a Semitic mouse-god). to indicate the most primitive form of temple a mere roof to protect the image of a god standing in a grove for it was to groves, not to buildings, that sanctity Temples are rarely originally belonged. mentioned in H. ; we hear only of those of Apollo and Athene in Troy, and of Athene at Athens. See note on E 446. XapicNTa seems to be proleptic, for thy For the construction of the pleasure. prayer cf. E 115. 40. nioNO UHpia : see note on 460. 42. For the form rlaai-ev, probably read here by Ar., see note on fi 38. the emphatic, he 47. ofiToO, a use which reminds us of the god We should Pythagorean airbi i<pa. have expected the word to imply an Opposition to some other person as in

;

merely to contrast the god with 51 the arrows seems weak. It was probably this which induced Zen., followed by Bentley and Bekker, to athetize this and the preceding line but the couplet is too fine to be sacrificed. the word is 50. ^nc&ixCTO, visited used in this sense only of attacks made by a god or under immediate divine inspiration v. note on 487. 51. oOtoTci, the men. 52. The position of is the most emphatic possible the same effect is obtained by Milton, 'Over them triumphant death his dart Shook but i.^e.ne.\iK.ic, delayed to strike.' lit. having sharpness. For the form of the compound see S. G. § 124 d. irevK- is doubtless conn, with Lat. pug-, pungo,
; ;
;

;

K

BdW
|

;

;

cf.

53.

wepaevKh A 845, jrevKeSavds K 8. The rhythm of this line is very

'

'

'

'

;

strange ; the connexion of the preposition with its case is so close as hardly to admit a caesura ; but there is no other in the third or fourth foot, cf. S.191. ^NNAuap . . THi deKdTHi the regular formula for a vague number of days Z 174, il 610, and elsewhere often. so B 218, 55. T(2)i hii 9pec) eflKe
: :

X 146

Ittos ip^oi

Kal iwl ^peffl Bijaw, etc.

;

:

8

lAIAAOC A
KTjSeTO
01

(i)

yap Aavawv, ort pa dv^iaxovTaf opdro.
B'

S

eVet oiv ijyepdev Ofirjyepee'; re yevovro,
aviaTCLfievo';
a^it/xe
e'i

Totat

fieTe<j)rj

TToSa?

wkv; A^tWeu?*
60

" ArpetSr], vvv
ayjr

•koKiv ifKay^^Qevra's OLto

aTTOvoa-Trjo-etv,
Br)

Kev ddvarov ye ^vyoifiev,
Bafiat Kal
Xoi,iJ,o<;
rj

el

o/Mov iroXefiois re
Si;

A.j(aiov<i.

aXX aye
ri

Tiva fiavTiv epeuofiev

leprja
ecrriv,

Kal oveupoTToKov, Kal yap t

ovap e« Ato?
rjB

OS
e'i

K

eiiroL

on Toaaov
evy^wXrji;

e^too-aro 4'ot/8o?

'AttoWwv,
65

rap 6 y

eirifiep^eTat,

eKaTO/j,^r)<;'

naXinXaxe^o'ac 56. 6pflTo Zen. 59. naXiun\a(r)xe^NTac fi (-ra S naXiunXare- P). 61. n6Xeuoc d' dju§ Mosc. 1 60. oY net* Zen. a\ ken C. (n6Xeuoc Scujuicj ?). 62. dXXd re P (this variant is almost always found in some MS. and will not be again recorded). {supr. oi) L. 63 ad. Zen. 64. cYnw eY t" Bp fi. 65. ei Tap Herod. A [All printed edd. hitherto A&' Q (Uh' A). have read eY t' Sp' cY o', but eY e' appears to have no MS. authority whatever, and is presumably a conj. of Demetrius Chalcondylas, editor of the editio princeps, 1488. Cf. on 93.]
:
:

D

H

:

||

.

.

A

rather

commoner phrase

is

In! 0pc(rt
iirl

stand in the pres. subj. of a thematic
form.

{ffv/i&i,,

<TT-fide<T<n),

which shows that

Nauck

writes ^pii/j^Sa

(cf.

ippeffi is

to be taken in a locative sense.

Schulze

ip^oiiev,

Fick

ipeiofiev,

6 133), as aorist

56. Note the variant ipiJTo (SpiiTo) ascribed to Zen., and compare Spijat The form in -i)- agrees with I 343. the Ionic colouring of our present text SpaTo would be the old non- thematic form, but oparo is more probably due to Attic influence than to a survival from a prae-Ionic text.
59. nXarxe^NToc, foiled, from the course cf. B 132
;

l^ipevai. like x^ '''")• The fepeiic is mentioned merely as an authority on ritual (65), not as a diviner ; for the Homeric

priest

as

such seems to have had no
;

functions of divination

there are no

omens from
dreams, one

sacrifices.

lit.
ol'

driven
/ic

fiiya

TrXdfouiri.

The

MSS. write

7raXt/;i'7rXa7x-

Bivrai in one word, which is so far right, as it indicates that v&'Kiv is to be taken in a purely local sense. There is an old and wrong explanation, that TrdXtc means 'once again,' and contains an allusion to the legend, unknown to Homer, of a previous expedition against Troy in

which the Greeks had lost their way, and invaded Mysia by mistake. See note on B 276. 60. cY KeN with the opt. assumes as a mere supposition, which is expressed as unlikely ('remoter and less emphatic,' M. and T. % 460), while in the next line d with the future indie, assumes as a
vivid probability. After ilia dxoj/oo-T^aeiv it comes in like a sudden correction of a too confident expression. 62. £peioueN is an anomalous form, and should come from a present * (prjiit (S. G. § 80). The -o- cannot, of course.

dreamer of converse with the god in sleep ; or an interpreter of the dreams of others. In the absence of any other mention of professional dreamers or interpreters in H. (which doubtless led Zen. to reject the line) we cannot decide between the two. The root toK seems to have been a very primitive word for agricultural and pastoral duties ; cf. olavoirSKos beside ai-TriX-os (^ov-k6\-os is probably from the same root kar, Curt. Et. p. 470). It thus means 'one who attends to dreams,' or perhaps, as we

63. 6Neipon6Xoc, either a

who has

might

say,

'

cultivates

'

them

;

compare

the double significance of Lat. ml-ere. 64. 8ti is the rel. pron., not the adverb, and is, like riaaov, an adverbial ace, expressing the content of ix'^""'''''' cf. e 215 lii] /ioi TbSe x'^^'>t and E 185.
'•

65.

For Tap see on

1.

8.

Herodianos

expressly read it here, not t' &p, on the ground oOk iariv o ri aivdetriios ^eip^pero ykp hv ?Tepos t^. He thus distinctly excludes the accepted but purely con jectural reading ci' 6' for ^5'. Granting

)


lAIAAOC

'

A

(i)

at Kev ir(o<; apv&v KvL(Tr)t; alyiov re TeA-etwi" ^ovXerai dvnd<ra<; fjfuv diro Xot'yoi' dfivvai. Toi ?! 7 w? elironv kut ap e^ero, rolcrt 8 KaXi^a? ©ecTToptSTjs, oicovo'TroXaiv oj^ dpiaroi;,
b?
'^iSr)

dvecTTr)

rd t

eovra rd t

eairofieva irpo
et'o-ft)

t

iopra,

70

Kal
Tjv

vrjeaa-

^yrjaaT

'A'^ai&v 'IXiop

Bid fjMVTOO'vvrjv, TTjv 01 TTope ^oi^o<;

'AiroXXav

o a<f)iv iv fjipovecov dr/oprjcraTO kol /MeTeenrev

"

0)

Aj^iXei),

KeXeaC

fie,

Sd<f)iXe,

fivOrjo-acrQai

firjvtv

'AttoXXwi/o?, eKaTrj^eXerao az/a/CTO?ai)

75

TOiydp iycDv ipem,

Se cvvOeo Kai

fiot,

ofiocyaov

^
66.

fiiv

fioi

'irpo(j}po)v

eireaiv Kal j(epa-lv dprj^eiv.
il

KNICHC Ar.

-.

kn!c(c)hc
69.

:

KNiccijc

K

:

Ti.vh KNicHic is

implied in Did.
fi8ei
:

68.
b,

^Kae^cTO Zen.

ICdKy^'^

""^"tic Zen.
:

70.

J'P Mor. Vr.

Moso. 12. 73. 6 Ar. ACi)iGT Snea nrepoeNra npocHiida Zen.

al.

he

im.JV^

(?)

Ambr.

al.

8c

um djuiei66u£Noc
=

76. £rd> pita 3^.

y6.p

the existence of rap and tbe analogy of shews that it is at least possible there is no reason for disregarding the

X 101,
mand.

unanimous tradition. The case is precisely the same in 93, where the corresponding conj. odd' has supplanted the
only attested reading oiS'. For the use of the gen. cf. H.O.%lhlc, and for other cases of res pro rei defectu (vow and hecatomb not paid) E 178, * 457. A colon is put at the end of the line (with Cauer), because the following at xe is not a continuation of the preceding line, but recurs to the opening of the sentence in the hope that.' (62), be observed that the 66. It will rams and goats seem to represent the hecatomb,' which here does not conIt may sist of 100 or of any oxen. indeed be doubted if the -^i; represents (Piatt explains the word as /Sous at all. 'one hundredth of the oxen' a man but even that does not suit this has
' ' ;

to com134, etc. ; with gen. eVcoo is a pure adv., the ace. giving the idea 'to Ilios' (H. G. § 140, efo-u being added inside. 4), and This is always the use of ebia in II.,

^

=

and virtually makes ef(rti) = eis. In Od. there is one instance {d 290) of the ' gen. quasi - prepositional use with The earlier familiar in later Greek. history of the expedition is evidently The presumed as a familiar story. /idvTii was in historical times a regular official in every Greek army. 73. iii 9poN^coN may be either (1) vdtA
'

good

104 ; sense, opposed to a.cj>poviuv, or (2) vrith good intent, opposed to Kafcus
ifipoviav.

This double meaning runs through later Greek: e.g. (1) Aisch. Prmn. 385 KipSurrov eS (ppovouvTo, /tf; SoKeiv <j>pove1v, and (2) Ag. 1436 MytaBos
ws rb irpbtydev
74. It
eff

(ppovCiv ifioi.

place. 67. BoiiXcrai after ai kcv must be subj., and is therefore an erroneous form, as the subj. of thematic verb-

stems must have the long vowel {S. G. Read ;8oi)Xi)t' with P. Knight § 82).

124 /), where the second element cannot have been Probably, therefore, the independent. combination was at an early date felt So also we have as a real compound.
<j>l\e

Ad

would seem natural as two words {S. G.

to write
§

but

for the analogy of Suirer/is,

&pTjtipa,TOi

beside
TTvptriKrii

dprt'CKrA/ievos

andCurtius(P^. ii. 72). ^ word which only occurs in 69. 8x'
=

KTdfiepos),

beside
318,
ir

{"AprfC SovpiKKvris,

the phrase 6x' ftpitrTos, and, is of quite It is generally comuncertain origin. pared with ^foxos, where, however, the idea of eminence is given by the i^.
71.

76.

Cf.

Z 334,
words, as

259.

ciiNeeo,

mark my

T

84, p 153.

Ar^ouai, with dat.

=

to

guide, as

77. fi Ju^N is the regular Homeric The formula of swearing, Att. 5 iJ,iiv. short vowel is confirmed by the metre in

10

lAIAAOC A
r]

(i)

jap oLoiMM avSpa

•^oKaxre/u^v,

o? /leja Travrcov

Apyeleov Kpareet
Kpeia-crcov
el

km

ol

TreiOovTai 'A'^atoL

jap

/SacrtXeu?,

ore •^axrerat avSpl
icaX e'^ei

'^epr]i-

80

Trep

<ydp

re '^oKov je

avrrj/jLap

KaTaTreyjrrji,,

aWa
TOP "

re Kal fjueToirtcrOev
eoiai,.

kotov, o<j)pa
e'i

reXecra-rji, cracorret?.

ev (TTrjOeo'cnv
B'

crv

Be (f>pdcrai,
7rpocre(j>r)

fie

a7ra/i.6ty8o^6j'09

ttoSo.?

0}kv^
olcrOa-

A-^iXXevi;85

6ap(Trjcra<i

/MoXa

elire

Oeoirpoiriov,

on

ov p,a jap 'ATToXXcova Bu^tXov, mi re av, Ys^cCXyav,
evyopuevo<i
oil
TL';

^avaolai

Oeoirpo'iria';

dva^aiveis,

ifiev

^wi'to? Kal 67^^ j^dovi BepKO/ievoio

<Joi

KOiXr)i<;

irapa vqvaX ^apeia<;

j^eipa'i

eiroicrei
e'i7r'r]i(;,

crvfj,7rdvT(ov
I

Aava&v,
Brj

ovB' fjv

^

AjapuepLVOva
evyerai,
p,dvTi,<;

90

b? vvv TToXXov

apiaTd Ay^ai&v

etvai.
dp,vfj,a)v

Kal Tore

ddparjae Kal rjvBa

80
D^.

0,6.

Zen.

||

Kpeiccco Zen.
86.
a.
'

81. Karan^ijjoi (Csitp?-.)
:

Laud. Vat.
88.

:

KaranduijiH S
||

(sitpr. Ol).

82.

re A[i)]U Eton.
?

re

fi.

83. 9p(icoN Zen. Par. d.
Z> Par.
o.

cacl£)CHC

85. ofceac Zen.
II

KdXxa Zen.
90.

ztooNTOc
Ar.

I).

89.

KoiXaic G. Sosigenes [S

l9i4cei
:

Vr.

eTnoic R.

91.

dyaiUN

Zen. Aph.

?]

kN\ crpaTcBi 0.

3

275,

T

261.

/i^v

and

^u^k are of course

the

immediate neighbourhood
BecnrpoTrlji (87).

of

the

only two forms of the same word. 78. dNdpa is of course the object of
the transitive xo'^wo'^Mf"80. X^P"' another form of xepf'o'"', with the weak comp. stem -lecr- or -iir=

commoner
BeoTrpoTTiQiv

Hence both
as 109)

and -wiav (Nauck,

have

(cf. -ur-Tos

and Lat.

inag-is,

mag-is-ter).

See H. G. % 121 and note on the analogous ttX^es, B 129. x^PI'i^iU then stand for x^P^'j " being altered to -q on the analogy of the other forms mentioned iu E. G. App. C, 4. See also A 400, S
382.
81.
gest,

conjectured here. But ffeoirpdmov is well established in Herod, (e.g. i. 54, 68). Beoirplnros is probably one who prays to a god {irpoT- is perhaps conn, with Lat. prec-, procus, etc. ). In Herod, it is used of one who consults

been

an oracle
OlvoxiSao,

(i.

67).

(Cf.

[OJioirpoirlovTos

CoUitz
7r

494,

17,

from Or-

chomenos.)
439. pxiireiv is commonly used in Attic in the sense of living ; e.g. Eur. Ale. 143 Kal iriSs &v airbi KardAvoi T£ Kal /SX^TToi; This line and the next contain three sins against old Epic
88. Cf.

Koranbi/Hi, swallow down,

lit.

di-

as

we say stomach.'
'

Cf.

on B 237,

and Pindar 0. i. 55 /car. [liyav SK^ov. j6\oN, as sudden anger, is contrasted by ye with k6ton, enduring resentment. prosody, the contracted ip.eD and ffflj'Tos, '6<fpa may mean wTiiil, but the omission and koIKtjls for Kol\rii<n. Van Leeuwen of Ke indicates rather that it is final. and others have removed them, but only eY n^p Te dXXd re re here marks the by rewriting the couplet after the model two sentences as being correlative so of the line in tt, which has the older K 225 (q.v.), A 161. forms (oO'ra aol irapi, vTjval §ap. x- eirolati, 83. 9pdcai, consider neither act. nor iibovrbi y' iixidev Kal i. x9. S. ). mid. means say in Homer. f 91. eOxerai does not imply any boast85. eeonpdniON the neuter form ) fulness in our sense of the word, but occurs only here in H. (and possibly Z merely a naive consciousness of his 438, where however it is merely a position. False modesty is unknown to question of accent), and seems harsh in the Homeric hero.
.

.

:

;

;

:

:

'

'

'

: ;

lAIAAOC A
" ov Tap 6

(i)

11

y

ev'^mXrj';

iiri/iefKpeTai
'^ri/j/qa-

ovB

eKarofi^T]^,

aXk
ov8

eveK

ap7)Tripo<;,

ov

Ajafiefjuvwv
arroiva,
ococret,.

aireXvcfe

Ovyarpa Koi ovk aireBe^ar
eocoKev e/CJjpoA.o? rjo
ert

95

TovveK
oiiS

ap
airo

aAfye

ye irplv Aavaoicrtv aeiKea Xoiyov

aTrcoarei,

irpiv

y

"jrarpl

^IXcot Sofievai

eXiKfOTriBa Kovprjv
eKaT0/j,^7]v
ireTTiOoifi.ev.

airpidTTjv avdiroLvov,
e? H.pvcf'rjv

ayetv
fitv

ff

leprjv

Tore k6v

ikaacrdfjievob

100

^ Toc 6
7]pa)<;

y

&<;

elirmv

kwt ap

e^ero,

TOiari

B

dveaTT}

ArpetBrjii evpv
fJueveo<i

Kpeiav

Aya/iefwcov
<f>peve<;

aj^vv/jLevo';-

Be jMeya

afi^l fiekaivai
:
:

Herod. oOt' 6p' (Up) S2. oOb' Q oCie' [G ? U ?] oOt' J. See 94. can find no explicit statement that oOe' appears in any MS. 4KaTH66\oc S. irriiiac' LS. 96 Aff. Ar. 97. aoNaoiciN dciK^a XoirbN 100. XoiuoTo Bapeiac xetpac 69feei Zen. ii. ancdCEl Ar. Ehianos Massil.
93.

oO Tap
I

.

1|

on

65.

||

:

Tore
93. 94. 11.

:

aV Zen.
See on 65.
frrijUHc'

—Nauck

Tfliiatra'

:

see

on

97. AaNQoTciN deiK^a \oir6N dnclbcei so the editions of Ar. and Rhianos, and

the

MaffffttXiuTiKi?.

jSapeias x"/"*' d^^fei,

MSS. give Xoi/iolo he will not with-

hold his hands from the pestilence, which To translate 'he will is meaningless. not keep off (from us) the heavy hands very unof the pestilence involves Homeric personification of Xoi^is, which
'

will imply eagerness and youthful brightness. It is therefore needless to look beyond the familiar sense of Fe\iKi\iKop\4(papov for an interpretation. 'A<l)podiTriv in Hesiod Th. 16 must imply a loose use of p\4^apov as = 6fiiJ.a, cf. Kal SeSopKbra, ^70) aKOTtAiffio §\4(papa Soph. Aj. 85 and elsewhere in Trag.
it

99.

dnpidTHN

and 6N<SnoiNON were

regarded by Ar.

=•

is

not

conj., K^pas for x"?"' moreover this leaves

much improved by Markland's (cf. v 263, ^ 548)

no subject for the Still, in face of verbs in the next line. the almost unanimous tradition, the text, like Zen.'s <pl\ov ^rop in Z 285, looks very like a, bold ancient conj. to avoid an
obvious difficulty.

perhaps as adverbs airpidrriv is certainly so used rightly, in I 817 ; for the form cf. avn^lriv, etc. 103. hiufX u^XaiNoi is the Alexandrine reading ; most edd. give dju^i/i^Xairai. The phrase recurs in P 83, 499, 573 (5 661 is probably imitated from this
It means literally his midriff passage). black (with anger) was full of fury on This loth sides (above and below).

connection

of
e.g.

d/i0i

with
Ipos

ippines

is

with the masc. e\lKmres ('Axaioi), has been variously explained (1) by the ancients black-eyed, but eXtic6s in such a sense has no better authority than the glossographers, weakly supported by a quotation from Kalli= machos (2) with round eyes, JXiJ curved but ?Xif rather means twisted,' and is not used of a circular curve (3)
98.

eXiKcbnida,

common

;

V 442

ippefas

ifup-

:

e/cdXu^c, Z 355 irSvos <fip4vas and other instances in H'.
<l>pevai
&p.4>i.yeyri8iis

aiul>i.pipr]Ke,
(?.

§ 181

;

Apoll. 273. For the epithet JueXaiNOi, as expressing deep emotion, cf. Aisoh. Fers. 113 ravrd
IJ.OL

Rym.

iJ.eXayxl-Ta''

<t>p^v

aixiaixeTCLi

<fib^(tii,

;

'

;

;

rolling the eyes ; (4) sparkling-eyed (root The choice o-eX- of crAas: SO Ameis). the lies between (3) and (4), of which The epithet former seems preferable.

well expresses a vivacious keen spirit, such as the Greeks were conscious of possessing ; while, as applied to a woman.

413 airKdyx)"'' ^^ i"<" KeXaivoSrai., Theog. 1199 KpaSL-qv iirdra^e /teXairax, as well as the Homeric KpaSlri ir6p<pvpe. This (Autenrieth's) explanation seems much superior to the ordinary interpretation of dp.^t/j.eXai.i'ai. as 'lying in the midmost darkness of the body,' which is hardly Homeric either in but the comthought or expression
Oho.
;

'

12
irifiTrKavT

lAlAAOC
,

A

(i)

oa-ae he oi irvpl XafnrerouiVTi, ecKTrjv.
105

KaX'^avra "TrpcoTiarTa kuk oaffOfMevo^ irpoa-eeiire' " fidvTt KaKOiv, ov -jrco Trore fioo to Kpt^yvov etTra?"
aleo

TOO TO, kclk

icrrl
ttco

<^'ika

ippeal /Mavreveadai,

6(r0\ov B

ovTe ri

etTra?

eVo? ovt

eTeXecrtra?.

Kol vvv ev A.avaolen OeoTrpoirecov ayopeveit,
to?
Srj

TovB'
iyo)

evsKa a-^iv e«»;/SoXo? aXjea rev^ei,
H.pvarjiBo';

110

ovveK

Kovp7]<;

ovK eOeXov Bi^aaOai,
OLKOt
e'xeiv.

ayKa

atroiva

eTrel

nroKv /SovXofiat avrrjv

teal

yap pa

KXvTaip-vija-Tp'r}';

irpo^e^ovXa,

KovptBirii aXo'^ov,
106.

eVet ov eOev
eTnec

icm

j^epeicov,

eTnac Ar. Bust.

:

A
ti

Cant. Vr. o A, Lips.

;

^emcc CJTU^

:

gcinac
||

fi.

108. oiixe Tl Ar.

Aph.

fi:

oCB^

Asttpi: (T.W.A.) DXP^: oOt' gri Bar.
,

ctncc
113.
it

DH^T ^a om.

II

oOt' iT^ECCac Ar. Aph.
Lips.
II

oiiV fereXeccac

KXuraiUNi^CTpHC

:

A

110 a.e. Ar. has two dots above the n to mark

U

as

wrong(T.W.A.).

pound may be explained as proleptio, so as to become darkened all about
'

(with anger).

Although in P 499, 573,

not in question, yet both refer to moments of strong emotion. The metaphor seems to come from the surface of water darkened by a breeze blowing over it cf. Si 79, and especially H 16
is
;

anger

leLTras, and the MS. variants may point For the form to something of the sort. eTnac see H. G. § 37. 107. For the personal constr. 9iXa icri uai^reOecem cf. A 345 0(X' dirToKea Kp4a ^dfievai, p 347 aldihs o^K dyadij see S. G, Kexpy^p-^voji avdpl irapeivaL, etc.
;

ws &T€
ibpiiaive.

TTopipOpT}

20, where 105. k^k"
6<T(T03v

7reXa7os (Ss 6 yepojv So KaX^ad'eij' in Soph. Anit. see Jebb's note.
. .

§ 232. 112.

6cc6ueNoc,
{iTrtddfievos
,

6tl

diro

tQv

BoOXouai, prefer, as in 117, A and with xoXi), 319, 'ir 594, and often P 331. This sense is still more emphatically brought out in the following
;

oiK dTri ttjs 6ff(n}S, TTJs ^tovTJs, KaKoXoy^cras Ariston. The verb is always used of the mind's eye in the sense of boding $uij.6s is generally added, e.g. k 374, cr 154, S 224. 106. Kpi^ruoN, a doubtful word ; it evidently means good, though in late Greek it is sometimes used in the sense of true. But the line labours under many suspicious irregularities the use of the article, the neglected F of Fetirai, and the lengthening of t6 by position in the fourth thesis. Furthermore, t6 Kpifyov in the sense that which is good is Attic, and unexampled in H. t4 KttKd in the next line, those eml things of thine, is entirely different. Hence Bentley's ra Kp-fjyva is but a partial remedy, and there seems to be some grave corruption. As we know nothing of the origin of Kp-Z/yvov, the v may, for
KaKuJs
,

compound, irpo^i^ovKa (the perf. is \ey. in Greek outside the Anthology).
is

Stt.

It

in this sense of choice that poiXopAu differs from i0i\w, not in any subtle difference as to the efficacy of the wish. a^Ti^N, emphatic, as opposed to the
113. This is the only occurrence of the of Klytaimnestra in the Iliad. It will be seen that has an indication of

ransom.

name
what

A

generally acknowledged to be the correct form, KXirratyuiJorpi;, given by the best Mss. of Aischylos and Soph., though the rest have the faulty
is
flV'rjO'TpTJ.

now

we can tell, have been long we could then read oii iria ttot^ fioL Kfyff/vov
all
;

114. KoupidiHc, a difficult word ; the plausible, but not entirely satisfactory, explanation is that of Curtius {Stud. i. 253), who derives it from Kelpu, and refers it to the custom of cutting the bride's hair before marriage ; hence 'wedded.' So Kovpot from the custom of cutting the rrXdnafw^ 8peTn"fipios at the age of puberty.

most

'

lAIAAOC
OX)

A

(i)

13

Sifiw; ouBe

<l>vi]v,

ovt

ap

<^peva<;

ovre

rt,
<y'

epja.

115

aXXa Kal w?
j3ovXofjL

e6eX(o Bofievai iraXiv, el to
Xffloi/

ajMeivov

iytb
efioi

aoov

efifievat

rj

airoXecrOai.
,

aiiTap

yepa's avrij^

eTOifida-aT
eTret

o<}>pa

firj

0409

Apyeitov dyepaaroi; em,
Xeva-a-ere <ydp

ovBe
6
fioc

'ionce(yipa<;
Bio<;

to 76

iravre';,

epj^eTai aXXrji.^'
'A^j^tXXeii?

Tov 8

TjiieL^eT

eireuTa 7roSdpKr}<}

121

" ^ArpetBT] KvBi(TTe, (piXoKreavcoTaTe irdvrwv,
TTW? Tap Toi Bmcrovcn, jepa^ fiejdOv/jLot
^A.j(ai,oL
;

iroWd, dXXa fa fiev iroXimv e^eirpdOojieu, rd BeBacrTai,, Xaov<i B' ovK eTreoifce TraXCXTiMja ravr eirwyeipei.v. dXXd (TV fiev vvv TrjvBe demi Tr/soe?, avrdp ^A'^aiol
ovBe Tt
TTQ)
iB/jLev

^vv^ia

Kei/j,eva

125

rpnrXrji reTpaTrXrji, t

diroTia'OfJ^v,

aL

ice

iroOi

Zev?

116.

SueiNON

:

SptcTON L.

117

i.9.

Zen.

||

ciioN Apoll. de Ccni.

120. Xeiicare

6

:

Xeiicere

c6oN muUi.

(ciQon)
||

Q c&n Ar. t6 re rdxe Vr. a.
:

:

:

122. 9iXoKTeaNecTaTe
124.

nco

:

Aph. (ace. to Seleukos ap. Eust.). nou Ar. Aph. (A supr. but ou dotted, T.W.A.).

123.

rdp A: rdp

S2.

115.
is

not quite
irvpbs

The distinction of 3^ac and 9ui4 From phrases like clear.
it

ably often been supplanted by ydp in
similar passages. 124. KeiueNO noXXd go together, a common store laid up in abundance. auNi^'ia recurs as an adj. in nco 809. here, as often in H. any wise ; it is not restricted, as in later use, to the sense yet. 125. Th ixiu is here the relative, what we have plundered out of the towns, that is divided. But this use of ret is not consistent with the usual practice by which the art. when used as a relative mMst follow the noun or pronoun to which it refers, and we ought probably to read d\X(£ 6' & fUv (see H. G. § 262). Even then i^€irpd6o/j,ev is curious ; elsewhere
,

5e/ias

taie S^/«ts generally;

as
0ifi7

would seem natural to outward appearance
'

as 'growth,' i.e. 'statBut this latter meaning belongs ure.' to 5e/tas in E 801 TuSeiis toi /UKpbs i&i

m

^

Perhaps we may render 5iims. 'stature and figure' with about the 432 same degree of vagueness. Cf. KdWe'C Kal Ipyounv I5i (ppeai.
lijv

N

117. Sri ZtivSSotos airbv ii8iTi)Kev ws T^s biavoiai eiiidovs oUffif^s. oi del dk airbv

toU &vw yap 'S^yerai., (For the emendation Ariston., rightly. of iv ijea see Verrall on Eur. Med. 148 so in Schol. A on A 234, B 150. ) c6on is preferable to the aSv of Ar., a contracted form not elsewhere found in H. But except in the nom. trfis in X 332. see note on the correct form is ffdos 1424. 118. ripac, the gift of honour to the
ISiat irpo(l>ipeaBai,

dXXi

am>6,irTea>

iv irapa/0i<rei. (MS.

ev ij0eL)

;

ir^pdeiv is

used only with

city,

not

booty,

The preceding ten years as the object. of war have been mainly occupied in
plundering neighbouring towns Achilles counts twenty-three such forays in I 328, and they are alluded to elsewhere. 126. Xaoiic is perhaps to be taken after ^nareipeiN, in the sense to gather again from the people, with the double ace. usual after verbs of taking away. iiri.- thus expresses, as often, the idea of going over a space, or rov/nd a number
;

:

king, set aside before the division of the
119. oOBfe &iKe,

perhaps

'it

is

not

even decent,'

much

less reasonable.

It is to be pre123. rap : see on 8. ferred as the rarer form, and has prob-

of people, e.g.

iinvelixat.,

iiniruiKeiaBai,

iirurrpiixpaii (Paley).

;

14

lAIAAOC
o&UTb TToXiv
TpoiTji/

A

(i)

ivTeo'^eov i^aXaTrd^ai."
Trpoa-ifpr]
eoiv,

Tov 6
"
jJLrj

aTrafiei^o/xevoi;

Kpeioov ^Aya/Jiifivoov

130

8'

ouTO)?,
vowi,,

ayado'; Trep

OeoeiKelC 'A^tXXeO,
ireiaet,';.

icXejTTe
r)

eirel

ov •jrapeKev<yeai ovSe ps
e')(rji<;

eve\ei<;,

o<pp

avro'i

'yepai;,

avrap

ep,

avTa3<s

rjcrOai

Bevopevov, KeKeat Be
ei

p,e

ti]vB'

aTroBovvai
135

aXk

p,ev

Buxrovat yepai; peyddvp^oi 'A'^aioi,
dvp,6v,

apa-avTe<; /cara

ottw? avrd^iov
132. n6coi

ecrrai,-

129.

TpofHN Zen.

:

rpotHN At.

:

n<5on U.

133-4

dS. Ar.

133. 8x='<= C.

136. fipcQNTec Ar. A.

129. Tpotriv, Ar., as an adj., a city of Troas, not 'the town of Troy.' It might appear in that case better to read TpwLTiv, the usual form of the adj. (v. Cobet M. C. 252) but as Tpwi6s generally, though by no means always, stands with the iirst syllable in thesis, it is probable that it should itself be written Tpiibs see van L. Ench. p. 84. Ar. held that H. does not use the expression 7r6Xis Tpoli; for ' the town of Troy,' but TriXis Tpdiav, though in X
; :

prize,

have

me
?

for
'

my part
(S)
'

sit idle

with

Wouldest thou, in order that thou mayest keep,' etc. Dost thou wish that thou shouldest (c) keep thy prize, but that I should sit,' etc. In favour of the construction of iBiXeiv with 80pa instead of the infin. in
'

empty hands

(c)

B

690

is

quoted,

XeXiij/t^xos

6<l>pa.

rix^a-Ta ibtrair' 'Apyelovs, and so A 465 ; but in neither of these passages is it necessary to join 80pa with the participle. Cf also Z 361 Bviibs iiriaavrai 6ij>pa.

510
'

iriXis
' ;

Troy

reject

Tpolt) (Ar. Tpotti) must mean and there seems no reason to this sense here. Zoilos, the famous

accused Homer of solecism in this line for using a, plural verb instead of a singular ; he must therefore have read SQai, which was probably indeed the original form of the 3rd sing, subj., answering to *da,t, not a contraction of Siirjtffi see H. G. § 81, and Mulvany in C. R. X. p. 25. Brandreth after P. Knight reads ddriicyi. TpolTiv.
'Ojiii/po/idffrif,
:

In II 653 6<t>pa. with the opt. seems to be epexegetic of elvai. but that single passage does not justify our assuming so harsh a construction here, especially as there is nothing in the way of the
:

ncp seems hereto have merely of 'very,' rather than of 'though,' which indeed belongs properly to the participle. The meaning is Being a very great warrior (the Hom. sense of dya86s), be content with that, and do not attempt to outdo me in cunning too.'
131.
its original force
'

132. n6coi

is
;

here instrumental rather
'

than locative lit. by opposed to brute force.

thought
Of.

'

as

56 X(57Mi KkiiTTovres, and (paa'Ls, ij T ^/cXe^e vdov tt'ltko.
Tiav
:

S

Soph. M. 217 Trdp^povedv-

Trep

291 KepSaKiot Kai iiriKXoTTos, Ss ire vapiXBoi, e 104 irape^eKBeiv Aids v6ov. So Theog. 1285
for TrapeXeiaeat, v
«' e(ri

and

56Xa)i TrapeXei^deat.

133. 'Three ways of translating this line have been proposed, (a) ' Wouldest thou, while thou thyself keepest thy

construction airrbi jikv Ix^iv. and (5) give a good sense, (a) referring to the distance of time at which the recompense is to be made (128), (6) to Achilles' refusal to accord the restitution at all. But (6) is preferable, firstly, because 6<ppa when it stands alone is commonly a final particle in the sense of ?ws it is regularly followed by T6tl)pa, (not always, v. 47, A 346 ; H. G. § 287) and secondly, because for ^XVi^ we want in this sense ^eis (which C reads). The ainAp is not of course logical, but the interposition of an adversative particle to accent the contrast between the two persons is a perfectly natural anacoluthon. very similar instance is V 290 el S' li.v . . airdp iyib. K^eai is paratactic = seeiTig that thou hiddest me. Ar. athetized the two lines on subjective and insufficient grounds. 136. It seems natural to' take Sncoc Snt. gcrai in the sense 'be sure that the recompense is adequate ; but this construction, though found in Herod,

natural

Both

(a)

;

*

;

A

'

and

Attic, is not Homeric ; and the clause dpa-avres rari Bv/idv should come

lAIAAOC A
et
r/

(i)

15

6e Ke

fir)

Bmmcrtv, iyo) Si
Iq)v

icev
rj

auTo? eKwfiai
'OSwo-^o?

reov

rj

A'iavTO';

yipa'i,

afo)

eXcov
S"

o Be ksv Kej(o\diia-erai, op ksv iKcofiai.

aXX ^
vvv
iv S

Toi fiev

ravra

fieTacjipaa-o/jLecrOa

koX aurt?,
Slav,

140

dj6

vfja fiiXatvav

epvaa-Ojiev et? oiKa
S'

e'jOeTffl?

eVtriySe? ar/eipo/Mev, 6?

eKaTOfi^rjv

Beiofiev,

av h
el?

avrrjv 'Kpva'qtha KdXXnrdpijiov

firjaofiev
ri

Be rt? <ij0%09 avrjp ^ovK7j(p6po<;
f)

ecrro),

AXa<s

7]

'IBofteveiii;

Sto? 'OSvo-creu?

145

^6 av,

JhrfKei^'q,

Trdvrwv iKTrayXoraT

dvBp&v,
'AvtWei!?150

b^p
"

rjiuv

eKaepyov IXdcraeat lepa
ap'

pe^a(;."
(b«i;?

Tov B
mfiob,

viroBpa IBcov irpocre^r] TroSa?
'7rpo<ppwv
rj

dvaiBeirjv eirieifieve, KepBaXeo^pov,
TOI,

TTWS Tts

eirecTiv

iret,0T]Tai,
l(j}i

'A'^aicov
;

^ oBov ov yap
Bevpo

iX£efievat
iyo)

dvBpdcriv
eveic

fidyecrdai

Tpaxov

rjXvOov al'^fjbTjrdav
p,OL

fia'^7]a-op,€PO<;,

eVei ov tC

a'lTioi

elaiv'

In
L.

137. BcbcouciN G Par. h (k supr.). 139 &' Ipfrac Ar.: kc h' Ipirac fi (cic Vr. b). 147.
fijuHN

A.6.

Ar.

140. aOeic

CD.
Zen.
|i

142.

Cf. 309.

143
Vr.
c.

i.0.

quth

Herod.
t' S.

ACT.

149. Kepaa\e6q>puN

Q

150. neieoiTo S.

161.

eXe^cNai

in the apodosis rather than the protasis. may take dXX' (135), in connexion with what precedes, as Very well, if they will give me a prize, such that the

We

'

Bayis fair (I will do so).' ingeniously suggests that dpaavres the apodosis, the KwrcL dvfiSv is itself verb Si.S6vTav being supplied from the protasis, let them give it to meet my wish. The idiom by which a verb common tb two clauses is expressed in one only is not rare in later Greek (Kiihner ii. but clearness requires that p. 1079) the two clauses should be distinctly

recompense

field

unobjectionable. 139 was rejected by Ar. as superfluous and etfrjSes. This athetosis is accepted by those who would banish ice with the fut. ind. from the text of Homer; but the grounds given by Ar. are not convincing, and the omission
of the line would damage the effect. 140. jueTa9pac6uecea, i.e. we will postpone the consideration of this for the present. 144. 6ipx^c is predicate let one, a meTtiber of the council, be in command.
:

;

For those who had the right

moned
146.

to the royal ;3ouXi) see

separated, by particles or otherwise, which Nor does the is not the case here. idiom recur in H. with the doubtful But there is exception of I 46 (q.v.). no doubt that this gives the best sense. dclbcouci (135) echoes Achilles' Siliaoxxri. Note that there is no appreciable (123).
difference between el et Ke with aor. subj.

^KnarXoc

is

not

to be sum404. entirely a word

B

of blame, cf. 2 170. It is perhaps for lK-Tr\ay-\os (root TrXa/c-), meaning ' vehe-

ment,' 'violent.' 149. ^raeiu^Ne
iiAvov oXk^jv,

:

cf. i

y 205
perhaps
:

214 ficydXrjv dmeidivafuv wepiSeivai, to
Kepdake6(fpoN,

clothe as

with armour.
or

with

fut. ind.

and

137. There is some doubt as to the punctuation here, some putting a colon after gXojjuai, but this makes the repetiekiiv very tion of the participles liiv That given in the text is awkward.
. .

crafty ; cf. Z 153 ZliTv<pos, S Kipdurros yiver' avSpui/. a subjunctive express150. neteHTai
greedy,

ing submission, how
Cf. ff. G. § 277.

is

way one

to

obey?

151. 6a6N, whether military or diplomatic. T<pi : v. r 375.

16

lAIAAOC A
ov jdp
TTci)

(i)

TTOT

6/ta? ^ov'S rjkatTav

ovBe fiev ittttou?,
155

ovBe TTOT

iv ^dirji ipij3<oXaKt ^mnaveLpTji,
,

^ p^aKa TroXXa fiera^v, ovped re crKOoevra daXaa'ad re rj'^riea'ara' dXka crob, a p,ij dvatSi'i, a/M ea''jrofied\ ocppa av
eirel
Tt/Mrjv
TTpo'}

Kapirov ihrfKrjaavT

y(u,p'r)v<i,

dpvvfievoi MeveXdcoi,

crol

re,

KVvSiira,

Tpaxov
Br)

T03V ov

n

fieraTpeTTiji

ovB

aXeyL^et?'

160

Kol

p,ot

yepai;

atJro? dxjjatp-^arecrdai, aTretXet?,

mt
I

eiri

iroWa
<7oi

p,o<y7)a-a,

Soa-av Se fioi vZe?

Aj(atS)V.

ov fiev

irore laov e^o)

yepav,

ottttot

^Ay(aiOL

Tpaxov

eKirepacoafiev

iv vaiop,evov TTToXLeOpov
165
iKrjrai,

dXka TO
(Tol

irXetov TroXvaiKO'; TroXe/Moio
,

X^lpe^ ifial BieTTOva

drap

r]v

iroTe 8aa'fio<;
S'

TO y€pa<;
e'X^oDV

iroXii

fiei^ov,

iyo)

oXvyov re ^lXov re

ep')(pp!

eVt

vrjag,

eVet k€ Kdp,co TroXe/ni^wv.
rj

vvv
157.

S'

elp,i

^OirjvS',

eVei

-ttoXv

(jteprepov

ianv
160 dB.
Q.
163.

CKi6uNTa Ar.
dXerizijc Vr.
:

168. xoip^'c Q162.

1S9. dpNuixeNoc Zen.

Zen.

II

a,.

noXXa Ju6rHca
:
:

Ar.

:

n6XV &u6rHca

nXeiON nXeTcroN Vr. b. 166. aOrdp T. inkn KCKduco (or £ni4N kg Kduoa) Q £ne) 168. Inef Ke Kduco Ar. Herod. KEKduco Et. Gud. 169. nOn eTui U. feiHNd' Ar. Zen. ii a variant feiHN ^efHNde ^nei Draco de Metr. is implied, and attributed to Zen. in Schol. P
6nn(ST'
oiib'

8t' Zen.

165.

:

||

:

:

||

(fiprepoN
156.
Ijsraii

:

AeiiToN Plato

Sipp. Min. 370

o.

<T-if/i($),

Bekker and others write /ueon the insufficient ground that does not recur in H.
is

mean

oi^x ?fu, and 166 ff. obviously refer to repeated experience in the past.

very expressive of the importance of shade in a sunburnt

157. CKi6eNTa

The variant <r/«6w»TO, which in land. spite of the authority of Ar. is indefensible, is explained by Fick as due to a primitive SKIQNTA, which could beinterpretedeitheraso-KioC>'Ta=(rKi6ej'Ta (TKibavTo.. or ffKLuvTa 158. x°!pH«^> subj., because the purpose expressed by iairS/ieea is still present, hence also the present participle apvi/ievM follows. tiui4n, recompense. The heroic point of honour is not abstract it requires to be realized in the shape of ransom or material recompense. The present dpNijUGNOi implies 'trying to win.' 163. 6nn6TC is here whenever, and

An read el, the contraction of not being Homeric, and S,v itself doubtful. H. G. p. 329 (where, however, the restriction of el &v, rf Kev to particular statements is at least dis166.
:

«'

S.v

=

putable). 167. 6XfroN re 9iXoN re, a proverbial expression; f 208 Sitris iXlyii re ipOai re : Touchstone's ' a poor virgin, an ill-favoured thing, but mine own.' 0£\os here indeed is little removed

from

its

apparently original sense

'

own.'

;

The vulg. iwriv KeKci/uii is condemned by the non-Homeric contraction from iTd &v. Inci kc kAuxo can equally be read iird KcKd/io, though it is curious that there should be no trace of the
168.

jan

Tpc&coN HToXieepoN = a town of the Troland, see note on 129. Homer never uses Tp. TTToKleBpov of Troy, but Tpiiiav 7r6\is or 'IXlov TToXleepoy. Indeed the expression o6 irore ^x" cannot possibly

redupl. form except in passages equally ambiguous (H 5, P 658). The choice is not easy ; see H. G. § 296. The rhythm perhaps favours KeKd/iu, but of. B 475, * 483, 575 76, fi 423 (?), 6 554, o 277, p 111, <r 150 (van L. Mich.

^

p. 20).

lAIAAOC A
otKaB'
'i/iev

(i)

17
<t

aiiv

vrjva-l

Kopmvicnv, ovSe
icaX

6t(0

170

ivOdB' an/io^ iwv

d<f)evo<;

irKovrov d(j}v^etp."
'

TOP 8 '^fielder eVetTa dva^ dvSp&v Ar/afie/ivav " <f)evye fid\ , et rot dvfJLO<; iireacrvTai, ovSe a ijo) ye
Xuraofiat elvex
01
ifielo

fieveiv

trap

kyi,oi

ye Koi aXXoi,
175

K€

fie

Tifirjaova-i,
fjboi

fiaKia-ra Se /iT^Tt'era Zei/?.
SioTpe(f>ecov
/3a<TiXi](ov'

e^^tffTO? 8e
atet
eu

ea-ai

yap

tol

e/at?

re ^iX/q iroKefioL re jidyai re.
deo<i
triji?

fiaXa Kaprepo<i eaab,
lani

ttov

<rol

oiKao

axw

v^vtri

re

koX

<toi<;

to y eBcoKev. irdpoiai
180

Mvp/jbiBovea-ertv dvacrcre,

aeOev

K

iyw oix dXeyi^o)

ovS

offofiai
e/i'

KoreovTO^' direCKrjaa) he tol wSe*

m?
TTjv

d<^atp6LTai X.pv(77]iBa
iyoo
crvv
vrjt t'
ep.r\i

^ol^o^ AttoWcov,
koX
e'/iot?

fiev

erdpoicn

•TrefjAjrco,

eya
Q

Be

k

dyeo ^piarjiBa KuXXtTrdpTjiov
1^.

171. a<peNON

Bar. Mor. Mosc.

173. firoi

D

(Sohol. B)
||

:

ei

ti

Q.

||

dneccuTai
caTc Vat.

:

yp. ^eXaerai Sohol. T.

175. oY re Lips. Bar.
||

tiui^ccoci

R Schol.

T.

176. diOTpofecdN J.

177

dff.

Ar.

rdp

coi

U.

178. T63e ddbxeN S.

179.

170. c", i.e. (TO! : this elision does not recur (except possibly * 122), but is

and iiaxM are no rebuke to a hero in the
field.

which is found several times. Van Leeuwen {Erich, pp. 68 ff. ) has .shown good reason for thinking that it was originally commoner, but has been expelled as against the rules of later prosody. The sense is, I have no mind to draw
sufficiently supported
/x'

by

for

/loi,

179. NHuci Te cflic, a ease in which it impossible to restore the long form of the dat. plur. in -<ti. without some violence {vTjt re a-TJi Nauok, ffrjiir' Idi van L. ). But it is in these monosyllables that the short
is

form seems
182.

first

to

have

arisen.

'

The thought with which the

"

wealth for you,' like a slave set to draw water from a well for his master.
cKpi^a beside aor. ij^v<ra is it occurs only here, and perhaps should be cupiaaeiv, or a,(pi<reiv (S.<t>viraa, /3 349). 173. judXa, ironical, ' run away by all
fut.

The

abnormal

;

means

'

;

of.

85.

175. 8c KE with fut. indie, seems equivalent, wherever it occurs, to iare, Att. So-Tis (-ff. G. § 266), and describes a 'men who will honour me." class, Those who are engaged in the task of expelling from H. all instances of /ce

sentence starts is, 'As Apollo takes Chryseis from me, so will I take Briseis But the second clause is from you.' broken up into two, correlated by /t^K and S^. A very similar sentence with a 268double antithesis will be found in (It might appear simpler, though 72. losing the emphasis in i/jJ, to take us = siiice. But this causal use is found in Homer only when us follows the principal verb of the sentence, and is thus equivalent to Stl oOtus.) kg in 184 indicates that S7U is contingent upon ir^iifw, virtually meaning ' and then I will
bring.' 184.
§ 275 a. origin of the name BpicHt'c Fick (or rather of Bpicreiis) is uncertain. writes Bp-qaTih, referring it to Bresa, a town in Lesbos, where there was also a Chryse, holding that in the oldest legends both ladies were captured in a raid on Lesbos; see 1 129, 660. To Homer, however, Briseis comes from Lyrnessos, not far from Thebe (T 291-300) ; see on 37.
if.
(?.

with fut. iudic. (an attempt which I regard as wholly mistaken) would do well to write here o'l re (not ol ye with

The

van

other

For rather than nix-fiawai.. instances of this use of 3s /ce see B 229, I 155, K 282, * 587, X 70, See note on 675, e 36, JT 438.
L.)

*

X66.
177 was athetized by Ar. wrongly interpolated from E 891
here,
;

as

irb'Keixoi.

'


lAIAAOC A
(i)

18

avToi
oo'crov
Icrov

laiv

KXtcriTjvBe,
el/Mi

to aov yepa^, 6j>p

ii)

el8rji<;

185

(j)epTep6<;

aiQev, aTvyerji, he Kai aXKo^
o/jioiaiO'^fievai,

i/jLol

(j>da-0ai,

koX

dvTrjv.

w?
rj

<f)dTO'

TlrjXei'eovi,

S'

a'^O'i

'yever,

iv Si oi rjTop

CTTrjdecrcrtv

Xacrioiai BidvBi'X^a fiepfirjpi^ev,
jjLTjpov

6 ye ^da-yavov o^v epva'(rdfievo<; irapa
fikv

190

Tov<;

dvaaTrjcreiev,

6

B

ArpetBr^v ivapi^oi,

^6 j(oXov Travaetev eprjTvaeie re dvfiov. eft)? o ravd' Mpfiaive Kara <^peva xal Kara

6v/j,ov,

eXKero
d/M^co
a-rr)

8'

e'/c

KoXeoio fieya

^i,<f)o<i,

^\6e

B'
'

'AOrjvrj
Hjoij,

ovpavoOev
S'

irpo

yap

rjKe

6ea XevKa)\epo<;
KrjBo/jLevrj

195

o/iw? Ovfi&t (piXeovad re
oiridev,
^avdi]<;

re.

Be

KOfirji;

eXe TIr)Xeteova,
erpaTreT, avriKa
eyvai
200

o'lmt

(paivofiivri,
B'

twv

B

aXKcov ov rt? opdro.
B'
S'

6d/j,^rjcrev

'A^tXeu?, /j£Ta
Seti'a)

TiaXkdK
Kai
/AW'

'Adrjvaurjv
(pavijaa';

Be ol ocrae <^dav6ev.

eirea Trrepoevra •n-pocrTjvBa-

Cant. 191. 189. Juepui^piZGN 186. CTur^ei JPE : crur^oi Bar. 192 &0. Ar. (see note on 188 below). iNaplsoi H^'JPRST ^Napisci G Vr a. 195-6 d.9. Ar. 197. saNe^N ik k6juihn . . nHXefcoNoc 193. SpuaiNG D. Cf. 56. 198. 8pHT0 U: 6pflTo Zen. 0. Tivh (Zen.?) An., Par. c supr.
:

GHL

185. t6

c6n
reiv

may
P.
40,

ruption

:

Z 407,
article

490,

n

he an Attic corKnight (see 207, S 457). But the
'

require two alternatives expressed 192 entirely spoils the picture.

;

and

has a certain emphasis,

that

191. a a^ as often repeats the subject of the first clause ; the contrast is with
toi)s /i^c.

y4pas of thine. 187. TcoN is an adverb, i^yop^^af MO'
(schol.)

not an
l<ros.

adj.,

as it

would then
de<rirol>''ns

rather be
cpaa-Bai..

Of. o

377 a^ia

188. 4n 'his heart

is

here

still

an adverb,

i«i<Ai»,

m his shaggy breast.
i^viKbo
T-n^

Xacioici,

according to the Schol. A, because they cover the heart, hjii. i<Trl t6 irvpwSes Kal
eepp.b:'

K<d

fvxvj

.

.^v
et

193. g„c scanned as -a trochee repre^^^^^ ^f g^urse an original ^os (efos ace. ^o the rule of our MSS.), clearly by an g^POj. jjj transcription of an old Attic (h)B02. This is the only scansion of ^.j^^ ^^^^ ^^ j^ ^ ^^ -^ y^j ^^^ alternative form eim is equally ^os (but ^^ ,^ ^gg ^ ggj, ^^^^ j^ f^ Q^_^^j^g

^_

scansions
-.

V.

-

or

-

(synizesis) are
, ,

com-

So Hentze quotes Galen, de Temp,

lKa.vG,s

ch,

SaaM

rt,

aripva, 0vpA.Kb,
see note

d,ro0afro.Ta..

189. aidNaiYO ucpuiipiseM:

me were rejected here by Ar a^ j / l^^-G wrongly anticipated from 208-9 (which ^en. athetized) it is not for the poet
i.
;

on e 167,

(6

dpeUsUr^Sio

ii,epli^^r,<re^

oiK ivavTla. aWvXois, S-rep iK\a.^(i>v th wpodidriKev " ije x^^"" Tai^treiei'," and on 192, &n iKXiierai. ra rijs dpyijs (the picture of passion is weakened) 5i6 &6eTelT(u These remarlcs are perfectly Ariston.

^

?•''

^

^^^
is

*^''

''''

Mrraation.
197. crft,

came up; this
^(tttiv.

the usual

sense of the aor.

right

had

Sidvdixa p.epp.'fipt^ev means "half a mind,"' and does
;

'

he not

200. oi may refer to Athene her eyes gleamed terrible or to Achilles terrible shone her eyes on him. Cf. T 17, which
;

is

in favour of the former view.

.

lAIAAOC A
" TtTTT
rj

(i)

19

aSr

,

alyio'x^oio
i'Stjt?

Ato?

reKo<;,

etXrjXovOai;
;

;

Xva vjSpiv
e/c

^Ar/afJie/jLPovo^

'Arpe'iSao

aXX

Toi epieo,

to Se Koi reXeea-Oai,

otat-

^49 inrepoTrXiTjicri rd'^^

av vrore Ovjxov

okea-crrji."
^A.drjvrj'
-TriOrjai,

205

Tov B

avTe irpocreenre 0ea
irpo Si

yXavKtoTri,';

" rfsSov iyo) iravcrova-a rebv

/ji,evo<;,

al k€

ovpavoOev

fi

rJKe

deh XevK(oX,evo<; "Uprj,
210 «
-

afK^m op,S)<i Ovfiwt <f)iXiova-d re KTjBo/jLevr] re. aXX' aye Xfjy' 6piSo<;, firjSe ft^09 eXiceo %ei/3i'

aXX ^
toBe

TOi eireatv p-ev oveiSicrov
i^epeto,

co?

ecrerai

•Trep.

yap

to Be Kal TeTeKeafievov ecTTaf
Toacra irapia-a-eTat,

Kai iroTe tol

Tpli}

wyXaa B&pa
S'

v^pioi
202. afix'

eXveica

TrjaBe'

av

B'

Xcrjfeo,

ireiQeo

rjplv."

aO PS Mosc. 2. 203. YShic Zen. GJR Par. c f KShi Ar. fi. TeX^eceai At. Par. f TcreX^ceoi Q TereXecu^NON Scrai Zen. 206. ax&cai (A?)CZi(Ei?)STU Harl. y. 207. re^N Harl. c d, Par. d e h, Eust. 208-9 &.8. Zen. t6 c6n il. 212. TereX^ceai 61'cd Zen. 213. TOl : coi H.
:
:

204.

:

:

202. aiSre, again, an expression of impatience, implying 'one vexation after another.' Of. 540. 203. The vulgate iSiii for YBhic might be accepted if written iSii{ai), but the contracted form is late. Ar. preferred it, though in this verb there appears to be no distinction whatever in sense between the active and middle voices. tSw/iai., 1. 262.) . (Cf. particularly fSo;/ In the subj. the latter is commoner, except in the 1st pers. pi., where ISiifieSa See also V 163, A 205, is not found. 32. The hiatus after fra and 449, the neglected F of f£5j;is suggest that ii/3piy is wrong, especially as the word is almost purely Odyssean, recurring in JU. only in 214 {ippitovres A 695, ippca-Trjun 633, both very late passages). 205. xdxa, soon, never 'perhaps' in Homer ; but the word has little force. For An with subj. as a solemn threat see M. G. § 275 6. For the scansion of AneponXiHici (T in thesis) cf. TpliiK6<n' A 697 and note on A 678. This seems The various diffito be a late licence. culties in this short speech, and the disrespectful tone, strongly contrasting with 216-8, suggest that 201-5 may be a later
.

rd S^ fi7aX/ta

opHii ttjs 'ABiivas

yXavKois

^ov
6vTa

Toils

6tp6a\fio6s,

eOptffKov.

Ai^iuv rbv iivdov roOrois y&p ifrriv elpTjpJvov

N

N

noiTeiS&vos Kal Mfivr/s TpiTUvLSos dvyaripa dtd. touto yKavKoiis elvai ihffirep Kal Tiac Ho(ruSiovt rods 6^6a\fjLo6s, Cicero {Nat. Dear. i. 30, 83) says that Neptune's eyes were sky-blue, which is in favour of blue rather than grey as the colour of Athene's eyes. See Frazer's note ad loo. As with other colour -words, we have considerable latitude of explanation. The simple y\avK6s is used in H. only once, of the sea (II 34), with y\avKi6wi' T 172, which can have no distinct reference to As the owl is Athene's bird, colour. some would translate 'owl-eyed,' and explain by an owl-totem identified with the goddess. But any. such sense must
eTvaL, Kol

have completely disappeared by Homeric times. See on 39. 211. die Sceraf nep is the object of
cast in his teeth how it will will follow, as Achilles proceeds to do. Cf. (p 212 ff(t>mv S' us Ifferai irep dXriOeiriv KaraXi^w, and so t 312, 7 255 ; and for the construction of iSkciSidoSaiv Sl^eiv, B 255 dvuSl^uv Sri iveidl^eiv occurs without of. I 24, 0- 380.
6v€lSu!ov,
he,

what

.

.

:

addition. 206. rXauKamc either ' bright-eyed or 'blue-(grey-)eyed.' See Pans. i. 14. 6 of the statue in the temple of Hephaistos,
'

95 (where, an expressed object only in however, see note). nap^ccerai, shall he laid before 213. rpic T6cca cf. fi 686. thee,
:

H

:

20
TTjv
S'

lAIAAOC A
airafiei^o/ievo'}
cr<j}a)tTep6v

(i)

'jrpoae^ri

TroSa? wkv<;

A'^iXXev<;'
''i'-^'-

"

XP^

P'^^

ye,

ded, eVo? elpva-aacrdai,,

-"^ 216

KoX iiaka vep Koi
S'

6vfJM)i

Ke')(^oXm/Mevov

w? yap afieivov
-

o? Ke Qeol'i iiri'TTeLdrjTau, fiaXa t
rj

eKkvov avrov.
ovB'

iir'

apyvperji xmirrji a")(ede xeipa ^apeiav,
^i(j}0^,

a-\jr

e?
'

KovXebv axre p,iya
rj

airodrjo'e

220

fivOcoi,

A.d7}vair)<s'

S'

OiXv/jbirovSe ^e^rjKei

ScofJUT

6?

alyto'^oio
S'

Ato? /Mera Sa[fiova<; aWov<;.
koX ov
Xrjye yoXobO'

TLrjXeidr]';

i^avTi^ aTaprripol^ eTreecrcnv
"Trw

'ATpetSrjv irpocreetTre,

" olvo^ape<;, Kvvb<;
ovre TTOT
6?

o/jufiaT

e^^cov,

KpaSirjv S' iXa<poto,
Ocopri'^dfji/ai
'^~
'-^'t

225

•jToXe/Mov

a/j,a

Xaat

ovre Xo'^ovS
ue

levai

criiv

dpuaTrjeaaLv

Aj^aimv
nira

216. JUl^N

:

Gr.

219-20.
i.e^Teiffdai.

fl)c

eind)N n<S\iN cbce

ai90C, o63' dnisHce

222 SivaTcu. Zen. ad. Zen.

Schol.

BL

(Ar.

?).

223. feaOeic C.

225-33

r^for

216. ccpeotTepoN, because Athene speaks Here as well as for herself, eipiiccaceai, to observe, from ((r)/)0, ((r)e/)C=Lat. serv-are. It is now generally recognised that this is the root, and that the verb draw, has nothing to do with Fepia though the forms are very similar, and in the numerous cases where the verb is used of the dead and wounded drawn, away or saved from the enemy either root gives an equally good sense. The chief forms of the verb are (1) nonthematio pres. jivirBai., jiiar', picKev:

=

It may, however, be for tou (cf. 170) ; or possibly we should read 8s re for 6s kc, in which case the repeated re will simply mark the correlation of the two clauses, as often in gnomic lines ; v. on 81, and E. G. § 332. The afrroO at the end, however, seems so weak as to raise a more serious doubt as to the authenticity of the line, which is in itself rather flat, and precisely of the sort which would be likely to be interpolated in the age of Hesiod or the 'seven sages' (Doder-

(2) thematic piofuu (0 and v) : (3) aor. ippiffaro, piaaaBaL, fut. ^i<rofuu (from <rpv)
(4) aor. elpva&iiriv {^-(repv-),
etc.,

lein conj. a3 roO). 219. cx^ee must be taken here as aor., not imperf. (see note on 163), as fi kqI

N

ipia{(r)affdai,
:

fut.

etpvpiai., etc.

ipiaacTM, ipie<xSa,i (5) perf. (=se-sru-mai). This leaves

always introduces an action coincident with the words he stayed his hand.
:

eipOffaacdat here and elsewhere, elpiff<xovT(iL

S 276, eipv6p,e(T6a, to be explained as due to the analogy of etpvp.ai regarded as a present. The varying quantity of the u naturally arises from the mutual influence of the forms (<r)p\) and {<T)epv. (So Schulze Qu. Ep. 325-9 ; ef. also van L. Ench. None of these forms require, p. 406.) and few admit, a F, which is rarely
absent where the verb means to draw (i 194 = K 444 is apparently a mistaken adaptation of f 260 = p 429). The active forms are all from Fepv-, to draw. The ambiguous forms are chiefly those of the 1 aor. middle, and the perf. and
plpf.

221. BeBi^Kei: 'the pf.(3^j3);)ca expresses the attitude of walking, the step or stride ; hence /3e/3^Ket, " was in act to go," comes to mean "started to go" (not "had gone").' Monro. 223. fiTapTHpoTc, a word of doubtful origin ; Hesych. drapTaTaf Xuirci, jSXtiTrTU. Cf. /3 243 MivTop arapriiipi. 225. For the dog as the type of shamelessness cf. 159, and the curious compar.

Kivrepos.

oiNoBap^c

:

cf.

7 139

ofrwi ^e^apTiiis,

i 374 olvopapdcav, t 122.

TriXe/ios,

226. Observe the distinction between open battle in which the whole

host {\a6s)

218.

The T

is

called a

'

gnomic

'

re.

is engaged, and \6xos, the heroic 'forlorn hope,' reserved for the elite (dpirTTJes). As a test of courage the \6xos is vividly described in N 275-86.

'

lAIAAOC A
TeT\r]Ka<s 6vfi&i'
Tj

(i)

21

to Si toi Kr)p ei'Serat eivai.
(TTpaTOV eipvp 'Ayaitov
o? rt? aedev

TToXv Xcolov

icm Kara

Bmp
r)

a-Troaopeia-Oai,

mnvov

eiirrfi-

230

hrjiio^opo^ ^aa-iXev<;, iirel ovriBavoia-iv avda-aeii;ryap av,

Arpethri,

vvv va-Tara Xm^rjcraio.
eirl

aW
ovS

eK Toi epeca naX

/Meyav opKov ofiovfiai'
p,ev

vat fia ToSe o-k^tttjoov
<f)va-6i,

to

ov ttots

^vXXa

kuI o^ov<;
235

iirel

Brj

irp&Ta
irepl

TOfirfv

ev opeaai, XeXoiirep,
e

avaOrjXrjaet,-

"ydp

pd

'x^aXKo^ eXei/re
fxiv
o'C

<j>vWa T6 Kai <j>Xoiov
TTpo? Ato?
rj

vvv aire

vle<}

'Avat.wi'
.

ev TraXdfiTjii} <f)opeovcn, SiKacriroXoi

re ^e/ito-ra?

-

eipvaTUf
rare
evT
S'

o

Se roi fiiyai; eaaerai op/cov
"^erai,

TTOT

A'^tXXrjo';

iroOr]

via? 'Aj^aimv

240

crvp,iravTa<;'
^paicr/jieiv,

ov ti Swyjaeai dyvvfjuevoi; irep

av ttoXXoI
eYnoi

v^
K

"Ekto/so? dvSpoAovoio
235
q)iiei

230.

dNQOHXiicH
Harl.
nor' S.
duNi^cHi
d,

dupa Q

d9aipeTceai G.
:

||

(and S supr.).
||

P.

236. 240. eY
ras.).
||

S {supr. h over ei). Par. b f j, Et. Mag. noXiiuaic fi. 241. siiunaNTac Q. 76x6 Ar. A
diNaea\i4cei
:
||

Spe4ie(N) LS.

238.

noXdjUHlC

239.

8pKOc icetrai 6.
Si

ToTc

(Par.

k has toTc in

PR
:

Vr. a\ Mosc. 1 2.

228.

KHp

of.

r 45i
:

Itroj'

ydp

aipiv Traaiv

air'fix&£TO KTjpl fieXaivTjL.

230. dnoaipeTceai so 275, but dipaiparat, 182, etc. There is no plausible explanation of these occasional signs of

an evanescent
contraction

initial consonant,

and the

suspicious. (Brandreth diradpeo-Sai, conj. but there is no similar use of the word in Greek, of.
is

#536.)
231. dHjuoB6poc, devourer of the amistock. For Srnios in this sense comFor the pare B 547, A 704, S 301. ofrriexclamatory nom. H. G. § 163.

mon

Virgil imitates the passage in Aen. 206-11. He may have read /ci/ijji' for Toixifv, posuitque comas et brachia ferro. 235. npSrra, at the first, i.e. once for all, just as in T 9 ; cf. A 6, Z 489, 7 183, 320 (with M. & R.'s note). So ubi priinum, ' as soon as ever. 238. diKacn6Xoc, qui jus colit, see on 63 ; the if, however, is strange, as compounds are very rarely formed directly See, however, H. G. from the aco. §§ 124/. Brugmann, Gr. i. 172, compares o^uncrac juo70(rT6/cos for fxoyovs - tokos,
374).
xii.

doNoTa,

men

of naught
'

;

explain the

7(1/),

else,'

293-4, which in the next line.
cf.

For the form compare fiiredavSi by ijirios. For XaBAcaio we should rather have cf. on A 223, expected the aor. indie.
;

311. 234. The cKfinrpoN does not belong to Achilles, but is that which is handed by the herald to the speaker as a sign that See he is ' in possession of the house. So in the 321, S 505, 568, ^ 37.
'

E

guard (216) th^ traditions, which are deposited as a sacred mystery in the keeping of the kings. So in old Iceland and Ireland law was a tradition preserved entirely by the special knowledge of a few men ; the plur. 64fuaTcs is used exactly in the sense of our precedents.' See note on I 99. 239. npbc Ai6c, like de par le Roi, by commission of Zeus. Cf. f 57 irpds ydp Or we may Ai6s eio-t feii'oi, and I 99.
Gipiiarai,
'

K

^

take

it

with

6iii.i.aTat,

laws given by

EUice
staff,

Islands in the Pacific

Ocean the

natives

' preserved an old worm - eaten which in their assemblies the orator held in his hand as the sign of having the

bpKoc is here used in the primiZeus. tive sense of the object sworn by. 242. 0n6, because irlirroiiTi. is in sense a passive, as P 428 ; so also with (pe&yoi,
Trdo'Xt', etc.

right to speak' (Tylor Anthropology p.

22
6vr)iGK0VTe.<i
j^woyLiei/os,
-j'
ft)9

lAIAAOC A
TriTTTOXTf
t'

(i)

(TV

B'

evBodc Ovfiov a/MV^€i<;
oiiSev
'erca'a<;.

apiarov 'A'^ai&v
'TreTrap/jiivov,
ifirjvie.

(fidro

HrjXeiSij';,

ttoti Be a-KrJTrrpov fiaXe yair]!,

245

j^pucretots ^Xottrt
'ArpetBrji;
B'

^^ero B
Tolcri

auro?*
Be

ereprndev

Necrrw^

^SucTT^? ayopovae, Xiyv^

HvXiav

dyop7]Tr]<:,

Tov Kal diro
tjBt)

'/Kaxycrr]';

fie\tro<;

ryXvKicov peev avBrj.
250
-

Twt S' Bvo fjuev yeveal fiepoTTCov dvOpmircov i<p0ia0\ 01 ol irpoaQev afia rpoipev ^Se yevovro
iv

'^<^

TLvXmi
iroTTOi,

rjyaOerji,,

fj^ra Be TpiTaTOia-tv dpaaasp.

6 cr^iv ev (bpovewv dyoprjaaTO kui, fjuereetTrev

"a)
rj

?!

fieya 7rev6o<; 'A'^auBa yalav bKavet,Tlpia/jbO';

Kev

yrjdi^aai,

Tlpidfioto re TratSe?,
dv/Mwi,,

255

aXXoi re Tpcoe? fieya Kev Kej^apoLaTO
ei

cr^&'iv

TuBe Travra irvdoiaTO fiapvafievouv,
irepX
B'

oi irepX fiev ^ovXrjv Aavacov,
245. riHXe'faHC

ecrre

fid'^eadai.

rXciTTHC CP.
254. axol'Ba
supr.).

II

xwi^ueNOC Athen. xi. 488. 251. aY oi Zen. rXuKfw Zen.
:

247.

3^

:

&'

6

J.

249.

253.

S

Ar. 0: 8c

ffPQ.

JP
258.

ax°"<^S°
:

C.

supr.

).

II

BouXikN Ar. A {supr. JudxEceai uaxHrai Et. Mag.

255. rHei^CH (C supr.)¥(R supr.): PHeiicci Q(H ' i, T.W.A.) C^Q Par. d: BouXfli fl (C

t', sc. i( re = 6'ti re. On the question of the elision of 6n see H. O. § 269 ad fin. 246. The ' golden nails here seem to be a mere ornament ; in the case of the sword in A 29 they doubtless fasten the blade to the handle. See Helbig E. E.'-'

244. 8

not
6ira,

mean

'

articulate,

'

/iepifocTcs

rriv

difficult

'

as in so ancient a word the F of Fbip would not be neglected. The other derivations which have been proposed problematical, are quite 251. rpdqieN iAk r^NONTO ; for the
iiaTepov
irpiyrepov
cf.
p.

134

Bpi^j/offa

pp. 377, 333/. 249. The Kai is very unusual as introducing a purely epexegetic sentence in this case merely an expansion of what

TcKovcrd

re

AiiiTT/p,

and

elsewhere.

has already been said. Compare, however, T 165 with note. 250. Festor is represented as having lived through more than two generations, and still being a king in the third i.e. between his 70th and 100th years, if with the Greeks we count three yeneal to a century. In 7 245 he is said to have
;

reigned over three generations, which seems to be an instance of the growth of the legendary into the miraculous. Juep6ncoN, an epithet of which the real sense was in all probability forgotten
in Homeric days, as it is used in purely stereotyped connexion &v6pw!Toi (exc. B 285, q.v.).

only with
can does

^^eioTO is probably plpf., but it might be aor. TpdfCN see on B 661. 252. Ar^eeoc, an epithet, like fdffeos, applied only to places no doubt both mean divine,' as they are only applied to localities connected with particular gods. We should perhaps read dvdSeos (from ^701'), the first syllable being lengthened metrically see App. D. rry. is used of Pytho {6 80), Lemnos (B 722), and Nuo-iJiok (Z 133). Some take it to be another form of dya66s, which is, however, never applied to localities. 257. For the construction iruWirSoi ncos for irepl tlvos (lit. if they were to hear all this about you fighting') cf. X 605 IltjX^os A/iii/iofos offn iriirvaimi, 224, etc. so X 174 eiiruv nvos, A 357
:

;

'

:

'

;

We
it

Cis

only say with confidence that

yvCi X'>>oi'^''oio cf. H. G. %151d. 258. Construe Trepleffre pih /SouXV An:

lAIAAOC A aXKa TTweaO^
ijBr)

)

(i)

23
ifieio.

dfjmm Se vecoTepco icrrov
670)'

yap

tror

koX dpeloa-iv

tji
fi

irep
01

ufilv

260

avSpdcrtv S/iiXTjO-a, koI ov irore

y

dOepi^ov.
,i '-

ov yap

TTio

Toiov; iBov dvepa<; ovhe

'IBeofiat,

)'

olov UeipiOoov T6

Apvavrd re iroifieva Xamv K.aivea r 'E^aStw re Kal dvrldeov TLoXv<brjfiov
[@r)a-ea

t

AlyeiSrjv,
Br)

eTTieUeXov ddavaTotcTL].

265

'J

KapTicTTOi

Keivot hru'^Ooviosv

rpd^ev dvhpSiV
ifidyovTO,
dvoXeo'crav.
c

KapTUTTOi

fiev

eaav

Kai,

KapricrToi<i

opecK^ioia-t, ical eK7rdyXa><; tAc- 'PV£^''^ Ka\ fiev TOb<Tbv eym fieOofjiiXeov eK

HvXov

iXdcov,
aiiToi'

rrjXodev ef '^^'9?

yai,r)<;-

KaXeaavTO yap

270

260. crwN P. OjuTn Zen. CGPU {ari.pr. h) AuTn 266 am. hahmd H«>J (ybSoi arlxoi oUtos) RT™ Hari. a, Vr. a, Mosc. 2 {man. rec. ), Par. j. 268. eflpciN PQ^T^ Lips. Vr. b. opecKcbecci G. 259. iiioia S Vr. b.
$2.
:
||

:

Ar.

.

||

||

^Kn*(4rXcoc T.

269.

ir^u

P.

irepleifu

jidxe^rBai. ef. ^ 326 For the co-ordination of substantive and infin., 642 a/ielvuv

vadv,

irepUffTe

S^

:

ywaiK&v.

iravTolas dperds,

i)iJ.kv

7r6Sas ijS^ /lAxecrflai.

260. OuTn, so Zenod. ; Ar. read iiiuv, thus saving Nestor's politeness at the cost of his point. Ar. objected to Zen.'s reading ^^li/Spio-Tos 6 X67os : in other words, he wished to import into heroic

language the conventional mock-modesty of the Alexandrian Court. The whole meaning of Nestor's speech is that he himself is the peer of better men 'than those he is advising (v. Cobet M. G.
p. 229).

262. Of. f 201 oi/K iaS' oBros di/r/p The subPporbs odd^ y^vqTai. junctive being a more archaic form of the fat. perhaps suggests a solemn and prophetic tone. 263. oToN rieipieooN accus. by attraction to the case of roiovs, for otos f/v The names are those of the Tletpidoos. chiefs of the Lapithai. 265. This line, which is quoted by Pausanias x. 29. 10, is found also in the '-pseudo -Hesiodean 'Shield of Herakles,'
Siepbs
:

<rl82.

mentioned again only in X 322, 631, both doubtful passages
Theseus
is
;

,

the latter indeed is expressly said by Hereas of Megara (ap. Plutarch, Tkes. xx.) to be an interpolation of Peisistratos to It is, however, a please the Athenians. question if the same may not be equally said of the whole reference to the

Lapithai it is doubtful if there ever was a Peirithoos in any but Attic legend. 268. The fight of the Centaurs and Lapithai is mentioned at some length in 295-304, and is alluded to in B 748, ,,,_ where the word tfiTJpes is again used. It '/ is commonly said to be an Aeolic form for Bijpes, wild men but for j this there is only the authority ol/J-r grammarians, and both H. and Pindar seem to use it as a tribal name. Thej r identification with B-r/p may well be a' later fancy (Meister Dial. i. 119). There is no allusion in H. to the mixed bodies of the later legend, and it is possible that he conceived them as purely human beings (note, however, the opposition to ILpdpes in 303) the myth may very likely refer to ancient struggles with a primitive race of autochthones. The present passage seems to imply the existence of a prae - Homeric epic dealing with the story. The last half of the compound dpecKuioi is possibly connected with Koi-Tos (Keifuu), and means 'couching or else with kSs in the mountains or k6o! = a cave (Hesych.) cf. i 155 alyas 6pe(7Ki!ii.ovs. In that case we should read ipetr/ciibs for -k6F-ios. 6p4(TKOos occurs in Aisch. Sept. 532. 270. 6niHC is generally derived from but there is hardly AttS as = distant a Greek analogy for such a formation. It is used by Aisch., Soph., and others.
;
',

'

'

'

;

-

,

,

;

'

;

;

;

'

24
Koi
t5)v,
'"^
fia'X^ofirjv

lAIAAOC A
kut
e/i

(i)

avrov

iyco'

Ke'tvoiai,

S

av oh rt?

ot
fiev

vvv ^poroi elaiv
jJLev

i'7rij(dovi,oi,

/j.a'^eoiro.

Kal

/SovXeav ^vviev Treudovro re fiv6wi.
vyiyxe?,

^
'

dXXa
jMr^re

iri6ea6e koI
crii

eVe^ irelOeaOai a/Meivov.
275

.
'•

tovS' dyado'; irep io)V d/Koaipeo Kovprjv,

aXX'
.

ea,
(TV,

w?

ol

nrpwTa hoarav yepa<; vie? 'A'^aiMV
6iX' ipi^e/juevai, ^acnXfjl
o[jLoir)<i
'"
(

.

/Ji-^Te

TlrjXeiBr],

dvn^bTjv, eVet ov iroO'
o'KrjTTTov'^o^ ^a(riXev<;,
el

efifiope

Ti/Mrj<;

=

mi

re Zeii?

kvBo<;

eBco/cev.
firjTtjp,

8e (TV Kaprepo'i icrat,

dea Be

<Te

yeivaro

280

aXX

oBe (j>epTepo<; ecrriv, iirei '7rXeove(rcnv ava(r(Tei.
(TV

'A.TpetBr),
Xi(T(ToiJ,

Be irave reov fievo<;'
fxedefiev -yoXov,

avrap

eyoa

ye

AyiXXfji
Qi^rbN Ar.
:

09 /leya iraaiv

271.

Ijui'

&ucout6n Zen.

272. juaxeoiNTO

DR^XS\
r'

273.

sOnicn

Ar. A[H] Par. e^?) f (?) : siJnion Q (suni4Ton P). 275. t6n 277. nnXeia' fieeV AQ(R?)U Lips. Eton. 281. S re GL.
as a

Eton.: t6n E.

name

of

Peloponnesos

{Airla

717),

and may be the same here

in spite of the

difference of quantity. For a suggested etymology see Curtius Et. p. 469. 271. Kar' 'iu.' airr6N, 'for own hand, as we say ; as a champion acting

non simili poena, Aen. i. 136. It has been objected, with force, to this line and the next that they are a pointless
generality here, as Achilles
is

my

'

much a memnon

;

aKriirroOxos the real

jSotriXeiis

ground

just as as Agafor his

independently. Cf. in a slightly different sense B 366 Kara tr^^as imx^ovTai. 272. BpoTol £nixe6Nioi together form the predicate, xxorfioyro, like imxioivTO 344, is a highly doubtful form ; the stem ;noxe(s) is implied in iMxitr((r)oiMu, but nowhere else appears in the pres. The best emendation is Piatt's /tox^o-aiTo, would have fought (J. P. xxiii. 211) ; this use of the opt. to express past time {S. G. § 300 c) appears to belong properly to the aor. (A similar case is T 171, where many MSS. give /xaxeeo-ffai for fiaxiaaffBai.) See note on B 311. for this syncopated 275. dnoaipeo form (for -pieo) cf. H. G. % i, (and Fritzsch in Curt. Stud. vi. 128) ; so fi 202, ;8 202, etc. airadpso Brandreth. See note on 230. 277. Aristarchus read JhjKdSijdeX or, as we should write it, IlijXetSij i$eK, on the ground that e8i\uv is the only Homeric form. But it is better to admit the possibility of a single appearance of a
: ,

yielding is given by 281. For the form gjkmope see ff. G. § 23 (2). 280. The antithesis of Kaprepoc and (fifyrepoc ('in greater place') is the same as in 178, 186. The similarity of the terminations has its effect, though they are of course different in origin and meaning as well as accent. 282-4. The connexion of thought in these three lines is not very clear, and has given rise to suspicions of interpolation,

which do not seem

justifiable.

The

reiterated entreaty, the almost pathetic appeal to personal influence, is entirely in accordance with Nestor's character,

human

nature,

situation,

and the necessities of the which is not one where we

need demand

strict logical consistency. Nestor, after appealing equally to both,

ends with an especial prayer to
non,

Agamem-

who is obviously
irda
re,
' '

the offending party.

form so common in later Greek than to have recourse to an unparalleled crasis,
rendered the harsher
after Urj\mri. (See 278. oOx 6juo(hc

Nay, it is I, Nestor, who ask it. There is no antithesis with ffi) 5^, which is merely the common use of the pronoun after a vocative airip is
;

ainhp

by
H.

=
;

'

the slight pause G. § 378.) very different

not adversative except in so far as it marks the transition to a new line of
remonsti'ance. 283. 'AxiXXAi

may

(from

common men)

litotes, cf.

E

441

;

xAXov

{thine

anger

be taken with with Achilles), or

:

'

lAIAAOC A
epKO<i

(i)

25

K'^aiolcnv trekerai TroXifioio KaKolo"
S'
Br)

TOP
" val

dTra/j,et^ofievo<;

'jrpoa-e(f>7i

Kpelcov

'

Aryafiifivcov

285

aXX

oB

ravrd ye irdvTa, jepov, Kara^fiolpav eetTre?. dvr)p ideXei irepX iravTuv e/M/jbevai, dWcov,
fikv

Travrav
irdab Be
el

Kpareetv ideXei, TrdvTeaat

S'

dvdaaeiv.ti
otto.

Ccr^

'

crrjfialvetv,

a

tvv

ox)

"KeicreaQai

c^Uz^^-

n^
290

Be fitv aijQi,riTr}v eQecrav 9eol alev eovre'i,
oi irpoOeaucnv

TovvEKd
'

oveLBea ixvOria-aa-Oai

"
;

"

Tov B ap inro^rjBrjv rjfieL^eTO Blo<; 'A'^iWev^^ jdp Kev SetXo? re Kal ovTtBavo<; KaXeoi/MTjv,
<7ol

el .Brj

irdv epyov vveo^ofiai,,

ott'l

Kev

e'LTrrja-

286. ^einac PQESU Mosc. 1 2. neieeceai Mosc. 1. 293. Ke Q.

287. ndNTCON nepi^uucNai Eust.
|1

289.

deiX6c

{flm. Te)

PQ.

better, on account of the order of the •^words, with iieBiji-ev as a sort of dat. .^commodi, relax in favour of Achilles. Cf., 377 ii^Biev xo^eToio xjikoio Trjkeju^ra is perhaps an adverb, fuix<^'. such as continually precedes Trdi/res /Li^7a TrdvTOiv 'Apydav Kparhi, cf. 78

8pL/Mif

is

fi4vos Trpoihv\pe (where again fi^j/os rather a physical conception than a
cf. /i^i/os

personification,

Tvelovres).

The

and

4i

iravTa, fiaXa ir&VTa, d/w, iravTa,

often.

287-9. The tautological repetitions of these three lines are very suitable to unreasoning fury ; they have to do duty
for arguments.
to give 289. cHuaiNGiN with dat. rma, one, a general orders, as B 805. expression in form, though Agamemnon Nagelsis of course thinking of himself.

=

bach compares Sbph. AiU. 751
Bavehai. Kal Bavom 291. npoe^ouciN
dXei
(i]

^S'

oiv

nvd

(sc. ifii).

SiirXij) fin

ffw-qSas

extreme harshness of this metaphor has led most recent editors to regard dvelSea, as the object, and irpoBiovtri. as another form for irponBianv, do they set before him (i.e. allow him) revilings for him to utter ? This certainly gives a better sense, but no satisfactory analogy for the form of the verb has been given (there is a doubtful dpiBei. in an Ionic see Curtius Verb. inscription, C. I. 1195 Bekker suggests irpoBiuffi as i. 213). mood might be explained aor. subj. The are we to look as one of expectation for them to suggest words of insult ? But the form with the short stem-vowel is entirely unexampled, and I see no choice but to regard the passage as
' '

;

:

'

iavTM

irpoBiovai

rk

6velS-q, i.e.

the plural

verb with the neuter plural is in accordThis ance with the poet's practice. shows that Ar. took ivdSea, as nom. but we are not told how he explained the
,

line.

Ameis
the

(followed
to

by
'

takes

words

mean

Monro) do his

hopelessly corrupted. iiro292. ^noB\i43HN, interrupting Cf. ^d\iiiv rbv tStov \byov Schol. B. ip^dWew T 80, and for the form Observe that Achilles irapa^\i]Sriv A 6. begins without the usual formula of
;

therefore dash forward (like spearmen themselves, cf. the phrase TToKii TrpoBie(TKe X 459) for him to speak
revilings

address. 294. Oneisouai
aor.

:

future

rather
is

than
slight

subj.,

cf.

61.

There
:

a

change of attitude, as so often happens,
after the opt.
Ka\eoifi.r)i>

them ?

'

Monro compares,
'

for the

'

half-

what Achilles

Herod, vii. 160 dvelSea, personified dvelSea KaTibyra &v6piinro}L (pCKici. ivavdyeiv rbv BvpAv (though the other passage which he quotes from i. 212, KanSpTos rov otvov is rb aCipjo,, seems to weaken the

in 293 conceives only as a supposition he here vividly realizes as an admitted fact (this is of course the same, however we take inrel^ofiai.). Oneiaojuai should

relevancy of this, as shewing that the metaphor is material, not personal) and for the use of TpoBita, la 319 dvd pTvas
; . .

be iwoFd\otJ,ai, and various conjectures have been proposed to restore the full form, but none seem satisfactory (inricrxo/JKu Brandreth).

'

"

26
aXKoicriv
[o'rjfuiiv'Sr)
01)

lAIAAOC A
ravT
ryap

(i)

iTrireXKeo,
iyco

firj

yap

ifioC

ye:

295

j
S'

ert
ivl

aoi ireLaeaOai, otwj

aXKo
X'^pci'

Be rot ipem,
fJ-ev

av

^peaX /3dXkeo

arjicri-

ov Toi iyd) ye fiaj^rjaojun e'iveKa Kovp7]<;
300

"j^, tS)v
/liu1*^

ovre reat aXXwi, iireC fi a^ikeaOe ye Sovrev aXXmv, a /xot ea-Ti Borfi Trapa vrji fieXauvrji, T&v ovK av Ti <f)epo(,ii aveXcbv aeK0VT0<; efxelg. A"^- 1«'»-'-

0VT6

(Tol

B'

6J.

ar/e

/j,r)v

Treiprjcrai,

tva

yvwwai Kal
irep),

otoe

aiyird

tol alfia KeKaivov epcorjaei
Tci 7'

BovpL
eireea&iv

'^-Fi^

'^

^.f^j^'

'''

w?

dvn^ioiai,

fiaj(e(raa/j,evo)

avcrTr)Tr)v,
^^to"Tl'rj\etB7)<;

\vaav B
fiev
iTrl

wyoprjv

vapa

vrjvcrlv

Ay^aitov.

305
j^
/«,

K Kicru ai; Kal

vfja<;

iiaa<;

^2"
%» •fra.t
||

i;

n<:-ML
/ a- y.

/
'

r; f.

XVIII.

296 6.0. At. (6 'Koyylvos irepKTffbv (jyqai tovtov rbv ffHxov J™). Sroore tI QK a, Moso. 2. neieeceai 298. oiiri GHPESTJ. Mosc. 1. uaxi^cojuai Ar. Aph. Antimaohos, Mass. Argol. Sinop. ACD3T Vat. Vr. a, Mosc. 1 2 uax^ccojuai GHPQESU. otiNeKa J. 299 om. Q. inei p' ^e^eic dfeX^ceai Zen. 301. 9^pHC LHJ Par. f 1 (?) h. Hn eXdjN AT Bar. &uoTo PQS. 304.
Vr.
||

H

||

:

||

||

||

||

Juaxeccau^NCd

il

:

uaxHcajueNu Ar.

295.
Kal
6

{ij

di.ir\ij)

&n
Sib

Koiybv rb

inniWeo

rdp

irepLfftrbs.

ircpKTffbs b

i^s'

oSrws 5^ yiveraL d^eretrat, Ariston.
;

(emended by Cobet) i.e. Ar. obelized 296 on the ground that a-^/jiaiiie had been added in order to supply a verb which was wrongly supposed to be reI I

'

quired by the second clause of 295. This is a fertile source of interpolation of whole lines ; e.g. fi 558, * 570.

thought, supposition, or, as here, comNikanor, followed by van L., however, separates the ei here from el, if, writing eV («a) for el S'; cf. Lat. eia age. H. G. § 320. For the S' see on 340. 303. ^pcoi^cei only in this line ( = 7r 441) means ^ow. The connexion of this with the usual sense, to hang back, and of both with the subst. ipa^, is very

mand.

'

though he meant to continue, 'but by abstention from war I will.' But in 300 the course of thought is changed, and twp &\\<ov is
298. x^P'^'
"•^*'>

*s

made the

antithesis to Koipijs. The Mss., as often, vary between uaxi^couai and fmxi<rffo/Mi.. But the weight of tradition, confirmed by the Mss. of Herodotos, is strongly in favour of (Ionic) fut.
'

/iax^<ro/iai,

Schulze Q.
preferred takes no

K

aor.

ij.axi(r[(r)atrdai.

See
Ar.

p. 450,

H.

G. § 63.

--qa-

both tenses, but this account of the short form
for

obscure. 306. iicac, a form found only in the fem. with cases of vijCs, daTrts, Sals : in Od. only with (ppivas, and once besides B 765. In the last passage it clearly means taas, and with vrjus and dairls this gives a good sense, 'even,' i.e. trim of the ship, wdl^alanced of the shield. (To'^ take vdvTOff' H<Tri as ' equal in all directions, i.e. ciraular, is intolerably mathe- * matical and prosaic. That the ponderous ' Mykenean shield should be 'wellbalanced on every side' was a matter of life and death to the wearer. ) With "
''

'

'

,

IxaxinaaBai.,

299. df^ece^ re d6NTec : AchUles recognizes that the yipas is a free gift, not a matter of right, like the share of the
spoil.

302. In ei fire the d is clearly interjectional, as in 1 iQ el Si (pevybvTav.
. .

V

Lange calls it an 'adhibitive' particle, by which the speaker appropriates, as by the prohibitive he puts away, a
' '

fi-/i

cannot mean strictly, if we push the word, equally divided (see on 320), but a banquet where some receive a larger portion in virtue of their dignity may yet be 'fair.' Still this account of the word has not satisfied all commentators anciently it was often explained to mean 'good' {etaov Ayadbv, Hesyoh. ) recently it has been proposed to refer it to root Fi.k, seemly
Sals it

'

H

j
,

i

;

;

'

lAIAAOC A
rjie

(i)

27

crvv

re Mei'otrtaSijt koX oI? erdpoiaov, B

A.TpetoT]<i

dpa
ava

vrja

Ootjv

aXaSe Trpoipvaaev,
S'

iv B' ipeTW; eicpivev ieiKoaiv, 6?
^rj(T€
elcrev

iKaTOfi^rjv
310

Oe&i,

Be 'K.pva-TjiBa KaXKiTrdpTjiov

dywv
fjuev

iv B

dp'^p^

efir]

7ro\v/i/)jTt?

'OBvacrev^.

ol

eTreiT

dva^dvTe^

eTreTrXeov v ypa

KeXevOa,

/""^

'^''^

X,aou9 B
ol
B'

'ATpetB7)<;

d/iroKviJLaiveaQat,

avajev.
'Hut-

direKvjiMvovTO koX
'A7ro\Xa)z/t

eh d\a XvfiaT e^aXKov,
eKarofJi^^ai;
a)\h<i

Or-

cm.

epBov S
KVLaT]

reXijeo-cra?

315

ravpcDV ^S
B
ol

alycbv irapa Qlv

dTpvyeroioTrept

ovpavov Ixev eX icrcrone vr)
fjLev

KairvMi. n'An-^-tovB'
'

i^a,.

,t

A

(S?

TO,

TrevovTo

Kara crrparov
eTTTfTreiKria

Aiyafie/Mvaiv

Xrjy

epiBo<;,

rrjv

irpmrov

'A'^iXfji,

aXX
ra>

o 76
ol ecrav

TaXdv^iov re koI ^iipv^drrjv
A'^iXijo's

irpoaeei-Ke,

320

KrjpVKe Kal orprjpo) Oepdrrovre-

" ep')(ecr6ov kXictItjv TLijXTiidBea

^etpo? eXovr
el

dr/ejiev
Bayrjiatv,

^pia'qiBa KaXXt-TrdpTjiov
ijco

Be Ke

fir)

Be Kev avro<i eXcofiai
325
-

iXOoDV (Tvv irXeoveacn'

ro ol Kal plyiov earai."
eirl

W9
309.
3' S.

elrroiv

irpotei,

Kparepov B

fivdov ereXXe.

In

a'

312.

Ar. U.
(supr. h).

3' fi. 311. Sn 3' GP Hail, a, Vr. A itth Ip^TQC Ar. Par. k Xiiuaxa fidXXoN 6n^n\eoN Vr. a^ 314. dnoXuuaiNONTO GH. fiKew Z>HQK. 324. acbcociN GH 317. KNicH ATU: knIcch 0. 326. Kparepbc L.
:
:
|| ||

&

(the form iiaaot
FiS,
'

is
'

conspicuous

(?).

found in Doric), or All this seems

Thus
sea,

aTrbxpobilixepbevTosXiiJUTaTramaKdd'qpev. it is meant that they washed in the

needless. 307. The story of Troy is regarded as familiar, even apart from the Iliad ; for Patroklos, like Agamemnon in 1. 7, is first introduced by his patronymic alone. 313. aNCore is in form an imperf. from

not that they washed on land and threw the defiled water into the sea.
Of. Ka0dp/w,Ta in Aisch.

Oho.

98.

The

Neapolitans used to practise an annual lustration in the sea down to 1580 A.D., doubtless a survival from Greek times.
317. nepi inside cf
for vepL meaning 95, of a snake, i\uT<r6ij.evos irepl xf?'. and 11 157 irepl (ppecrlv da-Teros

the perf. &vuya.

a secondary pres. from In use, however, it is an aor. and is so found in the famous Cypriote inscr. from Idalion (CoUitz
apiiyeiv,

which

is

KanNui

:

X

no. 60),

'Rda\UFes

iSi/myoc 'Ovdo-iXoK

ktX

So irepl Scl/mn, (pb^wi, etc., lit. d\K-/i. compassed by fear, Find. P. v. 58, Aisch.
Pers. 696, Symn. Car. 430, etc. Cf. A 46. 320. Both these names are legendary names of heralds generally ; for the hereditary heralds of Sparta were called

295, k 531, sigmatic aor. occurs in Her. 479 (ivu^aC). See van L. Ench. p. 468. 314. Perhaps the Greeks had abstained from ablution during the plague in sign of mourning, and now typically threw off their sin, the restitution having been made, eic Ska, because edXaa-aa /cXtffei Trdvra TdvBpdnrav KaKd (Eur. /. T. 1193). Xi'iiinTn ilj'.iilj'mjimL HR in H 170 ("H077I
Scut.

A

Talthybiadae, and Eurybates is the herald also of Odysseus, B 184. 325. ^fnoN a comparative (cf plyiara E 873) formed directly from the substantive ^1705, cf Kiivrepo?, ix^ioiP, KiSitrros,
:

Kiphiov.

:

28
'

lAIAAOC A
TO)
S'

(i)

«>v/-

aeKOVTe /Sdrrjv irapa 9lv
S'

aXo'i arpvyeroto,
iKe(rOr]v.

M.vp/j,i86vav

eVt re KKiaia<i naX vrja^
re KXicrCrjt koX
Tto
"ye l8oi)v

TOP B
i]fievov
TO)

evpov
ovS"

vapd
dpa

vrft fieXaivrji,

yijOrjo'ev

A^tXXeu?.
ipeovTO'
re*

330

nev Tap^rjcavre koI alBofievm ^aaiKrja
ovBe TL
o
p,iv

(TTif)Tr)v,

•!rpoa-e<f)a)veov

oiiB

avrap
•^
^2's,

eyvto rftaiv
KripvKe<;,

ivl ^peai,

(pcovrjcrev

" ^(atpere,

Aio^ wyyeKoi
v/i/ie?

rjBe

Kol dvBpwv

aaaov IV*
o
o-0w(.'

ov tI

fJiOi

eTrairiOi,

aXK

Kyafiefwcov,
/v^-tt^^u^i

335

TTpoiei

^pi,a-rjtBo<i

eXveKa Kovpr)^.

C-.

-

dXK

wye,
cripco'iv

Bioyeve<; IIaT£OKXei?,

e^aye Kovp7]v
Ovr/rcbv
ei
iro-ve

"^

KM
irpot;

8o9 dyeiv.

to)

S'

avro) fidprvpot ecrrav

re

Oewv fiuKapav

irpo? re
d'irr]veo<;,

Kol 7rpo9 Tov ^acriXrjO';
^joetft)

dvOpanrmp B avre
dvei,

340

ifielo

yevijTai aeixea Xoiyov dfivvai
rj

Tol<;
s*^

aXKoi<;.

yap 6 y

oXoiijicrt

^peal

ovBe Ti olBe vgrjcrac afia "Trpdaaw Koi OTriaaco,

328. &' om. P.

332. OXibi TI Ar.

Si

:

oOBe TC ap. Did.
336.

||

npoce^c^NOUN

S.

333. 8* T.

335. CinaiTioi

ffQS Laud.

6

Ar. [A]CE[S]T Lips. Mosc. 1^
:

8c

f2.

II

c9c2>Yn Zen.
:

naTp6K\eec Mor.
340.

(A supr. ) Harl. c d, Par. a^ h j, Mosc. 1 c<pci>e King's. 337. naTpoicXfic U'. ucipTupec u^prOpe C. 338. c<p&>'( U.
||

G

:

dnHNeoc
Vr.
b.
II

:

PQS

SAeukoj iv AuOngin C
343. Tl
:

rrji

TToKvaTlxM yp.

iaimhiac
rec.).

Did.
342.

341.

&uoTo

[yp.

itmium man.
-.

6Xoih(i)ci

AT:

6Xofl(i)ci(N) Q.

Toi J supr.

oiib' Iri

D.

the aor. seems to struck with alarm at his look {Seivbs a.vi)p rdxa Ken Kal avahtov alnduiTo, Patroklos says, A 654) ; while the pres. alSoiUva implies their permanent respect. For the juxtaposition of the two ideas compare the favourite Seiyln
:

331. TapBi^coNTe
'

mean

'

aiSoi6s re.

334. Ai6c arrcXoi

:

cf.

9 517

K-^pvKes

Si(0iXoi. The herald has no connexion with Hermes till post-Homerio times. 336. For the difference between of&'i and ccpcoiN (338) see on 1. 8. 339. np6c, Je/ore <7i«/ac€ o/; the phrase

occurs occasionally in later Greek, e.g. Xen. Anab. i. 6, 6 ^ovXevdnevos S SlKaibv iari. Kal wpds BeCiv Kal trpbs avdpiin-av. Hence the use in oaths and en-

n

treaties, irphs Trarpbs yovvd^oi^ai., etc.

It

340. toO BaciXfloc dnHNeoc, him the king untoward. The order of the words shews that rod is not the article. 6nHni^c, lit. with averted face (cf. Skt. dna= mouth, face irprivet, iir-Zii/ri = that which is under the mouth), of one who turns away from the suppliant opposed to ivpoa^qvip. It seems best to follow the! unanimous Ms. tradition in writing 3' aure, though the 5' must represent Si}, But the vowel so often coalesces with another that it is necessary to assume that d-f/ had a weak form 5^ (cf. /iiv by firiv), the spelling drj being retained to distinguish it from the adversative particle when the vowel was not elided (cf. van L. Ench. p. 587, and R. G. § 350, where it is noted that the 5' in el S' &ye is the same). aOre, hereafter, as
; ;

seems to be derived from the purely local
sense, as in Trpbs dX6s, 'in the direction of the sea,' irpbs AiAs dpiarai 239, q.v. cf. Z 456.
;

E

232, 30, etc. 343. 'To look before and after' is, as in Haml et, the prerogative of reason,A<-! which argues from the past to the future.

H


lAIAAOC A
OTTTrm?
'

'

(i)

29

01

irapa vijval aooi /la^eoti'To 'A^atot."
IlaT/ao/cXo? Be
KXi,cri,r]<;

eic

ws ^dro, S ayaye
B
deKOva-

(jilXcot,

e'rreireldeS'

eTalpan,

345

^pia-rjtBa KaXXiirdprjiov,
B'
avTt,<;
'irrjv

8(OK6 8
7}

ayeiv.

rw

irapa vrja^ 'Ayaimv,

a/jba

roia-i

yvvr/

Kiev,
v6(7(f)t

avrap

'Ap^tXXeii?

BaKpvaa<; erdpiov

a^ap

e^ero

'Kta(70el<;

6 IV

e<^

aXo9

•jroXirj';,

opoeov eVt dlvoTra ttovtov
ope<yvu<;-

350

TToXXa Be p/qTpi ^IXtji ^pijcaro ^eipa<; " fifjrep, eVet p, ere/ce? 7e fiivvvOdBiov
Tip,rjv

irep

iovra,

Trip

fJLOL

o<f)eX\,€v

OXvfi7rio<;

eyyvaXi^ai

Zeu?

ifi/rtySjOe/ieTT;?
p,

vvv B
evpii

ovBe

p,e

Tvrdov encrev.
355

^ ydp

ATp€tBr]<i

Kpeimv 'Ayapepvcov

ffTLp/ria-ev

yap e^et yepa<;, auTO? dirovpa';" ctT'^ ^puc&J w? (^dro BaKpv ')(eaiv, tov 8' exXve Trorvia p^tjTqp
eXotv

r^pAvq iv ^evOeercriv
345. enincieer' L.
^n'

dXo^ irapd Trarpl yepovri.
347. aOoic C. 350. Ini o'JNona
(?
:

346. Hre PT.
3G1.

dneipoNO Ar.
:

Apdccaro G.

6pErNiic

:

diNanTdc Zen.
:

x*^'P'

^nq-

nris dNacxc^N Schol. T. niTNdc Cobet) 355. rip (om. Ji') H. Vr. a.
344. Bnncoc : here an adv. of manner, his men can fight,' clearly shewing the transition to the final use.

352. re

re

S.

353.

tiu^n xxiN

'how

uax^oiNTO
hiatus
is
is

is

quadruply wrong
;

intolerable
;

: (1) the (2) -oivto for -oiaro

not Homeric

(3)

fMxe;

is

pres.

stem

(see

on 272)

(4)

not the the opt. is

the wrong mood (M. and T. § 322). Barnes's conj. ij.o.-x^oIo.t removes only the first two difficulties. Porson couj. (fut. iiaxiovTcu Thiersch fw.xi'^VTai, the latter is best, cf. indie, B 366) H. G. § 326 (3). Ar. iir'' so MSS. 350. ^ni oYNona A-irelpova, perhaps on the ground that But, oii/oTra is inconsistent with itoXltjs. if the epithets are to be pressed, it might be urged that there is very vivid truth in the contrast of the 'purple deep' with the greenish grey of the shallow water near the shore, which is almost always the meaning of aXs. * 59 is almost the only exception. Ameis thinks that the 'infinite' sea intensifies the a feeling of despair and desolation German rather than a Greek idea. 352. There seems to be a mixture of
;
:

;

short a span.' But this apparently subordinate clause is then made one part of the emphatic antithesis of the entire sentence, ' since my life is short, The it should at least be glorious.' sentence, like the two-sided ' similes (see on 151), buds out into new relations It is possible, while it is being uttered. but more prosaic, to leave ii.iv. jrep ibvTo, out of sight altogether as a mere parenthesis, and take Stskcs as involving the claim, the divinity of his mother since you, a goddess, being understood bore me, the gods should have dealt better by me. 353. ScpcWeN = a^eiXe, not to be confused with the quite distinct 60AXw= augeo. See note on Z 350. 356. a<n6c, by his own arbitrary in the name of justice. will, not dnoOpac = d7r6-fpa-s, root Fep, short form Fpa { = Fp) the long form is found in dir6-Fep(T€, etc., Z 348, * 283, 329 (van L. Snch. p. 379, H. 9. § 13). 358. The narfip ripcoN or fiXios yipuiv
'

M

:

'

;

is

two trains of thought in this speech. It opens as though fuv. vep kbvra were a parenthetical complaint, 'Mother for you did give me life, of however

to later mythology as Nereus, (In S never named in Homer. Proteus also is called &\t.oi yipwv.) The nymphs are named Jflripritdes only in a passage of doubtful authenticity, S 38,

known
is

but

52.

;

'

30
KapTTaXifico^
S'

lAIAAOC A
avehv
iroKirj';

(i)

aXo<;

tjvt

ofii-^Xi],

KaL pa
j^etpt

-TrdpoiO'
fiiv

avrolo Kade^ero BaKpv xeovTO^,
ecjtar
eic

360

re " reKvov,

Karepe^ev, eVo? t
KXal,ei<;
;

t

ovo/ia^e'n-evdo'i
;

n
fit)

ri Si

ere

^peva<; iketo
dfiipo).

i^avSa,
TTjv

Kevde voai, "va eiBo/iev

Se ^api) drevcuymv irpoak^rj iroSa^ a)Kv<i
ri
e?
?i

A^tWev?"
365

" olaOawi'^ofieO
TTJV
kolL

too

ravr

elBvirji,

ttclvt

ar/opevw

%rj^7]v,

lepr}v

nrdXiv 'Heri&Ji'o?,

Be SieTrpdd ofiev re Kol ijyofjiev ev0a,Be Trdvra.
to,
B'

fiev

efi

Bdcrcravro fiera <T<^Lcnv vlei
'

A'^aiwv,

ex

e\ov 'ArpetBrji 'K.pvarjtBa KaXKLirdprjvov.
B'

X-pvai}^

av6'
i-Trl

cepei)^
vrja<;

eKarrj/SoXov

AttoXXojvo^
airotva,

370

^Xde

doa<i

A^atwi/

)(aXKO')(iTd>vcov

Xvaofievof; re
(TTeftfiaT

Ovyarpa ^epcov t

direpeUri

e'X^oov

ev '^epalv eKrj^oXov

AiroXXcovo';

359.

Me' 6uixXH
Lips.

Eton.

Vat.

Vr. a'' b. 362. C£ : cou Q. 366-92. dXXirpioi ol iTri^epo/ievoi.
:

365. dropeiicu
ffTixo'

QT
An.

e?KO«

iTTTo,

366. iepiiN R.

370. afio'

aO

A

{supr. e'

T.W.A.)

Vat..

stroked, so E 424 can hardly be connected with the ordinary sense of Autenrieth refers it to root reg (F)piiw

361. Kar^pese, Kappi^ovaa. This
:

is

Up6s

.

.

Human

power and

soul,

of

6-p^y-(t3.

365. toOt' eiSuiHi, i.e. Tavra FiSviqi. This, the only correct form of the fem. part. , has been preserved by some of the MSS. in the phrase ISviTjurt TrpairiSe<rcn (608, S 380, 482, T 12), but is elsewhere restored by conjecture only. Cf. I 128. 366-92 were condemned by Ar. as superfluous, and contradictory of 365. The real objection is, of course, that they are not required, at least from 368, for the sake of the hearer. But the frequent verbal repetition of messages shews what the Epic poet and his hearers liked. For QABh see notes on 37, B 690, Z 397. Chryseis was taken here instead of in her own home we are not told. !ep6c, holy, because a city is an institution to which men submit without

ascribed to an indefinite godhead, are the iepbv ijAvos, kings are Sioyeycis. The of&cial, as his insignia denote, is dedicated ; he belongs not to himself but to his office, the impersonal divine which

we call duty' (W.-M. H. U. p. 106). But it must be admitted that this is
not satisfactory as regards the fish tempting to seek, with Frazer, a
;

it is

less

subtle explanation in a 'taboo' or religious scruple against the eating of fish, which agrees with the well-known fact that Homeric heroes do not eat fish except as a last resource (see ' Taboo in Emyd. Brit.). Some would recur to

Why

asking why it is a bond imposed by a higher power, and is hence dedicated
;

to

a deity.

So

lepdv

tAos

K

56, of

a dignity. 'The impersonal and inanimate, when it exercises power, is divine Sea, river, and night are divine as well as lep6i/ The fish that breathes in water where men die
. .
.

.

the supposed primitive sense of lepbi, strmig (Skt. ishiras) but in Greek any such meaning, if it ever existed, must have long died out, for all the derivative forms (of. Upeiu) are entirely restricted to the sense sacred. Those who are not satisfied with this explanation will find ample discussion from other points of view in Schulze Q. E. 207 ff., Mulvany J. P. XXV. 131 ff. 367. firoucN is properly used of living things here, in spite of the neuter Tt-avTa, Achilles is thinking mainly of the captives. ?i12-1% are verbatim from 12-25.
;

;


lAIAAOC A
Xpva-icoi
(i)

31
'A^j^atovs,

ava

(TKriTrrpmi,

koX Xiaa-ero Trai/ra?

Arpei'Ba Be /laXca-Ta Sveo, Koajj/qTope Xamv. evd aWot fiev iravre'} iirev^rifi/qa-av ^Ayaiol
alBeta-dai S"
ieprja

375

koI

ayXaa

Bi'^^Oat,

airoivaOvfiSii,

aX\' ovK 'ArpetBrjo 'Aya/iefivovt rjvSave

aXKa

KaKa><; a^iei,
S'

Kparepov

B'

eVt fivdov ereXXe.
roio
S'

X^coo/j,evo<;

o

jepoav irdXtv an'^ero-

'AttoXXwv

380

eii^a/jbivov ijKOva-ev,

eVei /jbdXa ol (piXo^

fjev,

^Ke

S'

eV

Apyeioia-i kukov ySeXos* ol Be vv Xaol
Oeolo
Be fidvTi<;
385

dvfjKTicov eiraa-crvTepoi,,
TrdvTTjt

ra B' eTrm-^ero KrjXa dva (rrparov evpvv 'A'^aiMV. dfip,i
tt/swto? KeXo/Mrjv
S"

ev etSw? djopeve Oeoirpoiria'i eKaroio.

avTLK

eyoa

6eov IXda/cecrOai,S"

Arpei'ojva
TjTreiXTjtrev

eiretra

^oXo^ Xd^ev, ah^a
Br)

dvaard^

fivOov,

o

reTeXe<7fievo<;
Oorji

eari.

Tr)v fiev

ydp avv

vrft

eXi/cwTre'i

'A'^aiol
390

e? X.pva-rjv
TTjv

irifiTrovenv,

djovai Be Bwpa dvaxTf

Be veov KXicri'qdev e/3av KripvKe<; dr/ovref
/Mot

Kovprjv ^piarjoi;, t-^v

Boaav

vle<;

'Ay^ai&v.
eoio' s^vui^ c.%J.,^^lJ^

dXXd
7)

(TV,

el

Bvvaaai

ye,

irepLcr'yeo

iraiBo'i

eXdovcr
eirei

ojvrjaa';

OvXvfnrovBe Aia Xi(Tai, eo iroTe B'^ KpaBir^v Ato? rje Kal epymi.
(reo

n
395

TToXXaKi yap
ev'xpfievr)<;,

Trar/ao? evi fieydpoKTiv UKovcra

or

efprjaOa KeXaive^ei

K-poviavi

^
||

^Jtz Syi~ ^i

d-^t^

H. (After this line nu in the 'Cyprian 383. ^nacciirepoN Q (glossed nuKN6and Cretan ace. to Seleukos ay. Did. TercXecu^Non H. Tepon). 388. 8 afi Kol DR. 393. Cli : cii re P. loTo
374.

McceTO
'

Ar.

AT

Lips.

-.

IXiccero

fi.

375. firpeOH

Q

repeats lines 17-21.)

377. o' om. G.

381.

JudXa

:

^<4

||

||

Cant. Vr. b, Harl. c d, Par. a d^ (4hoc in ras. ) e (m ras. ?) f j 396. ^NiuuerdpoiciN U. and yp. JPR Par. e kiioc (Ihoc) Ar. Q. &8. Zen.

Zen.

HL

k

{yp. fefloc),

:

396-406

StX'
is

383. ^naccuTcpoi: usually derived from The v cf. i.<raoTipa, p 572, r 506. ; called Aeolic. But Brugmann refers it

two spondees
is

filling the two first feet almost unique in Homer, and some

to iir-av-a{e)i{ui), separating it

from

S,(t(Xov.

sense is or hurrying up. 385. ixicroyo, a, short and almost familiar form (Kosename) for ^Karrj^dXas. Fick has shewn that this method of shortening is one which has very largely prevailed in the formation of Greek

The

much the same, dose upon

suspicion attaches to v i<l>. added to make position, ixvdov ^ini7ret\ri(rei> Nauck, cf. v 127. 393. koio, thy : see App. A. 396. ceo must go with &Kov<ra. naTp6c =ot2/ father's (Peleus'). Zenod. athetized

396-406, probably on the ground that

it

proper names.
388.

The rhythm

—a

was superfluous for Achilles to tell his mother what she had done. But here of course the enlightenment of the
reader
is sufficient justification.

single

word of

32
o'It]

lAIAAOC A
iv adavobTOKTiv

(i)

aeiKea Xoiyov dfivvai,

OTTTTore /Miv
'

^vvBija'ai

OXvfnnoi
Oed,

rjdeKov oKKob,
Adijvr].
400

Upr) T
(TV

^Se UoaeiBdcov koI IlaXXa.?
rov 7
iXOovo'a,

aXXa
&'^

inreXvaao heajiSiv,

e/caroy^eipov KoXea-acr

e? fianpov 'OXv/jlttov,

bv ^pidpewv KoXeovcri BeoL, dvBpe<; Be re 7ravTe<;

Aljalav'09

6 <ydp

avre

jSltji

ov Trarpoi; dfieuvcov s/^Ht.^

^ -^n^Ar.

pa Trapd

ILpoviaivt,

KaOe^ero KvSei 'yauwv uu/c^,i^f^M^i4^5
eBrjcrav.

Tov Kol VTreBBeiaav fuiKape<; 6eol ovBe r

Twv vvv jMV
400.

p,v'r\a'a<Ta

irape^eo Kai ~Ka^e 'yovvmv,

: oTBoc 'AniXXcoN Zen. 401. t6n {mn. r) D. 402. iKa.r6N\eipoN DP. eeof r' iiuipec S. 403. BpuSpeoN Mosc. 3. ^NdpEC : aXXoi Q. ZTjvdSoros ypdipu 8 rip aOre BIhi 404. BfHi : BIhn Ar. noXii ip^pTQTOc fieN tcsn (MS. qi^praToc dindNTCON, corr. Beiitley) 6n6coi Naiouc'

riaXXac 'AeriNH

l:KaT6rxeipa

Q

:

||

||

:

6n6 TdpTapoN e^pcoeNTO An.
Dion. Hal. Ant. p. 106).
||

405. Kaeizcro Vr. b.

407.

JUIN

:

uoi

Q

(so

nOn uiuNi^caca G.
'Ipippos

400. As the Scholiast remarks, these three divinities were the allies of the Greeks, which would be a strong argument for Thetis' prayer for help to the Trojans. For FlaXXic 'Aei^NH Zenod.

:

compare with
Steph.

this

the state"E/j/hoO,

ment
'Ifi^pov

of

Byzant.,

Sk

X^7ou«

fidxapes.

Both

Bpi.dp€as

and Alyaluv may be equally
Greek roots

referred to

read $c los 'ATroXXtii/, which, as Ai'iston. remarks, dtpaipehai rb iridavdv, spoOs the effectiveness of the appeal. 403. The other instances in Homer of double names in the language of men and gods are B 813 ttJi/ toi dvdpes "BaHeLav KtKk'^ffKovaiv, dOdvaTOL S^ re (TTjfia Tro\vcrKdp6fMoio MvplvTjs, S 290 Spvidi^
-iy

{^pi of I3piap6s, ^piSis, and alyts, cf. AlyaTov TrdXayos). The father

T]tf

T ^v 6peaffL %aX/c£5a KLK\if}aKovcri Beoi, dvdpes dk K6p.LvdLVf T 74 dv ^dv6ov KaX^ovffi 6eoij &vdp€s S^ S/cd/xafSpoc. Cf. K 305 p^iiXv d^ [XIV KoK^ovai deol, jU 61
5t7

rds ye &eol p.dKap€s natural supposition would be that the 'divine' words are archaic survivals, perhaps from an older race. It is sometimes said that tlie divine name has usually a clearer meaning than the human, and that the Greeks therefore regarded their own tongue as divine, and others as the languages of mere men. But this is only the case with the x^'^'-^ and KOfMLvdis, and possibly ^dvdos and ^KafiavSpos, which, however, look like different renderings of the same foreign word. ;uffl\ii is not a Greek form, nor is the theory borne out by isolated instances elsewhere, e.g. Diog. Laert. i. 119 SXeyev (6 ^epeKiSr};) bn oi deol T^v rpdire^av eucopbN koXovulv. Again the Pelasgian Hermes was called
toi
K.aKiovai,v.

Jl\ayKTds

of Briareus was, according to the legend, Poseidon, who himself was sometimes called Alyalav or MyaXos. The legend is one of a number referring to revolts against the Olympian gods, as of the Titans, Prometheus, etc. afire, again: as Poseidon, in union with the other gods, was stronger than Zeus, so his son again was stronger than he. To avoid the syuizesis in Bpidpeav van L. suggests Bpidptiv, the gen. of which, Bpidpijo, is quoted from Ibykos.

The

raiuN occurs only in this phrase, B 51 and A 81 of Zeus. The line in E was rejected by Ar. on the ground that Ares could hardly be said
405.

E

906 of Ares,

to 'rejoice in his glory' immediately after his ignominious defeat by a mortal.

But Hentze suggests that kvSos may refer rather to the outward splendour of a divinity (cf. Kvdalvu, E 448), so that the
phrase means
'

brilliant

with splendour.'
read F' can be traced
fact

gaHCQN: IS-qaav. The loss of f = e in many places nowhere than in fi 154, q.v. The

406. oiibi t'

om

more clearly was first discovered by Brandreth, and has been systematically investigated by van Leeuwen. See S. G. § 391.

'

lAIAAOC A
cCi

(i)

33

Kev
Be

irco'i

iOeXrjLa-iv
irpy/iva ^

iirl

Tpcoeacnv dprj^ai,

^j~- Tov<i

Kara

re Kot afi^

oka ekaai 'Ayaiov^
Aja/j,e/j,v(ov
eria-e.

t'l'lu

KTeivo/Jbevovv,
•Yvoit,

"va 7rdvTe<s iiravpmvrai ^aubKrio'i,

410

'

he KoX 'ATpetB'r]<} evpv Kpeiwv
o

ijv

aT7}v,

T

apicTTOv

A.'^aiwv ovoev

Tov B

rj/ieti^eT

eTreira ©ert?

Kara BaKpv

j(eov<Ta'
;

"

to

fiot,

TeKvov

ifiov,

tI vv

o"

STpe^ov alva Teicovaa
aTrij/juov
Tt,

Cnf^z.
415

aW

o<f)e\e<!
eirei,

irapa vrjvalv aSaKpvTO^ koX
vv rot ala-a /Mbvvvdd irep, ov

^(rdai,

p,aXa

hr^v

*.

^"^

vvv S
•^*/

ap^a T

WKvpjOpoti koX 6i^vpb<i irepl iravTCOv
icaicrji

e

VXe o

Tw as

aicrrjt
e7ro<;

reKov iv

p,e'ydpot,(Ti.

TovTO Be roi epeovaa
^ifM' eip,

Ail Tep irtKepav vau

-rt^Tr.

cj Sa:t420

-6^

avrrj tt/jo? "OXvpirov

dydvvL(j) ov,
B'

a'i

Ke

iriOTjrai,.

aWa
p,7\vi

av
^

p,ev

vvv

vrjucrl

irapripbevo';

coKViropourt

hf^aioiviv , irokep,ov
e?

diroTraveo

7rdp,Trav

Zeii?

yap

Hxeavov

fier

dp,vp,ova<;

Ai dioirrja';

wi^

?

ydi,^^ €07] /card Balra, deal B
409. gXsai G. 414.
:

ap,a Trdvre'; eirovTO'
31.

Q. Ic
:

419.
in'

hi TOI
II

3'

TEKoGca &n P.

:

naeoOca Schol. A
420. nieHai Q.

417. cbxijuopdc re kq)

421.

nOn
:

:

cCin T.

423.

nvis yp. ucrii ju^nonoc (u^unonoc A) aieionflac Schol. AT. ucrh Q. 424. Kara Ar. Aph. Antim. Mass. Sinop. Cypria al., Par. c^ enoNTO ''' SnoNTai ap. Did. (not Ar. ii. Ludw. ad loc. ) hnicvati Par. c.
C.
||

:

,

:

409. ixixif' aXa, round tlie bay, where the ships were drawn up. kotiJ, as * 225 Tpflas ^Xirat /caret &<rTv, 'in the region of the stems, which were drawn up towards the land. that ^naOpooNTai, ironical, 410. they may have profit of their king.' Cf. N 733 iiravpla-Kovrai.
'

218 irpoKakia-aaTO x'^P/^Vt 203 xdXwi &pa <r' Irpeipe is one of the Homeric f^'nT'tPwords w"hich the Cyprian inscriptions have shewn us yet alive in the primitive sense of measure tG Ai4s roi Folva at<ra
ij.e6'

atcnii,

H

and perhaps

II

atca

:

?rt

y

x^^^
.

(Collitz

no.

73).

Cf.

also

412. The Homeric idea of drri is best explained by Agamemnon himself in T 85-136. Dawes would restore the

form

i.(F)i.Tri

to

Homer throughout

(cf.

Find. ai&TTi), but this is impossible in T 88, n 28 and the contracted forms of the verb do-oro T 95, Sere \ 61 (late passages all) are opposed to it. 8 T'=diri re, see note on 244 and H. G. § 269 (3). 414. aiN6, adv. cursed in my child;

,

6Mmi^,thesameideaasKaK^ia?<ri)iin418. 416. The omission of the substantive verb with an adverb is perhaps unique. For the use of adverbs with el/il see Z 131 5V ^v, H 424 Siayvavai. xaXeTrffls ^v, I 551 Koupijreo-o-t raK& fjv, and cf. A 466
oi y4ve$' bp/i-fi, 418. KaKHi aTcHi must have the same sense as aXaa above, and therefore mean

fUvvvBa Si

to

an

evil fate

;

cf.

X

i77

liji.

dpa yeiv6-

Hegesandros ap. Athen. viii. 365 d 'ApyeioL Kokiovn rijv fiepiSa al<rav. ru>, not rffli, is the reading of A in all passages where it means therefore and with this grammatical tradition agrees. It seems to be a genuine relic of the old compare iroi with ttws, and ablative perhaps oUrra with oiirws. (M. L. Earle in C. JR. xi. 243 would read riis here, This so ill-starred did I hear thee. seems very probable there is no place for an inferential particle here.) 423. For the theories which have been founded on the absence of the gods here as compared with 222 see the Introduction. For the journey of the gods to the Aethiopians compare a 22-26, where Poseidon alone is entertained by them. They dwell on the extreme limits of the world, by the stream of Ocean. /xerd Ar., Kard 424. Kari MS.S.
.
.

.

;

;

;

:

34
BcoSeKarrji,

lAIAAOC A
Si

(i)

Tot aSrts

iXevcTerac OiiKv/nrovBe,

425
oS>,

Kal TOT Kai [uv

etreLTo,

tol

elfii

Ato? ttotI ^a\Koj3aTe<;
fjiiv

'^ovvdaoiJLai,,

icaL

ireiaeaOai
S'

otco.

w? apa
•Xfoofievov
- Ti]v

(ftmv^craa-' aire^rjaeTO, tov
/caTO,

eKiir

avrov
430

Ovfwv ev^wvoio jvvaiKoi;,
<

pa

/3t7;t

aeKOVTO'i aTrrjiipav.
lepr/v

avTap 'OBvacrev;
Ikovto,

69
01

ILpvcr-qv

"Kavev Sr/aiv
Xtyu.ei'o?

eKaTOfi/Srjv.

B

ore

Bi}

'iro\v^evdeo<; ivTO<;
B'

Icrna fiev orTeiXavTO, Oecrav
la-Tov
S'

iv

vrji fieKaivrji,,

IcTToBoKrji
ttjv
B'

irekacrav TrpoTOVoicnv v(^evTei;
el?

KapiraXlfioo^,

opp-ov irpokpeaaav e/aer/iot?.
"TrpvpAtrjai,

435

eK

B'

evva<i

e^aXov, kutu Be
eirl

eBrjaav

eK Be Kal avTol ^alvov eK B

p-ijjplvi

OaXdcra-'rjii,

eKarop,^T]v ^rjaav eK7)^o\(oi 'AttoWcovi'
vr]b<;
jSrj

eK Be H.pva'^i<i
TTjv

jrovTO'Tropoio.
•7roXvp,7}Ti<s

pev

'iireiT

eirl

^copov dyoov
ndet,
Kal,

OBv<7aev<;

440

•TraTpl

<^'CK(oi

iv
irpo

')(ep<rl
p,

p,iv

•nrpoaeeiirev

"

Si

ILpva-rj,

eTrepijrev

dva^ avBpcov 'Ajyapep/vmv

iralBd Te aol dyep£v ^oi/Scot 6' leprjv maTopL^rfv
425. aOeic C.
429. x<"<^usNOC L. 428. d
ukf* Up'
<S)C

einoOc' J.

||

dneBiicaTO

432. 'Int6c: ^rriic Ar.

434. it^inTec Zen.
:

JSGffJPQU. 0: iufitrrec
443.

Ar.
coi
:

436.
cfiN J^Q.

npolpECCaN At. Argol. Sinop. Sosigenes

npo^puc(c)aN 0.

'in the matter of a banquet,' 0. § 212 (3); /lerd would be 'to look for a banquet, which is a somewhat undignified expression as used of a
cf.
'

means H.

pleonastic expression, 'in spite of him unwilling.' cannot construe d^Koi'Tos with dwriipiav, as verbs of robbing take

We

The variant mentioned by Did.,
god.

Siroyrai.

for gnoNTO,

is an attempt to get over the contradiction of the line with the presence of the gods in the camp ' they are following (going to follow) But l-ireoSai in Greek him (to-day ?).
'

a double ace. 432. For £nt6c Ar. read ^77155, but this is not necessary, as SpuoN in 435 is the mooring -place inside the harbour, and is not identical with Xi/xiyi', as he probably considered, 433. creiXaNTO the mid. may mean
:

always means 'to accompany, | or some It never immediately related notion.

means
426.

'

to follow

'

at

an

interval.

generally explained as = 5w/i, an old »i-stem, cf. hSov iv do/M. Brugmann, Gr. § 223 ad fin., mentions the suggestion that it is originally = our to, Germ, su, a heavier form of the enclitic -de, and got the
is

i&

=

dental

house only from its acciresemblance to dd/ia in the common phrase ii/j^Tcpov SS = iiii^repiv Se. 430. On the question of the genuine'
'

meaning

ness of this episode (to 489) see Introduction. BIhi A^kontoc seems to be a

'furled tJieir sails,' but in this sense it occurs only here. (rrelXdv re has been conjectured by "Wakefield. 434. The !cTod6KH was a crutch, a forked piece of wood at the stern of the ship, into which the mast was lowered by slackening the forestays. See diagram and Excursus in M. and R. pp. 541-3. 436. The eONoi are heavy atones with hawsers thrown out to moor the bows of the ship, while the stern is secured by the stern ropes {irpv/ivfina) to moorings on shore, probably to a stone with a hole set up for the purpose {rprirbs XiSos
v 77).


;

: :

lAIAAOC A
pe^at
o? vvv
vnre.p
'

(i)

35

^avamv,
iv

o<J3p'

tKacrofiecrOa ava/cra,
e<f)fjicev."

Apyeioicrt iroKvarova Krjhe
%e/!)o-t

445

w?
TToiBa
efeiij?

etVo)!'
(plXrjv.

ndei, 6 Se Se^aro y^uipcov
S)Ka deSsi KkeiTrjv eKaTOfi^riv
irepl

Tol

8'

ea-TTjcrav
S"

ivBfjbrjTOv

^m/jbov,

Xepvby^avTo

eireira koI ovXo^^^vra^ aveKovro.

tLuoe^w -

'U,

Toiaiv Se lLpv(Tr}i; fieyaX' evp^ero ^eipa<; avaa'^div " kKvOL fiev, apyvpoTO^' , 09 X.pvcrr)v dfi(f)i,^e^r)Ka<i

450

K.bXXdv re ^adeTjv TeveBoio re
T]B7j

l(f>i

dvdcr(rei,<i'

/lev

iroT
p,€v

ifiev
e/Me,

irdpog e/tXve? ev^apAvovo,
i-^jrao

Tip,T]aa<i
ri8'

p.eya S

Xabv ^A'^ai&v
ieXSeop455

6Tt KoL vvv p,oi ToS'

iiriKprirjvov

«w*;

^Bji

vvv AavaoLCTiv deiKea Xoijbv a,p,vvov."
etjiar
ev')(op,evo<;,

(S?

rov

S"

eicXve $ot/So? 'AttoXXcbi/.

avrap

inrei

p

ev^avro koX

ovXo'^i!Ta<;

irpo^dXovro,

avepvcrav p,ev Trp&ra koI eaipa^av Koi eSeipav,
444
0.8.

iXacci)juee'

Ar. Yr. a

||

i\ac6uecea

ACHE

al.

-.

iXacccauee'

P

(supr.
:

iXac6uee'
m^jjurr' J.

U

:

iXXaccc^uee' S : iXaccc&ueea iXaccdueea Q : iXac6uee' T^
: :

G

:

iXac6juece' Lips.

o) Vr. b iXac(iueea I)

A

:

446.
3'

kOn in dpr.

Q.

||

Ki^de'

446-7. &c°Eln(^N (eTncN Wolf) to)
01

&Ka ee&n
449.

Zen.

447. ToJ

Ambr.
:

||

kXcit^n

fi

:

iepfiN Ar.

imikoNTO
:

iepkn £KaT6juBHN : npofi

fidXoNTO Eust.

451. JUIEU

uoi ap. Did.

463.

el dPi

uku Q
yp.

aJkn

bk Schol.
:

Z

75 (Au^N bk seems to be Bekker's conj. from 11 236).
459.

468.

dN^ohn-o B. edHpoN Q.

ailipucaN

AG

:

dN^pucaN Eust. and

J

:

npofidXoNTO aS 'ipxican ii.

|{

in

449. x^pNiij/aNTO, a dira^ Xeyd/ienov Homer, unique in form among Greek

compounds.

The

pres.

x^P'''"'''''/'""

occurs frequently in Attic, e.g. Aristoph. Fax 961. oiXox<iTac, barley grains They so oi\ai 7 441, the Attic 6\aL appear to have been merely bruised d, relic, such as often appears in ritual, of a forgotten time before grinding was The usual course seems to invented. have been to cast them into the fire, but occasionally they were thrown on 458 below would the victim's head.
suit either. ^n^Xonto, took up in their Compare the hands from the basket.' whole description of the sacrifice in 7 430-63, and in Aristoph. Paa; 948 sqq. 454. TluHcac, an 'explicative asyndeton, merely expanding the sense of ^/cXues. Bekker would read nfi'^a-as, which how'

459. aO^pucaN, for AF-Fipvaav by assimilation from Av-Fep, 'they drew icKh, lifted up (the head) ' (Att. Avappiu) partly perhaps for convenience of cutting the throat, partly in sign of dedication to the heavenly gods. (Compare dva^xi/levos ^ i25, iveXdvres y i5S.) So victims to Chthonian powers were killed into a
pit,

oihoi

yap

Biovcri

rdis

x^oviois,

tojs

dk

oipavtois

dvu

AvcurTp^^ovTes
(schol.

rbv

Tpdxv^o"

(Ttl>iiovinv

I 587) : Kv/Jialov S^ l8os, S^hv dirh tSx Ki.T<ji itrX to. &vq: adroiis ^\k£iv (Schol. B here). Cf. also Cecil Smith'spaper on 'Nike sacrificing a Bull,"

Ap. Rhod. ahoivTov rhv

'

ever is not necessary. Vipao, didst smite, Lat. ie-ere ; cf. Iwoifievos, crushed down, So Xferai B 193. Aisch. P. V. 365.

(See Schulze's H. S. vii. 275 sqq. excellent discussion, Qu. Ep. 56-60.) In Pindar 0. xiii. 80 dvap&qi, is explained by the Schol. <r^<if?/i, 9%. Most Mss. give aS '^pmav, which cannot KaTdincree be right, as aB never in © 324-5 the repetition of aff would be
J.

=

-.

intolerable.

'

;

36
fjb'Tjpovi;

lAIAAOC A
T
i^irafiop

(i)

Kara re

KvCcrrji,

eKoXvyjrav
cofioderrjcrap.

460

StTTTfT^a TTOiriaavTe'i,

eV

aiiTOiv

S'

Kate

S'

eTTL

aj(i,^r)t,'i

6 '^kpwv,

hrX S

aWoira ocvov

XetySe-

veot Se irap
irrrel

avTov

e')(pv

irefiiroy^dKa j(epabv.

avTap

/jiicTTvKXov

Kara p/rip eKat] Koi airXdy^v' eiracravTO, T apa raXKa koX dp,^ o0eXoi<Ti,v eireipav,
ipveravTO re iravTa.
-ti.o-(.u),

465

WTTTTjo-dv re •jreptcppaBem'},

avTap

iirel

iravaavro irovov rervjcovTO re halra,
6vpiO<;

BaivvvT, ovSe rt

ehevero Bano'i
iSr)TVO<s

iia-r}<;.

avrdp eVet
KovpoL
p,ev
S'

Trdcrtos

Kol

i^ epov evTO,
ttotoXo,
470

Kp7]Trjpa<;

i-TrecrTe^jravTO

vco/irjo-av

apa irdcnp

eirap^djjkevoi

SeTrdeacriv,

463. After this add 463*> cnXdrXNa 3' Sp' dunefpaNTec 462. cxfzaic G. 464. OneipexoN (OncpeTxoN J) H9aicToio ( = B 426) JLQRTm Harl. b, Par. d f". 465. ^neipoN uflpe KdH Ar. (? see Ludw. ad loc). cnXdrxNa ndcaNTo Ar. oOk^i Eust. o63' 8ti Vat. Mor. Bar. 470. Kparflpac 468. oiibi tc P STJ. 471. 4napx<5ucNoi Cram. Einm. 107. 27. QR KaparRpac J. Icr^qiaNTo J.
||

:

:

:

||

460. UHpoiic, the thigh bones with the These are covered with a layer of fat doubled over them, and flesh from other parts of the pieces of body are laid upon them {ui/wdeTelv, from ui/i6s, cf. f 427) in order to symbolise an uApa in oifering of the whole animal. 464 seems to be identical with fi-ajpois, but, like the commoner /iripla, is only used in the sacrificial sense so B 427,
flesh adhering.
;

to be a dual = ia}pil>. The tasting of the entrails at this stage seems to have been symbolical, unless it means simply that they were more rapidly cooked than the other parts, and thus formed a
' '
'

first course.

465. &U9i,

an adverb

;

they pierced

them with spits on both sides, i.e. so as to make the spit project on both
sides.

7

179, /i 364, v 26. 461. ainxuxa. ace. singular,

'

making

it (the fat) into

a

fold.'

462-3. Cf. 7 459, where the lines are certainly more appropriate, as the vioi there are Nestor's sons, who help him with the sacrifice. Here the idea of young men is not in place. The neuncoBoXa must have been five-pronged forks stuck into the meat to hold it over the fire. Eustathios says that the use of five prongs for the purpose was peculiar to Kyme in Aiolis, the other Greeks using

468. For Schc see on 306. 470. ^necT^ij^oNTo, filled to the brim cf. ivL(iTect>ia.$ otvoi.o 6 232, ;3 431. It was a misinterpretation which led to Virgil's socii cratera coronant, and the actual crowning of the goblet with
;

flowers.

471. Jndpxeceai denotes the libation of a few drops taken by a ladle from the mixing, bowl, Kprp-^p, and poured into

the drinking cups

only three.

(Engelmann

has shewn,

Jahrb. d. d. arch. Inst. vi. 173, that the forks figured in Helbig, H. E."- 354-5, are kitchen utensils used for fishing boiled meat from the caldron, cf. 1 Sam. ii. 13, and could not have been

{deirdecrcnv being a locative dat. ). &px€(r0ai is particularly used of ritual acts of all sorts, and iirl ' going implies round ' the guests. They first poured out these drops to the gods and then had their cups filled to drink. (See Buttmann Lexil. p. 169, and M. and R. on y 340.) The difficulty here is that the libation is men-

used for Homeric sacrifices, which are always roast.) 464. For iiflp' kKiM there is a curious old variant, said to have been approved by Ar., ii,rlpe Ka-q, where iiripe is supposed

tioned
{irdcrios

when the drinking

is

ended

469), contrary to the rule. The whole passage from 451 to 486 entirely consists of lines or phrases appearing

elsewhere,

except 456, 472,

474,

478

;

'

lAIAAOC A
01

(i)

37

Be

Travrj/jbepiot,

fioXirrji

deov IXda-KOVTo,

KoXov
97/£0?
Br)

ael8ovTe<} Tran^ova, Kovpoi
e Kciepy ov

'Avaimv,
aKOvcov.
475

fi6\7rovTe<!
S'

6

Be (j^peva Tepirer
ical

^eXto? KareBv

em, Kveipa^ rj\9e,
vr]6<;.

Tore KOifirjcravTO irapa trpvfivrfcna
B'

^fio<;

rjpir^eveia

KUL TOT
Toiaiv B
oi B

eTTetT

<f>dvrj poBoBdKTv\o<; 'Hw?, dvdjovTO /lera (yrparov evpvv 'A.'^ai&v iKfievov odpov eKdepyo'; 'AiroWav.
'let,

icTTOv
dvefio<i

cTTTjcravT
irprjo'ev

dvd

6'

laria XevKct, ireTaaaav
l<TTiov,
dficjil

480

ev B

fiicrov

Be KVfia

(TTeip rn
f]

TTop ^vp eov fieydX

iaj(e

vrjb<;

lovcrrj';-

B'

eOeev
eirei

Kara KVfia

Biairprjo-crovaa

KeKevdov.

p Xkovto Kard ffTparov evpvv 'Ay^atmv, vrja fiev ol ye fiiXaivav eV rjireipoio epvo'crav

avrdp

485

vyfrov eVi \Jrafid6oi,<;,

xnro

B

epfiara fiaKpa rdvva-crav,
Te vea<; re.

avTol B

icTKiBvavro
6 firjvie

Kara

/cXtcria?

avrdp
474
6.6.

vijverl

Traprjiievo'i

ooKviropoKn

Ar. 481. In &' : ^No" J. 484. KOTCI Ar. fi ucr6 ADGT ipojudeoio JPQRT", Cant. Vr. A Lips. Moso. 1 Vat. Bar. 486 om. T'. 488kprusxra ffQ. Mor. Cant. Lips. Vr. a b ij/ajudeou G Vr. c, Mosc. 3. 92 7it]v. i)8hr)Kev, riv di oOxe nor' 4c n6XeuoN (491) oidi lypatpev.
:

Harl.

a,

||

:

||

it seems to be betrayed by this oversight as an unskilfully made cento ^unless, with Duntzer, it be preferred 469-74 altogether. Ar. reject to athetized 474 partly because he did not allow the meaning sing to lilkirav (see on N 637), partly on account of the tautology ; and the two participles, with Kovpoi 'AxatiSi' interposed evidently by an adap391, are certainly awkward. tation of 472. noNHii^pioi must = ' all the rest of the day in which the assembly and voyage to Chryse have already happened. For this use compare wavi/vxlrj ^ 434 (with 388), wav ^/mp S 453. 473. naii^oNa, a hymn of rejoicing, 391. rd not necessarily to Apollo, see KoXbN 6.PTI Tov (caXfis, Ariston., rightly. 474. iKdeproN, here apparently Averruncus, the ' keeper afar ' of pestilence the opposite and complementary function to that of 'Bktj^AXos, and fitly mentioned now that his anger is appeased. early -born; ^pi. = 477. UpiriNeia,

and

here in H.

Whatever the derivation
'

it

must mean

favourable. 480. cri4caNTO, like ard'KavTO
:

433.

Here we could equally read aTriai-v t'. the word means to puff, 481. npflccN spirt out, How, and is used (1), as here,
of air; (2) of &i6 = burn, Tvpl or wvpds

X

being generally added in Homer (3) of &va. a-Td/m fluids, e.g. II 350 (aXfui) Trp^o-e x","'^"t)"ly ^^^ sigmatic forms are found in H., with the exception of
; . .

'

hiirprtdov I 589. 482. creipHi, the stem

;

the solid

beam

X

which had to take the shock when the nopfiipeoN, a word vessel was beached. which seems to be properly used, as here, of the dark colour of disturbed waves cf. notes on 103, B 83, S 16
;

lyep-t

from

duser-i,

whence

also dpurrov,

the early meal.
origin,

479. YKueNON, a word of unknown found four times in Od. but only

391. 483. dianpi^ccouca here, with the addition of Ki\cv$ov, shews the transition from the primary meaning ' to pass over ' (root Ttpa of irepd-w etc. ) to that of 'accomplishing.' 486. gpuaxa, shores, either large stones or beams of wood, set so as to keep the The line seems to come ship upright. from Hymn. Ap. 507. Cf. B 154, A 117.
[Top^iipeiv),

n

38
Btoyevr)^ IIi/X'^o?
vl6<;,

lAIAAOC A

(i)

TroSa? w/cv? 'Ap^«.X\eu?
TToiXecrKeTO

0VT6 TTOT

6t9

oryopfjv

Kvhidveipav

490

ovTe iror

e?

troXefiov,

aXKa
S'

<^divv6eaice (fnXov Krjp

aWi
T-f

fievcov,

TroOeea-Ke
Srj

avrpjv re TrroXefiov re.
rjcos,

^

J

/

1

j-

aXX' ore
Kal Tore
TrdvTe<s
Sr)

p

e'«

Toto BvcoSeKdrrj r^ever

tt/jo?

"OXv/jlttov taav deal alev eovTe<;
S'
rj

afia,
loii,

Zeu?
dXX'

^/JYe7'

©ert?

S'

ov Xijder

i(peTfi6<ov

TratSo?
rjep'bT]

dveSvcreTO Kv/Ma 6aXaa-(7r]<;, /ten /^-^iSS

h'
S'

dve^T] fiejav ovpavov OvXvfnrov re.

evpev

evpvoira K.povi.B7]v arep rip,evov
Kopv(fyrjt

aXKwv
500

dxpordrrji

TroXvSeipdSo^ OvXvjj/Trobo.

Kal pa TrdpoiO
CTKairji,

avroio Kadi^ero Kal
S'

Xd^e yovvav

he^LTeprji

Xicraofievr]

TrpocreeiTre

ap iiir dvdepeojvo^ eXovcra Ata K.povia)va dvaKra'
1
:

489.

HmXAoc

Harl.
:

a,,

Mosc.

nHX^oc [AL]HiJ
||

:

nHXecoc

U
||

nor": oiia^nw P^

068^ nox' LP^.

Ic Q.
||

491. eic

HJRU.
:
;

490. oOxe n6Xcu6N r'

.

nroXeubN [ACS] n6\eju6N fi. 493. Draco de Metr. 492. fiuTfiN Koi P. This line has the ohelos in A, but no Schol. to explain it possibly Ar. athetized (mEh<iC€TO Ar. Mosc. 1 496. ^oTo Q. (Ludw. adloc). 495. ^yerjuidcoN H. 501. (A supr.) 6NeaO(c)caTO fi. 497. oiiXuuniNae J (supr. re) PQ. &' fip' hk Eust. V aO L.
||

:

:

:

489. uWc as an iambus, see P 575. In the older Attic inscriptions u6s and vi6i are used indifferently in the later vbs is the regular form, the i becoming semivocalic and then falliug out 6.
; ;

eOpOona is from Fb^ from root dir to see. The former would of course express the fartimes whether
or
vcdce,

Meyer
JiTJKiuis

Gr. % 130. The synizesis or IIijX^os is not Homeric.

of

490. KuaidNeipoN, elsewhere an epithet of /idxv only ; cf. I 441 ayopiav tva t dvSpes apLTTpeirks Te^iBovnv. Th?se assemblies and battles must be taken as falling within the twelve days after the quarrel.
.

I

491. 9i\oN in this and similar phrases simply ^Ais oim, Hv see on 167
:

reaching voice of the thunder. In favour of this it may be said that the compounds of iir make -awa, not -otto, cf. ekmSiins, eidnriSa, etc. ; and there can be no doubt of the derivation from f 61^ in Pindar's 'KpovlSav ^apv&irav arepovav Trpiraviv, P. vi. 24. The word is generally a nom. On the analogy of ^apvb't'"' we ought perhaps to read eipvirav f""" ^^^ accus. Otherwise we must a second nom yp6o^

^'^^

j^o

1

-

r

i.1,

^

S^?.- °?™'°;. °^; ""'"f suppliants attitude cf.

" *Ia,
O

^°5

^^^,

371 yoivar

with Thetis. This vague reference becomes far more intelligible if we omit
496.
e

The

aco.

kOuq

is

strange,

cf.

359,

where we find the gen. which we should expect. plfi<pa and Koutpa have been conjectured.
337, 497. AeplH either ^i5t' 6iJt,ix><v (359), or better in the early morning,' from This is clearly the meaning ^ipi, see 477. in I 52. Cf. also 557, r 7. 498. It has been debated from old
'

=

t^e touching of the chin only is men^^^^^^^ tmI act perhaps symbolises the last resource of the disarmed and fallen warrior, who can only clasp his enemy's legs to hamper him, and turn aside his face so that he cannot see to aim the final blow, until he lias at least heard the prayer for mercy. 501. On the analogy of 9 371 O^Xa^e x^'P' 7e;'e/ou it would seem that im6 is here an adverb, taking him by the chin beneath.'
'
.

lAIAAOC A
" Zev iraTep, el irore
hrj ere

(i)

39
6vrj(ra

fieT

aOavdrotcnv
eeXZcop-

^

eirei

^ epyai, ToSe
fioi,

fioi

Kprfrjvov

Tifi7]cr6v

vlov,
fiiv

09 a>KV/J,opcoTaTO<;

aXkmv

^05

eTrXer'"

arap
trip
eTTt

vvv ye ava^ apBp&v 'Ajafie/j,va)v
ep^jet

tiTCc

firLfirja-ev

eKa>v

yap

yepa<;,

awro? airovpa'i.
^'''

aX)^ av
To<ppa S

fx.iv

tIcov, 'OXv/jLirie firjnera Zev'
Tt^et KpcLTO'i,
e
o<f)p

-^^
510

Tpft)6<7(7t

av 'A'^acol
'

vlov i/iov n<T(oaiv

o^eXkwalv re
B

rififji."

W9 fpdro'
dXX'
cLKecov

Trjv
Srjv

ov ti
koI

Trpocre(f>7}

ve^eXr^yepeTa Zeus,
'^yfraro

fjorTO.

©ert? S
e'ipero

o)?

yovvav,

W9
"
ij

e'^er

ifi'ir6(f>vvia,

Sevrepov

avTa

v7jfie£Te<;

fiev
eirei,

Br)

fioi

VTrocr^eo
eiri
oeo';,

Kal /cardvevaov,
o<pp

airoeiir

,

ov toi

ev eioco
el/j,i,."

515

6(7(70v

iyco fiera Traatv dnfioTarr]

6eo^

TTjv

Be fiey

6'X^9i](7a<;
,

7rpoae<f>7}

ve(j)eXrjyepeTa

Zev<;-

"

rj

Br)

Xolyia epy
or

o

re p! ej^OoBoirfja'ai,
oveiBeiot,<s

ei^rjaeit;

^pr)i,
rj

av pJ

ipedrjicrtv

eTreecratv.

Be Kal avTco<; p! alel iv dOavdroicri Oeolai
:

520
512. ^x^con
Lips.).
2.
||

505. JUOl

uou HP.

510. TiufiN D3Q, {supr.
:

ft)

Vr. h, A.
Suid.
i.

Vr.

a.

513. fipero

HPRU^
||

6
||

5'

'I^iav eTpe t6 (8rpCT0, Schol.
:

aOeic

G

Ambr.
(?

515. oOti

C^DGV.

^ni

^cri PU^.

|1

eiSfiic

519. fipH

Ar.

see

Ludw. ad

loc).

6Nei3ioic

DHUPQP

(a constantly recurring variation).

be right.
Bri

The juoi long in thesi can hardly Nauck conj. vUa /jloi Tl/iiia-op, Menrad rliaiabv ai fioi vl6v, Piatt rlfirjcrov
505.
a'C"')
"^•i"-

kritoa'

cus tdov, S)s ifxiji-qv,

Virgil's Ut vidi

ut perii, seem to rest on a misunderstand294. See, however, note on ing. 513. &uine9uuta, a hyperbolical expression for 'clinging close,' as in 4v 5'
x"/'') ^^^ so irepupOa-a t 416, 433. 515. 3^oc,?soreaso9iio/ear (any superior 246 <rol d' oi Cf. court of appeal). Sios iar' a-n-oKiaBai, and B 563.

S

^or SAXcoN after the

superlative

cf.

Z

295,

*^

532,

e

105,

Soph. Ant. 100 KdWuTTov tQv vparipuv tjiiot (with Jebb's note), 1212 dvcrrvxeaT6.T7)v
oSuiv,

&pa

ol

<j>v

irpoa'^is

p.

KiXevBov
'

ipirtu

tS>v

irapeXSovo-wv

The gen. and numerous others. means doomed to swiftest death as compared with
all others ; it is ablatival, expresses the point from which the higher (here the highest) degree of a quality is sepa/raied,' S. G. § 152. 506. gnXero, ' he was made before but now in addition.' 510. fiip^XAcoci Tuxfli, generally transexalt him lated augeant earn honore, with honour ; but Hentze suggests that Ttprji is rather the fine paid ; so that
'

M

and

'

.

.

518. Xoina 'ipra, an exclamation, 'sad work,' as we say; it is hardly necessary to supply Ictm if we read ore gives a rather 8 re with Bekker weaker sense. See S. Q. § 269 ad fin. occurs in $ 533, la-ea-Bai. oia Xolyi
;

4'

310.

Iixeoaonftcai

:

dira^

elprip^vov,

'

'

but ^BoSoirSs occurs in Attic, and seems to be related to IxBot as dXXo5a7r6s to aWos. Ar. is said to have put a^ stop

the words mean 'make him rich with This is a thoroughly recompense.' Homeric idea, see note on 158. df^AAeiN is not elsewhere used with a personal
object.

and read "Hp?; for "Hpiji Ludwich doubts this). In any case such an order of the words would not
after ((p^aas,

(but

&C, as she had em512. ebc braced him, so she clung to him.' Theo'
.,

.

be Homeric, 520. Koi aOrcoc, even as it is; compare the use of Kal &Was, even at the best
'

of times.'

40
veiKil,
K.ai
ail

lAIAAOC A
re
/ie
t^rjat,
fJ'dy(Tji,

(i)

"Ypmeacnv
fir)

aprjiyeiv.
vorjcrrjt

aXKa
'

/Mev

vvv

avTK
ravra

am:oaTi')(e.,
/j.eX'^a'eTai,,

n

Uprj
ei
5'

i/j,ol

Si Ke

6(J3pa

reKea-crco.
ireTrolOrji,';-

giye

tol

Ke<f>a\rji,

Karavevaofiai, o<j)pa

TovTO yap ef ifieOev ye fier dOavdroio'i, fieytcrrov reKfieop' ov yap efiov TraXivdypeTov ovS dirarrfKov
ovS"
?!

525

dreXevTTjTov, oti Kev Ke<j)aXrji Karavevao).

Kal KvaveTjtenv
B'

eTT

6<^pv(ri

vevcre

K.povKov
530

d/ji^pocnat

dpa

youTai,

iireppma-avTO avaKTo^
S'

KpaTO<; dir
rco et?

adavdroio, /Meyav

iXeXi^ev 'OXvp/irov.

y w? ^ovKeuaavTe Bieruayev r) fiev eireira oka SXto ^aOelav dir alyX-^evro^ ^OXvp/irov,
CGQ.
Tl
:

622, ausic

||

JUll^

al dpiffrdpxov Kal

aJ
||

&Wai

(rx^Sdv &Tracrac

SiopBiio'eis

Did.
ii.

:

wk
II

ce Q.

524. TOi

thi Vr. a, Eust.

IniNeiicouai ap. Did.

and Athen.

66.

neneieeic
527. oTl

Q

:

neneisHc
:

L

(sitpr. oi).

526. T^KJuap

H
A

{supr. to)

R«>).

JPK. dl^JuarcN Ar.

8nep Sn Stob. Fl. xi. 6. 529. IneppeboNTO Eust. Snokti Harl.

KeN

628.
a.

KuaN&ian
a},

R (r^KJuttop CH {supr. h)
531.
3^.

||

530.

KpHTbc Zen.
Mosc. 1^

fi

:

Bi^uaroN

GPQR

(U'^

supr.) Lips. Vr.

525. euesEN rs : Zeus perhaps means that he alone is not required to swear ; even Hera has to take an oath (S 271,
36).

ceptions are this line,

G

199,

X

448,

where the sense needed is shook, which can hardly be got out of FeXla-aav. It seems
necessary, therefore, to postulate for these cases, and for i\e\lx8uv (Find. P. ii. 4, vi. 50, Soph. Ant. 153) a verb^\eX/feu'= shake. darepoTrdv ^XcXifois Find. N. ix. 19, iyxoi . . (rabiievov i\4XiKTo 558 are ambiguous, as the two verbs come near together in the sense brandish.' 532. The hiatus at the end of the first foot without a pause is harsh, though

526. T^KJUcop : see note on 30. &u<5n, anything of mine (or possibly any r^Kfiup of mine). This use is, however, very strange ; i/ioL would seem more natural. noXiNdrperoN, from Aypiw, which is said to be the Aiolic form of alpia. But it occurs in Aisoh. Ag. (lyric), Archiloohos and Theognis, as well as in Sappho and Aiolic inscriptions. (The identity of the two words is very doubtful. Smyth's attempt to prove it, A.J.P. vii. 382, takes no account of dypa.) For the use of

H

N

'

not unexampled (see on
{Mell.

B 87).

Darbishire

Phil. p. 51) would read fdXro, swooped, deriving it from root uel of
dXeis,
'

vol-v-o etc.

From

the meaning

take back '=revoke compare A 357 TrdXii/ H ye Xd^eTO fiv&ov. 528. im - NeOce go together in the sense of Karaveiia above (Did. mentions indeed a variant imveijiro/j.aL in 524). KuoN^HiciN can mean only dark cf. fi 94 KaXvpifj-a Kvdveov, roD 5' otf tl
'

S'

to gather one's self together ' he deduces that of swooping, through phrases like

'

'

;

.

.

IxeKdvrepov ^ttXcto Iffdos.

These lines are

by Strabo to have inspired Pheidias with the conception of his famous statue of Zeus at Olympia. 530. ^^\i3eN Dawes explained the verb as a mere blunder for iF^Xt^ev, and it appears that in almost every case in H. sense requires and metre permits some form of FeXla-aoi. The three exsaid
:

d\ds, and swooped is more natural 'leapt like a hawk' in !pr}^ ffls aXro S 616. Still it is rather violent to say that Thetis 'gathered herself together into the sea.' Moreover, the only other case where the digamma would be useful is 15, where iTn.d\/j.evos certainly means jumping, not swooping. All other forms of the word (not of course including ioKtiv, etc.) are neutral or reject the digamma, even in some places widere we should equally like to say swooped. Tradition varies as to the accent and breathing of the word the
oifai(re

than

H

;

lAIAAOC
Zeu? Se ebv
ef eBetov,
fieivai
ttjOo?

A
8'

(i)

41

h&fia.

6eol

a/jua

Travre? aveaTav

a'(f>ov

Trar/ao?

iirepyfofievov,

evavriov ovSe dX)C avTioi earav
ol
tTV/jxfypda-a-aro

tk

erXf]
535

aTravTe<;fitv

w?

d /iev

ev^a KaOe^er
iBovtr

eVt Opovov ovSi

"Hpi]

rj>yvoL7}aev

on

/SovXd';

apyvpoTre^a ©erts, Ovydrrjp akioio yepovTO<;.

avTiKa KepTOfitoiai ALa K.povtava
" Tts S
aiei
TOt,

Trpoa-rjiiBa-

av

TOi,

SoKofjbrJTa,

Oemv

<TV/jL^pd<7(TaT0

/3ov\d<;

;

540

<f>i,\ov

itrriv

i/juev

dirovoo'dn.v

iovra
jjloi

KpvTTTaSia ^poveovra huKa^efiev
'irpo<f>peov

ovBi tc irm

T€T\7]icaii
iJ/ietySer
Br)

ehreiv

etro'i,

om

voTja-rjii;"

Tqv
" Upr],

S'

eVetra

"Trarrjp

dvhp&v re
irep

deSiv re545

fir)

irdvTa^

ifiov<;

i-TTieXireo

fivdov<;
iovcr'qi.

elBr)(Teiv

j(aXe7roi rot eaovT
iinetKe'!

akoj^coL

dXK

ov fiiv K

aKovejMev,
<y

ov

tk

eireira

0VT6 detbv
ov he K
firj

•7rpoTepo<;

rov

eicreTai

ovr

dvOpcoirwy
550

Tt

iywv dirdvevOe Oe&v e6eKwp,i vorjcrai, crii ravra eKacrra Bieipeo /mtjSs fieToWa."
Eust.
|{

533.

dNecTON: gnouro

534.
:

iap^uN

GHPR^ and nvh
H.
3'

Sohol.

AT.
536.

535. ^NTioN
'ens'

T

:

^NaNTJON R.

^CTQN
:

&fieivov

fiXeON ypiipeai Schol. BT.
640. cuucppiicceTO
||

^Koeezer' H.
538.

539. KepTOJuiiH(i)a JP. 541. TOI
ti

After this

P

repeats

J

:

coi Eust.

ejuoO G.
549. hi iC 550.
:

543. NoricHiC

[AZ>]JQRTiU:
krio Q.
dii^peo
II

Noiieeic

fi.

546. xaXenoi
:

rip Q.
il.

Bn Eust.

|i

leeXcoJUI
II

Q

{supr. oi)

£ee\oiui

uA

ts

cii

L

Yr. b.

||

D.

ui^TG

ucrdXXa

P.

regular form Tvould of course be fiXro, but the best ancient authorities decide for the anomalous SLXto. 533. The hiatus in the middle of the
foot is inexcusable, and the zeugma harsh, though it is not impossible from ' leapt ' or to supply ' went ' ' swooped.' The simplest correction is Brandreth's Zeis S' U Hv or t' Hv (reconjectured forty years later by Eick and again by Agar). 540. Eor t(c 3' aO Bekker and others read tIs St) at. See on 340. The change is the less necessary as questions often 244, begin with an unelided 5^, e.g. 247. On the other hand, the position of 5' stands the word seems to shew that aO exfor S-fi in H 24 Tlirre ai S' aO. presses vexation, like aire 202. 541. It is impossible to say whether airb vbff<piv or iaioH6c/fm is best ; the authority of grammarians is in favour of
first
is

For the participle in the ace, though toi has preceded, cf. H. G. § 240 i6vn would give the meaning 'when j/om are apar</romm« you like to decide.' 542. BiKoz^eN, to give decisions, as 6
iivra.
;

KpunTciBia goes with 9poN&NTa. 431. It 543. np69pcoN, of free vnll, ultra. is always used as a predicate, never as an epithet, 'inoc, a matter, as when used with reK^aaai. 108. 547. Eor k" Wakefield conj. o-', which

makes the sentence clearer, and is adopted The omission of the subj. by van L. Kneira, as though ^iji is rare, cf. B 481. d riva had preceded instead of the
equivalent
549.
iv.

£e^coui now has MS. authority ; it has been hitherto adopted only on Hermann's conj., but was possibly read by Ar. of. Didymos on 6 23 ie^Xoi/ii,
;

the

first

(cf.

B

233),

taking d7r6 with

The 1st pers. in 'Apltrrapxas 48i\a/u. -oifu for -oi is an analogical formation, In the Mss. it has after -riin beside -t/i.

, ;

;

42

lAIAAOC A

(i)

Tov B rjiiei^eT ewei^Ta ^omttk ttotviu "Hprj" aivorare •K.poviSr), ttoiov tov /mvOov eeirre^ Kat XiTjv ae Trapo? 7 ovt eipofiai ovre fieraWoi),

aWa
vvv
B'

/j,aX'

evKr)\o<i

to,

(ppd^eai aacr
<^peva,
ixtj

iOeXTjiada'
ere

alv5)<;

BeLBoiKa

Kara

irapei'rrrji

555

apjvpoTre^a @6T4S, 6v<ydT7)p aXioio yepovro<;rjepir]

jap

croi

ye Trapi^ero koX Xa/Se yovvoiv
ft)9

TTJi

(J

hiw Karavevcrai, eTiJTV/Mov,
6\eaei<;

'A'^tXrja

TifMTjtrei'i,

Be TroXea? eTrl vrjvalv 'Ay^aiav.

TTjv

B

aTrafiei^ofievoi;

trpoae^r] ve(j)e\7}jepeTa

Zeyy

560

"

BaifioviTj,

alel fiev
efiTTTft;

oteai,

ovBe

ere

Xijdco,

irprj^ai
lu,aX'Kov
el

B

ov

n

Svvi]aeai,

dXX' dtro Gvfiov
etvat.

ifiol

ecreaf

to Be rot kol piyiov ecrrai.
ifj,ol

B

ovTQ)

TOVT

eariv,

fieWei ^iXov
r'

552. geinac PS.

553.

Man H.
fi
:

||

om. U.

||

ndpoc
6\^CEIC

t'

Mor. Bar.
:

||

fipojuai
y

D.

II

oiire Ar. Aph. Rhi.

oOafe ap. Did.
TlJuriceiC -D^LQ^
?
:
:

554. ace'

yp.
(?)
:

a

k' J.

8-nri
.

e^XHicea Dion. Sid.
dX^CHic Q.
560.
-yp.
II

559.
:

D^Q
4).
||

tiui^chic

noK^ac

noXetc Zen. (noXOc
563. TOI

see
Ti

on B

naph nhucIn E.

TiiN

bk uir' d](ei4cac A.

P, om. Q.

been almost entirely superseded by the
familiar opt. in -ot/ii. Both here and in 9 23 the opt. is, however, defensible. 553. Kai XiHN, most assuredly ; 6 358,
etc.

by Goodwin with
6

For ndpoC with

pres. of.
e

A

264,
fiTj

'KitnTop.a.i Swus (7 19, 344), 'promising to act taking the same constr. as entreating to act' (M. and T. § 359, cf. S. 0. § 285 [2]). 561. daiu^Nioc seems to mean properly

e 36 etc.
555.
Stj

On

the analogy of
deb,

300 ddSa

w&vTa

vriixepria

eXwev

and the

regular Attic use we should have expected here the past tense of the indie. to express a fear that something has already happened. This use of /ti) with indie, however, seems to be a comparatively late development, and there is no other case in H. Fear indeed naturally refers to something future when we say I fear that a thing has happened,' we mean ' I fear that it will prove to have happened.' Thus it is natural to use the aor. suhj. as in 98,
'

K

one who is under the influence of a Salp.av or unfavourable divine intelligence that is, one whose actions are either unaccountable or ill-omened. Hence it sometimes means fool (5at/i6i'ioi, /ialvecrBe, a- 406), B 200, I 40, N 448, 810, 5 774 or indicates severe remonstrance, B 190, r 399, A 31, Z 326, 521, <r 15, t 71, and here (this shade of meaning is hardly translatable we say colloquially I am indeed surprised at you or what possesses you ') or tender remonstrance, Z 407, 486, K 472, i/- 166, 174, 264 in i2 194, { 443, it perhaps expresses pity, 'ill-starred.' (This is Nagelsbach's
; '
'

;

'

;

'

'

;

;

538,
5el5iij

S
IXT)

8

;

see particularly
.

X

455-6-7
puv Kara-

5-^

.

dlTyraij

Kal

dr}

(see iV. and T. § 93, 307-8). The neglected F of TrapFelvqi. has led to Bentley's irap^Xdrji and other conjectures. Brandreth suggests a"J o-e Tapai.(pTJi., p.T] TrapaFeiinii, p.ji a' &pa (or ai ye) irel(T'qi. 559. The fut. indie, here gives the simplest sense, tbc (lit. 'how') expressing the content of the promise. The
waicrrii.

explanation, ff. 2". p. 73.) dteai, 'you are always fancying, supposing,' an allusion to Stoi in 558. 562. 6nb eujuoO, far aioay from my good will ; cf. e/c Bvpmi ireaieiv 595, d-iro6ij/ua S 261. For &T6=far from cf. e 213, I 353, 437. 564. toOto, sc. that of which you accuse me. u^XXei, yoti may be sure it is my good pleasure cf. the same phrase

*

;

subj.

however

is

defensible,

and

is

classed

in

B

116

;

so

a

46, 3 377,

o-

19.

lAIAAOC

A

(i)

43
565

aW
fJkT)

cLKeovira KaOijao,

efi&i

S'

eTnireideo fivOaii,
eicr

vv TOi

01)

'^paiafieoo'tv

oaoi OeoL

iv

OXv/iTrwt,

aaaov lovO , ore /civ rov daTTTowi yeipa's etf>ei,o)." * w? e<f)aT\ eBBeicrev Be ^o&tn'i troTvia "UpTj,
Kai p
Toiaiv
fiTjTpl
r)

aiceovaa KaOfjaro, iTriyvd/JAlracra ^IXov
8
'

Krjp.

o)j(9ricrav
B'

avk Bwfia Ato?
eirl

6eo\

Ovpavl,cove<;'

570

H(^a((7T0? KkvT0Te')(y7)<i

^px
ovo

aryopevetv,

<f>ik7)i

rjpa (pepmv, XevKwXevcoi "iipTjf
ecrcreTai

Or)

Xoiryia

epya too

er

ave/CTa,

ei

B^ cr^w' evexa dvTjT&v ipiBaoverov &Be,
Oeolcri,

iv Be

koKxolov eXavverov
eTrel

ovBe tu Bairo^
viKai.
voeoverTjt,
fir]

575

ea-6\7]<;
fiirjTpl

eacreTai, ^So<;,
S"

ra ^epeiova
avrijt irep
6(j)pa

iym irapd^/Mi, koX
iraTrjp,
criiv

irarpl

<f>lX(oi,

im, rjpa (pepeov Ad,
B
rjfuv

aine
580

veiKeLr)iat
et irep

Baira rapd^rjt,
ecrriv.

yap k

eOeKrjicriv

OXvfj,mo<; derrepoTrr)Tr)<;

e^ eBecov arv(^e\i^av

6

yap ttoXu ^epTaro^

566. eic'

In

:

dciN

G.

567. Wno'

A

:

i6NTe
569.

Zen.

(e/c

w\-fipovs)

East.
||

||

ddnrouc Ar.fi: i^nrouc Aph. (seeLudw.). rNd\|iaca DPS Laud. 570. Sx^hcon JT
:

Inid^Kouca U^ Vr. b. 572. XeUKCoX^NCOi Eton. Lips.

573. yp. fi6H ijrl fiiWovTos HpHI &/ieivov ypdtpav tctihu^nhi fijop Sehol. T. 578. oOtic R. 581. ^Sp^uH G(R supr.) Cant.; J™, so Eust. Et. Mag. al.
ep. 534.
il

9^pTcpoc Cramer An. Par.

iii.

109.

567. SccoN i6No', Sn Zrji'SdoTos 7pd0ei ouK ^an 5^, aXK 6>vtI tov i6vTe. Ariston. IdvTos. ffvyx^'^ 5^ Kal rh Svi'Kdv That is, Zenodotus took I6v9' to be for Ibvres, agreeing with i6vT€ in the sense of Beol. His theory was that the dual and a theory plural were interchangeable
&(r(TOv

'

not to be dealt with or handled,
S.a(Tov Uvai.

'

i.

e.

irresistible.

= attack, cf.

105.

which has been held also by some modern philologists, and receives some support from several passages in Homer see B
;

Aristarchos opposed this view, and took I6vd' here for Ibvra (sc. iiii, ace. after xpi/(r/«j(riy) AvtI TdC IbvTOS meaning that we should have expected a gen. absolute, 'when I come near,' as the to construction x/ooiir/ieo' nvL riva, ward one person off another,' is not found elsewhere, though we have xpai.487,
: '

9 74.

572. kn\ fipa 9^pcoN, doing hind service to his mother ; a very ancient phrase, appearing in the Vedic vdram, Ar. read hilar, lit. to bring the wislies. iwlripa as a neut. pi., Kal iTr^KpATriaey i] X670C oiK txovua, 'Apio-Tapxov, Kalroi Schol. A. For S 132 ^pa tpipoyres without iiri is decisive against him ; cf. also <fiipeiv X'^P'-" in tlis same sense, I 613, Frjpa is an ace. singular, root var, etc.
cf. B 212 Kokwiav conn, with /coXoiis, ' the noisy jackdaw. So Kokovav 6opv§etv Hesych. 576. Ti \epe.ioKa : of. 107 ri, KaKd for the use of the article. else only in 577. napdyHJuu, to advise aor. (mid. ) to prevail upon. 579. Clin of course goes with rapd^rn,
; : '

to choose, desire. 575. koXcoi6n, din

a-fieiv

Twi

Ti (e.g.

H 144), which is perhaps
Bentley conj.
:

;

sufficient analogy.
ld}v,

&tT(Toy

while Diintzer would eject the line fidnrouc Aristoph. d^Trrous, it which is perhaps to be preferred will stand for i-aeir -tovs, from iirm,
altogether,
;

not with
581.

Tifur'.

It is

apodosis after

not necessary to supply any ei irip "' iOiXriwi it is a
:

44

lAIAAOC

A

(i)

aWa
avTiK

(TV

Tov y
e^Tj,

eireecrcri

Kada/Trreadai fidKaKoccriv
eVcrerat r^fuv.'
i

eTreiO'

'tkao<;

'OXw/z.7rt09

w? ap'
/J^rjrpi

Koi dvai^a? SeTra? a,fi(j)t,KV7reWov
riOet,,

^ikrft,

ev %6t/3t
ifirj,

Kai

/J,iv

TrpocrieiTre'
KriSo/j,evr]

585

" TerXadi,,
firj

fLrjTep

Kal

avd<T')(eo

nrep,

ere

^IXtjv irep iovaav ev o^OaXfiolaiv

'ihwfiat.

debvojjLevrjv

Tore
Koi

S"

ov to Bwijcrofiai
>yap
'0\vfi,ino<;

a')(yvfiev6<;

irep

^paicr/Meiv
ij^T]

apyaXeoi

avTKJiepecrOai.
590

jdp
S'

fie

aWoT

aXe^e/Mevac fiefiaS)Ta

piyjre

7roSo<;

Terajwv

wtto ^rjXov deaireaioio.

Trdv

'^fiap

(j)ep6/Mr)v,

dfui

8'

^eXtwt KaraBvvTi
S'
ert,

KaTTTrecrov

iv Krifivai,
dvBpe';

6\lp/o<i

6vfi6<;

ivrjev

evdd

fie

Sti'Tie?

d^ap

KO/iLcravro ireaovra."
'

w?

(j)dro,

fieiSrjaev

Be ded XevKcoXevo';

Uprj,

595

fMetBrjiraera

Se TratSo? eSe^aro %6t/3t KVTreXXov.
Aph. Sosig. Mass.
Eton. Mosc.
3.

585. x«lpi Ar.

[S]

:

x^pc' ^•

593.

nvis ic XfiUNON

Did.

il

a^

Ti

HP

594. ciNTioi G.
'

supposition

made

interjectionally,

only

to drive us away Bentley's arvcpeXl^a, to supply the apodosis, is far weaker. Cf. * 567, Brandreth writes cTiKpeXi^ai, <p 261. S y' Up. 582. Kaednreceai is used here in a neutral sense, to address and so /3 39, K 70 but it more generally means to attack, revile. Cf. y 345. 583. YXaoc elsewhere has a (I 639, T but a (or rather tj tKijos is found in 178), Ionic inscr.) is according to the analogy of words which have -eus in Attic. 584. &U9iK0neXXoN, double handled. This interpretation, due to Aristarchos, is decisively supported by Helbig H. E. He derives it from *KviriK-r), pp. 358-71. conn, with Kuiirri, hmidle, as an Aeolic
! '

suppose

he

should will

For another different legend of the faU of Hephaistos from heaven see S 395.
591.
:

Cf.

23

piirrcLaKov rerayOiv dirb

Te-Tar-ciN is connected with Lat. ^riKoO ta{n)g-o. 593. Lemnoa was sacred to Hephaistos

on

;

;

account of what was called the 'Lemnian Fire' on Mount Mosychlos. This is commonly taken to mean that Mosychlos was a volcano. But the

:

present state of the island forbids the assumption of volcanic agency, and the fire was probably only a jet of natural gas, such as may have existed for a time and then disappeared. (See de Launay in Mev. Arch, for 1895, pp. 304-25. For the references to the Lemnian Fire

form

(cf.

Latin capulus)

;

hence an

adj.

The explanation of Aristotle, followed by Buttmann and others, that it meant 'a double cup,'
KvireK-LQS

=

K^nreXKos.

a quasi -cylindrical cup divided in the middle by a horizontal partition, so that each end would serve either as a foot or a cup, he shows to be quite untenable. The two-handled type is the commonest of all forms of drinking-oup from the earliest times Hissarlik and Mykenai till the latest. 590. dXes^GNai, to keep him off, apparently in defence of Hera the allusion seems to be the same as in 18-24.
i.e.

Jebb on Soph. Phil. 800, and pp. 242-5. The supposed disappearance of the ' volcano ' Mosychlos is geologically untenable.) The Xivrtes are named as inhabitants of the island by Hellanikos fr. 112, while Thuk. ii. 98, 1 speaks of the 'SlvToi as a tribe on the coast of Thrace. What their connexion may have been with the ' Pelasgian inhabitants of Lemnos expelled by Miltiades about 500 b. o., or with the authors of the (Etruscan ?) inscription recently discovered on the island, we naturally
see
'

cannot say.
596. nai36c, from her son her hand (not ' at her son's dat. is used after di^acBai,
;

X^'P'> iJ^ifh

;

hand

'

;

the
eta.

87,

;

;

lAIAAOC
auTap
o

A

(i)

45

Tot?

dWoiai
dp'

deoi<;

ivSe^ia iraaiv
KprjTrjpoi;

oivoj(oet

yXvKV vexrap,
'

diro

a^vcraasv.
Oeolaiv,
600

aerj3eaT0<} B
0)9
'ihov

iv&pro yeXw?
irpotrav rjfiap

(jbUKcipearai,

H<f>aiaTov Bia Beofiara ironrvvovTa.
/Mev
i<}

w? TOTS
Baivvvr,
01)

rjeXiov

KaraBvvra
ei(rri<;,

oi/Be

rt 6vfio<} iBevero Bai,To<i ireptKaXXeo';, rjp
ep^;'

fiev

(fiopfiiyyo's
,

'AttoXXcov,

Mova-dcov 9

at

aeiBov a/Met^ofievat ottI koXtju.
605

airap eVei KariBv Xafiirpov <f>do<; rjeKioio, oi fiev KaKK€LovT6^ e^av olxovBe eKacna,
ff^i
'

eKacTTWt

BS)/j,a

•jrepiKXvTO'i
IBvur^icn

dfi<^iyvr)ei,<;

H<^aKTT09 Troirjaev

TrpairiBeaai,

Zeus Be Trpos ov Xe^o? rj'C 'OXvfjLTrioi; ao'TepoTrrjT'i]^, evda irdpot; Koi/iaO ore jxuv jXvkix; v7rvo<; iicdvoi
,

610

'ivOa KadevB'
598.

dva^d's, irapa Be ^vcr69povo<; "H/ji;.
Ar.

oiNoy^ei
fi.
II

Aph. Zen. Antim. Argol.
600. noinNiicaNTO
603.
||

Mass.
al

King's
3.

:

£coNOX(Sei
?

Q
ukn
609.

cb(i)NOx6ei

602. oiiV

^1

D
:

:

KpaTflpoc G. re G.

am

iraaai.

(Ar.

see

Ludw.).

uhl
:
:

:

utm A^

Mosc.

606. oi

9k KeioNTCC
Ar.

oStii) irao-ai

Did.

Skoctoc

N^eceai Q.

608.

noiHceN iduiHici
a.

noiHc' eiauiH(i)ci Anibr. nofHCCN eiduiHci P Eust. 8 (oO Sch. T) Zen. Par. e^ (n add. e^). 610. iKdNei ^Kdeeud' Zen.

AL

Q

(and yp. A).
Vr.

8n

:

Q

611. gwe'

but only of persons, being a strict dot. ethicus). For the gen. cf. S 203 Sefd/iei-oi 'Peiijs, I 632, A 124, and particularly
305 KiireXKov iSi^aTO ^s dXAx"'"597. ^Nd^ia, a much disputed word 239. Of course it implies see note on the 'lucky' direction, whatever that ^as.

conj. oiSi re,

adding
60

'

MS. unus
S'

oi)5^

7e

habet

'

(?). <a

604. Cf.
d|«ei^6jnecai

/MoSa-aL

ivvia. vairai,

Q

M

598. oiNOY^ei is applied to Tiectar by a slight generalisation such as is common so T 221 If^Troi ^ovkoin all languages \io.ro, naves akificare, etc. (cf the saUor's 'in Cape Town the tops of the houses are all copper-bottomed with
;

&vl KoKrji, where, however, tJie mention of nine muses is one of many proofs of the later origin of w. I'or 6uei66ueNai cf. Virgil's amant altertia Camenae, Ee. iii. 59. 607. au9irui^eic a disputed word,

generally explamed

ambidextrous

or

»«"«?««

^f ?^e/lool^s the

««»« <^rtulus xnstruaus, which fact that there is nothing

1

3 .\

^^ -o ii r 'I 8 7^X05 for reXcoc is no doubt right here and similar forms should be restored in other passages and so with Ipos. The only cases found are dat. 7^X0,1 cr 100, ace. 7A<- or 7^0,,For Ipus (read 7^0^) ff 350, v 8, 346 From this passage see note on T 442. comes the phrase Homeric laughter.

599. Bentley

..«„'

.

!° the word to express vahdxs^ Probably the word really means 'with a crooked limb on eacn side = KifWoTrooLav, from a noun *7i;77 = crook (cf. 7i}?7! in Lexx. ). ^^4, ^^^g, t„ ^he same as the old der. .j^^g „f y^^^^ ^^^^, f^^^ ^^
f^

^^^

df^pLyvos

N

147, etc.

603. curious

The absence of a conjunction
;

is

cf oiSk

ijAv

in 154.

Brandreth

^aejoaco occurs only here in n. g^^ ^^^^ ^^ g 2. 609-11 look very much jj^^ ^ rhapsodist's tag for the purpose of ^^di^g ^p a in recitation. Note the j,are neglect of F in (f )6y in 609 (is Fbv Brandreth, (tt' iFhv Bekker). B 1 follows 608 quite naturally.
q-^-^

II^TEODUCTION
The second book falls naturally into two parts so markedly distinct that most MSS. of the Iliad divide the Catalogue from the rest by a fresh rubric. Some, as will be seen, omit it but the fact has no critical significance. It is due merely to the wish to reduce the cost of copying by leaving out This is clearly matter which most purchasers would regard as unreadable. shewn by the fact that all mss. retain the prologue 484 - 93, which can never have been composed apart from the Catalogue. Leaving the Catalogue
;

then for the present, we turn to the first part. In the first book we found a marked unity of conception and development, marred at most by a somewhat superficial contradiction in a secondary point. With this book the case is very different ; hardly any portion of the Iliad has caused such trouble to the defenders of the unity of composition. The opening lines are simple enough ; with a discrepancy even more unimportant than that already noticed, the sending of the Dream carries on the story of the first book. In order to fulfil his promise to Thetis, Zeus proceeds, as a preliminary to the defeat of the Greeks, to bring them into the field against the Trojans. Elated by the dream, as we are led to
suppose,

Agamemnon summons
sort
;

the

army

^to

lead

Nothing of the

he
!

calls

them

to assembly,

them into battle ? and proposes that they

The only preparation for this astounding step is a most meagre and puzzling account of a council before which he lays his dream, and his decision to tempt the army rj 6e[x,is Icrrt, whatever that may mean. The proposal is a disastrous failure ; the temptation is taken in earnest as it well might be. We suppose, however, that the chieftains
shall return to Greece
' '

being forewarned will at once do as they have been bidden, and step forward Again, nothing of the sort. to stop the incipient rout. The council is altogether forgotten, and nothing is done till Athene by a special interposition arouses Odysseus to intervene. By her aid he brings all back to their places, and the assembly is resumed in a speech from Thersites. This speech makes no allusion whatever to the extraordinary events which have just taken place, but turns only on the conduct of Agamemnon a fortnight before in taking Briseis from Achilles, as though this were a matter hardly over, and the cause of all the difficulty. When Thersites has been silenced, the question of retirement is once more discussed, but in terms which seem to imply that the proposal has not come from Agamemnon at all, but from
his

antagonist Thersites.

Finally,

Agamemnon sums up

the debate in

lAlAAOC B

(ii)

47

brave words which are chiefly remarkable for the fact that they do not shew the least consciousness, much less contain any explanation, of the diametrically opposite tone which the king of men had employed when last

on

his feet.

How,

then, are

we

to explain this wonderful
?

self-contradictory motives

The

conclusion seems inevitable that

medley of inconsistent and we have

a fusion of two quite different continuations of the first book. The Dream is the continuation of the promise of Zeus to Thetis. It is followed by the description of the arming of the host for battle, by the triumphant career Read in order B 1-50, of Agamemnon, and the sudden peripeteia in A. 56 ff., and you have a narrative masterly 443-83, and then go on with in conception and smooth in execution. But there must have been an alternative continuation of the story from In this the point where Agamemnon and Achilles parted in anger in A. version the immediate consequence of the quarrel of the chiefs was, naturally enough, an assembly called to consider the altered state of affairs. On the meeting of the army Thersites, before any one else can speak, rises and attacks Agamemnon for his lustful greed in terms strictly appropriate to the occasion 87-99 were immediately followed by 212-42. It is Thersites who proposes flight, and breaks up the assembly; 242 was originally followed by 142210 (143 and 193-4 we shall presently account for). By divine suggestion Odysseus stays the rout, and when the assembly is again collected replies to Thersites; 244-399 follow 210 with the change of a word or two, e.g. We have now got a consistent scene Qep(riTqi Se juaA,' SiKa Trapicnaro ktA. There is no longer anything surprising in the tone which in the assembly. Agamemnon adopts in 370-93, and the famous words of Odysseus in 203-5 gain a fresh significance. As the book stands, there has been no TroXvKoipavir] But if Thersites at all, the army has but obeyed the commander-in-chief. has taken the word out of his mouth and made the proposal which the host adopts, then indeed it is time to say that ' one must be king.' So far, then, we have found two continuations of the tale of the quarrel, But as the consistent in themselves, but irreconcilable with one another. lUad crystallized, and had to be reduced into one ofiicial form for public recitation, it became needful either to sacrifice one of the versions, or to weld

A

;

them
'

together perforce. Happily for us, the latter course was adopted. The diaskeuast hit upon the ingenious device of the ' temptation.' Nothing short of such an extreme device could have served him. He set to work by borrowing the speech of Agamemnon in I 17-28 ( = B 110-8, 139-141), where the
'

was somewhat similar he expanded it by adding 119-38, which are a clever suggestion that the proposal was not in earnest, because the natural conclusion from the numerical superiority of the Greeks is that they
situation
;

With this expanded speech he made Agamemnon open it out. the assembly, transferring that of Thersites to its present place, immediately He introduced further the preparatory preceding the reply of Odysseus. idea of the temptation in the council, while shewing us, in the anxious repetition of the superfluous and suppression of the essential, the straits to which he was reduced. It was hopeless to attempt to make the idea of the
should fight
temptation probable
possible words,
;

he took the best course in suggesting
to the excellence of the material

it

in the fewest

and trusting

he was welding

48
to cover the

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

gaping imperfection of the joints. His work might just pass muster with hearers who had been trained to acquiesce in the inequalities of a growing Epos. We who read must shut our eyes now and then, to open them again as soon as the ring of the true metal calls our attention to the splendid narrative and characterization which are at the bottom of the expansion of the Menis into the Iliad. This hypothesis, which is largely founded on Erhardt's analysis, is but one out of many which have been suggested in order to bring order into the present chaos. It is violent ; but no gentle measures wiU suffice. Whether it be approximately right or wholly wrong, the important thing to notice is that the present state of the book can hardly be explained as the result of natural growth and gradual interpolation of a Volksepos.' We seem to have before us the work of an arranger, working with a definite literary aim on the fusion of most intractable materials. We shall in some of the later books come on similar phenomena, though in a less aggravated form. In these phenomena lies the strongest internal evidence for such a deliberate official arrangement as that commonly ascribed to Peisistratoe. Further indications of an Attic influence at work upon the book will be found in the notes.
'

lAIAAOC
oNEipoc.

B

didnEipa.

aXXot
evBov

fiiv

pa

Oeoi re koX avepe<; linTOKopva-Tal

'iravvii')(iOi,

aX\! o ye
Ti/Mi]crr)i,,

fiepfiijpt^e

Aia B ovk ej(ev 'i^Svfio<; v7rvo<i, Kara (ppeva, m? 'A'^iXrja
Kj^aimv.

okea-rji

Be TroXea? eVt vrjvalv
2.

1,

aXXoi
3.

:

Zen. uXXoi.
:

i}(eN

Hduuoc

yp. J,
Q,

nvh East.
EL
:

:

^x^ ni^Bujuoc Ar.
|1

fi.

o re

83e C.

4.

tijuiiichi

Nikanor

tijuAchi

AT.

oXecHi
:

fi

:

6XecHi

T (TiuHcei'

eiKT^bv rb Sk 6\£chi iiroTaKTiKdv Schol. AT).
Cf.

no\eac

noXOc

Zen. (MS. noXOc).

A

559. ta ante), a newt for an ewt (other instances in Skeat's Dictionary under N, and Wordsworth J. P. v. 95. So in mod. Greek 6 vdvSpas from rdv AvSpa). ijSvij.os itself was in use as a poetical word in much later times ; the scholia quote Simonides and Antimachos as

2. There is a slight inconsistency between this line and A 611, which it has heen proposed to avoid by taking all did not keep hold ?xe to mean night long i.e. Zeus awoke after going
'
'

;

But ?xf implies only the 815), and this presence of sleep (cf. pregnant sense cannot be read into it in the absence of fuller expression. After all 'sleep' and 'pass the night' are interchangeable expressions in A 611, cf. It is the use of laieiv (note on I 325). better either to assume that A 609-11 are of the nature of a movable tag (see the note there), or to admit such a smaU inconsistency as would hardly be noticed at a point which forms a natural 1-4 follows break in the narrative. I 713 in precisely the same manner, but the contradiction there is insignificant and in any case proves (see note), nothing, in view of the doubts as to in the original poem. the position of For fiauuoc MSS. give v-fiov/ios, a word which has never been satisfactorily exto sleep.

^

employing it, and Hesiod, Epicharmos, and Alkman are attested by others. It is also in the Hymns, Merc. 241, 449
it will be found (for what it is worth) also in S 793, used by Ap. Rhod. (ii. 407), A 311. It is and "ASu/ios occurs as a proper name in an inser. from Phthiotis (Collitz 1470). Ar. read j'ij5u/ios, it may be presumed, because of the hiatus in II 454, /i 366, y 79 ; of course he could not know that Ft/JSv/ios began with F. There is no independent evidence for the form vridv/j.os, For the form except Hymn. Ven. 172.

;

xix.

16.

MS.

evidence for

K

ijdvfws

by

iidOs

cf.

/cdXXt/tos

by

Ka\6s,

K

<j>alSiiJ,os

by
n.),

^ai.Sp6s

(van

p.

162

and

numerous

L. Ench. cases of

adjedtives formed from other adjectives

plained,

and no doubt arose,

as

Buttmann

by secondary
Tepos, etc. etc.

suffixes

without apparent

saw, from the adhesion of the v which, in seven cases out of the twelve where a it occurs, ends the preceding word phenomenon which may be paralleled in English, e.g. a nickname for an ekenmne, nuncle from mme imcle (Fr. taiUe from
;

differences of meaning, 0atSi;u6«s, BufKO-

be easy here to read the edd., did not this involve i\iaai., with the rare term, -at 334, T 81 are the (A 255, 129, 130,
4.

It

would
with

TLiii)aci

H

M

B

:

50
i^Be

lAIAAOC B
Be ol

(ii)

Kara

0vfiov apio'Trj

(paivero ^ovXrj,

irifju^ab

eV

'ATpetSrji,

^AyafjAfivovt oS\ov oveipov

Kal

/jUV

(f>a)V'i]aa<i

eirea irrepoevra irpocrrjvBa'
'k.'^avSiv,

" ^da-K
irdvTa

Wi, oSXe oveipe, doat eVt vjja?

i\da)v 69 KXicrirjv 'AyapA/Mvovoi;
jjbdX
6

drpeKeco';

ArpetBao dyopeve/iev, to? eVtreXXw.
KOfioccvra'i

10

Oecpfj^ai

KeXeve

icdpT)

A'^aiov<;

travavBirji-

vvv ydp Kev eKot ttoXiv eipvajviav

Tpoicov

ov yap er
<f>pd^ovTai,-

dfi^h 'OXvfnria BdfiaT
i-rreyvafJAJrev

e'xpvre^

dOdvaTot
"Upr]

yap

diravTa'i
15

Xia-crofievrj,
(j)dTO,

Tpcoea-cri
S'

Be KrjBe
eirel

e^^jTrrat.

w?
/3^
S'

^fj
B'

dp

ovei,po<;,

tov

/jlvOov

UKOvaeeKi'^avev
VTrvo<;.

KapTraXi/jLOK;

'Uave 6od^ eVt i^a? 'A^atw!/.
'Arpe'iBriv

dp" eir

'Aya/j,efivova-

tov

B"

evBovT
6.

iv KXicrlrji, irepl B'

dfi^poaio^ xi'^yO'

T^XXco

CGS Laud. Vr. a. 9. Ic : 3' arpciaHN araju4uN0Na GS. ^OI Zen. 12. naccuBiH GJLS Harl. a. : 6rope0co P.
||

&

10. eniii
.
:

'iijn

G

:

14. ^nerNaijie(N) &DFKJ:U Lips. 15. Tpci^ECCl . gXoic Ar. (?). aidoJueN 3^ oi euxoc dpeceai Aristot. Poet. 25, Soph. El. i (cf. $ 297).

l9HnTai

only clear eases in 11. see van L. Ench. On the other hand, the suhj. p. 291). after the historic tense is equally rare in H. though so common later {M. amd T. §§ 318-20, and particularly B. G. § 298). A precisely similar question arises in II 646-50, q.v. As between Ti/fiJo-T/i, -£i, -u', MS. authority is nil, but with oKiaai. and dXia-qi it counts for something. See also A 558-60, which has, of course, had an influence on the present passage, only it seems impossible to say whether it was on the mind of the poet or of later copyists. In spite of its rarity in H. the subj. (or fut. ?) is a very natural and vivid way of representing what is passing through the mind of Zeus. The form ttoXCs here attributed to Zen. is etymologically
;

gi-eipe, cf.

A

189

(^iXos

S>

UeveXae, H. G.
i.e.

%

164
13.

(8S,<riTov

conj. Bentley).

dufic, on two sides,
;

divided

in counsel

N

345.
lit.

the Trojans,'

correct (for ttoXws, S. O. § 100), and is probably preferable in all cases to iroKeh or TToXeaj. 6. oGXoN, laTKful, as E 461, 717, * 536. It is presumably conn, vfith 62 n. oKKviu (for SK-vos ?). Cf. oOXios It appears to be only the particular dream which is personified there is no trace in Homer of a separate Dreamgod.

A

;

'are fastened upon their heads. So Z ,241, The variant 402, * 513. form of the end of the line twice given by Aristotle (see App. Grit.) is noteworthy in its bearing on the significance of ancient quotations, as it is certainly not a lapse of memoiy. It appears from what he says that critics were offended by the downright lie put into Zens' mouth by the word SlSoiiev, and that Hippias of Thasos ' solved the problem by reading iLSbfiev, infin. for imper., thus leaving the actual falsehood to the dream. 19. dju6p6cioc, frctgrant, as sleep is commonly called 'fKvKii, besides being ^)5U|Uos and iiM<ppuv in the compass of a few lines. So vi^ d/ijSpoo-fT), because it gives men sleep, or perhaps because of the peculiar fragrance of a still warm night. Verrall has shewn that the idea of fragrance is always suitable to the use of afipp6aios, while there is no clear instance of its meaning immortal only.
15. 49finTai,
i.e.

hang over

H

'

It is probably

8.

To avoid the

may

hiatus illicitus we with Lange and Naber read oi5Xos

at

not a pure Greek word but borrowed from the Semitic ambar, ambergris, the famous perfume
all,

:

lAIAAOC B
a-rrj

(ii)

51
e'otKob?

B'

dp" VTTep

Ke<f)dX.rJ9

NTjXTjtmi

vh

20

Neo-Topt, Tov

pa

fiaXta-ra yepovrmv tC ^Ayafiifivcov

T&c fiiv ieitrafievo'i 7rpoa-e<f)iaveev oSXo? oveipoi;' " euSet?, 'Arjoeo? vie Sai'(f>povo<; iinrohd^oio ;
OX)
j(^pr)

itavvv^iov evBeiv ^ovKr)^6pov avBpa,
hri,Terpd<^arai koI Toa-aa
Aio<;
fie/j,rjXe.

cot

Xaob r
8'

25
elfii,

vvv

ifiidev ^vvet 3>Ka-

Be toi ayyeXo^
r/S'

09 a-ev dvevdev

imv fieya KrjBeTau
ekoi'i

eXealpei.

Owpfj^ai

<T

eKeKevae Kaprj
vvv yap Kev

K0fjb6covTa<i

'Ayatov?
30

Trava-vSirff

iroKiv evpvdyviav
e'xpvre'i

Tpateov
'

ov yap er

dp,<^X<}

'OXvfiiria Bmfiar

dOdvaroi (ppd^ovrai'
i/c

eireyva/juyjrev

yap aTravra^
/j/rjBe

Upr) XiaaofievT], Tpmecrcn Be Ki]Be' i^rjirrai
Ato?.

dXXa
evT

cru
ere

arrjia-iv

ej^e

<^peai,

ere

Xijdrj

aipeiTio,

dv

/leXltjjpeov

inrvo<i

dvrj7}t,"

w? dpa ^mvijcra<; dire^Tja-ero, rbv Be Xiir avrov ra ^poviovT dya Qvfiov, d p oil reXeea-dai efieXXov. yap 6 y alprjaetv Hpidfiov iroXiiV rjfiaTi Keiveoi, <f>fj
22.

35

npoCEfCONEEN o&\oc
fi.

A

supr. (T.W.A.) Par. d, Mosc. 2

and

7/).

J: npoc-

eifauee eetoc
At. 28. &ierNaipe{N)
c'

23. drp^coc

CDGQR Mosc.
:

1.

^K^Xeue

HT Lips.
a.
:

ce k^Xgue D.
34.

eBricero gueXX(e)K Zen. Q.

i)PRTU AC^T Moso.

Harl.
1 2

iuiu pi Vr.
36.

b,

om. L. 27 dff. 29. naccudiH GJLS. 31. A &nA<xi Q. 35. 6n25. t'
:

ineBiicaTo fi. 37. npiAuoio PT.

a (om.

p')

G.

||

&uieXXoN Ar.

G

which Oriental nations assign mythical miraculous properties, so that auPpotrla has taken the place of the old Aryan
to
dfi^poTos, though in some of uses it undoubtedly means imTnortal, in others is a synonym of d/i/3/)6i7ios, the two senses being thus from different sources and only accidentally coincident in sound [8 365 i/jt^p. IXaiov, e 347 KpijSeiJivov, II 670 et/iara, X 330 vi^ and &/ji.Ppirros, 78 vi^ a^p&n] = vii^ That the epithets are chiefly iuPpoalri). restricted to diviTte objects is clearly the result of popular etymology. 20. NHXHtooi uTi, an unusual expresits

Soma.

^livee. oCXoc is preferable to Betoi, which in the II. retains the original scansion deCos, 6ei- being always in thesis, cf. 41, 56 (* 689 is no exception), but Oeios 6,oiS6s is common in Od. 27. This line occurs in 174, and was rejected by Aristarchos here and 64, as

the ' pity seems out of place, ceu is gen. after K'^Serai,, not &vevdai. <re is of course to be supplied to iXealpa, from
'

S

aev.

sion,

with

which

we may

TeXafiiivte iraT

Soph. Aj. 134.

compare So also

N

members of the royal council, without regard to age ; see 53. Young men like Diomedes and Achilles belonged to the council. 22. ixiN is of course ace. after irpoae-

67. 21. repbNTcoN,

33. It is not usual for Homeric messengers to exceed the words of their message. In 9 423-4 a similar addition is suspected for other reasons. 36. &uieXXoN so Ar. for l/ieWe. He preferred the plural wherever the choice was possible, relying on passages such as B 135, 6, 102, and others, where the verb cannot be in the singular. As the tendency of corruption would be towards the more familiar idiom, he is no doubt
:

H

right.

52
vrjTTio^,

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

Oriaeiv

ovBe tcl rjiZr), a pa 'Lev'; /u.TjBero epyw jap er e/^eXXev eV aX/yed re <Trova')(a'i re
vo'fiivai;.

TpooaC re Kal Aavaoio'i Sia Kparepa<i
eypero
el^ero
S' 8'

40

i^ virvov,
opdcoOei,^,

Oeirj

Se fiiv dft^e'^vr

ofi^rj.

fiaXaKov S

evSvve ^trwva

Ka\ov vrjydreov,
"TToaal
S'
S'

irepX

he fieya /3aX\ero <f>apo^'

vTrb Tuirapoiaiv

iSijaaro
^L<^o^

KaXa

-TreSiXa,

a/i^l

dp"

mfioKTiv

^aXero

dpyvporjXov

45

etXero Se (rKrjirrpov irarpuilov, d<j)6irov aief
<Tvv
rati

e^r)
/iiv

'Hws
Zrjvl

Kara I'jya? Ay^atwv '^aXxo'^irdvmv. pa 9ed Trpoae/S^crero fiaKpop "OXv/j^ttov
Xiyv^doyyoicri, KeKevere
Ay(aiov<i'
50

^00)? epeovaa Kal dXKoi'i dOavdroicyiv
6
KffpvKecra'i

avrdp
01

KTjpvcrcreiv
fiev

dyoprjvhe Kdprj Koiioa)vra<;
rot S

eKrjpvcTaov,

rjjeipovro p,aX

wKa.

^ovKrjv Se irpSirov fxe<ya6vp,(ov l^e yepovreov
38. Tci: 40.

6ia

:

yp.

Ti (>' J Korh J.

{yp.

oiiik rh).
43.

||

ftBei

B^JQS Mor.
||

|1

^a

:

p'

6 Mor. Bar.

&^
:

:

3'

aO P Harl. a

44.

Onai

GJPQRi

(altered to «in6)

48. npoccBiicaTO

CZ)HJPQRU
53.
a.

and ap. Eust. npoceBi^ccaTO G.

a (j>. ras.) k [p. ras.). OneBiicaTo Q. n^aHXa D^GQ. 49. fOCOC <p<Soc G. 50.
d, Par.
||

:

K^Xeue(N) CZJGJRST. BouXfiN) and yp. Par.

fiouX^N Zen.,

ai Koival, fi:

BouXfi Ar, Apli. J {yp.

40. 3i<S, either through the whole course of battles, as we find 5ia viKTo, in a temporal sense ; or better by ineans of, like fiv SiA, iiavToaivifv 72, Sid iiriji-v battles being Zeus' 'Xffrjinjs 497, instrument for working his will.

Goebel

derives

from

j-j;-

priv.

and

ayaraaffai.

A

K

41. iuifixuTo, surrounded him, i.e. 6u9i4 in Homer is raug in his ears. always accompanied either with ddt) or
6eoS, deuv.

43. NHrdreoN occurs only here and S The exact 185 in a similar phrase. meaning of the word is doubtful it is generally derived from vios and 70- for
;

= pMirreaSai (Hesych.) in the sense integer, fresh, not worn, Similarly Diiutzer refers it to root a.yof 470s = pollution, as meaning undefiled.' 9apoc, the luxurious linen robe of royalty, not the common x^"^""' of wool. Cf. note on 221. 45. 6iprup6HXoN cf. notes on A 246 and A 29, whei-e the same (?) sword has nails of gold. The discrepancy would hardly deserve mention were it not the occasion for the excellent remark of Ar., ret roiavra Kvplas oi X^erai, dX\a Kar
'
:

newly of yiyvo/xm, as meaning but it may be questioned produced whether the root 7CJ'- is ever employed to express the production of manufactured verjfrom viFo- never objects, and coalesces to vti-, least of all in a genuine derivation now widely Homeric word. A accepted is that of Schmalfeld from cf. Skt. snih, oiled, and thus shining note on S 596. Monro [J. P. xi. 61) refers it to a subst. *vrr/ap from *viiyui,
y{e)v' ' ;

eirupopav iffn ironjTiK^s dpeiTKeias. 46. a9eiTON, as the work of a god (seel. 101) and the symbol of a divine

authority.
49. ^p^ouca, heralding the approach of light so ir 226 'Eua-(p6pos eXn ip6ws ipiuv ivl yaiav.
;

6-3.

For BouXiAn of Zenod. and mss.

;

Aristarchos read

§ovk-i), taking ffe as intransitive, as is usual in Homer (e.g. 11. 96 and 792). The transitive use of the

related to vim to spin, as Tp.ii^a to rip-va
(7-|Ue).

Thus

vTiyi.T^o'i

=

of spun work.

present stem appears to recur only in Q 553. The ^ouX?) was composed of a

;

lAIAAOC B
NecTTO/ser/t
Tov<;

(ii)

53

Trapa

vq't

YlvKoijevioii ^acnXrjo<;.
55

o

ye cn)yKaXecra<; irvKiV'qv rjpTvveTO PovKrjv
6elo^ jxoi evvirviov fjXOev ovetpos

" KKvre, ipiXoi-

afi^poai'qv hia vvKTa, /jboXicTTa Be Necrroiot Buai
etSo? re fiejedo<; re (f}V^v r
a-TTj
'

wy^ia-ra
fie

eooiKei.

S"

ap

virep

/ee^aX?}?,

KaC

tt/sos

fivdov eenrev
60

evBeK, 'Ar/seo? vie Bat(f)popo^ iTnroBdfioio
)(pr}

ov
(01

iTavvv'X^iov

evBeiv ^ovXrj<j)6pov dvBpa,
p,efir)Xe.
elfjui,,

XaoL T
B'

enriTeTpacparai Kal roccra
^vve<;

vvv

ifieOev

&Ka-

Ato? Be toi dyyeXo';

o? (rev dvevOev emv fieya KijBerai, ^S' eXeaipei6(oprj^ai

a ixiXevae
ov yap er

Kapr] K0fj,6a)VTa<; 'Avatou?
eA,ois

65

7rav(rvBi7]t,'

vvv yap Kev

ttoXlv evpvdyviav
eyoi/Te?

Tp(oa)v

dfi(pl<}

^OXv/Miria Bdi/juaT

dBdvarot ^pd^ovraf
eic

eireyva/jAJrev

yap

diravTa';

"UpT} Xiacrofiivr}, Tpooea-a-i Be
Ato?.

K-qBe'

e(f)yJTrTat

dXXa
a'i

trv

arjia-iv
ifie

e^e

ui-xeT

diroTTTdfievo';,

Be

w? o fj,ev yXvKv^ vttvo^ dvrJKev.
(J3pe(J'LV.'

eliroov 70

dXX' dyer,
irpojTa B

Kev

ttg)?

Bcaprj^ofjiev

vla<;
rj

'A'^aia>v.
ea-ri,

eywv

'iirecnv

Treipriaoixai,

6efu<;

54.
fi.

NecTopiH(i)
55.

GHiJKS.

ainhp

nuXoircNEOC (Ar. ?) [AJH^TU (in ras.) nuXHreN^oc 4nei p' iirepeeN 6juHrep^EC t' crsNONTO, toTci 3' dNiCT^uCNOc
|| :

UETEfH KpeicoN £[rau4uNcoN Zen. 56. eeToN Zen. ^nOhnioc D. 58. [eTd6c] 60-70 contracted by Zen. into Ancofei ce nordp Oifiizuroc ale^pi T6 t' au PR. NQicoN Tpcoci udxi^caceai npori VXion. Sic 6 ukn eind)N kt\. 60. drp^cdc Ci)Q. 62. t' om. L. 64 &e. Ar. 65. c' Ix^Xeue HT Lips, (and A™, T.W.A.) ce KeXeue D. 66. naccuBiH GJLS. 68. «n^rNaij[;e(N) ZJPRTU. 72. 'Arerk. Kitt neipiicouai H. ncoc Q. 73. 2reor' S.
||

:

:

||

small

number

of

the

most important

chiefs (yipovTes) see note on 194.
54.

specially

summoned

;

stantive, and BeXov here.
57.

accordingly Zenod.

read

uiiXicTa

as NrjXi/ira, 1. 20 for the addition of the gen. cf. Sewolo ireKiipov B 741. VopyeiT] Ke<pa\Ti No reason is given for the meeting at Nestor's ship, as though it were a matter of course we should have expected to
; ;

NecropeHi

= N^irropos,

— BrxicTa

:

rather tauto-

logical,

the find Agamemnon's ship or hut meeting-place of his council. 56 = I 495. ^NiinNioN, which does not recur in Homer, is an adverbial neut. of the adj. hiirvios (like ?i\dov ii/ataifiov Z 519), and is so found in Ar. Vesp. 1218 ii/iwiov ea-nti/jieSa. Compare the Attic In later Greek, however, use of Si/ap. MiTVLov was generally used as a sub-

though the two words do not perhaps mean exactly the same liiXurra = to Nestor more than to any other, ayxicrTa = very closely resembled. But 58 = f 152, and has probably been adopted by the interpolator without due care. For 9uA cf. A 115.
;
;

60—70. The third repetition of the message is really too much Zen. had good reason for condensing it into two
lines.

73. The idea of tempting the army has been compared with a similar story told of Cortes a proposal on his part to return was made merely to excite the
;

; '

54

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

Kai (pevjetv crvv vrival iroXvKkijocn KeKevcrui
vfiei<;
T)

S'

aXKodev

aXXa

ipijTvetv iireecrai.v"
e^ero,
Tol<ri,

75
S'

TOi 6

Neo-TO)/),

J w? elirav kut dp' o? pa HvKoio ava^ ^v
<f>povea>v

dvecTTr)

^/jLa6oevTO<;-

b

acfuv
ft)

ii)

djopi](raTo koX fieriebTrev
Tjj'yjTope';

"
ei

<f)iXoi,

Apjeiwv
(paifiev

^Se

fieSovTe<;,

/lev

Tt?
icev
'Ihev

Tov oveipov 'Ap^atwz/ aXXo? eviaire,
kol vocr^il^oifJieOa fiaXXov
via? 'A^atoJi/.'
09 /ney' apiaro'i 'Kj(aiS)V ev^erat elvai.

80

yjrevBo';

vvv 8

aW
ft)?

cvysT

,

a% kIv
<j)a)V'^(ra<;

ira3<;

Omprj^o/juev

01

S'

ySouX^? e^ VPX^ veeaOai, iwave<TT7]<rav ireldovTO re •woifiivi, Xaav
^a<nXrje<;-

apa

85

cTKrjTrrov'^oi,

eireacrevovro Be Xaoi.

rjvre

edvea elat /leXiacrdeov dBivdeov,
Mag. 518,
44.

74.

KsXeiica Et.
:

76-83
(of.

dS. Ar.

78.

O

:

8c

axaiUN

isi cTpaTc4i

PQE

Par. a f

A

91).

83.

Srere k^n

GPQ. nwc Q.

82. 85.

nvh

naN^CTHCON

ypi<pov<n, iJTOi TrdxTts 6p6ol laTriaav Eust.

followers, and met with complete success. ft e^uic ^cri, as the words stand, can only apply to the verb TTcipjio-o/iai, but it is impossible to see how such a temptation can be an established or rightful custom. It is usual to join them with kyiSiv, 'it is rightful for me as king to do so but this gives a hardly better sense, and is against' the order. The whole conclusion of the speech can only be explained by supposing that the author is trying to hurry over an impossible task, suggesting the idea of the temptation in words whose exact bearing is to be forgotten as quickly as possible. 75. To IpHTiieiN the scholia supply ifii as object but the words hardly admit of any other object than 'Axaioiis. 81. qiaTu^N ken is potential, 'we might deem it a delusion.' Homeric usage permits us to translate we should have said but the phrase belongs to the borderland between past and
spirits of his
'
'

But the speech is singularly jejune and unlike the usual style of Nestor ; 1. 82 seems much more in place in fi 222 and Aristarchos rejected 76-83 entirely, on the ground that
it is useless to resist.
;

'

was for Agamemnon and not for Nestor to lead the way out from the council.
it

'

;

'

'

;

'

future conclusions,' M. and T. § 442. Noccpizoiueea, hold aloof from the plans

founded on
82.

it.

clearly is that the supreme king has an innate right to communications from heaven on behalf of the people at large. Nestor's silence with

The idea

87. iBiNdcoN (or, as Aristarchos seems, from a scholium of Herodianos on this passage, to have written the word, aSivaiiiv), busy. The word seems to express originally quick restless motion, and is thus applied to the heart (II 481, T 516), to sheep (a 92, 3 320), and to ilies (B 469) ; then to vehemence of grief (*• 225, w 817, and often), and to the passionate song of the Sirens {>// 326). According to the explanation of the ancients, adopted by Buttmann, the primary sense is dense ; but this gives a much less satisfactory chain of significations. It is then particularly hard to explain the application of the word to the heart ; few will be thoroughly satisfied with the supposition that it means 'composed of dense fibres,' while a more probable epithet than busy or ' beating ' could not
' '

be found.

respect to

Agamemnon's

last proposition

may

perhaps be explained as due to disapproval of a resolution which he sees

may be noticed that both geNea (which Bentley emended I8ve' fao-i) and ai hi t€ ^Nea (1. 90 ai di Kal lv$a Brandr.) are oases of hiatus illicitus i.e. they occur at points where there is
It
eTci
:

;

lAIAAOC B
TreTjOJys
c'k

(ii)

55

yXa^vpfji; alel veov ip'xpfievdoav

^OTpvSbv Be TreTOvrai eV avOea-iv elapivoicnv at fiev T evda a\t? ireiroTrjarai, at Be re evda-

90

ws T&v edvea ttoWo,
rjlovo'i

veSiv

airo koX

kKktmuiv
Sacra BeSijet

irpoirdpoide ^adetrji; ec7rij(posvTO
el<i

ikaBov

ar/opriv
livat,

fiera Be

(Tifiiaw

OTpvvova
Terprfxei

Ato? ajyeXo';'
virb
S'

oi B'

ayepovro.
95

K

cuyoprj,

Be trreva'^^^L^eTO yaia
fjv.
e'l

TiM&v l^ovrav,

o/jUiBo<;

evvea Be aipewi
ttot
durrji;

K'qpvKe'i ^oo(ovTe<i

iprjrvov,

a'j(oiaT,

uKovaeiav Be
S"

Bi,OTpe<f>ea)v

^acnXrjmv.

airovBrjb

e^ero Xao9, eprjTvOev Be KaS" eBpaf

jravadfievoi KXajyrjt;.
ecTTrj

crKrJTrTpov
/j,ev

e'^tuz/*

to

dva Be Kpelwv 'Afya/te/ivwy /j,ev "H^atcTO? Ka/ie Tevvtoz'.
TLpoviavi avaKri,

100

"H^atcTTos

Bcoxe Ail Bcoxe
J.

avTap apa Zey?
88. del T.
II

BtaKTopwi dpyei^ovTrji'
89. fiOTpud6N re

dpxoJUGNdcaN
O.
||

QR.
100.

95.

creNaxizETO
99. ^piiruON

ARU: croNaxizCTO PQR (yp. gpi^TueeN
diaKTopi Pap.
^^.
II

96.

cq>ac

CG.

98.

diOTp09^cON GJ.

R™). Kaeibpac 6prei96NTT Q.

Ci)GHJPQRT.

KXarKHc Q.

103.

no caesura nor any tendency to a break in the line which might account for them. Of the fifty-three cases of such
hiatus in Homer, twenty-three occur at the end of the second foot, and twentyone in or at the end of the fifth ; six are found in the first, two in the third, Of the and only one in the fourth. twenty-one in the fifth foot, all are in trochaic caesura except this, A 678 the
100), JSr 22, H 286, 358, S 4, e 257, com(See note on S 4.) 553, K 68. plete list will be found in Knbs De

hanging down in a solid mass like a bunch of grapes. But ivSeinv rather indicates that no more is meant than the thronging of them upon the flowers
in the eager search for honey. 90. aXic is here used in its primary sense, in throngs, from feX, squeeze
(FeLXeLV, d - oXX - fe, etc. ) almost identical with l\ad6v,
;

it
1.

is

thus

93.

93. dedi^ei

:

this

metaphor is a favourite

(=f
I

A

digammo Somerico
is

p.

47.

The hiatus

one with Homer, especially of battle (cf. 3s oi fi^ii ixdpvavTO Si/ias irvp&s aWopiivoto S 1, and the word Sai's) it is applied even to ol/iuyri in v 353. For the per;

legitimate if found (1) in the trochaic caesura of the third foot ; (2) in the bucolic diaeresis ; (3) at the end of the
first foot,

though this

is

much

rarer

than

the other two, and is perhaps only permissible when coinciding with a pause in the sense ; van L. Ench. pp. 77-78. See (In reckoning cases of also note on 105. hiatus Knos omits genitives in -ao and -oto, which in his opinion do not sufifer elision, and words like irepl, n, and others,

sonification of Seen, heaven-sent rumour, 01 413, and see Buttmann Lexil. s.v. 95. Tcrpi^xei, plpf intrans., from rapdffo-o!. The form recurs in 346. 99. cnouBfli, with trouble, a peine, hardly. So E 893, 562, w 119, etc. 103. diaKTdpui iipre'i<f6fnm : these names of Hermes are obscure. The former perhaps means 'the runner,' from Sia.K-, a lengthened form of Si-a-, root Si to run, whence also Siujk-w : cf.
cf.

H

'

'

A

which certainly do not.)
88.

SidKovos.

'Apye'C^dvTijS

is

traditionally

N&N,

'in fresh relays,' as

A

332,

64. 89. 6oTpu36N naturally reminds us of the settling of a new swarm of bees.

H

explained slayer of Argos ; but the legend implied is evidently later than H. and may have arisen from the name Even in ancient times an itself.

56
'Ej0/U.6ta?

lAIAAOC B
Se

(ii)

avTap
aiirap

6

aire IleXoi^ Swk'

dva^ Sukcv JUXoTn ttXtj^Itj-tto)!,, Arpei Troifievt Xauiv
eXiirev iroXvapvi
'Aya/juefivovt
'

lOS

'Ar/jev? Se Ovqiaicav
6

^vearTji,

avre ©uecrr'

TToWrjicnv vrjaoiai koX

Xelve <f)opi]vai,, Apyei Travri avaacreuv.
^Apyeioicri,
/MerrjiiBa'

tSm 6
"
0)

ry

ipeicrdfji,evo<;
rjp(ioe<;

eVe'

(j)[Xoi
ixe

Aavaoi, 0epd7rovT€<;
arTji

AprjO'i,

HO

Zeu?

fi.eya';

J^povlBij';

iviBijcre

^apeurjb,

o-^6T\to?,

09 irpXv p^v p,oi

virkayero

ical

Karevevaev

IXiov eKirepffavT

ivTeiyeov diroveeaOai,
Kai,

vvv Be KaKrjV a/TraTqv ^ovXevcraro,

pe KeXevei
115

BvaxXea "Ap-yo?
o?
•^B'

iKecrOai,

iireX

ttoXvv coXeaa Xaov.
(piXop elvai,

ovTO) TTOV Alt p,eXXei,
Brj

{nrepp,eve.i

-rroXXdav ttoXlcov KariXvae Kaprjva

eVt

Kal Xvaei:

rod <yap Kparo'!

((TtI

p,eji(7roi'.

105.
(rvvT^iivei.

orpei

S> ipiXoi

110-119 Zr;v65oros ^rp^co Pap. /3. 108. dNdccojN Vr. a^ Hpcoec SaNaoi, eepdnoNrec {ipHOC. XcoBh riip rdde r' ^cri Kai
111.

^ccou^Noici nue^ceai.

u^rac

Ar. (see Ludw.
;3.
||

i.

pp. 66, 205) Par.

j
:

Vr. b
115.

:

ju^ra

fi.
:

112. JU^N mn. Pap.
(?)

Onicxero Q.
:

114.

dncJTHN

and yp. Sthn S.

noXCiN

niiiNT

Pap.

(3.

116.

fiXoN elNai
111-18
to

KpoNicom R.

alternative der. from d.frfbs and (palva was current, and was accepted by Ar., in the sense swift appearing. For want of a better it may pass but the et and are unaccounted for, the proper form being evidently dpyiipdvTris, if any. Generally speaking, these mythological names are inexplicable to us. (See Roscher ie^. i. 2384.) 105. Notice the hiatus at the end of the first foot here and 107 ; there are no less than fiiteen cases alter avrap o in this place (van L. Unch. p. 78). These two may be written 6 (Brandreth), and so r 379, * 33, with F' for Fol. In the other eleven cases we can write S y' or Ss (Brandreth), or admit that the hiatus was allowable after 6, which cannot be elided. The ms. tradition is strongly in favour of the latter choice. 108. Argos here, from its opposition to the islands, can hardly mean less than the whole of the mainland over which the suzerainty of Agamemnon extended. See the remarks of Thucydides, i. the 9, where he calls this passage aK-fiTTTpov impiiSons. This famous line seems to have reached even the Morte d' Arthur 'king he was of all Ireland and of many isles,' i. 24.
;

= 1 18-25. ju^rac so Ar. Did. in a most explicit and important schol. ; the contradictory statement of An. is clearly wrong), The adj. is more natural than the adv. thus separated from the verb, though the latter may be defended by A 78.
:

(ace.

n^pcoNra
^^^

^g, ^he main idea is given by h,we should say, 'that I should
:

,gt„^„
ace.
\

The
g^^

is

^^ j ^^^^.^^ jjj^^ -the regular idiom. (Cf. A °
,

^J

^

f

„ ? ^^^' *• ,

Y"

,,--. »i- » ,„, "5. ivcK\ia,i.e. Sv,,K\,4(a),see ff. G The supposed hyphaeresis *^^« ^t^^'^if J"f *^«
of ^X^asr for ^K^^^^^'^^i^^ ,rX^oms (129).
miist,
it

„„

^y'i'=°P^

116.

nou ueXXei,
irov

*

83 /n^XXw

direx^iaBai.

Ad

seemi, as warpl.

Bekker brackets 116-18, urging that such an appeal to Zeus as destroyer of cities contradicts what Agamemnon has just been saying. This, however, actually weakens the passage for surely the thought that Zeus has so often overthrown fenced cities heightens the bitterness of the &tti which Agamemnon says has come upon him. For KdpHNa used of cities compare the frequent
; ' '

epithet €v<TT4(pavos.

,

lAIAAOC B
ai(T')(pov
fiayfr

(ii)

57

yap ToSe 7 icrrl koI e<7ao/j,ivota'i irvdiaOai, ovtw TOiovSe Tocrovhe re Xaop 'A'^aioyv

120

airprjKTOv iroXefiov iroXefii^eiv r/Se fid-^ecrOao

avhpdai travpoTepoia-t, reXo? S' ov ttco ri, iri^avTai. eX irep yap k iOeXoi/iep ^Kj^aioL re Tpwe? re, opKia TTiGTa rafiovre^, dpiOfitjd'^fievat a/j,cf)a),

Tpwe?
17/1.64?

jMev

\e^a(r6ai,,

etpeaTtoi ocrcroi eatriv,
Si,aKOcrfj,7}0eLjj,ev

125

S

e?
S'

Se/caSa?

'A^atot,
olvoj^oeveiv

Tpaxov

avSpa eKacTOi eXolfieda

TToKkai Kev Be/caSe? Bevoiaro olvovoobo.
T0<7(70v ijo)
T/3(B(Bi',
<j}7]fii.

TrXea? efifievai ula? 'A^atwz'

oi

vaLovcTi

Kara tttoXiv
iyy^ecrTraXoi

dXX' eTrUovpoi
dvBpe<i
eveiaiv,

130

TToWemv eK
o\
fie

ttoXloov

fiiya irXd^ovai koI ovk elSid

idiXovra
j3
:

119.

r' 07n. G.

II

me&eai

Q.

120. T6 om.

LQ Pap.
: '

reG.

123. riSpT'R.

124
126.

a.8.

Ar.

125. TpcoEC Ar. {^v nai-v

avnypdtfiois

eiipr}Tai,

Eust. ):

Tpeiac Q.

diaKocuHOHueN
:

CL

Vr.

in ras. )

diaKocuHeeiHJUGN

SQ

:

b (and ap. Schol. T) KaTaKocuHeeTuGN J.
:

BiaKocuHooijueN
127.

PR^
:
||

(co

EKaCTOl Ar.
R.

Uko-

CTON Ixion fi. 130. n6XiN HQ. 130-3 a0. Ar. Ar. (in one edition) Kallistratos SaciN Q.
124. Ar. athetized the line on the good ground that in a mere hypothesis

131.

noWdojN

^NEICIN

the supposition of details to render it possible is quite out of place. 125. X^saceai, to number themselves. Gf^cnoi, i.e. citizens in the town, as opposed to the a]lies from other lands
cf. Sercat fiiv Tpdiojv Trvpbs ^(rxopctt

K 418,

;

it might seem that 'iKaaroi. was the old vulg. 129. nXlac, a comparative form = see T\iovaSi for TrXe-eas = TrXe-jW-as note on A 80. The form remained in use in more than one dialect to historical times, being found in an inscription from Mytilene (Collitz no. 213, 9),
:

TpcoGC Ar., Mss. TpQas, with note. which would mean 'to muster the Trojans.' After Tpfies above the nom. is more natural, the Trojans to muster themselves.' For el wep kc with
'
. .

rals

S.pxO'i'S

TraicraLS

rals

ifi

M.[\m\i]]vai.

TrX^as t[w]i' atfiiaeuVf

inscription from
TrX^es,

in the great Gortyn, in the forms

and

opt. see

Lange BI
T. § 460
;

M. and

p. 195, ff. O. § 313, it differs only by a

shade from the simple ei with opt. For the sentiment compare Virg. Aen. xii. 233 vix hosteTn, alterni si congrediamur, habemus.
126. P.

TrXta, TrXfacs. The nom. ttX^cs found in A 395. 130-33 were athetized by Ar. on the ground that all the 'barbarians,' Trojans and allies together, are elsewhere always The said to be fewer than the Greeks.
is

reads
-iivai.

SiaKoanrfi-liiJtev'
;

Knight followed by van L. (infin.), which is
this

objection rather is that elsewhere the Trojans always play the prominent part in the defence, whUe the allies are of secondary importance. See especially

the mss. give only termination before a vowel, but it seems that -fiiJ.ev' should always be restored (van L. Ench. p. 319). 127. Skoctoi, i.e. each set of ten. the text The MSS. all give 'iKaarov is more idiomatic and vigorous, and from the way in which Did. quotes Ixion as the only authority for UKaarov

probably right
for

P221.
131. ^NGiciN so one of the editions of Ar., as in E 477 o'i wip t eirUovpoi. hapLsv, and this gives a better sense than ^aaiv of MSS. 132. nXdzouci, lead me astray, drive me
: ,

:

toide of the inark ; cf. irAXiv irXayxBivras elav is a mere Giuci, i. e. idovcri. 59. figment, of. 165.

A

:

58

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

IXlov eKTrepcrai iv vaiofievov irToKiedpov,
ivvea
Br)

Kat

Br)

/3e^dacrt Ato? /jLeyaXov iviavTOi, Bovpa aearjire ve&v koI cnrdpra XeKvvTai-

135

at Be TTOV r)/ieTepaL r
e'Carai

aXo'^oi xal vr)'Kia reicva
afijMi,

iv fieydpoK TTOTiBiy/j^vai,'
oil

Be epyov

auTto? aKpdavTov,

e'lveKa
etTra),

Bevp"

iKOfiecrOa.

dXK

dyed',

w? av

iyo)

ireiQmfjbeOa Travre';-

(pevyeofiev

criiv

vr)val

<plXr)v

e?

TrarplBa

yaiav

140

ov yap
(S?

en

TpoirjP aipr)aoiiev evpvdryviav.

<j)dTo,

rolai Be Ovfwv evL aTr)6e<7cnv bpvve
ocrou

irda-i

fierd ifKijdvv,
S'

ov /SouXt}? eTrdicovcTav.
SaXacrar)'?,
136.
:

KivrjQr)

dyopr)

<j)r)

KV/juara fiaKpd

133. iXfou: 137. eVarai

iul

CHJT

afe J. rXioN Ar. J {supr. ou). 134. &H In Herakleides PQK eYar' in A (7^. eVax' In!) D 139. irclas Q. Harl. a, Lips. Vr. b c A, Mosc. 1.
: :

T om.
:

S.

eVajo eN
141.
;

G eVax' ^v nnv ov

(piperaL oStos

arixos Sohol. T.

143 id. Ar.
are

144.

9H

ZeM.

die Ar. Q.

133. "IXlou so MSS. Ar. "IXioy. Both constructions are found the ace. in line 501 and passim in the Catalogue, the gen. in B 538, E 642, a 2 TpoiTjs Upiv
: ; ;

omitted,

the

eflfect

of

the speech

becomes inexplicable.
143 was rejected by Aristarchos as involving unnecessary repetition ; the ir\i)9i5s of course knew nothing of the
council.

TTToKLedpov,

193, etc.

135. Observe the neuter plurals followed in the sing, and the other in the plur. cndpya, apparently ropes made of common broom see L. and

by one verb

For ucrd with
I 54,
ir

compare
in

419,

ace. = among and S 652 (though

;

S.

s.v.

Hemp

was

hardly

known
;

Greece even in the fifth century v. Herod, iv. 74. Varro, perhaps rightly, took the word to mean thongs used to bind the timbers together Liburni plerasque naves loris siiebant : Graeci magis cannabo et slu2}a, caeterisque sativis rebus, a quibus (TTrdpra appellabant (ap. Gell. xvii. 3). This suits the context rather better than to take o-ir-d.pTa =cdbles, a less vital matter. (A cable is called ^i))3Xicos in 391 ; the rigging is
in of leather, /3 426.) 141. The reason rejected by some
'

the latter passage /itd' riiUat may next to us ') and also /nerd X«pas, Herod, vii. 16. 2, Thuc. i. 138, etc. See H. O. § 195. Van L. reads Kard, which we should have expected the two are constantly confused in MSS., see App. Cx'it. on 163, 179 below, and

mean

'

;

;

A

424.

why
'

this

line
is

was
that

(see

above)

144. Aristonikos has here preserved for us the reading of Zenodotos, 91^ for us of MSS. ; and there can be no doubt that it is correct, though Ar. rejected it mth the brief comment oiiS^Trore "Ofiijpos rb (prj dvrl ToO cos T^Tax'^v. This merely means that the word had generally dropped out of the MSS. in his day ; it is found again

dvaip^L TTjc

aiJi<j>i.p6\lai>.

Agamemnon's

speech hitherto has been studiously ambiguous, as becomes a ireipa. While suggesting flight, he has ingeniously suggested also both the shame and the Heedlessness of flight. This line undoes

499 6 5e 07^ Ki^deiav dvaax^^j where was written <j>TJ, and, in defiance of Homeric idiom, translated 'said.' The word has survived also in Callim. Eekale
in
it

S

by its open declaration of opinion. The objection is well founded, but applies
all

5 C. R. vii. 430) Kudceoc 07j in <f>'f} ycpdvoitri quoted from Antimachos, and, by certain emendations, in Hipponax (fr. 14, 2, Bergk P. L. G?
(col.
iv.

irlaffdv,

It may be said that 139-41 are wrongly added from I 26-8 but the difficulty is really inherent in the idea of the temptation. If 139-41

equally to 140.

p.

;

755), where tfrfi glossed us has been turned into ffls tjn^ai and Hymn. Merc. 241 (Barnes, for SiJ or 6i), see Allen
:

in J.

H.

S. xvii. p. 260).

lAIAAOC B
TTovTov
(opop

(ii)

59

iKapioio'

T^

fjLev

r

E5/309 re

N0T09 re

145

iirat^a'i trarpo'i

Ato? 6k ve^eKdmv.
t
'^/ivet

w?

K

ore Kivi^aTjL Ze(f>vpo<; ^aOii Xrjlov eKOdiv,
itrt

Xa^po<: eTraiyi^cov,

aa-Ta'^veermv,
S"

w?

tS>v iraa
eir

ayoprj KivrjOr), toI

aXaXrjT&t
150

vrja<!

i(rcrevovTO,

iroZmv
toI
S'

S'

inrevepOe kovLt)

KTTar
ovpov<i

aeipofievrj,
-qh

aWijfXoto'i KeKevov
el<;

aiTTeadai vqmv

eKKefiev
avrrj

aXa

Slav,
licev

T

i^eKaffaipov
vtto
S'

S"

ovpavbv
ep/juiTa
j/octto?

oiKaSe iefiivcov

rjipeov

vrj&v.
irxr)(6r),

€v6d Kev 'ApyeioKTiv vTrepfiopa
ei
fit)

155

'A0r)vai,r)v

"Uprj

7r/3o?

fivOov eeiirev

147. KiNlicHi [AZ>]JE: KiNriceifi.

Aph.
/S.
II

II

fuxu T' in ras.

Aksn H. hn 'OXiiunou.

148. \a6p6NPar. h. InairizcoN enalcccoN AuOei T^ 153. t' : 3' Pap. /3. fiurfi b': duriiN Pap. 166-69 Zijy65oTos (rvvriTiaiKcv ei u^ 'AoHNaJH Xaocc6oc fiXe' eSpeN gncir' 'OducRa kt\. 156. doHNafHN : deHNaiw Pap. ^'.
||

:

:

||

145. 'iKopioio, so called from a small island near Samos {Hymn, xxxiv. 1, Strabo p. 639). n6NT0u seems to be in apposition with daKcurffTjs, as the part to

the whole.
146. iSSpope, transitive, as 5 712, tj/ (t 201?). In 78, 8 539 it is intrans. The usual form of the trans, aor. is of course &p<re. The singular shews that BSp6s re Niros re must go together as the wind of East and South,' the later

222

N

'

'Elrp6voTos,

Some

edd.

have

taken

unnecessary

offence at the two similes. They seem to express rather different pictures ; that of the stormy sea bringing before us the ttmiultuous rising of the assembly, while the cornfield expresses their sudden bending in flight all in one direction.

TrdKTiji S'. For the character of iitfivpos as a stormy wind see 200. 152. dtoN : here in its primitive sense, brigU. So of the aW-fip, II 365, t 540, and dawn, I 240, etc. It is twice used of the earth, S 347, Si 532 ; in the latter passage the epithet seems somewhat otiose, but in the former ' bright is obviously appropriate. In relation to men and gods it appears to mean illustrious, either for beauty or noble birth ; but here again it becomes otiose as applied to the swineherd Eumaios in the Odyssey. 153. oOpoOc, 'the launching- ways,' trenches in the sand by which the ships were dragged down to the sea ; gpuara, the props, probably large stones, placed

Heyne read

^

'

under the

ships'

sides

to

keep them

For the multiplication of similes
is

cf.

infra,

455-83. If either is to be rejected it the first, 144-46, both on account of the rather awkward addition of ir6i>Tov 'iKaploLO after $a\d<r<rris, and also because it indicates a familiarity with the Asian shore of the Aegaean sea, which is a note
of later origin. 148. fuxiia,
ears,
^ni,

upright, see A 486. The former word, which does not recur in Greek in this sense, may possibly be the same as oBpos Spos, the boundary being originally the trench marking the divisions of the

=

the

crop

bends with

its

be/ore

change
I

from

the blast. subj. to indie,

For the compare

But the junction of the very harsh ; we ought to read cither iirl d' or ^/j.iir]i. So in A 156
324,
156.
is

A

two by re

field. No weight can be laid on difference of accent. 155. On^puopa, a rhetorical expression only nothing ever actually happens in Homer against the will of fate, as a god always interferes to prevent it. For similar expressions compare P 327, T 30, and also H 780, and a 34, with 336 M. and R.'s note and for iivip = ag

common

:

;

;

VTip UpKia

r

299, etc.

; '

60
"

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

w

'TTOTToi, Br)

aljio'^oio Ato? TeKO<;,
(piXrjv
etr

aTpvTmvr],

ovrco

oiKOvSe,

69

iraTpiha 'yalav,
OaXdaaT)';
;

Apyeloi (pev^ovrai,

eiipea voJTa

KaB

Be

Kev ev^wX^v Tlpidfiwi, xal Tpcoal Xiiroiev

160

'ApyetTjv '"EXivTjv,

^? e'iveKa tvoKKoX
^L\7i<;

^

hr^aimv
airj';.

iv Tpoirji, diroXovro,

airo TrarpiBo';

ak\' Wb vvv Kara Xabv
(TOL'i
fiTrjBe

A'^aiwv '^aKKO'^brmvav,
<f)a)Ta

dyavoii iireeaaiv ipr/rve

eKaerrov,
165

ea

vrja';

oXaB^
ovB'

eXicefiev

a/u.^teXtcrcra?.

(W9

e<f)aT,

drndrjcre

6ed yXavKoiiTrK

AOrjvij-

^rj

Be

Kar

OiiXvfnroto Kaprjvaiv ai^acra.

157. Teicoc

:

TeKNON H.
163.
II

158.

&H
fi
:
:

:

ik Pap.
juera
t'

jS^.

160-2

d8.

Ar.

161.

dpreiHN
Par.

e'

Zen.
j

Kara
rj

Ar.

DJPRU
S2.

b d g

k.

xa^KO](iTCiONCON

uhH
:

Pap. ^, Hail, a d, King's ^pc&ei Pap. (3^. 164 d0. Ar.
||

CoTc Ar.

at xapt^o'Tarai Kai

'Api(rTO(pdvovs

coTc 3'

157. 6rrpuTa>NH
titles of gods, of

:

one of the obscure

which we cannot even

say with confidence that they are of Hellenic or Indo-European origin. The common explanation is that it means

'unwearied one,' from

rpijui

to

rub

(in

the sense 'to wear out'). It is equally likely that it may be connected with the first element in the equally obscure TpiToyheia, for which see note on A 515. (Reference may also be made to Autenrieth, App. to Nagelsbach's Horn. Theologie ed. 3, p. 413.)

is more suited to Odysseus than Athene, and is entirely committed to him. Ar. equally obelized 160-62, as This, being in place only in 176-78. however, does not seem necessary. All 165. UH5i '4.a, i.e. laiS' lae. similar cases of hiatus before i&w (9 428, P 16, X 339, <ir 73, S 805, k 536, a 420) can be cured by reading the open form,

task

and there
F.
{ii-nSi

is

no other trace of an
F'

initial

&

Brandr.)

Cf.

132.

dufieXiccac is a word of somewhat doubtful meaning, as it is only applied
to ships.

159. The punctuation of 159-62 is rather doubtful. Some edd. put one note of interrogation after ai-q^, and another (or a comma, which is the same thing) after BaXd/raris while others have no note of interrogation at all. In 3 201, 553, e 204, oii™ Si] introduces 88, an indignant question and this certainly gives the most vigorous sense here. In 5 485, X 348, olhu S-q occurs indeed in direct statements but there it does not stand in the emphatic position at the beginning of the sentence. On the other hand, it seems better to place a simple full stop after oI'tjs, because the opt. is not suited to the tone of remonstrant questioning. Thus Si in 160 almost = our For G^xcoXi^ = subject of boasting compare 433 6' /ioi . euxwXr; Kwrd &(ttv ireKicKeo. 164. Ar. not without reason regarded this line as interpolated from 180 the
: ; ; '

The

traditional explanation,

Why

!

'

X

rowed mi both sides, is insufficient, as there is no ground to suppose that iXlcro-oi (feX-) was ever used for ipiaaa (root ip-), from which we actually have Eur. Cyd. 15. Nor will a.ij.<piiprris, rolling both ways do, for iXlcrffiD is not = caXeiu. The two meanings which are generally adopted are (1) curved at both ends, i.e. rising at both bow and stern (see note on Kopuvlixi, 1. 771 below) or (2) with curved sides. Against both these it may be urged that cXiir(Tuv never seems to imply curving, but always 'turning round,' 'whirling,' and the like, a very different idea and further, with regard to (1) d/i-tfil strictly means at both sides, not both ends". The only sense consonant with the use
' ; '
' '

.

i.e.

;

of the word i\la<ru is wJieeling both loays, easily turned round, handy. Gf. note on ciiciiaXos 705.

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

61

evpev 67reiT' ^OBvfffja Att

/juijnv

araXavrov
/ie\aivr]<;

eoTaoT
airrer
ap/')(ov
,

ovB
iiret

6 ye vi^o? evaaeXfioio
fiiv
a')(p^

170

KpaBirjv koI Ovfwv iKavev,

S'

ia-Tafih/r]

irpoae^jj jXavKMiri^ 'AO'^vt)iroA.vfiTj'^av

" Bioyevh AaepTLaBrj,
ovTco
Brj

'OSucrcreu,

oiicovSe,

<j)iX7}v

e?

vaTpCBa jalav,
;

<j>ev^e<T0'

iv vrjeaat •jroXvKKrfia-i TrecrovTe';
ev'^^aiXrjv

175

Kah Se Kev

Jlpiaficoi

koL Tpwal Xiiroire
^A')(ai,SiV
airji;,

'ApyetTiv 'EXevrjv, ^y eiveKa
iv TpoLTji airoXovTO,
^IXt]<;

iroWol

airo irarpLBo'i
/i'»?S'

aXK
(Toii
fjLTjhe

er iptoei, ayavoii iireeaaiv eprjTue <f)aTa eKaarov, ea vrja<; aXaB' eKKefiev dficjx.eXiao'a'i"
iOi
<f>d6',

vvv Kara Xaov 'A-yai&v,

180

0)9

Be ^vverfKe 9ed<; OTra ^rnvrjada-t}^,
diro

^fj

Be Oeeiv,

Be j(Kalvav ^d\e'

rrjv

S'

eKo/Miaae

KTJpv^ Euyau^ari?? 'I6aKi]cno<;, o? oi

oirtjBei.

avTo^

B'

'ArpetBea

'Ajafjui/ivovo';

dpriof iXOoiv

185

Be^aTO ol (TKYjiTTpov iraTpmiov, d(f>diTOv aler <Tvv TWb e^T) Kara vrja^ 'A'^aicbv ^^aXKO'x^iTcovmv.
ov Tiva fiev ^acriXrja koI e^oj(ov dvBpa
Ki'^elrj,

TOP B

dr/avol<;

errreeaa-iv

ep'qrvaaaKe irapaard';'

Pap. a ft Vr, a b, Mosc. 2, Eton. 169. eOpe 3' Vr. b. 171. SnTer' supr. h over 8 H. 172. gnea nrepbeNTa npocHuda PR. 178. rpoia J. 179. Karci Ar. A[G]PR juerii f2
IJt

168 om. AC-D' T'
L.
||

170. kctdrr

oiiae re Q.

:

(cp. 163).
jS^

II

unh'

'itr

CT
HS.

Lips. Bar.
-.

.

uMbi. t' B.
fi.
jj

||

kptian
:

U.

||

xo'^oxitunun Pap.
184. ondSei
:

(cp. 163).

180. CoTc Ar.

coTc 3'
:

9cbTa

'aubpa Eust.
188. kixcIhi

PiRi.
Schol. T.

185. SntIon

187. Tk&H
:

Bite Zen.
a^.

GT

rtp^s kixoIh

189. ^pHTiiecKE Bar.

IpHTiiacKe Vr.

168 was unknown to Nik., for his scholion speaks of the asyndeton after
dif aira.

a similar sense
its

epuri

(TroX^/aou)
;

is

used,
'

'cessation,' II 302, petus,'

P 761

175. nec6NTCc implies tumultuous and disorderly flight ; so Z 82 ex x^P"'^ 7u;'ai-

ordinary meaning of must be an entirely different!
'

but ^pu^ in) swing, im'

word

Kdv
^v

<p£&yoi>Tas veaieiv, et al.

The phrase

however, also used of a ships, and hence e.g. I an ambiguity frequently arises 107, 235 (see note), A 311 (cf. 325),
^/T/uo-i TTcff-^eij' is,

violent attack

upon the

;

and so also ipariaei. in 303. ; 186. This is the sceptre described in 46, 101-9. It is of course handed over as a sign to all that Odysseus was acting on behalf of Agamemnon, oi, ' at his
See note on x^V^ KiireWoii A 596. 188. u^n is answered by S' oB, 198. The asyndeton at the beginning of a fresh stage in the narration is unusual, Hence Zenod. removed the full stop after x<'?k'«'X"'''''"''i reading /Sets for ?/3i7.
iraiSbs ^d^^aro

A

'

M

hand,' a dativus ethicus.

P

639. 179. ^pciei,
is

The verb
iro\iiu)io,

re/ram »oi, hold not back. generally used with the gen., x^Pf-V^! ^t". ; but it occurs
ii

without a

case,

75,

X

N

57

it is transitive,

433. 185, 'drive back.'

*

In In

;; :

62 "
havjjbovi
0X1

lAIAAOC B
,

(ii)

ae eoiKe kukov w? olaO

hei,hi(7e7ecrdat,-

190

aXK
01)

avTO<; re Kadrjo-o xal
•jTco

aXkov; iBpve Xaovf.
v6o<s

rydp
fiev

crd(f)a

,

olo<;

'Arpetcovo^

vvv

treipdrai,,
oil

rd'^a S

t'^^erai

vta^ 'Ay^amv.
;

ev ^ovXrji 8
firj

iravre^ aKovaafiev olov eetwe
pe^rjt,

Ti '^(^oXwa'dfievoi;

kuicov vla<; 'A'^ai&v.

195

6vfio<;
Tififj

Se fieya<; etrrt Biorpe^ecDv ^acriX^wv,
S"

eV Ato?

i(rTi,

<piXel

Se e fiTjTLera Zev<;."
drpeidoo
ii.

192. arpEicONOC Ar, Aph, Dion. Sid, Ixion, al xopi^irTe/jai, L 193-7 d^. At. 3A Cant. 195. ^^sei Q. 196. d^ : r&p 6P
:

:

||

dlOTpef^cON

(dioTpo9^UN) SociXhcon Zen.
Ar.

DGH JLPiRXJ Aristot. BJiet.

ii.

2: 3ioTpeip&>c BaciXAoc

ACP2QST.
same hand which gave us the scene in the BouXt;. 192 becomes literally true if in the first form of this scene Agamemnon has not as yet had a chance
to speak (v. Introd. 454.
).

190. deiSicceceai is uniformly transitive in Homer, and tliere is no reason why it should not be so here ; Odysseus actually 'terrifies' the common sort into the assembly (199), but will not employ more than persuasion to the chiefs. must therefore write oi> ci, not oi ere, to emphasize this contrast

For

VijicTai see

A

We

and so Herodianos thought, though the usage was against him (^ /liv ciKpipeia
'
'

dpdoToveiy ^kKIvsi 5k

17

ffvvf}dei.ti).

Monro

.

127) rightly compares 196 xep{ri 5^ p,-^ ri fie Tr6,yxv KaKbv (Ss SeLdi<T(yka6ii3, and A 286 iy<pCoC p^v ov yap Schol. B adds decdiaae^oik' orpwipiev, trdai dvTi ToO eiXapeTa-dai, a wrong interpretation, which has been generally Among the solecisms derided adopted. by Luoian, Pseiidosoph. 564, is that of using 5edlTTop.ai in the sense of fear ; Trpbs 5k rbv eiirSvra, AeSlrropiaL rhv dvdpa Kal <pe6ycj, 2iJ, ^(f>7], Kol brav riva. ciXaThe ellipse of thought ^qdrjis, 6iii?7)i. implied in dXXd (191) is very simple but this I do say sit still, etc. This is, in fact, the common use of dWd in appeals, with imper. (A colon is put at the end of 190 to bring this out.) 193. Aristarchos rejected this and the following four lines as &7reoLK&res /cat ov wporpeiTTiKol 6LS KaratrToXiJy a not very convincing remark. On the other hand, he inserted here 203-5, as being evidently addressed to the kings, not to the common folk. But as spoken to chiefs

(Journ. Phil.

xi. p.

194 is commonly printed without a note of interrogation but by reading it as a rhetorical question ' (an alternative given by Schol. B) 'the connexion of the speech is considerably improved. Odysseus has begun by explaining the true purpose of Agamemnon. Then he affects to remember that he is speaking " who formed the to one of the "kings council. But why need I tell you this ? Did we not all we of the council hear
' ;
'

'

'

'

said ? " Monro J. P. xi. 125. This also suits line 143 irSo-t fierd irKt/Ovv, bffot oi ^ovXrjs ^irdKovaav. On the other
'

what he

'

'

hand, there is no doubt that the council always regarded as consisting only of a small number of 'kings,' not as including all the chiefs. Nine persons, Agamemnon, Menelaos, Odysseus, Nestor, Achilles, the two Aiantes, Diomedes, and Idomeneus, 'are the only undeniable kings of the Iliad, as may appear from comparing together B 404-9, T 309-11, and from the transactions of K 34-197.
is

203-5 would eminently be 01) irporpetrTiKol ds KaTaaTokijv, and likely rather to arouse the spirit of independence and opposition they gain in rhetorical significance if addressed to the multitude, to whom they can cause no offeijce. 193-4 are, however, clearly an insertion due to the

Particular phrases or passages might raise the question whether four others, Meges, Eurypylos, Patroklos, and Phoinix, were not viewed by Homer as being also kings.'— Gladstone Juv. M. pp. 417-18. This is clearly too small a number to be expressed by line 188, and this consideration no doubt led to the rejection of the note of interrogation. 196. It looks as though Ar. preferred the gen. sing, to the plural on the ground that the latter involved the use of c as


lAIAAOC B
ov o
(ii)

:

'

63
e<pevpoi,

av

or]fiov

avopa

toot

pooeovra t

Tov aKrjirTpwi iKacracTKev ofioKSJiaacrKe re fivdtui,' " Bai/iovi aTpe/ia<; ?)<to koX oXSmv fivOov axove,
,

200

oc

<reo

^eprepoL

elffi,

o"u

B

d-TTToke/jLOi}

Kal uvoKki^,
ivl j3ov\r]i.

ovT€ iroT
oil

iv iroXe/juoi ivapiBfiioi; ovr

fiev

TTd)?

TravTC? ^acriXevaofiev evOdS" 'A^atot.
iroKvKoipav'iT]eZ?

ovK dyadov
el<i

Koipavo<; earo),
•7rdi<}

jSao-tXeu?,

wt Sw/ce JLpovov
^Se
OijJjio-ra'i,

dyicvXofi'^Teco

205

[a-KijiTTpov
(5?
.

r

Xva

a-cj>[cn

^acriKeiiTjil"
ol S'

6

<ye

KOipavicov Bieire a-rparov

wyopijvBe

avri^ eTrecra-evovTo ve&v wiro koX KXicridav
'rjXV'''

*"'

^"^^

KVfia •jToXv^XoLcr/Soio OaXdacrT)';
210

alyiaX&i /MejdXai ^pe/ierai, afiapayel Be re 7rovTO<;. aXXoL (lev p e^ovro, ip'qrvOev Be Kaff eBpa<i,
%ep(TL'n]<i

B

ert fiovvo'; dfierpoeirrj^ eKoXmta,

198.

a6
II

:

Sn Eust.
||

||

dl^uou ^Ndpa AST

Par. h, Bar. Laud.
:

Eton

:

di^uou

t'

fiNdpa 0.

YdH Q.

^feiipei

Q

{supr.

oi).

199. JUliecoi

euixSn Yr.
oiiV Pap.

a.
/3.

201.
203.

6n6Xeuoc Et. Mag. ncoc : nep Lips.
hdbent

202. 205.

oii'di

nor'

PR

Pap.
:

p.

||

oOt'

:

duKe
||

Ar. Harl. b
||

GJPQ™R

Harl.

a™ Vr.
211.

b.

C91CIN

R
||

*adiKe Vr. b

T

:

gdcoKC Q. 206 mn. fi cipiciN AreuoNeiiw Harl. a""
:

C9ICI BouXeiiHici

Dio Chrys.
/3.
||

BaciXeOei Q™.
4;piiTueoN

207. oi &'
i

:

iA'

Q

(supr.

oY).

208. aOeic Pap.

Q.

Kas&pac CIJGHJPQRT.
20, 22.

212.

eapdTHC Pap.

|8.

3^

ti

U.

||

iuaproenfic Plin. Ep.

" plural (see App. A). It is, however, quite possible to retain the plural used generically, and yet take i as sing, used of a particular instance, as is proved by S 691
ij
n.

T

icrl SlK-n f
/

edwv
I

^aaCK-fio^v,
-r
I

is virtually = ii.t]v, and has no adversative force here. For the neut. a.-fa0bv in the next line cf. triste lupius stabulis, Virg. Ec. iii. 80. 206 is apparently inserted in order to ^PP^? a" object to SG,.e, which does not

lUv

cA

A'f

Compare Eurip. And. 421—
PpoTois

oiKTpa yip ra SvoTuxn HiracTi, k&v Bvpaios &v

;


^
Kvprqi:

sup. and H. the t' is probably 198. di^juou fiNBpa inserted only to avoid the hiatus, which should rather is rare in this place. 431, 42 578). read Siifioi (and so in of the term. -01.0 see For the elision of If re be retained, we 35. note on

(Monro ut

G. § 255. 1.)

:

We

*

A

altered from I 99, apparently at a time the sense of metre was dying out. It is, however, as old as the age of Trajan, for Dio Chrysostom (Or. i. p. 3) ^.^^^^ j^.. it jg jj^r^iy ^oj.th while to discuss the reference of a<j>i.ai,, which may have been supposed i^w, or simply transferred from I 99 without further consideration. If the line is to be corrected, Dio Chrysostom's ^ovXe6T)un is better than Barnes's i/i^ounXe&rn. 209. On' cbc Sre in similes see 394. For
'^^'li™

=

ii. 165, explain every one whom he both saw to be of the common sort and found shouting,' which is not very satisfactory. ^Naplojuioc, in nulla 202. oOre MM??iero, 'not counted.'

must with Bekker, S. B.
'

iieriiXcoi

Bentley
;

conj.

//.eyiXa,

with

.

.

.

probability cf. A 425. 212. OcpdrHC, like Qepa-lXoxos P 216, is from the Aeolic Bipcros = ffpdcros, a name made to suit the man, cf. IIoXi;-

much

8ep(r€tSTjs (pCKoKiprofws

203.

oil jLi^N

= Att.

oi Siprov, as

233;

see

A 575.

x^^T(cf.

CKoXciia

:

Auerpoeniic

d0a,ua/3Toe7r^s

64
09 p
eirea
<f>pe(Tlv

lAIAAOC B
fjicnv

(ii)

d/coafid re ttoWo, re

rjior),

fiay^ arap ov Kara Koafiov epi^efievat jSaatXevcnv,

aXX

b Ti 01 eiaaiTO •yeKoaov
a'ia')(i<TTO<i

ApjeiOiciv
viro "YXiov rj^Oe'
rat

215

e/jifievat.

Se
8'

avr^p

^okKO'i
Kvprd),
(polo's

er)v,

^<bXo9
(TTrjOo^

erepov iroBa8'

Se oi

wfiw

67rt er)v
S'

awo'^WKOTe'
rjv

avrap virepOe
^S
'OBvarji'
220

KG^dXrjv, ^eZvr]
'A^tX?5t jxaXiCTT

eTrevrjvode Xd'^vri.

€')(6i(TT0<;

214. ainiip Q. fi(i)aei CilGS. 213. OC : '6 D: Sec' Pap. ,8 (om. ^•). 218. BaciXRi Q. 217. 90\k6c : 90pK6c S. 216. 3' iinkp CG Laud. Eton. cuncuNOXHKiiTe Mor.2 (h in ras.) Vr. c : cuNcox«ox<5Te Q (supr. o over first co) 220-3 dd. Zen. OKcox<iTe Hesych. cuNoxeoKerec Pap. j3.
il

||

:

;

r

215, aKpird/ivBos

B

246)

is

illustrated

by Soph. Fhil. 442—
Qepairris rij ^p
6s o^K hv el'Xer' elcrdira^ elireiv oirov
Uridels
ediir),

mology

where see Jebb's note.
214.
getic,

The

infin.

in this line

is

epexe-

and is qualified by ixIl^ dritp ov Karh Kbaiwv. For SkocuA Te noXXd re we should have in Attic ttoXXo re Kal For the &Ko<Tim, and for iniip oil, oiii.
litotes
oil

Tliis etysquinting), Schol. A. was universally accepted by antiquity, but it is of course untenable. Buttm. Lexil. p. 536 points out that the order of the adjectives clearly shews that <j)o\k6s refers to the feet or legs. He is probably right in explaining 'bandy-legged,' but not in connecting it with valgus. It goes rather with 4>d\Kris, the rib of a ship, Lat. falx,
(i.e.

faZco. strictly
(0o^ii

9os6c is explained as meaning warped in burning,' of pottery Kvpius €l<rl rd irvptppayTJ Sffrpa/ca,
'

Kari,

K.

6

Kari k6cuon of. vK-qyeh oi 12, and oi k6(7ij,wi M 225.

Schol.,

who

quotes Simonides, aihri Si

rightly iroXXti re koX S-raKra Schol. \iy€Lv TjiriaTaTO, iliare fidrriv Kal od Trpbs

A

'Apyel^ /ci5Xi|), and hence with a distorted head. In this sense 'the works of the old physicians shew that
<po^iX(i-^os

In the \6yov <pi\ov€LK€Lv ToXs §a<7iKev(yLv. next line we may understand XaXeix or the like after AXXd. The scholiasts give two curious legends about Thersites : one that having been Homer's guardian, and in that capacity robbed him of his inheritance, he is thus caricatured in immortal revenge ; the other that he had been crippled by Meleagros, who threw him down a precipice because he skulked in the chase of the boar of Kalydon. They also point out that Homer mentions neither his father nor his country, in order to indicate his base origin. In the Aithiopis and Quintus he is killed by Achilles for insulting him and the corpse of PentheHe is the only common soldier sileia. mentioned by name in the Iliad. 217. 9o\k6c, 9os6c, ij/edN6c are all Sir. \€y6ii.eva in Homer, and it is impossible to be sure of their derivation and meanThe first seems uever to recur in ing.
all

continued in constant use, not merely but as one of daily occurrence' (Buttm. 1.1.). Perhaps conn, with (pdryoi, hake (Buttm., Curt.), in the
it

as a poetical word,

sense of owrbaked.
i/'u;,

ifredNoc,
^j/edvi)s

iropd to
/judapds,

6vo/j.a

p-q/j-aTiKdv

6

Schol. L (i.e. falling away, sparse). 218. For cuNOXcoKdre Valckenaer is doubtless right in reading with Hesych.

(Cobet M. C. 304), cf. iKwxri, dvoKwxrj, SlokwxV} KaroKcoxif}. For o'vv^et.v =join (or intrans. meet) cf. 133.
avvoKiaxlyre

A

^nsNANoee is a doubtful form, dv-qvode A 266 is from root dveS-, whence &v8os, and we should probably with Brandreth read e-rravijvode here in p 270 most Mss. have dvifvode, but Ar. read evrjvoBc.
; ; in 266) with the secondary person-endings {H. 6, The sense is sprouted or simply § 68). appeared on the surface (see on A 266,

In the Od.
it

{6 365, p 270) it is

a perf.

II.

must be a

plupf.

(K

134,

A

and

cf.

loiXov^ duBijcrai.
bristles
;

X 320).

X^x^h,
of swine,

existing Greek literature.

9o\k6c

stubble,

cf.

Xax^ijeis,

6 TO. 4'dri elKKvafiivos S

ianv

icrrpa.ii,fiivos

1548.

'

lAIAAOC B
TO)

(ii)

65
8ta)t

lyap

veiKeiecTKe.

tot'

oSt' 'Aya/jAfivovi,
reot

6^€a

KeKX,r]yco<;

Xey

oveiSea'

8

ap

'A'^atol

e/CTrayXtB?

Koreovro

ve/juea'a-rjOev
'

t

ivl

Ovfjuwi.

avTcip o fiaKpa

^omv Ajafie/Mvova
S'

ve^Kee jjLvdav

" 'ArpetSTj, reo

avr

i7rip,e/x(j)eai,

^Be j^aTt^et?
Be 'yvvalKe<;

;

225

TrXetat toi '^^^oXkov KXiatai,
eicrlv

iroWal

ivl

icXicrbrjii;

i^aiperot, a? toi

A-^aiol
ekcafiev.
o'laeu

irpmrLarmL BiBofiev, evr
rj

av irTokUOpov

en

Kol ^(pverov iiriBeveai, ov Ke Tt?

T!pd)(ov

iTTTToBafMav e^ 'iXuov ulo? aTroiva,
t]

230

6v Kev iyo) B^cra<; aydjo) ^6 yvvalKa
?]V

aXXo'i 'A'^aimv,

ver)v,

"va iJuLayeai iv (JuXottjti,
;

T

avTO<; airovoa^i KaTtar'^^eai

ov

fiev

eotxev

ap-)(ov

eovra KaKoiv

eVtySacr/ce/iev

uia? 'A^atcoi/.

w

TreTTove?,

kAk
:

iXey^e^,

A'^adBe<;,

ovKer
:

'A^atot,
224.

235

221. T<Jj Ar.

fi

Toi ZIQ

:

Toiic Pap.
:

BiBdc Yr.

a.

225. d' afir'

a |8. hk oOt' Zen.
||

||

afir'

aO GPS.
:

BouN

:

227-8

0.8.

Zen.

oTcHi G.

231-4
|8i.

Hn

a'

Pap.

227. kXicIh J Cant. : KXiciaic 231. 4rdjN L. 235. dx^l'^™ S.
ae. Zen.

ruNaiK&N Zen. Bar. Mor. KXidHciN PR. 229. firdroiju' JEust. 233. Hn k' S
226. nXetoi 3^

:

222. \ire in the strict

Homeric

.sense,

ccmnted
injures.

out,

enumerated,
is

dibitait

ses

rm
is at

clearly

Agamemnon.

dinate with XP"'^"" (229), and ought therefore to be gen. The intervening ace, in the preceding line no doubt

the moment the accepted spokesman of the mob, who are indignant with Agamemnon for his treatment of Achilles ; and it is by a subtle piece of psychology that they are made ashamed of themselves, and brought to hear reason by seeing their representative exhibited in an absurd and humiliating light, and their own sentiments caricatured till they dare not acknowledge them. 65 225. T^o the gen. is the same as eixuX^s iTri/ji.4fi.4>eTaL. Thersites pretends that avarice is Agamemnon's only reason He for wishing to continue the war. assumes that he will do so, and makes no allusion whatever to the proposal to return home. 228. eOT" Sn, as often as we take any But we should Trojan stronghold. probably read eire, cf. A 163. Thersites purposely alludes to Achilles' words, as again in 242. For 8c Ke 229. fi, can it he that. with the fut. indie, cf. note on A 175. Similarly 231 '6n ncet* drdroo, such as 1
Thersites
:

the change, which is natural enough to a speaker, uicreai and kqticxeai must be subj. but the short vowel cannot be right. Read ii-layrf and KaTlffxv', like ^oiXrir' A 67, and of. note on A 380.

caused

;

233.
ffe,

oil

uhi, as 203.
oidi, Christ

Bentley oonj. oS
otfri.

Heyne

A

'

shall bring. 232. ruNQiKO

KaKb^N SniBacK^ueN, bring into This causal sense is probably not elsewhere found with the verb-suffix -0-/C-. Cf. e 285, I 546, 13., Zenodotos rejected 227-8 (reading ir\e7ai di yvvai.kQiv) and 231-4, apparently thinking them beneath the dignity of Epic poetry. 235. nInoNec this word is found in H. only in the voc. It is generally a polite address, sometimes with a shade of remonstrance, such as is often expressed in our My good sir It is always found in the sing, except here and N 120, and in these two passages only it has a distinctly contemptuous meaning, 'weaklings.' kkiry^etx, an abstract noun used as a concrete. Monro {H. ff. § 116) compares o/i.ri\iKLiij = 6fiTJ\c^
234.
trouble.
i/*
:

'

!

'

uiuN

is

strictly co-or-

X

209,

Stj/iov

ibvTa, one of the

common

lAIAAOC B
o'IkuSS irep

(ii)

avv

vr)va\

vewfieda, TovSe B
•jrecrerifiev,

e&fiep
'IBtjtui,,

avTov
ij

ivl
T^'

Tpoirji
')^

yepa

o(j>pa

pa

ol

rifiei<;

rrrpocra/Mvvo/Mev ?je

koI ovkl'
<f)(ara,

09 Kal vvv 'A'^iXrja, eo p,ey
-^Ti/MTjaev

afieivova

eXmv yap
ovk
'ATpetSTj,
vetKeicov
TcSt
8'

ej^et

yepa<;,

avTO<; a'irovpa<;.

240

aXXa
?l

p,a)C

AyiXiji yoXoi; (ppeaiv,

aXKa

fieOrjficov

yap
0)9

av,

vvv va-Tara Xm^ijaato.
Aya/J,efj,vova
Trot/ieva

^dro

Xamv
245

©epa-iTT]^-

w/ca irapLa-Taro

St09 'OBva-aevs:,

KaL fiiv VTToBpa ISaiv ^aXewwi rfVLTraire fivdcof " @epaiT aKpiTOfMvde, Xtyv^ irep icbv dyopr]Ti]<;,
tff^eo,
/MrjB'

edeX' 0I09 epi^ifievai ^aatXevaiv.
treo
(f>i]/u
'

ov yap iyo)
efifievai,

^epeiorepov ^porov aXXov
250

ocraou dp!

ArpeiB'^K vtto "TXiov ^X6ov.
ctto/x
'e')(a)v

Tw OVK dv ^aaiXijaf dva
236.
ov
Sib.

dpfopevoL<i,

t6n8^

t'

J.

ToO

ATpeiSH
sort,

PQ

X

(°^X') •^''

Pap.

§\

Itt S. 238. x' <»"• 6. oOkJ : 239. £oO Zen. 215. HJNOinane Pap. a. 250. SropeiiEic i)Q (supr. oi).

237. itA

||

SA

tov

k,

219.

213. It should be substituted for iXeyx^es in A 242, q.v. So ra 5' i\4yxea iravTo. \i\eLTrTai fi 260. 'AxailBcc, o0k6t'

M

96, imit. by Virgil, Aen. 617 vere Phrygiae, neque enim Phryges. Thersites evidently regards the suggestion of a return to Greece as entirely his own after his attack on Agamemnon it would be absurd to conclude with a proposal to do just what the king has himself ordered. 236. oYxad^ nep, 'let us have nothing short of return home (Monro H. G. § 353). T6N3e 8' £c2iueN read rbv S' iaoifiev (P. Knight). to digest, gorge 237. r^pa necc^usN, himself on, meeds of honour,' enjoy

'Axaiof=H
ix.

;

'

:

241. ix6\a goes with oix, as in Germ. nicht. These two lines are an obvious allusion to the dispute in the assembly, Achilles' very words being quoted, toCto trpbs ri d,TcKh ttjs |i0ouXKlas ifrqalv, Schol. B. It has been pointed out in the Introd. that the nOn in 242 is meaningless as the speech now stands, spoken at a long interval after the quarrel of the kings. 245. ANinane, a strange reduplication, like TipiKaKe. The subst. iviir-fi is common, but tlie pres. ivlirrui is doubtful ; see F 438, Q 768, where van L. (Snch. p. 480)

gar

would
cognate

read

hia-ire,

ivlaixoi,.

On

the

'

them by

himself.

Cf.

A

81.

238. oi x' i^Juetc, i.e. Kal. Some read o'i But npocaJuiiNOjuieN must be x' (i.e. Ke). the pres. indie. ; if it were aor. subj. it

would mean 'if we shall help him,' a sense clearly precluded by the nature of
Thersites' proposition. There is no clear icai case of Kc with pres. indie, in H. must be taken closely with AueTc, we also of the common sort, as well as great

G. p. 397. 246. 6iKpiT6juuee see 796 aUl rot 10)601. (plXoL S.KpiTol elaiv, 8 505 &KpiTa iriXV dydpevov. The latter passage shews that the word means indiscriminate, inconsistent, rather than countless ; a. sense which it would not be easy to derive from Kplva. So iKpirdfivdoi Spetpot, t
:

ivivLire see

R.

560, hard to ie discerned, fi^e' iKptra (r 412, Q 91), S.KPLTOV wivB-nnevaL {<r 174, T 120), of grief which is not brought to

111 efcrerai, el jcai i/jibv S6pv ixaherai. The second Kal is that commonly used to give emphasis to one of two alternatives in an indirect On the disjunctive question, e.g. 300. question of crasis or elision see Z 260
chiefs like Achilles.

So

6

a determination, endless aKpiT6(pvK\os B 868, with confused foliage. Xinjc is a word of praise (A 248) used ironically. 248. x^P^x^TcpoN virtually =Yepc(o>'a, See A 80.
;

(i.e.

250. oCpk &n 6ropeijoic, you inay not must not) chatter with kings' names

)

' :

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

67

Kai a^bv oveiBed re irpotjiepoii voa-rov re (fivXdo'ffOK. ovBe tL iTO) ad^a 'iS/iev, ottw? earai rdhe epya,
rj

eS

rje

KaK(S<;

voarija'Ofjbev

vle<;

'Aj^aiSiv.
Trot/iei't

Tw

'vvv 'ArpetBrji

Ayafiefivovi,,
ol

\a(ov,
255

^crai oveiSi^av,
^pcoe's

on
crv

jidXa iroXKa Zuhovaiv

Aavaof

Be KepTOfiecov dyopevet,<;.

dX\! €K rot
€1

6/360),

TO Be Kol rereXecrfievov ecnaf
Ki,j(^a-o/u,at,

K

en a d^paivovra
eireiT

w? vv
eirelr],

irep

S)Be,

firjKeT

OBverfji Kdpt]
k6cton
3fe

aifioiatv

251. npo9^peic JP.

||

Pap.
o.

^.

||

fuXdccHC J
&ri Ar.?:

:

q)u\<iccGic (or -oic

?)

P
ti
:

9u\<iTT0ic C.

252-6
ti

aB. Ar.

258. 61
||

K
:

el

V

'tkry

Zen.?: eV k^

Harl. a ei Kai Kixeiouai Ftol. Ask.
:

EU

PQS
Nii

Par.

||

uc

nep &dE

kixi^cougn Pap. iS^ : Kixefco Et. Mag. Ar. cbc t6 ndpoc nep Sinop. : iicrepoN

aOnc Mass.

:

hi daNOoTciN Philemon.
:

(The scholia on the line are corrupt and

contradictory

v.

Ludw. ad

loc.

ymir tongue ; so 126, v 135 ('ironical courtesy,' H. G. § 300 ,8 ; but practically it means 'you sha'n't'). Or we may take tw as virtually a proon
tasis,

S

nature
for use

/ce

is

indeed particularly suitable

'if
of.

phrase
ffrdfia.

For the that were not so.' Eur. El. 80 fleoiis ^x'"" ^"^
in
tlieir

251.

npo9^poic, cast

teeth,

as

r

64.

n6cton 9uXdccoic
;

be

on the

with the fut. indie, in the very frequent case where a future contingency has to be expressed. The wonder is not that H. so uses xe, but that later Greek does not so use S.v. 259. The apodosis here, as in E 212 sqq., virtually consists of a whole conditional sentence, a second condition

vMtchfor departure.
refer to this

The next two lines but they hardly seem in

place here, and would come more suitably after 298. Lehrs would put 250-1 after The repeated 264. Ar. rejected 252-6. Tu) (250, 254) has all the appearance of a double version, such as we should expect if the speech has been displaced If as suggested in the Introduction. any lines are to be rejected, 250-3

mind of the speaker as rhetorically expands the simple Xa^iif tre inroSiaisi which would form the Telemaohos is logical continuation. mentioned in the II. only here and A 354, q.v. , in an equally curious phrase, o^x caiTUJt vvv dparat, d\X& rCii TratSl. Kal
occurring to the

he

should go.
Ar. objected against this line Thersites was standing when he spoke (cf. 211-2), and therefore the word ficai could not be properly used. But it is frequently found with a participle in a weak sense, meaning no more than to 'keep on' doing a thing ; e.g. A 134,
255.

that

137 ; see also A 412 (comp. with 366). The at>r. 258. Kixiicojuai : fut. indie. There subj. is Kix^id! (or -^u), 26. are several other clear cases of the constr. There is no in H. (see H. G. § 326. 5). serious ground for disputing xe with fut. indie, except that it is not known in Attic and aor. subj. and fut. indie, are so closely connected both in form and sense in H. that the use with one tense almost inevitably implies that with the other. 66. By its See note on

B

A

;

X

fi^v irpdjTri Kardpa Karb. rod 'Odvcr8^ deuT^pa /caret roG TTjXefidxov dwoXoLTO 6 Trats, oiiK^rt irar-fjp itSTiv el yap 'OSvffffeis (Schol. A). It is possible that the origin of the expression may be more recondite, and lie in the strange but wide - spread use among savages of ' paedonymics instead of patronymics. In Australia when a man's eldest E.g. child is named the father takes the name of the child, Kadlitpinna the father of Kadli ; the mother is called Kadlingangki, or mother of Kadli, from This ngangM a female or woman. custpm seems very general throughout In America we find the the continent. . In Sumatra the father same habit in many parts of the country is distinguished by the name of his first child, and loses, in this acquired, his own The women never proper name . change the name given them at the time of their birth ; yet frequently they are

^ffTLv

7]

(T^ws,

ij

'

'

.

;

:

68
fir]6

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

en

TrfK.efj.w^oi.o

irarrfp
a-jro

KeKKr]f/,evo^

e'lrjv,

260

Si

/JLT)

iryd) ere

Xa^mv

ftsv

<f)i\a ei/aara Svcro),

^Xalvdp T '^Se j^^ircbva, avTov Be KKa'iovTa 6od<;
7re7rX?7'y(B?
(w?

to,
eirX

t

alhS)

dfi<pi,KaXinrTei,

vrja';

dcfjrjaeo

ayoprjdev deoKeaat TrXijjijtatv.'
e(f>7j,

ap
o

aKr^Trrpac Se fierd^pevov ^Se Kai
IBveodrj,

a)fj,co

265

TrXrj^ev

S'

OaXepov Be
/jberacppivov

ol

exirea-e

Bdxpv.

CTfi&Bi^ S'

ai/jbaToecrcra

e^viravecrTr]

cTKrjTTTpov vTTo
dXyrja'a';
01
B',

^pvaiov

6

S'

ap' e^ero rdp^r]<7ev re,

d'^pelov IBcov,

dirofJbop^aTO

SaKpv.
'^ekaacrav
270

Be KoX dyyx))ievoL Trep
Tt?
eXivecTKev
7}

eV
es

airwi

rjBv

&Be Be
"
(o

IBcbv

irXrja-iov

dXXov

"TTOTTOi,

Bi]

fivp" 'OSiKTcreii? e<T0Xd eopye

^ovXd'i r
260.
Til

e^dp-^mv d'ya6d<i TToXefiov re

Kopvaaav
||

UMbk
;8i.

Ti

HQ.
265.

a'

Pap.

264.

deiKeXJHic R.

THXeudxou re G. 261. 4r<bN Q. 'dvat L^ 262. nenXwrcbc nvks nenXHrcbw Schol. B. itropkei G. &juon J. 266. eaXepoN AXuk^n Zon. Lex. EKnece
II

:

||

||

:

\\

SK9ure Ar. eu6psaTo Q.

267. JUCTd9pEN0N Pap.

/3^.

269.

dnoudpaoTO ACJT^U

:

hn-

called through courtesy, from their eldest child, si ano," the mother of such an one ; but rather as a polite description than a name.' Lubbock Origin of CivilizaUon p. 358. The same is the case among the Kaffirs (Theale

an

"Ma

idle unmeaning laugh,' not being really gay. So here the word seems to

imply a dazed silly expression, as though Thersites could not recover from the sudden shock and grasp the position. So Schol. B, dxatpus iirop\^<//as. For
'
'

Kaffir Folk-Lore

thus means,
title.'

'

may

p. I

117). lose

my

Odysseus proudest

'AKffaia M.e\eaypls (Ibycus, fr. 14) is another instance of a paedonymic (quoted in Geddes Prob. of Bom. Poems

the use of iScbN cf. midpa ISiSiv. Philetas absurdly read ISiiv for d^daX/xuiv. The F is neglected dx/JEia Bentley. 270. The assembly are vexed to see themselves humiliated in their spokes;

p. 84 n. 5), but I am not aware of materials sufficient to prove that the custom was ever prevalent in Greece or that there are any relics there of the savage's reluctance, for fear of magic, to reveal his real name, with which it is not improbably connected. 262. Td t' of course refers to x^aipa

man's person, and to lose their hope of returning home ; but Odysseus has gained his point by getting the laugh on his side. 271. For TIC as the 'public opinion'
of

Homer

reference
J.

may

Gladstone

M.
;

p. 436.

are— r
479
;

and

x""<i"'

'

it

cannot be trans.

'

and

H
;

297, 319 A 81, 87, 178, 201, 300
5 K 37
(l>
;

be made to The passages 85, 176 Z 459
;

;

P
;

414, 420

';

that which,' as some have done, understanding it to refer to some other articles of dress {fi^lrpri ? or ffflyua ?). 266. ea\ep6N, iig ; apparently from the idea 'well-grown,' 'flourishing,' in which the word generally occurs (but always of men, their limbs, grief, and the like never in the most literal sense, of growing trees).
;

X106, 372; ^324;
e 328 u 375
; ;-

167
;

;

769; f 275; -r 72, 400 p 482 ;

i/- 148. 273. ^dpxeiN elsewhere in H. always takes the gen. 76010 S 51, etc., |iio\7r^j 2 606 [5 19], and in mid. ica/riis i^i^px^To I3ov\t}s IX 339 (cf. also fi 721). The ace.
:

361, 396

depends
of the

no doubt on a reminiscence
familiar
is
:

269.
<T

axpeioN Mdm, with

helpless looJc

;

meaning

163

dx/jeioK S' iyiXacrce, 'she

laughed

^ouXAs ^ovXeieiv the 'taking the lead in giving counsel,' whereas with the gen. it means

lAIAAOC B
vvv Be ToBe /iij

(II)

apiarov iv 'Apyeioicriv epe^ev,
275

o? rov Xm^rjTrjpa eTrea^oXov ecr^' wyopdwv.
01)

Qrjv fiiv

iraXiv avTi<; avrjau dvfio<; dyrjvcop

vetKeieiv ^acri\7Ja<;
0)9
ei7T7j

wetSetot? iTreecrcrLv"

<^d(7av

rj

ttXtjOv';'
'i'^cov

dva

he •irTo\[-7ropdo<; 'OBvcr(Tev<;

(ncfJTTTpov

irapa Be jKavKwiri,'; 'A6i]vr]

elBofievT}
to?

KrjpvKt a-ianrdv
oi TrpcoTOi

\aov avmyei,
A/^aimv

280

dfia 6"

re Koi varaTOi ule?

fMvdov dKovaeiav xal eTri^paaraaiaTO ^ovKrjv.

6 a^iv

ill

(ppovecov dyopijcraTO Kal fiereetTrev
S»j
ere,

" ^ArpeiBr}, vvv
irdcTiv

ava^, edeKovcriv ^A'^aiol
jiepoirea'cn ^poTolcnv,

iXey^ia-Tov
:

9e/j,evai,

285

274.

t6&6
:

aGeic

ODG
a^
J.

margin)
(me) P.

Pap. jS^. 8' 6 Ar. fi.

276. aO Bar. Harl. a. 275. firopeucoN J. and nvh ap. Did. (Harl. a has 3fe in outer npe&Toi re nroWcepoc Q Pap. /3^. 281. cSco' T Eton. 284. &l4 : rdp 283. o Ar. U: 8c GHQ Par. a e g h k and yp. J.

t6

afi

PR

:

763'

278. hk Vr. a

||

||

At.

:

rather 'beginning,' 'starting.' So Hymn xxvi. 18 i^dpxovffa xopois, and often in We may compare later Greek ; see Lex. bdhv TyYqffaffdaif &^6\ovs Toiis iT€ipi}<TavT 'OSvarjos 6 23, and other exx. in Monro H. G. § 136. 275. For the order of the words of. A 11 : thai insulter, scurrilous that Jie is. 276. tA /j^ ndXiN is Toinrlffo) t6 S^ afinc xpoi't/c6i' ^| uffripov, Schol. A. that Aristarchos repeatedly insisted irAXii' in H. never means 'a second time,' but always 'back again,' in the local sense ; but it requires some forcing to make the present passage consistent with the theory (e.g. 'his heart will not bring him back to the assembly'). There is no doubt that the temporal grew out of the local sense, through the idea of ' going back again to a former
'

to the capture of Troy
see

his cunning, ^ouX^i Ilpidyuov In II. it is frequently tSXis eipvayvia. applied to Achilles, and once each to Enyo B 333, Oileus B 728, Otrynteus

by

X 230

arjL

S'

rjXu

and Ares T 152. The e' is perhaps inserted to prevent hiatus which is probably allow-

T

384, 281.

;

able at the end of the first foot (see on 87), without the necessity of taking oi for the pron. Foi, with Nauck. If 6' is to be kept, Doderlein's explanation

seems the most satisfactory, viz. that there is a confusion between &/w. re

of things ; and it is better to recognise in such phrases as this instances of the transitional use than to attempt to force an arbitrary rule on Homer. So tt 456 trdXiv irolriae yipovra. iLrimap may be ironical, as it is generally a word of praise ; but as applied to Achilles in I 699, to Laomedon # 443, and perhaps to the suitors in the
state

Odyssey, it of blame.
Kal dpaais.

may
So

have conveyed a shade
schol., a{i0aST)$ i/Spicrr^s

21 S. nToXinopeoc recurs in H. as an In 363. epithet of Odysseus only Od. it is of course common, in allusion

K

and fl/ia irpQiTol re Kal in other words, &ij.a has, as often, attracted a re into its neighbourhood from its proper place in the sentence, e.g. I 519, f 403 ; but the word is again repeated, just as we sometimes find &v oceuring twice, once in its right place, and once following a word which it is npcixoi and desirable to emphasize, licTOToi are used in a local sense, those in front and those behind. 284. For nOn "bit Aristarchos seems to have read vvv yap, " ^8os Se oi)r& (sc. "0/i'7pui) diri Tov yd,p tpxeirdai" (e.g. In all other 156). 328, K 61, 424, oases, however, the yip is either in a question or in an explanation by anticipation (H. G. § 348, 2) ; it is far less natural here in a, principal sentence. Piatt suggests y' &p, but rap is more
irpCiToi Kal StrraTOi,
a.
:

*

H

likely

;

see

on

A

123.


70

; ;

lAIAAOC B
ovBe TOb iKreXeovcnv vTroa'^etriv,
ivOdS" ert crTel'^oPTe^ dir
'iXiov eKirepaavT

(ii)

rjv

irep

vireaTav

"Apjeo<; itttto^otoio,

ivrei'^eov diroveeaOai,.

w? T6
r)

lyap

rj

-TraiBe^

veapol XIP"''^

'^^

yvvavKe';
290

aWrjXoicriv oBvpovrai otKovBe veeadai.
firjv

KoX

TTovo'i

ecrriv

avtrjOevra veecrdai.
airo
?j<s

/cat,

yap

rt?

eva
vrft

firjva pAvrnv

aXo^oto

acrj^aXdat avv
'^(eifiepiai

iroKv^vycoi,
opivofMevr]

ov irep deXKai

eiXewaip

re Oakacraa'
iviavTO';
295

r)iuv

S

eXvaTO';

eari

•rrepirpo'iTetov

286. TOl

:

Ti

CLS

Bar.

||

re

G

:

^Nedd' ^nicreixoNrec

HN h Q Cant.
:

Pap.

/3.

287. ^Ne<4&^ tT

P

Lips.

:

iuBiAe
jS^.
||

292. o' om. G.

293. 6izurcoi Pap.
o

HNHcp CGJ (7p. 5n) P2 (? also HNnep P"") S. 294. xe'"^P"oi Vr. iX^tociN At (cIX^wciN Am T.W.A.) Cant. eiX^ociN PR: -yp. <fopiaa H.
:

Lips. 295.

||

X' ftuXn a' Q.

289. The ft .. re of Mss. is an obvious difiSoulty. Bentley proposed d for fi, so that re yap el=&s el re : but ois el are never separated in H. Nauck

&

violent change of subject. Lehrs compares j3 284 oiSi Ti laaaiv BAvarov Kal
KTJpa fji.i\a^vav
iir' ijfiaTi

y&p ij, Ameis, after Bekker, Ij, as y 348 &s ri reu ^ irapii vdfiTrav avd/xovos rjdi Trevixpov, and T 109 (is Ti rev ij (SairiXijos, in both which passages the mss. have ij, though it is
Siffre

writes /i&re ydp for

6s dri trtpi (rx^Sdv iffriv, irdvras SKiffdai, a not very satisfactory parallel. Monro (Journ. Phil.
|

xi.

129,

E.
&pri

a.

§

dXiJfai,

eiiSeic,

233) adds p.o1p' iarlv and other similar

out of place (in the former passage mss. also have -rji, not iidi). But there does not seem to be any certain case of this use of ? in a simile where indeed so strongly affirmative a particle seems out of place. Still it is adopted in the text as an only resource, better than taking the sequence ^ re as a very violent anacoluthon. 290. For this pregnant use of 63iipouai cf. 75 SKoipipo/iai. The infin. N&ceai in fact stands in the place of the acous., found in e 153, v 379 vharov
clearly
. .

phrases, and we may add A 510, 239, and the infin. after roios, etc. ; but none are really quite parallel. Various

H

emendations have been proposed the most attractive is van L.'s dvir/ r' luB' avix^aSai (after Mehler's dvi-qBivr' dx^eaBai, where the aor. part, will not do)
;

*

for avlr) cf. -q 192, u 52. The only alterations are the interchange of B and T and the insertion of x, and the corruption is easily accounted for by vUaBai in the previous line.

295. This line seems at first irreconcil-

oSipeaBai, v 219 6 5' dStipero irarplSa yaXav. 291. The obvious sense of this line, if it stood alone, would be, 'Verily it is a trouble even to return home in grief.' But this does not cohere with what follows, and the only interpretation which really suits the sense is that

given by Lehrs (Ar. p. 74), and probably by Aristarchos (who noted that irbvos is used in the true Homeric sense of labour, not grief) truly here is toil to make a man return disheartened.' ^ piipi Kal thus introduces an excuse, just as in I 57. The difficulty is the very bare use of the ace. and infin. with a
: '

able with 134, where it is said that nine years of Zeus have passed. But it is to be noticed that the word used here is not the usual TrepiirXb/ievos or TepireWSfievos, but nepirpon^coN, which is not elsewhere applied to the year. The word is to be explained not as the revolving year, but as the year on the turn, i.e. at the very point of changing from one year to another. Secondly, Prellwitz has shewn good reason for supposing that this is the primitive sense of iviavT6s, as being the moment at which the heavens are again ivl airm, ' in the same position ' the word represents not a period but an

And in the Gortynian inscr. ivMvTui actually means 'at the year's end.' wipa-poiriuv is in fact to be conepoch.

:

lAIAAOC B
evddSe
/jLi/jLVOVTea-ai.

(ii)

71

tw ov

veftea-i^ofi

'A^atow?
efji,7r7)<;

cuy^aXdav
TKr/Te,
•^

iraph,

vrjva),

Kopwviabv
eTTt

dXKa koX
6<j)pa

alcT'^ov roi hrjpov re fiivetv Keveov re veeaOai.
<f)lXot,

kol fietvar

')(povov,
koi,

Sa&fiev,
300

ireov

KaX^a?
ob<;
fir)

fiavreverai
I'S/iev

176

ovkL

60 'yap S^ ToSe
fidprvpoi,

iv\

^peaiv, ia-re Be Travre?

Krjpe^

•Xdi^d re Kot irpatt^

or

e^av Oavdroio ^epovaatA'^aicop e? AiXCBa I'rje?
:

297.

napci NHUc) KOpcoNiciN
MS. ).
300.
ft

juIunont' in\ ni^gcc'
299. kni
:

?

Zen. (uijuN6NTeccf rh
:

TrKriOvvTiKd, SvikQs iK<l>ip<jiv

Sri Zen.

Xp<Snon R™).

Ar.

A^R

:

ei

Q {A

supr.).

}(p6N0N XP'^NOU E (Ini 302. udpTupec Zen.-. xx6p||

Tupe Q.

303. St' Ic:

Bre R.

rpoir-fi, which from Hesiod onwards means the solstice. The sailing from Aulls must have been at the

nected witli

who hover about
The

solstice the action of the Iliad fixed as happening at the summer solstice exacth/ nine years afterwards. "With this time of year, of course, the pestilence sent by Apollo well agrees. So the epoch of the Odyssey is clearly
;

summer

the earth to carry off the spirits of the departing to Hades. cult of the dead had its origin in the wish to appease this malignant
:

is

troop.

Aisohylos fixed to the winter solstice. too, as Verrall has well observed, fixes the date of the Agamemnon to the winter
solstice

(Agam. 817 and p. xli. note). Evidently either turn of the year is regarded as the proper moment for a, Aischylos places great turn of fortune.
of Troy at the (cosmical) 'setting of the Pleiades late in October, four months after the opening of the Hiad.

the

fall

'

299. ^nl XP'^NON. as ix 407, f 193, o 494, etc. Zenod. In, "ain.0A.vws" (Schol. 3ac5jueN a non-Homeric form for A).
:

a pro303. ^eizA TG Ka) npcoYzd verbial expression, more common in the form irpii-qv re Kal x^^'i *s 1" Hdt. ii. 53 /u^x/Ji o6 Trp. t. k. x^^h until very lately. So Ar. Ran. 726 and Plato. There are three leading explanations (1) the principal verb is iip&vT) (308), but the construction of the sentence is virtually forgotten in the subordinate (pipovaai and the quasiclause hre iidap, and is parenthetical Tjixeh . In this case the resumed bv h6a. phrase is used to make light of the long duration of the war, 'it is as it were but yesterday, when,' etc. Or (2) ^v is to be supplied after wpm^d, 'it was a day or two after the fleets had begun to
. . .

Saelofiev.

Brandreth

conj. Flda/iey,

and

so

van L.
300.

choice between el and ft in the first clause of subordinate disjunctive questions is not easy. Generally speaking, MS. authority is for el and Ar. In a few cases (e.g. u. 175, t for ij. 95, T 525) ii^ is fixed by metre, or one would be inclined always to write ei as The ambiguity probin single clauses. ably dates from the earliest days of the written poems. Cf. ff. G. § 34i.

assemble in support this 180 rirpaTov
^iffas
I

Aiilis."

at

length,
Irapot

Nag. and Aut. comparing y
Ai.Ofi-^Seos
ixol

ij/iap ?i}v St' iv ' kprye'i vr^as

The

TvdeiSeoj
I

linro-

Sd/ioio
ijde

'i(TTaaav, "f

81 ^is Si

ianv
\

302. This is the only clear case in H. of the use of uA for oi) in a quasi-oonilitional' relative clause with the indie. 236, 2 3fi3 {ff. G. § Cf. 143, 338, The KApec, ace. to Rohde, are the 359). demons, originally themselves ghosts,
'

SvadeKari) St h "IXiov e[K'^\ov8a,. passages they quote for the omission of ^v are insufficient, for they are all in rel. or suhord. clauses. (3) Lehrs, Ar. ™' TpoiXi;& with p. 366, takes x^Tiyep., transl. vix cum Aulida advecti eramiis, turn (v. 308) portentum accidit. This is far the best the interpretation coincides with (2), ' when the ships had

The

"
;

H

been gathering but a day or two in A.' This omen cannot fail to recall the famous portent of the eagles and the hare in Agam. 115-20, told of the same place

and time.

lAIAAOC B
r]<^epedovTO
rjjj^el'i

(ii)

KUKa

UpM/jbcoi Koi Tpacrl
lepo\)<;

^epova-af
^eofiovf
305

8'

afi^l irepl icp'qvqv

Kara

epZofiev adavdroiai, reXijecrcra'i €KaTO/M^a<;,
KaXrjt,
\

viro

irKaTavicrrcoo,

o9ev peev ar/Xaov vBapSpaKoav eVt
'OXiifiirio';

ev6'

e<f>dv'tj

fieja

a-rj/xa'

vciyra

Sa<f>oivo<;,

~~crfiepSaXe6^ rov p
^oofjLOv

aiho^

^xe

<f)OCO(Toe,

inrat^a'i

irpof pa. TrXaTdvicrTov. opovcrev.

evda
oic%w,
eiiO'

8'

ecray

o^ta^ii'Tr'

(npmjBoto veoayoi, vrywia re^va, aKpordrwi, TreraXot? vTroTreTrrrjwre^,
fii^T'TJp

OLTop

evdrri

rjv,

r)

re/ce

reKva.


^

.

'

.A
J

#
315

310

6 76 Tov<; iXeeiva KarrjaQie reTpLiySnafi'
S'

'j,
''

fiiJTTjp

dfKheiroraro oBvpofievr]
•7rTepvyo<;
e<f)aye

(fiuXa

r^Kva'

TTjv

S'

eX,eXi^dp,evo<i

Xd^ev

du(f>i,a')(yiau._^
avTifjv,

avrap eVet Kara reKV

a-rpovOoio koX

307.
3'

PK

Pap.

^^eN: N^eN Pap. t6n* U. /3
:

CGQT.

du9inoTaTO XoucQN Ambr.^

314. G.

II

309. t6n p' : t6n 308. ^Noa q)i4NH Mosc. 1. 311. hie' 'icau 96ocde D. ipdcocae P^ (<f6ac'b& P^) 315. titIzontqc Zen. TCTpHr<aTac T6Tpur<2(Tac JPR 3" ^XisdjueNOc Pap. §. auipia316. idupdueNO Pap. jS^. 317. T^KNa ipdre Mosc. 1.
/S^.
||

:

:

CP

:

II

305. Not only was this spring shewn at Aulis in Pausanias' day, but part of the plane-tree (307) was preserved as a relic in the temple of Artemis (ix. 19. 7). 308. 3a - 90in6c 5afa-, for Sia<j>oivl>s, intensive. 159, is apparently for ipbvios, gory, i. e. blood - red. Of. tfjolvLov ff 202, <p6ivL^. 97, ^otvqeis
:

314. ^eeiNd, adv. with cheeping in piteous fashion.

TerpiyOras,

=

n

315. In the principal caesura the hiatus is licitus ; we do not therefore need Bentley's conj. d/i^eiroTar' d\o<pvpo' '

M

Eendel Harris (Homeric Centones

p.

4)

has called attention to the curious echo of this line in Rev. xii. 1, 3 Kal aiiiJ,uov
fji^ya

316. £Xe\isdiueNOC (the original e\i|ahas survived in Pap. ^, though perhaps only by a blunder ; see 530), 'coiling himself up for the spring.'
li£vos

A

&ip0Tj ht tG>l oiipavwi dpdKUJv fieyas irvppds, kt\.

.

.

Kal

l5od

an anomalous form. We djufiaxuToN have a root Fax, strong form Ftix in Frix'n,
:

Observe how the word t^kno 311. (and T^Kc) is repeated so as to give a sort of human pathos to the passage. Cf. 170, TT 217, and 6 248, 265, P 133 {riKos). Niinia especially emphasizes this association. Notice also the rimes, 311-3-5 and 312-4. This phenomenon, though not rare in H., is so sporadic that we have no ground for supposing it to have been in any case intentional, even if it was consciously observed.

pres.

stem ldxoi=FiFAx<''.
Faxvia,
5).

From
idvta

this

we

may
§

perhaps have a perf. part, without
like

M

redupl.
23.

n

Schulze

has

(H. Gf. ingeniously

(l)Faxov to explain the numerous cases where F is neglected, reading p-iya Fdxov, iwl di Faxov, iiriFaxov for /xiy' taxov ktK. Of this aor.
conj.
aor.
&li.tjii.(F)axowa.v, read by Ambr., would be the regular participle. The scholion of Herodianos on the accent of nrepOroc is characteristic irapo^vrdyios. Kal 6 p^v
:

an

st. vrr), as in 6 the only form found beside the pf. part, (v 98, f 354), other parts being supplied from the secondary

312. OnonenTH&Tec,
KaT-aTrTijTijx,

136

Kav(j]v 64\et TrpoTrapo^vrdvws,

(js

doidvKo^,
ruit

dXX'

iiretdi]

oOtws

Sokgl

rovl^eiv
lis

'ApurTi,pxo>i,

Trei66pe8a airwi

irAvv

stem

TTTTJ-K {irr-^CffOl).

apiffroji ypafj,p,aTiKwi.


lAIAAOe B
rov
.

:

(ii)

13
e(j}i]ve

fxkv

ai^riXov dyxev

9e6<;,

09 Trep

^
320

Xdav jdp
ij/iet?
ft)?

LLt^eOrjKe T^povov Trat? ayKvXofiyreu)otov iTvj(6r].\
eKaT6iMpa<;,

S'

IffTaoTe? 9avfid^o/iev,

ovv Beiva ireKapa Oeatv
S'

el(Trj\d'

KaX^^av
'tittt'
17/441'

avTiK

eiretra

OeoTrpoiricov djopeve'
;

avecot

iyivecrOe,
e<f>rive

Kapr] KOfiocovTe<; 'A^atot

fiev

ToS'

Tepa<; fier/a firjrUTa Zei;?,

oi^ifiov
ft)?

6-<^iTeKe<TT0v,

oov kXeo? ou

ttot'

oXetrat.

325

Kwrh reKV e^aye crTpovdolo /cal avrrjv, OKTw, drdp fJi,r)Trip ivdrT] ^v, ^ re/ce reicva, erea irr oXefii^ofiev a^di. ft)? fifjLel<; ToaaavT
ovTo<;
S'i'ZHXoN Ar. {v. Ludw. a(i loc.) Ambr.' (d(zH\oc 318. u^n: u^r' Vr. b. adHXoc Hesych.): detzHXoN Ap. Lex:: AtaHAoN Et. Mag.: dpizHXo^f 0: dpiSHXoN 319 'itfHNe : gaeise Q. eoHKSN Ambr.^ ficnep Bar. Schol. ad T 407. Zen. 322. &' om. 320 om. T'. aB. Ar. (An. says the line was added by Zen.). ufiN 324. ixlfi eeonpenecoN Pap. /S^. eeonpon»coN T^ (^ ras. T^) GST. Pap. /SP. 325. d^iiT^XeuTON Vr. b. K 06 (with hyphen) A (T.W.A.): 8 oO (?) Q. 328. toccoOt' : re 326. tIkn' ?9ar6 fi (t^kno G) t^knq 9(Src Ar. (?). noXeuisoueN G^QTi nToXejufzoueN DU TocaOx* GRS tocoOt C^DQ,T^. noXeuizoucN JPE, Lips. Vr. a.
||

II

||

II

II

m

:

:

||

:

:

\\

:

318. 6tzHXoN,

8n

(sc.

Ar.

marked the

dplirjKov,

line with the SnrX^ wepiea-Tiy/ihri, because) ZriviSoTos dplSriXov /cal rbv ypd<fia ^i/iCKOK (the next line) 7rpoir48riKev. t6 yap d,pidT]\oy ^701* ^fi^v^s^ 6irep airWavov.

him made
is

and would be 'god who created of him an evident sign,' which
(Cf.

comparatively weak.

however

tlie

fate of the Phaeacian ship, v 156 Beivai \lBov iyyidi, yai-ris vifi Borji iKeKov, ha
Baviid^uxriv UTravres.)

ykp iav irXaffrji toSto ivaipu (i.e. whatsoever a god creates, that he brings to naught again. But there seems to be some lacuna in the quotation). X^ei IxhiToi ye Sri 6 0i}»os avrdv 6e6s Kal ddrikov 4irolri(rer, Ar. It seems clear therefore that Ar. read iti^riXov (or dtSrjKoi') explaining invinble, and athetizing 319. dtSiiXos recurs several times in H., but always in the sense destructive, which will not suit here. The best course seems therefore to read diJi/Xoc, as phonetically equivalent to dtdriXov, but in a pass, sense, removed from sight Cf. &elSe\a. {dtj^TjXos d^avTO! M. Mag.). in- the same sense, Hesiod, fr. 136 (of Autolykos the thief) StH /ce x^P'^^ Xd|8eCic. , who (TKev, defdeXa vdyra rideaKev. translates 299-330 in Div. ii. 30. 63, took the word in the same way Qui luci ediderat genitor Satumius, idem
S
'

319. rejected by Ar., was known Cicero, Abdidit, et dv/ro firmavit tegmina saxo, and Ovid Met. xii. 23 Fit lapis et servat serpentis imagine saxum.
to

320. oToN here pieceded by davp-d^oiiev shews the origin of the exclamatory use,
e.g.

H

455

Si irdiroi,

ivvoalyai eipvaBevh,
'

where we must supply such the thing is a suppressed thought as marvellous, such as you have spoken.' The arguments See H. G. § 267. 3. there given seem decisive against the
dtov hiires,

parataetic origin of these phrases. 321. Cauer, with Cicero, puts a comma at the end of 320, and regards the line as an expansion of olov irix^Vt ' ^'^ the portent came in.' This, however, d<ies not

seem very Homeric but the connexion with 322 is also unsatisfactory as the Bekker and Nauck context stands.
;

Abdidit'

Hinrichs suggests

dtSrjKos

=

ever visible,

at det as in aCTrdpBevos (Sappho), and The sense often in Aeolic inscriptions. is thus the same as with the alternative

=

the line altogether. 80U doubtless an error in transcription for 80, an intermediate form of the gen. which has disappeared from Mss. but may often be restored with
325.
:

demn

'

74

lAIAAOC B
Twt SeKarmi Se iroKiv
Keivo<i
Tft)9

(ii)

alpi]cro/Mev

evpvar/viav.
330

dyopeve'

ra S^ vvv iravra reXetrai.
evKViifiiSe<;

aXX aye
avTOv,
(S?

/Mifivere

Trai'Te?,

A'^aiov,
eXcofiev.

619

o icev

aarv fikya YlpidnoiO
'la')(pv,

e(f>aT,

'Apyeioi Be fiej

afi^l Se VTJe^
^Kj(aiS)v,
335

CTfiepSaXeov Kovd/Bijaav
fjbvdov eiraivrjaavTe';

dvadvTwv

vtt

'OSutrcri^o?

deioio.

rola-i

Se Koi fierietTre Tepyvio^
rj

linroTa NecrT&)/3'

"

&)

'rroTTOi,

Sr)

Traicrlv

eoiKOTe<;

dyopdao'Oe

V7]'7ri,d'^ot<;,

oh

ov rt p^eXet iroXe^rjla epya.
;

TTTJi

Brj

crvvdeaiat re xal opKta ^rjaeTai ruiiv
Br)

ev TTvpl

^ovXai re jevoiaTo

fxrjBed

r

dvBpwv

340

330. TOJC Ar.

?

(The scholia are contradictory.
to Herod., o' 3>c to Ar.
;

Sohol.
aCiToi

TU give t^jc
H.

Herod., t6cc' to Ar.) : 3' iic K : e' 333. jueriaxoN Pap. /3'. 334. KONdfiiccaN J : kon^Bicqn Q. 336. £naiN^c(c)aNTec P Pap. a (enaiNe[ ) ^naipi^coNTec S. 337. Aropdacee Pap. ;8^. 339. Te om. S. 340. bk : ik G.
e' Stc to
||

A says 'ApiiTrapxos Sia tov t : the Et. Mag. and Anec. Ox. i. 234 give &c Herod. ? Q. bk : 3^ Q. 332.

:

confidence. So also in a 70, 208. See lines 518, 731,

n

and cf. and H.

fijs

time with the Homeric Enope, I 150).

G.

The

alternative

which makes

yepiivios

§98.
329. Toil on this use of the article with numerals see H. G. § 260 c. 330. Tcbc cf. g 48, e 271, where MSS. are divided between rcis and 0' &s. The word recurs only V 415, t 234, but has very likely disappeared by corruption in other places cf. on A 418. 332. The F of FiXuiiev is very doubtful in H. out of very many instances only one other (B 118) requires it and most reject it, though there is evidence for it from Elean inscriptions. Bentley
: : ;

only a lengthened form of yipuv is also known to the scholia. Another explanation,
liiri./j.os,

seems to imply a

der.

from ydpas.
old

The title is evidently so that the real meaning of it had been
Steph. Byz.

lost in prehistoric times.

mentions a village Tipriv in Lesbos, named from VipTjv tov TLocreLduJvoSf who may have had a place in the Neleid genealogy.
337. For the long a of dropdacee iTovieffdai 113, 288, etc., aSdvaros 306, etc., dvvafjiAvoio a 276, and other instances, which will be found enumerated and discussed in App. D. It is due to the ictus, and is confined to forms which would not otherwise suit the verse. dyopioixai occurs elsewhere in H. only in impf. and aor.
cf.

;

conj.

Fd\(jlj7]L.

335. For a participle belonging to the leading clause of a sentence, after a virtual parenthesis, we may perhaps compare A 153, where xaX/cwt drjidtijvres seems to belong to iirireis 5' lirirTJas in 151. But the construction is very awkward. 336. Pepi^Nioc is traditionally explained as a local name from a river or town in Elis where Nestor was supposed to have been brought up when expelled for a time from Pylos. The story is attributed to Hesiod (fr. 34, 35, Rzach), but Strabo p. 340 makes it clear that no Gerena or Gerenia was known to him, and that he regarded the supposed sites as fictions (cf. Pans. iii. 26. 8, who identifies the Gerenia of his
' ' ' '

338. For o6 a later writer would probably have used ixii, but the only instance in H. of such a use of /iij with the rel. is in line 302 (q.v.). oi5 shews that the claim is added as a general description of a class, while in 302 /ii) is used to make an exception to what the speaker has already said (H. G. § 359).
339. Cf. 286, Virgil Aen. iv. 426. For In nupi cf. B 215. He means of course 'all our oaths are so much useless lumber.

'

;

lAIAAOC B
(TirovhaL

(ii)

75

t

aKprirot koI Be^iai, ^t? iiriinOjjiev
ipiBaivofiev,

avrm<;

yap iweea'a
<rv

ovSe

n

/i'^%09

evpefievat BwdfietrOa,

ttoKvv •^povov ivOdK iovTe^,

ArpeiSr],
a,pj(ev

8

e^',

w?

irpiv,

e'^cov

dcTe/iK^ea ^ovXtjv
345

'ApyeCoiai Kara Kparepa'i
S'

v<rixiva<i,

Tova-Be
vo<r(f)iv

ea

<pdt,vv6eiv,
,

eva koX Bvo, toL ksv 'A'^aimv
8'

BovXevcoa
re

dvvai<i
irplv

ovk ecraerai aiiT&v,

irpiv

ApyocrS
et

levai,

Kot Aio? alyio'^oio
inrepfievia K.povbcova

yvcofievai
(fyrjfil

i|r6i)So9

viroayeai'; ei re xal ovkL
350

yap ovv Karavevaat

rjjj.aTi

Twt, ore V7]vcrlv ev rnxwopoiaiv el3atvov

Apyeioi TpcoeacTi ipovov Ka\ Krjpa <^epovTe<;, daTpdinaiv eVtSe^t ivaiaifia arjfiaTa ^aLvcov.
,

341. file : aTc GP. hi e' Q. 342. rap PR rcip ^' U. 344. &' 'ie' [A] iaxeuxfka P. 345. fipreioiciN iuih (pseudo-)Plut. 117. 40. 346. toOc 3' ea JQ. K€N : ixkn R (kcn Rm). BouXeijouc' Eust. 347. BouXeiiccoc' L Vr. a b A
: : :

\

|

|

aOxoTc Vr. c (Lips. supr.).
ffk Koi PR. aJN^cuia GR.
II

348.

||

oiKi Ar. (not oOxi)9i4N[ac Pap. (3^.

Sprocd' : Sproc Pap. /S^. kn fi. 351. In AJ3PQR
:

349. ei

re Kai;

353. eNafciJuia

341. SKpHToi, solemnised with unSee, however, as A 159. r 269, with note. Peppmiiller conj. S.KpavTOL here and in A but the Homeric form is axpaavTO!. cnoN^ai here includes both the literal meaning of ' libation and the metaphorical ' ratification of agreement.' desiai : handclasping as the sign of a pledge is mentioned Z 233, * 286. It is of course familiKr in later Greek ; e.g. Sepias ^^pety irapd tlvos, to bring a pledge from a man, Xen. An. ii. In^niejueN : for the rather rare 4. 1. non-thematic plpf. see S. G. § 68. 344. hcreixtfka: see Curt. Et. no. 219; ' lit. not to be squeezed {<FT4/i<pv\ov pre.ssed olives), hence unflinching, immovable, as r 219. only here and E 200 345. dpxe'ieiN with dat., as dpxeiv B 592, 107, iiyefioyaieLi' B 816, y 386, etc., iyyeiaBai 101 ; always of shewing the 71,

mixed wine,

;

'

=

Thersites cannot be said to take counsel vbaipiv 'Axoiw". 347. aiiTOjN it is hard to say whether this is masc. or neut. (sc. ^ovXevp-dTuv or the like). airSs is so rarely used of things in H. that the presumption is in favour of the former, which we must then understand to mean there will be no fulfilment 071 th^ir part.' This clause is parenthetical, Uvai depending on pov\eia<n. 349. eV TE eV re cf. note on 300. There is no authority here for ij re in the first clause and we have no right nor need to desert the tradition and write fjTe ij re (or ^^) with Bekker, though cfre there is no other clear case of eiVe
his friends
;
:

'

.

.

:

;

.

.

.

.

an indirect question, elre found even in Attic in similar
in
b-jTios

.

.

oiK is
^p8ov

cases, e.g.

:

iS7}LS
I

eh'

A

X

'

way.'
346.
right,

Soph. Aj. 7, note. In the purely hypothetical statement of a fact {el with indie, here IcttL to be supplied) el ou seems to be the original

^v5ov gIt' oifc where see Jebb's

ToOcBe,

if

the

reading

were

shew that Theraites is aimed at, not, as some commentators have thought, Achilles and Patroklos, for it must indii'are some who are present. But we must read with P. Knight Toi>s &' lae (of. on 165), and then the reference is clearly to Achilles and

would

and more natural construction, though it was afterwards superseded by ei p-ij by See note on A 160, force of analogy. For the preand H. G. §§ 316, 341.
dicative use of ijieOSoc cf. I 115. 353. itcrp&maN a very natural anacoluthon, the thought in the speaker's mind being Karhev^e Kpovluv. For the
:

76

lAIAAOC B
Tw
firi

(ii)

TLi Trplv eireifyeaOo)

olicovBe

veeaOat,
335

irpLv riva

Trap Tpatcov aXo'^^an, KaraKOi^Orjvai,
op/MTj/MaTa.

Ticraadai, S' 'EXej/j;?
el

re crrova'^a^

re.

Be

Tt?

exTrayXw? eOeXei oiKovSe veeaOai,,
rj<;

atneaOo)
o<f>pa

vrjo<;

ivacreXfioto

fj,eXaivr]<;,

TrpocrO'

aXXwv Oavarov koI
t'
iii

TTOTfiov eTritrirrji.

oKKd, dva^, auro?
Kplv
365.

firjZeo

Treldeo

t

aWcof
Aya/J-efivov,

360

ov TOi a/iro^XriTov eVo?
dvBpa'i

ecrcrerai,

orri Kev enrco-

Kara

(j>vXa,

Kara
:

^p'^rpa';,
^i.

nap

nep Ar.

356. b'

e'

Pap.

357. ieO^oi Vr. b.

361.

oOti

ilGHJP.

362. 9pi4Tpac t'

G

:

9HTpac JQ Vr. A.
a victim whose sufferings were to be The chief passages in H. are avenged. 5 145, 260, r 164, 399 ff., [i^ 218-24].^ See also Mr. A. Lang's note to Helen For the gen. compare SiX<>^ of Troy. T)vibxoi.a, grief for the charioteer, 6 124, etc.,
(ixos aiOfv

sense of I:ni6&ia (rather than iwl Sefid, 239. But Heyne cf. ivde^ia) see on rejected the line as jnade up from I 236 ; and the mention of such a vague omen is intolerably flat after the elaborate account in Odysseus' speech. When the line is omitted, Nestor also will refer to that portent. 355. TiNQ, as though eKaarov, like 382, 209, etc. much disputed line. It is 356. highly probable that Heyne is right in regarding it as interpolated here from 590, where the explanation is comparatively The x^pifoi'Tes of Aristarchos' simple. time took it to mean Helen's searchings of heart and groanings, and urged that this view of Helen's resistance to her abduction was peculiar to the II., while the poet of the Od. represented her as going willingly with Paris. Aristarchos replied, Uri ovk ^(Xtlv iir^ air^qs 6 \byos dX\' ^^uidev TrpdOeaiv r^v 'Trepi' Set \a^eiv, iv' fji. 'irepi 'BX^yijs.' The scholiast goes on, Kal ^artv b X670S, rifiupiav Xa^Giv dvd' &v ^arevd^afiev Kal ^fieptfiv^aafiev Trepi 'EX^J't/S' trapaXeiirTLKds (fond of omitting) yap irpoBitrtiiv ia-nv 6 Apart from the gratuitous n-otrp-'fi!. insertion of the preposition there can

M

A

169, xiS^O" vlo^

138, irivSo^

iraiSbs

i.Tro^Bi/i^i'oi.o

S

88,

and others

in

n

A

6pui4juiaTa recurs H. G. § 147. 1. it evidently means the only in 590 struggles of war, opfjAu and op/juiofiai being used chiefly of the rushes of close conflict. (In the alternative expl. we should compare bpixalvw, always used of
;

mental

effort.)
:

'

'

357. ^KHiSrXooc cf. |3 327 'ierai alvas, a curious parallel to some expressions of modern slang. 359. This line is a threat, 'let him so much as touch his ship, he shall immediately be slain before the face of the (The alternative explanation, rest.' ' he will start homeward only to perish

on the road sooner than the

others,' is clearly inferior.) 362. This tactical counsel, like the advice to build a wall round the ships in

be
if

little doubt that this view is right, the line is to be regarded as in place here at all. The sense is all the fighting a7id groaning about (caused by) Helen (not, of course, our (mental) struggles and groans of sympathy, as some have taken it). Whatever excuse might be found for Helen in the guile of Aphrodite, there can be no doubt that Homer represents her as having deserted her husband voluntarily as far as the outward aspect of her action went and she could not therefore be regarded by the Greeks as
' ' ;

327-43 (q.v.), is singularly out of place in the last year of the war ; it is the first of many such didactic passages put into Nestor's mouth, and is meant at once to present him as the leading counsellor of the Greek army, and to introduce the coming Catalogue. For 9pi^Tpac, ckcTis, lit. brotherhoods, cf. I 63 A<fip-fiT(ap : the word does not recur in H., but is only slightly disguised in the Attic ^parpla, and is used by Herod, i. 125, where, as here, some MSS. give
the form tp-riTpri, perhaps by confusion with the Dor. Trdrpa. So in Attic (parpla has some support from grammarians and late authorities (see Lex.).

H

lAIAAOC B
a)9
et,

(ii)

77
(J3vXoi<;.

(jip-^Tpr)

(f)pi]Tprj(j)(,v

apijyrji,

(pvXa Se

Si Kev

w?

ep^7]t<;

km

rot ireldcovTai

'Aj^atot,
365

yvaxj-rji

eTrecO',

o? 6' riyep^ovcov /caKo? 09 re vv
erjtcri'

^S' 09

K

ecrd\o<i
,

Kara

cr(pea(;

yvdoaeai S
rj

el

Kal 6e<nreai'qi ttoKiv
a(f)paSirji
7rpo(7e(j}T]

Xa&v, yap p-ayeovraf ovk aXaTrd^ea
Ayap^ep,p(ov

avBp&v KaKOTrjTi Kal
TOP 8
airapei^opevo'i
fiav

iroXipoio."
Kpeocov
^

avT ayoprji vikuk, yepov, vla<; 'Ap^atwv. ai yap, Zed re irdrep Kal 'Ad7]val7) Kal "AttoXXov, ToiovToi BeKa /u,oi, (7vp,<^pdZp,ove^ elev Ajyaimv
7)

"

370

Tw Ke Taj^
j(epcnv
{/(j)

r)fiv(Teie

7roX(9

Tipidp,oio dvaKTO<;

fjp.eTeprjicnv

oKovcrd re irepdop.evq re.
|| ||

363. 9i*TpH 9i4tph9IN JQ Vr. A. dpi^rei i)iPQS. 364. Spseic PQR Vr. 0. Kai coi G. neleoNrai CZ>HPQRT Pap. jSi Lips. Vr. b A, Eton. Mosc. 1^ 366. 8c T* Q. uax^oNTO Q : uax^oiNTO Schol. ad A 368. 370. JUl^N : ufiN G : uku
||

II

Par. ki.

II

dropHi

:

aperAi Schol. ad

B

350.

373.

Ke

:

aJ:

Pap.

^.

There can, however, be no doubt of the connexion with frater, etc. The word seems to be a relic of the patriarchal time when the family, not the tribe,

was the

unit.

363. 9priTpH9iN is evidently meant to be a pure dat., an unexampled use of the term. -(pai. The only alternative is to take it, with MoUer, as an (ablat.) gen., cf. N 109 &iMjveiv vriav, H 522 TraiSAs dfiivei,, etc., and then write tfiikwv for 0i)Xois. But as van L. remarks, we ought to hear that the object of the arrangement is not that dan may help elan, but that elansman may help dansmam. But all the military advice of which Nestor is the

man will have a motive for ambition in the glory which will accrue to his tribe or family from success. Cf. Quodque praecipuum fortitudinis incitamentum est, non casus neque fortuita conglobatio turmam aut cuneiim faoit, sed familiae et propinquitates,' Tac.
every
'

Germ. 7 ; ' Batavi Transrhenanique, quo discreta virtus manifestius spectaretur, sibi quaeque gens consistunt,' Hist. iv. 23. 367. eecneciHi, a substantivized adj., like many others in H. ; a/iPpoalri
dvajKiilri
IBeia,
tai]

Tpa^ep-fi

iyp'q,

and

spokesman is Athens under

strongly

suggestive

of

cases used as here adverbially, avTipirfv aTrpiaT-qv (see 99) aiJ,tfiaSi-qv (Ameis Anh. to a 97). There is no need to

A

Peisistratos,

who claimed

to be his descendant ; and here we seem to have an echo of the political reorganization so supremely important in the seventh century in Attica. 365. After each oc we must apparently supply K lijiffi. from the next line iim would almost make Nestor call in question the existence of brave men while insisting on the presence of cowards
;

rather yviiireXaL), as rNC&CHi (Ameis). In 367 the contraction is not Homeric. MSS. all read yviicreai with synizesis in Barnes omitted place of contraction. the 5' in 367, but it can hardly be dispensed with unless we omit 365-6 as a doublet of 367-8. cf. /iaxi/iV i"^f' 366. Karix cipiac 'they will fight ill' airiv iydi A 271, each tribe on their own account,' and so
: :

ellipse. dXandseic fut. in potential sense (cf. Z 71, N 260), or perhaps as taking up with some slight irony Agamemnon's despairing tone, oi ykp ^TL TpolT]f alp^ffofiev edpvdyviav 141. Bekker's conj. dXaTrdfeis is needless. 371. This formula (also A 288, 132, 97, and several times in Od.) gives a typical instance of the similarity between ' wishing-clauses,' followed by a paratactic clause expressing the result, and regular conditional sentences ; 371-2 stand independently as a wish, as the appeal to the gods and the parallel passages shew, but by putting a comma at the end of 372 we could treat them as the protasis of a regular conditional sentence. H. G. § 318. 374. Cpn6 xepcfN: this instrumental use of uTri with dat. is developed from
:

supply any

n

H

78

lAlAAOC B aXXd
/Moi
al'ylo'^o<;

(ii)

^povihr)<i
epi,Sa<;

Z€v<;

aXje

eBaxev,

375

o? fie fier

a-TrpijKTOv;

koX veUea /3aX\et.

Kot yap eyaiv 'A^tXev? re fia'^ea'adfied' eiveKU Kovprj<;
avTb^uoi<; eTreeaaiv, iyo)
el
B'

^p'Xpv '^aXeTrauvcov
oiiKer

Be TTOT

e? je filav ^ovXevo'Ofiev,

eireira
380

Tpcoalv
vvv B

dvdj3\7]cn,<;

kukov

eaa-erai,

oiS" rj^aiov.

ep'^ecrd^

em, Belwvov, "va ^vvdyco/iev "Aprja.

ev /lev Tt? Bopv drj^daOo), ev B

dairiBa QkaQw,

ev Be Tt? ev Be Tt?
(5)5

iTj-TTOtcnv

Behrvov Botco WKVTroBecrcnv,
dfi(f)l<;

dpjjbaTO'i

lBa)v

iroXefioio fieSeaOo),
385

Ke iravTj/iipioi aTvyep&i KpivcofieO' "Aprji.

ov yap iravdaXy) ye fieTeacreTai, ovB' rj^aiov,
el
fir)

vxi^

ekOovcra Btaxptveei

/levoi;

dvBp&v.
Kafielrai-

iBpa>(7et
da-'irlBo<;

fiev

rev reXafimv
nrepl

dfi<pl

<nrj6ea<^tv
X^'^P'"'

dfi(f)i/3poTri^,

B

eyx^i'

376. xe.bc
J.
II

:

Kpcrr^p' S.

||

IdcoKSN

:

SeHKCN Pap.
Ji
:

/3i,

Eust.

376. Juer'

:

kqt'

Anpi^Kxac S. 377. JUaxec(c)dxiEe' naiNeiN G. 383. ebKUn6poiciN Pap. ;8^. Pap. ^. 388. crrieccflN ACff PQE Vr. b

uaxHC<ijuee' Ar.
386. S>c re Vr.
a.
||

378. y^aKe-

c,

Mosc.
:

1

:

CTiieecci(N)

noNHuepfoic [i)G]J[S]TU
ras.).

Pap.

j3,

Ambr.

389.

nepi

:

napi H.

||

y^'sipa

x«^'P

^^ U^ (^a in

the local by a transition which is quite easy in phrases like the present, where subjection or ' falling prostrate ' is the leading idea in birb Sovpl ruireis, lyird
'
'

e5 diaBai. AirKa, to keep

Xen. Oyr.

Epigram
which
only

;

armour order, vi. 5. 3 ; e/s Sfipi.v iOevro 8Tr\a ap. Dem. 322. 6. 384. duipic : so MSS. Bentley d/upl,
;

m

667), iiTrcojt ijiro yXu/cepwi Taptrii/ieBa, the local sense almost fades
voOtTtai (pditrdat

(N

is,

n

however, found with gen. in H. 825, 6 267. Monro ff. G. § 184

away, but never quite disappears. Obs.' dXoOca, aor. of the moment of capture nepeou^NH, pres. of a continuing state. 376. iinptkKTO\jc fnUtless, not conducing to any result cf. U 524 ov ydp rts
;
: ;

comp. Att. irepwpSifMi with gen. =io look round after, take thought about (Thuc. iv. 124), and also the gen. with &fi<pifidxea-dai H 496, etc. ifupU with gen. appears elsewhere always in the sense
'aside from.' 385. KpiNcbueea, measure ourselves; cf. the same root in de-cern-ere, cer-tamen. From the primary idea of separation (by sifting, etc.) comes that of two parties standing in opposition. So diaKpiN^ei, part, 38^7 ; cf. 362, T 98, tt 269 /ihos KpivriTM" Aprios, <r 264, a 607. 387. u^Noc &NdpS)N, a periphrasis for 'brave warriors,' as /t^yos 'AXjctcAoio, etc. 388. reu virtually ^rao-rou, at least for purposes of translation, as in 355. must in the ne.xt line supply ns as subject to Ka/imrai. This passage may be added to those in IT. Cf. § 186, in

Trpij^LS

TT^Xerai Kpvepoio yboio,

/3

79

dTrpij-

KTOvs 6Bivas.

379. juioN, sc. /SouXiJy, to be supplied

from the verb so ? 435 ttjc 'iav, supply ^OLpav from Sce/xoipaTo, 380. ABai6N occurs only in this phrase, and always at the end of a line, except I 462 4Xd6vTes d' ri^aidv d7r6 airelovs. It would seem that some of the ancients
;

preferred to write oiS' ^ ^aidv or oi S^ The origin of the word and its relation to ^oi6s are quite uncertain. 381. suNdrcaiueN "Apwa, committere
^aibv.

=

We

praeUum; compare H
for similar phrases.

149, 448, II 764,

382. e&eco, not here in the later sense of 'grounding arms,' but place ready, bestow well, as I 88 rWevro Sbpira so
:

which

it

is

doubtful whether

irspl

is

prep, or adv. ( = exceedingly) ; cf. 289. For djuupiSp6TH see App. B, 1, 2, 3.

H

'


lAIAAOC B
(ii)

79
390

ISpoKTei

Be T€v

tTTTTO?

iv^oov ap/Ma TiTauvav.
/j,d'^r]<;

ov Be K
/MijMvd^eiv

eya)v dirdvevOe
iraph,

eOeXovra

vorjo-to

VTjval

Kopavlcriv,

ov ol evetra
olcovov^.
to?

dpKiov

io'creiTai
,

(pvyeeiv Kvva<i ^S'

W9 e^ar
aKriji i<p

'Apjeloi Be fiey

la'^ov,

ore Kvfia
395
XeiTrei,

v^riKrii,

ore

KivrjaTji,

Noto?
rj

i\Od>v,

irpo^rJTt a/coireXeof tov
iravToiav dvificov, or
dv(TTdvTe<s S'

S'

ov ttotc KVfiara

av ev6^

ev6a yevcovrai.
vfia<;,

opeovTO KeBaadevTe's Kara,

Kdirviaa-dv re Kara, K\.ima<; xal Belirvov eKovro.

aXXov
391. Aristot.

S'

dXXcoi epe^e 6eSyv aleiyeverdcov,
:

400

3^
:

k'

a'
iii.

Sn
11.

U

Ambr. Vr.
393. A&'
:

a.

|i

erco

Vr.

a.

||

leeXoNTa
398.
||

:

njciccoNTa
396.

Mh. N.
8n
r'

oiiV Q.
fi
:

396. kini^cei

CHPQKT.

rhn
Ar.

&'
ii
:

G.

397.
||

iccrAtrrec others.
:

riNunnai &p^ONTO

At.
:

nvis r^NHxai Did.
:

dNcrdNTCc

6p6uNTo C

6p6oNTo Cant.

cKedace^Nrec

Q.

II

KOTO

in\ Bust.

400. gpese Vr. b.

391. Noiicco

:

takes a partic.

;

in sense perceive voeh 'to think over,' 're' '

400. 'ipexe

:

the F

is

neglected as in
?/)efas,

T 150
ipeiov.

&peKTov,

*

570

u 458

member,' an

665, X 62, etc. 393. SpKioN, 'there shall be nothing on which he can rely, nothing to give him any well-grounded hope of escaping
infin.

B

the dogs and birds,' Buttm. Zex. pp. 502 vvv dpKcov ^ 163—4, comparing dTr6\4(r6at ^^ ffawdijvat. He deduces this sense from the verb ipKelv, through the sense 'sufficient,' 'able to help,' and thence 'that on which one can rely.' So K 304 /uffObs d4 oi S.pKi.os icrai, his reward shall be certain (see, however, note there). The passage of course means he shall certainly be slain and left uu\

'

here eleven consecutive lines the trochaic caesura, which is commoner than the penthemimeral in H. (about 54 "5 per cent of the lines have it in M. and 58 per cent in Od., see Van L. Ench. p. 14 note), and was perhaps originally invariable. For the genesis of the Homeric hexameter reference may be made to a very interesting paper by F. A. Allen of Cincinnati, in Kuhn's Ztsch. xxiv. 558 (1879), where it and the Saturnian verse, as well as the typical old German measure, are traced back to

From

have

buried. 394. On ebc Sre without a finite verb see L. Lange EI pp. 134, 234, where it is compared with the similar use of is e^ He argues that there is no in similes. need to supply any ellipse ; the Ike is

o» a time,' and is, It seems more likely, however, that there is an unconscious ellipse see M. and T. § 475.
really indef., 'as
strictly speaking, superfluous.
;

a common origin still found as a metre Another view is in the Zend-Avesta. taken by Vsenei, Altgriechischer Versbau. He takes the original form of the hexameter to have been a couplet of which the second half had an anacrusis, long
or short

— ^7w — \j^ —
I I

v-*
[I

I

recurs A 462, 132, 362, 679, 406, S 219, 471, 571, <[' 712, For the e 281, X 368, t 494. simile itself of. 144 and 209. 397. 6n6ucon : for this use of the gen. cf. V 99 dv^/iwv Sv<Ta^wv fi4ya Kvixa, A 305 viipea dftyearao TSbroio, and t 411 vovaov r^NooNAt6s, a sickness sent from Zeus.

The construction

M

^\-^\-^\-^\\
and of
that
this traces
'

N

H

doubtful length he holds
still

remain in numerous

Tai

:

sc. (S>/f/ioi

(but Ar. thought Ki/iara,
yivijTai,).

neglect of F' and other irreguBut larities after the trochaic caesura. the evidence is not decisive enough to raise this above the level of an attractive hypothesis ; and it gives no explanation of the importance of the bucolic
oases of
diaeresis.

and some actually wrote

80
ev'^o/jtevo^

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

avrap

6

Odvarov re (jivyelv koI fiuiXov 'A/37;o?. ^ovv lepevcrev ava^ avBpuv AjafiefJ-vcop
'

iriova 7revTaeT7)pov virep^evel
i

JLpovKovi,

KiKk.T]<TKev

Be <yepovTa<; apiarrja<i Hava'^ai&v,
/jjev

irpamo'Ta xal 'IBofievrja avaKra, Atavre Bvco Koi TvSeo? vlov, avrap eKTOv B' avT 'OBva-TJa Ad /Mfjnv ardXavrov.) avTOfiaro^ Be ot rjKde ^orjv dyaOb^ Mez/eXao?"
Neo-Topa
eVetT'
rjiBee

405

jap Kara

Ovjmov dBeX<j}eov,

o)?

i-jroveiTO.

^ovv

Be TrepicrrrjaavTO

Koi ovKo'^vTa<; dveXovTO.
Kpeotov

410

Tolaiv B' ev'^6/jLevo<; fierecfyr) " Zev KiiBiare neyiare, K€\aive^e<;, alOepi vauwv,
p/r)

Ayafie/Uyvav

irplv

eir

rjeKiov

Bvvat koX

eiri

Kve^af e\6eiv,
OvpeTpa,
408. oi
:

irpuv p,e

Kara

irprjve';

/SaXeeiv TIpid/j,oio fieXadpov
irvpo';

aiOdXoev, nvprjaai Be
406. Biio

Brjioio

415

PQE.

407. 6' om. D. 415.

||

aCe" C.
Ti.<n
:

re G.
tov \

409. Sus[i. e.

pected ace. to Ath. p. 177. < KOdicre ju^ricre > An.
Kal al 'Apia-rdpxov Did.
||

412. Iv

y^ypairTai zeO ndrep KdHOEN ued^coN
Sia,

eiipcTpa

npHCai iv raU irXdarais ju^aepa Pap. ;8^
:

nXwcai],

409. 6aeX9E6c is the only Homeric (of. B 21) ; so dh>Speov, never SivSpov (cf. however on T 152). But 410. nepicTi^caNTo, so all Mss. the aor. mid. is always transitive in H. S 533, i 54 (see A 480, /3 431, etc.). ((TTTjo-d/OCToi S' ifidxovTO /J-a-xv) are ambiguous, but no doubt are also trans., as

form

Herod,

also

says

(rrijaaadaL

ttoX^/hous.

Bekker conj. ircplffrriffdv re, followed by most edd. so also in /i 356, But possibly the word may cf. A 532. have some old ritual significance now

Hence

;

lost to us.
vove<j>rjs,

oOXox<iTac,

A

449.

412. KeXaiNCfec, apparently for KcXaiThe god of the black cloud. epithet is also applied to blood, duslcy, of the second element the significance having been weakened a phenomenon familiar in the Tragedians but very rare

that irpiv was originally long by nature (Cretan vpeiv, Brugm. Gr. ii. p. 406). For juii with in fin. expressing a prayer see JS. G. § 361. /i^ appears fundamentally to express the idea away with the thought that,' 'let us not suppose that,' and may thus be properly used with the infin. without the need of supplying any ellipse of 56s or the like. Cf. r 285, 179, p 364, where the infin. expressing the mere thought indicates, by the form of interjectional utterance, a strong wish and also the use of the infin. as an imper. The idiom is common in later Gk., e.g. Aisch. Sept. 253 ffi
'

H

;

Beol TToXiTai,

fii]

fxe

SovXetas Tvxetv,

and

inH.
that the sun set not upon 413. us,' a pregnant expression which is virtually an anticipation of the iiri immediately following, and may be compared with Eph. iv. 26 6 tIXios fj.ri iinSv^Tw See also ^tI TUJt TrapopytfTfjLuJi. ipAJcv. 487 Tpwrriv ii.iv p aiKovnv iSv (j>6,os. Some have, without necessity, conj. It or 7' La R. thinks that the in place of iir' word was inserted when it was forgotten
kn\,
'
:

other instances in M. and T. § 785. (It is virtually a case of the use of /iij without a finite verb, such as we find in A 295 and bre |i^=' except' see Lange EI p. 162 (468), where the key to the question is given.) 415. nup6c for this use of gen. see H. G. § 151 e, where it is classed as a ' quasi - partitive use, as though the idea of material used implied a stock drawn upon so 410 vvpbi /leiXurffinev, Z 331 irvpbs Bipyai.. npficai, A 481. di^Yoc with irvp, in the lit. sense blazing, conn, with Salu so G 217 irvp K-fjKcov {Kala). See note on I 674.
; : ' ;

H
:

'

: :

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

81

'X^oXk&i

^KTopeov Be '^iT&va "jrepl cTijdea'a'i Sat^at pcoyaKeov •iroXee<; B a/j,<l> avrov eralpoi TT/ST^vee? ev Kovoriicnv oBa^ Xa^otaro yaiav. w? e^ar ovB' apa ttco ol iireKpaaive TLpovicov,
,

dXX' o 76 BeKTO fiev ipd, irovov S' afiejaprov oipeWev, avrkp eTret p ev^avro koX ov\,oy(yTa<; irpo^aKovTO,

420

avepvaav pkv irpSiTa koX ea^a^av koX eBetpav, i^erafiov Kara re KVKyqi eKaXvyjrav firjpov'i T
BiirTV)(a rron^a-avre';,
eir

avTwv

B'

mfioderriffav.
425

Kol rh fiev ap

crj(L^rii(Tiv

acfjvXkoicnv KareKaiov

(TTrXdyxya

B'

ap' dp.ireipavTe'i vireipe'^ov 'Yi-^aiaToio.

avrap

iirel

fiia-TuXkov
m'TTTTjo'dv

Kara firjp' eKar] ical CTrXdyy^y' iirda-avTO, T apa raXka koI d/j,(f} o^eXoiacv eireipav,
430

T€ 7r6pKf)paBeco<; epvcravTO re Trdvra.

avrap eVet iravcravro trovov rervKovro re Balra,
Baivvvr,
oiiBe

ri

6vfio<;

iSevero Satros

e[a-rj<i.

avrap eirel Troffto? Kal iBijrvo'i e^ epov evro, Tot? apa fivOcov ^px^ Tep'^vio<; linrora l^ecrrmp' "'A.rpetB7j KvBia-re, ava^ dvBpwv Ajdp^e/Mvov, fiTjKeri vvv Br) ravra Xeydtfieda, firjB' en Brfpov
'

435
^neicpaiaiNe
:

416. adTsoN
U.

H.
:

419.
!S

IncKpdaiNe Pap.
||

a.

:

^neKpdaNG Pap.
||

|3

:

420.

o re
:

de Q.

n6NON

:

<p6non Et. Gud.

npofidXoNTO An^Xonto GS (cf. A 449). at Pap. ^i. gaHpaw Q. 423. Te aO gpucoN fi dwIpucaN J (of. A 459). Kar^KijON J. 426. cnXdxNO P. KNiccH(i) GZ)PQE. 425. 6<piiX\Hci Q. iu.neipaNTGc G Eust. 427. uflpa (Ftol. uHpe) k^h kqI cnXdrxNo ndcaNTo Ar. 433. toTci hk S. 435. 5fl TaOra Zen. dHeauTa cnXdxN' P. (cf. A 464) itk nOn aOei Kallistratos aOei Ar. fi (Pap. jS^) SAt" aOei CP'R Pap. /3i uMdi [u.k hi) ti AHJQST. ik aOei others.
Ar.
421.
:
||

huArapron dXfocroN 422. aO^pucaN AG
:
|| ||

||

II

:

:

:

hM
;

:

||

417.

al/juiTdevTa.

^ooraX&N, proleptic as II 841 But aieaX6eN, 415, seems to
;

other shews that he ceiving Agamemnon,

is

deliberately de-

be a standing epithet of the hall

see

421-4
69. 426.

=A

458-61

;

427-32

=A

464-

X239.
419. The correct form lineKpdaiNe is preserved here by the papyri, and in B 508 by P. xpatalvu is a mere figment, a supposed case of ' Epic diectasis ' of. &KpadiiTov, KeKfidavTai. KpcUvu a,nii Kpaalva are related as Kpar- and xpaar-, head ; cf. dvo/JiaT- : dvo/j.ali'O (van L. Mich. p. 494). 420. Ar. read iXlaa-rov as a \^^is i/jupavTiKorT^pa, but the litotes in iuUrap;

= BoKaaaa 97, "Ap?;? = ToKe/ios
0X0765 'H0.
435.

'HqjafcTOlo = irupis, as 'A/i^irpir^ 'AtppoShi] = eiv^ x 444, /t

passim.

Cf.

I

468

'

TON is thoroughly Homeric, cf. X 400. Hentze points out that elsewhere a god either accepts the sacrifice and fulfils the That Zeus prayer, or refuses both. should accept the one and deny the

of Zen. given in the the only one consistent with Homeric usage cf. N 275, 292, T 244, Ar. explained the vulg. aSBi. etc. bneii voXiiv xpli'""'t o^oi airoS, thus Xerc&ueea <Tvpa8poi.{'difi.e8a, 'let us not now long remain gathered here,' which is unsatisfactory enough, though it takes account of the fact that X^eo-flai is never used absolutely in H. = Jo cojirerse. The

The reading
;

text

is

80

:


lAIAAOC B
afji^aWdifjieda epyov, o
Br)
(ii)

'

:;

0eo<;

iyyvaXl^ei-

aXK' aye

icrjpvKe<i

fiev

'A'^ai&v j(aXKO')(^iT(ovtov

Xabv
ij/iet?
io/j,ev,

K7]pii(j(Tovre<s
S'

ar/eipovrav
,

Kara

vrja<;,

aOpooi mSe Kara errpaTOV evpxiv
ijeipo/iev o^vv
'

'A')(at,u)v

o^pd Ke Baeraov
,

Aprja.

440

w? ec^ar ovS" airiOrjO'ev ava^ avhpSiv axniKa KTjpvKecrai, Xtyv^doyyoiai iceXevae
Ktjpva-a-eiv TToXe/jLOvBe

Ayap^p/vmv

Kapij KOfio(ovTa<; 'A^atou?,
coKa.

ol fiev eKrjpvacyov, ol B'
d/i(^'

toX B' rjyeipovTO fiaX

'Arpeicova BioTpe^iev ^acriXijei
AOrjprj

445

Ovvov Kpivovre<;, p,eTa Be yXavK&TrK
alylB
T»7?
e')(ov<r

eptn/iov,

ar/rjpaov

aOavdrrjv re*
rjepeOovrai,

exaTov dvcravoi

irary^pva-eoi,

(supr. oi L) : ^rruoXlsHi 436. IrruoXizei Ar. Aph. Ap. Ehod. A : SrruaXisei 444. xApuccoN S 442. K^Xeue GQ Vr. V. 440. ireipoucn PET. Vr. a. 448. Aep^ONTO Zen. iKi^puccoN Q. 447. AriipooN Ar. Aph. : dri^peo t' PK. GHJQEST and A supr. (T.W.A.).
difficulty in the text,

alteration

and

which led to the this strained interpreta;

explained
left on,

by Reichel (ffom.

Waffen,

p. 69) as a Xaitr^ioy or skin

with the hair
d/ji,<l>tSd<reia,

how can Nestor talk about 'continuing this conversation' when no for this the words must mean conversation has been mentioned ? Epic practice forbids us to understand it of the conversation 'which had naturally taken place at the table, though the poet And does not mention it (Buttmann). though it is true that /iijK^ri does not necessarily imply that the conversation has begun (Gildersleeve in A.J.P. vii. The p. 271), yet ravra clearly does so. key to the whole crux is to be found in obvious when fact, which seems the pointed out, that the words of Nestor here really belong to his former speech,
tion, is obvious

whence the epithet

'

This skin 309, covered with hair. shield is the primitive form, superseded in Homer for the heroes by the solid shield overlaid with metal, but still carried by the common folk. But from its antiquity it remains as the divine armour. There is no ground for supposing it to have been of metal, except
that
in
it is

made by Hephaistos the smith

in place of 362-8, which are coudemned on so many grounds, and that they have been displaced to make room for The only that awkward interpolation.

question

is

whether we should simply

replace 435-40 after 361, omitting the

But the smith in his capacity of armourer may well have undertaken leather as well as metal work, and the mention of the golden tassels here and elsewhere in any case gives a reason for the intervention of the metal-worker. The Biaavoi are presumably a fringe with pendants, serving at once to adorn the edge, where the hair alone would make it look ragged, and to protect it where it was most liable to wear. So a belt is finished off with tassels in S 181. These
309.

formal 434 and making some little alteration in 441, so that it may follow directly on 432, or whether 362-433 are not an interpolation altogether. Either alternative seems admissible. 447. For the aegis see also A 167, E 738, O 308, P 593 ; it clearly symbolizes the storm-cloud, and as such belongs Apollo wields it properly to Zeus Athene here, E 738, 318, 361, fi 20
; ;

pendants developed

later,

under the

in-

fluence of the Gorgoneion, into the snakes of Athene's aegis in classical art. firii-

paoN and deaNdrHN being co-ordinated by re are epexegetic of iphi/iov.
448. Aep^eoNTai : so Ar. Zenod. -ovto. is quite in place in describ;

The present

S

204,

*

400.

It is

no doubt rightly

ing the immortal gear of the gods see a striking instance in B 726-8 compared with 729.

:

lAIAAOC B
trdvTe'i

(ii)

,

83

eu7r\6K669,

eKaTOfi^oio'i Se e/eao-ro?-

crvv TTji •jrai<f)dar(70va-a

hieaavTO Xaov 'Ay^ai&v
1

450
,.i
',''''"'

OTpvvova
KapSbtji,
Toicrb

Uvai-

iv Be crdevo<; &pcrev eKciaTai
Trdkefiu^eiv ^Se

dWrjKTOv

fid'^eadai.

'J^'t-

B

d<f)ap 7ro\e/to? yKvKCcov yever
<f)LXr)v

^e veeadai

iv vrjVffl ykaipvprjco'i,
rjine irvp

e?

trarpiBa jaiav.
455

dtBrfKov etn^Xiyei acnreTOv vXrjv

ovpeoi iv Kopvtfyrji^, exaOev Be re ^aiverai avyrj,

W9 T&v
Tcbv
^Tjvciv
A<rt6)

ipj^o/jbevoav

d-rro

ycikKov BecrireaLoio
al6epo<;

aiykT) Trafi^avocoaa Bi
S',

ovpavov

Ike.

w?

t'

opviOcov iTereTjvSiv eOvea irofCKa,
r}

^ yepdvcov
iv
\ei,/j,S)Vi,

kvkvcov BovXt'^oBeipav,

460

J^ava-rpLov d/j,^l peeOpa,
irTepvyecrcri,,

evda Koi ev0a iroT&VTai dyaWofieva

451. JKcicrou (pseudo-)Plut. 136. 41. 452. Kpaaim CGPQRT. SXhkton CZlGrHJPQRU. 464. rXa9upoTci Q. 456. Kopu(pQ G KopufRci Q KopufoiNero P. 9aic Par. d ^k KopufRc Vr. a,. 457. t&nB' Vr. a. 458. nauSkc H. 460. aoXuxoBcfpcoN Q. fcmdecca H. 461. icfco Ar. Ptol. Ask. dclooi CG. 462. n^oNToi (p3eudo-)Plut. 14. 38. Herod, fi draXXdueNa 6raXX6jueNai CZ)JPQTU: Ar. AGHRS (mpr. ai) Harl. a, Eton.' Vr. b c A
||

:

:

:

||

|1

:

||

:

drciXX6uaNai Pap.

/3

:

ueNoi

(sic)

A™

(T.W.A.).
the characteristic use of 3^ re in similes (456 and 463) to introduce an additional touch, often, but not always, containing the tertium comparationis. 461. 'Acico so Ar., who regarded it as the gen. of a proper name 'Ao-fas (for 'Ao-fcu), said to have been a king of Lydia. So Herod, iv. 45 koX toijtov iiiv fieraXafi^ADovTai toS oivS/uiTos Avdol, ^d/xevoc iirl 'Aa-ieoj toD K6ti;os tou Mdi'ew Ke/cXiJirSai tV 'Kcrlav. Virgil, on the other hand, clearly read 'Ao-fwi
:

450. nai9dccouca, dazzling, here and 803 only, perhaps by intensive reduplication from a secondary form of root <pa-, tj>av- (cf. inipaiaKui). 451. 6TpONouca, clearly not by words, but by her invisible presence and the supernatural power of the aegis. 455-83. The accumulation of similes has given much offence to critics, and most edd. reject one or more. But each is vivid and Homeric, and refers to a particularly striking point in the aspect of the Greek host the gleam of their weapons (455-8), the clamour of their advance (459-66), their countless number multitudinous unrest their (467-8), Then follow two describing -(469-73). the leaders in general and Agamemnon The effect is that of a in particular. majestic prologue, and would be greatly enhanced if the direct action of the

E

^^^^^

^^

^^

^^

circum Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur [prata Caystri.
Georj.
i.

383.

Ceu quondam

Cum

nivei Uqnida inter nubila cycni sese e pastu refenmt et longa canoros

"''^ ^'^°^- '*™^' """^^ ^'
'°'''^\^l''l

^'^

pujga palus.—^m.

vli. 699.

followed on immediately, and were not interrupted by the Catalogue. The mention of the Trojans in 472 particularly requires that the two armies should be actually face to face. fi'taHXoN,

poem

lit.

'making
;

invisiblej'

l^avl^wv,

i.e.

destroying cf. note on SIS. 456. For this use of ^KoeeN, where we say 'to a distance,' see II 634. Observe

This is the only passage in the Iliad indicating knowledge in detail of any part of the coast of Asia Minor beyond the Troad. 462. draXX6jueNa, perhaps here in the primitive sense (root ya.\ to shine), 'preening themselves.' The variant

Greek but

&yaX\6ij.evac would be perfectly good for the masc. irpoKaei^ivToiv

84

,

lAlAAOC B

(ii)

KXwYjrjSov irpoKadi^ovrmv, afiapa'^el Se re

Xeifi(ov,

w? Twv edvea ttoXX^ ve&v
e's

airo koL

KKicndmv
465

TTeBiop

Trpoy^eovTO

%Ka/j,dvBpi,ov,

(TfiepBdKeov Kovd^i^e ttoBwv
ecrrav S'
fivpLoi,

airap inrb j(dcav avruv re Kal Xinrav.
'yiverai,
(oprji.

eV Xeifiwvi, %Kap£ivhp[(ot, dvOefioevn

oaad

re

(pvWa

koI dvOea

qvTe jjbvidmv dhivdwv edvea iroKKa,

a" re Kara crraOfjMV
wptji

-Troifiv^iov

TfKdaKOVcriv

470

ev elapcvrji,

ore re 7X0709 dyyea Bevei,
Kdpnj KOfioa)VTe<;
Ay^euoi,

Toacrob eirt
ev
TreSicoi

Tpmeaat

laravro Siappalerai,

fiefiawre'i.

Toil?

B',

W9 T aliroXia irKaTe aljoov
/C6

aiiroXoi,

dvBpe<;
475

pela BtaKpivwciv, eVet

vofiSit /Miyemcnv,

w? T0V9
vcr/MivrjvS'

'^yefiove<;

BieKoerfMeov

ev6a Kal ev0a
Att repTriKepavvai,
eirXeTO Trdvrcov

levai,

fierd

Be Kpeicov 'Aya/Me/wcov,
l.'/ceXo9

ofifiara Kal Ke(j}d\,^v

"Apei Be

^covrjv,

crrepvov Be lioaeiBdavt.
e^o'^o';

rivre /Sou9

dye\rj<pi /Mey

480

463. Xeijuicon

:

rata ap.

Did.
;

(Ar.

objected

that

the final short syllable

465. npox^QNTo weakened the sound of the line Sehol. T.) KQudNdpiON G JLT (pos< ros.) Harl. a^, Lips. 466. KONdBHce S. Kajjjcoiiplai C (post ras.) GVQ'T {post ras.) B.a.Tl, a}, Lvps. Pap. j3^. H. reiNcrai &pH A™ (T.W.A.). dSpHi : yp. fipi L (Tnan. rec).
II II ||

E

{m,pr. o).
,468.

||

467. ^ncton

90X0

469.

uudcoN

PIPU.
/3
:

470.
:

AXdcKOUCiN
||

re ire G re am. HR. PRtr. 476. Toijc r' G.

iXdcKONxai Pap. p. 471. <5t6 re : Stg i)k Pap. 8eOH PR. 475. SiOKpiNouciN GJ diaKpiN^cda(N) 477. ucue[iNHN Pap. a. 479. Spfit re Harl. a.
:
:

in the next line. van L.

noToiNTai: irirovTai

471 also recurs.

striking simile of the fly in
'

Homer has another P 570.

463. npoKaeiz^NTCOH, a pregnant expression, ' keep settling ever forwards ;

the whole body moves forward by the continual advance of single birds who keep settling in front of the rest. cuaparet may here, as in the two other passages where it occurs (210, * 199), be taken to refer either to bright light or loud noise, but the latter is generally adopted, and suits the simile best.
465. 6n6 must go with -roSCv, the gen. indicating a transition from the , ° , „ f , to the causal meaning 01 the prelocal position. Of. S 285 xo5S. C^o with T ••"""•• 363 To<r,Tly.
, .

471. It has been noted that this simile implies that only sheep's and goats' milk was used in Homeric, as in modern Greece, cattle being employed beasts of draught ; and further, that

^

was obtained only in the the natural breeding - time of wild animals, instead of all the year round by an artificial stimulating life, ^n was om. by Bentley because of the *'"" ''
the

milk

spring,

,

.

.

. spaces over which they range,


a
fpijf

°l/J'''''xZL^^i " 1^?;^^ t^jn „'«>.„ ti.
s girdle.
:

^"'^/'''l'*''"
-a

^^^^

.,

M

.

oof 4. ZT',' ^^*' *^' 7°""^''
woman

1 elsewhere ^""^f^* used only of

T

4

f h
H

469. ddiNdcoN, busy. See on 87. The simile indicates both the multitude of the Greeks and their restless eagerness for their object ; cf. 641-3, where line

n

480. SnXero for this use of the aor. in similes as virtually a present of. 4 etc. ; and for 6o0c TaOpoc cf. aSs Kdwpos,
dp/cos {v 86), ippiBes

alyvnoi (H

59).'

lAIAAOC B
Tau/50?'

(ii)

85
wypo/jbevrjca-i,'

o 7a/3 re ^oecrcn fieravpeveo

TOLOV ap
eKirpetre

'ATpeiSrjv 9rJKe Zeus ruian KCivcot,
iv irdKKol<ri
fioi,

koX e^o'^pv r^poueacnv.
'OXvfj/rria
tcrre

e<nrere vvv
v/jL6t^
rfp,ei<;

fiovcrai,

Smfiar

e'^pvcrai,

yap

OeaL eVre irapecrTe re

re irdvra,
'iSfiev,

485

he KK,io<; olov aKovofiev ovSe

ti

o'C

rivei rjy6p,6ve<;
8'
/jboi,

Aava&v xal
fiev

KoLpavoi rjaav.
ovB'
ovofirjvo),

•jrXrjOvv

ovK av ijoi

iwdrjcrofiat,

ovS'

e'i

BeKa

yXaiaaai, heica 8e arofiuT
8e /Mot rjTop
eveit],

eiev,

(f)Q)vr)

8'

dpprjKTOi;,

^aXKeov
fiovcrai,,

490

el

fiT]

'OXu^TTtaSes

Ato? aljoo'^oio
inro "IXtov fjXdov.

Ovyarepei;, fivqaalaO'
ap')(ov<i

ocroi

av vqiav epem
CGffQ.
a,Trb

jnjdv

re Trpoirdaa'i.

481. arpou^Noici 484.
~fp.

482. fip'

:

3'

H.
||

483. eOnpen^'

S

(supr.

ex.).

KoX gNcnere

toS 6<lcncTe Schol. T.

6Xlijuinia dfiOUaT*

6\ujunid3ec BaeiiKoXnoi Zen. 485. ndpecre kq) Yctg 6 : 487. Placed before 485 in HJ (the same order indicated by letters in Ven. B) : om. 490. cpcoNi^ t' Bekk. An. 771. 489. eTen : fieN Cram. An. Ox. iv. 318. C.
21.
II

£x°"''" • napAcre nvh An.

SpHKTOC PQR.

493. fipxoCic rip

aO

Q.

483. It would hardly be possible in Homeric language to join noKXoTci with

ApcbecciN rather ' pre-eminent in the multitude and excellent amid warriors.' either a redupl. aor. for 484. gcneTE ai-av-ere, or more probably for iv-a-ir-ere (which some read, v. supra), root <reir =
: :

sek,

our say.

The

pres. lvveire=ii>(TeTre,

Lat. insece {virum mihi, Oamena, insece versutum is Liv. Andr.'s translation of The a 1 AvSpd (Uoi ivveire, MoOcro). other aor. forms all take the full form of

488. For 6n with aor. subj. as apodosis to a clause containing el with opt. cf. A 386, and the equivalent fut. indie, 317 (so ^o-o-eiToi with Sre iut) i/i^aXoi., I 388, and other instances in M. and T. § 499). Possibly tivB-Zia-oiMi. is fut. indie, and ivoii,-l)voi is independent of i,v, as in A 262 oiSk iSufiai. &v here seems to enforce the contrast, see H. G. § 276 h. Virgil imitates the passage, G. ii. 42, Aen. vi. 625.

N

Observe the ndpecre, either 'are present at all that happens,' or ' stand at the poet's side.' The Muses are particularly appropriate in such a place as this, for they are goddesses of Memory (MoOira = Movrja, root inen ; see Cart. M. no. 429), though the legend which made them daughters of Mnemosyne is post-Homeric. Cf. Virg. Aen. vii 641.
the prep. in-<nr-eiv,

rime

fnoSa-aL

etc.

^x"""''''-

490. firop, Lat. animus, primarily of as here; then, as most comThough the monly, of the passions.
vitality,
it

word probably comes from Ha to breathe, would be quite against all Homeric use to understand it, as some commentators have done, of the lungs,
492. juNHcaioro,

made mention

of,

as

npon(Scac, all 5 118, o 400. to end ; so irpSTav fiiiap, etc.

from end

BoicoTia

A KordXoroc NewN.

The Catalogtte of the Ships, as modem critics have almost unanimously recognized, was not composed for its present place, but has been adapted to it. The phraseology throughout suggests a description of the assembling of the host iu Aulis, such as ApoUonios Rhodios gives at the opening of the Argcmautica, rather than a review of the army before Troy. Expressions such as &yi »^as, vies ianxioivTo, are out of place when used of ships which have for ten years been drawn up on land. When circumstances have changed, as with Achilles, Philoktetes, Protesilaos, the adaptation to the Uiad is made in the most superficial manner. Moreover, the Catalogue does not agree with the Iliad in the names of heroes and tribes. Not merely do many tribes, cities, and heroes named in the Catalogue not reappear in the Miad, while cities named in the Jliad (e.g. the whole list of I 150-52) are not mentioned in the Catalogue ; but the whole perspective of the Catalogue is entirely different from that of the Iliad. Here Boiotia takes the first place, both in order and in the number of cities named ; elsewhere it hardly receives a passing notice. The Arkadians, never named again, here bring the large contingent of sixty ships ; and so with many other cases. But it has been pointed out by Niese that all the heroes named in the Catalogue played their parts in other portions of the Epic Cycle. The conclusion is that the Catalogue originally formed an introduction to the whole Cycle, and was composed for that portion of it which, as worked up into a separate poem, was called the Kypria, and related the beginning of the Tale of Troy, and the mustering of the fleet at Aulis. Another point essential to observe is that in the Catalogue alone the localization of the heroes is consistently carried out. Elsewhere in the Iliad they are heroes of Greece at large, not of particular towns, save as rare exceptions, notably Odysseus and Idomeneus. Agamemnon himself is only three times brought into connexion with Mykenai (H 180, I 44, A 46), Aias once with Salamis (H 199). Diomedes never has a kingdom at all, but is called an Aitolian, who has had to flee from his home. The whole Catalogue contains an appropriation to the different Greek states of the heroes of Troy. This can hardly have been founded on old local tradition ; for it is noteworthy that few Trojan warriors received local honours in Greece proper ; Diomedes was worshipped in the cities of Italy, Achilles on the shores of the Black Sea. It would seem, therefore, that the partitioning was not carried out till after the early days of colonization. Moreover, it is clear that considerable difficulty was felt in the apportionment. Though Agamemnon is 'king of all Argos and many isles,' the realm of Diomedes is carved out of his kingdom of Argos and contains the chief island. Achilles receives only three towns, one of which (Trachis) is in Lokris, and should therefore belong to the Lokrian Aias ; another (Alos) is in the very middle of the towns ascribed to Protesilaos. The Phthians are followers of Philoktetes and Protesilaos, not of Achilles, in 686-99 cf. B 695, 704, 727. So the towns given to Eurypylos (734 ff.) lie in the midst of those of Eumelos ; indeed, as Strabo notes with astonishment, the Fountain Hypereia given to Eurypylos lies inside the town of Pherai which belongs to Eumelos. Philoktetes has the towns in Magnesia, but the Magnetes, who are expressly located in the same district, come separately under Prothoos. So again the towns given to the Lapith Polypoites are all Perrhaibian, but the Perrhaibians appear separately under the leadership of Gouneus. All these difficulties, it will be seen, occur in Thessaly the rest of Greece is at least not discordant with itself, though the name and city of Eurytos of Oichalia are transferred bodily from Thessaly to the Peloponnesos. So far as the Catalogue goes.

N

;

;

lAlAAOC B

(ii)

87

therefore, appearances are decidedly against the theory which has lately found much support, that all the heroes of the Iliad were originally Thessalian, and had been only at a later date spread over all Greece ; it seems that it was precisely in Thessaly that there was least clear local tradition. It is impossible to discuss here the historical questions raised by all these perplexities. It must be sufficient to point out that on the whole the author of the Catalogue studiously preserves an ante-Dorian standpoint. It is only in one or two slight indications that he betrays any knowledge of the change brought about in Greece by the Dorian invasion. The clearest of these is the presence of the Herakleid Tlepolemos in Rhodes, with the characteristic three-fold division of his people. And Thucydides long ago pointed out the difficulty caused by the presence of the Boiotians in Boiotia ; for according to the legend they settled there only twenty years before the Dorian invasion, and sixty years after the fall of Troy. He concludes that an iiroSaaiibs must have come in advance of the main body, and taken part in the Trojan war. It seems hopeless With our present means to give even an approximate date for the composition of the Catalogue. There can be little doubt that some of the material at least is old, though in its present form it must have been worked over at a late date. For the unmistakable traces of Athenian influence see

the Prolegomena.
canonical position held by the Catalogue in Greece in matters of inter-state best illustrated by the famous story alluded to by Aristotle {Shet. x v. ), that the possession of Salamis was disputed between Athens and Megara, and after a war was referred to the arbitration of Sparta. The Athenians urged in their pleadings the evidence of B 557—8 {ol iikv odv iroKKoi twl X6\coyi trvvayuvicraa-BaL Xfyovffi ttjv 'Ofi.-qpov S6^av' ^fi^aXoVTa ykp ainhv ^iros gIs vewv KardXoyov dirl ttjs SIktjs dvayviovat' Alas S^ kt\, Pint. Solon x. 2). Schol. B adds other instances, saying that Abydos gained Sestos from Athens by quoting 1. 836, that Miletos gained Mykalesos from Priene by the aid of 868, and that Homer ' presented Kalydon to the Aitolians, in a dispute with the Aiolians, by mentioning it in the Aitolian Catalogue (640). There seems to be no independent confirmation of any of these stories, however. It will be seen that the Catalogue is arranged on a sort of concentric system, the enumeration passing from Boiotia NW. to Phokis, then E. to Euboia, S. to Attica, W. through the islands to Mykene and Sparta, Pylos, Arkadia, Elis, and Then a fresh start is made with Crete, and a the Western Islands and Aitolia. round is taken by Rhodes and the Sporades (no mention being made of the Cyclades) to Thessaly, which ends the list.

The
is

law

'

Boicoria

H KardKoroc necon.
ripj(ov
^

BottBTWi'

fjbev

HrjveXea^ Kal Aj^ito?

^ApKea-iXao'; re Ti.po6orjva)p re KXovoo<; re,

495

o"

&

"Tp(r]v evefiovTO

Koi AvXiBa irerprjeaa-av

%'Xpiv6v T6 %K(oX6v re iroKvKvqfiov t '^remvov, ©ecT'Treiav VpaZdv re Kal eipv'xppov MvKaXrja-a-ov, 0% T 0% T
a/A^' "Apfi
ivi/jLOVTO

Kal EtXecrtoj' Kal 'EpvOpai;,
Uereayva,
500

'SlKoKeTfv

'EXeav elxov MeSewj/a

^8' "TXtjv Kal
t',

ivKn/Mevov irroXUdpov,
@icr/3r)v,

KaJ7ra9 ^iiTpr^criv re 'TroXvrprjpcovd re
o'l

re K.opdovetav koI iroirjevd^
re TlXdraiav
ff
e')(pv
rjh'

AXuaprov,

01

ot

TXiaavr
dyXaov

ivefiovro,
505

oX

"Trrodrj^a'i
0"

el^^ov,

ivKrlfievov irroXiedpov,
dXao'i,

'Oyyrjffrov
o'l

lepov,

Yioaihrjiov

re TToXvcrrdcjjvXov 'ApvTjv ej^ov, oX re MtSetai"

nvii Sohol.
865, 25.

496. oV eupiHN 494-877 om. DTXJ Pap. j3 (506-877 added in {7 by later hand). 497. no\uKNHJLJ.6N : noXiiKpHUN6N Bekk. An. A (v. Ludw.).
498. e^cneipahf P.
||

e<ip<iyfiipou
:

GHJP.
;

500. eT)(ON

:

<!3koun P.

||

ju&CHN Zen. b&Bhn P. 502. efcBHN 503. noirieNr' SXhn J {yp. BXhn). 505. unb ei^Bac CJPR Strabo (and oi irXeiovs Eust.). dMapTON PR. 506. 507. dpNHN QcKpHN Zen. Ivioi ^coc ScTu Sohol. Ap. Rhod. iii. 1242. rdpNHN ap. Strabo, p. 413.
: :
:

496. The available information about the following towns will be found in Frazer's Pausanias vol. v., viz.
p.

Hyria Thespeia Harina 62, Erythrai 140, Mykalessos 66, 2, Eleon 65, Kopai 131, Thisbe 162, Koroneia 170, Haliartos 164, Plataia 8, Glisas 60, Onchestos 139, Arne 208, Mideia 567, Anthedon 92, Aspledon 195,
:

68,

Aulis 72, Skolos 21,

180. 502. noXurpi^pcoNa : Chandler was led to the discovery of the ruins of Thisbe (near the coast of the Corinthian gulf) by the number of pigeons which haunted them, as they do to this day (Frazer v.
p. 162).

Orchomenos

505. TnoeABac, apparently meant for a lower Thebes in the plain, an offshoot from the great city which we are to regard as still lying waste after its destruotion by the Epigoni. 506. For the grove of Poseidon at Onche.stos, and the curious customs connected with it, see Eymn. Apoll. 230, and Allen J.H.S. xvii. p. 247. 607. No Arne was known in Boiotia in historical times, the only known Arne being In Thessaly. Strabo takes this to be the prehistoric name of Ptoon, Pausanias of Chaironeia (Frazer v. Zen. read 'AaKp-qv, but Ar. p. 208). objected that Hesiod's birthplace, x"/"<»

lAlAAOC B
Ntcrai/ re

(ii)

89

^aOeriv 'AvdriBova t

icr'^aToacrav
ev he eKacTTTji
510

rSiv fikv irevTrjKovTa vee<; kLov,

Kovpoi BotfflTwi' eKarov xal e'lKoai ^aivov.
oi
S'

'AcTTrXT^Sova valov
A.(rKaXa<f>o';

IB'

'Op'^ofievbv M.ivveiov,
vle<;

T&v

yjpx

koX

'IaXfievo<;,

"AjOt/o?,

ou? reKev 'Acttvot^t;
irapOevo'; alhoir],

Sofjbcoi

"Akto/309 'A^etBao,

virepmiov elaava^acra,
6

"ApTji

Kparepwc

Si ol irapeXe^aro XdOprjf

515

T0t9 Se TpirjKOVTa

yXa^vpal
li-^eBlo<;

vee^ ecmypaiVTO.
'"E'7ri(rTpo(j>o<;

airap ^coKi]av
vlee<;

icaX

?]pj(ov,

'Icpirov /j,eyadv/j,ov NavySoXtSao,
e'^ov Tlvdatvd re

ot K-VTrdpta-crov

irerprjecraav
TiavoTrrja,

K-plcrdv re
ot
01
o'l

^a6e7]v ical

AavXCBa kol
TdfnroXiv
eiri

520

T
T

'

AvefimpeLav koX

dfj,(j)evefJ,ovTO,

apa Trap
S'

TroTafiov K.7]<pi(70v Biov evaiov,
'7r7]j'fji<;

T6 AiKaiav e-^pv

K.'i](f)i,aolovfje<;

T0t9
01

afia TecrcrapdKOvra fieXaivai,
^(OKr](ov crrt^a?
B'

eirovTO.

fiev

laracrav

dfi(f)i,eTrovTe<;,

625

^oicormv
508.

efnrX7]v

eV
:

dpiarepd OcoprjcraovTO.
^apdc re xaoiac
ap. Strabo.

nTcon

:

NiccQN

HPS

Tc6n, KpeOc<liN, nOci^n,

511. acnXHadu' ^NOioN

CGJQCA

Eton. Mosc.
i2
:

1,

Vr. b (-nXiiSoN").

512.
||

toon:
518.

t«n8' Cant.
617. (pcoKl^CON

516. ToTc Ar.

TcbN
:

A

(supr. oic)

HPRSK
:

TpiiiKONTa G.
520.

ulcc 6S.

II

and 9C>>KeiuN Ar. Six^s 9CiJki4con H [supr. ei over <k). aiBoXOao J (post ras. yp. NauBoXidao J™) NauoXOao Bar.
,

KpiccQN

P

(second c inserted)
II

QS

Eust.

||

dauXida
||

:

nvh

dNOKpida Schol. Soph.

nciNoniia: naNomia>N{i)Zen., dfierpov iroiavrbvcTTlxoi' (An.). 521. O.T. 7SS. kh9icc6n PQK 522. 8p R. SBqinon L (P' ? eorr. Tivh iNeucbXeiaN Strabo. KH91CC0T0 PQC7 Strabo. 523. nHraTc G. 524. 5' om. P. to Snoion). TerrapdKONra L. 525. ScracoN CP (corr. from ScracoN) S TeccepiiKONTa A ScraN R.
|| ||

||

:

:

KaK-^, Bipei. dpyaX^r/,

could not be called

n-oXva-rd^vXas.

The Thessalian Arne was

the original home of the Boiotiaus, aco. to Thuc. i. 12. 508. lcx<rT6a>caN, as lying on the No Nisa in Boiotia was Euboic sea. known in the classical period ; hence the The conjectures recorded by Strabo. name suggests Nisaia, the port of not named this territory, ara elsewhere in the Catalogue, may once Cf. Pans. have belonged to Boiotia. i. 39. 5 T^t ir6Xei M.t-ya.pa (tvoiw. yeviaBai,
;

'E/)xo/iec6s cf. note on 605. Ares was the tribal god of the great tribe of the Minyai, and hence the two chiefs claim descent from him. 514. aidoJH, there was no dishonour in the love of a god. imep. eicoN. goes with tcke in the sense conceived, as 742.
:

wp&repov N/trai Ka\ovfihr]i. 511. The territory of the Minyai was For Orchoafterwards part of Boiotia. menos see I 381. The local name was

184. 518. 'l9fTou read 'Ii/>/roo by a certain restoration ; the second syllable of the name is short, see P 306. For this form of the gen. see ff. O. % 98, and for lengthening of the short vowel before initial ju, § 371. 519. Kyparissos, ace. to Pans. x. 36. 5 the later Antikyra. Pytho is of course Delphi. For Krisa see Frazer Paus.
:

Compare

n

:

90

lAIAAOC B
Aoicp&v B
/j^eiciiv,

(ii)

^yefJLovevev 'OiXrjo<;
rye
'6(T0<i

ra^v?

Alfa?,

ov Ti Toao'i
rroKii

T!eXa/M)vto<; A?a?,
eijv,

dWa

fieCmv

oXiyo'i fiev

Xcvodwprj^,
530

ey^eir)i S' iKeKaaro HaveWrjva'; koI A^^atoi/?' ot K.vv6v T ivefiovT OiroevTo, re l^aXKiapov re

^rjaadv re SKapfprjv re koI Aviyei,a<} ipareivaf Tdp(priv re ®p6vi6v re ^oaypiov dfi(f)l peedpa'
rcoi
S'

afia rea-aapaKovra fiekaivai vfje^ eirovro
ot vaiovcn irep-qv
lepi]<;

AoKp&v,

'Ev/Soit;?.

535

"A^avrei;, oi S' 'Eu/Sotav ^X°^ fievea irveiovre'i XaX/ciSa r Elperptdv re 'iroXvard<f)vKov 6 Icrriaiav
K.'^pivOov r
o'i

e(f>aXov

Atou r
ot

alirv irroXueOpov,

re K.dpvcrrov e'xpv ^8'
'^yefiovev

"Zrvpa vaierdeaKOV,
540

rSiv avd'

EXe^i]va>p o^o^ "Aprio<;,
'

lLaXKO)Sovri,dS7]<;,
rSii
S'

fieyaOvficov dpj(p<;
6ooi,

A^dvrcov.
KOjMocavre'i,

a/x'

"AySai'Te? eirovro

oinOev
(i.e.

527.
&9.

&Y\hoc

Ar.

ii

:

6 'IXfloc Zen. G.

528

528-30) dd. Zen.

529-30
:

Ar.

529. ueizcoN
i.

gXXHNOc Schol. Thuc.
Zen.

3.

b, Mosc. 1, n6XiN Q 536-7. oY d' eCBoiaN ^x^" >'<'' x°^'^° n^poN G. t' icriaiaN A (e elperpioN ts Strabo. 537. xoXkO' Ip^peidN xe Steph. Byz. icriaiaN A", T.W.A.). 538. Ki4pie6N PQR. 539. NaiETdecKON QR NaierdacKON Q. 540. tiSn 3' GQ. aO G. 542. Tcbl : TtbN J.
: :

GPR Vr.
:

6n' XiNoecbpas CGQ. 530. nONEXXHNac oY Te kunon In. G. 532. BRcdN 531. KiipNON L. T<aN G. 535. cBAccqn C Eton. 534. Tcbl Laud.

H.

||

||

n^pHN

'<''

:

||

||

V.

Hyampolis

Daulis 222, Panopeus 216, 442, Lilaia 410. 528-30 were rejected partly on account of the obvious tautology, partly because of the word FlaN^XAHNac, which implies the later extension of the name of the Thessalian "EXXt^kes to all the Greeks. XiNoecbpHs, which recurs in 830, seems to mean wearing a linen chiton instead of a breastplate. Paus. saw such linen 'breastplates' at Olympia (vi. 19. 7) and elsewhere (i. 21. 7, with Frazer's note) ; cf. Alkaios, fr. 15. 5. Iphikrates armed the Athenians with linen instead of metal breastplates to make them more rapid in movement ; and this agrees with the character of light infantry and bowmen which is attributed to the Lokrians in 714, but is hardly consistent with the praise of Aias the Less as a spearman ; in 712 he, as a hoplite, is separated from his followers. He does nothing in actual battle to justify the praise in 530.
p.

459,

535. n^pHN, over against, as XoXxiSos Ag. 190. It might, howeyer, mean ' beyond,' if we suppose that the poet's point of view is that of an Asiatic Greek. 537. 'Icriaian, trisyllable by synizesis, as Alyvirrlas I 382, 5 83. Of. 'lariatcis
iripav Aisch.

'

'

&vi$riKev at the beginning of a hexameter in an inscr. from Delphi where, however, we should naturally have supposed that the diphthong is shortened
/i'
;

before the following vowel, as in olos 275, YatiJoxosHes. Theog. 15, etc. 540. Szoc "ApHoc, commonly expl. scion of Ares, ef. (pvos sprout, thence child, Pind. and Trag. ; so Qijacida ifw 'M-qvCiv Eur. Rec. 125. But it is far

N

more probably explained by
(Q.
{&-

Schulze

N

E.
6S6s

p.

= &im,
:

cf.

N

498) as companion, follower on 765, -f- = (rS-, *sed, root

of

cf.

Hesych.

6fe(a

ScpdTreta,

Sofor
rijs

iirripiTai).
:

542. BnioeN kojli6contcc t4 iTrio-w jn^/n; /ce^aX^s Ko/iavTes dvSpeiai X'^P'"- ^Siov

;

' :

lAIAAOC B
at'XJJ/rjTal,,

(II)

91

/iefiaS>Te<i

opetcTrjicnv fieKirjocn

ffmprjKa^ pi]^eiv Srjtcov a/x^l (TTrjdeaart,-

Twt
o?

S'

cifia

TecTcrapaKovra fieXaivai
A.6rjva<i
elj(^ov,

vrj€<;

eirovTO.

545

S

dp

ivKrifievov TrroXUBpov,

Brjfiov

'^pej(ffrjo<;

iieyaXrjropo<;,
re/ee

ov iror
^el,S(opo<;

'ABijvr)

Ope^e Ato? OvyaTTjp,
KaS
S'

Se
eajt

apovpavrj&i'

iv

A^jjT/T/t?

elcrev,

ivl

'ttlovi

evOa Be
Kovpoi

fitv

ravpoia-i koI apv6iol<; tXaovrat

550

Adrjvaicov ireptTeSXojjbe.vaiv
Tjr^efiovev
vlo<i

iviavr&v

T&v avS"

TLere&o M.eve(rdev<;.
||

543. 6peKToTci

549 om. Pap.

a.

\\

^i4cceiN Strabo. cTi)eec9i(N) PR. 544. ecbpaicac F. Q. dei^NH P Aei^Naic G. In! : 4n ACHQS Eton. Laud. Vr. a b.
||

:

||

||

NHcb

:

di^uco

P

{yp.

nh£^i)

R

:

NaiSa

U

{supr. h).
1|

650. IXdcKonrai

P

Vr.

A

iXdoNTO S mpr.
5^

652.

t&n

3*

CGJQ

Eton.

aO

G

Eton.

toCto t^s tux 'Ei^oiiiiv Kovpas, t6 tAs rplxas ^affetas ^X"") Schol. A. So of two Libyan tribes, oi /j^v Md^Xiifs tA diricroj KOfieovffi ttjs Ke^a\7Js ol 5^ AOaees
6iri<r$ev

rk

Ifiirpoirffe,

Herod,

iv.

180.
;

Compare

dpoipas f 10. In a still earlier stage Sij/j,os indicates a yet more complete communism, meaning the common stock personal of wliat we should call property, e.g. t 197 SrnibBev, A 704
'

h

533 the Abantes themselves seem to have been a Thracian Herod, i. 146. tribe, Strabo x. 445, These seem all to indicate that part of the head was shaved according to a tribal fashion, such as is familiar to us in the case of the Chinese, whereas the usual
epiJiVes d/cpiKo/ioi

A

Sijiiov,

and P 250

SiJ/iios,

A 23l

drifio^Spos,

S 301 Karadri/io^opTlaai. (Mangold in Curt. St. vi. 403-13.) 548. T^KE Spoupa is of course parenthetical an allusion to Athenian autochthony and 'Aflijn; is the subject of ela-e. The temples of Athene Polias

— —

Greek practice was to
;

let the hair

grow

long all over the Kdpri KopJiavres 'Axa^oL being thus distinguished from many or most of their barbarian neighbours.
Sir A. Lyall's description of chief, 'girt with sword and shield, and having the usual tail of clansmen with their whiskers knotted as over the top of their heads particular about his eponymous ancestor

and Erechtheus were always under one roof. So 71 81, where Athene repairs to
Athens, she duvev ''EpexSijos TVKivbv SS^ov. This of course means that two different worships, one presumably pre-Hellenic, had been fused only the character of Athene and the pride of autochthony alike precluded the usual device by which the older hero or god was made zeiScapoc, the son of the Olympian.
;

Compare

the Rajput

.

.

as if he were a {Asiatic Studies p. 154). 543. Strabo aptly refers to this line in connexion with the curious compact between Chalkis and Eretria in the

Dorian

Herakleid'

graingiver, from feid, nIoNi, course, life - giving.
the
offerings.
;

not,
sc.

of

with

Lelantine war,
544.
It

Ti)Xe;86\ois

pJr]

xp^'^^ai.

seems necessary here to scan otherwise the dHtcoN as an anapaest See note on line is SoiSeKatriWapos. 1674. here in the strict local 547. Bhjuon It probably comes from sense, realm.
;
:

for cows and 550. JuiN, Erechtheus ewes were offered to female goddesses. The festival where these offerings were made was the (annual) lesser Panathenaia,' in honour of the two founders This naturally finds of agriculture. mention in the poems whose final redaction it appears to have occasioned. 552. riCTCi&o, gen. of Xlerec^j, as S 489
'

root Sa- of Saiu and means the common land of the tribe apportioned for tillage among the tribesmen, as is still done in the Slavonic village communities 422. So Nausithoos iSiaaar cf. on

JlifveXeoio.

The three following

lines

M

were rejected by Zenodotos, as was 558 by Aristarchos also, in obedience to the persistent tradition, evidently founded on truth (see Prolegomena), that they


92

lAIAAOC B
Twt S
^ie^Tcop
rati
S'
oi5

(ii)

TTfo

Tt? 0/MOio'; iirf^^^doviof yever

avrjp

Koafifjo'ai,

iTTTTOv^

re koX dvepw; aairihiwTa'i'
6

olo<i

epi^ev

yap

Trpoyeveo'Tepo'; -qev.
z^jje?

555

afia irevTijKOVTa fieXaivai
8' 8'

etrovro.

A'ia^

eK ^aXafuvoi ayev SvoKUiSeica vfja?'

aTTJae
oi

dywv

%v

^

A.drjval(ov

"(navro

<f)a\ayye<;.

8'

"A/370? r

Epfii6vr}v 'A(rl,V7]p
553-5
8' L.

Tlpvvdd re rei'^^ioea'a-ap, T6 0advv Kara koXttov ey(pv(ra?,
elj(ov
554. KocuHcat e'

560

de. Zen.

553. &' om. K.
:

PR.

555. N^cTCop

557.
a,

area duoKaidEKO
a).
||

Tivis

Bre TpicKaiSeKa Eust.
:

558 om. AH'fT
iffirep oiic

Pap.

Cant' Vr. b {Heurlarparos irapiypaipe rbv

(ttIxov tovtov ivravBa,

cipiaKu TOis KpcTiKols Par.

YeraNTO

criicaNTO L.

560. ^pjui6nhn t'

PE.

||

dciHN Certmnen Horn,

et

Hes. 282.

were an Athenian 'interpolation.' They must, however, be regarded as an integral portion of our (Attic) text. Herodotos mentions them (vii. 161), and Aiscbines {Ktes. 185) quotes the inscription set up by the Athenians in honour of the victory over the Persians at the Strymon, beginning
^K
TTore
TTjffSe

But no doubt the whole story
arbitration
is

of the a fiction, and the Athenians

Strabo force of arms. evidently doubts the tale (ix. 394), ol ft^v odv 'A.B'qvaXoi TOLa&njv riva aK^jxpOfrdai.
fiaprvpiav
Trap*

won Salamis by

'Ofi'^pov

SoKodcrtv

ol

5^

Meyapsis dvTnrapioiSTJo'aL
Aias
d'

airroTs ovtojs'

iK

2a\a/uvos

S,yev

veas

iK

re

Tr6\7]os

&fi'

'ArpeldTjiffL

XloXlxvris

Meveadeiis
TjyeTTO ^6,d€ov
8j/

§K t' AlyeLpodaffTis

'Nta'alTjs

re Tpnr6d(i}v re.

TpwLKbv
^ipTj

h/j,

irediov,

Trod'

"Ofi.ijpos

/^avawv

irvKa
fioXetv.

XO'^KOXt-TlhvitlV
KOfffiTp-ijpa

pt^dxv^ '4^oxov

dvdpa

There can be little doubt that they have ousted an older version of this part of the Catalogue, in which the various independent demes of Attica, especially The Eleusis, were mentioned by name. praise given to Menestheus in no way In corresponds to the rest of the Iliad. A 326-48 Agamemnon depreciates him, and he is named again only M 331, 373, N 195, 690, 331, always among secondary heroes. There seems to have been no genuine Attic legend about him
at
all.

from this that the Attic version had supplanted all others at an early date, and that the Megarians had no authentic version of their own, but could only suggest what might have
It is evident

stood here. The fact that the line cannot be original is patent from the fact that Aias in the rest of the Jliad is not encamped next the Athenians, see A 327 ff., N 681. Indeed, the way in which the great hero is dismissed in a couple
of lines, without even his father's name, sounds like a mocking cry of triumph from Athens over the conquest of the

Here again criticism attacked the text at an early date (see Prolegomena), and seems, from the number of Mss. which omit the line, to have affected the tradition inprae-Aristarchean times. But the text was certainly current in the time of Aristotle, who alludes {Mhet. i. 15) to the story about the arbitration with Megara, to which the line is essential. According to this, Solon and not Peisistratos must have produced the interpolation as existing in the already established text.
558.

island of the Aiakidai. No line in the Iliad can be more confidently dated than this to the sixth century. 559. Teixi<5eccaN: the Cyclopean walls of Tiryns are as great a marvel at the present day as in the time of Homer. But this is the only mention of the town in H. ; the fame of it must have died out long before the end of the Mykenaean epoch. 560. Karexoiicac, enfoldiTig the deep (Saronic) gulf. The word applies of course to the territories, not the cities.
' '

There

is

ixoiirai

no sufficient analogy for taking by itself as intrans. = lying. The
viz.

Argive domain,

that centring in

;

lAIAAOC B
Tpoi^ijv
o'i

(ii)

93
'^irCSavpov,

'Hi'ova? re Koi a/MireKoevT

T

6%oi'

Aijivav MacTT/Ta re Kovpoi

A'^ai&v,

t5)v

av0

riyefioveve l3orjv

dyadb'i Ato/ijjSTj?

Kal %deveXo<; K.airavtio'; aryaKKetrov <^tXo? ut05'
TolcTi

K

afi

^vpvaXo<; TpiTaTO<; Kiev,
rjyeiTO

It7o0eo<;

(fxoi,

565

M'jjKKTTea)? utos TaXaiovtSao dvaKTo<;.
avfj/irdvTOJv
S'

^orjv d'yaQo's Aio/mtjSi]^'
t/tjcs

Tolai
dl

S"

afi

oyBwKOVTa fiiXaivab
el'x^ov,

eirovTO.

Se Mv/ciji/a?

ivKTi/Mevov iTToXiedpov,

d<^vei6v re JLopivdov ivKTi,fiiva<; re
'Ojoi'eta?

KXewvaf,
eparetvrjv

570

r
,

eve/iovTO
off"

'ApaiOvperjv t

KoX '^iKvmv
o'i

dp" "AS/si/cTTO? irpSiT

ifi^aalXevev,

6

"Tirepr}(Tiriv

re koX alireivrjv Tovoeacrav
rjB'

Tle)CKriV7)v

t

et'xpv,

Aiyiov dfKpevifiovTO

t* ap. Strato p. 375, Cert. Horn. 284 and yp. J. 563. After this is added TuSeidHc oO narpbc gxc>»< u^noc oiNeidao 566. cOpiinuXoc Cert. Horn. 288. 566. uhkict^oc [AG]J in Oert. Horn. 286. 568. After this £n d' Swdpec no\4uoio daituoNec £ctix^conto, dpreToi {supr. co). 571. 6pNeidc : 6pNeidc J. XiNoeo^pHKEC K^NTpa HToX^oio Cert. Son. 292-3.

562. oY t' ^X*"*
3'

nhc6n

TUN

CGQ.

II

aO G.

||

||

dpaieup^HN
II

t'

:

t"

om.

JP

:

napaieup^HN t' Zen.

572. ciKuc^Na
:

PQE.

||

Sp*

^BaciXeucN QRU: ^BaciXeuccN CGS ^uBaciXeuceN aapacroc GU^. om. PK. OnepeidHN Q?/ {supr. 573. OnepHceiHN GHJ Pap. o, Eton. Lips. J Lips. Vr. a. OneppaciHN Schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 176. roNdeccoN : doNdeccaN before h) Peisistratos,' ace. to Pausanias vii. 26.
||

:

'

:

||

the ptoiTi of Argos,

is split

into a western

St.

i.

1).

Mhkict^coc,
489.

i.e.

Mtj/cktt-^os.

and an eastern

half, to provide a king-

See on
563.

A
j,,

dom
IS

for

Diomedes, and the name "Apros

the city, which became known only in Donan times, For the after the fall of Mykene. Herfollowing towns see Frazer Paus. mione iii. 293, Asine and Eionai iii. 299,
evidently used of
:

^^^^^

The second added line (v. supra) ^^^^ f^.^^ ^ seventh century (?)

^j.^^; j^^^ j„ ^^^g on 528.

^^^

p^^

-j^^

73_

q^

Troizen

iii. iii.

Mases
iii.

273, Epidauros iii. 259, 298, Kleonai iii. 82, Orneai

217, Araithyrea iii. 76, Sikyon iii. 43, Hyperesia, identified with Aigira iv. 176 (Gonoessa, see Paus. ii. 4. 4), Pellene iv. 181, Aigion iv. 159, Helike iv. 165. 564. aroKXeiToO, as one of the Seven

570. Ar. observed that when the poet speaks in his own name (here and N 664) be calls the city 'Corinth'; but puts in t^e mouth of the hero Glaukos the older name 'B0i5/))7, Z 152. See, however, note
there.

Adrastos, originally a 572. np&Ta local god, had according to the legend
:

against Thelies, A 404-10. 566. TaXaToNOao,sonof Talaos. This is one of a number of patronymics •formed with a double termination another case of -iwK + iSijs is 'Io7rcTioW5?;s
(Hes.).

Forms like IIi)X7;a57)s, *7;/)7)Ti(i5i;s,
quite similar
;

they contain the (which itself is capable of being used for a patronymic, as TeXafidii/cos Afas) For the double suffix -i-id7is: cf. onAl.
etc., are
suff. -10-

been driven from Argos, and dwelt with his grandfather in Sikyon, where he gained the royal power, but afterwards he returned and reigned in Argos. The worship of Adrastos at Sikyon was vigorous in the time of Kleisthenes (Herod, v. 67), and is also found at Megara (Paus. i. 43. 1), but the legends Sikyon (locally all locate him at Argos. TieKvilif) seems to be a later name for
the older MriKiivri (Hes. Theog. 536).

compare Kopivd-ia-Kd-s (Angermann

C.

94

lAIAAOC B
AlyiaXov r

(ii)

ava iravra koI
apua r&i

d/i.^'
'

E\tK»;i' evpelav,

575

T&v
'Kaol

e/carbv vrj&v ^/9%6 Kpeimv
<ye

AjUfiefivcov

'A.TpetB7]<i-

'iroXv

TrXettrrot

«at apicrrot

eirovT

ev

8'

avro's

iSvaero vmpoira •^oXkop
580

KvBiomv, iracriv Se /ieTeTrpeTrev rjpmecraiv,

ovveK
0?

apicTTO^
S' ei')(pv

erjv,

ttoXv Se irKetaTovi wye \aov<;.

KoCX,7jv

AaKeBal/Mova K-qrweacrav
yieacrrfv,

^apiv re XirdpTriv re irokvrpripwvd re
^pvaeia'i t
o'i
o'l

ive/MOvro

Kal Avyeiaii epaTei,va<;,

T
T6

ap' 'AyU/UAcXa? elvov

"EXo?

t'

e^aXov iTToKtedpov,
585

Adav

el')(pv

^S'

O'ItvXov ajx^evep^ovTO,

rSiv 01

dSeX^eo? VPX^' ^"V^ dyaOo^ Mez/eXao?,

e^rjKOVTa
ev B

veav
Kiev

diraTepOe Be dmprja'a'ovTo.
r)iai,

avTO<;

TrpoOvfurjicri •rreiroi.Owiy

orpvvtov TToXefwvBe'

fiaXucrra Be lero dvfi&i
590

TicraaOai '^\evr)<; opfiijfiaTd re <TTOvaj(d^ re.
o'i

Be

UvXov r
Ar.
(in

ivep,ovro Kal ^Aprjvrjv eparetvrjv
yp.

678. Idlicero 579.

AH

:

\&<i\<xeto
:

J

:

Sbiicaro

Si.

579-80

&8.

Tien.

Koi nSci one ed.) Zen. Par. k: 8ti naci(N) Q. 581. 582. fdpHN (and to. irXela tuv i.vTivh KQierdeccaN (Zen. ? v. Ludwich). eicBHN Maz. Tyr. U^CCHN : ju^cthn U {supr. ft ju&chk) nypi^cov Eust.). BtuXon J oV TiiXoN Tyrannio aOreiac t* 6. 585. oYtuXon 583. Bupceiac GJ.

naCIN 6^ Ar.

H

GU

||

:

||

:

:

P

(and yp. J)

:

oY Tii90N

R

(9 in

ras.).

575. AiriaX6K, the N. shore of Peloponnese, afterwards called Aohaia. tcon is gen. after rrjuv, ships of these folk. 578. Ncopona is found six times in H. and twice in Od. (w 467, 500), always as an epithet of xaX/cix. It is generally interpreted gleaming, shining, but the derivation of the word is quite uncertain, and of many interpretations that have been proposed none is convincing. 581. koIXhn a. KHTtieccoN, L. lying
Kryriiea-crav low among the rifted hills. perhaps refers to the numerous ravines which are characteristic of the Laconian mountains. There was another reading,

gent was independent of that ruled by his brother. For 590 see 356. The line, whatever be the interpretation of the gen. 'EXevrjs, is far more naturally used of the chief sufferer Menelaos than of the Greek army at large, 591. The site of Nestor's Pylos was disputed from the earliest days between three cities of the name in W. Peloponnesos, one in Elis, one in Messenia (the modern Old Navarino), and one between the two in Triphylia. The present passage,

and the

localities

named
seem

in Nestor's

narrative, favour of

attributed to Zen. by the scholiast on S 1, Kdierdeaffav, which was explained to mean rich in KaUros ' (said to be KaXaiiivdds, mint), but might equally mean ' full of clefts, from KOieroi (oi airb Tuiv (Tui!iJ,(iv (>oyxjJ.ol, Strabo) cf. iccdara = Spiy/iara rj to iirb <rei.fffi^C>v KarappayevTa Xwpia, Hes., and Kaiddas, the gulf into which political criminals were cast at fiparta. See H. and R. on S 1. 587. indTepec, i.e. Menelaos' contin,

'

=

clearly in the Triphylian, which lay near the Alpheios. So too the mention of Alpheios in B 545 points in the same direction. On the other hand the
ff.,

A

670

'

;

journey of Telemaohos and Peisistratos" from Pylos to Sparta with Pherai as a halfway halt, in 7 485, 5 1 is only consistent with the Messenian Pylos and the epithet r]ij.a.ebeis implies a situation on the sea-shore, while both the Elean and Triphylian towns were in hilly places. So again the legends of

;

lAIAAOC B
KOL @pvov

(ii)

95

AX0etO4O iropov koI ivKTlTOV AIttv,
'

Koi KyTrapiaarjevra koX Kot TlreXeov Kai
'

Afi<f>ijev€iav evaiov

E\o? koI Ampiov, evdd

re ixovaai
595

avTOfievai ©dfivpiv rbv @pi]iKa Travcrav
4uKTtueN'

dotBrj'i,

592. fl^KTITON

:

CG

(supr. on)
:

:

eOkticton

TU: 40kthton

Q.

594.

neXebN

S.

||

^ngo re G.

595.

eduupiN

yp. fiuupiN J.

the migration of the Minyan Neleus from Thessaly all take him to Triphylia yet Pindar speaks of him as Mea-o-drtos yepwv, and the Messenian site was clearly that generally accepted by the fifth century. It is natural to suppose that, so far as the legends may have a historical basis, the Triphylian Pylos was originally the home of Nestor, but that, in consequence perhaps of invasion, which took the Aitolian place in the W. Peloponnesos about the same time as the Dorian in the E. and supplanted the Epeians by the later Eleians, the Neleid clan were driven southward out of Triphylia, and took with them their legends and local names to a new home in Messenia. Some hypothesis of the sort seems required to account for the frequency of duplicate The Homeric names in the region. poems then contain traces of both the See older and newer state of things. M. and R. on y 4, K. 0. Miiller Orchomenos pp. 357 ff., Strabo viii. 339 ff., where the problem is fully discussed. So far as they can be identified, all the towns here named are Triphylian, and Messenia is entirely ignored, unless with the scholia we take Messe (582), named among the towns of Lakonia, to mean Messene. But Paus. iii. 25. 9 testifies to a Messe near Tainaron, evidently the town here mentioned, though Strabo viii. 364 seems not to know of it. Christ has suggested that the list of Messenian towns named in I 149-56 may come from a lost part of the Catalogue dealing For the remaining sites with Messenia. Arene iii. 481, Aliri (Aipeia) see Frazer iii. 448, Kyparisseis iii. 462, Helos iii. 380, Dorion iii. 445, Oichalia iii. 408. 592. GpiioN, evidently the Qpvlieaaa
:

In Bhesos 921-25 the Muses speak of the time
&T fjkBoii.ai yrji xpucr6j3&)\oy eis XeVas Ilayyaiov dffy&voLfftv ^^(TK'rjfievai.
Mouo'at, /M€yi(rTT]v els ^piv fieXcoiSlas SeivwL ffOtpLffTTJt QprjLKlf Kd,rv<f>Xdjaafiey

Qdfwpiv,

6s ijiiwv

irdXK iSevvaaeti

rex"'/!"-

It will be noticed that the Rhesos places the scene of the meeting in Thrace, and beyond question the legend was originally a northern one, transplanted southwards, perhaps, in the course of the same tribal migrations which carried the name of Olympos from Thessaly to Elis.

In

1.

730 below Eurytos and Oichalia

are placed in Thessaly ; and there also, according to Steph. Byz., Hesiod made Thamyris at home, in ^ilmov, the Dotian plain, a name which bears a curious Commentators resemblance to AiipLov. have generally tried to save the consistency of the Catalogue by supposing that Thamyris was a wandering bard, who found himself at Dorion, far away from the Thessaliau Oichalia, in the course of his travels southward. But,

apart from the fact that

Homer knows

irdXis of

A

711.

Tkracian. t6n QpAiKa, thai Thamyris, like Orpheus, was one of the
595.

legendary Thracians who dwelt in Pieria at the foot of Olympos, and from whom the cultus of the Muses was said to come.

of wandering minstrels, and tells us only of bards attached to a particular chieftain's court, there is clear evidence that the Oichalia legend, which played an important part in the later Epos, was localized in Peloponnesos as well as in Thessaly ; see 13 ff. (cf. 6 224) and Pherekydes in the scholia on Pausanias iv. 2. 2 Soph. Track. 354. says that the Messenians claimed, in proof that theirs was the real Oichalia, possession of the bones of Eurytos. There was, however, yet a third claimant, near Eretria in Euboia, which was generally recognized by later poets, the OlxaXias "AXtiKTis attributed to Kreophylos, Soph. Track. 237 and Ap. may therefore easily Rhod. i. 87. admit that the Catalogue recognizes two different localizations of the same legend, in preference to supposing, with Niese, that the compiler has fallen into a mere

nothing

We

;

96

lAIAAOC B
Ol-^aXiTjOev lovra irap
crrevTO jd,p
fiovcrai
ev'^^ofievo';

(ii)

^vpvTov
viKtjcrefiev,

Ol'^aXirjo';e'l

Trep

av avrai
doiSrjP
600

aeiBoiev,

Kovpat Ato9 alyio'^oio'

at Se •^oXmadp.evai, irn^pov Oeaav,
decnrea-iTjv dcpiXovro
Tcov

avrap

Kal eKKiXaOov KiOaptcrriiv.
Veprjvio<;

aW
S'

rjr^efioveve

linrora Neo-Tojpvee<;

Twt

evevrjKovTa ryXaipvpal

icnij^pcovTO.
bpo<;

ot 8

eyov

ApKaBifjv viro K.vWrjvrj^
'Cv

aoirv,

Ahrvriov irapd rvp^^ov,
oi
'ViTrr)v

dvipe'i

dy^t,fJLay(7]Tai,

^eveov r eve/jLovro Kal Opj^ofievov •7roXvfj,7]\ov re ^Tpanrjv re Koi TjvefJLoeairav '^viairrjv,
ei')(ov

605

Kal Teyirjv
%TVfi<f)r)X6v

Kal M.avrivi'riv ipareivrjv,

T

el'^ov

Kal TLappaairjv evefiovro,
Trai?

T&v ^px 'AjKaloio
e^rjKovTa

Kpeimv
ev
vijl'

Ap/airrjvcop
eKaa-rrji
TroXe/xt^eii'.

ve&v
cr(f>iv

TroXee? S

610

ApKdSe<; dvBpe<; e^aivov i-rricnafievoi
aiiTO? 'yap

BS>Kev

dva^ dvSpwv

Aryafiefivccp

597.
601. 60S.

T&N

£px6ueNoc h' CQ.

C.

600. KieapicrfiN 602. TCOl
&d. Zen.
:

GHJPQC
tcon S.

(S supr.) Vr.

b,

Mose.

1.

II

napNadoN G.

aS G. 612-4

603. kuXXihnhn

S Vr.

b.

blunder through mistaking the name Dotion for the Messenian or Arkadian Dorion. The localization of this place is purely conjectural (Strabo viii. 350). The southern Oichalia was placed at or near Andania. 597. creOTo, boasted, see on S 191. This is the only case in H. of el &v with opt., but there are 26 (or 28) of el Ke {M.

Xiui Im iraiiroKoiaaTii (Kynaithos ?) Apoll. 172 naturally suggests itself. Teiresias, Daphnis and Stesichoros are other blind bards, ace. to the legends.
olxei dk

of

Hymn.

and

T.

§

460,

H.

O. § 313).

It

is

that any particular shade is given by the particle. In accordance with Homeric usage it is more likely that the original sentence is to be conceived as yi/cijcw, eiirep h.v deidotei/ than to regard the opt. as representing a subj.
difficult to see

of direct speech. 599. nHp6c, a doubtful word, traditionally explained blind, as in Aesop 17 aviip TnjpSs cf iTvijAdiaaixev in Ehes. ut sup. Others say inaimed, deprived either of voice (so Ar.) or of the right hand, or more vaguely helpless ; and in this general sense the word is common in later Greek. This certainly gives a better sense, for as Ar. says, comparing blindness does not disable a bard. 6 64, Indeed, music is always the natural profession for the blind. The TV(p\&s &v/ip,
:

aOrdp is continuative, as 465, etc., and moreover. l:KX^aeoN for this trans. use of the redupl. aor. cf. 60, and XeXax">' always (H 80, 343, etc.). 604. The Arkadians are never mentioned again in H. except 134 in a tale of Nestor's, though their sixty ships formed one of the largest contingents to the army. The tomb of Aipytos son of Elatos is mentioned by Pausanias (viii. 16. 3) as being still shewn at the foot of the mountain SijTria. See Find, 01. vi. 33. For Pheneos see Frazer iv. 235, Orchomenos 224, Tegea 422, Mantineia 201, Stymphalos 268, Parrhasia 306. 605. Coins and the inscription on the famous Plataian Tripod shew that, as with the Boiotian town (511), the old
:

X

H

local

name was

'Ep^o/xeyis.

612-4 were obelized by Zenodotos but they are obviously designed to meet
a possible historic doubt, and cohere with the rest of the paragraph. Nothing of the sort, however, is suggested for the
' '

lAIAAOC B
VTja? e'uo-creX/Aov? irepdav
'ATpetB7]<;,
iirel
eTrl

(ii)

97

oXvoira irovrov,
fiefj^rjKei.

ov

crcfii

OaXda-cria €p<ya

ot S

dpa ^ovirpdcriov re koL "HXiBa Blav
"Tpfiivri

evaiov,

615

o(Taov
TrirpT}

€<!>

koX M.vpa-ivo^ ecr'^aTouxra Koi 'AXeia-iov eVro? eepyei,
dp'^pl eaav,
•7roXee<i

T

rTKevlt]
re(T(jape<i

T&v av
VTje?

BeKa B

dvBpl eKoarmi
ETreiOi.

eirovro Ooai,
fjLev

B

efi^aivov

Tuv
ules
tSiv

ap'

'

Afj,(f)[fia'^oii

koX ©akino'; rjjrjada-drjv,

620

p,ev

K-redrov, 6 8

ap

Evpvrov, 'AKTopLcove'
6eoei,Bi]<;,

B
Be

'AfiapvyKeiBrii; rip-^e KpaTepb<; Aicoprji;-

TMV
oc

Terdpraiv VPX^ Ilokv^eivo'i
eK AovXi'^iOio
'E^tj'ttOJi'
6'

uio? 'Ayacrdeveo'i AvyrjidBao avaKTO<;.

B

lepdcav,

625

vrjaav al vaiovcn Treprjv d\o<i,
rSiV av6'

HXtSo? dvra,

rjyefioveve M.ijTj'i drd'KavTO'; "Aprji,

$v\etSij?, ov Tixre Bd(pt\oii liriroTa ^vXev'i,

616. I9'
618.

:

617. dXiicioN
flpxa' J-

OpufNHi Zen. O9' Q Eton. Mose. 1 A G. Icxardecca R Vr. a. Steph. Byz. ap. Eust. ; dXicioN Ar. on A 757. ^^proi Vr. b''. 621. fip' om. CQ {yp. S afe eOpOrou i. J). 619. gBaiNON PR.
:
|| ||

||

||

OKTOpicONE Ar. A(S supr.)U

Par. e^ g^:

diKTopicoNoc

fi.

622. djuapurKXeidHC

R

627. T«»N

(duapunceidHC R™). V CP Vr. A.

624. draceeN^coc
|1

PR.

626.

aV

:

oV Zen.

||

n^paN G.

aO G.

Thessallan tribes, some of whom are as landlocked as the Arkadians. 615. See A 756 for Buprasion, the Olenian rock, and Aleision as landmarks of Elis, and Frazer Faus. iii. p. 466 for Hyrmine. The four localities in 616-7 seem to be regarded as being at the four corners of the valley known as Kol\ri There is a slight confusion of 'HXis. ^rds construction in Sffffov iirl Upyei, or, in other words, the object of i^pyei is not, as we should expect, and as we find in O 544, 6(7<rov, but "HXiSa, to be supplied from the previous line. Instead of Sa-(rov ivi, the usual phrase 358, etc.). is 8(roy t iiri (T 12, H 451, The distance of iirl from the verb forbids explanation by tmesis, nor is There iireipyety found elsewhere in H. would seem to have been a fourfold
. .

of Kteatos and Eurytos (not of course the same as in 596), as sons of Aktor,' at least as putative father. But the patronymic is here, as often, transferred to the grandsons ; AioKiSijs is a familiar
'

tribal division of Elis.

'Eneioi

was

tlie

proper

A

name for the inhabitants of Elis, 671, the name 'HXeZoi having probably
after the

come in

Dorian and Aitolian
is

invasion. 621. 'AKTopieoNe

properly the title

case, and Priam is AapSavldris from a yet more remote ancestor. The vulg. 'AKToplavos probably comes from N 185 where only one brother is mentioned ; here it is less suitable than the dual. For the curious legends about the sons of Aktor see A 709, 639. 626. aY, Zen. oi but 97 29 (dofios) utile:. and the analogy of vaierdav as applied to places by a sort of personification (A 45, a 404, etc.) are .sufficient to justify the reading of Ar. and mss. So Soph, Aj. 597 ffl KKeivh ^dXa/its, ati pAv irov valets oKltrXaKTos ktX. The Ecliinean islands as a matter of fact lie opposite Akarnania, a considerable distance N. of Elis ; but the Homeric geography of the W. coast of Greece is apparently based on imperfect hearsay, not on knowledge. DuHchion cannot be identified. It can hardly here be Leukadia (Sta. Maura).

^

:

98

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

6? TTore AovXi'^tovB' airevdaaaTO irarpl y(oKa>0ei.^'

Twt

B'

afjM reaaapcLKovra fjAXaivab vrjef eirovro.
'OSucro-eu? ^ye K€<j>aX\rjvai fieyadvfiovii,

630

avrap

01 p 'lOaKrjV el'^ov koX ^rjpiTOv elvoaicjivWov, KUL JS^poKvXei ivi/MOVTo Kot AlyCXiTTa Tpr)y(eiav,
o'C

re ZaKVvdov

e')(pv

r]K

ot

%dfiov d/Mpevipovro,
ivifiovTO635

o'i

T
S'

i]ireipov

ej(ov ^8'

avrnrepai,

ra>v fiev 'OSvo'cret'9

VPX^ ^''

/Mririv

araXavTO'}-

T&i
ot

afia 1/^69 eirovTO SvcoSeKa fiCKTOirdpTjioi. S

AlrmX&v
JlXevpwv

^yeXro

@oa^

'AvSpab/ju)vo<;

vlo<;,

ivifwvTo koX 'DXevov ^8e
dr^'x^iaXov

TIvX'^vtjv
640

^MXKiSa T

K.aXvScbvd re ireTprjeaa-av
dncNi^caTO

629. douXixioN GS Lips. Vr. a, Moso. 631 id. At. ? (A has obelos but no sohol.). at end of line. 633. icpoKiiXHN Eton.
634. 635.

1.

632.
||

cduHN Zen.
A&'
:

{&/i,crpov

voiCJv An.).
t'

||

yp.

K dncNdcoro PR™. eTyON om. PR, adding t' c^koun rpaxetaN GJ {supr. h) U {supr. h). A3' ai cduoN du9iN^uoNTO Par. d.
||

:

oY

a'

QS

:

oY

H.

||

fiNTin^paN Vr.

c,

Mosc. 1

:

fiNTin^pa S.

629. Phyleus had to leave his home because he bore witness against his father Angelas, who endeavoured to cheat Herakles of the reward promised him for the cleansing of the stables. See 519 Meges is Pind. 0. xi. 31. In N 692, still king of the Epeians ; the legend of his migration northwards to the coast of Aitolia looks like a reflex of the migration Such inof the Aitolians S. to Elis. vasions were commonly justified as bringing back an expelled family to The case of the their old realm. Herakleidai is the most familiar, but there are many others.
632. eiNocl9uXXoN =
ei'-fo<ri-,

hardly have been Ke^aXXiJves there. This was no doubt the ground for the (probable) athetosis of 631 by Ar. 637. uiXrondpHioi (here

and

t

125),

cheeks painted with vermilion. does not indicate so much a personification of the ship as a literal painting of a face upon the bows, the red paint being used as a primitive approximation to the colour of flesh. So
rj>oi,vi.KOTr6,pt)ios X 124, \j/ 271. Though this practice is not expressly recorded other%vise in H. there can be little doubt that it existed then as it did, and still does,
,

with This

all

over the world, from Chinese junks

fvomFoB,

root of diB4u, etc. ; 'making its foliage to shake,' i.e. with trembling leafage. So

to Mediterranean and Portuguese fishing boats, to say nothing of its survival in the 'figure-head.' In early vase-paint-

Hesych. Kivrjo'i^vWov, and

cf.

^vvoffiyaios.

NiipiTON, V 351, 1 21. The four places named in these two lines seem to be all on the island of Ithaka {'ISaKi) being the chief town), though the Greek geographers located Krokyleia and Aigilips on the mainland, Cduoc is Kephallenia.
635.
diNTin^paia,

ings the ship of war has an animal's head for the bows, generally a pig's snout. The original idea seems to have been to give the ship eyes with which to see its way. (See Assmann Jahrb. d. d.
arch. Inst. iv. 100, Torr Ancient Ships 37, 69.) Of course the actual painting may in Homer's ships have degenerated into a purely conventional

pp.

the

coast

of

the

mainland opposite Ithaka (regarded as part of Elis). That the inhabitants of the islands had such possessions on the mainland is consistent with S 635, where Noemon speaks of crossing over
to Elis, ^vdd.
fxoi

daub but the epithet in question shews that even in that case some consciousness of its origin had survived. Ar. remarked
;

tinroi

\

ScbSeKa ^iJXaat,

iK xpwM''''"' /i'l'S •?>' ^iiroXciirao-a ^uypacpLKiv. Cf. Herod, iii. 58 rd 5k iraKaibv iratrat ai vrje^ ^jav /xiXtIjS-r)

ii

Trpis

tV

uTri S' 7)idovoi raXaepyot.

But there can

i)X40^es.

lAIAAOC B
ov yap er
Oi,vfjo<;

(n)
vlee<;

99
?j(yav,

/isyak'^Topo';
evjv,

ovS dp
T&t B
Twt
ol
B'

er
eiri

avTO<;

Odve Be ^av6o<; MeXeaypo';dvaera-efiev AlrcoXoicri,'
rnjei;

irdvr

ireraXTO

afia

Teaaapdnovra fieXatvai
B'

eirovTo.
645

K.pr)T&v
Kj/eBO"oi/

'IBofjLevev<;

BovpiKXvrb^

rjyefiovevev,

T

eiyov VopTVvd re Teiyioeaaav,

A.VKTOV MtXiyroz' re koI dpyivoevra AvKacTTov

^aiarov re Vvnov re, TroXets iii vaterad)(Ta<i, aXKoi S" di J^p'qrqv etcaroinroXiv dfi^evi/iovro. T&v fiev ap' 'IBofMeveii'i Soupt/cXuTO? -qyefioveve Mi/jOioi/ij? T araXavTO? ^vvobkiwi dvBpel^ovrrjf Touri, B' dfi oyBmKovra fjbiXaivai vrjei; eirovTO.
,

6§0

TXi;9roXe/*09 8' '^paicXetBrj';
641-2 dB. Zen.
642. Mosc. (1

y^v'i

re /jLeyw; re
[I:n]

?)

adds Ka) TudeCic

eABcac 8t' dnc&Xero
645. d'
:

Xabc&xcu&N.
om. L.

643.

^^okto JR^S
:

Lips.

644. tS) e' J {post ras.).

646. KNcoccdN

CGHJQf7(so Tryphon).
yp.

647. dpri6eNTa S.
J.

KdueipON

H

||

XiiKacTON
A.

{supr.

B XiiKocroN)

xdjuipoN

648. n6\ic

651.

dN3pH96NTH

R

:

dNdpifbNTij G.

653. d' om. F.

641. For the Homeric legend of Oineus and Meleagros see I 529 sqq. Zenod. obelized 641-2, apparently because Meleagros alone is named of all the sons of

(where see note),

363, for diiSporrp-a, like a^pdrri dfi^t-^poros, where the j3 has, like the 5 of dvdpi, arisen from the nasal,

X

which then disappeared {H. Q.

§

370

n.).

Oineus.

inserted line (v. supra) testifies to the surprise naturally felt at the omission of Tydeus, the most famous of them. As the scholiast remark.s, a6T6c may refer either to Oineus oT to Meleagros, according to the punctuation.

The

T&i d4

sc.

Thoas.

Similar forms are a(/*)7rXa/ri)/iOTa Aisch. Eiim. 934, dvaifiJTrMKrjToi Soph. 0. T. 472, d{ix)w\aKii>v Eur. Ah. 242, where also the MSS. mostly give the /*. Of. dSpl- dvSpi, Hesych. In the Cyprian inscriptions the nasal is regularly omitted before a consonant (and so often in mod. Greek,
e.g. &Bpo)iros).

645. The enumeration having passed from Boiotia S. and W. through Peloponnesos and the Western islands to Aitolia, now takes a fresh start from the S. of the Aegaean Sea and passes through The Cretan the islands to Thessaly. towns named are all at the foot of Ida See r 172in the middle of the island. 7 for the Homeric account of Crete. 646. KNtoc6c S 591, r 178. 647. MIAhtoc, said to be the metropolis of the famous Ionic Miletos. 649. In T 174 Crete is said to contain ninety cities ; a divergence on which, as we learn from the scholiast, the xwpifoKTes founded one of their arguments. 651. 'ENua\!coi dNdpe'i'f^NTHi if this reading is right there is a violent synizesis But we of -ui i,v- into one syllable. ought to write dSpL^SpTiji (or rather 6,dpoip6vT7ii), where dSpi- is a lighter form of dvSpi- : and so XiiroOir' dSporrJTa 11 857
:

653. Id spite of this elaborate panegyric the Rhodians are not again mentioned in H. TIepolemos enters only to be killed in E 628 ff. His connexion with Rhodes is not there alluded to. It is impossible to suppose that a Dorian colony was ever admitted by tradition to the Trojan war ; but the triple division so characteristic of the Dorians is pointedly alluded to in 668. It is possible, of course, that the prae-Dorian Rhodians had their share in the early history of Greece, and that the Dorians only recolonized an island already Greek. The intention here may be to give the Dorian hero an earlier possession of the island, and bring him there not by the Dorian invasion but by a private quarrel ; but the author manages to betray himself by the word rpixBd. Bergk suggests that the high praise of the Rhodians

;

;

100
6K 'PoSou ivvea
oi
V7]a<;

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

ayev 'PoBiav ar/epco'^wv,
Bia Tpi')(a KoafirjdevTe<;,
655

'ToBov

dfi<peve/j,ovTO

AlvSov 'iTjXvaov re koX dpyivoevra J^afieipop.
Toov fiev TXijTToXe/io?

BovpiKKvTO<; riyefiovevev,
^i-rji

ov TeKev 'Acrrvo-^eia
Trjv

HpuKXi^eirii,

dyer

i^

'E(f)vprj<;,

-Trora/xov

dwo

ZieXK'^evTo<;,

irepaa'i

dffTea
S',

iroWa
kolo

BiOTpe^ecov al^rjcov.
ivrrrjKraii,,

660

TXijTroXe/io?

eVei ovv Tpd(f ivl fieydpcoi
(plXov fiTjrpoya

avTLKa
7]B7j

7raTpo<;

KareKra

yqpdcTKOvTa, Alkv/mviov o^ov
Se
vrja';

"Ap7jo<;.

at-\jra
/Si]

eTTTj^e,

iroXiiv

B'

6 ye

(f)evy(j)V

eVi ttovtov
^ir)<;

dire'CKr^a-av

Xaov drfei,pa<; yap ol dXKob

665

utee? vleovoi re

lipaK\7)eir)<;'

.avrdp o y

eV

'VoBov l^ev dXafu.evo'; a\r/ea Trda'^mv

Tpiydd Be

uitKTjOev

Kara^vKaBov,
CJPE

r]Be

(piXrjdev

656. 6pri6eNTa S. Schol. Find. 0. vii. 24.

|i

KduipoN

||

i^paKXeieiH

Q

:

Bar. Eton. Vr. b c A. ApaKXeiHi Zen. (d/xerpov

iroiGiv

658. acTu3<Sucia An.). 659.

Tpd9eN

TH\(5eeN Strabo vii. 328, viii. 339. 661. 660. BioTpocp^coN HL. Tpdi^H Tpii(p' kn Vr. a rpd^er' in Mor. Bar. Vr. c Vr. A 665. h ricri Bft feureiN Scbol. iiti G. 663. 8zoc {supr. n) A™ (T.W.A.). 667. auTCip : aTqia 3' 666. ApaKXeJHC Pap. a {v. Ludwich ad loc). fiKeNG: fiaeN Mor. Bar. oV 8' lyiXneeN Cant. 668. Kaq>9uXa36N Vr. a. Zen.

Tim

firer'

:

ku\

PQR

:

:

:

U

QK

II

||

points to the time of tbeir naval supre-

maoy, perhaps about 900 B.C. The legend of Tlepolemos is given in Pindar 0. vii.
654. direp6i>x<ON, apparently a desperate word ; many derivations have been proposed, but not one carries conviction, It is applied by Homer to the Trojans, the Mysians, and once to an individual, Periklymenos, X 286. In Homer and Pindar it seems to be a word of praise, but later writers use it to mean overPindar applies it bearing,' 'haughty.' to things, N. vi. 34, 0. xi. 78, P. i. 50. It is common in Polybios, Plutarch, Philostratos, etc., though not found in pure Attic. I give without comment a number of proposed etymologies. (1) S.ya.v yepaSXos (Ar.) ; (2) diri toO 4701' iTrl y^pois dxeia-Bai {St. Mag.); (3) Sid. rh dyelpeiv
'

citing wonder (Scbmalfeld) ; (10) = d7^Xau^os, the bull proudly leading his herd Bergk (Gr. Lit. i. p. 129). 659 = 531. This river Selleeis (different of course from that mentioned 839, 97, in Asia) was according to Ar. in Thesprotia, in the country of the SeXXoi (II 234) others said it was in
;

M

;

and that Herakles took Astyocheia when he overthrew Angelas (so Strabo). For the name 'EipiipH see note on Z 152.
Elis,

661. The aor. Tp(i9e is here, as always (cf. •*• 84, 90), intrans., and should apparently be substituted for the pass, rpi^ which occurs only in V 201, A 222 (note the reading of G here). So rpaipev should

be rpdipov in
662.

A

251, 266,

* 348.

To{m<TTL Tporjyqv (4) aydpeiv 8xous, assemblers of chariots (Dbderlein) (5) ayelpeiv, uiKijs, swiftly gathering (Bbttdx'fi",
: ;

Likymnios was brother of Alkmena. See Find. 0. vii. 27. The homicide was committed in a fit of anger according to Pindar, but another legend
A) made it purely accidental, 665. y&p ol, MSS. with Ar. ; but the neglect of the digamma in the pronoun ol is so rare that it is better to read rip
(ap. Schol.
oi.

cher)

;

(6) dyalv) ipuiri (suff. -X"-), violent,
;

impetuous (Gbbel) (7) d7a-, Ipa, ?x"i having much land (Suidas) (8) ayaipai ix^iv, holding themselves proudly (Pott) (9) adj. dyepds, root ay, to admire, hence dyepiiffffei, (Hesycli. ), and d7^/)wxos = ex;

ol fiXXot is

common enough
524,
90.
,

e.g.

A

75,
;

264,
see

540,

in H. and many

other cases

Z

;

lAIAAOC B
€ic

(ii)

101

Ai,o<;,
a-(j)iv

09 re deolai

ical

av6pdiiroicnv dwicraei.
Ji-povlcov.
eicra'i,

Kai

deaTricnov wXovtov Kare'^eve
TjOet?

670

Ntpeu? ai XvfirjOev aye
^tpev<i 'A^Xat^?
Nt/jeu?,

vrja?

utos XajOOTroto

t

avaKTO<;,

0? A:aXXt<TTO? avr)p

viro 'VKiov rjXOe

T&v

aXKtJiv

Aava&p
eijj',

//.er'

dfivfiova TiirjXetwva'

aXV
o?
/cai

dXaTraSvo?
S'

7ravpo<;

Be oi eXireTO Xao^.

675

a/sa NltCrvpov t

elj^ov

K-pdiraOov re K.daov re
tb K.aXvSva^,

Kwi/ EujOUTTuXoto nrdXiv
'

vrj(Tov<;

tS)v

av ^etStTTTTO? T6 Koi AvrKpot; riiyr)<ydcr67)v, ©ecrcraXov vie Bvco 'UpaKXetBao avaKTO'S'
tS)V Be TpirjKovra <yXa(f)vpal vee? eaTij(oaivTO.
680

vvv av
669 ad. Ar.
Vr. A.
672.

TOV<;,

oacroi,

to TleXacryiKov "Apyo<; evaiov

671. Nipetic 8'

QRK
676.

||

alcOuHecN
:

QS

Vr. b: ^cOuHeeN
674.

T

0711.

Q.
3'

673, 675 &e. Zen., 674 oidi ^ypa(pev.

KpdcoN P. 677. 680. TCON AH J {yp. toTc) TV Pap. a ToTc iJ. 681. ZrjvdBoros fj-er^pacpev oV 3' "Aproc t' eTxoN t6 FleXacriK^N, oGeap dpoOpHc An. nOn aG Tot;e oY t' ainoi Q{supr. nOn Q^) E(nOn aO Toiic R™) S Par. e {yp. nQn aCiTotic) j oi 8' aOro) Mosc. 1 nOn 8' ainoiic J Vr. a A nOn aOroi Vr. b nOn toCic 9hu) 8coi G.
RS.
675. r<ip oi Snero G.
:

KdcoN

PR™f7 tSk 3" KCON Kw L

(posi ros.).
:

678.

twn
||

CGQR

Eton. Vr.

c.

:

:

:

:

:

670. There was a legend of a literal rain of gold sent by Zeus upon Rhodes,

apparently founded upon this passage cf. ToXi);' Sire xp^"'^" Pind. 0. vii. 50, /Sp^e xp""'^'"' vi,<pdSccrcri ir6\iv ib. 3i. Karax^eiN is very often used metaphorically, e.g. X'^P'-" ^ l^i ^tc, iXcyxclv 408, and so it may be here but Pindar's mention of the ^avdci. ce0Aa shews that he understood the verb in its literal sense. But this line, according to a scholion on There is no Pindar, was obelized.

*

;

mention of this in Schol. A, where we find,
however, that Ar. obelized the preceding line, taking {plXrjSev to mean they were friendly to one another in spite of the tribal division,' and regarding 669 as inserted in order to give another the line with explanation of (pOaiBev its obvious padding certainly bears out
'

descent looks as if these lines came from the same source as the Rhodian episode above. All the islands were Dorian colonies, but Kos at least had legends of colonization from Thessaly, whence Thessalos is brought into the genealogy, This is again an anachronism, as the Thessalian name is elsewhere ignored in H. 681. It is hardly possible to read this and the two following lines without feeling that originally Achilles was the leader of the whole of the Thessalians, and that his restriction to three paltry towns in 682 is merely a device to make room for the localization of other Thessalian heroes. As it stands, the effect is almost like ' all the peoples of Britain, who

:

the idea.

The double

671. Nireus is not mentioned again. epanaXepsis is unique in H. 505. For TciN SXXcoN after a superl. cf. 676. These are small islands among

dwelt in Greenwich and Woolwich and Blackheath, and were named Saxons and English and Danes.' The Pelasgian Argos, properly the central plain of Thessaly about Larissa, a long way from
Phthia, is in the sequel stretched to comprise Thessaly in the widest sense, and even Dodona in Aitolia. There can be
little

A

the Sporades, only Kos having attained any subsequent importance the Cyclades Pheidippos are not mentioned at all. and Antiphos again are named only the mention of their Herakleid here
;
;

doubt that Hellenes, Myrmidons, and Achaians were originally three distinct tribal names of Thessaly, all under the suzerainty of Achilles, as the South

102
o'i

lAIAAOC B
T
'

(ii)

KXov

0% T
^9i.Tjv

'AXoTrrjv oX re Tprjj^lv
^S'

ive/xovTo,

0% T

ev)(pv

'EWaSa
r)v

KaXKi/yvvaiKa,
Ap^atot,
685

M.vpiiiBove^ Be KoXevvro koX "EXXT/ve? Koi
rS)v

aS irevrrjKOVTa ve&v
01

apx^f
crTi'^a';

A^iXXev?.
'^yrjaaiTO.

dXX

J

oil

7roXe/J,oio
tr<f)i,v

hvarfyeoi;

ifivooovTO-

ov jap

e7]v,

09 Tt?

eVt

KStro yap iv
Kovpr)<;

vrje(T(TL

iroBdpicr)';

Sto?

Ap^tXXeu?
690

y^wofievog ^pia-7]iBo<; TjVKOfioio,
/Moy')j(Ta<;,

TTjv

eK Kvpvr)<7(Tov i^elXero iroXKa

Avpvr)(7<70v ZiaiTop6rj(7a<; koI rely^ea ©i^ySi??,

Ka8 Se
viea<;
682.

M.vv7]t'

e^aXev koI

'^TrL(TTpo(^ov iy^ecrificopovi;,

^vrjvoio ^eXrjTridSao dvaKro<;'
:
||

oi Sk TpHxTN* (rpHXCiN Pap. a.) en^UONTO fi TpHxTNO n^onto Ar. "AXoN oY e' 'AXioOnb' oY re Tp. 4n. Strabo. 683. 9eciHN Pap. 685. a. 684 om. P^ Lips. Vr. A. KaXeONxai Q KaXoONTai G. bk re Q. 686-694 6.6. Zen. tOn 5' P. afi : ap pi. 687. ^HN, OC TIC : ^ctIn Stic Q. IBqXen 692. uOnhtq RAXen G. 690. iN XupNHCcc^i Zen. tic: ti CH^. gXaBe R.

ypd<pov(nv oV o'

||

:

||

:

II

1|

||

:

was under the suzerainty of Agamemnon.
In I 447 Hellas, the
of Phoinix, is clearly distinct from Phthia, the home of Achilles. But in I 39,5 the Achaians seem to include the inhabitants of both Phthia and Hellas, a iirst step to the use of the Achaian name for all prae-Dorian Greeks. Similarly the Myrmidons are identical with the inhabitants of Hellas and Phthia in X 496. The confusion that reigns in the use of the names is a reflexion of the intermixture consequent on the great migrations from North to South, of which the Dorian and ThesSee Bury salian invasions were a part. This is the only in J. E. S. XV. 217 ff. case in H. where the name Hellenes The occurs, except in 530 HavfKKrive^. introductory words nOn aO are evidently used to mark a new and important Toiic is used as section of the whole. though the poet meant to continue with ^tnrere or ip^itj. 682. These towns are all in the extreme south of Thessaly, round the head of

ber, is iivaSficvos, d 106, o

400

;

elsewhere

home

jxviecrSM

woo a wife. ducHX^oc, from &x<>^t (cafca dxt T'epiiroiCiv, the vowel being lengthened, as so often in comto

means

pounds, at the point of juncture.
SvaTijKeyijs

Cf.

from dXyos.
;

der. from {F)rixn, as if no account of the F and even if we wrote 'jro\4fiov dvaFTjx^os with van L. the epithet would not suit fldvaTos (n 442, etc.).

alternative Tiorrisoniis, takes

The

T« without

687. ArAcaiTO, potential opt. after 6's &v, as 348. (Other instances in M. and T. § 241.) Ini crixac, into the ranJcs drawn up for battle. So T 353 Sirl a-rlxas S\to, V 113 iTTirovs ^pv^av iirl aHxas, brought them into line.

X

690. For the original home of Briseis on A 184. Mynes was her husband according to the tradition, though there is nothing in H. to shew it. She was captured on the same raid as Chryseis, 366.
see

A

the Malian gulf, in the same district as that assigned to Protesilaos (695 ff. ). 686-94, athetized by Zen., are evidently added to adapt to present circumstances a passage originally describing the miistering of the whole host. So also 699-709, 721-28. ^junc&onto, i.e. ifivaovTo=^ li.ilivi)t!KovTo. The only other form from this pres. stem, in the sense remem-

692. For the termination of ^rxccuubsee A 242. The anticipation of the future course of the story in 694 is paralleled in 724, but is not in the Homeric style ; the Epic poet occasionally speaks of future events as prophetically known to his characters, but foreshadows them in his own words only in suspicious

pouc

.

lAIAAOC B
Trj<;

(ii)

103
e/ieWev.
695

o ye Keir
S'

a^imv, Tay^a
<!^XdK7]v Kol

S"

avtrTijaetrOai,

ot

elj^ov

Hvpaaov

dvOefioevra,

Ai^fi7jTpo<;

Tefievo<;,

"Ircovd re fiijripa iirfKwv,
tSe IlTeXeoi' Xe^eTTotiji',

dyjfLdkov T

Avrp&va

rav av

IIjOa)Te<7i\ao?

dprjiof ffyefioveve

fwos ewv Tore S' fj^ e^^ev Kara yaia fjiiXaiva. rov Be Kal dii<j)iSpv<j>r]<; aXo^os ^vXdKiji, eXeXefTTTO
Koi
VTjo<;

700

S6/io<;

^/iireX'^is-

tov

S'

eicrave

AdpSavo^
jiev

dvrjp

dirodpmKXKOVTa ttoXv Trpwriarov ^A'^ai&v,
dp')(pv
Koa/iTja-e

ovBe fiev ovB' ol avapy^pt ecrav, iroOeov ye

dXXd

<7(f>ea<;

T[oSdpKr}<;

o^o<s "Aj07/O9,

I<piKXov uto? TToXv/M'ijXov ^vXaxiBao,
avTOKaa'iyvrjTO'i fieyadvfiov
07r\oT6/90? yevefjiijpcoi;

705

TLpcorea'iXaov

6

S'

d/j,a

irpoTepo^ Kal dpelwv

Ilpa)Te(rl,Xao<i dprilo<s'

ovBe

n

Xaol
eirovTO.
710

BevovO' fjyefiovo^, TroOeav ye /Mev icrdXov iovra-

T&t

B'

afia Tecra-apdKovra fieXatvai

V'i)e<;

dcri^cGceai (or d(N)cTi)cacsai ?, MS. (e supr. over ac) 694. &NCTi4caceai ^Ndpc^Na J. ft5fe GQ. ^x^noiHN Q. dNordcaceai) Zen. 697. 6rxi<4XHN Zen. 701. ddpdaNoc bakp 700. hk Ko) : 3^ KEN U. f aOiuoc SxTcop Dem. Skeps.
:
||

U

||

||

:

ap. Sohol.
708. oiiV

Lykophrou

531.

707. reNefiN

Schol.

A
:

60.

||

auxx Ax.

-.

fipa

fi.

&n

H Vr.

a.

709. re

uIn

:

re juIn

G

3^ urn

S.

710. tS> e' J.

||

TeccepdKONTa A.
696. The asyndeton shews that Ai^uhTpoc TejueNoc must be in apposition with Pyrasos, and is not the town Ajj/iTTTpiox, explained by Ar. as distinct from Pyrasos. SeeStraboix. p. 435, andcf. 606 no(7iSi)loi' dyXabv SXo-os in apposition with Onchestos. These towns surround Alos at the head of the Malian gulf.
Protesilaos' 243. ship plays a prominent part in the fight705, IT 286. 681, ing later on, 393 700. ducpidpufi^c, explained by TOV Si yvvaiKis iiAv t i,iX(plSpwt>ol eicri
Of. also
Xk€to.

A

227

yii/wts S'

iK 6a\ifwi.o
'

.

.

699. KdrexeN, as

T

cannot mean weddingThe AtipdaNoc &NAp was chamber.' variously said to have been Aineias, Euphorbos, or Hector; the latter was the name given by the Kypria, Demetrios of Skepsis (vide supra), and Soph. (fr. 443) but Ar. held that it was certainly wrong, as Hector was not a Dardanian

But

ddfios

;

strictly speaking.

N

703. oiidk

uku

oOB'

oi,

yet

A

irapaai.

701. iiuiTcXiic ^oi areKvos fUvos TOV iripov Tuv SeffiriyrCiiv
Tos-

fj ij

6.<l>riifnt-

&Te\el<ij86,\a/j.ot>

l8os ylip

ijv

tois

yrj/iaffi

olKodo/ieTrBat (Schol.
;

A).

The

first ex-

plauation is best he has only half completed his household, as, though married, he has left no son. Of. Soph. 0. T. 930 because the wife's estate Trai'TeXJjs SA/Mp, is crowned and perfected by the birth of The last is founded children (Jebb). upon Odysseus' description of his building his own marriage-chamber, rf/ 189 sqq.
' '

an emphasis is thrown on the oi, which is not easily explicable, for there does not seem to be any striking contrast with some other leaderless band In such as the words would imply. 726 they come naturally, as two lost chieftains have already been mentioned, The line is simply copied here from 726. 708-9 look like a gloss intended to explain the apparently ambiguous 6, and filled up from previous lines so as to make two hexameters. The towns following (711-5) lie N. and (716-7) E. of the head of the Pagawere they
;

saean Gulf.

104
ot

lAIAAOC B
Se <^epa<;

(ii)

ivefiovTO irapaX Bot/Si^ffia XifivrjV,

Boi/St?!'

Kol TXa<j)vpa,^ Kal ivKTifievriv 'lacokKov,
'AS/x.7;Toto

T&v

fjpx

^tXo9

Trai.'?

evSexa vr/mv,

Ev/iTjXo?,

Tov

iiir

tskc Sia ' AS/MijTan
elho';

jwaiKUP
715

"AXKTjcm^, TieXiao dvyarpwv
ot

apiaTrj.

K

dpa

MrjOaivrjV koI

@avp,aKL7]v ivefiovro

Koi MeXt'/Sotav e'^ov Kal 'OXi^&va rprj-^eiav,

T&v
eTTTo,

Be ^iXoKTJ]Tr)<; rjpj^ev,

to^ccv iv etSw?,

vemv
fxev

epkrai

S'
iii

eV eKoarrji, TrevTrjKovra

ifji^ej3aaav,

ro^av
iv

etSores

i(f)i

fid'^ecrdai.

720

dXX' 6
Arjp,v(oi

vrjcrmi,

Kslro Kparip

dXyea

Tracr'^wv,

iv

rjiyaOer]!,,

o6i fiiv Xiirov vie?

A-^aiwv

eXKei /j.o'^di^ovTa KaKWi 6Xo6<f)povo<i liBpov
evd'

6 ye Kelr

'Apyeloi irapa

vTjvcrl

dyecov To/^a Se fivqaeadai kfieXXov ^iXoKrrjrao dvuKTO^.
dvapyoi kaav, irodeov ye
OtX-Tjo?
vo6o<; vlo'i,
vtt
fiev

725

ovSe fiev

oils'

ol

ap'^ov

dXXd
TOV p
ot
o'i

M.eBcov

Kocrp^rjo-ev,

ereKev
8'

'Ptjvtj

OiXijl TrToXnropdaii.
lOwfirjv

elyov Tpl,KK7]v kul

KXeopaKoeacrav,
730

T

evov OlyaXiriv iroXiv EupuTOU Ot^aXt?}o?,
ails'

tS)V

r)yeLa6r)v

AaKXriinov Bvo
/car

iralBe,

711.

P. iv. 125.

Vr.
J.

a.
II

i3fe kpi^nhn On^peiaN Schol. Pind. iaoXxbN GPR Harl. a. 713. tSm h' niTiieioN Steph. Byz. 717. JULeXfBoiON 6XizHNa 715. neXiaao J. 718. t&n aO ArGu6Neue 9iXokti^thc, Sroc 6iN3puN Zen. TpaxetoN G.

napai

BoiBH'i'da

X(unhn

:

hlov^
||

712. eOKTiusNON

G

Harl.

a.

:

|i

[supr. juNiiceceai). &ueXXeN Pap. toOc Bfe Zen. 728. imh iXfii J (yp. On' 6TXflT). 729. K\uuaK6eccaN A Pans. iv. 9. 2: xXHuaK^eccaN G (and 'Rsupr.): KXcojuardeci^ri^ceHN Q. natdec P. 731. tQ>n aO G f7^ Vr. b. CON P.

724-5
a',

(6

?)

&.0.

Zen.

724. 3' 6NCTi4c€ceai
:

H

||

supr. o.

727.

dXXa

||

||

719.

line (Phil. vav^&T-qv.

Sophokles evidently follows tMs 1027), irKeiaavB' fir™ vaml

came the cultus
historical

of Asklepios, whicli in

720. For T91 Bentley conj. ^5^, perhaps rightly but see note on Z 478. 723. 6Xo6<ppcoN is used in II. only of animals (0 630, P 21), in Od. only of men (a 52, k 137, X 322). There is no other allusion in H. to the story of Philoktetes, but it must have been perfeotly familiar as an essential part of the Zen. athetlzed 724-6 on legend of Troy. Medon the same grounds as 686-94. appears again in N 694, but there he is
;

times had its chief seat in Epidauros, though the temple at Trikka was always famous. (The oldest myth takes us to Lakereia on the Boibeian lake,

which we have just

left,

711.)

Homer

does not represent him as anything more than a mortal chieftain, A 194. kXuuqK6eccaN {Hv. \ey.), tt/k rpaxetav Kal tpt] ixov(Tav Schol. B, TroXXa diroKXlfMra Sxovffav, KprqiiviiSri Hesych. Der. and reading are alike uncertain. /cXijuaKieaaav might perhaps be used of terraced hill-sides, like staircases. For Oichalia

leaderafthePhthianswithPodarkes(704). 729. There is now a jump from the SE. to the W. of Thessaly, whence

and Eurytos

see on 595. 731. 'AckXhrioO : read on 518.

'A(7/cXi;7ri6o,

see

:

lAIAAOC B
ItjTTJp'

(ii)

105

dr/ddco,

IloSaXet/ato? ^Se

M.a'^dmv
eaTiyowvro.

ToZ? Se TpirjKOVTCL yX,a(j}vpal
ot 01
8'
e'x^ov

vie';

'Op/ieviov o" re Kpijvrjv "Tirepeiav,
735

T

e')(pv

Aarepiov TiTavoio re XevKO, Kaprjva,
EujOUTTuXo? 'Euai/u.oi'o? ar/\ab<;
vrje'i

Ta)v

VPX

vi6<;-

TWt B
ot B

afjM recrcrapd/covTa fieKaivai

eirovro.

"Apyiacrav ej(pv Kot VvpTwvqv ivifwVTO,
HXiivrjv re iroXtv t

"Opdrjp
tS)v
vloi;

OXooaaova

'KevKtjv,

av0

'^jefioveve /iteveTTToXe/io? UoXv-jroLTr)';,

740

HeiptOooio, tov d9avaT0<; reKero Zev?,
VTTO Tleipidocoi, TSKETO /cXuTO? 'IirTToSafieLa
(j>'^pa<i

Tov p
TOK? B

rjfian Twt, ots

ertcraTO XayvrjevTa^,

ex IItjXiov

(Sere

Koi AldiKea-at, irekaaffev
745

ovK
vio<;

o2o9,

d/Ma T&i 76 AeovTeii<i o^o<; "Aprjo<;,

vTrepdv/MOLO K.opd)vov JLatvetBao

T0t9 B

dfia TecraapaKovTa fieKaivai
S'

vrje'i

eirovro.
vr}a<;-

Vovveii';

eV

K.v(j)ov

'^ye

Bvm kal eiKoai

Twt

S'

Ei/fiji/es

eirOvTO fieveTTTo'kefj.ol re Yiepai^oi,

732. iarAp' iHTApe Ka\d> G. 733. tiSn Bfe op. Did. 735. oi 8' P. 737. TeccepciKONTa A. SpricaN CQ Bar. Lifte. 738. SpreicaN Pap. a Vr. a : yp. SpreiaN J Eust. {(nr&vLi, nva tup d,vnyp6,(pav). 740. t^on 3' S. aH
:

E

AGHR

:

||

G.
Toii

741. deciNaTON Zen.

744. aieiKECCI

:

aieionecci Demokrines.

747.

P

{supr. oTc).

||

coxa

:

Spa Vr.
Inihnec

c.
:

||

TeccepdKONra A.

748. kqJ e'lKOCl
(?).

] KOI

BcK

[

Pap.

|.

749.

yp. Sip' Vco\oi Steph. Byz.

another jump back group of towns being among those assigned to Eumelos, 711-5:
734-5.
to Magnesia, this
:7

We make

S'

TiripeLa
7r6\ei

Kprfirrj

^epalwp

Strabo

iarlv iv ix. 439.

lUff-qi

rrji.

See note

on Z 457.
738. "We

For KdpHNO of cities of. 117. now go to the N. of Central

Thessaly, the home of the Lapiths (M Oloosson 128), near the later Larissa. is said to be still, under the name of Elassona, conspicuous for its white limeStrabo says (439) that all stone rock. these towns were Peraibian till the Lapiths seized them. Here it is the *^/je! who are driven out. 741 is a very clumsy line as the text stands ; 742-4 seem meant to supplant, not to follow, 741, and to bring in the later myth of the Centaurs and Lapiths, As the of which Athens made so much. fight took place at the wedding of Peirithoos and Hippodameia, clearly T^CCTO = conceived. For the other allusions to the tale see on A 263.

742. KXvn-<5c, fern., of. e 422, S 222, 88, and even 5 442 i\oi!iTaToi dSfi'fi. S. G. §§ 116 (1), 119. 744. The Aithikes apparently dwelt in Pindos, to the W. of Thessaly. One Demokrines actually read Mdibweain, putidissime. 749. No Peraibiau towns in Thessaly are mentioned, as they have been already given to the Lapiths. The explanation of Strabo is that these Peraibians are a portion of the tribe who had been driven out of their old homes in the plain, and lived scattered among the mountains, while the bulk of the tribe lived mixed up with the Lapiths. If this is meant, it would seem that some of them must have crossed into Aitolia, for there can

T

the Aitolian though, on the other hand, it is hard to escape the suspicion that the poet of this passage supposed it to lie in Thessaly. The Thessalian Achilles prays to the Pelasgian
it is

be no question that

Dodona which

is

named

;

106
o'l

lAIAAOC B
trepl

(ii)

AcoBa)VT)v Bv(Tj(eifiepov

oIki

edevro,

750

a^(f Ifieprov Tirapijo'tov epy evefiovTo, o? p €9 TLijveiov TTpoiei KoXXippoov vSwp,
o'l

t

ovB' o ye

HrjveiMi avfifiia-yerai apyvpoSivrji,
/iiv

aXXd

re

KaOvirepdev iirtppeei rjVT
etrrtv
8'

eKaiov
airoppco^.
vlo<;,

opKOv yap Seivov XTvyo<; uSaro?
^ayvrjToiv
oi
irepl

755

^/»%6

Tlp66oo<; TevOprjBovo';

TlT/veiov

xal UijXiov elvotn^vWov

vaiecTKOv

t&v

/J,ev

Upodoo^

doo<;

riyefioveve,

T&i

S'

afia recra'apaKovTa iie\aivat I'^e? eirovTO.
'^y€fiove<;

ovToi ap

Aava&v

kul Koipavoi rjaav.

760

754. enippei Pap. J. Spra n6uonto Ar. 756. 751. ^pr' ^N^JUONTO O 760. ficON : TepepHd^NOC S TeuepH36Noc L supr, 759. TeccepdKONxa A.
: :

&aN

0, supr. c over

c.

Zeus of Dodona in n 233, and tliis may have caused the mistake. There was
indeed a legend that the oiacle of Dodona had been transferred there from Skotussa in Thessaly, but of this Strabo, p. 329, in an unfortunately mutilated passaf^e, speaks with marked incredulity. There must, however, have been some early religious connexion between Thessaly and Dodona, which may have led to the
legend. 751. TiTapiiciON, the later Europos. Bentley's TiTapri<ra6v is most tempting, because of F^pya, and of the analogy of other place-names in -r}(T<r6s cf. Lucan vi. 376 Defendit Titaressos aquas. But unfortunately it contravenes the rule that lengthening by position of a vowel short by nature is not permitted before the bucolic diaeresis. What idea the poet had in his mind about the meeting of the rivers it is hard to say. It is said that thK Europos is a clear stream which is easily to be distinguished for some distance after it has joined the Pencios white with chalk but dprupodiNHi is a strange epithet to use for a river if the
: ;

SSap, 8s re iiiyiaroi

7r^\et fiaKdpetro'i. deoiai.

the oath by Paus. iv. p. 253. The water was supposed to be fatal to life, so that the oath was originally a sort of poison-ordeal the water would kill the man who forswore himself, but spare the man who swore truly.' In Herod, vi. 74 there is a case, the only one recorded in history, where the Arkadians are asked to swear by the Styx so probably 'when the poets made the gods swear by Styx, they were only transferring to heaven a practice which had long been customary on earth.' For dnoppc&a cf. k 514 Kiirat6s d\ 6s 8ij Stuy^s iidards iffriv diroppiij^, and see M. and E.'s note there on the rivers of the infernal regions.
of
'

SpKos SeivbraTbi tc For the origin the Styx see Frazer
\

;

;

756. Once more we make a jump hack to the E. and again we have a tribe, the Magnetes, without any cities, as the towns of Magnesia have been already
;

enumerated

and

apportioned

among

emphasis is laid on its want of ch'arness. The connexion of the river with the Styx is no doubt due to the existence of some Incal cultus of the infernal deities
Spra, tilth, purely local sense of tilled fields. The word is of course common in Homer in the pregnant sense of agricultural labour. 755. SpKoc here, as often, means the object sworn by, the sanction of the oath. Cf. 38 t4 Kareipifi^vov Srifyis
of as

which we know nothing.

M

283,

in a

various chiefs, Philoktetes, Eumelos, and Eurypylos. And here no theory of a separation of the tribe will help us, as these Magnetes are expressly located about Pelion and the Peneios, the very country that we have already been through. Strabo fairly gives up the puzzle in despair : iolKoaiv oCc {pi ^arcpov &ydpojirot) dtd, ras avvexeh fieTaardffeLs /cat

^faX\d|«s Tuiv iroXiTeiHv /coi iTn/d^tis avyx^lv Kai to, dud/iara KaX rh iBvq (ix. 442), which is a mere admission of the
impossibility of any historical criticism of this part of the Catalogue. 760. The ships enumerated amount to

'

'

lAIAAOC B
Tt?

(ii)

107
evveire,

Tap

T(ov oj^

apicrTO<!

€7jv,

t7v

fioi

jMVffa,

avT&v ^S
iiriroi

linrav, ot dfi
dptcTTat,

'ATpetBrjKriv eTTOvro.
ecrav ^rjprjTidBao,

fiev /JLey

TO? 'Ev/wj\o9 eXavve
orpt^a?
oleria';,
TliepiT]!,
drj\et,a<;,

TroSco/cea?

opvi9a<;

ws,
765

(TTatpvkTji
Opitfr

eVl vcorov

e'ttra?'

ra? iv
d/i(j)a>

dpyvpoTo^o<; 'AiroXkmv,
<f>op€ov(7a<;.

(f)o^ov "Aprjo<;

dvBp&v a3 fiey dpiaro^ eTjv Te\afj,a)vio<; Ata?, o^p 'Aj^tXev? iirjviev o yap ttoXv (fyepraro^ ^ev,
761.

Tap A
:

:

riip

S Vr. b

:

t'
:

Sp

a
:

762.

irpeiaaiciN G.
766.

763. iScciN

CQK.
mepfHi

765. iccr^ac

F (R
a,
:

supr.)

icoer^ac Mor. Bar.

In: Kai

Par. h.
:

||

J {supr. a over Hp A (meplH A™, T.W.A.) 9Hp(H Harl. d. ^iprepoc JQS Harl. d, Par. d fepraTOC Ar.
nHpelH Pap.
:

yp. it» niepfH

J^) Bust.

nHepim
769.

768.

dNapfliN 8'

HQ.

e f h, Tr. b.

1186. Thuc. i. 10 suggests that by taking a mean between 120, the largest, and 50, the smallest number mentioned for ii ship's crew (see 510 and 719), we may gain an approximate idea of the numbers of the Greek army. The mean being 85, the total on this plan will come to just over 100,000. another 'pappo763. <pHpHTid3ao, nymic' (see on 621). Eumelos was son It is of of Admetos, son of Pheres. course possible that the poet meant that the horses were the horses of Admetos, and only lent to Eumelos by his father, or inherited, as in the case of the NTjXiyVai iiriroi of Nestor, A 597 ; but this 376. is not likely, of. coats aiid 765. Srpixac oier^ac, one The 6- is the same as in in years. Sirarpos, A 257, but the relation of it to the commoner d- (for *ni-, short form of sem-, one) is not clear. Cf. also 6yd<TTuipofioyduTTup by the side of dyd(rTopesaSe\<pol SlSviiot in Hesych., and o/iis by The -i- of oier^as presumably &fia. represents only the lengthening by ictus Cf. Hesych. aierijbefore F of dFerias.

mares were exactly of equal height at every point as measured by a level across Reichel remarks (H. W. their backs. 22) that such equality was important when horses were harnessed to the same

yoke across their necks.
766.
IlripeiriL

The reading here
;

is

doubtful.
itacistic

seems to be merely an

variant

though Steph. Byz. and Hesychios mention a town of that name in 'ihessaly, nothing more is known of it, and it is probably only a deduction from this line, supported by the fact
that the position of Pieria is clearly too far north. Besides, the horses were evidently bred by Apollo during his Hence service with Admetos at Pherai. Valckenaer oonj. ^ripelrji., which has a shade of MS. support, and would be satisfactory but for the fact that the Thessalian town is ^epai (711), ^ijpai But the patronymic being in Messenia. iriptiTidSris points to some variation of quantity, as it is evidently connected with the name of the town.
767.

^

m

9660N "ApHoc cpopeoOcac,

carry-

TCI
Hrei.

airoeTfj beside derfo'
yevviiijxva,

to,

tul a&rSi.

ing the panic of war into the ranks of the enemy. Cf. note on E 272 p,-fi<TTape (?)
769. This and the next line are an interpolation, apparently intended to bring the Catalogue into 276. harmony with lines such as

and again

lierijs

erijs.

Wackeruagel's explanation

6 airoolFo-

Ferijs (olFos

= one)

leaves the other forms

awkward

See Schulze Q. E. xinaccounted for. CTa9<iAH (distinguished by 495. p. accent from a-Ta^vX-fi, a bunch of grapes) as XaofoiKis is explained by Schol.

*

A

StaP'^TTis, ds &lia irKdrO! kuI
i.e.

ii\j/os

ixerpS,

the

still

sisting of T-square.

familiar mason's level, cona plummet hanging in a

The

sense

is

that the two

349 has shewn that the scansion ii.t]vU is purely Attic, the penultimate being always short in H. He suggests with great probability that 768 originally ended TbSas iixiis 'AxCK\eis, Euripides and was followed by 771.
Schulze Q. E.
p.

108
iTTTTOi

lAIAAOC B
6
,

(n)
770

oi

^opeecTKOv afiv/jLOva UrjXetcova,
iv vrjeaai Kopeovlcri irovToiropoiai,
A'Yafj,€fj,vovi

a\X
KeiT

fjb^v

airofirjvicra'i

Troi/Mevi

"kawv

ArpetBrjt, Xaol

Se irapb, pT/yfuvi 6aXdcrcr'r]<i
levTe<;

BicTKOLaiv TepirovTO koI alyaverjio'iv

To^oKTiv

0'

tTTTTOt

§6 TTap'

appbacTiv

olcTiv

6icaaT0<;

775

Xmrbv

epeirrofjLevoi

iXeoQpeirTov re aeXivov
8'

ecrraaav
(poiTcov

apfiara
ol S

eS irenrvKaap^va kbIto avaKTUiv
ap7jt(j)i\ov

iv KXiabTjK-

o,p')(ov

irodiovTe^
oiiBe

6v6a Kol ev9a Kara a-rparov

p,d'^ovTO.
780

oi

S

ap

'laav,

to?

el

re irvpX -^daiv "jraaa ve/jLoiro'

jala B

vTrecnevdj^L^e Att

w? repTriKepavvcoi
<yaiav
£.
XJ.
||

'^coofievai,
772.
&'

ore t

dp,<pl

Tvcjicoi'i

Ifida-crrji

SnouHNideac Bar. Mor.
«,.

||

nouie[Ni Pap.
B'

773. napai

H

:

nep\
a.

Usupr.W
778. oi

pHrueiNi Pap.
:

777. 3' cfl 780.

:

aO

PR

:

ik

aNOKTOc Pap.

iA' Vr. b.

Yean

:

^ccqn P.

781.
:

6necT0N<Sxize

Harl. a: OnocroKiixize
ihs dir' S.\Xr]s

GH.

782. }(COOJa^NCOI
||

dptaTapxosoiiTuis:

JPQRS Pap. a nvh X'^'^^^o'^
||

t' om. G ipxv^ Schol. Pap. a (Did.). Tuipco^a Pap. o. iudccei CGQ(P" e corr.) Vr. a.
||

r'

Sohol. on

17.

TU9ciNi

P

!

Iph. Aul. 206-26 clearly had the passage before him, but knows of no horses fleeter than those of Eiimelos, with which Achilles competes in speed of foot. 771. KopcoNlci, a word recurring only in the phrase vqval k. No doubt the

by others

at the beginning of F. 780 seems to be an exaggeration of 455, and

which is as great as if the whole earth were on fire. The idea is not the same as in A 596 fi.6.pi>avTo
to refer to light,
Si/Mas TTvpbs aWofiivoio.

n6uioito

is

pass,

ordinary expl., curved (of the upward curve at bow and stern), is coi'rect ; cf. KopibvT), of the curved handle or hook on the door (a 441, etc.), and the tip of the bow (A 111). (A few ancient commentators explained black as crows !) 772. dnouHNicac the airo- here seems to be intensive, as in our vulgar phrase 'raging away,' giving full vent to his
'
'

only here.

The

act.

means
;

or drive to pasture (i 233) feed upon (of fire, •* 177), to inhabit, or
to possess

deed out the mid. to
to

(Z 195).

:

781. The connexion of Zeus repirtKipamos with the phenomena of a volcanic district has been thought to allude to the violent electrical disturbances which often accompany eruptions. "Apijua is

anger. So also 230, I 426, Cf. r 415 dTrexealpjiv, 378.
dirap^ffffaffOai, I
BavtJiA(Tai,

H

T

62,

ir

T 183
diro-

309

diroenrelv.

^ 49

said to be a volcanic region in Kilikia, or, according to others, in Mysia, Lydia, or Syi-ia. The latter name suggests

and Lat.

desaevire, etc.

Aram,

the

native

name

of

Syria.

774 = 5 626. airaN^HiciN, either from at^, as a spear for hunting goats, or from dt(Ta-w. the former derivation is supported by I 156, where they are actually used
against goats.
777. nenuicacu^Na, lorapped up with covers, tt^ttXoi, as B 194, to keep them clean while not in use. In 503 the word seems to be used in a hyperbolical

Evidently Arima or the Arimoi are best located in mythland. A, perhaps
following Ar. gives Wvapliiois, and so Virgil must have read, Aen. ix. 716 ' durumque oubile Inarime lovis imperils imposta Typhoeo.' The metaphor of lashing reappears in the story of the defeat of Typhoeus by Zeus in Hes. Theog. 857, where he is described as a monster with a hundred snake's heads spitting fire, the son of Gaia and Tartaros. So also Pindar, in a magnificent passage o{ Pytk. i., where his birthplace is given
,

*

by its ornaments.' 780. have two more short similes describing the march to battle, in addition to those of 459 sqq., to be followed
sense, 'hidden

We

lAIAAOC B
eiv
cos

(ii)

109
evvdi;-

Apifioi^,

66l
viro

^aa\
B'

Tv^eoeo<;

'ififievai

apa T&v

iroaal fieya arevw^b^eTO ryaia

epjfpiievmv

fiaXa
8

&Ka

SoeTrprjO'crov
iroB'^ve/jiO';

ireBooio.

785

Tpaxnv
01

ajjeXo'; ^Xde

mxea

^I/3t?

Trap Atos aljio'^oio aiiv ayyeXiTji aXejeivrji-

S

dyopa'; ar/opevov
ofirj>yepie<;,
rjfjiev

ejri

Tlpidf/,oio

6vp7jb<Ti

TravTei;

veoi rjBe jepovre';.

dr/'^ov

B

IcTTa/Mevrj

7rpo(7e<f>r)

TroSa?

WKea

'I/si?'

790

eiaaTO Be ^doyyrjv
b?

vie
l^e,

YlpidixoLO

TloXlriji,
TreiroiOai^,

Tpdxov
eTT

<7KOTro<i

TroBcoKebtjia-t,

TU/ijSojt
BejfjLevo<;

dKporarcot AlavrjTao yepovTO^,
d(f>opfi7]deiev

OTnrore vav<f)iv
X'^P'^i
'^^*

A'^aiot,-

783.

Some add

CTONaxfzero

CGHPQRiJ
Vr.
II

6uHrup^ec
ICQTO Pap.

P
a.

a.
:

3^

8pu6eNTi, "TBhc in nioNi Bi^ucoi Strabo. 784. a (with e supr. over c instead of o). 789. 791-5 d9. At. 790. Juer^cpH Vr. b (and supr.). 791. rip S Vr. b. eicau^NH Eust. uieT Vr. a ufeT J Pap. o.
Harl.

H

||

jj

AR

:

792. no3a3KEiaici G.

793. aicuiHTao

Pap.

a.

||

r^poNTOC

:

Snoktoc Pap.

J

Q

(and yp. J™).
as

Eilikia,

but his prison as beneath
:

is

Cumae and Aetna.
785. di^npHccoN nedioio for this local expresses a gen. see S. G. § 149 ; it vague local relation {within, in the sphere 'This use of the gen. is of, etc.).' accordalinost confined to set phrases ingly it is only found with the gen. in -010 (the archaic form).' Of. 801, and
' ;

to

12

264
483. 786.

'iva irpTjffaajfiev

odoto,

and note on

A

We now come to the Catalogue of the Trojans and allies, introduced by a short narrative. 788. The gate of the king's palace has always been the place of justice and of a audience among eastern nations familiar example is the Sublime Porte.' 791-5 were obelized by Ar. on good grounds if the advance of the Greeks was all that had to be announced, there but if was no need of the goddess the Trojans lacked courage and had to be persuaded to advance, the goddess must appear in person. When the gods take human shape, they are wont to leave at their departure some sign by which they may be known. The message is not adapted to the tone of a son speaking to his father, but is intense and the {iTnTeTafihot) and reproachful words of 802 do not suit Polites it is impose the Iris herself who should command.' On the other hand, 1. 798
; ' :

'

rather suited to a human warrior than a goddess. But the whole passage seems forced, and out of place. 804-5 should belong to a description of the first landing of the Greeks (compare the similar advice of Nestor .362-8, and the building of the wall in 337-43) ; and it has been remarked that as a matter of fact the numbers of the enemy must have been largely reduced by the tenth year of the war, especially as the Myrmidons are no longer among them. Robert {Bild u. Lied p. 17) has shewn that Polites was probably the Trojan sentinel in the Kypria, so that the whole passage probably comes thence with the rest of the Catalogue. 793. The tomb of Aisyetes is not again named as a landmark but other barrows are mentioned in a similar manner, e.g. 811, and the ariii.a'l\ov 415,

H

;

K

;

A

166, 371, fi 349. 794. BerjueNoc, apparently a perf. part, with irregular accent. So also I 191, S 524, V 385, iroTiSiyixevos 415, I 628, 123, iiroSiyiievos v 310, ir 189.

H

K

Cobet would read d^x/J-evos (a form mentioned in the Etym. M. and found as a variant on I 191 in A) as a nonthem. pres. His objection to the text,
however, applies only to the ordinary view that Siyjxevos is an aor. form
(iSijiiriv)

;

;

which

is

the sense waiting.

plainly unsuitable to For other cases of

:

no
rSit,

lAIAAOC B
fitv

(ii)

ieio'afievr)
rot,

irporre^r]

"rroBwi

mKea

Ipi<i'

795

"

&

yepov, alei

fivBoi

^ukot, oLKpnoL elcriv,
8'

ws TTOT
?l

eV
TTO)

elp7jV7]<;-

jroKep.o';
fid')(a<i

aXiao'TO'} bpapev.

fjuev

Br)

fiaXa iroWa

elcrrfKvOov

avhpSiV,

dXX' ov
Xlr]v

TOiovBe Toaovhe re Xaov oircoTra'
eoLKOTe<:
rj

yap ^vWocaiv

\jrap,d9oit7iv

800

epy(0VTai TreSioio
"Ekto/j,

/j.aj(r)crofjievot

Trporl acrrv.
a)Se

aol Se fiaXicTT

iirireXXo/Mai,

Se

pe^af

iroWol yap Kara acTTV fieya Tlpia/Mov aXKi] S' aXKwv yX&acra 7rdXva'7repe<ov
Tolcrvu 6KaaTo<; avrjp
a-rip,aiveT(o,

eiruKOvpoi,,

avOpon'irfov
ap'^ec,

olai irep

805

Tuv

S'

e^njyebado),
e<f>a6
S'
,

Koa/Mrjcrd/Mevo';
S"

TToXt^jra?."

c5?

"^KTCop

ov ti
iirX

6ea<;

eVo?
S

riyvoirfaev,

alyfra

eXva dyopr/v

rev'^^ea

icraevovTO.

795. JUIN

:

c]9iN Pap. | : C91N J {yp. ixm).

||

eicajucNH Pap.

a.

|i

npoce9H ACP

(and yp. A). 797. ooc hot' In' : cic t^ hot Pap. a : eoc re noT Pap. J &cnep In" 6. 798. fthn ujkH Ar. (A sttpr. , T. W. A. ) S Harl. d, Par. e fi 3fi ukn Par. li (and yp. J™). After 798 Pap. J adds eNea i3on n[XeiCTOuc j, Vr. b 9purac a]Nepac aio[XonuXouc = P 185. 799. toT6n tc U. 800. XiaN J {yp. XIhn) XeiHN Pap. |. 801. npori Ar. Zen. Aph. (ksupr., T.W.A.): nepl fi.
Vr. a
:

ueTl(pH
: :

Q

:

hi noXucnop^coN
802.
(£>ae
a,
II

a
S.

:

S)ii.

re [G]J

:

mB^
a.

ti L.

803.
\\

Kara

:

n[epl

?

Pap.
807.

f.

804.

806. 6' om.
:

U {add.

U^).

fewriiceco Q.

e^ax Pap.

ArNcl£)HceN

H

HPNOiHiceN Pap.

perf.

§
12

23

without reduplication see H. G. {oXSa, ^pxarai, iaaai, ? Upevro 125, and one or two other doubtful

than widely

forms).

Or

Siy/xevos itself
;

might be

a.

syncopated present there is probably no reason for supposing that the aif'ection of X by /4 perfect stems.
is

confined to aor. and

scattered, and even so is not appropriately used of certain definite tribes, instead of mankind at large, But if the passage is to be saved from ludicrous weakness, we must omit both 803 and 804 ; the injunction then becomes, not an absurdly obvious piece of

This is apparently the view taken by van L. Mich. p. 384 S^arai may then also be a non - them.
;

Na09iN this form of vavs occurs only for an ablatival gen., with a specially locative sense.
pres.
S^x-"'"'"

=

tactical advice, but a, call to immediate action, such as the context requires let each commander give his men the
'

(M

147).

:

word

ff. O. §§

154-8. 795. uiN in this phrase
796.
ipiXoi is pred.,

is

to he taken

with npoclfH.
SKpiroi (endless,
:

(to advance) and lead them against the enemy.' As Greeks and Trojans always talk freely together, it is absurd to suppose that the Trojans and their allies had difficulty in understanding one another's language. Cf. note on

867. 8O5. For
8°»-.

see on 246) goes with iidBoi. 802. EKTop, col Be for the use of 5^

chuqin^co

cf.

A

289.

Aisch. Pr. V. 3, and notes on A 340, 540. 804. Cf. A 437-8, and \ 364-5 aXi re
of.

"H0oi(rT£,

<rol

5^,

n°^"Ta<:. a Herodotean form not recurring in H. ttoX/ttjs is found only ^ ^58, X 429, 7, 131, p 206.
;

TToKKoii! p6a-Kei.

yaia

/j.i\aiva To\v(rirspiai

where the epithet is more in harmony with the metaphor of men as fed by the soil here it means no more
d,v6pwirom,
;

807. ArNolHceN, ' the word which led astray the interpolator of 791-5,' according to Ar., may quite well mean 'did not ignore,' i.e. disobey (Scliol. A).

lAIAAOC B
iratrai
Tre^ot,

(ii)

111

S'

a>i>yvvvTO
iinrrje<;

irvKat,
ttoXii?

e'/c

S

ecravro Xao'i,
810

6'

re-

S'

opvfiaySo^ opwpec.

60-Tt

Se Tt? irpoirdpoiOe 7ro\t05 alireia KoXdyvrj,

iv ireSUot airdvevOe, •7repiSpofio<s evda koI evOa,
TTjv
iy

TOi,

dvSpe<;

Sarieiav KiK\r)<Ticovcnv,
TToXvcrKapOfioto yivplvq';'
815

dOdvaroi Se re

(rrjjJM

ev6a Tore Tpwe? re SiexpLdev ^S' inrUovpoi,.
Tpaxn, fiev ^jefioveve
fj,eya^ KopvOaio\o<s "Ektcop

Pap.

810. 6puriiaa6c CGHJPRJ7. a. 813. BoreiaN Pap. u.

811. 814.

n6XHOC J (i supr. over h) 1? noXucKdpuoio P.

:

n6Xic

V

809. nacai dvTi toO 6\ai (and so 340) Ar. , i. e. the gates were thrown ivide open ; because, with the doubtful exception of E 789 iruXoi ^apSdvuu, H. does not

M

two without any
835
f.,

tribal

names (828

f.,

seem to have conceived Troy as haviug any gates except the Skaian. But in all
the other phrases (A 65, N 191, 408, 548, etc., and even i 389) to which Ar. referred to support his theory of ttos = SXos, the emphasis lies on the fact that the whole of something is affected when the it might have been only a part difficulty here obviously is that we can hardly conceive a part of a gate being opened ; iraaat could at the most mean that both the craviSes were opened, not one only, and then it would obviously be an unnatural phrase. It is better to oon.sider the poet as conceiving Ilios, like all great towns, as many-gated, but as only naming the one gate which was specially recorded by his tradition. 811. The tomb of Myrine, like that of Aisyetes, is not again named in the but both names are probably Iliad traditional, and do not look like the Myrine is invention of an interpolator. said to have been one of the Amazons who invaded Phrygia (r 189). She is evidently the eponym of the Aiolic
;

853 f.), all lying along the Hellespont and the south shore of the Euxine. Niese suggests that these may probably be taken from an early form of the Argonautio legend, as they all lie on the course there taken. The rest of the Catalogue contains only names of tribes with occasional mention of a single city. The arrangement of the allies is radial, not concentric, along four lines running NW. (844-50), E. (851-7), SE. (858-63), S. (864-77), the extremity of each line being marked by TTJKe or TrjXdSev. The Trojans and allied tribes form a central group There are serious differences (816-43). from the rest of the JZiad for instance in K 428 ff. we have a list of Trojan allies omitting the Paphlagonians (who do not reappear in the Iliad) and Kikones (P 73 only, and Od.), but including the Leleges and Kaukones whom this Catalogue omits, though they are named
;

;

town

Myrina

;

Kyme

and

Smyrna

T 96, 329, * 86. Ennomos (860) and Nastes and Amphinoipos (875) are not slain by Achilles in the fight at the river as we have it in i. In 511 the leader of the Mysians is not Chromis or Ennomos, but Hyrtios. On the other hand, several lines seem to be
again in

S

names from their derived For Amazons, Strabo 550, 623, 633. the language of gods and men see A 403 ; riiv nip di]iJ.aSeffT4pai> d.v$pi!>iirois tt)v Si iXtiBfj Beois vpoa&VTei, Schol. B. 813. Borieia = Brier hill.
equally
816.
ditfers

taken from the Hiad, e.g. 822 from 95-7, 831-4 from A 99 f., 837-9 from 329-32. This all seems to point to

M

M

older material worked

up and partly
KopueafoXoc exKdpvSa

adapted to this place.
plained
al6Wuir>,
o

klv&v t^v

The Catalogue OF THE Tkojans

waving

the helm, or

more simply with
note
Mss.

notably from that of the Greeks in the evident want of detailed knowledge of the countries with which it Three groups of towns are given. deals.

sparkling
accent,

helm,

cf.

Grammarians
simple adj.

and

on vary

E
ih

707.

many writing

-aiiXos as in

the the

:

112
TIpia/jiiS7}<;'

lAIAAOC B

(ii)

afia rwt ^e "ttoXv ifKetaroi Kai aptaroi,
f/,6/iaoTe<;

Xaol dap'^crcrovTo

iy^eirjieri.

AapBavimv avr
Alvela<;,
"IStj?

rjp'^ev

ev<s

Trat? 'A'y^i,(Tao
St'

rbv vtt

^Ay^iaTji re/ce

'A(j}poSi,Tr],

820

ev Kvrjfiotcrt 6ea
otoy,
cLjMa

^poT&t evvqOelaa,
vie,
TracrT;?.

ovK
^

rwi ye Bvoo 'AvTrjvopot;

Ap'^eKoj(p<s
oi

T 'A/ca/Lta? re, fia^7)<; ev elBore Se Ze\eiav 'ivaiov vTraX TroSa veiarov

I8779,

d^veiob, irivovTe'; vScop fiekav AlarjTToio,
T/o&ie?, TOiv

825

avT ^/o%e Avkolovo'; ayXao^ vlof TldvBapo<;, in koX to^ov 'AttoWcov avTb<; eBcoKev. oi B 'ABprjcTTeidv T el'^ov kol BrjfLOV Airaiaov Koi Tlnveiav e'^ov koX T-rjpei'r]'; opo<; aiTrv, Twv ^px ABpTjcTTO^ re xal Afi^io<i XtvoOcopr]^,
' '

830

vie

BvQ)

MepoTTOS TiepKwaiov, 09

Trepl

irdvrcov

^iBee fj,avT0(7vva<;,

ovBe 069 iraiBa^

eacr/ce

817. TCOl re: rcU'de P.

818. jueuaclTec
t'

CHJPQK
.

819.

aSr'

:

t' aih-'
. .

P

:

8'

oOt' V:

t'

Pap.

a-).

821.

aO L knAuhci
:

824. NiaTo[N Pap. a. Vr. A. 828. oi 3' Spa 3pHCTei<iN PE {tiv^s ap. Eust.) oV 3' Sp" hhpAcra&N HC: oV t' ddpt^creiON J (yp. oY 3' Sp' d3p(icTeiaN). 6i3pdcTeiaN G (om. t'). 829. nJTuaN 'hfpu G : nlruaN eTxoNf Strabo. TupeiHC GP. 830. S3pacT6c G
||

a9po3iTHi Pap. a^ (-hi -h 823. fipxiXoxoc K. t' om. Pap. |. Q KNi^uaici G. 825. neiNONTec Pap. h, |. 826. TcbN t' P Vr. A. aO
E.
820. flrxeicH
.
:
||

:

||

||

SN3pHCToc
koiic

S.

II

ojuupeioc Pap. a.

831.

nepKCOciou

:

KepKoniou G.
:

832. o03'

ACGHJPQE
a.

Vr. a b

A

:

oiiSfe

&iic

U
A

Lips. Eton. Vr. c

ou3' eouc

Ambr.

.

oCi3e6uc Pap.

818. Jueua6Tec: for the variation in quantity compared with iMe/MaQres N 40 see S. O. § 26. The partic. is used without an infin. = eager, N 40, 46 (78
jxai/iCiffiv),

106 sqq. of Teukros,

276, etc.

similar phrase is used 441. 828. These towns lie at the extreme N. of the Troad, where the Hellespont opens out into the Sea of Marmora.

A

819.

For

the
')

Dardanelles
821.
Of.

see
;

Dardanians T 215 sqq.

(whence

tT^ZZ Verhapf Itj^nllfyTP
identical with
(see

I&jf T^f ''Ir'?
^^^ff

'

^^7

^'^P'*''"'-

B 313

and

for eeit BpoTcSai

cCiNHeeTca II 176.
824. These Tpfies are a separate clan

the Adrastos of Sikyon note on 572). It is certainly curious

doubtless split off from the Trojans proper, and settled a short distance away to the NE. See also note „ . nr The A i on E 105. rm. Aisepos runs into IT, the Sea of Marmora near Kyzikos. NslayoN, nethennost, where Ida runs down to the sea vide A 381 '
• • • '

who had

*!itl w^""^*^

^PP?""

,

^ll°f'^C

Amphiaraos, \ "^\ "P/'th Adrastos the
."^

'''''of fA^"

^?P'''°''
in

l^^^ t^ E 612 son of Selai^os. Apaisos is lu ^^a^o^ f%°! i=«"nOsXiNootboH' see 529 ~ oqi a h oon "00
t
• 1

Paisos or
-foi For
,

^1

•£. T- ~f °"^^ °^'^ (crFois). ^}^?f ° ^"^ ^"^ ° Merops seems to have migrated from
,°*^

^^,„::-

4

827. t6son, the bow, in the sense of skill in archery, ace. to Schol. for ;

A

Pandaros had acquired his bow himself,

Perkote (see 835), or rather the name points to some hero-worship common to all the district cf. Ap. Rhod. i. 975.
;

lAIAAOC B
<rT6t^etj/

(ii)

113
Se ol ov

69

TToXefJLOv
/cjjpe?

<p6iar)vopa'

ra

n
835

•jreideo'drjv

ykp dyov

/xeXaz/o?

Oavdroio.

ot S'

dpa

TLepKcoTTjv Koi TipaKTiov apL^evefiovro

KoX

ZiTjcrrov

koX "A/3vBov
rjp')^

e')(pv
'

icaX

Btav 'Apia^rjv,

T&v av6

TpTaKiSr}!;

Aa-io<;

opj^afMO';

dvBpwv,

'Ao-io? "TpTaKiSr]';,
aWeove<; fieyaXoL,
IttttoOooi;

ov 'Apicr^rjdev (f)epov
diro

"ttttoi,

irorafjLov

%eXX,rjevTO<;.

B

dye

<j)v\a

TleXaa-'yciv

eyxe(np,a}pcov,

840

T(bv T(bv
vie

ol

Adpiaav

iptjScoKaKa vaierdeaKov

rip')^

'l7nro6oo<; re IlvX,ai6<;

t

o^o^ "Ajot/o?,

Sva ArjOoio Hekaayov TevrafiiBao. avTap @pr)iKa<; fjy A/ca^a? Ka\ Tleipoo<; rip(o<;, oaaovi EXXt^ctttoz'to? drydppoo<; ivTO<; iepyei.
Eu^Tj^ao? B
vio';

845

dp-^o^ Ji-iKovcov ^v

al')(^p,7]Td(ov,

Tpoi^Tjvoio Bi,oTpe(peo<;

K.edBao,

835. nepKc£>nHN

G

Vr. b.
II

837. TciN

V
:

aQ G.

841. X<ipiccaN
fi.

GJFU supr.:
a.
||

XdpTccoN
Szca G.

A

(T.W.A.).

NaiETdecKON GJPQ

NaieriiacKON

842 om. Pap.

844. neipcdc J Eust.

847. diorpoip^oc GJ.

836. As Niese remarks, it is natural that in a TreptTrXous such as that of the Argonauts Sestos and Abydos, on opposite sides of the Hellespont, should be joined together, but not that in a geographical list they should be put under the same ruler. Sestos on the N. shore must have belonged to the Thracians (844). Ace. to Schol. B, however, Sestos was awarded to Abydos in a dispute with Athens on the authority of this line. The other towns are on the S. shore. 839. aYecoNec, apparently sorrel or brown. The epithet is used to mean (a) shining, especially of iron or bronze, (J) reddish-coloured or tawny, of animals (cf. fulvus from fulg-eo), especially the lion, the bull (n 488), and eagle (0 690). Others understand it to mean of fiery courage,' others (see Ameis on t 372) 'shining' with sleek coats or feathers. It is hardly possible to decide between these the only important argument urged is that in 9 185, where Hector's four horses are UdvSos, il6daf>yos, AXBwv, and Adfiiros, the two first clearly refer to colour but the last name would support Ameis's interpretation.
'

;

;

840. ^rxecLucbpcoN, see on A 242. The Pelasgians are introduced as though they were inhabitants of the Troad, all

the preceding nations being evidently

regarded as lying within the dominion of Priam, though having their own chiefs cf. Q 544-5, where the limits given include all the towns hitherto named. (So Leleges and Eilikes, not named here, lived in Troas, from a comparison of T 92, Z 397, with I 329.) The Larissa should then be that known as KaS' 'Ajxa^iTbv, only twenty-five miles from Troy (Strabo p. 620). But this does not suit P 301, where this same Hippothoos dies r^X' dirh Aapi{r7]9. On this ground Strabo decides for Larissa near Kyme in Aiolis. The simplest explanation is to suppose that the Catalogue speaks of the Trojan Larissa, but that the poet of P was thinking of another. This he might easily do, as no less than eleven towns of the name are recorded by Steph. Byz. and Strabo (p. 440). The name is always brought into connexion with the Pelasgians whether as a historical fact or as a mere hypothesis we are not in a position to say. 845. Int6c ^eprei, of a boundary on one side only, see 617, 201, and Ji 544. The Thracians seem to be limited to the Thracian Chersonese and neighPeiroos comes from Ainos, bourhood A 520. Iphidamas the Thracian leader (A 221) is not named here. 846. For the Kikones see c 39 sqq. They lived on the coast of Thrace:
;

M

;

; :

114

lAIAAOC B
avTap
Jlvpalj(jj/q<i

(ii)

aye Tlaiova'i arjKvKoTo^ov<s

TrfKoOev ef 'A/jlvSmvo^,

cm

'A^iov

eiipv piovro<s,

A^iov, ov koXKkttov vSap iirtKiSvaTai atav.
Tla(pXa'yovo)V S
'^yeiTO
IlvXatyU.ei'eo?

850

Xdaiov

Krjp

6^
o'C

Ei^erwy, o9ev rjfitovcov yevo<; a/ypoTepdcov,

pa

"K.VTQ}pov ejfpv

koX

ArjtTajjbov

afi(pevefjL0VT0

dfi(f)b

re Hapdevcop 7roTa/j,ov kXvto, Sw/Mar

evaiov,
855

K.pco/Mvdv

T

KlyiaXov re koX

vyjrifKoiii;

Epvdivov;.

avTap 'AXi^dvaiv 'OSio? Kal

'^iricTTpo^o<; ^/3%oi'

848. Some added riHXer^NOc e' ui6c nepid^ioc 'AcreponaToc oVh duudcoNOC dBud&Noc Steph. Byz., Suidas. 850. aToN
: :

(Eust). 849. Harl. b, Par. d^

i) ypaipri Eust). Others wrote 'A., coi K. 0. i. AThc (Strabo) or "A. oO k. ATa (Eudoxos ap. Sohol. A 239. aToN rivh oi rr/v yrjv ivbriirav dXXd riva vriyiiv nuXauiaN^oc R. kqI Eust.). 851. nau9\ar6NCON R. d' om. S. 862. ts InctAc (or In^hc) Zen. gpr' eNduoNro Strabo G. 854. dcojuar' ^noion ^NQON J. rivis Kp&UNQN KcoBiaX6N Te Strabo (cf. Ap. Rhod. 865. Kp&uaN JR

(SiTTuis
£i.

i.

||

||

:

II

:

:

^piei^Nouc PQ 942 Kp<ji^la\oi> KpS/ivdn re). ^pueeJNOuc Pap. a. Kallistliene,s added after 855 KaiiKCONac <3'> aOr' fire IIoXukX^oc u16c duiiucoN, oV nepi riape^NioN nOTQubN KXurii SobuaT' ^nqion (Eust.). 856. ol /liv 'AXazc£)NCON, oi S' 'AuazcbNCON, rb 8' fe 'AXOBhc, is 'AXdnHC Hj is 'AX6Bhc Strabo. ypdcpei. ["B<^opos] oOt-ws ainhp 'AjuazdbNCON 'O. Kai 'E. fipxoN, l:Xe6NT' fa 'AXOnHC, 8e' 'AuazoNidcoN r^Noc 4cTiN idem. 'OXizconcon and XoXOBhc are also mentioned by Eust. but all these variants are conjectures in the teeth of the old Mss. (Strabo).
ii.
||

:

||

,

*

'

till

the time of Herod,

(vii.

59,

108,

110). 848.

The Paionians

as spearmen heavy -armed soldiers, not archers Herod, mentions the (except K 428). legend that they were of Trojan lineage, Asteropaios is not V. 13 (vii. 20, 75). mentioned among their leaders, although, according to $ 156, he must, by a strict reckoning of days, have been iu Ilios at the time which the Catalogue is made to suit. The praise given to the Axios (W. of the Strymon in Macedonia, now

scribed
i.e.

are elsewhere deand charioteers,

mules in the literal sense is of course a physical impossibility. Hehn thinks that the Enetoi made a trade of breeding
' '

mules and

sold them ' unbroken ' to their neighbours, but ayporipa. cannot =d5/i^s. However, the discovery of the breeding of mules is attributed to the

is

theVistrizza)causedgreatdifiiculties,asit and always was, apparently, a very The variants given above dirty stream.
testify

to

the attempts

to

evade

the

Mysians, who were neighbours of the Paphlagonian s and gave Priam his mules see note on 278. In historical times the only known 'Everoi (or 'Eyeroi as Strabo writes) were Illyrians (subsequently the founders of Venice). It was concluded that they must have emigi'ated W. from Paphlagonia very soon after the Trojan war. Mules are of course commonly mentioned in the 11. though the ass is only once named
,

difficulty by transferring the eulogy to ' Aia, which was said to be the name of the main spring of the Axios, and to be clear and bright. Plato 851. XdcioN Kflp : cf. A 189. quotes the phrase, Theaet. 194 B. The wild mules are supposed to be Jaggetais of Tartary [equus hemionus, Linn.), a species intermediate between the horse and the ass, of which some rumours
' ' '

(A 558, where see note). 855. The lines added by Eallisthenes (vide supra) are of course intended to remedy the omission of the Kaukones, who appear among the Trojan allies in K 429, T 329. Other Kaukones in Elis are mentioned in y 366 (of. Herod, i.
147). 856. In this line we appear to reach fairyland. The conjectural readings of

must have come westward along the
coast of the Euxine.

A

breed of wild

the ancients- (vide supra) shew that no identification with historical regions was

:

lAIAAOC B
Trjkodei)

(ii)

115
'•/eve&X.'q.

ef

AXv/St/?, oOev
Se
X.p6fji,i<;

dpyvpov iarl
"EivvofjbO'i

Mua-wv

^px^ Kot

olcovKTTrj'i'

oXX' ovK olmvolariv epvaaro Krjpa /MeXaivav,

aW'
611

eSa/47?

utto %e/}cri 7ro8(UKeo?
001,

AlaKiSao
deoeiBr]'}

860

iroTaiMSx,,

irep

Tpa)a<} Kepai^e Koi aXXov<;.
A.(TKavio<;

$op«U9 av ^pvya<; ^je kol
Tfj\

ef 'AcrKaviT]^'

fiifiaa-av S'

va-fuvi fid^eadai,.

M.'^iocnv

av

M.icr0\i]<;

re koX "Ai/rtc^o? •^yrjadcrdTjv,
XifivT],

vie Ta\aifieveo<;,
oi

rm

Tvyait] reKe

865

KoL M.ijiova<; rjyov vtto TfimXcot yeya&Ta^.
No<7T7;9 av K.apS)v rjyija-aTO ^ap^apo^covav,

oi M.iX7}T0v
858. xpoufoc

e')(OV

^dtp&v t

opo<;

aKpiro^vWov
861.
:

J

iyp- XP'^'"><=):

860-1

dB. Ar.

KEpdYze Kai

:

Kepat864.

zcro G.

862.

a3

3fe

Strabo.
||

863. ucjueTNi Pap. a

OcuiNH(i)

GPQ U.

865. nuXaiu^Neoc S U: nuXaiu^Noc Q JueceXHC : nvh M^crpHC Eust. re om. P. rurafH : TurafH P (and nHXeu^Neoc G yp. TeKexxenioc J {supr. ai over Xeu). XIunhi Chairis and Hsupr.): iv Twi rupafH Schol. Pap. a (so Mass. a/p. Eust). 866. irpo(Typd<f>ov<ri nvh {ri Kar' 'EipiiriSriP Eust.) TiucbXcoi un6 Niq>6eNTi, Diodoros. juciXhton 868. oV : oV Bfe R. 'TaHC iN nioNi aAucoi Strabo, Eust. (= T 385). 9eipcoN AC6 Vr. b 9eeipcoN fi. Pap. IX.
:
|| || ||

II

;

as Strabo says, maythe Chalybes in historical times were famous miners, but produced iron only, not silver, Xen. Anab. v. 5. Armenia how1, Strabo pp. 549-51. ever, close to them, was the home of silver (see 0. Schrader' Spraxihv. tend reN^eXw = birthUrgesch. pp. 258 ff.). Paley compares ipyupov place only here. 7n/7^ of the silver mines of Laurion in Aisch. Pers. 238. 858. These Mysians are Asian, and geographically, at least, distinct from 5. Chromis those of Thrace, see on

possible.

'AXii^ij,
:

though
159).

rivers are often fathers (e.g.

$

be

XaKi^

The variant

\l/ivrii

(locatival)

was

to avoid this objection, by making VvyalT] the name of the nymph. 867. BapfiapofcbNcoN seems to refer only to the harshness of the dialect, as

meant

N

is

called Chromios in P 218, 494, 634. Four others of the name are mentioned. 861. &< noTaJui&i, sc. #15sqq., where
;

Ennomos is, however, not named (but hence Aristarchos obelized see P 218)
860-1.
863.

Thuo. remarked (i. 3). H. does not make any broad distinction between Achaians and barbarians. So Sicrias dypi.o^iii'ovs 6 294. This marked reference to the days before the colonization of Asia Minor may indicate that the line is really very old ; but, on the other hand, we must admit that the poet could not well have given a more effective touch to indicate the extreme remoteness of the heroic times from his own, had he lived in Miletos itself, than by
this casual allusion, made as though a matter of course, to the days when the great and famous city was no more than a dwelling of the despised barbarians. 868. dKpiT^^uXXoN, i.e. with foliage massed together, so that the eye could not distinguish separate trees see note According to the scholia the on 246. small cones of the pine were called
;

Bithynia,

The Askanian lake was in This by the later Nikaia.
the Propontis.

district lies close to

865. PuraiH XiuNH, near Sardis, Herod, Strabo says it was i. 93 ; cf. T 391. The name afterwards called KoK/nj. obviously has to do with the familiar

The mother was of course the Of. Z 22, or nymph of the lake. 3 444, T 384. There is no other case in H. of maternity attributed to a lake,
Gyges.
'Srits

tp9eTpei

to those insects

from some fancied resemblance but the best ancient
;

authority

is

for the

reading t^Bipuv or


;

116

lAIAAOC B
poa,';

(ii)

M.aidvSpov re

M.viedXrj'i

t

alireiva Kaprjva870

r&p

jjikv

ap' 'Afi^i,/jM'^o<; koX NacTTij? fjr^rjadaO'qv,
'A/Mcf}l,fia'^6<;

NacTTiy?

re,

No/itoiios ar/Kaa
lev

reKva,
Kovpr],

o? Kai j(pvaov e-^cov TroXefiovS"
vtjTrioi;,

r)VTe

ovBe

n
vwb

oi

to 7' ivrjpKea-e \vypov oXedpov,

dXK

ihdjJLT}

%ep(rl '!roS(OKeo<;
S'

AlaKiBao
Sai<ppcov.
875

ev TTorafiwi, )(pvc70v

'A.'^iKev^ eKOfjucrare

ZapTrrjScbv S" ^p'Xev Avklcov koI rXau/co? dfWfiwv

rrfkoBev ex Avkitj^,

SdvOov

diro ZivrjevTO's.

870. NoOcTHC C (and ap. Eust.). 871. NOJueioNOC HR. 872. KoJ ik G. 874-5 aB. Ar. (The lines have the obelos in A in Pap. u, it is affixed to 875-6 and their rejection follows on that of 860-1, but the scholion is missing.)
:

872. 8c would naturally refer to Amphimachos as the last named, and so Ar. took it but Schol. A says that Simonides held it to mean Nastes as the principal leader. Perhaps L. Milller
;

there

they are certainly not wanted, though is no obvious reason for their

is

right, therefore, in thinking that Simonides did not read 870-1 at aU
;

y^\]c6N evidently means golden ornaments, such as Euphorbos wore, P 52. Neither of these leaders is named in the fight in the river in *
insertion.
cf.

on 860-1.

;

INTEODUCTION
the third book begins a distinct section of the Hiad, extending to the story of the duel of Paris and Menelaos, and its sequel, the treacherous wounding of Menelaos by Pandaros in spite of the treaty. The

With

A

222

:

section contains

two subordinate episodes

:

the Teixoa-KOTria or interview

between Helen and Priam on the walls of Troy (121-244), and the scene between Paris and Helen after the duel (383-448). Within itself the whole story is consistent, plain, and straightforward it is indeed one of the most brilliant and picturesque pieces of narrative in the Iliad. As the second book gave us a picture of the general scenery of the poem, so the third takes us back to the causes of the war as the second shewed us the state of things in the Greek camp, the third sets us among the Trojans. We have a whole gallery of fresh persons brought Menelaos and Paris, Priam, before us with extraordinary truth and vivacity Pandaros and the Trojan elders, and above all, Helen, the cause of the whole war, a marvellous study of a complicated woman's heart, oscillating between repentance and love, her heart full of desire for her former home and husband, yet dominated by the power of her temptress the goddess Aphrodite. There can be little doubt that we have here a poem composed with a single aim and in one piece by a most gifted author, preserved
;
;

practically intact.

But when we come to relation of the section to the rest of the Iliad, the Achilles is indeed assumed to be absent is by no means so simple. from the battle, and so far the framework as already laid down is assumed. But there is no other reference to the state of affairs as pictured in the last two books. After the pompous description of the march out of the two armies which accompanied the Catalogues, it is certainly surprising to find that they no sooner meet than a truce is made, and instead of the general
question

engagement we have been led to expect, a single combat is proposed as a It is impossible not to feel the force of the settlement of the whole war. argument that the action seems to belong rather to the first than to the Not only would the duel be then better in place, tenth year of the siege. but the whole of the Teichoscopy assumes an ignorance on the part of Priam With unaccountable, according to prose and logic, after ten years of war. regard to this, however, it is enough perhaps to say that for the hearer or the convention to which he has to reader this is the opening of the war adapt himself is infinitely less than the conventions of drama which through
;

118
familiarity

lAIAAOC r
we

(ill)

accept without a murmur. More serious, however, is the breach of the truce by Pandaros is ignored throughout the rest of the Iliad, that we have a doublet of the duel in H, and that the purpose of Zeus to bring about the defeat of the Greeks to the glorification of Achilles passes entirely out of sight for five whole books. These points have been dealt with in the Prolegomena, and need only be briefly mentioned here. They are, however, amply suificient to prove that this part of the Iliad had no place in the story of the Menis ; whether it was composed for this place, as the absence of Achilles seems to imply, or was violently inserted into it from some other source, is a matter on which critics must form their own conclusions. It is not likely that any convincing arguments on such a point will ever be found, and the question must be decided only by the general view taken of the composition of the
fact that the
Iliad.

My own belief is that in the natural course of the development of the story the duel between Aias and Hector, now in H, stood here, and was displaced in order to make room for the combat of Paris and Menelaos, which
originally stood at an earlier point in the tale of the siege.
all

We

must

at

events recognize that in the two duels

we have two

parallel stories

cannot have originally been meant to follow in sequence
will

which a point which

be further discussed when we come to H.

'

:

lAIAAOC r
opKoi.

TeixocKonia.

'AXesdNdpou Kai MeNeKdou juoNouayfa.
'^jefioveacriv

avTup eVet Tpwe? fiev
rjVTe Trep

Koa/MTjdev afi
KTutyyiii

exacrTOi,
opviOe'; w?,
irpo,

t

evoTrrji

t

i(rav

KXayyrj yepdvav TreXet ovpavoOi

at T

67ret

ovv yeip-wva ^vyov Kai ddecr(f)aTOV 6p,^pov,

KKarf^fji Tat ye ireTOVTai

eV

ilKeavolo podeov

5

dvBpd<7i Tivyfjuaioiai, ^ovov koI Krjpa <f>epovaai,'
rjepiai

B

dpa raC ye KaKTjv epiBa
t'

'7rpo(f>epovTai-

2.

K\arrH(l)
(7/3.

CX>JQRS
5.

:

K\arrH(i) O.

ap. Apoll. de Adv.).

n^coNTOi
7.

D
:

:

3. oOpoK^eeN Par. b j (and nvh n^am-ai Sohol. B on B 249. 6.
a^.

9^poNTEC J
1.

9^poucai).

&' fipa

eauii Vr.

The

tale is

gKacToi, each tribe, not well as Greeks.' Cf. B 805. simile is copied 3. The Aen. X. 264 sqq.
810.

taken up from B 785 or Trojans as
'

by

Virgil,

Quales sub nubibus atris Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera
tianant

Gum

utterance of the gods, hence vaguely portentous, unblest' (Monro). But the form of the word is unexplained. 4ni with gen. 5. towards, as E 700 R. 0. § 200 (3). The streams of ocean seem to represent the bounds of the earth, not any particular direction. Cf. Herod, ii. 23. The war of cranes

=

:

sonitu,

fugiuntque

notes

claraore

secundo.

also vi. Cf. 311, Juvenal xiii. 167. oOpoNdei np6, before the face of heaven. irph goes with the locative instead of the 561 'Wi6Bl gen. in two other phrases, 3. G. § 225. Tvpb, A 50 ^Sfli irpb. observe the aor. in the 4. 9iiroN

simile

—a sort of
'

:

of the crane by the present. in the sky is a sign of winter in Hes. The crane is in Greece a Op. 450. it breeds bird of passage only . farther north, in Macedonia and on the
.

gnomic The voice
' '

aor. followed

passage is partly quoted. For de^cforoc see Buttm. Lex., where the word is explained as a hyperbole, ' .such as not even a god could utter ' ; but such hyperbole is not Homeric. Rather 'not according to an

Danube,' Thompson Qloss. Herod, ii. 23, where this

p.

41.

See

and pigmies (' Thumblings') does not reappear in H., but is very common in later literature, both Greek and Latin the reff. are collected in Thompson Gloss. 'The legend of the Pigmies p. 43. appears in India in the story of the hostility between the Garuda bird and the people called Kirata, i.e. dwarfs It is quite possible that this fable has an actual foundation in the pursuit of the ostrich by a dwarfish race (ibid. ). "We know from recent travels that such a dwarfish people lives in the heart of Africa some report of them may well have reached even prehistoric Greece through the ivory trade. See also Miss Gierke Fam. Studies p. 145. Ace. to Eust. the pigmies lived in Britain 7. gpiBa npo9^poNTai, apparently our offer battle,' or hring strife so 6 210 cf. f 92, and A 529 ipi.Sa irpo^aXSvTes
;
. .

'

;

!

'

;

;

120
01

lAIAAOC r
B

(in)

ap

'iaav

ai/^r\L

fievea TrveLovT€<; ^A^aioi,
aXKrjXoio'iv.
6fii')(Xr]v,

iv 6vfi&i, fjuefiawTei; aXe^ifiev

evT

6peo<;

Kopv<prii(n

Noto? Kari'^evev
KXeirTrji

10

TTOifieo'ip

ov

n

(piXijv,

Si re vvkto<; afieivoo'

Toaaov Tt9 t' eirl Xevaaei, oaov r eTrl Xaav Irjaiv w? apa TMV VTTO iroaal KovicraXo'i topwr deW?;?
ip')(p/j,eva)v

fj,aXa B
Br)

&Ka

SteTrprja-crov

irehioio.
lovTe<;,

oi

B

ore
fiev

(y^eBov rjaav eir

aWtjXoio'iv
OeoeiBrj^,

15

Tpaxrlv

irpopbdj^i^ev 'A\e^avBpo<;

TrapBaXirjv Mfioicriv e'^av koI KafiirvKa ro^a

Koi ft0o?, avTap 6 Bovpe Bva K6Kopv9/j,eva -^aXKOfi,

iraXXmv
avTi^iov

'Apryeutov

TrpoKaXi^ero irdvTa's apiarov;
iv alvrjt BrjloTrjTL.
20

p,a')(e(Ta<T6ai,

10. eOr' Ar. fi &c t" G i^iixe 5peuc Chia Mass. al. KopuipaTci G. 11. oOre L oO toi P. &ueiNCO Ar. fi nvh dueiNUN An. 12. 8c(c)on {om. t') Z)S. 13. KONfccaXoc PR Par. d KONicdXou Aph. BpNUx' P. 15. Ycqn Q. 17. napSaXiHN S. 18. 6 om. Ar. Aph. Zen. aZ. and al xapt-^o-repai. 18-20 aff. Zen. 19-20 &e. Ar.
:
:
||

:

||

:

:

||

479. ft^piai, in early 506, 497, i 52, though the significance of the epithet here is not very clear. Virg. Oeorg. i. 375 seems to have thought, perhaps rightly, that It meant flying high in the air aeriae
see also

B

K

morning,

A

'

'

;

prevent our writing ijSre at once, as in the old alphabet they were indistinguishable. And the two senses as anil when pass into one another with the greatest ease, just as with lis. Some ancient commentators took cSre in the
ordinary sense, when, making 12 into the apodosis but such a form for the expression of a simile is quite without
;

fugere grues.

Achaian advance is contrasted with the Trojan clamour again, A 429-36, and is one of the very few signs by which H. appears to mark a national difference between the two enemies, who are always represented as speaking the same language. Compare B 810 and note on N 41. In A 50, however, clamour is ascribed to the
8.

The

silence of the

parallel in
12.

H.

the

Tc . . Te, as often, indicate merely correlation of clauses. The ^nf, which regularly follows rdtrffov and S<r(rov

Greeks.
10. There seems to be no choice here but to accept the vulgate eOr' in the sense of Tjire, like as though the only other instance of it is T 386 (q.v.). The
;

reading of the Massaliot, fiire (^i5t') ipevs, introduces a non - Homeric contraction, as Ar. pointed out the few other instances of it are very suspicious
;

('Bp^jSeus,

ddpaevs,

64pem,

Bd/j-^evs,

see

The reading of G, % 105. 3). adopted by van L., is merely another instance of the passion of that MS. for the introduction of Attic forms
H. q.
fis

t',

into the text. Tjire and eSre are obviously different forms of the same word, cf. i/is by e8 : there is indeed nothing to

(see on B 616), is construed with it; but according to the canon of Ar. does not throw back the accent on account of the intervening particle. 13. SeWiic seems to be the same word as doW4es, dense, lit. crowded together, root Fe\ of F4XKw, Fei\4a, etc., the variation of stem being similar to that between i'CK&s and dciK^s {H. G. § 125), doubtless affected by the analogy of the subst. fieXXa. The reading KovurdXov attributed to Aph. seems to imply that he read also fieXXa for deXXTjs. 19-20 were obelized by Ar. (and Zenod. included 18 also) on the ground that a warrior would not be arrayed with a bow and panther-skin if he were challenging heavily-armed foes to combat. But this objection would equally apply to wpofidabove. Ar. and most of the other X'ff


lAIAAOC r (m)
rov S
(B?

121

oiv ivoTjo-ev

apr)t<j)iKoi;

Mex/eXao?
crcofian

epyofievov irpoirdpovOev ofiiXov fiaKpa ^i^uvTa,
<S?

T6 Xicov ix^'PV fieyaXmi
e\a<l)ov

iirl

Kvpcrwi,

evpwv ^ TTeivdmv

Kepaov

r)

aypiov atja,
el

fiaka jdp re KareadieL,

trep

av avrov

25

crevcovrai raj^ee? re /ewes

daXepoL r

al^mjoL'

w? ix^'pV Mei/eXoos 'AXe^avBpov OeoeiBia iStov ^dro jap Tiaecrdai dXebTrjv. avTUKa S" i^ o-x^imv <tvv Tev')(e(Ti,v oKto ^afia^e.
o(}i6a\fiol(rip
23. doc Tfi
:

^cnep

Q.

25.

juid\a
:

:

uira 3.

26. ceiioNrai

DJ'PKU.
Tic*ceai

27.

eeoeidH C. 28. Ticeceai ras.). dXeirac Zen.
II

A'G

Ticaceai

Q (and A™, T.W.A.):

P

(a in

ancient critics also omitted the 6 in 18, but Didymos for once ventures to disagree,

25.

udXa, amain,

as

*

24.

eV

nep

remarkingthatHomerfrequently employs phrases like 6 S^, etc., without any change of subject. He quotes i 374, which is not to the point but see appropriate instances in H. G. § 257. 1. aCnip is here merely a particle of transition if
; ;

the adversative sense is to be pressed it must mean that though he has the skin and bow of the archer, yet he has also the pair of spears of the hoplite. For the use of a skin in place of the shield cf. App. B, viii. Observe that Paris is not challenging to a duel properly speaking, but only to a combat in the midst of the general engagement for this is the only admissible sense of
;

STJtOTTIS.

23. The idea seems to be that the lion comes upon a quarry just killed by a, hunting party, and eats it under the eyes of the hunters and hounds. Similar

pictures of the intruding lion occur in 198. Some of the old critics 480, objected that the lion will not eat any animal he has not killed himself, and therefore took cc&juoti fliwi, a living animal. But Ar, was clearly right in saying that H. never uses a-wfta of the living body. It is likely enough that the poet was not acquainted with this habit of the lion or it may be that the lion's repugnance does not in fact extend to an animal out of which the life has hardly gone, as is notoriously the case with lions in captivity. Cf. S 161. It

A

N

=

;

has also been suggested that the emphatic position of neiN<icoN means that the lion is driven by stress of hunger to an unusual meal.

Sn, even if, B 597. 28. Here, as in several similar passages 118, 120, and others (112, 366, T 85, collected in S. O. § 238), the Mss. vary between the aor. and fut. infin. The same phrase recurs in v 121 mss. TlffanSaL only ; in w 470 they are nearly unanimous for rlcrecrdai. has rtcrecrdai, here, but rlaatrdai in 366. The question is an old one, as appears from the scholia on 118, ^ 373, and the testimony of the MSS. on such a point carries little weight. In most of there cases the fut. is the more natural, and Madvig and others would read it throughout. But the aor. is quite defensible ; here the sense would be 'he thought that he had now got his revenge.' After words of saying (indirect discourse) there is no question that the tense of the infin. must follow that of the verb in the direct statement. In other oases there are exceptions where the idea of futurity is especially vivid see the instances in M. and T. § 113. ' Verbs of hopiTig, expecting, promising, swearing, and a few others . . regularly take the fut. infin. in indirect discourse, but they also allow the aor. and even the pres. infin. (not in indirect discourse) like verbs of wishing),' M. and T. § 136. Hence the possibility of two renderings in 98, and of two readings in 112, 366, and other passages. Where the idea to be expressed so easily shades off on the one side to emphasis of the futurity of the subordinate verb, on the other to the mere thought of accomplishment, it is useless to lay down a rigid rule as the purists do.

X

A

X

;

122

lAIAAOC r
Tov
&'
ft)9

(in)
deoeiBi]<;

oiip

ivoTjo-ev

'AXe^avBpo<;
KaTeirXijyri

30

iv irpo/jbd'^oicn ipavevra,
^i|r
to?
S' 8'

^tXov

r/rop,

erdpcov et? e0vo<; i'^d^ero Krjp

aXeevvwv.

OTe
iv

Ti'i

re SpdKovra lSa)v iraXbVopo'O's airetyTT]
vtto

ovpeo<;

^rjcra'rjii;,

re

Tp6/M0<;

kXXa^e yvia,
elXe
7rapet,a<;,

ai^
&<;

S'

dve'^aiprjCTev,

m'^po<;

re

fx,iv

35

avTK KaO'
'Ar/seo?

ofiiXov

eBv Tpcoav d<yepd)yfov
6eoeihr)s.

Seiera^

vlov 'AXe^avBpo'i

TOV S' 'E«Tto/3 veoKeaaev IBav ai(y')(^pol<; eTreecrcn' " Avairapi, etSos dpiare, yvvaifiavef rjirepo'irevra,

aW
Tj rj

o^eXes dyovo'i t
/BovXoifirjv,

efievat

drya/j,6<;

r

diroXeadaurjev

40

Kal Ke TO

Kal k€v itoXv xepBtov
A.j(aioi,

ovTo) Xdi^Tjv T
irov

ep^evai

Kal vTroyjnov dXXav.
oiiveKa kcCXov

KayyaXoaai, Kdprj KOfiocovref

^dvTe<; dpiaTTJa Trpofiov kfip-evai,
31.

KaTenXdm CiHJPQR
;

Vr. b.
it

33.

G

BAcHic Z>RT Pap. /3. dual aco. to Dem. Ixion
:

35. napeid

34. BAccaic T£ om. GHPQRT re J. Herod. (Ar. ?) napHiifi Dion. Sid. (i.e. fem.
:
:

Sohol. calls

neuter).

36. aOeic

CDH

Par. k.

||

'ihxt

:

Dion. Skytobrachion S8h Q. 40. 89eXec t' QS. 37. diTp^coc G {supr. o) DQ. 41. hen: added UMbk ti roiiNaciN oTcin If^ccaceai fiXoN uibN (= I 455) (Eust.). cVh J [yp. cTen). 42. in6ij/ioN Aph.

on 33. naXiNopcoc, only here in H. account of the a it seems distinct from
;

to suit the context. to translate unborn ;

The
and

alternative is so Eur. Phoen.
-^

root op of Tra\Lv6p/j,evos (or irdXic 6.) A 326 Curt conn, with root m-, Lat. The .rr-o; so dfoppos {M. p. 556) simile IS copied Virg. Aen n. 379.
;

1598
^^;
j^ ^^

^-^

j^ ^^

^^j^

m

&yo.ov^Aw6\Lu
^„^^„

AaL

p,'

m<,n,Te

36.

For drepc&x"N see B 654.
tois
aiirxi'C';''

^
iveyKeiv
ala-xpias

yevMac
. .

narpds. '^

38. aicxpoTc

Swapi^vois Hesych.

So

*

473

ivivaev.
385. AOcnapi, so iirirep Av<T^\4va Eur. Or. 1388 ; cf. ''Ipos "Alpos <r 73, Ka/cofXiox t 260, AlvdirapL! Eur. ffec. 944, and Aitrirapis
39.
Cf.
Sicrp-rp-ep yp 97,

A

Alvdirapcs,

KaKhv

'BXXdSi

^wnavelpiji.

Alkman

ap. Schol. A.

rather have but as neither wish is possible of fulfilment there is a certain gain of rhetorical force, with the loss of logical accuracy, in combining both into one vehement wish. 42. 0n6qnoN, an object of contempt or hatred, lit. 'looked at from below,' i.e. with the feelings intimated by the

For TC

re
.

we should

expected ^

.

ij:

40. SroNoc should mean childless, and so Augustus understood the line when he applied it to his daughter

familiar iirddpa. Aph. ivbipLov, conFor spicuous, in the sight of all men. a similar formation cf. * 397 iravi^l/ws.

Julia; but this sense does not suit the passage, for it was not through his offspring that Paris harmed the Trojans indeed we hear of no child of his by Helen except in an obscure tradition mentioned by Schol. A, and even that is inconsistent with S 12. The only good sense that could be got out of the word would be cursed by heaven (with sterility) as I 454, which is too weak and indirect

dpicrAa is 44. Apparently subj., np6juoN predicate saying that a prince is our cliainpion (only) because his favour Else it must be deeming (i.e. is fair. having at the first moment deemed) that it was a princely champicm (whom they saw), irpbixo^ = primus, a superl. of irpb in use it = irp6/i,axos. koXon is predicate, as its position, separated from its subst. by the end of the line (cf. on
;

:

;

:

;

:

lAIAAOC r
etSo?
ri

(ill)

123
ovSe Tt? akKrj.
45

67r',

aW'

oiiK

eWt

/Sit;

(jipealv

ToioaBe imv iv irovroTropoia-i veecrcn

irovrov i'KbifKmaa'i, kTapov; ipLr)pa<i w^elpa<;,
/ML'^Bel';
e'f

aWoBairoicrt yvvaiK
'^ai7]<;,

iveiSe

di/Tj^e?

amrji;

vvov avSp&v
irfjiia

al'X/irjrdcop,

iraTpb T€ (T&i fieja

TroXrji re

iravTi re
crol
;

Sijficol,

50

Sva-fievecnv /iev )(^dp/Ma,

K.aT7}^elr)v

Se

avr&i,

ovK av
yvoLrj<;

Br)
p^'

fietveia<;

aprjt<^iXov
e'^eo';

M.eve\aov

olov <^(bto?
j^paLa-jjiTji

QaXeprjv TrapaKoiriv.

OVK av TOi
45.

icvdapi'i

ra

re B&p'

'A(f)poBl,T7]<i,

o0t6 tic X>. e' Eton. Vr. Tivh Kidapic An.
53. x'
:

A

47. dpiHpac (and J supr.).

Q

Bar. Eton.
54.

51. coi

TOi

P

:

Ti

koth^eIh Zen. Par. k. xieapic Q Eust.
II

611), shews ; but we naturally translate it as an epithet. 45 may represent

N

the words of the Achaians. 46. ij, not B, is the reading of Herodian

and Nikanor but there is no opposition with what precedes. The question in 52
;

goes closely with that in 46-51 : ' can it be that thou couldst bring ? and now canst not thou dare ? 53 then expresses the result, 'then wouldst thou find.' It is equally possible, however, to abolish the note of interrogation at the end of
. . '

Cf. P 636, f 185 ; and for KaTH9ciH, 498. The ace. vaguely expresses the cf. result of the preceding actions A 207 and other instances in H. G. § 136. 4. 54. The correlation of subj. and opt. 386-7 is the same as in

51.

n

;

A

niv S^ avTl^LOv criiv reiixfC' TreipTiBelrjs, oiiK Hv TOI x/'a£<J'A''/to"t /3t6s koX rap<j>4es lot.
el

51 (Bayfield), and to understand 'truly you were such a one (as I say, i.e. a mere flashy weakling) when you stole Helen ; can you not now meet her husband ? But the sarcasm of the text were you, such as you is more biting are, brave enough when it was a question of stealing a woman, and now dare not Toi6c3e loiN, hiatus face her husband ?
' : '
'

illicitus,

cf.

B

8,

E

118,

T
It

288,
is

*

263,
less

7

480,

f 151, T 185.

the

justifiable

because roiSffde (like 8Se) regularly refers to the speaker, such as I; here we require such as thov, art, toioStos (like oStos, isle) or to?6s irep (van L. Ench. Bentley conj. both, cf. 159. p. 266). TOios S'i) P. Knight, roibaS' S.p Brandreth. Observe the 49. iniHC, see A 270. In Greek alliteration in the next line. poetry, unlike Latin, this phenomenon is sporadic and apparently accidental some of the most marked instances in Homer occur in places where no particular eifect can well be aimed at, e.g. S 288, T 217. itidp&ti, plur. because Helen is regarded as having married into the nation ; nu6c tj yeyafi7jfji>iv7j rots rod
yafi-^aavTos oixeiots

In both there is an apparent logical inconsistency, for the subj. expresses confident anticipation {H. G. § 276), which is however based upon a condition considered as less probable ; we are accustomed to observe the strict rule of thought, and to make the conclusion as supposititious as the condition on which it is based. But the confidence expressed in these two passages is relative rather than absolute ; if the condition be once granted, then the result is certain. As far as the lines 42. See also on before us are concerned, indeed, we

X

say that Hector, though he chooses to put the case of Paris' fall as hypothetical only, yet at any rate for rhetorical purposes clearly means to intimate that he does expect it but this explanation would not apply so well to A 386. That passage proves that we must not alter the text by reading either

might

;

Xpaiff/ioi.

Ap.

I/ex.

See also note on P. Knight remarked, as an B 488. illustration of the deictic use of the article, that it is added .to what can be pointed at, kShi] and eWos, but not to KlBapis, which Paris has not with him.
(subj.)

with some with others.

critics,

or fuyelrjis


' ;

: ;

124
Tj

lAIAAOC r
re
KOfjirj

(hi)
55

to re elSo?, or
TjOcoe?

iv Kovi/qicn

fit.yei,r)i;.
'ijBt]

aXXa fiaXa
Tov
"
'

SetSjy/xoi'e?

^ re Kev
ocr<7a

\alvov ecyao -^ir&va KaKwv
B'

eVep^',

eopya';.
0eoeiSr]<i'

aSre Trpoa-eenrev 'AXe^avSpo<;
iirei fie

EiKTop,

KaT

alaav
&<;

iveiK€a-a<;

ovK

vTcep aicrav
60

alei TOV KpaSiT)

TreXe/cu?

icrrtv
dvepo<;,

aTeiprj<;,

OS

t'

elcyiv

Bta Bovpb<; inr
6(f>eWei,

o?

pd re

re^vrji

vrj'iov

eKTafLVTjKrip,
evl

B

dvBpo<; epcorjv

w?
p,ri

<Tol fioi

(mfjdecrcriv

dTdp^7jT0<; v6o<i itrn'
^pvarj'}
AcjjpoBiTT]^'
65
e\,oiro.

B&p' epard

7rpo(j)epe

oii

Toi diropKrjT

earl Oewv ipiKvBea BSipa,

oacrd Kev avrol BSiaiv

eKmv

B'

ovk dv rt?

vvv avT, et

p,'

e^eXet? iro\ep,t^ei,v r]Be iid-^eaOai,

56. deiXi^uoNEc i>RTU (-eiX- in ras.) Harl. b, Vr. a^ (and P Par. g supr.) 61. OC t' &KeikuoNcc Zen. eTco Pap. ^. fi pi ken G. 67. &CO Ar. Q 8c G. 65. oDti DGJPQS Vr. a. 62. IktiSjuhici T. 63. toi GJPQRT. ^piKepd^a Lips.i
||

:

:

||

57. Cf. 453. It is pretty clear from the context that the robe of stone indicates public execution by stoning, such as the Chorus fear for Aias, ire^A^qiuu. 'KiBdXevffTov 'Apy; in Soph. Aj. 253. The phrase itself is precisely similar to one which is common in later poetry, but only as a euphemism for burial e.g. Find. iVem. xi. 16 yciv ineaabiievoi, Ap. Rhod. i. 691 70101' i^^iraeaBai.. But the two ideas come to the same, because the heap of stones by which the malefactor is slain forms his tomb as well (Studniczka Beitr. p. 62). Of.—
'

62. The subject of 6q>^XXei is of course Paris kpaik, effort, as 590. TrAeKus. clearly speaks partly in anger and partly in admiration of Hector's straightforwardness, which thrusts aside without

N

relenting

(drdpjSijTos)

all

conventional

obstacles. 64. np69epe, as B 251. So Herod, i. 3 T^v MtjSeLtjs dpirayiiy ff<j>i irpotfi^peLV, iii. 120 elireiv tcvl irpo(p4povTa to speak

=

tauntingly.

XP"'^'^'^ i^

^^^^

*'^^

unani-

Tpiffth^Larbs

tKv

TTjpvibi' 6

dedrepos

iroWiju

&if(ij8ev, ttjv

Kdr(o

yap

ov

\^w,

Xdovbi rplfwipop x^atvav i^TjOx^L Xa^div, Hira^ iKdarojL KarOavujv fjLop(pibfw,TL. Ag. 870-3.
(f )&co, plpf. without reduplication, H. G. To save the digamma Bentley § 23. 5.
conj.
59.
\a,ti)v

for \6.ivav.
is,
'

The thought

Since thy rebuke

will say no more than this Cast not in teeth the gifts of the gods (64) the apodosis is not expressed, cf. note on Z 333. 60-63 are a parenis just, I

my

'

;

thesis.

inapikc, so x^XKii' ar. T 233. 61. On* hnipoc, as though elaiv were a passive verb ; as often with irlirTeiv, etc. So Kdrei TOL Trpbs t4kvoiv, thou shall be brought back by thy children, Eur. Med. 1015 (em. Person).
60.

Mss., XP""'^'/' being occasionally found in other places. Edd. generally read xP^<^^V^! but (unless we are prepared to say that the quantity of the V is variable, as in later lyric poetry) there is nothing gained by the change synizesis is just as doubtful in H. as contraction. 65. dn6BXHToc contemptabiectus, ible, as B 361. 66. Cf. oi)k ai9aipsT0L jSporoIs ^pures Eur. Frag. 340. The line is somewhat of a commonplace, and rather weakens the effect of the preceding it is rejected by van L. after P. Knight, on the ground also that h&a is not the Homeric form {Sa-ff airol diioMn Brandreth ; but see ff. G. § 81, and ^KciiN too is 129). not used in its ordinary sense ; it must be taken either partioipially, by vnshing for them, or better, as a matter of choice. This all points to the line being one of the gnomic additions of which there are so many traces in the text.

mous reading

of

=

;

A

.

:

lAIAAOC r

(ill)

125
'A'^aioiii;,

aWov;
avrctp

fiev
eft

Kaditrov Tyowa? koX iravra';

iv fiecrcrmt koI dpr]t<f)tKov M.eve\aov
d/M(})

(rv/j,^aXeT

EXej/Tjt
viktjo-tji,

Kal

KrrjjMia-i

irdcri

fJbd'^eaOai,.

70

oinrorepo<; hi Ke
KTTjfiaO^
01
eXo)!"

xpeoacrcov re yevrjTai,

iv iravra yvvaiKo, re OLKaS' a/yecrdo)'
TafiovTe<;

8

aXKoL (^iXoTTfTa koX opxia iriaTa

vaLoire TpotTjv epi^cokaKa, too Be veeadcov

Apyo<; 69 iiriro^oTov Kal 'Aj^adSa KoXXi^yvvaiKa.^'

75

ws e^aO ,
Kau p
fiea-a-QV

'

^KT(op 8
icov

69 fj,ecr(rov

avT ej^apT) fiiya fivOov dKovaa<;, Tpwcov dveepye (baXayiywi,
toI
S'

Bovpo<;

iXasv

lSpvv0ria-av a-7ravTe<;.

T(Oi

8

eireTo^a^ovTO Kapr) Ko/Moeovre'; 'Ayaioi,
80

lolaiv re TirvarKO/ievoi,

avrap

XdeaaC r e^aXXov. dvaev dva^ dvSp&v Ajafiifwcov " i(r'X€<rd , 'Apjelot, firj ^dXXere, Kovpoi 'Ay^ataiv a-revrai jdp 67ro9 ipieiv KopvOaioXo^ "E/ctw/j."
o fiaKpov

n
01

W9

e<jia6',
'

B'

ecr-xovTO fidyT)^

dvewt re yevovTO
eetTre*

iaavjjievQ}';.

E/crtop 8e fier

dfKporipoKriv

85

" KeKXvTe

fiev,

Tp&e^ Kal

ivKvi]fMtBe<;

'Ay^aioi,

fivOov 'AXe^dvBpoio, tov e'iveKa

veiKa opapep.
71.

68.

Tp&ac KdeizoK Pap.

/3.

70.

4\^nhn D.
(3^.
:

Kpeiccco Zen.

72.

Sreceai

H Vr.

c.

74.

NaioiueN Zen. Pap.
II

75. 6ix°'''^°

LR.

77.

Kaf p'
Pap.
/3.

8

f>'

S.

78 om. AlJt.

Ju^ccoN G.

||

ToJ &'

oY S' H.
||

||

iSpiieHcaN

HJ

80.

xe om.

CDGPR.
a,

||

rXiSecci J.

83. creOTo Q.

ti

:

toi P.

86. After this

add S9p' eYnco tA
Lips. Harl. Par. a

ixe
e,

euu6c
Eton.

inX cri^eecci KeXeOei

(=

H

349)

CGJP'>'TU™ Cant.

{Iv

naiv

a.vTiypd<po^s 6 cttixos

oi)

HSerai T™).

seems to go with the verb, diKalus. i.e. Paley quotes Aisch. Supp. 77, 528 SXeuo-oy &vSpS>v Some however take ii/Spii' eS oTuyijiras. it with nciNTa as though fiAKa Trdvra, There certaialy seems to quite all. have been a tendency to join 4i -irAvres together, but there is no case in H. where we cannot take ii with the verb in 369 we must {rdx' oix iv iran
72. Sii 'aright,'
;

78. Possibly borrowed from H 56. Hector holds his spear horizontally in order to press back the advancing ranks. For the 'quasi-partitive' gen. doup6c

see

S.

G. § 161 a.

80.

The

construction passes from the

partic. to the finite verb, as

though not

<t>

TtdTicreis, them,

unit not do well to obey the
as if ol fiiv or

multittide).
73.
u/ieis

The sentence begins
piv
.

to include stone - throwing under the general head of iiriTo^a^eadai.. 83. CTeOrai, has set Thimself to say something. See on S 191. 86. k^kXut^ juieu uOeoN : this construction is used only here in the sense

were to follow in but distributive apposition as in w 483 the change made is a very natural one. 9iX6THTa goes with Ta/idyres by a rather violent zeugma. 74. Naioixe, either a concessive opt. admitting a possibility (see IT. G. § 299/), or a real opt. expressing a wish.
.

ol

Si

;

hear from me Kkiav tl = hear (a sound) ; A 455, etc. The ordinary phrase is KiKKvri /ten ij,i6av, k 189, 311, etc. We also have K\iieiv tlvl Aprjs 5 767, where the dat. is ethical. Hence van L. reads here KixXirri /ioi, which is almost certainly right as avoiding the
;

contracted

ixev for /Ueo.

:

:

126

lAIAAOC r
fjiev

(ill)

aWov;
avTov
o'iov;

iceXerai,

Tpwa? koI irdvTa^ A'^aiov?
koI dpTj'i'^iXov MeveXaoj'
ryevrjTai,,

rev'^ea koX' d-Trodecrdai evl '^dovl irovKv^oTeipr]!,,
B'

ev

fietracoi,

90

d/Kpi"

'E\,evr]i koX KTr]p,a(jL iraai, fid'^eaaai.

o7r7roTepo<;

Si Ke viKrjcrrji Kpeicrcrcov re

KTTjfiad^

eX,Q)v

ev "jravra yvvatKo, re oiKuB

djeo'dciy

ol S

aXkoi (piXoTTjTa Koi opKia incTTa rafiafiev.
e(j)a6\

ws

ol B'

dpa

7rdvTe<;

d/cijv

iyevovTo

a-icoTTTJi.

95

TOiaL Be Kol fiereeiTre /3orjv dyado<;

" KBKXvre vvv koX
6vp,6v ep,6v

e/j,eio-

fi,dXi(7Ta

M.eve\aof jap dXiyo<;
r/Br]

iKavet,

(ppovem Be BiaKpivBij/J-evai,
evret
^

^Apyeiovi Kot Tpwai;,
e'iveK
rjfjbeaiv

KaKO, -TroXXd -TreTraade
eveic
dpy(fl<i-

e/i?79

epiBo<i

koX

AXe^dvBpov

100

K

oiriroTepcot

Odvaro'; koX fioipa TervKrat,,

reOvair]'

dXXoi Be BiaKpivOeire Ta^icrra.

89.
a'
;S'.

noXu6oTelpH(i)

DQRTU.
:

90.

&
||

uiccon Vr. a
93. 97.

D.
II

92. Kpeiccco Zen.

KpeiircoN L.
Harl.

{yp. Harl. ruNOiKiSiBe H.

a).

91. oTouc 94 om. Pap.
b.

TduoiJueN G.

96.

Be om. R.
/3,

&uoTo
:

HPQR

Cant. Vr.

98.

99. S Harl. a (yp. JIBh). 6preToi Kai rpuec Zen. nenacee Ar. A supr. n^noNcee Par. f nenoicee S &ueTo GT. 101. 6nnon^nocee 12. 100. Ijuhc dp^HC Ar. ii Sthc Zen. T^pcjN Pap. /3. 102. BiaKpieeTre GLQ Pap. /3 diaKpi(N)eflTe CP^ (R stipr.) U Vr. a A, Bar. Eton.

SiaKpiei^jueNai

C^DGLQ

Pap.
||

a^.

SSh

Siu.<fa>
:

:

:

1|

:

:

98. (ppoN^co
(1)
'

may be taken in two ways
is

6

iyiiv

iyipero.
;

So

S.pxei.v

=

to he the

My mind

that Argives and Tr. be
i.e.

at once separated,'

I

desire to see

them separated;

(2),' I

deem that they

are already separated,' i.e. I accept the challenge, and think that an end has thereby been put to the war. Of these the former best suits the simplicity of Homeric expression and the 4nei of the next line ; for the use of <j>povieiv, virtually to liope, cf P 286 <pp6vmv Si &(Ttv Tr&n fftj^irepov ipOeiv Kal IxaXiffra dp^crdm. See note on 28. Kvdos 99. n^nacee, for iriiraBTe, see H. G. § 22. 7, and Compare the participle ireiraOvM, p 555 ; vulg. Triiroade, which Gurtius takes to be for ir4-irov6-Te {Vb.

=

\

ii.

165) ; but the strong stem is wrong in the plural. The -8e is, however, taken by Brugmann as a middle term. for Tr4ira9-aSe, Or. ii. 1358 (?). The word recurs in the same phrase only K 465, \j/ 53. 100. fipxftc, the unprovoJced aggression ;
a

aggressor BavdruL Ha-as &wep fjp^ev Aisoh. Ag. 1529, Eur. Here. 1169, Frag. 825; cf. Soph. Ml. 553. Zenod. drijs, to which Ar. objected ^o-rai diro\<rYoiii.evos Mei'^Xaos Sn Atiji irepiiireaev 6 'AXe^ay5pos, dTij, however, is often =siM, and regarded as deserving moral condemnation ; see e.g. I 510-2 ; and certainly Achilles is not ' apologising for Agamemnon in A 412. In Si 28 Ar. himself read dri^s (though there was a variant dpx'^s), and so Z 356. A more serious objection is that S.Tri is for dFarq, and that the contracted form is found only in late passages, the first syllable being usually in thesis. See on 412. 102. reoNaiH, may he lie dead, as riOvadi 365, spoken to the dead Hector. Compare TeBvalrjs Z 164. Both optatives are pure,' expressing a wish, The accent of diaKpiNseTre is due to the idea that it is contracted from -elrire. This is of course not the case before
'

A

X

'

;

pregnant sense, for which compare Herod, viii. 142 Trepl ttjs v/ieripiis dpxv^

the 'heavy' endings the opt. stem is formed with -i- only, not -n;- {ff. G. §83).

lAIAAOC r (m)
apv , erepov XevKov, eripTjv Be fiiXaivav, 'yfji re koL 'tjeXteoi,Att S' ij/xet? olaofiev akXov. a^ere Se Upcdfioio ^irjv, o<j)p opKia TafMvrjt
o'taere
avTO<;,
firj

127

105

etreC

ol

TratSe?

virep^iaXob Koi a-jriaTOihrfKrjarjrai.

Tt9
S'

V7rep^aa-l,7]t

Ato? opKua

aleX
ol<s

oirKoTepcov avhpSiv ^peve<; rjepiQovTaf

S'

jepcov fiereTjbaiv,

oifia

irpocraco

/cal

oiriaaco
110

\evcrcrei,,

oirwi
01

op^'

apiara

fier

afi^OTepoicn, jevmjTai."

(S?

e<f>a9\

S'

i'^dprjcTav

'A'^aioi re T^&Je? re,

eKiroiMevov

iraicracrdai
jjikv

oi^vpov iroXifioio.

Kui p

tTTTTOu?

epv^uv

em

aTij(a<;,

eK S
104. b'
:

e^av avrol
t'

?^i): oYcere 3' U. 103. oYcere Pap. /S^ (oYcct' TduNei Q {supr. h) rduH SsaTG G gsere Pap. j3. 110. Xeiicei DJRQ. 108. Sci G. 110 a.e. Ar. e\n6). 113. SpucQN S.
:
||

Pap.

§.

105.

:

H

:

TduNoi Ap. Lex. 112. ^ux^ugnoi

108-

H

{supr.

imper.

and Ssere (105) are aor. For the sigmatic aor. with the thematic vowel see H. G.%i\. The cases are enumerated in Curt. Vb. ii. 282-4, and explained as due to the analogy of the non-sigmatio (strong) aorists which prevail in Epic Greek. In Alexandrian times the converse phenomenon is found, as the non- sigmatic aorists constantly take a as thematic vowel (e.g. §X9a) on the analogy of the sigmatic aorists, which by that time were far commonest. The only cases of this in H. are eriras, eiirare, and ijveiKa (with See note on 262. its various forms). SpN* is probably for &pve, but it may The F of Fdpv- is well be for apya.
103. oYcere

lamb was
9).

for the heavenly,

and the black

for the infernal deities in general (276-

On the other hand, the mention of the male and female lamb suits the male and female deity (cf A 729), and the question is not at all clear. 105. SpKia TdjuiNHi, in the metaphorical sense, as elsewhere, make the treaty, for the actual slaughtering is
done by Agamemnon. 107. For the subj. ShXi^chtqi with the irregular long vowel see S. G. § 82, and Mulvany in C. M. x. 27. The expression Ai6c 5pKia is unique, and the
line could well be spared. 108. Aep^eoNTQi, lit.
'flutter,'

are

blown about by the wind (B

attested (S. G. p. 364, van L. Mch. p. 163) ; the omission of d' before it,

448), i.e. cannot be trusted, the opposite of ^phes ^/nreSoi. Z 352 ; so a.ea-i(ppav T 183. Cf.
#>

proposed by Heyne, the Papyrus.

is

now ooniirmed by

386.

two following

Ar. obelized this line and the the only reason given is ;

104. Considerable suspicion attaches rfi for yaia is a rather late to this line, form (only three times again in II., 24, T 259, * 63 (of. P 595), seven times ftueic (or in Od., but often in Hes.). only ijljAes V) is metrically assured in three other places, H 369, a 76, y 81, the

that diroXoyia icrrlv airn) vir^p tCiv irapaThis, of course, is P&vTiav lipia/uSuv. insufficient the lines quite suit the eminently courteous character of MeneoTc (109) is left without a very laos.
;

ject

older form being probably rip-^s uncontracted (Menrad Contr. p. 106). Finally, the mention of the third lamb on the part of the Greeks is curious ; in the sequel it would seem that Trojan lambs only are used. The line may have been added because Zeus is prayed to in 276, and it was thought that he too ought to

accurate reference by the change of subto 6 yipiav (which seems to be employed in a generic sense, not for Priam only an Attic, not an Epic, use of the article). It is best taken as a neut. in the case where ; cf. the analogous uses of the neut. pi. in H. G. § 161. 112. See note on 28. Here the Mss. all read Tra,iaa.i!9a,i, and we can translate either hoping to win, or to have won,

Without this line we have his lamb. should naturally suppose that the white

rest.

Almost

all

edd.,

however,

read

128
Tev')(ed
ifKrja-iov

lAIAAOC r
T
i^eBvovTO'
ciXKrfKav,

(ill)

ra

fjiev

Karedevr
rjv

iin jaorjt

oXiyt]

B

afuplif

apovpa.

115

"Ektcop Be irpOTi aarv Sveo KrjpvKWi kirefnre
Kap'TraXl/Mco';

apvd<; re

(pepeiv

Tlpiafiov re KoKecrcrai,.
^

avTap

6

TaXdv^iov
6
B'

T-potei
livai,

Kpeiwv
^S'

hr^ap.k.fwtnv

vr\a^ eVt <^\a^vpa^
olcrefievai,-

dpv
^

eKeXevev
Krfafjbefwovi
Biat,.

ap'

ovk diriOr^a

120

^Ipt5
elBofievT]

8'

avd' 'E\evr)i XevKcoXevai dyyeXo'i rfXOev

yaXoat, 'AvTTjvopiBao Bd/Maprt,
el-^e

Tfjv

'AvT7]vopiB7j';

Kpeiwv

EXtKcicov,

AaoBiKTjv Tlpidfioio
Trjv
B'

Ovyarp&v
rj

etSo?

dplaTrjv.
125

evp

ev p,eydpQ}i'

Be fieyav Icrrov v(paive,
B'

BiirXaKa

'!rop<f>vpe7}v,

TroXea?

eveirao'aev de6Xov<;

Tpdxov
oii<;

6'

lirTToBdficov
e'lveK

koI 'A'^aoav ^aXKO'^iTdovwv,
iiir

edev
8'

eiraa'^ov

'Ap7jo<;

iraXapbamv.

dyyov
" Bevp

lerTafievr)

7rpo(Te(f)i^
t^iXrj,

TroSa?

WKea

'Ipi^'
iB-qai.

Wi, vvficpa

"va OecrKeXa epja
gneuipe

130

114. ^KdiioNTo Pap. 119.

|3.
:

116. noTl Q.

||

CGRST

Lips. Eton. Vr. a A.

iK^eueN

AHU Pap. ^
King's
:

Ar. Aph. Zen.

PU

Iik^cucen fi. uapjuapeHN Q.

123. tJin 3' U.
||

126.
j3.

nop9upeHN

dN^nacceN Pap.

130. NiixifH Q.

115. dWiiXcoN refers to Tei)x«i, and au9ic means there was but little ground (uncovered) between the heaps
'

(This interpretation is clearly of arms. established by Buttm. Lex. s.v. d/40£s, as against the tradition that dXX^Xux referred to Trojans and Achaians, so that
'

apovpa

meant the

iieralxP'tov

between the

342. armies. ) See also note on 119. kV BpN' : read koI Fdpv' (P. Knight) ; idi Fdpv' Heyne, but see on 318. La E. 120. oic^eNai, aor. as 103. strangely makes it fut., saying that the forms is not used a infin. of these aor. very unwarrantable assertion in the face of 111, 564, Q 663, and four or five He seems hardly to be other passages. conscious of any distinction in sense be;

H

opposed to the smaller aw'Kots iJ (see Studniczka Beitr. p. 73). ^N^nacccK, as X 441 the word is used in connexion with weaving in a way which shews that the art was so highly developed in early days as to permit of the weaving of pictures. This was presum ably done by inserting coloured threads by hand as the weaving went on, as the Indian carpet-weaver makes his patterns
It is

230,

a 276

;

by inserting tufts of coloured wool. One cannot but be reminded of the Bayeux tapestry, on which the ladies of Nor-

mandy embroidered their duke's victories, 130. NiijuL9a is the name by which a Greek woman still speaks of her brother's
so also nuse in Albanian, properly The form is to be classed with av^Sn-a, TiTepoirevrd, ro^dra, etc., as an instance of the old vocative of the -n. declension, which survived only in Aiolio. Sappho has ffi Aka fr. 78, vip-rjia fr. 105. The statement of Schol. A, 'Iwyucct vijKpa rdX/xa, lacks all confirmation. See H. G. e^cKeXa, strange, a § 92 and p. 390. word of unknown origin recurring 107, X 374, 610. Of course the old derivation

*

wife

;

iride.

tween the
121.

fut.

and

aor. iniin.

introduced as acting on her own mere motion, against the usual rule that she only goes at the bidding But cf. of the gods. 199, B 786.
Iris is

*

124. Cf. Z 252. dat. by attraction
relative.

AaoBiKHN,
to the case

ace.

for

of the

*

126. BinXoKo, large

double

;

cf.

K

134,

U

enough to be worn 230, c 224, t 226.

Beois f/ceXos is

impossible

;

but we natur-

ally think of the equally obscure Wo-^aros.

'

lAIAAOC r
Tjoojwj'
04

(in)

129

6

ImrohdiMav koI 'A^atwi'

')(a\K0')(f,Taiva3v

irpiv

eV

aXKrfKoicTi (f)epov -rroKvBaKpvv "Apija

iv weStwi,
ol
Srj

oXooio XCKatofievoi iroXi/Moio,
crcyi]!,,

vvv earai,

TroXe/io?

Se ire-jravrai,,
fJuaKpa 'jreTrrjjev.
135

ao'irieri

KeKKifievoi,

irapa S

eyyea
Trepl

avTap

^A'Ke^avBpo'; Kot aprjt<^iXo<; Mei/eXao?
iy^eirjiiTt /la'^'^a-ovrai,
crelo'
aKoi,TL<;.'

fj,aKprjt<;

Twt Se Ke

viKrjcyavri

(filXri

KeKXrjcrrji

w?

el-TTovcra

6ea jKvkvv tfiepov efi^aXe
KaXv\^aii,evr)

dvfiaii

avSpo<; r€ irpoTepoto xal acrreo^ lySe roK'Tjav.

140

avTiKa
mpfidr

S"

apyevvrjicrt,

oOovqiabv

eK daXafioto repev Kara Bdxpv '^eovaa,
cifia
rrji

ovK

oil),

je Kal
134.

a/j,(f}l,TroXoi

Sv

eirovro.

133. nroXejuoio S.

GR.

II

^rxeioici G.
:

||

coTo PQ.

n6XGu6c re U. re 138. Ke
:

135. 6cniai R.
P.
||

137. JuaKpoTc

9iXH

:

rxmk

H

{jp. 9IXH).

143. THl re

tA(i)

he QS.

133. This is a Leonine verse, with in the middle. 134. eorai for e'iaTaL=ijaTai (^(r-PTat), with shortening as in Kiarai for Kdarai, vias for vijas, xpiJ(reos for xP^'^^^o^> ^'^^ other cases in van L. Ench. p. 85. So iaro 414. Cf. on 153. 138. Ke goes with KexXi^cHi (fut. indie.) to hi/m who coTiquers thou shalt (then) be assigned. The order of the 41 o£ Si "' words is the same as in dya(7(T<ifi€voi . (42) ^irbpaeiav. It seems unnatural to us here, because we are accustomed to the Attic use of the art.
' '

a rime

of a repeated &v where the first often attaches itself to a participle representing a conditional clause, but is not con strued with it (instances in M. and T. There seems to be no case of 6 § 224).

H

;

and even if it were found it could only mean the man who would Jiave conquered.' Van Leeuwen evades the difficulty by reading ye for ke, with
viKTjaas &v,
'

P

;

but this

is

intolerable.

kgkXi^chi,

H

i.e. KeK\'/}(Te'{at).

.

140. TOKiieoN,

Leda

and Tyndareos,

with the participle, where no word from another part of the sentence can be interposed. But here tcoi is still an independent pronoun, lit. 'to him, having conquered,' etc. The diflBculty arises of course from the reference being not to one definite person, but to either This shews of two (cf. B. G. § 260). that the Attic use has practically been reached in all but the stereotyped order, There are cf. rod ^affikrjos diTTjvios, etc. very few other instances in H., perhaps only * 262, 325, 663, 702, beside the It has been parallel 255 below (q.v.). proposed, on the analogy of oirirdrepos Si Ke i>i.K-fj(n]i. (71), to take Ke with the participle here but in practice the Ke {&v) Is inseparable from the relative in such sentences for H. as for later Greek, and no analogous case has been quoted.

Ai6s iKyeyavia, see 199, the legends vary as to the 426, 5 184 paternity of the children of Leda, see \ 298 (M. and R.'s note), and on 238
is
;

though Helen

below.
141. fieoNH,
:

liTien

veil,

see

S

595.

KaXuifiau^NH this reflexive use of the middle, in which the agent is the direct object of the action, is comparatively
rare ; R. G. % 8 (2). 142. TepeN, round; Lat. ter-es. The word is used by H. (1) of flesh, A 237, of tears, here, 553, S 406 ; (2) 11, T 323, TT 332 (3) of leaves, 180, /I 357 ; (4) dvOea -n-ol-qs l 449. The ordinary explanation, 'tender,' does not suit either (1) or (2), for the flesh to

*

N n

;

N

which

it is

applied

is

always that of

;

At

best

we could

refer to the instances

of women or rather indicates the firm rounded muscles (of. Lat. tor-us). As applied to leaves and bloom it means swelling with sap,' full of fresh life.

stalwart children

warriors,
it

not

;

'

K

130

lAIAAOC r

(hi)

Aidprj liiTdijo'; OvjaTTjp KXvfievr] re /SowTTi?.
altlra
S' 8'
eireiff'

iKavov,

60c AKaial irvSMu rjaav.
i^Be

145

oi

afM^l Upiafiov koI HdvBoov

®v/j,oirrjv

Adfi-TTov re

KXvnov

6^

'iKerdovd t

o^ov "ApTjof,
afi^co,

OvKoXeyaJv re koI
etaro
yrjpa'i
S7]/j,o'yepovTe<;
8r)

AvTijvcop,

ireTrvvfiivo)
TrvXijccri,,

eVt

%Kaii]ia-i,

irokefiobo ireiravfievoi,
o'C

aW'
re

dp/opr)Tal

150

iadXob, TerToyecraiv ioiKore';,

Ka6

vXtjv

BevSpei €<pe^ofj,evoi oira Xetpioeaaav lelai114 6.6. Ar. SzoN T.

(see below).

145.
||

e'

148. re

om. G.

Ykonsn P. nenNoiu^NU
otfSei'

147. T.
||

XdunoNra
:

G.

||

t'

Szon

:

149. cKaiaTci

niiXaici

G.

150.

THpai

:

r^pai S

:

yp. Kal rApe'i us

A.

&H
\\

3fe

G.

152.
||

dENdpEI

Zen.: dcNdp^coi Ar. fi: 3^N3pco G. Yhcqn (?) Pap. §- Yccon ^^.
II

P

Par.

k

{po.it ras.).

l:z6ueNoi S.

Xupi6eccaN

:

144. This line is a cleai- case of interpolation of a later myth. The story was that Aithra, daughter of Pittheus, was the mother of Theseus. Theseus having stolen Helen while yet a child, her brothers, the Dioskuri, invaded Attica during his visit to Hades, and recovered Helen, carrying off Aithra to be her slave. At the taking of Troy, the sons of Theseus, Demophon and Akamas, found their grandmother there among Helen's handmaids, and took her back to Athens. The legend was dealt with in the 'IXiov Tripaii ascribed to Lesches (Paus. X. 25. 5), and is at least as old as the Chest of Kypselos, see Paus. v. 19

not possible)

^riv did rh pi.7JKOs tov xp^j/ou (Schol. A). That, however, must be put to the account of the myth-maker. More serious indications of interpolation here are the fact that Homer does not

name handmaids on
(ff

similar occasions

the only ease), and that the epithet ;8ou7ris belongs to Hera alone, H 10 and S 40 being the only exceptions. The latter, at least, is a doubtful passage. The line was evidently compo.sed at a date when the old tradition had died out, if it is true that the epithet originally came from the time when gods were worshipped in animal form, and was no mere epitheton ornans. Of. on

182

is

MBpa
^Xoui^d.

8^

7}

UltB^ois inrb
^ffdrJTa..

rijs ''EX^vtjs toTs

TToalv els

^da^os

/cara/3e/3X7?yU^i7 /j.^Xaivav
4'irtypap.fj.a

i<rTLv

S^

iir^

206. 146. oi duq)) ripiauoN, the party consisting of Priam and the rest. The idiom
y\avKLOTris

A

avToZs

^TTOS

e^dpLETpov,

Kal

dvdpiurds

by which a man
about
'

^(TTLV e^ds iTrl

rQi ^^a/i^rpajL TrpocB^KT]'
(pipcrov,

IwSapiSa "E\4vav
eXKeiTov 'AddvaSev.

AtSpav

S'

The recovery

of Aithra was a regular episode of the Iliupersis on Attic vases of the fifth century (Robert Bild u. Lied c. ii), and was painted by Polygnotos in the Lesche at Delphi (Paus. x. 25), where the two handmaids of Helen were named Elektra and Pauthalis. But Homer is, of course, ignorant of the Theseus myth in all its branches. The Alexandrine critics were troubled by the chronological difficulty of the age which must be assigned to Aithra d-mdavbv
:

is included in 'those familiar in H. as well as in Attic ; see B 445, A 295, Z 436, 301, etc. The change to the nominative in 148 is merely for the sake of convenience, and does not indicate that Ukalegou and Antenor were in any way different from the rest. The three names in 147 are ace. to T 238 those of sons of Laomedon, and therefore brothers of Priam. 149. dHuor^poNTGC the word recurs only A 372, where it is applied to Ilos, the eponym of Ilios. There is no reason to suppose that it is in any way different

him

is

:

from the simple yipav

:

it

means merely

yap

4(TTtv

''E\4i'7]s

dfi<piTrd\ov

elvai

ttjv
(it

oCrois

vTTtpapxalav, ^v oiK iKvoiei

is

of the council of elders of the Sij/ios or community. Of the yepoiirios opKos 119 note. 162. Xeipi6eccaN so Hes. Theog. 41, and cf. 6ira \dpLov Ap. Khod. iv. 903 ;

member

X

:


lAIAAOC r
Totoi
01

(ill)

131
Trvpjeoi.

apa Tpcodiv ^yqrope'; ^vr
ft)?

iirl

h

oSi/

ethovO

EXei'T?!'

eVt irvp'yov lovaav,

r)Ka TTpo? oKXrfkovt;

eirea

TnepoevT
')(^povov

ar/opevov

155

" ov

vep,ea-b<i

Tp&ai; koI ivKvij/MiBw; 'A^atoii?

TOiritB

afi^l lyvvatKl iroXvv
Oerji';
ei<;

aXjea irda'^eiv

alvcbi a6avdT7ji(T(,

wira eouKev.
,

dXka KoX
fi7]B

ft)?,

Toir]

irep

iova

iv vrjvcrl veecrOco,
irrifjua

r]pZv

TeKeeo'crl,

r

oiricraa)
S'

Xittoito.^
(jxovrji,-

160

CO?

ap"

e^av, Tlpta/io?
eXdovcra,

'^XevTjv eKaXea-traTO
l^ev
i/jueio,

" Sevpo irdpoiO
ocppa
'iSrjK

<^iXov reKO^,
tttjoik;

irporepov re ttoctiv
atTirj

re

(f>i,Xov<;

re-

ov TL
01
fJLOb

fioi

eacn,

Oeou

vv

fiob

auTbOL

ebcrbv,

i(f)d>p/Mr]aav

iroXefiov

TroXvBa/cpvv

Aj(abS)v

165

153. ToTciN G. 154. ctaoN

II

eTnt' G.

II

niiproN
:

Q

(supr.

co)
:

:

nOprcoN Sohol. ad

10.

GQT
II

:

etaoNe'
:

Skq

Zen. Erates rivh NdToici P. ecaic G.
||

i.<iiK.e.\

RS Hail, a &Ka Par. a. P Eust.
t^knon
J.
/3,

Kal nfliia MnoiTo).

162.

||

VaoN Pap. /3. 155. Sko : VSoNe" 158. aea156. Tposdc Te Kai HPQR. 160. XinHTOi P (yp. 159. nhI' Vr. A. cuoTo PQRS Vr. b. 163. Yzou G.
||

D

Yamc

Zen.

CGJRST
:

Pap.

Harl. a b, Par. d
||

e^ f

h

j

:

Vawi Ar. Q.
/3^

165. 496p-

juwcQN Lips.

kifdjpxuccm P.

dyaicbN

:

SpHoc Pap.

but

it is

hard to say how a voice can be

or aKTyn-Tpwi

i,va,

xpv<rSwi,

with Brandreth.)

be literal, 'full of lilies.' Commentators generally are content to say that the idea of delicacy is transferred from the flower to the sound. The schol. The Greeks explain iiriBvixrirfiv, TiSetav. felt particular pleasure in the voice of the cicada (cf. particularly the charming lines in Scut. Her. 393 ff.), and we can understand the 'chirruping' of the old men being compared to it but that does not bring us nearer to the meaning of the epithet. Xeipideis is applied to the skin iu N 830, but the lily is not elsewhere mentioned by H., and appears It looks as first in Hymn. Cer. 428. though some different word of forgotten meaning had been corrupted into a more but it is hardly safe to familiar form trust to the gloss of Hesych., who explains
'lily -like," or, to
; ;

The other Homeric forms, Shdpea and
ficvoL is possible,

SevSpim i^bSevSpiav, are ambiguous. but ill attested.

153. Bnto, a unique form for elaro, ijaro, due to the similarity of ^/lai (^(r-/ioi) to the vocalic stems, which admit both -vto

and -aro B. G. p.

after
5).

7}

(;8e/3\^-aTai

^i/x.^'kri-vTo

Lessing, in a well-known passage of the Laokoon (ch. xxi.), quotes the admiration of the old men as a supreme instance of the manner in which poetry can convey the idea of exceeding personal beauty without any attempt to describe a single feature.
156. oi) N^uecic, ' there for indignation that,' as
is

S

80,

no place a 350,
' ;

just as

we say

'

Small blame that

so

A«/)6s by Iffx^is (Paley). 'Keipluv dfifidruiv in Baochylides (xvii. 95) cannot be said to throw any fresh light on the question.

vejxea<y't]rbv

V

410, etc.
nfljua,

160. XinoiTO, r«mam, as I 437. in apposition, as 51, etc.

The form is well a^Ndpei, so Zen. attested in Attic and Herod, vi. 79. but 437, 5 458 SivSpeov is certain in here the simultaneous synizesis and shortening in the vulg. SevSpiwL are in15 xpvffiiiii. avh. crKijirtolerable. (In rpm we may read either &v with Lehrs

162.

The order
and

is

Sevpo iXOovaa ffeu

TrdpoiB' i/ieto,

cbc (166) is co-ordinated

N

;

with S<ppa
ical.

A

'Cdmc, 164-5 being parenthetnHoOc, kinsfolk by marriage, explained in d 582 ya/i^pbs fi Tev8ep6s, ol' KTjdiffTOL r€\46ov(r(. fied' at^d T€ fidXiffra
j

re Kai yivos

avrfij'.

'

132

lAIAAOC r
/iot

(ill)

w?
rj

KoX TOvB' avhpa ireKwpiov i^ovofirjvrjK,
iarlv 'A^ato? dvrjp ^v? re
KecpdKrji,

0? Tt9 SB
Toi
/jLev

fieya<;
eacri,

re.

koI
oil

fiei}^ove^
ttco

aXkoi

KoXbv
ovS"
TOI'

S'

ovT(o

ij(ov

thov 6<f)6aX/MOicnv
170

ovTco
S'

yepapov
re
fjuoi

^aaCkrji yap avSpl eoixe.
Sla yvvaiKoiv
re-

'KKevrj /Mvdoicnv afiel^ero,
eaat,,
/moi

"

alBoio<;

(pike

eKvpe,

Beivo<;

«B?

o(f>eXev

OdvaTO'i

dBelv kuko';, oirirore Bevpo

vlel

aSii

eirofiTjv,

OdXafiov yvwTOVi re \nrova-a
175

•jralBd

re rrfKvykTr)v ical op/rfkiKi'qv iparetvrjv.
Ttt

dXXa
ouTO?

y'

ovk iyevovroipeo),

ro Kot Kkauovaa TeTqKa.
-^Be

rovTO Be roi
7*

6

fi

dveipeai

/jieTaWdi'i'

'ATpei'BTj<;

evpii
t'

Kpeicov 'Ayafiifivcov,

dp/porepov, ^acriXev'i
Bar)p

dyado<i Kparepo'; t
el'

al-^TjTt]'?-

avT

ip,o<i

ecTKe

/cvvcoiriBo';,

ttot'

erjv

ye.

180

169. etaoN dfeaXjuoTc H.

170. repa6N Pap.

/S^.

||

rcip

:

3^ Athen.
||

xiii.

566.

174. rNcocToiic

DV.

176.

t6
/3

r'
:

:

tA
U.

kg, yp. Si Kal t<S re Schol. A.

xXdouca

Pap.

;8.

178. r' om.

G

Pap.

t'

merely equal.
of)

168. Koi jueizoNec, even greater, not Ke9a\fti, iy (the measure

tfie head. 172. 9i\e &K\ipi : the (rF of {<!F)eKvpi lengthens the e as in oiSi {ffF)ois B 832. 173. edNQTOc . . 43eTN, a curious

very young when her mother left her. But it is only an uncertain guess. 178. o3toc is anaphoric, not deicin other words it means tic he of whom you ask,' while Priam (167) uses
'
' ' '

;

'

65e,

the The neglect of familiar fjvdave /SouXiJ. the f of OdeiN [svad-) is very rare fls fi{ot.) 6(p€\ev SdvaTos FaS4eLV is a clearly right correction required by the order of the words (Monro if. O. p. 337). Yet even so the verb is a curious one to use, and there is no exact parallel. i\4eiv, Xo/S^eic were not likely to be corrupted. 175. naT3a, so. Hermione, S 14. thXur^HN the explanation of this much disputed word which now seems to be the most generally accepted is that given by Savelsberg in the Rhein. Mus. It is explained at length 1853, p. 441. by M. and R. on 3 11. The conclusion there arrived at is that the word means grown big,' from *r^Xus adolescens, lit. = great, and that it indicates an age of

phrase

apparently

founded

on

;

;

:

' this warrior whom I see. 179. This was a favourite line of Alexander's, Plut. Mor. i. 331. See also Xen. Mem. iii. 2. 2. duf^TepoN, exactly our idiom, 'both a good king arid.' So Pindar 0. vi. 17 d/j.(p6Tepop fidvTiv T* dyaddf Kal dovpl fidpvaadai. 180. e'i noT* Shn re: this phrase occurs in five other places, viz. 762, fi 426, 268, r 315, u 289. It is always, except in fi and u, preceded by some form of ehai. It is commonly taken to

A

mean 'if indeed it is not all a dream,' si unquamfuit quod non est ampHus, i.e.
si rede did potest fuisse quod ita sui fadii/m est dissimile ut fuisse nunquam credas, G. Hermann. The doubt would then be a rhetorical way of emphasizing the bitter contrast between the past and the present. Monro compares et wore in prayers (e.g. A 39, 394), where there is no doubt expressed ; ' the effect is that of an assurance that the past to which the speaker looks back was once really present ; "if there was an Agamemnon [as there was], he was my

'

from thirteen to twenty or thereabouts. This suits the statement of Sophokles as quoted by the schol. on S 4, and Eustath., who say that Hermione was given in marriage while Helen was in Troy, so that she could not have been

lAIAAOC r
0)9 <f>aTO,

(in)

133
(fycavrjcrev

TOP B

yepcov ri<ydaaaTO
/j.oiprjyevi'i,

re*

"
r)

S)

fidxap 'ArpetBr),

oK^ioSaifiov,

pa vv

Toi TToXXol SeS/ATjaro Kovpoi 'A-^aiSiv.

•^Srj

Kal ^puyirjv elcrrjXvdov d/MwreXoea-crav
185

evda thov TrXeio'TOv^ ^pvya<; dvepa^ aloXo7rd>Xov<;,
Xaov<; 'Orpfjo'i koX MvySoi^o? dvTiOeobo,
o'l

pa TOT

icrTpaTOCDVTO Trap' ovOa'; %ajiyapioio
iieTO,

Kal yap eya)v ivi/covpo'; imv
SjfiaTi

Tolcnv ^KeyQ'r]v

TMi, OTe T
ovB'

^Xdov 'A^afoye? avTbdvecpai'
oaoi eXt'/cwTre? 'AvaioL'
6 yepai,6<;190

oKK
eiTT

oi Tocroi rjaav

hevTepov avT

^OSvcrrja IBwv ipeeiv

aye
fjuev

/moi

kul tovob, (piXov
^

TeKO<;,

o?

tc<;

oo

ecrrt,

fieitov

Ke(j}aXfji

Kyafiep.vovo'; 'ATpetBao,
IBe

evpvTepo<; B

wfioicriv

aTepvoiaiv IBeadai.
)(jdovl

Tevj(€a

fjbiv

ol

KelTai eVt

TrovXv^oTeiprjt,
(TTi')(at;

195

auTos Be KTiXo^ w? iirnraXeiTai
dpveimi
09 T
186.

dvBpwv

fiiv

iyco
fJLeya

ye

ioa-Kco

irriyeai/jLaXXcoi,

mmv

irwv Biep')(eTai dpyevvdaiv.'
187. IcrpaTcuoNTO JP^ (-doNTO P^). 188. IrcoN
:

XaoOc
II

t" J.

^con

^^ruHN Strabo. Pap. ^\ 189. t' mn. GR. 190. 01J&' oi : oO hk Q. aOo' C. 191. 193. KeipaXfiN Ar. Par. g^. 194. iidk GPQ. 195. Te6xe<i oi uku JR. noXuBoTcipHi i3T Pap. /S^. 197. jmiN 196. ^ncncoXeTro Pap. /3.

H

II

:

uktt S.

brother - in - law. " But the phrase belongs to a class of sentences in which el is not conditional at all, but merely calls attention to a concomitant circumstance, of which the so-called 'protasis' is independent. See note on A 321. The sense is rather 'Do not forget that he was than if he was. To bring out this sense Gurtius would read fi ttot' ?i;c ye, 'surely once he was,' which is
' ' ' '

cf.

irbSai alSXos IViros

T
is

horses.
idov.

nXeicrouc

404, with nimble predicate, with
'

188. ^X^x^""' either

was numbered
'lay
'

among them' (Xe7-) or (bivouacked) among them
same ambiguity
;

(Xex-)-

down The

needless. 182. juoipHreN^c child of fortuTie, Dbderlein exborn to a happy fate. plains ' bom for destruction (of enemies),'

is found in 9 519, I 67. H. mentions the Amazons once again, Z 186 cf. also B 811. Ar.'s (cei^aXiJc 193. Ke9aXHi, as 168. follows the analogy of 227.

196. KjiXoc,
flock,

the

ram who

leads the
is

'bellwether'; the simile

given

on the ground that

iiolpa

means

evil fate.

this is only the case in phrases like fioipai, Bav&TOLo and others ; in u 76 it is opposed to ap-iiopiri, and clearly means 'good fortune' ixolp-qi yev6p,evos would 418. answer to the Kaxiji a.t<rr)i. riKov of
;

But

A

183. 3e3ui4aTO, i.e. 'are, as I now see, subject to you ; the plpf. being used like the imperf. in ijneWoi', ^v (&pa-), 164. etc. Of. Mtv^o e 163, 185. The rhythm shows that piirac iN^pac go closely together. aioXonciXouc:
'

492. In again, at full length, in later Greek the word seems to be used Cf. Find. P. ii. only as an adj.=fome. 17 lepia ktIKov 'Acppodlras. 197. nHreciudXXcoi, thick -fleeced ; of. irriySs of horses and waves, I 124, e 388. The formation of the word is hard to the analogy of ravvcriTrTepos, explain eXxeHweTrXos, rafiecrlxpoos, AepirlTodes, and many others, shews that it must be
;

N

M

derived from the verb-stem Tr-qy-, not from vriySs (cf., however, II/jwTecriXaos). H. G. § 124 c.

.

;

134

lAlAAOC r

(ill)

Tov S' rj/jbeijSeT eVet^' 'EKevrj Ato? eKyejavla" ovTO<; S' av AaepTidhr}'^ '7roXv/j,rjTi,<; 'OBvo'crevi,
o? rpd^r)
et'Sw?
Trjv

200

ev

S-q/Mooi

'Wd/cr]^ Kpavarj'?
jjiiqBea

vep

iovari<;

TravTOiov<;
S'

re BoXov<; Koi

irvKva.

a?ir
rj

KvTrjvwp
fjbdXa

TreTrvv/jbivoi;
e'jro<;

dvTiov tjuSw
eetTre?

"

&

jvvai,

tovto
iror
ai/v

V7)fiepTe<;

^Brj

jap Kal Sevpo
ajyeXlr}'?,

rjXvde Sto? 'OSiKTcreu?,
dpijiifiiXcoi

205

aev evsK
Tov<;

M.eveXda)f
(plXTjcra,

S

iyo)

e^eiviaaa Kal iv fieydpoiai
(ftvrjv

dfi(poTepcov Se

eBdrjv Kal fi'^Sea irvKvd.
efii'p(0ev,
a)/j,ov<;,

dXX
d/j,<j)Q)

OTe

Br)

Tpweacriv ev ap/pofievoicnv
'yepapwrepo'; rjev

a-rdvTav
B'

fiev

Mez/eXao? virelpe'^ev evpea<;

210

e^Ofievo),
Lips.
:

OBv<Taev<i.
206. cAc Zen. Par. b.'

203.
207.

aO P ToOc d'

204. Seinae Vr. a^ Lips.^ Toiicde 3' P. irion IsefNicca J. sefNica
|| !|

GL

PQ.

||

ueriipoic ^fiXHca

Pap.

/3.

211. Izojut^NcoN Zen.

ZITU

Harl.

a^ o d,

King's, Par.

e,

Eton.
establishing at the conclusion

see
'

201. Si^ucoi, 'realm' in local sense, B 547. ncp the idea seems to be,
:

for the doctrine of Ar.,

least the possibility of it

;

it

poor though the soil of Ithaka be, yet has succeeded in producing a great man.' Cf. 5 605, i 27 t/jijxei' ^XX' a/yad^ Kouporpdfpos, xpdtpH, read Tpd(pev or Tpdip' ivl, though here the MSS. are unanimous see on B 661. 206. SrreXiHC d.vTl toO S.yyc\os, At., a much disputed doctrine. In the present passage we may well take 6rr. as governed by IvcKa (as w 334 rijs airfji IfCK dyye\lris) and ceO as an objective gen. after it (as k 245 AyyeXlriv erdpup ipioii/). So A 384 ayyeMriv Tvdrj arefKav 'Axaiol is ambiguous, for iirl may be taken with the verb (see note and A 140 Mev^Xaov there) dyyeXlr/v iXdbvTa, with the analogy of i^eirlrjv iXebvn Q 235, <l> 20 (hence Bentley, followed by van L., read ayyeklriv here). But in N 252 fii rev dyye\lT}s /ter' l/j.' ijXvees, 640 8s EiptKreijos dABXav
;

M

in the last resort depends on the tradition of the text in N and 0. (See also Delbriick Or. iii. pp. Ill, 368.) There can be no doubt that on the whole the nom. masc. gives the best sense here, 'an envoy concerning thee.' The gen. would rather mean to gel (or more naturally to hring) a message of thee, which is not what is required. Odysseus and Menelaos came as envoys from Greece, to obtain the surrender of Helen by peaceful means before the opening of the war, as was related in the Kypria. This is again alluded to in A 138, q.v. fl-^s, the reading of Zen., is no im-

;

.

.

provement on

ceO, and would have to be taken in the same objective sense, cf. T 336 ifiriv TTOTiSiy/jLevov alel Xvyprjy
|

dyyeXlTjs

otx^^o-Ke

^irji.

'Hpa/cXi/efiyt,

we

dyyeKlr^v 209. drpoucNoia, sc. when they first made their appearance in the dyopi. 210. crdNTCON seems to refer to the

either make the word a nom. with Ar., or read dyyeXlrjv with Zenod., or extend the ' causal use of the genitive beyond all analogy, even in the freedom of Homeric usage. The termination -l-qs recurs only in ve-/jvlijs, ra/ilr}!, in the latter case with the fem. Ta/j,lri beside it, though this is not an abstract noun. For the formation of such masculines of the -a declension from abstract feminines see H. G. § 116 (2). There is, therefore, a, certain amount of analogy

must

'

whole multitude the dignity of Odysseus is emphasized by his being more stately, when they sat down, even than the man whose shoulders stood out not only above his, but above all the Trojans. Bentley read urdyre^ on the analogy of it^ofiivia below. OneipexEN is probably in trans., with gen. as 17^X105 iirep4a-xeBe yal-q^
;

iiirepixav in the trans, sense to hold over,' e.g. B 426, which is possible here, but seems less natural.
;

A

735

means

'

2] 1.

There

is

an anacoluthon here

lAIAAOC r aXX
ri

(ill)

135

ore

Si;

fivOovi koX fi'^Bea iraaiv v^aivov,

TOi jMV
(Lev,

MeveXao? eimpoyah'rjv dyopeve,

TTavpa
oiiB'

aXKa fiaka
el

Xiyico';,

eVet ov iroXvfivdo'i,
vaTepo<;
?jev.

d<f)a/iapToe'7rr]<;,
Br)

Kol

yevet,

215

dXX' ore
aKYpTTpov

ttoXv/mtjti^

avat^eiev 'OSucrcreu?,

ardaKev, viral Se

I'Secr/ce

Kara yOovo';
ovTe
dihpel (fxoTi
e/Mfievai,
e'/c

ofM/iara irij^a';,
evatfia,

K

ovT

OTTiaco

TrpoTrprjve';

aXK
(j}air}i;

dcrTefi(j)6<;

e-xea-Kev,

ioiKa)<i-

Ke ^ukotov re tiv
Srj

a^povd t
(Trrjdeo<;
fi

aiirw?.

220

dXX' ore
215. ei
:

oira re fieydXTiv
Eton.
(yp.

elr)

n

AT
:

Harl. a)

:

A Pap. 0^
:

:

or
:

fi

Nik.
||

219.
e'

6t3pi

i)iST \v. b, Pap. |3i. tinq S {yp. J) 220. re tin' Yh Lips. Yei CHJL 221. eYH AX»U Yei GP Harl. a
:
:

tin' Q.

qOtcoc JQ.

224 aiv just like re irpb 6 tov ^vdTjcrev. In both cases the sentence begins as if d/jupw (5i5o) were to be continued in distributive apposition (iirb SXov eis iJ^prj)
the construction
Te
Sij'

is

K

latter is inadmissible here

ipxofi4v(tjj Kai

the former, preceded by a colon, may be defended by passages where it introduces short paren;

thetical

sentences,

as

H

393,

A

362,

by an
"Ipos, 6
etc.).

6 fiiv
5'

.

.

6 34

{as

o-

95

St;

t6t'
|

All these cases 280 (S. G. § 338). are, however, so far different that 9j
retains its affirmation,
ei

X

dvaffXO/J^io 6

fj^v

^Xatre

^e^ibv

Sjfiov

aix^y' l\a<r(rev,

H K

306,

M

400,

But here the second member is the two are forgotten altogether ; in run together into irpb 6 tov. Cf. also /n followed o-KbweXoi 6 ptiv . 73 oi 5k Sioi Zenod. read by rbv S' Irepov 101. etofih'wv, apparently regarding &p,(poi as indeclinable (it is not found in H. except in nom. and aco. ).
.

original force of strong and in none of them could be substituted without detriment to Here, however, there is no the sense. need of asseveration about the relative age of Menelaos, and if ? is right, it means no more than el, which it is

212. iipawov,

For
cf.

{i<paiNON

Casaubon
B

oonj.

S

295,

499.

But the

metaphor of weaving speeches is too For the dat. natural to be objected to.

naa

cf.

Toiai 5* dv^trrTj (locatival).

213. innpoxi'dHN, fltieiUly (as tr 26), not stumbling for want of words it is explained by the whole of what follows, naupa being taken up by oi iroXifivSos, and Xirecoc (which seems to mean clear
;

therefore better to retain. 217. Onai,/rom under as usual {H. G. So § 201), not clown, which is (card. virSdpa of the glance of a man from under eyebrows contracted in anger. Here oiuujiaTa refers to the face rather than the eyes Odysseus keeps his face turned to the earth and looks up from under his brow, iirb ^Xecjidpav T 17. Cf. Ovid Met. xiii. 125 Laertius lieros Adstitit aigue oculos paullum tellure moratos Sustulit ad proceres. dNafeeiEN, The opt. rose to speak, cf. ^'icrffov 2 506.
;

in utterance) by oid'

d,<f>afmpToeTriis,

'

no

is iterative.

stumbler in words either' (cf. X 511 jxiOwv, and N 824 TiiJ.dpTave oix I.e. Menelaos spoke conduaproeirh). cisely, but what he did say he said stumbling, cf. clearly and without In the 6 171. dff^aX^ws dyopeisL fragment of Menelaos' speech on this occasion, as conceived by Bacchylides (xv.), it can hardly be said that the

the idea seems to be sulky k6tos implies resentment rather than open anger, and with ^liXos in A 82. is thus contrasted Odysseus, by not employing the outward signs of appeal and persuasion, looks like a man who in deep resentment chooses to hold aloof from his fellows. nvd F Brandreth (see the T^ tin'
220. ziSkotok
call
:

what we

'

'

;

:

Homeric

character,

o6

TroXifivBos,

is

variant).

The

caesura

is

insufScient in
crederes,

observed. 215. Though the MS. testimony is strong in favour of ei here, the scholia only discuss 5 and ^ ^s variants. The

any
cf.

case.

For 9aiHc Ke=diceres,

392,
221.

A

429,
;

mere simpleton

A

697, etc. 133.

aiirac, a

We

can choose between eYh and

;

136

lAIAAOC r

(ill)

Kal etrea vi<^dhe(Tcn,v iotKora

^eofiepurjicrtv,

ovK av eVetr'

OSvtriyif

7 ipuaaeie

/3/3oto?

aXKo'i'
ISovrei.
225
re,

ov Tore 7' wS' 'OSkctt^o? ayaacrdfied TO rpoTOV avT
A'iavTa IBcov ipeecv
97119

etSo?
o

'yepato'i'
iJbe<ya^
;

" Tt? rap oS' aXXo? 'A^ato? dvr)p
e^o'^o'i

re

'ApyeCav Kei^aXrjv
8' 8'

rjh

evpea<;

copuov;

Tov " ovTO^
eaT7)K,

'EXei/i;

TavvireifK.o'i
eo-Tt

dfjiei^eTO,

hla •yvvaiK&v

Ata?
S'

TreX&Jpto?,

epKO^

'

A^atwi'

'ISo/tevei;?

irepcodev ivl K-pi^reaat 6eo<i
Se
//.tz'

w?

230

d/j,(j)l

K.prjTa)v dyol

rjyepeOovTai.

TToXXaKi
o'Ikcoi,

fiiv

^eiviaaev apr]t<f)i\o^ MeveXao?
Ikolto.

iv rjfieTepcoi ottotb K-p-^rrjOev

vvv S
of/?

aKKov<; fiev Travra^ opco
ill

eXl,K(oiTa<i

A'^aiov^,
235

Kev
S'

yvoiTjv

Kal t

ovvo/ia

fj,v67]crai,fJ,r]V

Sotm

ou Svvafiat ISeeiv
6^

KO(r/j,7jTope

Xacbv,

H.daTopd

lTnr6Sap,ov koX ttv^ a/yadov TidXvZevKea,
xe'uepfo'Ci
i|

222. Kol ^' T^.
fi.
II

II

Q

Tr.
Bfe

c.

226.

Tap A
:

:

rip Trypho

G

:

t'

Sp'

d^axhc 83' SXXoc Q.

uerac

R.

227. AS'

re Kai Av. Aph.
229. S'

:

Kai

Q

(and this the Schol. of Did. iaiplies as a variant).

om. RT.
:

230.

DGB.

Arep^eoNTo 231. ArepeeoNTOi ACJPEU Harl. a ep^Kecci Pap. /3^ 234. 6pc2> ndNTOc Q. LQST Vr. a b: Aep^eoNxai Pap. /3. Kai ToiiNOjua CH Kai k' 235 om. Pap. ;3'. IXiKcbnac : Kai ncSNxac Pap. /3'. 236. 3uco piQS (Suu? T^). 237. noXuaeiiKHK OS. oiiNoua C {sic La R; G?) T.

KpHTCCCl

:

[post ras.)

||

||

:

even apart from MS. variation ; opt. in 216 is evidently in favour former. of the 224. The line was condemned )]y Bentley. It is most awkward as well as tautological, and the digamma of Giseke reroot FiS is twice violated. marks that it would come better after 220 ; but it seems to be only a variant of 223, added by way of recapitulation w3e must then of the whole speech. mean so much as we did before ' whereas the proper sense is ' so much as
Ut
(iri)

be dismissed in one line

(of.

on

B
;

557),

but the

and Diomedes altogether omitted

the

name

'

we do now.'
227. fid' : the reading of Ar. re Kai introduces the forbidden trochaic caesura in the 4th foot (cf., however, P 719). Ahrens thought that the old reading was Kal (vide supra), the length being preserved by the bucolic diaeresis. 228. TaNiinenXoc seems to mean nearly the same as eXKea-lireirXos (Z 442, etc.), viith long (or loide) robe (lit. stretched out), of. iKTaSlrj K 134. See Studniczka Beitr. p. 116, Helbig ff. E.^ p. 205. 229. It is remarkable that Aias should

of the latter indeed does not occur at all before A 365, except in the Catalogue, B 563, 567, and he drops entirely out of the action after A, except in the games in ir and one speech inS (109 sqq.). It is not impossible that Idomeneus, who is frequently the object of disproportionate praise, has here supplanted the description of the more famous warriors. 235. rNoiHN, I could recognise and name,' a sort of assimilation of the first clause to the second, for whom I re' '

cognise and could name (Monro). Or, in other words, yvoiriv Kai=yvov(Ta: of. ' whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to stoop down and unloose,' Aisoh. Sept. 272 UiaBai. Kal 'i.KofJihovs (M. A. B.). 237. For another (and later ? ) legend of Eastor and Polydeukes see X 300 sqq., the only other place where they are mentioned in H. That passage is clearly inconsistent with 243-4, as they are said to have shared immortality
'

=

'

; ;

;

lAIAAOC r
avTOKa<Tiyvr)Ta),
•Tj

(ill)

137
/Mrjrrjp.

tco

/j,oi

fiva

jeivaro

011'^

e<77recr6'rjv
/jLev

AaKeSatfjiovo<; i^ ipaTei,vfj<!,
veecr<r

rj

Bevpo

eirovTo

evt irovTOiropoicri,

240

vvv avT
a'icrjfea

ovK iOiXovat
Toil?

fj,dy(r)v

KaraBv/MevaL avhpwv,

SetStores Koi oveLhea ttoXX',
S'
t^Bt)

a

/x.ot

ecrriv.'

W9

(jjaro,

Kare'^ev (^ucrt^oo? ala
iv TTWTpiBo yalrji.
(pepov opKia iTKJra,
245

iv Aa/ceBai/Movo avOi,
Kr)pvKe<;
S'

^'iXr}i

ava aarv 6eav

apve Bva Kot olvov ivcppova, Kapirov apovpr}^,
dcTKCJi

iv alyeieof

^epe Be Kptjrrjpa <paeivov

KTjpv^

ISato? ^Se Ypvaeia KVTreXXw

(orpvvev Be yepovra irapLard^evo'; eireeaaiv

" opaeo, AaofMeBovTidBr), KaXeovaiv dpicTTOi
239.

250

kneceHN [A]R[S]T

:

ein&OHNP: knicsHuQ.
King's, Par. a^ b
(?)
||

240.
:

aeOpo HJPiQRTU^
1|

h j aeupco ACGL[S] "Vr. a?, aO Vr. a. udyHN n6N0N 24:1. nOn 3' CGPPvS. East. 242. dNeide' 'A noWii J (yp. kq) ONeidea noXXd uoi). 243. HdH om. 244. 9Ucfzcooc DV. P. aTa Spoupa Q. KaT&xsl") J (yp- Kcircxe) PQ. KparApa 9iXHN kc narpida raiaN D. kiti Zen. 247. d^ hk Lips. q>f\Hl 6E. 249. SrpuNeN Vr. a.
(in ras.) Harl. a [yp. pco) Par. e d e f g : deOpco D.
:
II II \\

bed,

:

:

:

||

||

death by alternate days. The synizesis in PIoXuBeiiKea is suspicious perhaps the variant Ii.o\vSiiKT}V is right. Zen. explained the absence of the
after

241. aOre

=

5^,

airdp,

A

237, etc.

242. aVcxea,
sense,
tJie

6Ncl3ea, in objective iiisuUs and revilings of men.

brothers from Troy by supposing that they had been left as regents of Greece But (dioncijTas TTJs 'BXXaSos Schol. T). their death was related in the Kypria. 238. adroKacirNi^T&j according to the grammarians means whole brothers ' we have not evidence enough of the early forms of the Dioskuri myth to say if Homer regarded them both as children of Zeus in X they are distinctly made sons of Tyndareos, and it is probable that Helen herself may have been to H. really his daughter, and only in a more distant degree descended from Zeus. xiia = ^ airij as But see on 140. T 293 ; juoi goes with it, the same
' ; '

Observe the way to our idea inappropriate in which the conventional epithet fudzooc is introduced ; cf.
243.

*

63, note.
•544.

aOoi,

there,

i.e.

in

their

own
eiji.,

place.
'

their, '

For 9iXHi see App. A.

Zenod.

read

245. BpKia here
ings,

and

269, oath-offer-

as me. 240.

deOpo has the last syll. lengthThe deipoi of a few ened by ictus. MSS. is an imaginary form not elsefi with where found. If we write H Nikanor, the two suppositions take the Herodform of alternative assertions fi, when we must put ianos preferred H See a note of interrogation after 1(ttiv.
. .
;

.

.

S. G.

§ 340.

including wine as well as victims, the epithet nicri being curiously transIn the ferred from the abstract sense. phrase SpKia Td/iveiv, 252, the victims alone are signified, properly speaking hut the original signification of the phrase became so conventional that ultimately SpKia = a treaty, cf. 94, 256, A 269, and even the sing. SpKi-ov is found, Buttmann has an excellent A 158. article on the Greek conception of oaths (Lexil. S.V.). The significance of the verb T&iuiHv may be well illustrated by Frazer Fans. iii. 367, where the note in it is shewn that in many oaths, Greek as well as savage, the actual division of the animal into two or more parts is an essential element of the ceremony.

:

138
Tpcocov
e?
d'

lAIAAOC r
i-TnToSaficov

(III)

koI 'A'^aiwv ^(^aXKO'^iTcovaiv
'Cv

TreBiov Kara/Sijvai,,

opKia Trtara Tafi7]re'

avrap
/jLUKprjii;

AXe^avSpo'; koX

ap7)i'(f)i\og
a,fi(f)l

Mei'eXao?
yvvaiKO'
eirobTO'
Tafj,opTe<;

iy^eiTjtai fia^^ijcrovT
ice

TWO Be
ol
S'

viKrjaavTi yvvrj koX

KTqfiaQ

255

aKXoi, <f)L\6rT]ra

koX opKia "Trtara

vaioifiev TpoiTjv

epc^coXaKa, toI Se veovrai

"Apfyo? e? IvTTO^oTov koX 'A'^aioSa
(5?

KoWiyvvaiKa.
eraupovi
260

<paTO,

piyrjaev

8'

o

yepwv, ixeXevcre S
S'

tTTTTon?

^evyvvfievai'
eprj

too

oTpaXem^
ijvia

eTrudovTO.

av o
TO)

ap

i\.pi,afio<;,

icaTa o

Teivev o-macra)'
Bl<f)pov.

Trap Be ol 'AvTijvap irepiKoXKea ^ijcraTo
06 ooa

XKaoojv Treoiovo

evov

(t)Kea<i

iinrov^.

aXK
e^

oTe

Bij

p

Ikovto fieTa
etri

Tpwa^ Kal A^atov?,
265

iTr-TTcov

anro^dvre'i

•yOova nrovKv^OTeopav

e? fieaaov

Tpuxov Koi 'Ayaiiav icni'^ocovTO.

251. e' om. P.
oici

252. In nEdiui

TJ.

||

TtijuHai

Z)HJS.
ras.)

254. iioKpoTc Irxei-

G.
P.

257.

axataa

NE&ecoN GJP 259. Ijafpouc

(-^cecoN app.

man. 2 in
(3

GJPSU

Pap.
(.see

Pap. /3i. 258. (and A^, T.W.A.): ^<5pouc Q:

QRS

Iraipoic Ar. Zen. 0.
BiicCTO n.

262. firicOTO Ar. 264.

telow)
:

A

supr.

CGJQ
|8.

:

Biiccaro

H

263. ncSioN Lips.
^.

Ykonto

Vkonon Pap.

265. noXu-

66TeipaN PTi Pap.

255. See note on 138. 259. ^aipouc is better than erai/jois as avoiding the rare dat. in -ois for -oicn. Ke\eij€iv takes both constr. in H., but

in

Greek,

except in the variants

now

under consideration.
^rjcrerai.

-a-a-

(0 382) is, form.) The wisest

(The subj. Karahowever, from the
course is to

the dat.

is

less

common

;

it

is

found

oftener in 11. than Od. , and survived in Attic only as a rarity. 261. TeiNSN, drew baoJc, taking them from the front rail to which they were attached when no one was in the car ; E 262, etc. 262. fii^caro irpoKpivei ^v Ty]v bta tov e ypa(pT]v BAcero, ttXt]!/ oi fieTaTW-rja-iv dXXii 5ict ToO a ypdipeL 6 'Apiarapxos, Did. The statement is highly important, as evidence ofa variation in Ar.'s authorities which he did not feel at liberty to disregard, in spite of his desire for uniformity. Our Mss. bear abundant testimony to the uncertainty as to the correct form of these sigmatic aorists ; e.g. they constantly vary between Siaero and SiuaTo. In o 475 iva^ricrd/jievoi is causal, but there is no other evidence of such a use of the aor. mid. which, indeed, does not seem to occur elsewhere
: ,

admit the variation in our texts, as the uncertainty goes back to a period as remote as our current text itself. At the same time we may, with Ar., prefer the forms in -e-, on the ground that the tendency of analogy must always have been to change them into the more
familiar -a- forms of the ordinary sigmatic aorist. A is the only Ms. which consistently follows Ar. the -a- forms have generally invaded the rest, spreading no doubt since Alexandrian days (note on See more in IT. G. § 41, van L. 103). Snch. § 152, Cauer Grundfr. p. 27. 263. CKaiuN without irvXCiv only here. The suspiciously contracted -Qiv recurs in 273. 'i^fpu, drove, as often, 265. ks YnnuN, out of the chariot. tiriroi is continually used in this sense, even with adjectives which properly
;

apply only to the horses
eir

;

e.

g.

P 504

'A^iXX^os KaXXfrpixe ^fievai tTwa.

;

lAIAAOC r (m)
(opvvTo B

139
'

avTiK

eireira

av B
fucrt^ov,

OBvaev<; TroXvyiMjTt?'

ava^ avBpcbv Aya/xe/j^vcov, drap KrjpvKe^ djavol
Kpt]Tr]pi,

bp/cia TTiffTa

6e&v

(Tvva<^ov,

Se otvov
e'^evav,
270

oLThp ^aaiKevo'iv

vBmp eVt ^eipw;

ATpetBrj<;
r)

Be epvaa-dfievo'; ^eipea-ai, fj,d'^atpav,
^i<f>eo';

01

Trap

fieja KovXebv alev aopro,
Tpi'ya<i'

apvMV 6K KecpaXecov TUfwe
KTjpvKe'!

avrap

eireira

Tpcowv Kal

Kj^aiSiv veifiav dpiaToi<;.
275

ToZcnv

K A.TpetBr}<; fMejdX' ev'^^ero '^e2pa<; dvaa'^^wv " Zev irarep, 'IBtjOsv fieSeav, KvBia-re fieyiare,
9
,

rjeXioi; /cat

b? iravr

i(popdi<;

Kal irdvT
o'l

eVaKovet?,
KafiovTa<;

iroTafLol Kal yaia,

Kal

v'jrevepde

267. bpnuToP: (SSpNur' Q (oni. 3'). 268. adpTiip PQ. 270. gx^uoN Ar. CHPST (A^ supr.) Lips. Vjr. c, Ven. B. 272 om. Pap. /3'. aopTO DGLQ and Kara Tivas Eust. : ScopTO Q. 273. dpN^coN Zen. 274. ncTuon KefaX&N JQR. T Lips. Eton. NeiueN Pap. j3. 276. zeO Kiidicre ju^ricre, KeXamef^c, aielpi NalcoN Herakl. All. 3 and 23. 277. li^Xioc 3' Schol. /t 874. 49opai Pap. /3-. inoKOuei Pap. j3. 278. kou^ntec Herakleides, Pap. /S^, Par. j supr.
||
||

;

|1

||

270. The wine used in treaties was not mingled with water (see B 341, A
159). The scholia explain that here the Trojan and the Achaian wine is all mixed in one bowl, and the obvious typical significance of such an act renders the explanation most probable. Compare the scene of the oath in Virg. Aen. xii. 161 sqq. ^x^vov, read here by Ar., must have been taken for another

participate in the sacrifice. Zen.'s &pv4ai> he explained as an adj.=dpy€lav (cf.

linrdav

A

536).
. .

276. ZeO A^Xioc is often quoted as an instance of a rule, found in Skt. also, that 'where two persons are addressed

connected by

re,

the second

name

is

put

instance of a mixed aor. (or imperf., to agree with /ua-yov 1 ff. G. ut supra). 271. judx^'po. the sacrificial knife, never mentioned by H. as a weapon, and not to be confused with the sword, ^lipos or (pdayavor. See note on S 597. 272. SopTo is clearly the correct form, not the entirely anomalous dupro (cf. aopri^p root dFep of ddpoj for the sense
: :

hang down

cf.

irapri^pdri

II

341).

It

appears to be a plpf. without redupl., though the -o- stem is very rare in the pass. Cf. H. a. § 25 (^ir-(ix-«™ ?). 273. This cutting off a lock of hair from the victims' heads is called rplxa-s &irdpxfo-0aL in the parallel pass., T 254 cf. i 422 dirapx^f^fos Ke(pa\7Js Tpixo-s ^v TTvpl ^AWeii. The hair is regarded as a foretaste of the victim, and was no doubt a devotion of the whole body to the gods It is not (see 310, and note on 'I' 135). burnt here, because no fire is used in the oath-sacrifice. Every one of the chieftains takes a portion of the hair in order to
;

But in the nominative,' ff. G. § 164. T 406 is an exception, if the text is right, yafi^pbs ^/x6s dOyar^p re, and there are some instances of TOO. in -os, e.g. tpiXos Si UeviXae {H. G. ibid.); where this elasticity is possible the metrical difficulty of -^Aif may well be decisive (see Gildersleeve in A. J. P. ii. 88). For the oath compare T 258. Here Zeus is named the god of Ida, and the Rivers, which are local divinities, are included, no doubt because the Trojans are parties. 278. KaJiJi6NTac used to be explained 'those that have passed through the toil of life,' as though KeK/ti;/c6Tcs, IdboriTmsfmuAi; or 'men outworn,' a,\iyan\vol, of the feeble shadows of the dead Nagelsbach, 'those that endured ill in life' SeiXoi ^poToi as opposed to the happy gods. But Classen explains 'those that grew weary, succumbed to the toils so Koind(ras, G. I. of life = davdvres 6509. This best suits the aor. part., and see M. and R. is now generally accepted on X 476. The phrase recurs also 72, TiNUceoN must mean Zeiis w 14. oT . re Karax^lx'^os Kal iTraii/ri nepcre06i'eia (I

=

'

:

;

*

.

;

140

lAIAAOC r
OTL';
K.

(ill)

dvBpwTTov^ TivvaOov,
vfiei<;

i'lriopKOV

6fio<rcrr)i,

fidpTvpoi

ecrre,

(jivXacraere h
'

opKia iriaTa-

280

el

p,ev

Kev M.eveKaov
eireid'
S'

AXe^avBpo<; KaTairi^vrji,
icaX

avTO<}
Tjiiei';

'^Xevrjv i'^erai

KTrjfiaTa iravra,

eV vrjeaai veoo/Meda TrovTOiropoiaiv

el

Be K

'AXi^avSpov
'i'TreiS'

KTelvrji

^avdo's Mej/eXao?,

Tjodja?

'^XevTjv koI KTrji^ara ttuvt

dirohovvai.

285

279. TiNucee
{p. ras.)
:

H
fi.

supr.
||

:

TiNNUceai Bhet. Gr.

viii.

659. 17.

||

OTIC

AJ
e

Harl. a
oi).

Scric

k' om.

T

Eton.
||

280.

udprupec Zen. Par.
/3^ ?

{mpr.

282. ^x^TOO : arereo Plut. Symp. 742 A. C^Ti Lips. Eton. 284. KreiNei QE.

Knijuar' Su' oCpthi Pap.

283 om.

should have expected the the parallel passage, T ^SQ 'Bpti'i^es a'i d' virb yatav 6.v6piinrovs rivvvrat, Sns K iwlopKov 6ii6a-(n]i (the whole of that passage, with the notes, should be compared with this). Zenod., who regarded the dual and plural as identical, said that the avengers were Minos, Rhadamanthos, and Aiakos, but this is certainly not Homeric. And if the Erinyes are to come in, we must read TlvvaBi. It seems very probable indeed that rivvuBe oris is original, and rhvcrffov
457).
'Epivies, as in
Stls, Tlvvffd' 8(TTis (v. supra) two different resources to remove the hiatus. But Nitzsch, in his note on X {ErM. Anm. iii. 184 sqq.), raises a more serious p. question as to this present passage. He says that the idea of punishment after death is entirely alien to Homer's conception of the under-world vengeance for sins is taken by the gods in this life only. The punishments of Tityos, Tantalos, and Sisyphos (X 576-600) occur in an interpolated passage. The two oaths (here and in T) are the only inconsistent places ; and in T he would take UTri yaiav with at re, not with the verb, they that, dwelling beneath the earth (for which see I 568), punish men, a possible construction, though a very harsh one (it would be better to excise T 260 entirely). If this be so, it follows that Ka/j^vras in this passage cannot be right. 'Expectatur fere /ihovres' van L. but here again no remedy short of
;

We

of belief. The older regards the spirits of the dead as active and often malignant agencies, to he appeased by the living (cf. note on B 302) ; the later, that generally prevalent in the poems, as poor harmless shadows, neither punished nor punishing. As he says, an oath-ritual is exactly the place where an obsolete belief might be expected to survive. If this is right, we
clearly should read Kap.6pTes the powers appealed to being world of spirits.
.

rlvvirBe,

all

the

compare the 285. Tpuac dnoSoONai cases of ace. and infin. in prayers, as B It is evidently a 413, 179, p 354. case here of the infin. for imper.' though in that idiom the subject when in the
:

H

'

2nd person

is

in

the

nom.,
tSs

E

124

dapaCiv pAx^t^Bai,
Sk
Beivai.

X

259

5^

(rii

p^^HV,

and once even in the 3rd person, Z 87-92
fl
.
.

(in "*

247

XiirrjaBe

shews

omitting 278-9 removes the difficulty. lines may be an interpolation from the period of the spread of the religion of the mvsteries in Greece, in the 7th cent. (see"W.-M. ff. U. 206 if.). Rohde, however {Psyche p. 60), finds here as elsewhere in H. traces of two distinct systems

The

that the 2nd person is in the speaker's mind). Whatever the origin of the constr. it is clear that, while a person directly addressed is vividly present to the speaker's mind as the stiiject of the verb, and hence naturally is in the nominative, when he is only spoken of indirectly in a prayer he becomes in a sense the object of the prayer. Thus the Trojans here are regarded virtually as objects in relation to the gods of the oath, who are called upon to be the active parties. Hence we can see that even if the nom. was the original constr. it was certain to be attracted by the commoner class of accusatives with the infin. In the case of prayers the constr. is commonly explained as due to an 'ellipse of 56s,' or ace. to Ar. of d-q or yivoiro. B. 0. § 241, M. and T. §§ 784-5, van L. Ench.

§124.

:

lAIAAOC r
TifjLTjv
?!

(ni)

141
eoiKev,
•jreX.TjTai.

S

'Apyei,ot<;

airoTive/iev,

rjv

tuv

T€ KoX eacrofikvoiai, /ler
S'

avOpmirota-i
lipid/Moio

€1

av

i/Mol

Tifirjv

Iljota/io?

re TratSe?

Tiveiv ovK ideXcoo'iv

AXe^dvSpoio

•jrecrovTO';,
irouvrj'i

avTcip ijo) KoX eiretTa fia'^'^ao/Mao etVe/ca
ai)di
?!

290

fievcov,

eim? K€ reXo? iroKefioio Kij(eiw."
'^oXkcoi,.

Koi dtro <7TOfid'^ov<; dpvuiv ra/xe vrjXei
TOv<;
fjiev

/cat

KarWrjKev

iirl

')(6ovo^
p,kvo<;

dairaipovTa'^,
p^jaX/co?-

dv/iov Bevo/jbevov}'

diro <ydp

etXero

olvov S
eK')(eov,

eK KprfTrjpo'; d^vaaofievoi heirdeaacv

295

^8

ev-^ovTO

6eol<;

aletjeveTrjia-iv.

&Be Si Tts ecTreaKev A'^aicov re Tpdocov re" Zev KvBio'Te fiiyicTTe Kal dddvarot deal aWot,
oir-TTOTepoi
a)Be
(7(^

Trporepoi virep opxia

irT^firjveiav,

ijxeipdXo'; ^afidSi<; peoi,

w? oSe
:

olvo<;,

300

286. nui^N t'
iioc TiuPiN Vr. a.

Z>HJQS Mosc.
292.

1 3.
||

287. Koi

kcn Lips. Cant.
/3.

288. npia-

289. xeiNeiN U.

le^XouciN

GHJPQRTU.
a.
II

6nb

Ar.

Q

:

^ni ai TrXefous
a,

Pap. ap. Did.

GQ

290. Juax^c{c)ouai 295. &' Ik : bk Harl.

a9UCc6ueNoi
fi.

Ar.

CHJRT

Harl.

Lips.' Eton. Mosc. 1 (and

A supr.):

dipuccd-

jueNoi

Te rp. Te) Mosc. 1.
287.
lit.

dxaicoN T€ Tpc&coN re : iadaw e(i)c oOpaNbN eOpiiN H (7^. fix299. nHUl^NeiaN 3HXi4caNTO (corr. to dwXi^caiNTo) JQ and -yp. Vr. b.
29T.
:

300. ^^ei Q' (corr. Q^).

'go about

632, aTcrxos Xii/S); re li^T avSpuTToia-i. iriXoiTo <r 225, where the nouns are subjects, as here, not predioates. See also Z 358 avOpdiwoun veXiiifieO' aoldi/ioi. For the subj. in a relative final clause see ff. G. § 322, M. and T. § 568 ; it is very rare without (ce (460, might of course E 33, 0- 335 only ? ).

TrAei irdvTa TriXovrai

n^HToi goes closely with yuerd, among men.' Cf. KKayyij oipavbBi. Trpi V 3, ffio S' ix rdSe

wine in small cups from the
269. 299.

k/jtjtijp

of

N

oaths
aXaav)
:

(cf.

dnkp SpKia, by transgressing the virep^aalri 107, and iirkp

We

read kev for Koi, but Kal i<s<so)i.hioi.ai. is the regular phrase. 289. Observe the very rare use of oO the after €l &v [kcv) with subjunctive negative goes very closely with the verb, H. G. § 316 ad fin. as oiK dSi<n T 139. 'KKes&tApoio nec^NToc does not seem to be quite a gen. absolute, though it nearly it depends on ti/wJ^, passes into one though the connexion is rather loose, pay me the price arising from the fall
; ; '

nHUi^NeiaN, the object is seen to the other party,' from A 66 'Axai-oiis iirip SpKia SriX'^a'aa-diu so also A 236. MSS. here and in A give iirepdpna as an adv. ; but this is not a likely compound, in spite of the analogy of vivipfwpa.. The opt. shews that the infraction of the treaty is regarded as an unlikely case (or possibly there may be an attraction to the following opt. peoi, the prayer being the uppermost thought in the speaker's mind. Cf. us dTriXoiro koI SXkos Stls TOiaOrd ye pi^oi u, 47, and

be

'

:

Z

59).

300. The original symbolism of the libation was merely that of drink given to the gods to please them, e.g. 480. The occasion here suggests a. different

H

of A.' 295. 69UCC6UCN01, so Ar. al. -d/ievoi. but the pres. (imperf.) participle better expresses the continued repetition of the They take the act by many people.
;

thought, which, however, we can hardly suppose to have been inherent in the libation at an oath. Cf., however, Li v. i. 24 si prior defexit publico consilio dolo mala, tu illo die luppiter popuhom

'

142

lAIAAOC r
S'

(ill)

avTOiv KoX TEKeav, aXoj(pi,

aKKotao

/xijelev.

w?

e<j)av,

ovB

dpa

tto)

<7(piv

eTreKpcuuve Upovicov.

Tolai Se AapSavl,Sr}<; Upiaixoi /Mera fivdov eenre-

" KexXvre

fiev,

T/scoe?

koI

ivKvij/j.tBe';

'A^atot'"
305

^ rot eyoov
dylr,

el/Mi

Trporl "tXtov rjvefjboecrcrav
rXijcyofji,'

eVet ov ttw

iv o^daXfiolcriv opdffdai

jjMpvdfievov <^'CKov vlov apr)l<^ikan, yieveKdcoi'

Zeu?
rj

fjiev

TTOV to je

olBe

Kal dddvaroi deol oKKoi,,
Tre-7rp(o/j,evov

oiriroTepai

davdroio reXo?

iartv.
310

pa Kal eg Bl,<j)pov dpva<; 6ero l(To6eo<i (fxog, av ap epaiv avT0<;, Kara o i^vba retvev OTrucraw Trap Se ol Avrtjvwp TrepiKaWea ^rjcrero St,(f)pov.
TO)
p^ev

dp
:

dyjroppoL
BajmeteN

Trporl "IXiov
Hail, b, Par.
:

diroveovTO'

301. juiretcN
/3,

AT

Par. d, Eust.
(see

||

IneKpdaiNe
:

e, and tp. Harl. a. 302. 'i.^aT' Q Pap. ^ncKpdaNe Pap. p 4:neKpaiaiNe ft yp. ^neKpi^HNe
: :

J

note on

B

419).

305. nori
||

JQR
:

Mori.

306. t\i4coju'

In

:

rXi^cojuai

Eust.

308. JU^N
§.

Pap.

311. 'ap'

rdp Eust. t6 re rdSe DQ Pap. /3, Par. j. iMi&am' R. 'i&am' 312. BAcoto CGJQRT.
:

310. eic

Q

313. nori

JQR.

Romanum sic fcrilo ut ego hunc porcum hie hodie feriam, and similarly xxi. 45 precatus deos ita se mactarent quern ad
modutn ipse agnwm tiiactasset compare by the stone,' si sciens also the oath /alio turn me Diespitcr salva urie arcequ^ bonis eiciat uti ego hunc lapidem (Roscher
; '

two

forms were of course originally identical (cf. oSru by oCtws), and their differentiation is not complete in Homer. It is only by great violence that the sense not yet can be brought in.
'
'

Cf. also

M

270,

t

102, etc.

Some would
but the

always read

irus in this sense,

Lex. 1187). 301. aCpTtoN after <T(pi, as X 75, fioi. The construction dvdpbs dvcTTivow.

.

.

is

with participles, e.g. S 26, See S. G. § 243. 3 d, and for the dat. SWoici with the pass, verb, if. G. § 143. 5. The variant da/ieUv looks like the prudery of a more fastidious

common

f 157.

tradition is strongly in favour of maintaining the difference ; later usage would tend to abolish, not to introduce it. 310. The taking away of the victims is strange ; the scholion says idos fjv ret kirl ToTs SpKOLs ytyvdfjieva lepeia roils jxh eyxuplovs yiji TrepiaTiXKeiv, Tois Sk iirifiXvSas els TT]v 66,\a(Tcrav plTrruv. This is

age.

{tNeu6eccaN Prof. Virchow (App. to Schliemann's Ilios p. 682) ' Our makes the following comment wooden huts (at Hissarlik) which had been put up at the foot of the hill, well below the level of the old city, looked straight down upon the plain from a height of at least 60 feet, and the winds blew about us with such force that we often felt as if our whole settlement might be hurled down the precipice.' HNeu6eccaN, i.e. dvefiSeaaai/. So iiytpiBovrai,, rjiiaSdei!, and one or two more (van L. JEnch. § 21). But the change to ij is irregular see App. D. The 306. oO nco = otf ttok, in no vnse.
305.
: ;

On

probably only a deduction from the present passage and T 267, q.v. Perhaps the victims were supposed to carry with them the power of vengeance, and were kept at hand to watch over the fulfilment of the oath. 311. Observe SBoing here compared with i^Tj 261 and /Sijo-ero 312. It seems hypercritical to attempt to draw a distinction here between the two tenses. See the excellent remarks in M. and T. §57. 313. The scholion on this line is a delicious specimen of the spirit in which Porphyries and his school invented and
tI

solved their 'Homeric problems.' 5ict xwpfferai 6 Upla/i.os ; Kal ol fi,iv (paffiv

lAIAAOC r
'

(hi)

143

E/erw^ Be JlpidfMoio
fiev

irai's

Kal Sto? 'OBvcraev<;
315

')(5)pov

irp&Tov Bte/xirpeov, avTap eireira
irpoaQev '^aXxeov ey^oii.
')(^elpa<;

K\,rjpov<;

iv Kvverjt ^aKKrjpel iraXKov eXovTe<;,
Brj

OTTTTOTepo?

acpeiri

Xaoi B

aveaj^ov &Be Be Tt9 eXiretTKev 'A'^aimv re Tpateov re" Zev irdrep, "IBrjdev fjieBeav, KvBbaTe fie'^iuTe, OTTTTOTepo'; TaSe epja fier dfi^orepoiaiv edr^Ke,
rjprjaavTO,

Qeolai Be

320

Tov So?
^fiiv B
(5?
ayfr
'

a'iro(p9ifievov

Bvvai Bofiov 'AiSo?

etcrco,

av <f)i\oT7]Ta koI opKia inaTa r^evecrOau.^ ap e<^av, iraXKev Be fj,eja<; KopvdaioXo'; l&KTwp
'

opocov

JIdpt,o<;

Be

6o5)<; ix K\,7ipo<; opovcrev.
(TrL')(a<i,
r\")(i

325

oi fiev
LTTTTOt

em-eid'

i^ovto

Kara

eKdaraii

aepabTToBe's Kal
o
<y

irooKiKa revye

eKetro-

avrap
Sto?

a/i^'

a>p,oia(,v

iBvaero rev'^ea KoXd
rjVKOfioio.
eOrjice

A\e^avBpo<;,

E\ev7]<; Trotrt?

KVTjfuBa^ fiev irpcoTa irepX KV^/irjiaiv

330

KoKd^, dpyvpeoicriv e-Tria^vploK dpapv'ia'^'
318. eeoTc- 13^ Nik. CS Lips. 317. 69lei ZIJQRT^ Vr. a b, Mosc. 1 (H mpr.). Vr. c : eeoTc, ABfe G. 319. €'in€CK€N : On&x*^" Vr- a. 323. 5' om. Pap. /3. ^KdcrcoN R. 326. 6ki4ctou Ar. 327. Skeinto CS Schol. T Teiixea keTto Bar. ^BVjmto A': aAcajo T: laOcaTo Q (and A™, T.W.A.) 328. o r': 8x' &•
: :
II

(cp.

on 262).
'iva

331.

6iprupioici

J

:

^ni cfupioic

DVB,

(-oicin).

firt

afp'

ii^ovs Kpeiff(Tov deiafyqfffiL airh
tt)!/

T^s Tr6Xews

/iovofrnxiav,

oi

S^,

'Iva

dviaxo^T^s X^P^^ ddavdrots eCxovTO iraijaa.irda.iSiia!'). serious argument against

A

SXkoi.SiT^v'0}J.iipiKT}v \i(rtv irpotaxovTai, rb " otfiru rXijo-o/i' &wep a/xeivov. d(pffa\fi.Oi(nv bpaadai." 316. niiXXoN : the actual shaking up
(pv\i.irii.Ta.Telxq.

of the lots, which is always done by one person, comes in 324 hence it has been
;

Nikanor's reading is that ISi oociirs practically only after trochaic caesura in the 3rd foot, as an iambus. The only exceptions are S 175, S 689, T 285 (for a suggested expMnation of this rule see van L. Unch. p. 556).
ggg. ndpioc, the only instance of a ^^^^ j^„,„ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^_
^.j^^

proposed to readjSdXXov from H 176, but there is no authority for the change, which IS not necessary. The Ime is in fact a formal one, recurring 861, k

^

^^^

g^^^_

^^^ elsewhere always

•AXe^drdpov -m.

^°3i7. 69ciH seems to represent . deof the or. recta. might be inclined to read here d0ei,: or ' iHvh but for . 331 Te^aXd^Ba^ d.,^op
liberative subj.

We

gKcxo belongs to re^x™ only, syntax and sense ;^ with ijrno. Of. 407 Tovje ol ivrea ^"PP^y ''^«"',

?27.

^oth

m

iV" OS TLS
]

,

,

Tokfiiiffeiev.

-^f etc., '

^"' «f?"»- '^''" «^ o^^'™'and see note on E 356.
Cf.

f

* ^11,
11

J 291,

318.

Nikanor read

^p^crai/ro

fleois,

ISi,

330 sqq.

A

17 sqq.,

131 sqq.,

but only the frivolous reason is given that the text would imply that they were praying to others than the gods to whom they lift their hands iis irepots
:

The six pieces of armour are always mentioned in the same order, in which they would naturally be put
sqq.

T 369

The IffovTM Seois dvardvavres rds xei/sas. 347, 177 (cf. Z 257, phrase recurs Oeo'is d' T 254, and Bacchylides xv. 45

H

except that we should expect the helmet to be donned before the shield was taken on the arm. For the arming generally and for ^mcfOpia see App. B.
on,

144
hevTepov av
8'

lAIAAOC r
dcoprjica

(hi)

irepl

aTrjdecra-LV

ehvvev

olo KaaiyviJTOOo AvKdovo<;, '^pfioae B
afi(f}l

avTWi.
335

ap'

')(aKiceov,

ySaXero ft(^o? ap'^vporfKov avrap eireiTa crdKO<; fieja re (TTi^apov re&p,oi,aiv
i^dijjLan,

Kparl
eX\eTO

S'

eV

Kvvirjv

evTVKTov hdrjKev
dprjpei,.

LTT-TTOvpbv
B'

Beivov Be Xocpo'i KaOvTrepOev evevev.

aXKifiov ey^^ov, o ol 7raXd/j,ri^iv
dprjio';

W9

S'

auTO)? Mei/eXao?

evre'

eBvvev.
6(opri')(i9r](Tav,

ol S'

eVel ovv etcdrepOev o/jlIXov

340

€? (leacrov Tpdooov koI 'A'^aiwv e'cTTt^owi'TO Beivov BepKOfJievoL- 6dp,^o<i S' e')(ev elaopouvTa'i,

TpS)d<;

8"

iTriroBdfiov^
o-tt^ttjv

koX evKvrip,iBa^

A-^aiov;.

Kai p aeiovT
Trpoade

eyyv';

BiafierpTjTwi evi ^copcoi,
345
ey-^oi;,

ijyel.a'i,
8'

dWrjXoiaov Koreovre.
dcnriBa irdvToa
eiaTjv

'AXe^avBpo<; irpotei BoXf^pa-iciov

KoX ^dXev ^ATpeiBao Kar
334-5
338.
dd.

Zen.

,

reading

&xi.<fi
||

5'
.

ap' dSuoiciN BdXer' dcniSa TepcaNdeccaN after
.

338. naXdjuycipiN J.
339. S' om. Pap.
/3.

o

dpi4p€l

:

iv

&XXui dKax"^NON 6s^T xoAkc^i
is

A.
(J

342. Scxen G.

345. ceToN 8' Pap.

347. ndNTOce Tchn Pap. (3. not be again recorded).

ACDU

(the variation

kot^ontgc /3. constantly found, and will
||

333. Lykaon's cuirass, because Paris fipjmoce himself is light-armed 1. 17. probably trans., 'he made it fit himIt may, however, possibly be inself.' there are two other ambiguous trans.
; ;

passages, P 210, T 385, q.v. 334. It will be seen that Zen. (supra)
left out the sword, perhaps on the ground that Paris, unlike^jMenelaos, does not use it in the sequel It is more natural too that the ponderous shield should be taken last of all. The word TcpcaNdeccan it may be a is not known elsewhere mistake of the MS. arising from a confusion between Tep/uiea-ffav (see 11 803) and dv(Ta,vb£(TiTa.v, the latter being, however, only applied elsewhere to the aegis. 336. KUN^HN, simply helmet, nothing being implied as to the material see on
;

;

258. 340. ^K<iTepeeN, explained by the glossaries i^ eKar^pov liApovs, eKar^pwdev, on cither side of the throng, i.e. either combatant retiring to the rear of his own

K

Autenrieth quotes in defence of this interpretation from a German review of an edition of the Makamat-vZ-SariH, 'the Arabs declare that the shadow of the lance is the longest shadow. Before the first morning light the Arabian horseman rides forth, and returns with the last ray of evening so in the treeless level of the desert the shadow of his lance appears to him all day through as the longest shadow.' But this loses all special significance for the Greek moreover, as Mr. Rouse has remarked (C. R. iv. 183), the epithet is almost always used of spears brandished or hurled, not standing upright. Hence various alternative explanations have been proposed, -oiTKi- being compared to our ash, or 8(rxos (this, however, does not suit either form or sense). Rouse (ibid.) better
: ;

army.
346. 9oXix<5cKioN has caused diflSiculty

both to ancient and modern the idea of shadow does
particularly

critics,

not
a

and seem

appropriate

to

spear.

compares Zend daregha-arstaya, from = spear, shaft, an epithet in the Avesta of Mithra and his worshippers. There are obvious phonetic difiiculties in the equation, but an entirely antiquated do\ix-o{p)(rTLos may have been changed by popular etymology to make an intelligible compound. 347. ndNTOc' efcHN see on A 306.
arsti
:

:

lAIAAOC r
ovB
eppij^ev ^(aXKOi;,
ev\ KpaTeprji.
dve'yvd/i(f)d7j

(III)

145

Se oi al-^r]

ao-TTiS

o

Be

Sevrepo^ copvvro

^oXk&i
350

ArpeiBTj';

MeveXao?, eVevfa/ievo?
Bo<;

Ad

irarpi-

" Zei) ava,

ncracrOai,

o fie irpoTepo^

kuk

eopye,

Blov 'AXe^avBpov, koX ep^fja inro %epo"^ Sdfiacraov,
0(f)pa

Tt? eppiyr]L(7i Kot

oyp-iyovwv

dvOpmvcov
e<y'^o<;,

^etvoSoKov KaKCL pe^ai, o Kev (piXoTTjTa •jrapdcrYTjt,"

^ pa KOI

a/MireiraXcbv irpotet Boki'^ocrKiov
dcrirlBa TrdvToa
o^pt/j,ov

355

Kol /SaXe TLpiafiiBao kut
Bia fiev d(77rtSo5
rf\,6e

etarjv.

^aeivf)<i

ey^o<;,

Koi Bid dcop7jKO<; 7ro\vBaiBdKov rjprjpeKrro'
avriKpi) Be irapaX XaTrdpTjv Bidfirjae '^iToiva

ey^o?-

o

B
Be

eKXivdrj xal
epv(rcrdfievo<;

dXevaro Krjpa fMeKatvav,
^i,(f)o<;

360

ArpeiBr)!;
TrXrj^ev
Tpi')(9d
348.
I)
:

dpyvporjXov
d/j,cj)l

dva(T'^o/Mevo<;

Kopvdo<i (pdXov

S'

dp

avrijt

re

zeal

tst pa-)(6d BiaTpv(f)ev eKirecre
Vr. a
:

'^eipo'?.

xo^Koc
:

Ar.

AD^QS^TU'

xa\Ki>N

ii.

||

SNerNdqieH.R
:

:

6NeKdjiji9GH

Cant. denial in ACZ)GH Pap. j3 Eton. BpNUTo Q. Moso. 1 351. 5 : 8c GE jme Juou P. aaufiNai Ar. and yp. T. lauatc G Pap. j3. 352 de. Ar. 354. seiNoddKOU J. 8c kcn D. 357. SjuBpiuoN CGHJQi Pap. j3. 359. napd l:NKXiNeH Pap. (3^. 361. x^ipecci udxaipaN Q. BT Vr. a. 360. ^kkXInoh J aOroO L ain&i fi. 362. a^THl Ar. and al xa/Ji^ore/Jai, A supr. (T.W.A.) 363. diarpuipe^N CGHPRT Lips. Vr. a (La E.'s diadpu9ei:N is a misprint).
349. ficnfa' Ih\
|1 ||
|1 ||

dNCT-NduipH H.

L

Mor. Bar.

acniSi

isl

JPQRT

||

:

:

:

The form iicni is established in several other phrases, particularly B 765, and it is impossible to decide between the two
forms
(F)l(niv

irivToa'
(see,

i{F)La-Tjv

and

iravToae
J.

§ 386, and notes on vary as usual between 8BpiuoN and Sfi^pifiov the weight of evidence is for the former, though Heyne

Appendix D, H. G.
MS.s.

A 205, A 155.
considers
et

:

however,
is

Piatt in

P.

xviii. 128).

348.

xa^Koc

better than xii'^kov,

6ij.ppiii.ov antiquius, Jiorridius potentius. Of. note on A 453. 358. Api^peicro, forced its way. epel-

because the word by itself is regularly used of weapons of offence, not of the
shield
(Cf.
;

Setv

lean
ary.

'

properly = to press the sense to one thing upon another is second'

;

e.g.

349,

A
)

528,

B

292,

etc.

however

H 267.

The same question
:

on the ground and that Menelaos should not apply the word BTon to
his foe. But the epithet is purely conventional, see 393, Z 160, y 266, and For aduaccoN Ar. of. d/iifiwv a 29.

259, P 44. 351. gopre {FiFopyev) 352. ObeKzed by Ar. that it is not necessary,
arises in

H

ipe^e Bentl.

360. ^xXiNeH, better iKKklvBri, lent aside (from the coming blow). As Eeiohel remarks (p. 83), this implies that no breastplate was worn, and 358 must be a later interpolation (see App. B). 362. dNacx^ueNoc, Kftirvg his hand ;

so

X

34 /ce^aXV

S'

S ye Kbfaro x^piri"
|

X

which Ameis supports Sap.rjyat, mainly on the ground that it gives more force to M.'s words that he should pray to be himself the conqueror, not a mere tool in the hands of Zeus. the lengthening of the i is 357. aid due to the ictus in the first foot see
read
:

and of two boxers 'squaring up,'*- 660 7ri)f pAX dvaaxo9(SXon see App. B 686. p.^pw, and ailTHi, the body of the Kdpvs as vii. 2. opposed to the 0(i\os. The vulg. aiVffli is a very natural corruption, caused by the proximity of the masc. (j>i\os, but by Homeric usage it would rather mean
iJi/'iir'

dvaa-xd/ievos,

*

:

;

the

man

himself, Paris.

VOL.

I

L

146
ArpetBrj';

lAIAAOC r
8
wi/Mcc^ev ISaiv
el^

(ill)

ovpavov evpvv
365

" Zev irdrep,

ov

tl<;

aelo decov oKoa)Tepo<; aXXo?*

^ T
V^X^V
?l

icpd/MTjv
fioi

riaaadai

AXe^avSpov

kukot'tjto';

vvv Se

ev y^eipeacrtv ayT)

^t^os, ix Be fioi €7^05
fiiv.

'n'oXdfi.rjcjjiv

irmcnov, ovS" e^aXov

KoX eVaif^a? KopvOo<; Xd^ev tTnroSaaeiTj^,
iTricTTpe'ilra';
/jLer

eXxe S" dy^e Be
b?
01

ivKV^fiiSa';
tytta?

'A'^aiov<;Beiprjv,

370

fiiv

TroXv/cecTo?

diraXrjv viro

VTT

dvdepe&vo<;

O'^ei";

reraTO

Tpv<f)aXei7j<;.

KM
el
77

vv Kev etpvaaev re Koi daTrerov
fJq

'ijparo

kvBo<;,

dp'
pri^ev

o^v

vorjcre

Atbi;

dvydTijp 'A^poBiTTj,
Kra/xevoio7ra;\;et77t.

01

tjJbdvTa

^ob<;

2(f>t

375

Keivrj
TTjv
piyjr

Be Tpv(f)dXeia dfi
kiretG'
rjpco'i

eairero %ef/3t
evKvrjfiiBa<;
B'
ipl,r)pe<;

fiev

fier

'Ayaiov^
eralpoi.

eiruBivrjaa^,

KOfitaav

avrap

o

d^jr

i-rropovcre

KaraKTdfievai fxeveaivtav
365. coTo

364. eOpi^N

:

ainiiN Zen.

PQ.
||

||

U.
JuiN {v.

367. Srei Q.

368. Apparently Ar. in one ed. 369. fiNofsac P.

6Xo6Tepoc DV. 366. riceceai had £3duacca for IBaX6N
:

Ludw. ad
/3.

loc).

XdBeN
/3i.

q>iiXoN Pap.

/S^.
:

370.
feei-

eTXice Pap.

371. dnaXflc

pucce Aph.

379.

6 mn.

Q.

||

Sn6 [deipflc] Pap. InoOpouce Q.
vizor.

373.

EipuccEN T£

in

365. For similar chiding of the gods momentary ill-temper cf. 164, and for 6\oiinepoc tiwre 631, V 201 baneful, mischievous, l/3Xa^ds p.', cKacpye, dedv 6\odiTa.Te irdvrav 15.

M

N

;

=

X

meaning

Either aor. the former I thought, when dealing the blow, that had (now) got my I vengeance.'
366. Ttcaceai
is
' :

or fut.

see on 28. equally suitable,

But the quantity of rpv is against The word may possibly = rerpd0aXos, from T{6)Tpv=quadru-, cf. r/joTrefa for Terpdwe^a. 373. JipaTO seems to be another case of ^^ invasion of a- forms in the aor.
this.
(cf.

on 262), on the analogy of a?pu, which

is a different word ; so ripdneea 393, ^pa'(o) w 33. All other forms *re thematic, dpdfnjv dpiirdai, etc. (Cobet

of course

^

368. naXduH9iN: abl. gen., H. G. The variant oid' iSdfia<raa seems § 156. to be due to the apparent contradiction oiS' ^BaXop with 356. It is, however,

^- ^- P- 400, van L. Mch. p. 373). ^enc^ Brandreth rightly read ijpero. So
^^^°f
,

°1"'
•'P'

^ l^"'/

107, etc.

defended by Ameis-Hentze.
ot!n 369.

'"°leather
,

part of the

z 7 J -r K6pueoc, iy J7. M,v^t as if a the man ; cf. U 406 gX«e Si
7. J.

SovpbyX^. 371. noXuKecToc
woXvK^vT-nrosSriXoSra.^

ktou^noio, because such would be better than that of ^^ animal which had died of disease. jjence in Has. 0pp. 541 shoes a'; „,^,,^^ ^o be made of the hide
,c™^^.o.o'
(Paley).

T9. looks
;

AZ
like

for ToKv-Kei^r-Tos
Si

'

Ariston

TovTov TToiKlXos " (leg SyXoydri.) Sid ris ^a0ds embroidered^ Cf. /ce<rr6s of the
iK

girdle of Aphrodite,

a

214

;

and

7,K4<rTas

^

^*-

Kdpvdos.

372. Tpu<paXefHC: properly an adj., sc. Generally explained as having a peak -pierced for the eyes, a sort of fixed

=

instrumental of Fis = vi-s but the stem jn Greek seems to be Fiv- (plur Tves) Moreover t0i never requires, and often (6 times) will not admit an initial F, while the adj. ft0ios often requires and always admits it, and Fh itself rejects it only twice (P 739, $ 356). Thus t^t like t<jieip.os (see on A 3) remains a puzzle. See note on Z 478.

an

'

lAIAAOC r
67;;^et

(ill)

147
380
iroWfji.,

•^aXKeioof
/jboX',

top

S'

i^pira^' 'A^IDoSitt;
iKokvyjre
S'

peia

W9 re

6e6<;,

ap'

rjipi.

Ka8
avrr)

S'

eta

iv 6(iKdp,(ot ivcoSei KijcoevTi.

B

av6
e</>

^\iv7]v KcCkeova
vy^rfKcoi,

'ie-

rrjv

S

eKl-^ave
rjaav.

TTvpymi

irepl

he

TpaaaX

oXk

Xeipl he veKTapeov eavov eriva^e Xa^ovcra,
yprj'i

385

he fiiv
ri

eiKvla TraXaijevei TTpoaeenrev
ol

elpoKOficoi,
rjCTKeiv
TTJi

AuKeSaifiovo vaieraovaiji

eipia KoXd, fiaXia-ra Be fitv (fyiXeecrKe'
eeta-ap-ivT)

/Miv

irpocre^mvee

BV

'

AcjipoBbTr)

" Bevp'
Kelvo's

W,
o

'AXe^avBpo'i ae KoXei oiKovBe veeaQau.
iv daXd/xcoi, koX Bivcorolcn Xi'^ea-crL

390

J

KciWei' re cttlK^wv koX elfiaatv

ovSe Ke

^at7j<;

dvBpl fiw^eaadfievov rov j eKdelv, aKX.a j^opovBe ep'^ecrO^ ^e '^opolo veov X'^yovra KaOi^etv."

w?

(f)dTO,

rrjt

S'

dpa

dvfiov evl (TTrjOeaabv opive-

395

381. eeoc r' Vr. a. 382. cTc' kn : Tc' 4n Apoll. Synt. eTce(N) S Mosc. 1 KaX^couc' P. eTcCN &4 T. 383. au L. 387. elpon^KUi T (yp. elpOKduuo). NaiCTaclbcH(i) Q Naierduca Bar. NaiETaoiicH(l) P 388. flcKei J)^GHPQ {p.
-.

:

||

||

:

:

ros.)

R

Lips. ^

||

KoXd
||

:

noWi
HR.

S Vr.
Pap.

b.

||

q>l\lecKe: KaX^ecKew Pap.
a.

jS.^

391.

aeiNcoToTci

T.W.A.).

II

AG. TON
:

Xex^ecci

393. uaxHcciiueNON Ar. Vr. a^ (A has uaxecc-,
;3

r': t6n S'

HQ

Vr.

380. SrxeT
(of. 1.

apparently a second spear
;

though only one is named in but the the arming of Paris, 338 Homeric warrior regularly carries a pair (A 43, etc. ). 381. ioc re oe6c, as being a goddess, as may be expected of a goddess. Of. S 518. 382. KHcieNTi apparently from *KijFos
18),
:

=incense

(Kala), i.e. fragrant, ct. Krjdidris

483. But the tautology ivdiBei, xriiievn, has led some to derive it from *KaFos=

Z

cavus, as if =' vaulted. 383. KoX^ouca: fut., of which only the part, is found in H. 385. NCKTop^ou, fragrant, like i/j,-

PpSnos,

cf.

B

19.
:

so Ar. apparently ; but there is no other case in H. of the parag. v in the contracted form of the third It is sometimes found, sing, imperf. however, in MSS. in the analogous third But of sing, plupf., e.g. E 661, 899. course the original reading was ij<rKeev. The subject of 9iX^ecice is Helen, not 388. ficKeiN

ypavs. 891. kcTnoc, as him ; T 344, etc.

though pointing
aiNCOToTci
:

to

of.

r 56

K\ialT]v dLVUTTjv i\i<l>avTi, nal dpyipui. Ariston. explains iJTOL dm ri Teropveuffdai. (turned in a lathe) toi>s ir6Sa.s, f) Sia t>iv ivTairiv tQv l/idvTuv (i.e. apparently, that the leathern straps for which see f 201 were tightened by twisting or winding them). But this latter does not suit the chair in t, while the idea of 'turning' is not easily connected with ivory and silver ornament. In N 407 a shield is picoio-i /Sow;' Kal viSipoiri XaX/c& Si^utiJi/ where the circular plates of the shield are meant. The most probable explanation of the word here is 'adorned with circles or spirals' of silver or the like, inlaid. This pattern is of high antiquity, being found e.g. by Dr. Schliemann at Mykenai in profuSee the illustrations in Murray sion. ffist. Gr. Sculp, pp. 38-40, 'the forms which most naturally arise from copper working are spirals and circles, into either of which a thread of this metal when released at once casts itself. The use of i/j,<j)i.Se8tvriTai. is similar in 6 405, 562. 395. 6uu6n bpme, stirred her anger, Ar. explained irapiip/jiriffe. as elsewhere.

|

'

^

148
Kau p
ft)?

lAIAAOC r
o5i/

(in)

ivorjcre

6ed<;

"jrepiKaWea Beiprjv

trrrjOed 6"
Odfi^Tjo-ev

Ifiepoevra koI ofi/Mara fiapfiaupovTa,

T
tI

ap
fie

eireuTa,

eVo?

t'

e^ar

e« t
;

ovofjia^e'

"
ri

haifiovi'T),
irrji
r)

ravra
rj

\iX,al,eai
eii

rjirepoireveiv

fie

irpoTepw -TroXimv

vauofievdav
ipareivfji;,

400

a^ei<;
el'

^pvyti]';

yi.r}iovir)<;

Tt's

TOi Kal
Sr)

KeWi

^t'Xo? fiepoTTCov dvOpwirav,

ovvsKa
viKTjcra';

vvv Biov 'AXe^avBpov Mei'eXao?
efie

ideXei (TTvyeprjv
Bt]

oikuB'

dyecrOai'
'TrapicrTTj^.

ToweKa
rjao

vvv Bevpo BoXoippoveovaa
dea>v B

405

Trap

aiiTov lovaa,

diroeLire

KeKevBovi
398. edjuiBHCCN
a,.
||

396. ^' t'

added above the

line Pap. p.

Sp'

:

e<ijuBHceN

V
fi.

Bp'

P

Pap.
Pap.

|3

:

396-418 6.8. Ar. eduBHc' ainhp Vr.
Eust.

gneiTO

3' 'inoQ

kifm' G.
Ar.

400. npoT^pcoN
:

R
||

^

401. 6sHic G. 404. kei'Ko\ G.
3fi
||

402. KoJ KeTei

ACHT
;8i.

KiKetei

403.
/St.

Pap.

405 om. Pap.
12
:

hk om. P. &H NUN nOn
:

oYKad'

:

oIkon

U

:

hh om.

C.

406. hn6e.\ne.

KeXeiieouc
excited

dn6eiKe KeXeiieou Ar.

(v.

infra).

her to love, holding that the following passage (see next note) was interpolated from a misunderstanding of But there is clearly no the words. reason for departing from the usual sense of the phrase. 396. Aristarchos rejected 396-418 on the grounds (1) that the goddess could not in the person of an old woman have the outward beauty described in 396-7, (2) that 406-7 are ^Miripriiia, (3) that 414 is eiSreX');! kutci, tt]i' SiAvoiav, beneath the dignity of the goddess. These argu-

noMcoN may be a partitive gen. but it is more in accordance with Homeric use to take it in the vague local sense, lit. lead me any farther on
400.
after nHi,
'

ments are not weighty enough
against lines which
are

to prevail

spirited

and

With regard to thoroughly Homeric. (1) it may be remarked that the goddess
takes a disguise primarily in order to remain unknown to the bystanders, not to Helen the gods in such cases often give some sign which reveals them to those to whom they speak, see N 72
;
.

ApiypoiTOi

Sk

6epl

Trep,

where Poseidon

has appeared in the character of Kalchas. 396 was apparently before the author of Hymn. Ven. 182 us Si idev Seiprjii re Kal It is, however, Sfiiiara KdX' 'AippoStTTjs. true that this intimate converse of a goddess with a mortal, even after recognition, is such as we find only in the later strata of the II. (Cauer Grundfr.
233). 399.
neiieiN

of.

For the double aco. with AnepoXen. Andb. v. 7. 6 tovto iiJ,S,s

^^aTaTrjffai, is.

region of cities, whether of Phrygia or Maionia.' These regions of course are mentioned as being farther eastward, away from home. 400-5. The punctuation is that of Lehrs and Ameis. Most editors follow Nikanor and put notes of interrogation after dvOpdnrav and Trap^vrris, and a comma after &ye(T8ai.. But oOveKa regularly follows the clause of which it gives the explanation ; Lehrs {Ar. p. 57 n. ) denies that two clauses correlated by ovvGKa ToiveKo, occur in Homer ; he would also put a full stop after Ipya in 727-9, q.v., and cf. A 21-3. ei by itself with indie, also appears not to occur in au interrog. sentence (Hentze, Anh.). Thus the victory of Menelaos is made a, re.ison for supposing that Aphrodite will immediately wish to take further measures for removing Helen. As Lehrs says, after the removal of the notes of interrogation, miilto acerbior evadit ironia. 406. All Mss. give dn6einE KeXeiieouc, renounce the paths of the gods. But Didymos says 'Aplarapxos awSeiKe Sici, tov K, Kal xaph TOV <r KeXeiiflou. Sau/idffeie S' S,v ns 7} iripa 5ia tov tt irdSei/ Tapidv oUTe yap iv rats ' Apiarapx^lots oUre ev CT^pai Twv yoOv fj.eTpiojv i7ri^ep6/j.evov
in

the

.

.

.

N

'

lAIAAOC r
/iijS'

(ill)

149

eVt alel

(Tolcn,

iroZecraiv uTTOcrTjOei^eia? "OXvfnrov,

aXK
ei<}

irepl
(T
rj

Keivov oi'^ve xai

e
r)

^vKacrcre,

o Ke
S'

aXo'^ov irouTqaerai
elfu,

6 ye BovKrjv.
Se Kev he
/a'
e'lrj,

Keiae

iywv ovk

vefJieaatjTov
T/atatat

410

Keivov TTOpaaveova-a Xe^o?"
irdcrat,

oiriaram
OvfiSyi,.

ficofirjo-ovrai,

ey^o)

S

a^e

UKpira

TTjv

Be j^oXacrafievr) 7rpo(7€^a>vee Bi
epede,
<T-)(eTkirj,
fj,rj

A(f)poBi,Tr)
ere

"

fj/ri

/M

^coaafievT)

fieOeiw,
415

Tw? Be a
/Meo'a-coi

aTre'^Orjpa),

w? vvv eicTrajXa
<7V

(f)CKT]aa,

B'

dficporepcov fiTjnao/jiat, ej^dea \v<ypd,

Tpcocov Kal

Aava&v,

Be Kev

KaKov oItov
fOXaccoN H.
:

oKTjai.

407. ToTci G.
c'
ft
:

408. nap" ^kcTnon P.
:

1|

KG

jufeN

G

KSN n Vr.

a^,

Mosc.

1.

||

noiHcei P.

410. ini) U.

409 dS. Ar. Ke eThn J.
|| ||

nopcuN^ouca O {yp. nopcaN411. nopcaN^ouca Ar. ADSTU Vr. b A, Mosc. 1 dxpirbjuiuea D. 413. npoce^cbNGi H. ^oucQN B). 412. ^KpiTO eUJUL&l ^KnarV iq>i\Hca fi. 416. 415. iKnarXa ffXHca Ar. T Bar. Lips. Eton. jui^c(c)oH DH. ?x^€a 'Ayjaea Ar. CD: SxoEa (aYcxea Sohol. T), fiXrea, Six&iTivh
:
:
II

:

SXrea Schol. A.
Kal oi fi6vov iv rais iKddffeatp aXKA. Kal ev Tois avyypi/iimati' (the dissertations of Ar. ) iira^Airavres oSrm This very vehement asseriKTlSevTOL. tion, it will be seen, applies only to the 'editions' and dissertations, not to the
7r^<pvKev.

e'iveK'

6'C^ofj.ev

Ka/cd

TroWd

S

89,

and 5

152, f 307. 409. 8 re

might seem to emphasize
'

Mss. of Ar., of which Did. had plainly It is clear that the vulgate tradition was dwdaTre, not merely from the consensus of our own mss. but also from the fact that An. quotes it in In other words, we his sohol. on 396. have to deal with a case of critical opinion on the one hand, and MS. tradition on the other, though what we know of Ar. will induce us to believe that the reading of the critics had a foundation in the MSS. which has not The critical objection to survived. dTToeiire Ke\e6Bovs was presumably that the verb, in the sense renounce, is elsewhere used only of a thing which is renounced in words (T 35, 75 /lijviv) not in deeds ; and further, that the plur. of Kc\ev0os is usually KeXevSa (but see K 66, N 335, e 383, 77 272 ?, k 86). Neither of For the these has very great weight. use of Ke\ev6os of. TrdTOv d,v6pil>irav Z 202. 71, 407. Cinocrp^eiac intrans.,as ace. of the "OXujunoN 6 301, etc.

no knowledge.

the second clause, or even his slave. But in other passages it merely resumes the original subject, as j3 327 •^ rixas iK lli\ov d^ei 8 ye Kal 'Zirdpr-qBev fi so 7 214, 239, etc. ; 'nunc dextra ingeminans ictus, nunc Ule sinistra,' Virg. Aen. v. 467. The scholia on 5 12 note doOXw as a suspicious word for the regular 5/iwi^. It occurs only in these two places (but SoiXiov ^/lap Z 463, f 340,
. . :

M

p 323, doiXeiov la 252, Sovkoirivri % 423). 411. MSS. here (as in Pindar, etc.) vary between nopcaN^ouca and vopavviouira in y 403, ?; 347 they give only the form with -iva, but Ar. read irbpaaive in the last passage, and this is found also in Hymn. Cer. 156, and Ap. Ehod.
:

For the phrase see M. and E.'s note on 403, where the origin of it is deduced, from the fact that no one but the wife had free access to the husband's chamber, and so she actually " prepares " his bed

7

'

for the night's rest.' Of course it passed into the sense of ' sharing the bed. the short syll. before 414. cxerXfH
' :

:

M

rX

:

terminus ad qitem, H. O. % 140. 4. 408. itzue KaKoirddn TdXaiinipec Schol. D i.e. suffer anxiety. So ^s {IpolTis)
;

not Homeric. 3^ KEN ktX. an independent the Kev showing its original 'and in that case thou wilt force, perish.' Aphrodite means that she
is Attic,
cCi

417. clause,

:

'

150

lAIAAOC r
w? ecpar
,

(in)

eBBeta-ev

B

'^Xevr] Ato? eKjeyavia,

^ff

Be KaTaa-'^o/jievT]
7rdaa<;

eavtbi dpyriri- <^aet,vS)U

tTir/rji,,

Be TpQ)ia<;

XdOev VPX^

^^

Bauficov.
i,kovto,

420

at B

or

'

d/jLtpLTToXoi,
rj

jjbev

AXe^dvBpoio Bofiov TrepiKaWe eiretTa 6oS)<i cttI epya rpdirovTO,

B'

et?
B'

{jy^opo^ov 6dXafj,ov
Bl(ppov

kU

Bla yvvaiKMV.
A<ppoBbTT]
425

Trji,

dpa

eXovaa

(jtiXofifieiBr)';

dvn' 'AXe^dvBpoio 6ed KaredijKe ^epovcrw
ev9a KaOl^
6<T<Te

'EXez'i;

Kovpr/ Ato? aoyio'^oto,
B'

TToKiv KXivacra, Tro<nv
eic

rivliraire

fivOtof

" ijXvOe^

iroXe/Mov

&)9

M^eXei avroO
:

oXetrdat

KaXuijraueNH Q. 419. KOTOCXOU^NH 421. T Pap. /3. 423-6 om. Zen., writing aOrfi 3" dNxloN TzeN 'AX^dNdpoio SNaicToc. 8iic iKrerauTa Vr, a. 426. 3i6c atn6xoio iKrerauTa G 424. 9iXouAaHc Q. eT e' G. cbc 428. noXiuoio Pap. §.
418. errerauTa

oY

&' P.

:

\\

:

will embitter the strife between Trojans and Aohaians, so that Helen, Troiae et patriae communis Erinnys,' will become intolerable to tho.se around her. But the phrase seems weak after ten years of the line might well be spared. war, and 416 will then mean I will stir up hatred instead of love between you both,' i.e. Paris and Helen. 419. KaTacxoJu^NH, covering herself,
' '

KovTa iiTLTTideOet., Ariston. Cobet has an amusing chapter on the question of

like KoXvxI/afjLevTj

141, and cf. ijepi yhp KaTexovTai=are hidden, P 644. only here of a feminine 420. SaiucoN goddess ; nor does it appear to be used anywhere else of a definite god present The plur. is used as in his own person. = eeol in general, A 222, Z 115, <ir 595 in T 188 we have the phrase irpis dai/iovos inopKriao), and similarly o 261, e 396 (where no god has been specified) and in all other cases it is used either in the yet more general sense of 'the will of heaven
:

;

;

(cf. dalfiova ddxru Q 166), or or ' fate in the metaphor iireatrvTo Saifiovi tcros. See M. and R. on /3 134, where, however, the singularity of the present passage is If it were not for not brought out. the presence of Aphrodite in the following lines, it would indeed, by Homeric usage, be necessary to translate her destiny, the divine power, led her on,' as in dydyoi de e Saly-uv 201. 423-6. Zenodotos rejected these lines, writing instead " air^ S' avriov l^ev 'A\e^dvSpoLo dvaKTos"' dirpeir^s ydp a{iTun €<ftalveTO rb ttjl 'EXeV??! ttjv 'A(f>podLrTjv
' '

Sl<l>pov

^ncrrd^eiv.

^?riXA»;(rTai Si

in ypat
irpoa^-

etKacrrat, Kal Ta&nf]L ttjl fiopiprjL

ri

propriety as it appeared to the Alexandrian critics, Misc. Crit. 225-39. (Schol. T quotes t 34, where Athene carries a lamp for Odysseus.) Rbmer suggests that Zen. may have considered that Aphrodite, being disguised as an dfi^liroKos, must have gone off with the rest in 422. 426. The title KoOpH Ai6c ain^xoio is elsewhere reserved for Athene alone. 427. 8cce ndXiN KXiNaca, the aversa tuetm- of Aen. iv. 362. This is a most instructive piece of Homeric psychology, shewing the struggle of the weak human mind against the overpowering will of the gods. From the outward point of view, as distinct from the presentation of such secret springs of action, Helen is depicted to us, Nagelsbach says, as the counterpart of Paris vacillating between repentance and love, as he between sensuality and courage. 432-6 were obelized by Ar. as we^brepoi Kal toJs vorifiaa-i ^vxpol KoX aKardWrikoi. With this judgment it is impossible to agree. 432 is spoken in bitter irony. The sentence beginning with dWd a' iyd ye may be taken in the same tone as a ' bitter taunt but no, you had better take good care of yourself you might be killed ; or we may take it as seriously meant, as marking the point at which the old love suddenly resumes its sway, in fear lest the taunt may really drive Paris to another duel. The former is more consonant with the reply of Paris,
'

;

'

'

; :

lAIAAOC r
avSpl
Tj

(III)

151
iroa-i';

Sayu.6t9
Sr)

Kparepwi, o?

eytto?

-rrporepo';

^ev,
430

fiev

"jrpLv

J

ev'^e

ap7)i<plXov
ical

M.eve\dov
^epTepo<; elvac

ar]t

re

^irji,

koI Xepct

ejy(ei

aX\ Wi vvv

irpoKoXea'a-at.

aprj't'^tXov

M.€veX,aov

i^avn<i pMj(e(Taa6ai evavTiov.

aWd

a

iryco

je

iravea-dai KeXo/uii,, /mtjSs ^av6S)i Mez/eXawt

dvTi^iov
Se

"TToXefiov
fiij

iroXefii^eiv ^Se /Ma'^ecrOai,

435

d^paSeco<},
Ttjv

ttoj?

ra^^

utt

avTOv Sovpl

hap/qrjit;.

UdpK

fuiOoiaiv djMei^ofievo'i TrpocriefTre-

"

fit]

fie,

jvvai, j^aKeirolaiv oveiSeat dvfiov eviiTTe.

vvv

fiev

jap Mei/eXao?
avTi^ eja)Sr]

ivixriaev

aw

KQrjVTji,
elcri

Keivov 8

irapa jap 6eoL

koI

rjpZv.

440

aXX aje
oil

^tXorijTt Tpaireiofiev evvrjdivreTTore
p,

jdp
ore

TTft)

wSe epo? ^peva<;
e'f

dp,<peKd\v\frev,
ipaTeivrji;

ovB'

o-e

Trp&TOv AaKeSai/Movo';

eTrXeov dp-yrd^a^ iv irovToiropoco'i viecrai,

vrjcwt B
429.

iv K-pavdrji ipijTjv (^iXottjti Ka\ evvrji,

445

npoTepoN
:

Q
Tfii

Eust.

430. r' om.

CD.

\\

eGxou 6.

||

dpH'i^iXca ueNeXdcd
||

Q.

431. CHI

G.

432-6

6.6.

Ar.

433. IsaOeic C.
:

uax^ceceai Cant.
-.

434. naiieceai Ar.
O.

CHP
;

Bar. Mose.

1,

Eton.

naOceceai
p. Par.

R
||

Cant. Lips.

naiicaceai

436. SaJUi^Hic Ar.
:

8auaceAic

AU
:

Pap.

g (King's supr.)
:

:

dauaceetc
||

438. yaXenoTciN : uiieoiciN T. King's ^ doueiHc Q. euju.&N uOeoN D. gNine Lips. gNicne Z)GPE Pap. /3, Vr. a, Mosc. 1 440. aOoic C. 441. eONHe^NTEC DHQ(?)TU Vr. a, Mosc. 1. 442. (L&e or c&a' 9iX6THTa GP. DHJPQRT Pap. /3, Par. d f g j k Sibk r' A (the reading of CGS is left uncertain Ipoc (fcarci Ti^-as 9p^Nac ?poc Eust. ) by La E. but is probably c&3e without r').

HQ

II

:

,

||

Spue
but
'

iJ.

443.

npcoTON

:

np6TepoN CRT.

444.

dpndcac DS.

\\

In

:

inX Vr.

a.

it cannot be said that either is prosy, frigid, and inconsistent.' 435. ^NTiBiON by Homeric use must be an adverbial neut., not agreeing with <ri or wdXefioy. 436. La R. considers that 6n6 goes with doupi, qOtoO being simply 'his,' comparing i/iwi inrb Sovpl Saij/qvai. E 653, But this use of ainov as a simple etc. possess, gen. is very rare (see IT 405), and it is more natural to construe ' iy

Tepirmipawos, from Tpeira. Other instances are abundant, e.g. KapSlri KpaShj, Kaprepds Kparepds, Odpffos 8pa(nis, etc., either ap or pa being the Greek representative of vocalic r. 442. Spoc mss. ^pws, and so S 294 but we must read ^pos in S 315 (though even there most MSS. have ^pws), and as the cases are always formed from this stem {Ipui a 212, ipov passim) there
:

can be

little

doubt

that

Bothe

and

him

his spear. 438. iNfnTCiN always takes a person only as object elsewhere, except v 17
tirifh

Heyne

M. and R. A eiv7)eii>Tes, where ^e converse metath. seems to take place in

KpaShpi T/viiraire fivBuc. 440. aOnc, 'some day,' sc. viKijaoi. metathesis from 441. TpaneloJueN take our pleasure. TapTrelop-ev, let us So S 314, ff 292 \iKTpovSe Tpaireio/iev
:

are right in restoring it here after Eustath. The earliest trace of Ipws seems to be the ace. Ipara in the Homeric Hymn. Merc. 449. So yeXos,

not yiXois, is the Homeric form, generally disguised by the mss. See note on A 599. 445. KpONiiH according to Pausanias (iii. 22. 1) lay in the Laconic gulf opposite Gytheion. Others made it Kythera, as


152
d)s
7]

'

lAIAAOC r
creo

(ill)

vvv epafiai Kai

jxe

ryXv/cv^

ifiepo'i

aipel.

pa Kol
TO)
p,ev

apj(e Xe^^ocrSe Ktcov

a/ia S

e'lirer

ukoiti^-

ap
B'

eV TprjToicri Karevvaadev Xe'X^eecrcnv,

ATpetS'ri<;

av

op-iXov i<poira Orjpl

ioiKW,
450

ei TTOV

iaaOprjaeiev 'AXe^avSpov ffeoeiSea'
ri<;

aXX ov
Sei^ai

Bwaro

Tpcocov KXeirwv r
apTjiijjiXoii,

InriKOvpav

AXi^avSpov tot

MereXawt.
ei Ti<;
'IBovTO-

ov psv yap (j)iXoTr)n

y mevdavov,
ava^ avBp&v

laov yap (T^iv Trdaiv aTrrjvOeTo Krjpi pyeXaivrji.
Tolcri

Be Kal fieTeetTrev
p,ev,
Brj

^

Ayafiepvav
eiruKovpoi *

455

" KeKXvTe
vlicr)

Tp&e<; xal AapBavoi ^S

fiev

<j)a[veT

aprfi^iXov Mei'eXaov
a/jL

u/iet5

B

'Apye'iTjv

'EXevrjv Kal KT-^/xad'
aironvefMev,
rp)

ainrji

eVSore,
fj

koI

TUfjbrjv

tlv eotxev,
460

Te Kal eaa-op,evoi(TC fieT
e<f3aT

avOpanroccrt •ireX7]Tai."
fjbveov

(S?

ATpetB7)<;,

eVt

B'

dXXoi

A-^aioi.
450. eeoeidA

447.

V

:

t'

Pap.
,

/3.

448.

u^N
||

:

riip P.

||

KareuNacee Z)JQ.
^.

PT^ Mosc.
459.

1.

451. k\utc2)n G.
/3.
:

t'

:

3'

Pap.

453. r' om.
:

G

Pap.

/3.

II

^KcueaNEN Pap.
en^oiKC Mosc. 1
:

dnoTlN^UEN

ddpSaNOi Ad' InfKOupoi e^KNi^juidec dx°i°) finoTiNeroN Zen. ^N tin' I'oiken An Ih^oikcn P flt<
456.
||

Cr-

:

?

t"

yp. Kal

Hn nep Soiken

J.

461. dxoicoN D.

the dwelling of Aphrodite. These of course are mere guesses ; the island was unknown, and some read Kpavarji. as
adj.

448. TpHToTci: see M. and E. on a 440, where it is explained to mean morticed, on the strength of Plat. Pol. 279 E tQv di

avfdeTuv
(TtiiiScTa.

Ti,

/ih rpTp-d,

TO,

5i dvev Tpri<reas

But Plato can hardly be quoted as a decisive authority on Homeric archaeology and the following passage
;

is strongly in favour interpretation 'pierced with holes through which straps were passed to support the bedding, ' or still better 'pierced with holes by which to rivet on the ornamental plates or disks (v. on SivaTolsL 391) Kopiibv S' ix filt^'rjs Trpora/iuv dfupi^eaa
1^

from

196-201
the

either

of

453. iVoi for love were they trying to ' hide him, should any see him. The line represents in narrative form the thought ov K€v6a.vovaiv, -fjv ns tSijrai, they are not for Aiding (will not hide) him, if any shall see him' (M.A.B.). rdp explains the use of BiiNOTo, ' for it was a matter o{ power, not o( will.' This is satisfactory grammatically ; hut the violation of the f of idotro and the form Kevddvu (instead of *Kvv8dvoi) for Keiidu have raised grave suspicions against the couplet. Various remedies have been

proposed

one fault is cured by Heyne's ^KevBov dv, the other by Bvandreth's tis oparo or van Herwerden's et Fe FiSovro. But all these conjectures are far from
;

d

:

satisfactory.
'is

xaXKui
eS Kal iTTLSTaix^va^, Kal
ipiuv'
a<TK-fi(Tas-

457. ^aiNeroi, with gen., as we say declared for M.' The construction

iirl ffraff/iriv

Wvva,

rerp-qva

Si

Trdvra
80/)'

with the gen. is essentially the same as with adjectives (dpl(TTri ^alvero /SouXi},
etc.).

Tep^rpbii. ix Si ToO dpxSjXivos
eriXeaaa,

X^os

'i^eov,

SaiSdWav xpvcui re
(pavTc

Kal dpyipai

fjS'

i\i-

4v S' irdvvffff' l/jAvra ^o6s (poivLKi (paetvdv,

459. For dnoTiN^UEN Zen. read dvoon his theory of 'dual for plural. might easily read diroriveTe, as the hiatus is liaitus in the bucolic diaeresis ; but see A 20.
rlverov,
'

We

'

'

'

INTEODUCTION
Book
by Pandaros (1-219)
obviously into three divisions (1) the wounding of Menelaos (2) the review of the Greeks by Agamemnon (220; 421) ; (3) the beginning of the general battle (422-544). The first episode is clearly a continuation of the story of the preceding
IV.
falls
:

have stood alone, nor can the third book well have does without some such continuation to enable the battle to begin after the truce. There is no serious difficulty within the story itself, though the relation of it to the rest of the Iliad is fraught with many
book.
It can never
it

ended as

thorny questions. In the first place, the colloquy of the gods with which the book opens is cryingly inconsistent with the intention of Zeus and his promise to Thetis in A. Here the course of the war seems to be an open question, and vengeance for Achilles is never thought of. Again, it is strange that the flagrant crime of the Trojans should never again be mentioned in the course of the Iliad, except in a few lines patently interpolated for the purpose of bringing it in (see E 206-8, H 69, 351). Some allusion seems imperatively demanded in the case of the death of the arch-traitor Pandaros (E 286-96), which so soon follows his ofi'ence. The whole story, in fact, from T 1 to A 219, admirable as it is in narrative, cannot belong to the original Iliad. More perhaps than any other part, with the exception perhaps of K, it produces the impression of a distinct poem, composed for its own sake, and without any regard to the suited, too, place it would hold in a continuous tale of the fall of Troy An unconscientious rather to the first than to the tenth year of the war. compiler might have adapted it to this place by stopping at the end of T, and simply saying that, as the duel had not been brought to the proposed conclusion by the death of either champion, the truce was simply at an end. But we could ill afl'ord to lose such a famous passage as the account of the and there can be little doubt that the whole episode was bow-shot To hold, as some have done, that originally composed as a single piece. the Pandaros episode is a later extension of the duel, leads to the obvious question, 'Why should a compiler or continuator have introduced a new motive which must infallibly lead to all the difficulties in the sequel which have been pointed out 1 The second portion, the eTriTrwAryats, is in some ways puzzling. The allusions to the breach of the treaty shew that it was composed to follow
; ;

154
the duel

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

on the other hand, the way in which the simple and modest ; character of Diomedes displays itself under severe provocation can hardly be

meant for anything hut a preparation by contrast for his exploits in the next book. The whole episode, though not without considerable vivacity, prolongs beyond measure the delay in the opening of the battle, at a point where rapidity seems essential to the story, and the speeches are unreasonably prolix in the crisis of the attack. The gratuitous insults which Odysseus, like Diomedes, has to undergo are strangely at variance with the services he has rendered in B, nor do they accord with the character of Agamemnon. The clear allusion in I 34-36 to 370-400 here shews that the episode is certainly earlier than that book ; it may well be by the same hand. It would seem, therefore, that it was composed at a time considerably earlier than the Attic recension, in order to join the duel to the rest of the exploits of Diomedes. About the last portion of the book there is little to be said. It consists mainly of battle ' vignettes of no unusual interest, such as could no doubt be turned out impromptu to any extent by the practised bard. The similes with which it opens are incomparably the best portion of it.
'

lAlAAOC A
6pK(coN ciirxucic.

'Arau^juNONOc £ninca\Hcic.

06

06 6eol Trap

Zijvl KadrjfLevou '^yopocovTO

^vaecoi iv
oetoe^aT

SaTreBwi, fjuera Be aiptcri iroTVia "HyS?? toI Be ypwcreoi? BeTrdecrcn

VEKrap iaivo'^oef
avTiK
" Boial
'

a\X7]Xov<i,

Tpcowv iroKiv

elaopocovTe';.
'

iireipcLTO

J^povtBrji;

ipedi^e/j,ev

Hprjv

KeprofLioi^ eireeaai,
fiev

Trapa^XijBrjV ayopevaiv
aprj'yove';
elcrl

TS/leveXdcoi,

dedmv,
'AOtjvr].
3Ei3^KaT'

Hys?;

T

ApyeiT] xal
J.
3. 6.

A\aXKop,evrj'};<;

2.

dNdan^dco
:

£HUiNox<5ei Zen.

?

(nvh Schol.

T).

4.

Vr. a

3ei3ixaT'

H.

napoKXiidHN Lips.
etc. , seems to have taken it) by way of invidious comparison between Aphrodite and the two goddesses. None of these satisfactory ; I would suggest by is way of risking himself ('drawing her fire' in modern metaphor), i.e. wilfully tempting her to retort upon himself; hence provoMngly (cf. irapai^dXa Keprolj.iov(nv of teasing boys. Hymn. Merc. This sense of irapa^dWeffSai. is 56). (with the exception of the purely literal meaning) the only one which occurs in H. (see I 322), and remained attached to the word throughout Greek literature
;

Arop6coNTO, held assembly, as B 1. 337 Traicrlv ioLK&res ayopcLa(rde. Ar. ace. to Porphyrios in Schol. B explained the word by iiBpol^ovro, but it implies debate as well as mere gathering together. 2. "HBh reappears only in E 722, 905, and the post- Homeric passage X 603, where, as in the later legends, she is the wife of Herakles. For the golden floor see Helbig E. E^ 115-7, where 1 Kings vi. 30 is compared. 3. £caiN0xoei of course a false form
:

for ^oti'Ox6ei, 598.
4.

cf.

H\vSa,ve,

and

see

A
23

BeiB^oTO

:

generally referred to
deiKvifi^Poi (H. G. §§

(v. L.
8.

and

S. s.v.).
:

dHicvvfuu, V. I
(6), 24. 3),

196

'AXaXKOjuENHtc
testifies

Pausanias

(ix. 33.

'pledging'; in that case it must be a secondary sense derived from the custom of pointing to the person whose health is to be drunk. But both form and meaning present difficulties, and the word may be independent. Cf. detKaydiiJVTO 86, deKavarai' dffird^eTai Hesych., and the Odyssean Seidla-Koix.ai., which may point to a root dFm (van L. Ifruih. p. 345, Schulze Q. E. p. 155). 6. napoBXi^dHN variously explained maliciously (with a side meaning) ; iy way of retort (so Ap. Rhod. ii. 60, 448,
:

a cultus of Athene at Alalkomenai, near the Tritonian lake in Boiotia, down to the times of Sulla. The local hero was 'AXaXKO/j-eveis, and the name Is evidently connected with some very primitive cult ; cf. the interesting fragment in Bergk P. L.^frag. adesp. 83 (Pindar ? ) xaXeTrii/ 5' i^evpetv elVe BotuTols
5)

to

'AX <: aX >
Bos

KOfieveds

vir^p

Xi/j.vT}s

^TjcpiaLelre

iviffx^

irpuTos

&v6p&iruv

kt\.

(followed by a list of local myths about the origin of man). The local fem. form is 'AKdXKOfi.ei'ta, one of a trio of local

:

156

lAIAAOC
?}

A

(iv)

oKX'

rot rat v6a-<pi icaOijfievat, elcropoaxrai
S'

repTrecrBov' .t&i,
alel

avre

(^tXo/i/xeiS^?
Kripa<i

'A^poBirrj
afivvei,

10

"Trapfie/M/SXcoKe

Kol avrov

Kot vvv e^eaawcrev olofievov daveeaOai.

aXX
rjfiei'i
rj

rj

Toi viKTj

fjuev

aprj'i^lXov
ottuj?

M.€veXaov
<f)v\.OTrt,v

Be

(f)pa^(oiJ,eO'

ecnai rdhe epja,
alvrjv
15

aSTt9 TToXe/iov re icaKov koI
fj

opaofjLev,
el
rj

(fnXoTTjra fier

afi^orepoiai, ^aXai/jLev.
(j}i\ov

S"
TOI,

a5 TTW? ToBe Traai
fiev
B'

kol rjBv yevocTO,

olKeoiTO TToXi? Tlptafj^oco avaKTO^,
'^T^vrjv Mei^eXao? dyoiTO.
eirifjiv^av

avTK
&)?

'ApiyeLTjv

ecpad',

at

B'

A6r]vai7]

re koX

Hp?;,

20

ifKriaiai
rj

a" y

riaOTjv,

kuko. Be Tpmeaai, /j,eBea9rjv.
Ti
ecTre,

TOO 'AdrjvaoT]

aKeav ^v ovBe
aTrido<i

crKv^ofievr)

Ail TraTpi, '^o\o<; Be

fiiv

wypic;

rjipei'

"Uprji,

B'

ovK evaBe

^oXov, aXXa TrpocrnjvBa'
;

" alvoTaTe K-povuBr], irolov tov fivdov eetTre?
Trw? i6eXei<; aXtov Oelvat trovov
IBpS)
S'
rjB

25

ciTeXeaTov,
Be fioi
'ittttoi

ov iBpacra fioyai,,

/cafJLeTrjv

fi ^' iJ. aOeic C. 17. a3 9i\ouAaHC Q. 15. ft (fi) P Pap. 7 oBtcoc Par. d aijT&jc (aiiTcoc) Q. r^NOlTO Aph. fi aiS xdjc Aph. r^NHTai Par. f. 19. aOeic C. 20. 'iifaT' Pap. 7. n^XoiTO Ar. (? v. Ludwich) A uku G. 23. aV B' 0. oY r' 22. ft TOI 21. nXHcioN Eton. supr. 24. 06 k^X''^^ HT (and. ^ irKdoiv XP^""" ''"'' dvnypdipuv cxuzou^NH Pap. 7. 27. KaueTHN ij gKajuon Eust. Ynnca S. 25. ^cmac N Vr. a. Eust.).

10.

:

||

nojc Ar.

:

:

:

||

:

\\

:

:

:

||

(ohthoniau ?) goddesses^ absorbed ag usual by the Olympian (Paus. ibid.). The name becomes here attributive rather than local, meaning 'the guardian.' It recurs in literature only E 908 (the only other place in H. where Hera is called 'Apyeiri) but is found in Chios on an inscr. Hence also the Boiotian

who

desires peace,

is

a little nearer the
'

pure idea of 'wish.' We exactly express the ambiguity in translating then may the city of P. be a habitation.' Zeus is here not expressing a wish, but only putting as a possibility the result of his second alternative in 1. 16.
20. uOzeiN, to mutter,' murmur,' a family of words derived onomatopoetically from an imitation of the sound of the voice when the lips are closed. 20-5 = 9 457-62. 22. Sk^cdn is indeclinable here and 9 459, and tp 89 d/c^wi/ daivvade Kadr/fievoL. Elsewhere it is always declined like a
' '

month

'AXaX/cO|U.^no!.

(/x)j3Xii(r/cu

11. napu.iuB\aKe=irapiJi4iJ.\aKe )M\, from ml-). {fiKo

from
ai-

=

ToO : the usual construction of ifiiveiv 402 Zeis But is tL Tcvi, not Tij/os.

M

KTJpas

&fivv€
I

TratSfiy

eoUj

Iva \oiybv dXdXKOt. d7r6 is added are

And

539 Tpthujp the oases where
similar,

^

essentially

participle,
else it
or,

and

it

is

hard to see what

v(£p

Atrii

Xotybv
.

d/iiiKwi/ 11 80, etc.

S. G.

§ 152.

can be. Of course aKiova could easily be restored liere, with Brandreth,

18. oiK^oiTO
tatives,
'

.

firoiTO

:

potential op'

but illustrating how the wishing opt. shades off into this sense without dv: valoiTe T 74, in the mouth of one

van L. and Agar (/. P. xxiv. suggest, /x^k aK-/]v, but there is nothing to explain how such a corruptiou could have originated.
as

273)

;

'

lAlAAOC
Xaov
eph

A

(iv)

157
re iraicriv
0€ol

aryetpovcrr)i,

Tlpidfimt kuko, rolo

arap ov
Be fiiy
Ti

rot Trai/re? eiraiveop.ev
o')(6r)cra<i

aWoi.
30

TTjV

irpocretpr]

ve(f)e\rjjepeTa Zeu?-

"

SaifioviT],

vv

ere

JIpl,a/j,o<;

Tipidfioio

re TratSe?

Toacra kuko, pe^ovaiv, 6 r

dairepyet; fieveaivei<;
;

'IXtou e^akaird^ai ivKTUfievov TTToXiedpov
el

Be (TV

J

eiereXBovaa TriJXa? Kal ret^ea fiaKpa
35

uifwv ^e^pas6oi,<i Yipua/Mov Tlpid/j,oio re vratSa?

aXXovi; re Tpcoa?, TOTe Kev yoXov e^aKeaaio.

ep^ov
(Tol

OTTO)?

edeXei^'
fjuej

fi-q

rovro je
fxer

velKO<;

oirLaao)

Kal

i/jbol

epia-fia
crv

dfj^OTepoicrb jivTjrai,.

dXXo
TTjv
firj

Be rot epeco,

B

ivl

^pecrl

^dXXeo

crr]Laiv
iO

OTTTrore Kev Kal

eycb /ie/xaw?

iroXuv i^aXaird^ai

iOiXco,
Ti

ode TOi (piXoi dvepe<; eyyeydaai,

Biarpi^etv tov efiov '^oXov,
erol

aXXd

fi

iaaaf

Kal yap iyco
at

BwKa eKwv deKovri ye
eTnyOoviav dvOpmirav,
oiiri

6v/ia)i.

yap

iiir

'^eXucoi
'iroX'qe<;

re Kal ovpavSa darepoevrt
46

vaierdovcTb

29.

^pd'

'

&TCip

:

^pde Sp G.

||

JMKQ.
38.

||

4:naiN^coueN Mosc. 1

:

£naiNoOueN

J.

gpeicua Z>'Q. 41. lrrer<iaci(N) AJQT 42. SacoN G. 43. ^rc& toi S. Vr. b, Mosc. 1 3 (ecorr.): 4Krer(5aci(N) fi. xe {sxipr. re). 44. im' : in Q. 8(aK' &i.Kum Trypho. re re om. Q.
35. BeBpcbeeic {supr. oi)

QR

Mor.

||

||

:

||

45.

Naierdcoci D.

28. KaKd, accusative, in apposition to the sentence,' as it is generally called expressing the sum or result of an i.e. so 1. 207 &v action [H. O. § 136. 4) Twi ixiv kK^os, a/ifu 5c- irhl^aXev . 6os £) 735 fil\pei x^^P^^ eXiy djr6 wipyov, \vypbv iXeBpov. The construction is only found after a verb governing an accus. of the external object either expressed or implied, and may be regarded as an extension of the construction fiii^eiv nva
' ; ' ' ;

p.

makes

m

Moreover, the simple alviu 307). alviiaw in H. (it 380, 403), cf. iTr-fiivqaav S 312.
32. 8 Te implies
'

as I

must conclude
:

.

they do, because,

'

etc.

icnepyfic

appa-

:

rently for dv<nrepxh, o-iripxoi 'to press,' lit. hastening, pressing on (so Curt. Et.
no. 176 b, and Clemm in 0. St. viii. 95). 35. For similar expressions v. 347, Q, 212, and the words of Xenophon to his soldiers, Anab. iv. 8. 14 roiirous, fiv ttus Swili/ieffa, Kal dfwiis Set KaTa<paye!v (and Mist. iii. 3. 6). BeBpcbeoic seems to be a perf. in -9a like iypiiy6p8a<rL, v. S. G. § 22 (10), and note on (9). The

'

'

X

Kdfiveiv Tt = to make cf. 216, etc. peculiarity here is that in the principal clause the verb is used ina sort of zeugma. transitively
Ti.

YoT

The

It 29. n&tnec is the emphatic word. is indifferent as- to the sense whether we take inamiiou.eN as fut. or pres. ; but it

more usual form jSe^/iwKiis is found in X 94, x 403, where it may have supplanted the rarer ^eppuiffdis. 43. iKcbu d^KONr! re euu&i, not under compulsion, but yet not of my own liking, as the Schol. explain TroXXi irapa irpoalpenv Trjs fvxv' TrpdrTofiey irpbs t6 Kexapur/Uvov tQv irlXas. 45. Naierdouci, have their place, see
:

must be the
canon,

latter according to Cobet's

e is not the preceding syllable is long, the fut. takes <r, but where the antepenult, is short the a always disappears thus aiSiffopuii., 6.pKi(Tw, vemiiTiii, but TeKia, yapUa, Kopioi, etc. {M. C.

that

in verbs where
if

changed to

r;,

;

B

626.


158
Tacdv
Kai,
oil

'

'

lAIAAOC
fioL

A

(iv)

irepl

Kfjpc

neo'iceTO 'IXto?

Ipr}

TlpLUfio^ Kal Xao<; ivfjbfiekiu)

Upidfioio'
iierr]^, )7/iet?.

jdp
Tov

fioi

TTore /Sco/xb^

ehevero SatTO'i

Xof/8?5?

re Kviarj'; re*
B'

to yap Xd-^ofiev yepai
'

rjfjbetPeT

eireira ySowTTts Trorvia
jjbkv

Hpr]

50

" ^ roi

ifiol

Tpet<i

iroKv (jtiXraTai elat vroXi^e?,

"Apy6<; re ^Trdprr) re Kal evpvdyvca M.vKi]vr]'

Ta? Biairepaai, or

dv too d-wer^daiVTai

irepX

Kfjpo'

rdav ov toi eyco irpocrd "aTafiat ovSe fieyaipco. e'i irep yap (pdoveco re Kal ovk elm Biairepaai,
oiiK

55

dvvco (f)6oveov(T
-^rj

,

eirel

rj

iroXii

<j}epTep6<;

iacri.

dXXa
46.
51.

Kai ifiov Oefievai irovov ovk dreXea-Tov
iK

TacaN
:

:

tun
a.

G.
53.

47. ^liuueXiou L.
||

48.
:

Bcoubc
||

:

euju6c Eust.

(pfXyaToi

N
oOti

Vr.

54.

oOtoi

GMQS.

3idnepcoN G. ti Q. TOl dn^x^oNrai JDU. 55-6 (iff. Ar. 56. 9^pTaT6c i>P (and A™).

46. nepi Kflpi on this disputed phrase see H. O. § 186. 2, where the evidence Monro takes the dat. is fully given. as a locative, in tJie heart ; and with much hesitation irepl as exceedingly ; irepl KTjpi may have been meant in the the feeling (fear, anger, literal sense, etc.) being thought of as filling or On the whole, howcovering the heart. ever, the evidence is against this view unless indeed we explain vepl xijpi as a traditional phrase used without a distinct sense of its original meaning.' The sense exceedingly is obviously suitand irepl = able here, but less so in 53
:

Mykenai
existed

;

the

two

can

never

have

=

'

;

inside

is

47. ^ujuiueMco,

supported by A 317, q. v. with good spear of ash,

side by side as they are represented here. The hearer is naturally expected to apply the words only to the fall of Mykenai, represented as the price paid for the conquest of Troy. 55. q>eoN^c>> and eici are taken by Ameis as subj. ; he compares a 167 odd^ Tcs iffiiv OaKirap^, e'i Trip tis iTix^oviav avBpdmav ^i.<nv 4\eia-e<T6ai., but this is essentially different, as it refers to a repetition of anticipated cases so A 261 et irep ydp t aXXot . datTpdv iriviainv. Hera is here stating a fact which she admits, in order to base another statement upon it, and for this the indie, is
I \

;

.

xPV^^f^^^^t TroXe/uKoO, Schol. ; a somewhat strange epithet to apply to Priam, who is not represented as a warrior in Homer (except r 188) ; hence van L. writes iv/xfieXl-qs here and in the three repetitions of the line (165, Z 449, [6 552]), thus also removing the contracted gen. -u for -ew. The epithet is also applied to the sons
eiU

TOV

TTore ttjl fieXlai

the proper mood cf. 117 et irep dSet^s T earl, and note on A 321. It is also more natural to find oi after el with the indie, than the subj. H. G. § 316, and
;
;

H

on B 349, A 160, though it is true that we do find d oi with subj., e.g. T 139 o6k elSin, where the neg. coheres closely with the verb. In the next
V.

of Euphorbos in P (9, 23, 59), and to Peisistratos, y 400. 52. The clear mention here of the city of Argos, like the epithet 'Apyelij applied to Hera in 1. 8, marks this passage as

Dorian conquest one of the few cases in Homer where prae-Dorian character of the traditional It was, the poems has been forgotten. of course, that invasion which created the city of Argos at the expense of

composed

after the

may be either pres. or fut., Islmll do no good. 55-6 were obelized by Ar. Sn T^v xiipij» avakiovaw, el Kal fii] TrpoSeriBels Sivarai tovt Ix""; i-6. Hera is not doing Zeus a favour if Zeus can work his will without asking her. But this ground is quite insuflScient the turn of thought is natural enough, have your way you know I cannot prevent it. The iiWA following (57) also clearly
line Anvjco
, ;
' ; '

refers

to

56,
I

mighty, yet
nothing.

'though you are more am not to count for

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

159
evOev o6ev
croi,

Kal yap ejo) ^eo? el/M, <yevo^ Se

fioi

Kai

jie

irpea^VTOLT'qv reKero Kpoz/o?
yeverji
ai)

d'yKvXo/j,'>]rrji;,

afjL(pOTepov,

re koI ovveKa

ar)

irapaKoiTi';
dva,craei,<;.

60

KeKKrifiav,

Se iracn fier

aOavdroicnv
S

dXTC ^ TOi
crol

fiev
crv

ravO' viroei^ofiev aXXrjXoicn,
S
e/xof
i-iri

fiev

iyd),
(TV

e^frovrai

6eo\ aXKoi

d9dvaT0t.
ireipdv 8

Be Odacrov

ABtjvuCtji einreTKai
alvrjv,

iXOeiv e? Tpcoav koi

A'^ai&v (pvXoTnv
opicia

65

w? Ke Tyawe? virepKvBavTa';
v-irep
,

A'^aioii^

dp^tocrt irpoTepoi
ft)9

BrfX/ijaacrdai."

e^ar

ovB

dirLdrjo-e

TraTrjp

dvBpStv re ffemv re-

avTLK 'AOrjvabTjv eirea TrrepoevTa ivpoarjiiBa' " ahlra fidk' e? crrpaTov i\6e fierd Tpaia^ Kal 'A^atou?,
ireipdv B
oj?

70

«e T/3M69 inrepKvBavTa<;

Aj(aiov<;

dp^coai irpoTepoi virep opKia BrfXi^craaOai,.

w?
^rj

eliraiv

&rpwe

irdpo's

fjuefuivlav

^AdrjVTjv,

Be
S'

olov

Kar GvKvfjiiroio Kaprjvwv dt^aaa. darepa rjice K.povov irdl'i dfyKvXofirjTeco,
il

75

59. jue
y.

Synt.

:

drKu\6uHTic Mor. uoi H. 60. CH : coi Q. 61. k^kXhtoi Pap. TaOr' InieisoucN Apoll. toOt' dnoeisouGN J {yp. raOe' OnoeisojueN) TaOr' OnodsoucN Pap. y. 65. eic 0. 66. b' om. P. 67. np6TepoN
:

62.

:

JQ.

68.

?9aT'

:

q)<ST[o

Pap. y.

71-2 om.

J.

72.

np6TepON 0.

59. npecBuTaTHN, senior in dignity, not merely eldest, as the second clause cf. the use of of 60 clearly shews
;

indicates more than the mere swiftness of descent, and implies at least a visible

6 289, sign of honour, etc. So yipav, councillor, is used without Acrespect of age, like seigneur, sir.
vpia^a,
irpea^-fiXov

though we cannot suppose that Athene actually changed herself into a fire - ball or meteorite but on the other hand Homeric gods are not in the
flash,
' '

;

cording to the legend in Hes. Theog. 454 Hera was actually older than her brothers, and thus yeverjL here probably means age, though it may equally well be taken to mean parentage. probably an adj. 66. 6nepKii3aNTac
:

like

d/fii/tas

ddd/^as,

from stem kv8 (not
It reonrs only Hes.

KvSeir) like KvS-pbs.

510.

Cyprian It is clear here that 67. See r 299. '6pK(.a. is governed by iwip, not by SrfK-qaaa-dat.

Cf. fieyaKeiSavTos (?) in a inscr. (Collitz 31).

habit of appearing to multitudes in their own person. Of course the sparks in 77 are merely part of the description of such a meteor, and do not belong to the comparison. A very similar passage is P 547 sqq., which describes the descent of the same goddess clothed in a cloud like a rainbow, spread by Zeus Tipas f/j-fj-epai. -^ iroKifioio ^ koX xf'A"2pos. 82 shews that the people did not 'kno-w what had happened, but only expected some divine interference in a decisive way, whether
for good or ill. Apoll. 440,

Here

75.

ficT^pa Skc

affrip' ivKe.

also MSS. give iirepdpKia. so MSS. ; Bentley The place, just before the
:

The edd. compare Hymn.
t

caesura lark rplrovrpoxJov, is the most unlikely for an hiatus, so that the coniecture is almost certainly right. It is not easy to make out See B 87. exactly what the people saw and marveiled at (79) ; the metaphor clearly

A^6XX«. t « "f' ^P"^^^" ^"'^i ^™ Ws"" «<^^^'" *""'
t'
'

,„

'J/^^

''

'^

('^Y"
a
:s

'^'^"'^i'^'3"
'^^'''

s. ^o,Ti.uro, ai\a, S

-

^^

d, ovpavbu

;

.

s

where Apollo

is

actually surrounded

by

;

160
7]

lAIAAOC
vavTTjien
Tepa<s rje

A

(iv)

arparSii,

evpei XaSyp,
crTrivOijpev
Pi.Qr\vi],

Xa/Mirpov
Tcai

rod Be re iroXkol airb
rjl^ev
eirl

levrai-

elKvl

j(6ova IlaXXa?

KaB B
Tpa)d<;

eOop

69 fiecrcrov

ddfi^o^ B

e')(ev

elaopocovrai;
80

6

I'lnroBdfiov';

kol ivKvijfiiBa^

A'^aLov<}'

&Be Be Tt? etTreaKev IBmv e? irX-qaiov aXKov " Tj p avTL'i 7roXefj,o<; re KaKO<; koI (jjvKoin.'i aivrj rj eaaerai ; (f>i,XoT7jTa fier dfi(f)OTepot,(rt rodrjai Zev?, 09 t' dvOpdjTTCOv Tafj,b7}<; TroXefioio rervKTai
(U9
i]

apa

Tt9

e'lireaKev

A'^^at&v re Tpwcov re.
o/miXov,

85

avopi oKeM]

ipcocov Karaovcrea

AaoBoKcoi

Avrr]vopiBr]i,,

Kparepcoi, al'^rfrrji,
et irov
ec^ievpot.

TldvBapov dvrlOeov

BL^7}/j,ev7j,

evpe AvKdovo<s vlov dfivfiovd re Kparepov re

earaor
Xacov,

dfi,(f>l

Be fiiv Kparepal

<Tri')(e<;

dairiardav

90

o" ol eirovro drr

Alarjiroio podmv.

dy^ov B' larafievT] eirea Trrepoevra rrpoarjvBa' " ^ pd vv /Aot ri iriOoio, AvKdovo<s vie Bat^pov TXati79 Kev yieveXdcoi em irpoefiev rayyv lov,
76. nqOtoici

;

P

:

NavSyaici G.
84.
:

78.

IlKuT'
||

:

Ik^Xh

L

:

k^'

P.

79.

'icffH

dNopcbnoic M. rauiac G. 86. KaTodlicee' A KaTeaOcce' NTU Vr. b (supr. a over c, T. W. A. KaTedOc(c)ae' fi. 87 om. KpaTai(2> 0. T'. 88. eY nou IfEiipoi eOpe at rdNBe Zen. (omitting 89). £<peiipei Q (swpr. oi) ^feiipH {swpr. oi). 89. eOpe 34; DGP. 91. &ionToi Qi (and sv,pr. 0). 92. ^nea nrepdeNxa npoCHlida : npoc^fH rXaux&nic 0"i (G ? v. Heyne). 'Aei^NH NS and 7/).
G.
82. aOeic G.
)
:
II

:

|l

:

a blaze of fire the author of these lines, however, clearly had the present passage in his mind. 82. Nikanor takes the two clauses introduced by ^ as questions, and accents accordingly this seems to give the best
; ;

is commonly found bet'inninc asyndetically, e.g. °B 169° 169, 355, A 197, 473. 90. Cf. \a.oX dypoLUTm 676. But the division of dcnicrdcoN Xa&N suggests

But eOpe
327,

a

sentence

A

E

A
|

sense.

men. It would on Taixl-qs, not TvoKifioio. But cf. E 332 dvdpuv wdXefios. 86. Observe the long i of ^Napi this is possibly the primitive quantity of the
the eyes of to depend
:

84 = T ^NepcbncoN portent in thus seem

224.

For
28

the

cf

A

rdpa,! dvdpi!nroiv,

genitive a

H. G. % 373, van L. Emh. pp. But see Schulze Q. E. p. 229. eY nou, in the hope that. 88. Zenod. was offended at the doubt which he thought was expressed as to the certainty of the goddess finding him, and wrote
dat. sing.
61, 80.
,

that they should be taken as substantives in apposition, not as adj. and subst., the comma after Xau;/ being removed. Notice the rime. For 91 cf. B'824-27. 93. The question here implies a wish, the opt. being potential ; lit. could you listen to me ? So we have the simple irLBoil) /ioi 5 193, pray listen to me, which shews that the interrogative form is not necessary here [H. G. § 299 h). We have the same form in 48, but oix S.v is
usual, r 52, 204, is virtually an apodosis, as ttWoio had preceded, as in

more

H K

x

132.
55,
'

ksm
I80'
'

though d

N

etc. (see

eBpe

Sk

t6vS€,

omitting 89 altogether.

94.

H. G. § 318). km npo^ueN Ar.,

iTnTrpoifiev MSS.

;

'

lAIAAOC
Tracrt

A

(iv)

161
95

Se kb Tpooecrcrt %a/oti' KOi kvSo<; apoio,

eV irdvTwv he fiaXiara

AXe^dvSpmi, ^acnXrjl.
irap

Tov Kev
a'i

Br)

TrdfiirpcoTa

djXaa
iiri^dpT

Sa>pa

(f)epoio,

Kev

iSrji

M.evekaov dprjlov 'Arpeos vlov
Trvpf)<;

(TWi

^ekel BfiTjOevra
S

dXeyeivfj';.

dXX ay
eiij(eo

oicrrevaov Mei'eXaov KvSdXifioto,

100

ATToXXwi't XvK'qyevel KXvToro^mi
KXeiTTjv eKaT0fj,^7iv

dpvwv irpmToyovcov pe^eiv
oiKaBe vocTTTjcrwi
95.
t'

ieprj^

el<i

aaTV
jj

ZeXeti;?.
ATp^coc

Ke om.
a
:

0.

II

SpHQi Q.

98. YBoi 0.

i>GNOPQR.

99.
:

nupflc
ficrii

G Vr.

nupflc 3' L.

102. npcoTorbKcoN Et. Gvd.

103. e!c ficTU

re P.
Of. X 8 ^ir' 'Kvrivbuii IBiv^ro. Ameis prefers the double compound iinirpOiivM which is used in the simple sense of 'sending forth in a certain direction,' I 520, P 708, S 58, o 299. In these cases, however, the direction of sending is purely local, and the separate gni better conveys the idea of hostility. 95. Tpclbecci, at the hands of the Trojans, apparently a locative sense (S. G. So I 303 ^ ydp Ki <r(pi § 145. 7 c). /jA\a fi^a KvSoi &poio, 2l7 otffea$a.L l^iya Kudos 'Axaioiiri, compared with K\ios i(!6\bv kvl T!pil>eaiTiv dpiadtu P 16. But this use is rare with the singular 'AXe^dvBpuii seems to be added as an analogical extension of the constr. rather than as a true dative. 97. The simplest construction of napd is with TOV, -but the rhythm is in favour of joining the participle with the verb, as the line is otherwise divided into two

Sikyon, Megara. According to the legend in Aristotle S. A. vi. 35 Leto was changed into a wolf at the time of his birth (cf. also Bust, on this line). A statue of a wolf was set up by the altar in Delphi. (See Verrall on Aisch.
Sept.

132.)

Another connexion with
;

X

which, however, Fasi compares B 39 Bijaav yhp It' IfieWev Cf. M. G. § iir' SXyei tc (rTovaxas re). 192. There appears (ace. to Veitch and the lexx.) to be no other instance in Greek of the mid. of jrapa^^peiv, though
ec[ual halves (for
irpo(rtp4pe<TSai

occurs in Attic.

of. I 546 woXXois Si The expression dXeveu'^s. is very natural, even as used of the dead. 101. XuKHreNi^c, wolf-bom, an epithet which, according to Lang and others,

99.

gniBdNTo:

irvpTJs iiri^Tiff'

an earlier stage of animal on A 39, and Frazer Pans. ii. The wolf was sacred to p. 195). ApoUo and was sacrificed to him at Argos (Schol. Soph. El. 6), and the name Aukcios was widely spread, being
points
to

worship

(see

found,

among
I

other places, in Argos,

implied in the epithet \vKOKTbvos Soph. El. 6 compare ^fuvdeijs There were, howbeside (r/MvSoipdbpos. ever, two alternative etymologies in both of which still find ancient times, defenders (1) the name is derived from * \iiK7i, light, and means bom of light, or begetting light, of the Sun-god. But this is not an early character of Apollo the second derivation is also excluded by the uniformly passive sense of forms (This explanation is as old in -yevris. as Macrobius ; see Sat. i. xvii. 36-41, J. A. Piatt.) (2) Earn in pp. 96-7. Lykia. But this would entirely separate the adjective here from Aukeios, obviously In fact it is not ima native name. probable that the name Lykia is itself derived from the title of the god ; the primitive inhabitants called themselves Still it must Termilai, not Lykians. be admitted that the author of this passage may have had such a derivation in his mind, for, as we shall see in the next book (105), Pandaros is in one version of the story actually made out to be a Lykian. npcoTordNCON, apparently first102. lings, the first-born of the year, the The word, however, Trpbyovoi of i 221. suggests the Hebrew custom of offering the first offspring of every animal. The analogy of irpuTovayels E 194 suggests also the possibility of translating wetothe
is
: ;

wolf

Athens {Lyceum), Epidauros, Lemnos,

bom.

VOL.

M

;

;;

162

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

avTiK

w? ^dr 'A6rjva[r], r&i Se <^peva<i a<f>povi TreWev iavXa ro^ov iv^oov l^aXov aljof

105

aypiov, ov
7reTprj<;

pa

-ttot

avTO<i

viro

crTepvoto

rir^rja-a';

eK^aivovra,

SeBej/j,evo<;

iv "TrpoBoKrjicTi,

^e^XrjKet Trpo?

crTrjdoi;-

6

S"

vTTTiog e/M-rreae ireTprji.

Tov Kepa eK
Kal
TO,

Ke<j)aXr)<;

eKKaiSeKciScopa ire^vKeireKTtov,
110

fiev

acncrjaa'; Kepao^6o<; rjpape
'^pvcrenjv
e7re.9rjKe

Trav 8

ev

'Xeirjva';

Kopcavrjv.

Kal TO fiev eS KareOijKe Tavv<Tcrdp,evo^ ttotI ryauijt dp/Kkiva^' irpocrOev he adxea <7j(e6ov iadXol iraipoi,
106. cr^pNOici Schol.

B

(Porphyrios) on

B

827.

||

TUyiicac

:

Kixi^cac Q.

107.

npo36Kaici G. 112. raiHN Q.
105.
'

(Sunece Harl. a). 111. Xihnoc 108. Snece 113. ^rxMNac Lips. Eton. Vr. a,.

MQ

KpuccHN Ambr.

HP

4cii\a, the bow of stripped covering; in 116 'stripped the lid off the quiver,' the object in one case being the thing uncovered, in the other the covering itself. The two uses of KoXiiTTeiv are exactly similar. For the bow-case (7U/)ut6s) see <j> 54. It is not clear if isdXou is an adj. (of the wild goat, cf. I 60 lopBaSos ayplov alySs) or a
'

obviously
either

make an unwieldy bow
is

;

hence

its

exaggerating, or he means that the united length of the two was sixteen palms, which would be rather small. dQpov in this sense seems not to

H.

but we have Arkad. ddpis- <nri.daii.-fi cf. Albanian dore, Jiand ?) some have suggested that it may mean the rings on the horns, by which the
recur,

(Hesych.

;

name, as in ^oOs raOpos, etc. It pretty certain that the animal meant is the ibex or steinbock, an animal still found in the Alps, though it appears to be extinct in Greece. It was, however, in historical times an inhabitant of Crete ; and Milchhbfer has published {Aiinali 1880, p. 213, Anf. d. Kunst p. 169) a bronze plate from that island representing two huntsmen, one of whom bears on his neck an ibex, while the other carries a bow evidently made of ibex-horns it clearly shews the rings, see note on 109. For t6son air6c cf. i/idxras ^o6s 684. 6n6 CT^pNOio Tuxi^cac is added parenthetically, and
specific
is
;

^

animal's age is known. 110. dcKitcac expresses any artificial preparation, e.g. of wool P 388, a mixingbowl 743, gilding of horns y 438, etc. Upape, joined with a handle (t^x^^) in the middle. The Kopci)NH is the tip with a notch, into which the loop is slipped in stringing (cf. </> 138, 165 elsewhere of a door-handle). At the other end there must have been another Kopdifri into which the string was permanently fastened, or else a hole through the horn. 113. drKXiNQc must be in close subordination to ravvcrtrdfiEvos, but the exact

^

meaning

8n
is

governed by /SejSXiJ/cei, for -rvxelv not found in H. with an aco. of the
is

object hit, as in later writers. Cf. B 579, 189, 394, etc. 108. Sjunecc, apparently fell into (a an odd expression. deft of) the rock d/i.Trea-e, fell back, has been suggested cf. Aisch. Ag. 1599. 109. K^pa, i.e. K^pa for K^paa or xipae. ^KKaideicddcopa Sfipoc KaKetrai o iraXai-

M

:

(TTir]^,

6 iariv ^/cracrts

Tiiov tt}s

x^^P^s Te<r(rd-

SaKriXav, i.e. a palm, four fingers' breadth, or about three inches. The horns would then be four feet long, which appears to be beyond the recorded size of the horns of the ibex, and would
poiv

is not certain. It is commonly taken with noxi raiHi, he bent the bow by leaning it (the end to which the string was permanently attached) upon tlw ground. This is of course the way in which the modern long-bow is sti-ung, but Reichel {Horn. Waffen p. 130) objects that the method is not suitable to the short bow. This was strung by placing the bow under the left and over the right knee and then bending it upward, the string passing over the left knee. He accordingly takes the words nori raiHi with Kar^eHKe, 'he laid the bow on the ground after stringing it by bending it up.' This is no doubt possible but if the preceding statement as to the

lAIAAOC
117)

A

(iv)

163

Trplv dvai^ecav

apr)loi vle<s

'A^atwy,
vlov.

irpiv

^Xrjadai M.eveXaov aprfiov 'Arpeo?
o

115

avrap
alyira

crvKa ir&iia ^aperprj^, ex
fj^eXaivicov

B'

eXer

lov

a^XrJTa TrrepoevTa,
8
S'

ep/M

oSvvdmv

eVt vevprjt KareKoa/Mee iriKpov olarov,
^A-rroXXavi XvKrjyevii kXvtoto^coi,
120

ev'^ero

dpvmv
OiKaSe

irptoToyovaiv pe^eiv KXeirrjv eKaTOfjL^rjv
vo<TT'f}aa<i
iep'i]<;

et?

acrru ZeXetT;?.

eXK6 S

Ofiov yXv<f>iBa<;

re

Xa^mv
:

xal vevpa ^oeia-

114. dNatseiEN QU iiNa{>f>iksaaN Vr. a dnatseiaN (corr. from -eien) Pap. y. BeBXficeai N BXHSHNai G. ^Tpecoc SGQ. 115 mn. Eton*. drploc ui6N :
:
||

:

||

||

dpx^N dxaiuN
"Vr. c.

CRT
||

and
||

yp. Harl. a.

116.
:

Ik

:

ir Pap. y.

||

eXee' ibn

JQR
:

117 de. Ar.

118. Ini : Snei G. rXufid' aSre G.

ueKoinIcon Ar. AU ue\aiN<!icoN Q. 118-21 om. Q. KareKdcuee NS KaTEK6cuei (2. 122. rXu9idac te
:

length,

of

the

horns

is

to

he

taken

literally, it

would seem that even if the sixteen palms covered the entire length of the bow it would still he a long rather than a short bow, and it is open to

question if it could be convenientlyHowever, in view strung in this way. of the fact that there is no evidence for other than the short bow on the most ancient monuments, it is better to regard the length of the horns as a mere poetical fiction, and to hold that the author of the lines had in view only the short bow. As Reichel points out, the Mycenaean monuments always represent the archer as shooting in a crouching attitude, with one knee almost or quite on the ground. This is well seen in the well-known dagger-blade with the lion-hunt, and in the scene with the siege from the The attitude Mycenaean silver bowl. is of course particularly suitable for an archer who, like Pandaros, shoots from behind the shelter of his companions' shields. It plainly excludes the use of a long bow. eO KOT^OHKe, laid carefully down the great deliberation of Pandaros' movements, and the attention he gives to the selection of his arrow, a new one, 'never yet shot,' are insisted upon. a well-known crux, not 117. gpua easily explicable from any other uses of These are in Homer (1) the the word. prop put under a ship drawn up on land, A 486, B 154, (2) metaphorically Ip/M 7r6Xi;os, prop of the city, 11 549, ^ 121 ; (3) in pi. earrings, S 182, o; :

297. The senses ballast and reef come in later Greek. The usual explanation is from 2, foundation of woes. But Ar. felt this to be so unsatisfactory that he athetized the line, y^Xoiov Yctp tp7icyi.v lpei.<Tfm T&v iSxjvQiv Xiy^aBai. In favour of the athetesis we might add the synizesis of -iav (-due) but on the other hand Ap. Rhod. imitates the line, which clearly has respectable antiquity (iii. 279 T6l,a raviaaa^ loddKris &p\TjTa iroXiarovov I6v). ^lAer' No really satisfactory explanation has been given. Curtius derives from a root meaning to flow, Skt. sar, comparing opii,ri and translating spring, source ; but there is no ot'ner trace of such a sense in Greek. The sense ballast suggests at least the possibility of understanding it of a cargo, charge, freigJU, of woes ; compare Aisch. Supp. 580 'Ka^oia-a S' fy/ia Aiov . yeivaro 7raT5' afie^ipTJ, of the child in
; .

the womb. 122. rXucpOac
y\vrl>iSa.s

:

cf.

419 ^Xkcv vevp^v
is

re.

The word

generally

taken to mean the notch in the arrow into which the string fitted, and so Ap. Rhod. understood it (iii. 282 y\v(plSas But the plur. ixiaarji htKarBeTo vevpiji). is then unexplained, and this sense does not suit Herod, viii. 128 rofei)fiaros irapcL {irepl
?)

rds y\v(plSas irepieM-

has been conjectured that there were two notches near the ends of the arrow, meant to give a hold for the fingers. This would give a good sense but there is no evidence
^avres.
it
;

Hence


164
vevprjv
fJiev

lAIAAOC
/Ma^&i,
Brj

A

(iv)

TriXaaev, to^coi Se a-thrjpov.

avrap eVel
Xl^y^e ySto?,
o^v^ekrji;,

KVK\oTepe<s fjueya to^ov eretve,
Se /Mey
ta-^ev,

vevpT)

oKto

S'

oicTTo<i

125

icaff

ojMiXov iTTiTTTeadai fieveabvcov.
/j,dKape<;

ovBe (redev, M.eve\.ae, Oeol

\eXd0ovTO

aOdvaroi,
rj
r]

tt/xbtt?

Se Ato? dvydrTjp dyeXeiT],

Toi irpocrOe (TTaaa j3eXo<i iy(€TrevKe^ afivvev.

he t6<tov fiev eepjev diro
iepyrji fivlav,

y^poo'i,

o)?

ore

fJi.iqT'qp

130

irabhof
avTT] S'

69'

rjM'i

Xe^erat inrvccf
o'^fjei

avT

Wvvev bdi
^(oa-Trjpi
^axj-rripo';

^coiurfjpo'i

•ypvcreioi avve'^ov koX BtTrXoot; rjvrero 0^£rj^.

LtM^y

i.v/rp«

iv h
Si,a

eveae
fiev
B(,a

dprfpoTi

"TriKpb^

6'iaro<;-

ap
0',

ikrjXaTO SaiSaXeoio,

135

ical

6oiprjK0<i -jroXvBaiBdXov rjpijpeicrro
fjv

/jLbTpTj'i

iipopei,

epvfia

')^poo<;,

epico<;

aKovTWV,
129. TOl
:

123. Zen. placed this line after 124.

127. iXdeoNTO Q.
(ace. to

oi

Q
:

(and so ap. Did.
4^prei

oihui iiera toO t)

:

re

G

a

II

X&OTO
D.

Mosc. S

(e corr.).

Heyne). 131. leprHl AMPRT 133 om. R*. edipas G. 136. kpiipxcro
||

EU
for

:

gpi^picTo

137. jufrpH

L

(p. ras.).

||

©'

:

3'

M.

||

gpuua

Ar.

fi

:

gXuua

Aph. Zen.
sucli

an arrangement,
if

and

it

is

the Greeks shot with the arrow tightly held (see Seaton in 0. B. i. It is possible, p. 244 and App. B, x.). however, that two longitudinal grooves may have been used to give a better hold. NeOpa only here = vevpij, bowstring made of a bull's sinew see 151 for a dififerent

doubtful

preceded, gat not.'

'

remembered, Instead of
'

'

for-

;

sense. , 123.

cOwpoN, the point of the arrow, which was fastened to the shaft by a
thong, 151. This is the only instance of iron used in weapons in H. (except the club of Areithoos, 141). On this ground some critics condemn the line a perfectly arbitrary step. The mention of iron is one of many signs that this book belongs to the later period of Epic poetry.

6reXeiH, sTie who leads the spoil (ayia, \ela) as goddess of forays. This traditional interpretation is supported by the epithet \ri?ns 460. The word is used only of Athene. 130. t6con, just a little, see on 322, "ir 454. The word is not correlative with (is, for the point of the simile is the watchful affection, not the distance to which the arrow or the fly is driven

K

X

away.
131. A&CTai: subj. , root Xex132. For the following passage see App. B. Taken in connexion with 186-7 and 213-6 it seems clear, as Reichel has pointed out, that 136 is an interpolation made at the time when the breastplate was an essential part of the hoplite's equipment, and that in 133 the word ecbpHS means not ireastplate but armour generally, and refers to belt and /drpri. \
,

H

a

124. kukXotgp^c is predicate, bent into Zenod. inverted the (semi-) circle. order of this line and 123, but not well. 125. Mrse seems to be an imitative word ; it does not occur again in Greek. Notice the personification of the weapons, SXto, ixevealvuv. i'aX^'', So XiXaiiynei/a

,

136 is a formal other passages. 134. niKp6c
:
:

line,

occurring in three! '
Pindar's
;

cf.

oxymoron

Xpobi 5(701 A 574, etc. Odysseus' bowstring KoKhv
128. npc&TH, as if

In
fteitre,

<t>

411

xe?^'56w

yKvxiiv iXarbv, 0. ix. 12. 137. Spuua so Ar. cf. Xen. Cyr. iv. 3. 9 Btipaxas ipifiara au/idTw. But " " Aph.

and Zen. read (\vfm,
covering,

ol6vei ef\u/xa

an affirmative had

(a wrap,

f 179)

Did.

;

and

:

lAIAAOC
7]

A

(iv)

165
ri)?.

ol

TrXeicTTOv

^pvro- Bta-Trpo Be e'iaaro Kol

aKporarov B ap oiVTo? iir&^pay^e %Poa dxoTo^' avTiKa B eppeev alfia Ke\aiv€(f>e^ e'f a)Teikrj<;. CO? 8' ore Tis T iKe^avTa <yvvrj (poivcict /j,f)]vr]c,
Mrjiovi,<;
rje

HO

K.aeipa, Tvaprjiov efnievai Zttitcov

KetTai S
iTTirrje';

iv daXdfjimi,,

TroXee? re fiiv '^prjaavTO
Be Kelrai ayaX/jba,

(popeeiv,

jSao'iXfjl
^'

ap^OTepov,
Toloi TOt,
ev(f)vie<;

KOCTyiio?

Xinrcob

iXarrjpi re kuSos"
aCp,aTi,
p,i]pol

145

MeiieXae,

p,i,dvd7]v

Kvrjfiai,

re IBe

C7<f)vpa

koX' vtrevepOe.
141. t' om.
yp. 0)
:

142.

Spa xaXicbc Zen. 140 6.6. Ax. YnncoN Ynneo(i) Aph. (?) J Par. b (and kk : safe S. <YnncoN Kai> Ynnco (sic: Ynncoi?) Ar. SixSii (see Ludw.).
139. ap' 6TcTbc
I!

:

LOQ.

:

Ynnou Bust.

143. 3^ juin
:

HP.
|i

epoTHpi U. Z)OU. uidNOH LT^ uidNeeN GR.
145. YnncoN
||

||

Te

:

Bfe

Vr. b.

146. TOi

re

HPQR.

:

as this form does not recur it is likely to be tbe original reading altered to the familiar Ipv/ia. There is no obvious

So

(pSelpw

and

cLegrade are used of

mixing

colours.

reason for the contrary change. 138. SpuTO with dat. like i/^iveiv nvl [n), but there is no other instance of this construction. "We find the aoc. of the person 555 "Siaropos vlbv Ipvro, of the thing E 538 i) 8' oix ?7Xos Ipvro, etc. ; without an object expressed E 23

142. YnncoN and 'lirirui, suit the sense equally, the pi. iiriroiv being general, practically iirinoy. It is not clear what Ar. and Aph. read, as the schol. of Did. is corrupt, but it is possible that

=

N

dXX' "H0aio-Tos

IpvTo.

Here we may

supply

eYcajo, hastened, Felaaro from FUfiai. The more correct form would be Flffaro, the spelling -eibeing due probably to the similar aor. of Ahrens was the first to point root FtS. out that this verb has nothing to do with iri/ii, (n-trri-fu, root se) or eT^iu, with both The of which it has been confused. original meaning seems to be aim at. The F is always necessary or possible when this sense is appropriate, exc.
d'CcTT6v

as object.

there was a variant iiriroiv the dual suits the Homeric use of horses in pairs rather than in threes or fours. 143. ea\(iucoi, of the treasure chamber, /3 337, Z 288, etc. 145. ^Xarflpi in H. is used only of the driver in a chariot race, A 702, 369 ; the connotation of the word is thus very appropriate to an ornament which would be used for purposes of display rather than of warfare.
:

^

90=P 285 ?), S 501, (fi 462 ?), /3 327, K 246, f 142, (o 213 ?). 139. For Up' 6Tct6c Zen. read dpa Xa\ic6s, which Ar. rejected on the ground that the point of the arrow was of iron The reading is naturally adopted (123). by the critics who reject 123. Ar. also obelized 140, because direiKik ought to mean a wound given, not by a shot, but by a thrust or cut, to which senses So also 149. the verb oirTd^u is limited. This, however, is surely hypercritical. 141. uii^NHi imitated by Virg. Aen.
(N
:

xii.

67—
rndum sanguineo
Si q.ui3 ebur.

veluti violaverit ostro

146. uidNOHN, a, form which has not been satisfactorily explained. Buttmann took it to be a dual for ijudv-irBriv, but the middle termination is out of place. The terminations -av, -ev, -vv of the 3rd pi. are lengthened only in arsis in H. and that but rarely, cf. e 481, i 413, tt 358. On the other hand, as they represent an older -avr, -evT, -vvt, they were once long, and the termination --qv for -ev is in fact found in Doric inscriptions of the 2nd century B.C., while a relic of the quantity remains in the Doric accentuaBut in the complete tion iX^yov. absence of analogous cases we cannot draw conclusions from Doric to Epic, and must leave the problem unsolved. See G. Meyer Gfr. § 634, van L. Mich. p. 294, Schulze Qu. Ep. p. 426, S. G. §40.

;

)

; :

166
plyrjcrev
0)9

lAIAAOC
S'
a/)'

A

(iv)

eVetra dva^ avSpcbv 'Ajafiefivav,

elBev fieXav alfia

Karappeov
apr)t<^iKo^

e'f

wretX?}?"
150

pljTjcrev
<i)9

8e koI avTO<;

M6i'eXao9.
6/CT09 iovTa<;,

Se

t'Sei'

vevpov re Kal 07KOV9
dvjjLO^

at^oppov
Tols

01

ivl

<TTrjde(T(TiV
/Merecjir]

a/^epQi).

Se ySapii
e')(cov

arevaf(fiiv

Kpeleov 'Ajafj,efiva>v,

'^eipoi;

"

(piXe

M.eve\aov e'rre<TTeva,')(0VT0 S iralpoc Kaa-LjvrjTe, Qdvarov vv roi opKi' erafivov,
fidj^ec^Oai,,

155

olov TrpocTTijaa'i irpo 'Ap^atwi/ Tpwcrt

W9 a
oil

e^aXov
'7ro)<;

TpS)e<;,

Kara 8

opKia rroara

irarrja-av.

fiev

oKlov ireKei opKiov alfid re
aKprjrot,

dpvwv
160

airovZai r
e'i

Koi Se^iai, rjK

iire'TriO/j.ev.

irep

jdp re Kal avruK
oyjre

OXvyu.7rto9

ovk ereXeacrev,
arrerKjav,
149
6.6.

eK re Kal
148. ^irHC^N

reXel,

aw
3")
:

re

fieryaXcoi,

t'

J

[yp.

pirHceN

NO'

(rap)

U

King's.
153.

Ax.

151.
yp. J

hi YbcN
Harl.
a.

:

a' eT&e(N)

CZJNQ^S
c')

V

oTae Q'.
158. ncoc

t6n hk
1|

GNP^Q and
:

||

npoc£9H CNQS.
157. cbc (om.

154. l:necTON<SxoNTO

{yp. 0).

ZiGS.
161.
;

M.

159. fiic

(supr. qn)

E

:

aTc GO. ricouciN Zen.
:

TeXeT

:

nep S. TeX&ei Zen.
:

155. grauoN N GHJPQ. aTud xe atua kqt' <Sin6Tic(c)e(N) P (?).
||

6iN^icaN Pap. 7^
primitive,

151. NeOpoN,
tip
' ;

by which the base of the was whipped to the shaft. BrKouc,
'

by

d /i^

and only to have been ousted through analogy. The use of d

barbs [uncos) there were probably three such, the point having three edges Helbig H. E? p. 341 v. diaTm rpiyXdxi-vi B 393, A 507. Only the actual point has penetrated the flesh, the rest of the head remains in the armour. 155. <fi\e a trochee, as B 359, * 308, and so ipiXai, <j>i\aTO. The lengthening in the verb is, of course, regular in the adj. it appears to be due solely to the first arsis, and is a real metrical licence, as in the case of Sid (r 357, etc. ) and iirel. (* 2, etc.). See App. D under C 1.
; :
:

but The der. of 4'l\o! is unknown there is no instance of i in Greek except in a few late imitations of this phrase. For the long e of KacirNHxe
;

see

S.

G.

§

387.

odNoroN

:

aco.

pressing the result of the action,

H.

exG.

§ 136. 4. 158. SpKioN, sing, only here, an oath159 sacrifice generically ; cf. r 245.

=

B341.
160. ei case like
.

.

o6k.
162,

T

where the negative with the verb into a negative word, but applies to the whole sentence. The use of d OVK with the indie, seems to be

clearly a 296, etc., does not coalesce
is

This
129,

with the indie, is to place a statement in the form of a supposition merely to the intellect, i.e. without any indication of wish or purpose on the part of the speaker whereas p^ appears originally to have indicated a 'mood' in the strictest sense, i.e. the active putting aside of a thought (prohibition) so that d ixii with the indie, was at first impossible. We find iiTi with the indie, without d in the phrase iit] &<l>ekav, and also 41, K 330, T 261 (?) [B. G. § 358), where the speaker not only denies a fact, but repudiates the thought of it a categorical expression not suited for hypothetical clauses. (See the notes there and H. G. §§ 316, 359 c, where Vierke's rule is given, viz. that with d and the indicative ov is used when the clause with d precedes the principal clause," except in i 410. The custom is probably due to the fact that this is the older order, and the more primitive expression of thought, and is thus associated with the older construction d nil with indie, is a use which grew up
; ;
'

later

by analogy, and was employed in
artificial

the more
161.

order of ideas.
oonj.

hs.

TC

:

Bekk.

iK

Si,

but

lAlAAOC
<Tvv
cr<f)rji<7iv

A

(iv)

167

Ke^aXrjiab jvvai^i, re Kal reKeeaa-LV.
0v/u,6v'

eS 70.^ eyw roSe oXha Kara ^piva Kal Kara
eaaerai, ^/juap or

av ttot

oKwKrji, "iXto?

Iprj

Kal npta/Lio? Kal Xao<i ivfifieXio) Hpidfioio,

165

Zeu? Be
T^ffS'

a-(f)i,

K.poviBr)<;

vyfri^vjo^,

aWepi

vaieov,

avTb<; eina-aeirjicnv ipe/Mvrjv alyiBa iraai
aTTciTT;?

KOTecov.
a')(p<;

ra
crkQev

fiev

effaerai ovk areKea-ra'
Si

oKKa noi
ai

alvov

eaaerai.

M.eve\ae,
170

«e

6avr)i<;

Kal iroTfiov

avaifKrjcr'qi';

^boroio.
iKObfi'Tjv
a'i7j<;-

Kai Kev iXey^ia-TOij

TroXvSb'^Jftov "Apjo<;

avTLKa ryap

fivi^crovTai
ev'^aiK'qv

'A'^aiol Trarpt'So?

KaB Be Kev
^ApyeliTjv

lipidficoi
B'

Kal Tpcoal Xiirotfiev

'^\evi^v aeo
NQ.

6(TTea TTva-ei

apovpa
:

164. dXciAei

165. £uujue\iou
||

L.

166. 5^

r6tp

N.

169. gcerai

c&eN

H

:

Mag. uoTpaN Q (and
Et.

170. eT kg J.
al Koival Did.).

n6TJU.0N Ar. [S] Par.
171.

k

{yp.

uoTpoN), and yp.
Si^fis.
||

IXerxiCTOC and ^^rxicroN Ar.
173. XinoieN

noXuti(iioN or noXii 9" Yi|;ion ap. Eust. 174. dpreiHN o' Zen. (of. on B 161).
||

0-DGNPQRS

Lips. Eton.

SpoupaN Pap.

7.

this is probably a case of the primitive use of re . re to express mere correlation, not conjunction, precisely as in the similar sentence in It 81, q.v. might be referred also to the gnomic re, H. G. § 332, but it is hardly use of possible to separate the re in the apodosis from that in the protasis. The conjunction of the present TcXeT with
.

A

166. Oipizuroc* ij fieTa<popci, dxi tuv iv vaval ^vyCjv, 4(p' S)v Ka&^^ovTat ol ipiffffovTss Schoi. A. Cf. cr^fia o-efivdv ijfiEvoi Aisch. Ag. 183, and ibid. 1618.

the

gnomic

aor.

natural.

Zen.

fin^icoN is not uncannot of course have
;

ndxjuoN so Ar. ; MSS. /ioTpav, 263 Trdr/Mov dvaTrX-^cravres, 34 KaKdv oTtov dvairX-rjcravTes, 132 KaKct. TToWa dvair.j e 207 KiJSea. We use precisely the same metaphor, 'to fulfil
170.
:

cf.

A

one's destiny.'
171.
noXu3fijiioN
:

read rekiau for reXei (see App. Crit.) as the context stands possibly he only meant to explain that rcXei is a fut. But the contracted form is later and The subject to dwirurav suspicious. 'transgressors'; but Zen. is general, read Tlaovcriv, and made it refer to the
Trojans.

so "Apyovs

Si^lav

The epithet xBiva Eur. Ale. 560. caused some trouble to the old commentators, as the plain of the Inachos was reputed well-watered (cf. linr6^oTov B 287). They were inclined to explain
read

163-5 = Z 447-9.
sider the

Some

critics

con-

lines interpolated here, but supposition is quite gratuitous. Appian says that Scipio, at the sight of the ruins of Carthage, used these words with reference to Rome. For the conThe subj. struction of 164 cf. e 373. gives a solemn tone (see on A 262). The Sn here can neither be removed nor changed to (ce without great violence. The collocation with nore shews that it generalizes rather than particularizes (see H. G. % 289. 1 J) ; but the pure subj. seems more natural, as in •!> 111.

the

much thirsted after, or to irdKvi-^Lov destructive (so Strabo), Tois TToX^/i.ovs. Some preferred, however, to explain it by a legend (found also in a fragment of Hesiod) that Argos
it iro\virb6t)Tov,

=

Si.k

was waterless till Danaos came with his daughters and that Poseidon or Athene provided it with wells. And in fact the Inachos and Charadros, which flow by
;

in

the town of Argos, are almost waterless summer the reputation of abundant supply seems to have been based upon
;

an elaborate system of irrigation, to which the legends allude. See Pans, ii. 15. 5, and Frazer iii. p. 96.
17-3.

See

B

160.


'

'

168
Keifievov
ical,

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

iv Tpoirji aTekevTijrmi iirl epymi.

175

Ke Tt? &S' ipiei Tpmcov virepTjvopeovTcov
eiTiOpan.aKcov

TVfjL^wi

Mez^eXaou KyBaXifioto'
'^oXov reXicrei
A>yafiefiva)v,

'aid'
a>9

ouTti)?

eVl

Tracrt

Kol vvv aXiov crrpaTov ry^a'^ev evOdB
Br)

A'^aiwv,
180

jcal
(7111)

e^7]

oiKovBe ^iXrjv e? iraTpiBa <yalav

Ketvijiaip vr)val,

\nra>v ajaOov Mez/eXaoz/.
/xot

w?

TTOTe Tt? ipeef

Tore

j^dvoi evpeta yQdiv.

Tov

B'

iiriOapavvaiv
fiTjBi

7rp0(7i(p'r]

^avOo<;

MeveXao^•

" Odpaei,,

ri

ttco

BecBiaaeo Xaov 'A-)(aiS)v
l3,eXo^,

ovK iv Kaipimi, o^v
re KoX

irar/r)

dXXa

irapoiaev

185

elpvaaro ^acrrrjp re iravaloXo'i ^S
^cbfid
/jbirpr),

VTrevepde

rrjv

^aX/c^e? Kdfiov dvBpe^."

176. Keiu^Ncoi Pap. 7.

G.

II

NQUci
jufi a'

GQR
gri

184.

y LMQtJ (uhV &n
:

Neuci Pap.

181. KsiNoTa 178. rekicoi KiQI) : reXicai S supr. 183. ^nioapcricac Vr. c. : xepci S {supr. nhucI).

Harl. a)
6sii

Did.

185. yp. oO
:

shn KaipiON

nou juihk^ti R. nco Ar. fi B^Xoc ndrH Harl. a. (interlined).
:
jj

:

tiv4s ap.

187.

KduoN

TduioN P.
:

175. fiTeXeuTATCoi ^nl Sprcoi
dcTjxiio-Tui iirl Ipydii,

so

tt

111
eirl

proportion,'
iiri

and 178 below,

wacL 'in

all cases.'

more common
1554 556
^tt'

This use of iiri is in Attic, e.g. Soph. 0. G.
/x4fj,vifj<rd^

eOirpa^l(u
appriTois

/xou,

iir'

X6701S

'with
iv'

Ant. words

proverb Kaipbi S' These two considerations talcen together seem to be convinfor the transition of meaning, cing though not quite incredible in itself, could be excused only if the word were
in the

wanv
;

dptirros.

unsaid,'
/t^Xoiiri.

Eur.
iir'

Ion 228

a(T<f>a.KTOii

quite familiar in its primitive use.

We

dpuyiji,

^ 574,

is similar.

66. 176. For Ke with fut. indie, see on 178. aTee, whatever its derivation some regard -6e as a shortened 8eol and gives much the same idea as our

X


'

a sort of hopeless despairing wish. Thus its use here, in a phrase which really expresses a triumphant taunt, intensely emphasizes the bitter irony of the imaginary words
to God,'
i.e.

Would

Lange EI 343). 184. nco = irws, V. T 306. 185. KQipicoi, a deadly spot. The sense of Kalpws is quite clear in H. ; it is always used in the phrase (rd) Kalpiov as here (9 84, 326, 439 ?) but the traditional derivation from Kaipis appears highly unsatisfactory. In the first place neither Kaip6s nor any other derivative occurs in H. ; in the second, a transition from ' opportune to fatal seems quite alien from the directness
(L.

need not go far for a more satisfactory etymology. The exact sense required is given by the word K-qp (Curt. Et. no. 53, p. 148), 'Skt. kar to kill, Mras Homer himself supplies death - blow. us with the negative adj. in dK-fipios 'unharmed,' p. 98, rp 328. Possibly, therefore, we ought in H. to write KTipiov, not Kalpiov, the word being confused with the adjective xaipios = timely only in later Greek. Indeed were it not for a single passage which
'

A

;

possibly stands in the way (01) yit.p is Katpbv Tvirds irtjyxave Eur. A-}idr. KTipw! might be written for 1120), Kalpios, I believe, at least in all the tragedians and Pindar, whenever it occurs in the sense ' deadly. ndpoieeN, in temporal sense, before it
got so far.
^a(STi]p,

Others take

it locally,

with

'

'

of
'

Homeric language.
'

Indeed

even

is not the original signification of Kaipis, for in Hesiod 0pp. 694, and Theognis 401, where it makes its

opportunity

'the belt, etc., in front of (i.e. protecting) my flesh.' It does not stand in opposition to mipepde, which is added independently, as in the phrase
7r65e!

Kal

x^V^^ Sirepdev

:

this is clear

from 215.
187.

first

appearance,

it

means

only

'due

See App. B.

; '

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

169

Tov S' airafiei^ofjLevo^ irpocre^rj Kpelcov 'Aya/Mefivtov " at yap Br) ovTto<; eXr), <piXo<; & MeveXae
eX,KO?

S

IrjTrjp

iirtfida-aeTat ^S'

emQrjcreb

190

(papfiw^^,

a Ksv Travarfbcri /MeXaivdwv oBvvdcov.' ^ Kal TaXdvj3tov Oelov KrjpvKa TvpoarjvBaAaKKTJTTlOV VLOV d/MVflOVO';
iBrjt,

"TaXdv^i,', OTTi Ta^tcrra M.a'^dova Sevpo KdXecraov,
<j>S)T

l7]Tfjpo<;,

o<j)pa

M.eveXaov dprjlov 'Arpeoi; viov,

195

ov

TK

6laTev(Ta<s

e^aXev to^cop

ei)

etSci?,

rj AvKuav, rmi p,ev KXeo<;, a/Mfii oe irevao'i. w? e<^aT ouS' apa ol Krjpv^ dirid'qaev dKov(ra<;, ^fj S' levai, Kara Xabv ^Kj^aiwv j(aXKO')(iTa>vu)v

Ipcocov

,

TTaiTTaivaiv rjpma M.a'^dova.

tov S' ivorjaev
crri'^e<;

200

icrraor' dfic^l Be
XaSiv,
01

fiiv

Kparepal

daTriardcov

ol eTTOVTO
tcrrayaez/o?

TpiK'r)';

i^ Itttto^otoio.

ayx^ov B'

eirea irTepoevTa TrpoafjiiBa-

" opcr,
o(f}pa

'

A(TK\r)Tri,dB7),

xaXeei Kpelwv

'Aya/j.e/j.vaiv,

cB7ji<;

M.eveXaov dprfiov dpj(pv 'A'^aicov,
elBco^,
afifii

205

6v Tt? 6laTevaa<i e^aXev to^wv ev

Tpcoav
(S?

7]

AvkIcov, rSii fiev KXeo<;,
rSit,

Be nrevOo';."

(j)dTo,

S'

apa
:

6vfibv ivl crTijdeaaiv opivenaOcHi ce

191.

K€N

:

nep

P.

II

nai^CHICI
||

G
:

:

naucHi re Mosc. 3

{e

corr.

).

drpecoc \A6h iyrpioc \Ahn ANT iipxi>N fix™^" 196-7 om. Z>OtP. t6son R 195-7 ad. Ar. 196. 8n tin' C^. U (and 7p. A). epi^KHC Z) Vr. A rpiKKHC t6s(^ XJi. 202. TpfKHC [GO]QiR[S]F (sup): con) 204. Spce' S Vr. A Spceo Q (and 203. npoCHlida ft. yp. &r6pe\iCN A.
195. S9p'

C6RT
:

Veil. B.

D

:

;

||

:

:

:

:

7p. Harl. a).

205. 'iaH(l)c

GLM.NOQRS
:

:

V3hi Ar.
J.

Q (and

Harl.

a^).

||

^aiUN
R.

:

firpeoc ulbu
:

DGMOPSU

inpeac uIon

206. 8n tin'

C^

||

dpxi>N t630n

208. TCOl

ToD N.
(ii.

189. For the combination of nom. voc. see IT. G. § 164, and notes on B 8, r 276. 0iXos is voo. also in I 601, 313, 343, 627. * 106, 191. With naucHici we must of course supply <7e as object ; the constr. Trai/ei;Van L. TiJ/d To-os occurs in B 595, etc.

26. 10) is

and

'human
father.

wrong in taking it to mean son' as opposed to his divine See on B 731.

*

197_ ^he Lykians here are doubtless ^^^ ^^^^^ g^i^gg of ^.j^g Trojans, Sarpedon's
^^.^^^^

^^^.

^j^g

followers

of

reading iraiio-iji <re. follows G 194. 9coTa and ui6n in apposition as 26 dtuid' 'RpaKXija, d 247 * 546, of. Z r^i ^t which passages the latter of „,v„-„v; J,„oc„„o= 0wt2 diKTTii., it, 1 r* shews clearly that the addition of 0iis does not imply anything like manly or 'heroic' dr^ip is used in just the same way, cf. &vdpa Bn^vopa A 92, E 649 and so Bupov dv8pis "B/cto/joj Soph. Aj. 817. It is needless to say that Pausanias
'

m

^^^^ 2eleia

(see

on B 105).

Pandaros kX^oc:

^^^ expressing the result of the action, as 156 „ 4. r>n j c -r i 202. See note on 90, and for TdIkhc f" , ' , ^ ^^

.'

.

^,

'^^'

™^^^

^'^^

^^''^^

°^™f ^" ^reek.
:

^^

^P''""''

204. 6pc', i.e. Sp-<ro, from the nonwhile Spireu 264 sigmatio aor. *uipbiaiv from the mixed is 6pa- - ev, aor.
' '

f'^^'''

*iipa-6/iriv

:

cf.

X^feo

by

Xi^o.

)

170

lAIAAOC
S'
ievai,
Bi]
?jv,

A

(iv)

^av aXK

ore

Kad' ofiCKov avh crrparov evpvv p iKavov 69t ^avdo<; Mei/eXao?
irepl S'

A.'^aiwv.
210

pKrjfjbevot;

aiirov

aiyrjiyepad

oaaoi apiaroi
Icrodeof
(f)0}<;,

KV/cXoer,

6

S'

iv /j,ecraoiai, irapLcrraTO
^a)(7T7Jpo<;

avTLKa
Tov
B'

B'

Sk

apripoTO<; e\Kev

o'iarov

e^eKKOjievoio 'iraXiv dyev 6^ee<i oyKOi.
rjB'

\vae

Be ol ^axjTrjpa iravaLoKov
/Mirpijv,

v-Trevepde

215

^wfid re KoX

rrjv

^aX/c^e? Kapuov dvBp€<i.

aiirap iirel tBev
alfi
eKfJifV^rjaa';

eXico';,
errr

od' efiTreae iriKpo^ o'iarov,

dp

ryma ^dpfiaKa
(f>IXa

elBa><;

TTcio-cre,

rd
8'

o'l

irore Trarpl

Kppovecov Trope ^eiptov.
220

ocppa TOO dfupeTrivovTO ^otjv d/yaObv M.eveXaov,
TO(j)pa
iirl

Tpcocov crrt^e? ifKvdov dcrTriaTaayv
eBvv, fMvrjaavTO
al TrXeiovs,

ol 8'
213. &'

avTK Kara Tev^e
Ik
: :

Be

'^ap/j,r}<;.

at Pap.
220. Toi

y.

||

e\K€N Ar. and
a.
:
||

P
||

(Par.
:

b

?)

:

eTXKeN

Q.

216. zcbxia

7p.

zucjua Harl.
:

tcSjuon

M

(kcJuon Harl. a)

*iiuoN (k in ras.

P

;

see 187.
li

ti

R

oV 0.

222. aOeic

CQ.

KaT<4 t' 'iure' gauNTO

N

gauNON 0.

212. For kuk\6c' Ar. strangely read k6k\os yev6fj.evot, comparing k6k\os as dypdfievoi ircis 5^/iios T 166. But, as Herodianos remarks, this is a quite insufficient analogy, as kiJkXos is not a, noun of multitude like drj/ios. He therefore supports Nikias and Ptolemy of Askalou in reading KVK\6<r'. Cf. P 392. ic6eeoc 9ci>c is more naturally taken to

=

mean Machaon than Menelaos
as usual signifying

;

iraplffTaro

'came up,' and the apodosis beginning with 6 8i. 214. n<SXiN may be taken with i^e\Ko/xifOLo, 'drawn back the way it had were broken entered or with S,yev,
'
'

221. The line is not very suitable to the present context, as the aor. fiXueoN puts the Trojan attack as a point of time, not as a continuing process. Hence it should be followed at once by the actual conflict, and there is no room for the next episode, the long ^TriTrtiXijiris of Agamemnon. In other words, the episode of the duel of Menelaos and Paris once ended here, and was followed immediately by the general engagement ; the

;

backwards.' The barbs of course stick in the hard armour. They have to be cut out of the flesh in the case of A 844. There is an obvious Eurypylos, inconsistency with 151, where the barbs hardly serious enough, are outside however, to justify Heyne in rejecting

though composed for this There is no reason to suspect 221 as an interpolation, as Heyne and others do an interpolator would obviously use the imperf., not the aor., if he had the
eiriTiiXricns,

place, is a later addition.

;

^irnrJiXTjiris

tattle-joy,
X^PIJ-Vi-

before him. 222. x<ipuHc, generally explained and this is supported by
yri66<Tvvoi
T-qv
acfiiv

tTie

N

82

Bebs

l/ii^aXe

ffvfuoi.

But

it is

very remarkable that

this line. 219. oi
Oipavi(i)ves

.

.

noTpl, as

P 196 &
ol

ol

deol

Homer never represents his heroes as taking any delight in battle, except by
immediate instigation of a god, as in the above passage, B 453, A 13. On the contrary, he lavishes all epithets of hatred upon war, Xvyp6^, iroXvBdKpvoi, dvcxi!i\ey^s, dvarjxris, aic6s, etc., and in E 891 (A 177) fondness for battle appears
as a severe reproach.
fore,

In these but Bentley's Fm is tempting. Cheiron is mentioned again as having taught medicine to Achilles in A 832, and as having given Peleus the 'Pelian spear,' n 143, T 390, but none of the other legends about him are alluded to by
\

irarpl <pi\o}t ^iropov.

and many similar phrases

=

his

;

It seems,

there-

Homer.

most unlikely that he should have made one of his commonest names for

lAIAAOC A
ev9^

(iv)

171

ovK av ^pi^ovra

I'Sot?

'

Aryafiefivova B2ov

ovBe KaTaTrTwaaovr' ouS' ovk edeXovra fid'^eadai,

aWa

tTTTTOu?

fiaXa cnrevBovTa fiaxV" «'? KvBtdveipav. iJ,ev <yap eacre koX apfiara TroixlXa '^aXKWu'
fiev

225

Kol Tov<;

Oepdircov dirdvevO^

e^e ^vaiocovra^
Kev

^vpv/MeBcov vto? liToXefiaiov HeipaiBao,

Twt jMoXa TToXX' eVeTeXXe
yvla \d^r}t
Ka/juaTO';
6601'

irapLO-'^efiev,

oiriroTe

fiiv

TroXea? Bia Koipaveovraiire'TrcoXelTO

230

avTap

6

TTfi^o?

crrt^a? dvBpSiv.

Kai p ov? puev aTrevBovTa<; oBoi Aavawv ra'^y'irayXcov, Tou? fidXa QapcrvveaKe •7rapi<rTd/ievo<; iireea-aiv
"'Apryeioi,
firj

TTOi

Ti

/jueOueTe

6ovpiBo<; okKrj'iZeii?
ecrcreT

ov yap

eTTt

yjrevBecra-i

TraTrjp
oic)

dpcoyo<;.
a.
?)

235

223. BpfsoNTQ P.

II

YBh J {mpr.
229.

:

HiHC NPi(?)Q Vr.

228. noX[Buaiou

Pap. 7. Mose. 1.

II

neipataoio U.
230. XdBoi

M Eust.

napacx^ueN CZ'JMPQCU'
234. uiinco Toi

Cant. Mor. Vr. A,

G

:

juu^nco

to H.

i|

Jueeeicre

AHNTU.
it

out of a word wHcli originally meant but whicli has entirely lost its connotation except in a single passage. Curtius would explain it as the glow,
'joy,'
'

burning flame' of battle (root ghar), compare the exlike SaU from dala
:

pression fiapvavTO could then explain N 82 as meaning 'the glow, the fire, which the god had put in them.' This, however, does not
d^fj-as irvpiis

aWofih/OLO.

We

time of speaking but this differs from the passages there quoted in that they words of a speaker to all give the actual whom the subordinate action is really future but here the poet himself is the speaker, and to him the action is necessarily past, so that he has to put himself in imagination into the place of Agamemnon giving the order. See note on
' ; ;

B4.
231. For ^encoXeTTo avdpQv.
232. Wakefield read Sv jxh aireiSovTo, and so &v riva 5' aC fxedUj/ra 240. 229. Cf. 516, 268,
FtBoi,
of.

account for x'^P/i'';=spea»'-i'(»»< (Stesich. fr. 94, with X''-^''<'X^Pf^^! iriSo/Joxap/icis in Pindar, Ayxap/Mv ivoKpeprj r^v alxiJ^-qv see Sehulze Q. 141). Hesych. p.

V

196,

of

Odysseus, ktIXos &s ^7rt7rw\«Tat

o-rlxa-s

;

R

reference [A. J. P. iii. 337) to root ghar prick, tear, is better ; battle is called tearing of flesh and 82 is due shields, and the phrase in to confusion with the different root

Hence Postgate's

=

M

N

N

234.

nco here
ipeiiBeca

again

=

ttus,

as

184,

r

306. 235.

g}iar=rej<yice.

223. oiiK Sn VBoic express s potentiality in the past, like oiSi T 392, A 429, etc. Eurymedon is Agamemnon's 228. but the charioteer here only in H. later tradition accepted the name, for Fausanias says that he was slain with Agamemnon. Eurymedon is also Nestor's
;

ypevS4<r(n {feudifis)

liast

Hermappias, on which a schocharacteristically remarks /xaXXoy
(^eCSos)
;

At.

TTuariov 'Api,(rTdpx<^i Kal BoKei 6,\ri$eieLv.
ap-firyuv

'fj

rwi
It

"EtpixairiTlat., el

is

true

that

and cognate forms are elsewhere only used by H. with personal datives,
not with abstract words like ^eSSos but the idea of being a helper for lies is not impossibly bold, and adjectives in from -es stems, with the single -/is, exception of 11711)5 (9 524 only), are
:
' '

charioteer,

6

Eurybates,
229.

A

114, 320.

A

620.

Cf.

note on

to have his horses For the subj. XdBHi after an at hand. imperf. v. E. G. § 298 ; it is used because ' the action expressed by the subordinate clause is still future at the

napicx^sN,

elsewhere in H. entirely restricted to compounds, such as (pikofevS-qs {B. G. % 116. 5) ; the Homeric word for liar is

;

172

lAIAAOC
o'C
rj

A

(iv)

(z\V
TOiv
57/x6t9

irep

Trporepoi inrep op/cia BrjXrjaaPTO,
71)776?

TOi
S'

avT&v repeva Xpoa

eBovrai,

aSr' aXo'xov<; re ^tXa? Kol vrjTTCa reKva
240

a^o/jjev

ev vijecraiv, iirel •mdXieOpov eXcofiev.
fiedt,evra<;
tBoi,

ou? Ttz/a? ad
Toii? jjLoXa

crTvyepov TToXe/MOio,

vetKeoeoTKe y^oXcoToiertv
lo/Mcopot,

eTreeaaiv

" 'Apjeloo
ri^O'

iXeyyie';,

ov vv cre^ecrde

oi)t(b?

earrjre Te6i)'7roTe<; rjvTe ve^poi,

238. a' om. Ar. U.

lAIAAOC
aC r
k<TTa(T
eirel
,

A

(iv)

173

oiv exafiop. TroXeo? ireBioio Oeovaai,

ouS'

apa

rt?

cre^t

fxeTO,

(j)peal

rybverai,

aX/oj-

245

w?
^

u/iet?
/jLevere

ea-TTjTS

reOrj-iroTe^

ovBe

fjid'^ea-06.

Tpwa?
at K

crp^eSw eXOefiev, ev0d re vije?
"TroKtrjii

eipvar
o(f)pa
ft)?

evTrpvfivoi

iirl

0ivl 0dX,dcra7]<;,

'iBTjT

vfifiiv

v'irep(T')(7]t

%etpa
(TTi'^a';

"
}S.povl,cov
;

o
B'

76 Koipavecov eVcTrcoXetTO
iirl

dvBp&v.

250

rfKde
01

T^prfTeo'cn
^IBofjLevfia

S'

a;a</)'

dva ovKajMiv dvBp&v. Bat^pova daprjcra-ovro'
kicov
a-vl
el'/ceXo?

'ISofievev<;

/i,ev

ivl irpofjidj^oi^,
oi

aKKr)v,

^r]piov7]<;

B'

apa

Try/aara? airpwe (paX.ayya'i.

Tov^ Be IBcbv
avr'iKa B'

jijOrjo'ev

dva^ dvBpuiv
ere

'A.<yafienva>v,

255

^IBofievrja
"Trepl
fjuiv

"TrpoarjvBa fJueiKiyioio'iv
rbco

"

'IBofievev,

Aava&v
eTrl

Taj^viraikcov

rjfiev
jjS'

evX TTToXefiax, rjB

dKXoitoi

epymi,

iv Baid\

ore

"Trip

re yepovaiov aWoira otvov
260

'Apjeimv ol dptcrroi evl KprjTrfpcn Kepeov.raidXXoi ye Kdpr) /cofioavre'; 'A'^aiol el irep ydp t
Batrpov TTivaxTiv,
245. rfc Ar.
{f.
fi
:

crov

Be Trkelov BeTra^ alel
(c

ri

JMNQRT

add. man. 1
||

?

supr. aim twi. c rh tic)

U
||

Harl. a

ras.
:

LN
X'

King's, Par. a {p. ras. ) b c g. C91 rciNerai A* (with rfKerai in marg., T.W.A.).
)

b

c,

uerh

-DM Mosc.

3.
II

251. fiXee 5'

:

fiXeeN Eust.

||

C91N iuX Q. rlrNerai 248 om. Lips.* 249. aY KpitreciN id)N Mosc. 1 in ras.
:

253. ltd:

&n\ G.

YkeXoc

GMKO
259.
.

(P sicpr.)
:

QEU.
ec Vr.
:

254. nuudjcoc R.
a.
jj

258.

noX^uco

JQ

{R^p.

ras.).

In

l:ni

Q

:

aaie'

:

Bairi

A
:

{supr. o')

D

Pap. 7.
244. ncBioio

260. KpHTflpi Ar.

Kpaxflpci

JP

KpHTflci U.

261. re

re J.

:

see note

on

B

785.

metaphor of. E 433, I 420 (where we have the gen. ^B^v Instead of the dat., and so fi 374). 253. There is a slight anacoluthon, as •laoucNeiic has no verb, which can however easUy be supplied from the following
249. For the
clause,
e.g.
Trpciras

8 Sirirot So aWoira oXvov aid irlvere. KpHxApci Ar. Kprp-Tipi, on the ground that there was only one mixing^°^1 ^^ ^ /«^^*- ^^^ut the pi. may be
counsellors.
i.

of the
260.

.

yepoiicnov

:

general, referring to
°''.

many

feasts

Cf.

Syrpwe

For the

Homeric idea of the
,
. .
,

<pd\ayya,. hoar's
,

"2Jtt™.-. K^pcoNrai have the wine ^^^ t\«, f"™ i'^V^f, ^ Present "f ^P'^'^'- (=f- S-'^Mai from dvm^), not
'.

courage see P 21. , ., , „, ° 257. nepi 13 here just on the boundary line between an adverb and preposition, 258 cf.^ouXv wepdS^^ai &\\^v as in N 728, with 7re,)i ivAvt^v l^^pai A 287.

elsewhere found it ported by Schol. L.
;

is
,

The other
etc.

expressly supsimilar
^ .^^^ Hence some

^^^^ J^ f^„^
332
a,^„ „ 500,
^epfi.rai here.

A

;

^^^^^
262.
^-^^
^

It IS
its

unimportant which we call it though position rather separates it from the

gen.,
Trepl

which in any
meaning beyond
;

case

is

^ gen.
% 185.

of

bmTp6u. an allotted portion. Fori ^^^^^^ ^f honouring a guest by keep^^^ f^^ ^f_ q ^^.^ ; ^/^^ ^^^

/

I

comparison

(ablative),

not
(x.

partitive,

M.

259. repoiiciON,

i.e.

at the assembly

^^^^^j raxi^TroiXoi Sdpvi re Kp4a<rh re ISi. ^Xe(o» Se^deircri, and so 311. Com-1 .^^^^ 'Benjamin's mess,' and H 321, 5 65. c6n Bentley conj. <ro£, to answer to ^/ioi.
|

M

[

:

I

174
eaTi]'^\
ftj?

lAIAAOC
wep
ifioi,

A

(iv)

ineeiv ore 6vfio<; avcoyoi.
olo<;

aX)C opcrev TroXe/AwS', TOP S' avT
"^ArpetBrj, fiaXa fiiv
eacro/jbat,

•jrdpo'i

ev')(eai

eivai.

'IBofJbevev'i
roi,

T^pTjToov

iyoiv

ay 09 ovtIov ipl,rjpo<; kralpa
icai

rjvoa'

265

to?

to TrpaTov vTrecrTTjv
Kcipr)

Karevevcra'
'Ap^atou?,

aW'

aXKov; orpvve
8'

KOfioa)vra<i

o(ppa rd'^tara

/jua'^cofieO' ,

eVet crvv

y

opKi

e'^evav
270

Tp&iey Tolaiv
eaaeT,
rjKde
Tea
ft)?

av ddvaro<s koX

KrjBe

oTna-aco

eirel

irporepoi,
^ATpetBrj'}

virkp opKia BrjX-ijaavTO.

W9 e^ar,
8'

Be irapwij^eTO yrjOoa-vvo^ Krjp.

STT

AldvrecrcTb

Kimv dva oiiXafiov dvBp&v
Be vei^o'i e'lireTo
ire^oiv.

Be
S'

Kopva-crecrQrjv,

d/jia

OT

diTO
KCLTo,

crKOTTirj';

elBev ve(po<; aliroKo'; avrjp
/.&)»}?•

275

ipvo/ievov

TTOVTOV VTTO Ze<pvpoi,o

Twt Be T
:

dvevOev eovTi fieXdvTepov rjVTe iriacra
:
||

nioueN IT. noi^eiN J 263. nieeiN (A supr. T.W.A.) GHJMQRT Harl. a. dpJHpoc Q. 268. iSxpuNe MQ Pap.
Q.
270. B' afi
:

fiNcirei

L'NOQ

Vr. a

b^.

264. eGx^o
||

y^.

266. krii} M. 265. eOBa Pap. 7. 269. ^x'^ucon Vr. a : SpKia "xcuon 272.
3' imeptirfero

3fe
:

C.

271. 8pKi' IhuK^kcatrro Vr. a. 274. Tcb
r'

M.
a'
it,

273. fiXee 3'

fiXeeN Eust.
f.
||

findNeuesN
Par. h.
263. diNciroi
drpijvTjunv,

N
:

Par.

hi

t'

:

3' ct'

H.

||

^Kopucc^coHN M. I6nti Ar. £2 \6m\ Zen.
:

277. Tcoi

MS

Harl.

4X8icf. J 374 el nil . bT ayyekir) irod^v ^Xdoi, The opt. if right implies a slight shift of thought Ag. puts his case generally, to include the future, but shews that he is thinking chiefly of experience in the
.

fj.ev

;

But it must be admitted that we should expect Bekker's aviby-qi, and in It such a matter MSS. count for little. is not' unlikely that a reminiscence of e 189, 8 70, where the opt. is necessary, may have misled rhapsodists or copyists. 264. For ndpoc with the pres. of a state of things continuing up to the time of speaking cf. A 553 and for the pregnant use of oToc, 11 557. 269. The re belongs to the whole
past.
;

than pitcli. This is the only instance of the use of ij&re in this sense probably we ought to read Tiire, as Brandreth and Bekker suggest, on the analogy of tt 216 kKmop d^ Xiy^us, dSiviirepov ij r olavol (where Buttmann would read -qHT). It is not possible to get a natural sense if we take i^iire in its regular meaning we can only make it mean growing blacker and blacker, like pitch,' or else 'all the blacker because of its distance (so Ameis and Fasi),
;
; '

'

neither of which alternatives
factory.
/cXafouo-' /j-iperai.
' '

is

satis-

But Ap. Rhod. seems
aSivtSirepov,

to
i.

have
269
. .

taken the passage in this way,
Tiire

Koipr)

sentence
273.

;

cf.

A

352.
repre-

are always sented as fighting side by side,
sc[C[.
:

The Aiantes

and than are so closely allied that we need not be surprised to find a word
'as'

The

meanings

N

701

274. Nefoc for this metaphor of. 11 133. It is here expanded 66, P 755, into a fine simile. 276. icoi4 is again used of the blowing of wind in A 308, and of the rushing of flame II 127 ; in 139, p 261 {laij <p6pfi.i.yyos), of sound. 277. JueXdNTepoN Mre nfcca, blacker

*

capable of taking both, like the German Latin quam, and as in O.E. {Mew Engl. Did. AS, B. i. 4). Hentze objects that blacker than pitch is merely hyperbolical and therefore un-Homeric ;
wie, ah,
' '

K

but cf. XevK&repoi. xii^os K 437. Besides, a heavy thunder-cloud may seem really blacker, because dead in hue, than pitch, which always has its darkness relieved by bright reflexions from its surface.

lAIAAOC
ipaiVET
pLjrjo-^v

A

(iv)

175

lov

Kara

ttovtov,

ayei Be re Xaikaira ttoWtjv

re lBa)V vtto t6 <77reos rjKaae firjXa'
AidvTecreri hiorpe^iav al^rj&v
iroXe/jiov

Toiai afi
hrjlov

280

e?

irvKtval kCvvvto

(f>d\a'y'ye<;

Kvdveai, o-dKeaCv re Koi ey^ea-i irec^piKvlai.

Kal Tov<i

fiev

ji^drjaev

IBav Kpeiav 'Aya/Me/xvcov,

Kai (r(f>ea<; (pcovjaa^ etrea irrepoevra irpocr'qvBa" A'iavT, 'Apjeiav 17777x0/36 ')(akKo-)(i,Td)V(ov,

285

a^wl

fjuev

ov yap eotK

orpwefiev, ov Tt
i<pL

Kekevw
'

avTO) yap fidXa Xaov dvmyerov
a\ yap, Zev re irarep
icai

ixdj^ecrdai.

Adr^vairj Kal

AttoWov,
290
re.'

Toto? irdauv 6vfib^ ivl (TTrjQeacrt yevoiro'

Tw Ke
'Xepcrlv

Td'x^
v<j}

rjfjbvcreie

ttoKk Upidfioio avaKTO<;
dXovcrd re TrepOofievr}
XLirev avrov,
Xiyiiv
^t)

'^fiereprjiaiv

ws
evS"
ov<;

eliribv

Tou?

fiev

he

/j^er

dX7i/)v^'

6 ye Neo-rop'
erdpov<i

eVeT/xe,

HvXioov

otyopTjrijv,

areXXovra xal orpwovra
'

fid'^ecrdai,

dfifpl

fieyav

Aifiova re
linrria<;

UeXdyovra AXdaTopd re l^pofiiov Kpeoovra BtavTa re Troifjieva XaSiv.
Trpcora
a-iiv

re

295

fiev
S'

'vktvoktiv

Kal

6')(ea<^i,

TTe^ov?

e^OTTiOe arrjaev -rroXea^ re
TroXifioio-

Kal ecrdXoiK;,

epKO^
o<f)pa

efiev

KaKov<i

8'

69 fiecraov

eXaaaev,
300
dioTpof^coN

Kal ovK ideXcov Ti? dvayKairji

•jroXefii^oi.

280. ToToi

C

{s^tpr.

ai).

||

ai(l)<SNT€:cciN
S.

dpH'i'e6ci>N
:

HP

(yp. J).
||

||

GJS
and

Lips.

281. nuKNai

282.

KU^Neai

ApucoN Zen.
Pap. 7.
294.

nefpiKuTai

BefipieuTai Ar. Stx"':

KcXeiieco Vr. c. b supr. XpoJufoN cxe3n5N P. 297. npcoTO : npdoTON
:

M

:

irpuN^ONTa C. 295. 296. e6omA re awTnupiN tc Ap. Lex. 14. 9 (cp. N 92). npc&Ticra Vr. b c, Mosc. 1 3. 298. crAcaN M.
300. noXeufzH(i)
oi P.

283. Kai ixku toOc 290. Auiiceice U.

L

286. KeXeiicco Vr.

299.
supr.

^accEN
)
:

Ar. fi noXeufzei Q^

:-

&\\oi B^ gepreN Did.

iiJMNORSU

(Q

:

noXeuizeiN

L

:

noXeui

,

Note the characteristic Epic way which the human element is introduced into a simile taken from a purely natural phenomenon a still more striking example is 559. 282. For KudNeai Zen. read ripdoiv, feeling no doubt that blackness is not a physical attribute of an army marching to war. The comparison with the thunder- cloud is justified less by the external appearance than by the moral terror of ruthless onset produced by the
279.

in

287. For Tq>i without F see on Z 478. 288-91 see B S71-4. 299. gXacccN Didymos mentions an
: :

;

blackness of the approaching storm. 286. For the anticipatory use of rdp
see ff. G. § 348.

old variant (efyyev. The KaKot, it is to be presumed, are a section of the ire^oi, of whom the best are kept as a reserve, There does not seem to be any other allusion to a formation in more than a The sohol. accordingly single line. explains that irpCTo, means on the right wing,' i^6in6e 'on the left,' and says that ' one KaK6s is placed between two AvSpetoi.,' not a very likely thing (iirl ykp fienlnrov T&ffaa tt]v (j)d\ayya, oi Kari.
'

^ddom).

:

176
l-TTTrevcnv

lAIAAOC
fiev

A

(iv)

irp&T

eTrereXkeTo- tov? yap avcoyeo
ofjbiKan'

a^ov'i

t'JT'irov'i

ivifiev /MrjSe KXoveecrdat,

"

firihe

Tt9 iiriroavvrji re koX r)voperj<^i ireiroiuai'i
fiefJidTCO

olo<i
firjS'

irpoaO^ oXKtDv

Tpcoea-at

fid'X^ecrdai,,

dva'^wpeirco' dXairaBvoTepoi yap eaeffOe.
dvrjp

305

o? Be K

aTTo

&v

o'^emv erep

dpfiad

cKTjrai,

ey^et ope^dadm, eVel ^ ttoXv (pepTepov oi/tg), wBe Koi ol Trporepoi, iroXia? Kal retp^e' eiropdovv,

TovBe voov Kol
0)9

Ovjjbov

ivl

a-rrjOeacrvv

e-^ovre'?.
elBa)<;.

o

yepcov coTpvve irdXai. TroXificov iv
fjLev

310

Kal TOP

yi^Orja-ev IBrnv Kpeiwv ^Aya^efivcov,

Kai jMiiV (^(ovriaa<i eirea TrrepoevTa •jrpoa'qvBa' " S> yepov, e%8' , m? ^u/ao? evi arrjOeaai t^CKoLcriv,

w? Tot yovvaS' hroiro,

/Stij

Be roi e/iTreSo?

etTj.

dWd

ere

yrjpa^ reipei ofioUov &)? o^eXev
crv

Tt?

315

dvBpSiv aXKo's e^etv,
301. ^niT^XAero S.
J.
II

Be Kovporepoiat fiereXvai.

||

rap

:

xikN

A

[supr. rip)

i^MNOP

Cant. Vr. a b and yp.

has an erasure (three letters) between toCic and rip. 303. InnocuNHl re innociiNH(i)ci Pap. y. 305. ^Naxupi^TCO JR. 307. oCtcoc J. 308. n6\Hac P n6\eic N n6\eac Ar. A' (n6\iac A™) noXeac db9e : fl>c 3fe D.

T

BV

\\

:

:

H

:

Pap. y.

II

enopeouN

:

l:n6p6eoN

ATU.
314.

310.

SrpuNe
||

HJMR.
5e TOl
:

311. Kai

uku

t6n 0.

312. npocciiBa Pap. y,

&c

Kai G.

8^

coi

M.

301. The ju^N implies that some advice to the foot-soldiers is to follow ; but this never appears. 302. lix^iieN here evidently to hold in hand, not to drive, as usual. KXoN^eceai, to be entangled. 303. This sudden change from oratio obliqua to recta is very strange, the only parallel in H. being 'i' 855, a very weak There seems to be something authority. wrong about the present passage, as 308-9 refer apparently to siege opera-

expression of the thought is far from clear, and the style of fighting is not Epic, for Homeric heroes as a rule use chariots only to move from place to place, and dismount in order to fight. There are, however, some exceptions, E 13, 294, etc. 308. oi np6Tepoi here only for the Homeric ir-pbrepoi S,v6pomoi. The use of the article and the Attic contracted form £n6peouN well accord with the Attic origin of the passage. 309 is weak and
:

and should be addressed rather than the iTTTr^es. Trefoi The whole passage 297-310 is weak and out of place, and is one of the numerous instances where inopportune tactical lucubrations are put into Nestor's mouth, doubtless under Athenian (Peisistratean) influence ; see on B 362. The advice in 304-5 recalls P 357-9, where it is
tions,

to

the

tautological. 315. duoiioN

given to foot-soldiers.
306. flnb S>N dx^UN,
i.

e.

from his own

chariot, standing in its proper place in the ranks, he is at liberty to attack any
Tai,

is elsewhere or battle, ex(!ept ddvaroi y 236. Nauck would in every case read <iXo(ios. The sense of 'common to all (which itself is not very appropriate as a general epithet of war in spite of ^vybs 4mdXios S S09) is not supported by any use of o^oios. Pind. Nem. x. 57, which is quoted, is not in point, for there ttAt/xov i/Mioji obviously means 'the same fate' for the two brothers (like o/xoiiji' 7010;' ipemai S 329),
:

this

form

always used of

strife

'

one within the range of his spear. can reach an enemy's chariot.

Ykh-

and

is

explained by the following lines.
is

The

There

therefore

an undoubted case

lAIAAOC
Tov
S'

A

(iv)

177

^/iet/Ser'

eireira Tep')]vio<;
fiev

liriroTa

^eaTtop'

"

'ATjOeifSi/,

/MoXa

roi eycbv iOekoifit koX avTbii

0)9

efiev

ft)?

ore Btov '^pevQaXiwva KareKrav.
cifia

aXX' ov
el

TTO)?

irdvra 6eol Socrav avOpmiroiaiv
/jue

320

T0T6 Kovpo<; ea, vvv avre
Kai W9 nnrevai

yrjpai;

licdvei.

dWu

fierecrirofiai

^Se KeKevaai
earl yepovrcov.
irep
ifielo

^ovKrjL Koi fjjvdoiaf to fyap jepa<>

atp^a?

S'

al-^Qjidaa-ovcn

vecorepot,

o'C

oTrkorepot ryeydaa-i ireiroidaaiv re

^iT](f>iv."

325
Krjp.

w?
evp

e(f>aT,

ATpeiBrjf Be Trapcoij^eTO

'yrj06crvvo<;

vlov TLeTemo yieveaOrja TiK-rj^iinrov

earaoT airap
Trap

dfi<pl

B'

'Adrjvaloi,
kcnriKei.
d/j,<f)l

fiijaTcope<;

avrfj';'

o

irK'qcrlov

TroXw/iT^rt?
<Tn'^e<i

^OBvaaev<;,
330

Be }i.e<paXKr)v(ov

ovk dXairaBval

318. Toi

:

KSN

JOP
II

Pap. y.

319.

KdreKTON (A supr. ) CtJ
(Herod.).

:

f {p. ras., supr, cot) h,

and

ap. Schol.
:

A

320

6.6.

Ar.

KOT^KTa JQ Par. ncoc : na> Q.
||

Ludw.) Par. k (yp. XK&ua). 322. uereicojuai P. 323. BouXaTc H. rep6NTC0N eoN^NTCON Pap. y. 324. &U10T0 G'MNPQS. 327. nXiieinnoN Pap. y. 328. UNi^cTopec UHCropec ot N. QRU. 329. 6 Icti4k£I Ar. AGHJPRT eicri^Kei fi.
321.
:

^a

Shn N.

ilCclNEl

iKdNoi

D:

6n<izei Ar. (see
||

:

:

:

II

:

against o/moUos, which anyhow ought to be separated in the lexicons from o/ioios. Indeed Aristonikos says that the y'Kwcr-

and thereby throwing
i-qv

it into the dim distance as a forgotten thing like d tot'

ye

r

180,

'

I

suppose

I

was young

explained bixoLiov = rb KaKbv. But there is no obvious reason why it should have displaced a word so clear Christ, followed in meaning as SKoUoi. by Fiok, conj. that the right form may with Skt. amlva = be 6/iiFiov, conn, For cbc van L. aerurrma, and (i/j.65. reads Ss F' (ac. y^pas), comparing for Fe as neuter fuv in 143, Z 221, T 287,
(Foypatjioi.

then, but now I am old.' The sentence is not in any sense conditional, any more than A 281, where USe tpiprepbs iariv is independent of the ei-clause in el here retains something of its 280.
interjectional force
for

and merely

calls

up

etc.

318. The reading kcv for toi is natural The opt. is conbut not necessary. cessive, 'I admit that 1 wish,' H. O. § Compare 299/, and M. and T. § 240. York's speech in King Richard the Seamd, ii. 3. 99, 'Were I but now the lord of such hot youth, 'etc. 319. For Nestor's story of the slaying of Ereuthalion see H 136-56. 320 seems to be an adaptation of N 72930, and was athetlzed by Ar. on this

consideration a concomitant fact. This line is therefore wrongly classed in M. and T. § 402 with a conditional sentence such as el i^pbvTTjffe^ Kai i^ffrpa'ia \//ev. a form recurring in E 887, f 222, 352 only, and, like other forms of the impf. of el/A, not entirely explained. The a seems to be treated as long by nature, though the ictus may
:

account for

this.

324. alxudccouci, wield the spear, only here in H. The word is used in a similar but not quite identical sense in Soph.

sense suits the passage well, and the line to be condemned is 321, which is flat and empty enough. 321. ei here expresses as a supposition what is known to be true, rhetorically pretending that it is a matter of doubt,

ground.

The

Aj. 97, Track. 355, and Aisch. Fers. 756 V. Lexica. 327. For the asyndeton cf. 89 and for Menestheus B 552 sqq. 328. juu^cTcopec durRc, lit. devisers of the iattle- shout, usually applied to individual heroes, N 93, 479, II 769.
;

;

Cf.

on

/iifiiTTape

06/3oio

E

272.

VOL.

I

N

;

;

178

lAIAAOC

A

(IV)

earaaav ov jdp ttco (T(f)i,v aKovero Ttao? dvTrj<;, a\Xa veov avvopovofievat kLvvvto ^dXayjev
Tpcocov iTnroSdficov Koi, 'Avatwi/, oi 8e fievovTe<;

ecTTaaav, ottvote Trup^o?

KyaiSiV aXXo9 eirekdoiv
335

Tpaxov
Tov<;
Kai,

opfiijcreie

koL dp^eiav TroXifioio.

Be

IBcbv

veiKeaaev ava^ avSpcbv 'Ayafiifivaiv,

c7<f)€a<;

(pcov^aaf eirea Trrepoevra TrpoaTjvBa'
^acrikfjoi;,

"

&

Vie
(TV

TieTe&o SiOTpecpeo'i

KOi

KaKolcn BoXotai KeKaa^eve, KepBa\eo<ppov,
fiifivere
S'

TbTTTe
(Ti^uilv

KaTaTTTwaaovre^ d^eaTare,
fiev T

aXKov^

340

eTreoLKe fiera
fid'^7]<s

irprnToiaiv

eoi/ra?

earafiev ^Be
TrpcoTO)

Kavareipfj';

dvTi/3oXr]crai.'
ifieio,

ryap

Kal BaiTO'i dKOvd^eaOov
G.
e"

331.

Ar.

ou rap o6a^ iJHJPQT: rpc&coN
:

332. N^CON 0.
:

M.

II

kinoOnto Yr.
II

b.

333.

TpcocON
:

334.

^nqntIon (k^n tic iv T^t TToXuffT-ixw. 336. ncIkhccn N. H. Xiroici Pap. y. 339. d6Xoici
ttoXi/ctt/xo"

k^n

tic

IcTON D. dxaic^N Vr. b
||

niiproc dxaicoN
e corr.
||

»

ttji

?).

335. SpzeicN Vr. b
{supr. o)
b.
(?)
||

and

338. uioc Mosc. 1

dioTpo^eoc
:

:

'OBucccO Zen.

340. 49^CTaTe

Q.

Kep3aXe69puN NQ 341. C9&T JQR Vr.

faidui'

npcoTOlClN
P", corr. P^.

l6NTac

:

TpciecciN i6NTac

E

[yp.

npcfiToicm).

342. aOcTSipflc

343. &U0T0

GPS.
:

331. iKouero the only case in H. of the middle form in the present or imperf. It is possible that this implies a conscious listening rather than a mere physical hearing ; if they were not aitending to the battle-cry, there is more

ivavriov for tvipyos 'Axi'W", and dp^etev for -et.av. 339. KCKacu^NE cf. t 395 (Ai)t6Xu/cos) Ss &v6punrovs iK^KHcrro KKewToaivrn 9'
:
]

6pKiiJL re.

ground for Agamemnon's rebuke than if they had not yet heard it. There seems
to be a similar distinction in

many

cases

between bpH and
are

opufiai,

though they

often identical (cf. See 203). G. § 8. ' wait334. 6nn6Te goes with //.^vovTes, ing till.' So after TroTid^yfufyoi 415, etc. a. § 308 (2), iV. and T. § 553. niiproc, a wall or serried line of warriors 618. cf. TTvpyriSov 43, 152, It is tempting to translate column but Tripyos in H. menus fortification, not tower; and hunters (M 43) do not attack in column. Aristarchos strangely enough wished to

A

341. ii^N t' here fi4v seems to answer to vvv d4 in 347. The exact sense of re (or Toi ?) is not so obvious ; it perhaps emphasizes this clause as general, whereas vvv di takes a particular instance {H. 0. Observe ^cSntoc in spite of the § 332).
:

S.

dat. a(t>G!Cv, on account of nexion with the infin., as

its close

con. .

m

H

A

541

toi

ibvra

:

H. G.
it

% 240.

342.

316

M

;

KQUcreipHc recurs only in is the feminine of *Kavar-fip.

M

N

;

The grammarians wrongly accented kclvffrei/D^s, and held that it came from
Kav<TT£Lp6s,

supposed to be a dialectical
sense of this line
is clear,

form of
343.

Kav(rT7}p6s.

The

on iripyos and Axiifi" on 6p/i. waiting till a battalion of Trojans should attack the Achaians, because he thought that the delay of the Athenians ought to be due to their wish to see the Trojans put still further in the wrong by beginning the general engagement. On this ground he was inclined to prefer the variant wV tis
Vpdxjiv

make
'

depend
,

yoti are the first to receive

my

invitatimi,
after

but the syntax hopeless.

The gen.

verbs of hearing expresses '(1) the person from whom sound comes ; (2) the person about whom something is heard (3) the sound heard,' H. G § 151 d. 3aiT6c cannot be brought under any of these heads. k4k\vt4 jiieu fiiSiav is clearly different, being a sort of 'whole and
;

'

lAIAAOC
OTTTTOTe

A

(iv)

179

Baira jipovcrtv

icjioirKi^m/jLev

'AyaioL
345

kv6a

<^iX'

oTTToXia icpea eB/MevuL ^Se /cinreWa
o(j}p'

oivov irivefievao fieXirjBeo^,

ideXrjTOv
el

vvv Se
v/jLeicov

(f)iKeo'i

p^'

opocotTe,

Kal

BeKa

Trvpyoi,

'Avatwi;

irpoTrdpoide jMaj^oiaTO vrjXel ^(aXKaii."

Tov o ap viroSpa lBa)v "rrpocrecfiT) iroXvfiTjTK 'OSvcrcrei;?" " 'ATpetBrj, jTolov (76 67ro? (f>vyev epKoi; oBovtcov 350 ;
TTW?
Br^

^r)i<i
i<f>'

iroXifioio /Mediifiep,

ottttot'

'A^^atot
;

TptocTiv
bi^eai,

iTTTToBafioia-iv

iyeipofiev o^vv "Aprja
a'i

r]v

ideXr]i,cr6a
(f)iXov

koI

icev

toc to,

fie/j,i]X7]i,

TnjXefjia'^oio

iraTepa irpo/Ma'^otcri
crv

/jiiiyevra

TpoioDV iTnroBdfucv
344. ^(ponXizcoJULCN

Be

ravr
:

dveficoXoa /Sa^et?."

355
345
351.

AH

[stcpr. oi)

IfonXfzoueN
:

P

:

ffonXfzoiueN Q.
:

^JULENCii

:

gjuLucNai

L.
i

347. Koi ei

^n
354.

G.
353.

349. dp'

aO

J.

ueeei^ucN

A

{supr.
:

uGui^Xei Vr. a TpcbcoN e' Lips. 6Neuc^Nia J.
II

NQ

over ei, T.W.A.) jueuAXoi Vr. h.

NT.

An: Hn k

AT
Lips.

Pap. 7-

II

THXeudxou

CGRT

355.

The only possible you hear me about a banquet (or rather you listen to the banquet from me '), which is without analog^i, and only gives the required sense by violence. Moreover kq! is
part
'

construction.
is,
' '

explanation

'

351. The punctuation given is mentioned by Nikanor, who prefers an alternative in which the note of interrogation is put after fieBUixev, and a comma after
"Xp-qa.

meaningless. This, however, is the explanation of Ar., TrpQroi fiov d/coiiere irepl SatrSs. It may be added that to hear from a person,' in the sense of receiving a message, is a modern but not a Greek idiom, dicouttfetrflai, in the two other passages of Homer where it occurs
'

ueei^uEN refers to Odysseus and Menestheus in particular, while in iydpoliev Odysseus speaks as one of the army at large, meaning every case in which
'

we

fight' (aor. subj.). If referred to a future event, Ke

iyelpofiev

would be

(i to 7, V 9), means might suppose from
'

listen to,"
its

as

we

form,

which

a frequentative sense. The only remedy seems to lie in Nauck's trenchant conjecture KoK^oyros for Kal
suggests
SaiT&s,

required (Monro). Moreover, it is unusual in Homer to begin an entirely fresh sentence of several lines in the middle of a line (| 217 is the only case quoted) ; and the asyndeton before 353, repeated in I 359, is less harsh than before oTrirdre. 353. Hn is of course a late (Attic)

ycm are

the first to listen to

me

form which has supplanted
I 359).

d
is

when I when I

calling to a hanquet, but call to war you have no ears.
difficulty is that

am

The variant

ijp

k'

kc (see on a relic of

A

minor

Menestheus,

the older reading. 354. For the phrase 'father of Telesee on B 260. Here it is clearly impossible to give any appropriate reason for the introduction of

in this scene is a /cu0iy Kpbaairov, never appears among the yipoPTes (see on B 53 and for feasts given to them, A 259 and B 404 sqq.). This 345. 9lXa, sc. icrri, cf. B 796.
;

who even

machos'

line

and the next

iv toTs

iiroijaiiiixacnv

(notes of Ar. ) ovk ABeroOvrat., diraiTiwvTai 5^ airods ol Ti^repoi (i.e. modern taste) 6vei,8l^oVTOS tov *A7aws cLTrpeiruis and see Cobet's pjfipovos Schol. ; commentary, M. C. 231. If they were omitted, the point of the passage, the
. .

Telemachos except as a title of honour. Aristonikos mentions that Ar. noticed this ' foreshadowing of the Odyssey as a sign that it was by the author of the
Iliad. 355. If diNcucoXia is der. from Upe/ios, it has entirely lost the primitive sense, as in phrases like t6^op ape/ji,ili\i,op # 474 cf E 216, and the use of dpep.i.<uos, Platu Theaet. 151 B, 161 A.

A
.

;

contrast of ^i\a

.

cplXas,

wou]d be

lost.

180 Tov
8'

lAIAAOC
i'!rifieiSi]aa<;

A
o

(iv)

TrpoaetpTj
S'

xpeimv

Ayafiefivmv,

w?

yvai ^aoiMevoio'

iraXiv

ye Xd^ero fiv6ov
OSvcrcrev,

" Bioyepe'; AaepridBTj,

iroXvfi'ij'^av'

ovre

ere

veiKeiw irepidxnov oine

KeKevw
360

olBa yap w? Tot dvfw<; ivl crTijOeacri (piXoicrtv
iJTria

Zrjvea

olSe-

ra yap
B'

^poveei<;

a t

eyco
rt,

Trep.

dXX' Wo, ravra
e'iprjTai,

oircadev dpe(7(70fied' , ef

kukov vvv
aXXov<;.
365

to,

Be irdvra 6eoi fieraficovia Oelev."
Tovt;
fiev

ws elTTWv
ecrraoT
ev
6'

Xiirev avrov, ^rj

Se fier

evpe Be TuSeo?

v'lov

vTrep6vfiov Aio/Mi^Bea

tTriroiai

xal apfiaai KoXX'rjTola-f
vl6<;.

Trap Be ol eaTrjKei SOeveXo? T^aTrav^to';

Ka\ TOV

fiev

veiKeaaev

IBcbv

Kpeicov 'Ayafie/Mvcov,

Kai
"

fiiv
fioi,

^covTjcra'i

eirea irrepoevTa TrpoarjvBa'
370
;

w

TuSeo? vie Bat(^povo<; linroBdfioio,
ti,

Tt TTTaxraeK,
oil
fj.ev

B

oimrevei'; iroXefloio ye<f}vpa'i
Trrcoo'Ka^i/j.ev
rjev,

TvBei

y'

wBe <piXov

dXXa, iroXv irpo (pLXwv erdpcov Btjioiai

fjbd')(ea6ai.

oOti M (oOte Hail, a) 359. OUT^ (ce) 357. jmiiecoi Vr. a. oOBe Vr. a. ui^dea H. 361. d)4Nea oOre (KeXeiico) oOti N oiihk L. 363.- julctoUC^Nia AGJN Eton. (PUM) uerauciTa Lips.^: ueraucoXiNO Q Lips.^: ueraucoXia
:
:
|j

:

:

:

:

fi.

365. On^pjuueoK J.

366. e' om. Q.
:

||

koXXcotoTci Vr. b
368. Kai

:

koXXotoTci Lips.^

367. IcT^Kei Ar.

AGHJRT
fi.

cicri^Kei
y.
:

fi.

369 om. A*.
Pap.

||

npocei33a Pap.

371. onineuEic
3" Q.
||

7

:

6ninTeiieic

372. r'

MQSU Pap. y. ACDNTU Lips.^ dnefneuec nrcoKoz^eN GLM (htcock- Harl. a)
uku t6n
:

357. rN<2> with gen., as 36, f 109. This is common in the participle of olSa in the sense to be skilled in," e.g. /idxv^, d\K7JSj etc., but rare in the finite verb. 452 is possibly another case. See H.G. § 151 d. nciXiN Xdzero, j ust our idiom 'took back his words.' Of. irdXiK The phrase ipta = contradict, I 56. recurs v 254 in a slightly different sense (took back what he was about to say).
'

*

mss. are in favour of f/Lera/idiXia, perhaps influenced by the similar sense of ire/MiXia above. Compare also the Odyssean dtrotpibXioSj which is equally obscure. 366. Ynnoici here as often = chariot, and goes with fip^ao-i by hendiadys. 419 shews that Diomedes is standing in the
car,

not merely amid the horses and

chariots,

371.
recur.s

noXeuoio refijpac
378, 553,

:

361.

finia

Bi^Kea

oTBe,

i.e.

is

well
/loi

disposed towards me, as

n

A

160,

73

d

T

this phrase 427. From

E 88-9 and

Kpeluiv 'Aya/xi/ivoiv ijiria etdelr].

Cf note

on E 326. di^Nea, thoughts, apparently from ScLTjpai.. 362. 6pEcc6juieea, aioTie /or but where an object is expressed it is elsewhere always a person, conciliate. Cf. the act.
;

tf

dpiaai I 120, T 138. 363. JULETauc/bNia occurs elsewhere only

in Od. ip 98, etc.). Both der. and form are quite uncertain ; the majority of

357 (of. * 245) it appears that 7^0iipa implies a dam or causeway rather than what we should call a bridge. It is explained by the schol. ras SioSovs tQv (pakdyyiav, the lines of open ground between the moving masses of men, who are perhaps likened to flowing water. It is especially used of the space between the hostile armies, 6nineueic, eyest, in a contemptuous sense, implying hesitation to advance.

lAIAAOC
w? ^daav
rjVTTja
o'C

A

(iv)

181 ov yhp iyo) ye
yevicrOai.
375

jMiv

iSovro "Trovev/jbevov
irepi
S'

oiiSe

tSov

akXcov

(j)a(rl

^ TOi fiev
^elvo<;
afjL

ykp arep
avrtdetoi,

irdkkfiov elcrrjXde

M.vKi]va^

JloXweiKsi, Xabv ajecpcov.
lep^
Sofj,€v

ol
/cat

Be

TOT

ia-TpaTOcovO'

tt/so?

Tei'^ea ©tj/St??,

pa
8'

fjLaXa

XiaaovTO

KXeiToiiii
tu?

iiriKovpovi'

01

eOeXov Bofievai koX
eTpeyjre

eirrjiveov

eKeXevov

380

aXXo Zeu?
01

•jrapaLaia crrjfiaTa ^atvcov.

o

eTTet

ovv oiiyovTO toe irpo ooov eyevovTO,
S

'Aa'coTTOV

Ikovto jSaBva'^oivov Xe'^eiroLrjv,

evS"

avT avTap o
ovBe

ayjeXirjv eVt TvSrj cTTeTXav 'A^atot.
^i),

TToXea'i

Be Ki'^'^craTO
/Slt]^

K.aBfj,eta)va<;

385

Baivvfiivov^
evd^

Kwra B&fia
Trep

'Ereo^XiygM;?.

^eivo<;

ewv 'iTnrrjXdTa ^vBev<;
fieTO,

Tappet, /Movvo<; €<bv iroXeaiv
376. uukiAnhc Q.

K.aBf/,eooicnv,

377.
&fe

seTNOC

:

yp. Kal

KetNOC A.
Pap. 7
:

||

drefpcoN

:

dreipac Q,

and

ap. Did.

378. oi

AJ

{yp. (la)

OPTU

oY

^a

fi.

319.

u6\a

:

uiiXicTa J {yp. Kal ^a uiSXa). 380. ^K^XeueN Q. Hesych.). 382. ibk : fidk BJSV. npb : np6c L.
||

381. napaiciua

N

(and
||

383. iceondN e' Bar.
fi)

Ykonon U. 384. Ino': In b' P. P^ (?) (S mpr.) Cant. Vr. a c: Tu3eT, 388. KodueiuciN !N.

'\\

TU&H
hit

:

TuacT C^JDGJ (supr.
{sic)

L

(mpr.
:

fl)

creiXoN

Q.

386. KaTcl

hubi Q.

374. coc: so Ameis, for vulg. ws with after fidxe<T0at. The regular use in Homer of (Ss l(pT), etc., is to refer back to a completed expression of opinion ; there is no other ease of lis ^01/ = as he said. noNeiiucNON, in special sense of lighting, as 7r6>'05, 456, B 420 and often, of the toil of battle. 378. ^crpaTocoNTO (also T 187), were on a campaign, either for itrTpardovTO trrpaTdeaSai is found in or iarpaToovTo. Aisch. Ag. 132, aTpardeadai, does not occur anywhere else in Greek. For the form -6wvTo from an o-verb we may

comma

way.' Cf. on irpb ipb^oio P 667, and for the hiatus after Trp6 K 224. For

XexenoiHN
384. ^ni
it

cf.
:

B

697.
,

so Mss. and Ar. thus conwith the verb, and making dyyeXiTjv a masc. in apposition with Ivdrj, see note onP 206. Or we may take dyyeXiTiP as fem., au internal aoc. with eirlaTuXav, like i^vrl-qv i\6eiv. Others read lin, and understand ^' dyye'\li]i'=^ for an embassy. Nauck reads Tu5^' l(XTei\av, omitting iirl, as the contracted TuS^ is a late form. Another emenda-

necting

'

'

compare

N

675

BtjUoii'to,

8
all

226

Sri'i6<iiiei>,

follow the are of course false representations of the old uncontracted verbs. See H. G. §§

I 108 dpSonnv, which analogy of stems in a-.

But they

55, 56 (3). 380. oi, Thyestes

Mykenai.
neikes. 381.

and the people of &c^euoN, Tydeus and Polychanged
here,
their
is

&rpeij;e,

minds.

napafcia

only
is

i^alaios

more

common. 382. np6

a local genitive,

here an adv. and 63o0 lit. forward on the
,
'

is iirl 'ivSi'C relXav (Brandreth), charged T. with a mission {iirniWeai). The following story is repeated in B 802-8, where the phrase used is ijXvSe i'6ir0iv 'A;^aii3c ^776X05 is 6^/3as. It is no doubt adapted from Epic poems of the Theban war. seTnoc must here mean 387. a stranger,' i.e. virtually under the circumstances an enemy, whereas in 377 it means a friend. But the word never acquired in Greek the connotation of the Latin hostis, and in ordinary cases to be a ^eXvos in any sense was a reason for expecting friendly treatment, not treachery.

tion

'

182

lAIAAOC
7'

A

(iv)

aXX' o
prj'iSim'i'

aedXeveiv irpoKoKi^eTO, -Travra S
01

evuKa
390

TOiT]

eirippoOot;

rjev

'AOrjvrj.

ol
a-^lr

Be yoXaadfievoi l^aBfieloi,,
ava€p')(oiihj(ot,

KevTope<;

iinrtov,

TrvKivov \oj(ov elaav ayovre'i,
Sv(0

Kovpov<; irevTijKOVTa'

S

'^jtjrope^ rjaav,

MattBi' Al/ioviBr}^ eVteiKeXo? aOavaroio'tv,
uto? T AvToAovoio fieveTTToXe/jiO'; Avko(J)ovt7j^. TvSeu? jjiev koL toIctiv aeiKea irorfiov i<priKetravra'; €Tre<f)v', eva 8' olov "et oiKovSe veeaOaf
'Nialov
395

apa
e7)v

TrpoerjKe,

OeSiV

repdeaai
a'^oprji
'7j-po(Te(pr]

TTcOrjcra';.

Toto?

TuSeu? AtTcoXto?*
Tov
8'
oi)

aXXa top
Be r

viov
d/xeivav."
AiOfirjBr]<;,

yeivaro elo •^epeia fiaxrji'

400

w?

<j)dTO,

Ti

KpaTepo<;

alBeadel^ ^aa-tXrjO';

eviTrrjv

alBouoio.

TOV B' ut09 KaTraz'Tjo? dfieif^aTO KvBaXifioio" 'ArpetBi], fir] y^evBe' iTriaTdp,evo<; adipa enrelv.
390. of: Toi Q.

li

4niT<Sppoeoc Q.
3,

392. 84) dNepxouENa>(i)
|1

CZ)GMPQKS

Harl.

a, Lips.
€).
II

Vr. b c A, JIosc 1

o over

eTcaN

:

ficoN

D.

Ten. B. X6xoN 395. noXuq)6NTHC

398. : 9<iNTHc G. 396. I9HKE : liNeiKG C. npo^eiKc U. 400. x^P"(')'' C^GHJMNR Lips.' Vr. A x^P"> ^r- » {supr. 7. 6ueiNco A"° (T.W.A.) fi. djuefNCON Ar. A*: dueJNcai Pap. 7 h).
II

&6X0N Q X^xoc N {supr. A (yp. Xuko96nthc): Xukoapa npoEHKE dNanpo^Hxe Pap.
: :
:

:

II

coming with shouts found only here and L. is a 'ir 770 in H., and ace. to van mistake due to non-recognition of the fact that -01 of pronouns can be elided.
390. infppoeoc,
lit.

(to the rescue), is

reads Tol-q F'{oi) 4wiTappo8os here, and iirlppodos is, however, as so /ii'(<") in 'J'old as Hes. (Op. 560) and Aisoh. Sept. 368, and can therefore hardly be doubted. The difficulty is rather with iiriTdppoSo^,

He

394. The three names, ALuonOhcAiIto90NOC, AUK096NTHC, are evidently meant MaltoN to have a murderous ring (Fasi). is a traditional name, not one invented for the purpose according to Statius he was an augur and priest of Apollo,
;

which would explain
Paus.

6eS>v rep&eaac (398). (ix. 18. 2) says that according to local tradition at Thebes it was he who

buried Tydeus.
sense, read bv.

In Soph. Ant. 413 808. iwlppoBos is used in a completely different sense (abusive). 392. For aifr 6Naepxou^NCoi most edd. write 6.f dp' (Bentl.), aSTLs (Brandreth),
for

which

see

E

For t6n, here used in a possessive See App. A. on this word see A 80. 400. x^P^ia
399.
:

The

best

Mss.

follow Ar.

in writing
x^PV'^-

x^P""
d/xeipu

^i"i
cet.

the first on ol (Barnes) dvepx., d.\f/ the analogy of the similar line, Z 187 ; For but apa has no sense here. the hiatus cf. I 167 iiriSfo/iat, i 122 Karata-xeTai, N 262 dwoaivv/xai, P 381 nuKiNdN, lit. dense, i. e. iino(TaoiJ,ivui. consisting of a large number, as in This sense does irvKival 0dXa77es, etc. not suit X 525, but that line is interpolated. eTcoN SroNrec, took and set, ay. being pleonastic. etcoN, from X^a,
or

dueiNCON,

with Ar. ; of Ar. seems best, for Si re frequently introduces a clause added parataotically, with a construction of its own. S 106 is exactly parallel, iv iroKe/jLui., dyopiji Se t d/netrnvh
so

X^P^'iSj sc. iari,

but

x^pi7S,

A

The reading

Kal aXXoi. It must, however, be admitted that the omission of both subject and verb here is harsh. Compare Eur. Suppl. 902 (6 TuSeiis) o6k iv
el<n

A

311.

X6701S ij" Xa/n7r/)6s, dXX' iv d<nriSi. 404. cdfo, if taken with dweiv,

must

'


A

lAIAAOC
17/i.et?
ijyiiet?

(iv)

183
elvai'
405

Toi iraTepav fiey

a,fj,eivove<;
e't\,o/ji6v

ev'x^o/Med'

KOi @rj^rj<; eSo?

eirrairvKoco,
Tetj^09

iravporepov Xaov dyayovd^
nreiOofievot

iiiro

dpeiov,

repdeo'cn Oe&v Kal Ztjvo? dprnyrji'

Kelvoi he a^eTepTfiiriv WTaadaXir}icnv oKovto.

Tw

(irj

fiot

iraripai; iroS'

ofioiTjt

evdeo

rifirji."

410

TOP 8 " T6TTa,
OX)

ap

VTToBpa ISq)v irpoo'e^T} Kparepot; Aio/hiJSt]^?i(TO,

(TioyjrriL

ifiMi

B'

eTrnreideo fivOait.
"Trotfjuivi

yap eym

vefieaS)

'Ayafie//,vovt
evKvrjfJiiBa's

Xa&v
Aj^atol
415

OTpvvovTi fid'^ea-dai
rovTcoi fiev

A^atou?'
el

yap kvBos

ap.

eylrerai,

Kev

Tpwa?
407-9

BrjiaxTwcriv

eXanri re "IXtoz/

ipijv,

d8. Ar.
:

408. drcorA F.

409. c9eT^paiciN draceaXfaiciN

&X0NT0 G.

412. Ciconftl
II

cirfl

N.

413. Ncucccoi Sotikus
||

A™

(T.W.A.).
P.

415. IxkN om. 416. amdojciN

aY ken NS rap om. CGT Lips. M. dmoccociN Harl. a dH(i)cbcouciN Vr. A.
:

:

ei

uku G.
3fe

M

:

D

||

gXcoci

mean

{xj/eiiSe being then ^ei/Seo), not the usual Homeric sense. The word is always used with verbs of TcTWwing, except three times in Od. with in the sense 'giving a elTreiv, always clear, certain report about Odysseus.' The two senses are, however, nearly allied (cf. Soph. El. 1223 ^Kfi-aff el a-a(pii X^ai, Track. 387 us rdx' &y aaipTj Xi^eiev, Eur. Med. 72 fwBo^ d aacpj]^ bSe, etc.),

truly
is

but this

the sons conquered only by obeying the gods, there is no ground for concluding that the sons are better warriors than the fathers were. It is an obvious reply that the best warrior is the one who takes every step to ensure victory, and that the first step
is

own madness and

to win divine support. 409. The draceaXiai may be illustrated from Aisch. Sept. 427 sqq., where it is

and it is better to translate truly here than with Fiisi to do violence to the order by joining /t^ ^evBia eiireiv,
iTriffTdficvos

said of

Kapaneus

Beov re ykp d^Xovros iKiripaeti/ irb\LV Kal fiTj 64\ovr6s tprjaiv, ktK.

<rd(pa

(that
is

apparently, of Attic use. 406. Koi is expressed by the emphasis in 'we did take,' i.e. we did not merely This is the only mention in besiege. H. of the war of the Epigoni ; that of the Seven is rarely alluded to. 407. &rar6No', dual, as he is thinking only of Diomedes and himself. SpeioN is taken by the Sehol. as comparative, viz. Tov iv Tpolai. ; for the sake of the antithesis it should rather mean a stronger wall than our fathers found,' as though Thebes had been strengthened in the a stronger wall Cf. 736, interval. than that which is now being taken. There is no Homeric instance of fipeios for the regular 'A/j^ios, and in any case that would weaken the point of the line. Ar. obelized 407-9 on the ground that if the fathers were defeated by their

This expression

they are another case,

so).

with

410. Observe the very rare use of iuk so S 134 ix-q irw xaraaor. imper. (v0eo. Sohol. Sicreo, w 248 ii^
; . .

A

quotes Aristoph. Thesm. 870 iii] & Zev. See on this if. G. § 328.

t^eva-ov,

'

'

412. Terra : a Utt. Xey. which divided the opinions of the ancient critics, some taking it as a irpocipiiiirins 0iXeroipiK^, It others as an iwipprj/j-a o'x^T'Xtao'TiKbv. is probably like drra (I 607, q.v.), a
affection, perhaps borrowed from the language of infancy (for rf aTra, where tF' = ref ', thine, as in French A friendly or tante = tua amita ?). respectful address of youths to their but there is no ground elders,' L. and S. for supposing Sthenelos to be older than

term of

'

'

'

'

;

Diomedes.
often.

fico,

simply

continue,

as

hiatus after ciunAi is unusual, but there is no obvious emendation (r^rXaffi, 0-17^1 d' ^ao Bentley).

The

184
TOVTCOi S'

lAIAAOC
av fieya
Srj

A

(iv)

iriv9o<i

'A'^aieav BtjiwdevTcop.

aXX' aye
97

koI v&l
o'^icov

/jUeScofjieOa

OovpiSo^

a\Kr]<;."

pa KOb i^
8'

avv revj(ecnv SXto

•^afid^e'
420

Beivov

e^pa-^e •^aXKO<; eVt crrijOeaeriv avaKro'i

opvvfievov vTTo Kev TaXaaL<^povd irep Seo? elXev.
to?

S

OT

iv aljiaXcoi iroKvq'yel Kvfia 6aXaa(Tri<;

opvvr
irovTcot
'X^epcrcoi,

eiraaavTepov Zecpvpov viro Kivrjaavro';fj,€v

TE irpSiTa KopvcraeTai, avrap eTretra
afi^l he r
aKpa<;
425

pTjyvv/Mevov fieryaXa ^pefiei,
airoiTTvei,

Kvprov lov Kopv^ovrai,

B

aXo^ a^vnjv

w? TOT

eiraaa-VTepai i^avafhv kLvvvto (fxiXayyei;
iroXefiovBe.
ol
B'

V03Xep,ea)<;

xiXeve Be olaiv €KacrTO<;
t/jat'i;?

rjye/Movojv

dXKoi aKrjv taav, ovBe «e
e-^ovT

Toaaov Xaov eTreaOai
(Tiyfji,

iv aTijOeaiv avBijv,
d/j,<f)l

430

SetStore? crrjfidvTOpa^'
to,

Be iraai,
icrTi')(pa)VTo.

Tev-^ea tvoikik! eKapnre,

elfievot

Tpco69 B
lis. fire:
JU^N
TO!

,

oj?

T

oie';

-iroXvirdfiovo';

dvBpo<; iv

avXfji

Spa Pap.
^n'

7.

420. itwfi CTiiecciN Q.

424. JUl^N
fi.

TfiAPUVr.

a:

M: akn xd
;

Q.

426. i^N Ax. {} supr.): khu
||

427. ^nacciirepoN

GJ

{supr. ai)

6ccuTepoi N.
||

k{nvjnto

:

iipNUNTO

V

CK^eueN
ju),

oTciN H.

K^Xeuce' ¥.

429.

YcON
Q.

:

Pap. 7. 428. nbXeuoN Scon T Harl. b (yp. Ycon)
:

ficQN D^.
(supr.

431. aeSi6Tec

HQ
:

:

aeiBidTac Pap. 7.

433.

noXundjuoNOC

AEU

SC evbs

/J,

yp. Harl. a

noXunduuONOC
less

421. {m6 explained by Am. and La R. of fear seizing the knees, as T 34 virb Si Tp6/j.os fSXa^e yma. But it is better
:

vigorous and picturesque, as it leaves out of sight the movement of

with Fiisi, thereat, as though = under the influence of the noise. This is common in composition, e.g. morpioi, to tremble at a thing; so
to translate,
i)iral

the wave. 428. ncoXguecoc, without
of

cease, a

word

unknown

origin,

Si re Kdfiwds dSdvToiv yiverai
:

A
;

417.

TaXadfpONa

cf.

$6j3os

.

.

Ss t' i^dpr]<re

ToK&ippovi, irep TroXe/inrr^c
for the introduction of a tator, 539, etc.

N 300 and, supposed specis
. .

A

433. For the pointed contrast between the silence of the Greeks and the clamour of the Trojans cf. F 1-9. Tpbbec is not followed by any verb, the sentence being interrupted by the simile, and taken up in an altered form in 436. "We have a similar case in v 81-4 ri S', Sis t' . . Ss
dpa.
ttjs.

422.

kOuq

is

used collectively, as
Cf. /cu/ia

noXunduoNoc, from

*ir6,-oiiaj.

shewn by

iiracTaihepov.

T ipeiyerai e 438. parison is given by iiraa-triiTepoi', see 427. Here the der. from iw-av-aeiu, hastening up in succession (see on A 383), is particularly suitable. 424. u.in Te irpwra, vulg. ixiv rd. and rh, TrpQra seem to be used indiscriminately (cf. 442 below), but the former is commoner, and the use of re in similes is habitual, v. H. G. p. 302. 426. i6N so Ar. the vulg. ^ii* is far
:

rd The point of com-

acquire {ir^irdfjuu, iiraffA.fnjv, etc.). The verb occurs in Pindar, Attic and Ionic poetry, and Xen., but not in H. IIoXiiw-qiiovlS-qs (u 305) is evidently a derivative (W.-M. H. U. p. 70); for the tj compare the Attic Tra^Triytria, though a is otherwise kept throughout the verbal forms in all dialects. The alternative TroXvjrdfi/j.uv is defended by Hinrichs as
Aeolic,
for
-TraT-fiav
(cf.

irbT-via),
(see,

:

;

there is no support for this G. Meyer Gr. § 65).

but however,

lAIAAOC
fivpiai

A

(iv)

185

earrjKauiv afieK'yojMevai,

yaXa XevKov
435

a^VX^^ /ieytia«utat, aKovovaai oira apvwv, 0)9 Tpaxov aXdX,r]To<i ava arparov evpvv opwpei,'
ov jap iravToav ^ev
Oytto?

dpoo<;

ovB'

ta jrjpv;,
B'

aWa
wpae

yX&cra
T
rjBe

ifiifiiKTO,

voXv/cXn^TOi,

eaav avBpe^.
440

Be tov? fiev "Aprj!;, toli? Se ^Xau/cwTrt? ^A.d'qvq

Aeifio<{

$o/So9 Koi "Ept? afiorov fie/Mavia,
eTapr)
re,

'Ajoeo? avBpo<^ovot,o Kaai<yvriTr)
77

T

oXijrj

jjLev

irpwra KopiKTaerai,, avrap sTreira
/cdprj

ovpav&i
Tj

e(Trr]pi^€

koI eVt

•)(6ovi

^aivet.

a-(f)iv

KoX Tore veoKO^ ofiouov
ore
€? '^mpov

e'/a/SaXe

fieaaai
445

ep'XpfievTj

Ka6' ofiiXov, 6(f)eXX,ov(Ta crrovov avBp&v.
Bt]

01

B

p

eva ^vvtovT€<; ikovto,

p e/3a\ov pivov<;, avv B ey^^ea koi fieve' avBpcav ^aXiceodcopriKwv arap daTrl,Be<; ofK^cCKoeaaat
eTrXrjVT
aKKrfKr]icri,,
iroki/'i

aw

S'

opv/MajBo^ opcopei.

evda
to?

S"

afi

olficojij

re koI eu^oiX^ TreXev
B'

dvBp&v
peovre';

450

oKXvvrfov re koX oSXvfievav, pee
B'

aifiuTO ryala.
6pea'<j)L

ore

^eifji.appoi

Trorafiol

Kar

434. ^CTHKcociN

A

(T.W.A.)
442.

ueuauTai Pap. 7'. by Khosos in margin. BQ. 445. &Nbp6c
:

Q

JNS Vr. b, Pap. 7, and yp. 0. 435. JueuuKuTai 438. rXcicca ju^juikto P Vr. b. 441 om. T' ; inserted H
t'
:

H3' J.

Q

{supr. con).

Z>PE.

449. aXXi^Xaici

G

:

(not Harl. a)
451. re mn.

PRU.

||

apwpH

dX\i4Xoici Vr. b e corr.

443. KdpHN G. 444. m^c(c)on Ykonto Ykqnon 0. 448. aCniip CZlJNQ Vr. a b. 6purjuaa6c CDGHJM 446.
:
||

450. Sno'

Sua GL

:

Sno' Hu.'

DNP.

HQR

:

re M.

452. ^^ontc CJ.

435. dzHXi^c,

incessant,

from

d-Sia-

its personifications,

unlike tbe old Epic
late.

to Schulze Q, E. p. 471), the negative of Stex'^s, separate, and so equivalent to ffvvexns (so Eust.). Cf. Si^irx'"' of intervals of time in Soph.
<rex-'7S; 'ifo(<'')fX'is (aco.

manner, and consistently

0. T. 717.

437. Cf.

B

804.

For Va see note on

Z 422
438. no\<iKXHTOi (of. Ar.'s reading in 564, ^o\vy,phs), called together from nmny parts. See note on B 491. • /! J . « m, ,1 1 Tj, -i 440. The three half-personified spirits battle must not be regarded as siding of with either party, but as arousing alike row M^c and tovs Si. Cf. A 73, 299, 119 2 535, in none of which are they actual persons the war.

442. Cf. 424, and the well - known imitation of the lines by Virg. Aen. iv. 173 sqq., especially Ingrediturque solo et caput inter nubila condit. 443. Notice the aor. IcriipiEe and pres. BaiNei side by side, of momentary and
^' ""^fh 315. ^//- f °^ *"?>'°'' =«« The see on 4*8- auyaXoccca. 34 , acnloec are merely a repetition of pivovs r >
:

A

"""^T^S^^ ^/"°^

A

above
^^^^ ^^-

N

^^g\ gnXHNTo, met, the only pres. in ^(Xra/^ai and TreXdfo, (trans. ) ; ^ ^^^^^^ ^„^_ ^i_ 4^ j^ ^^ ^ ^^j.

^

m

^^^
-j^

441.

The

gen. "Apeoc for "A/)?;os recurs

"^^^ f_ ^ewXvf^^os is found ^Qg 450. Observe the chiasmus oi/ta)7'i;
.
.

only in T 47, 8 267 (late passages), and the line, which T omits, might be suspected, were not the whole passage, with

eixa'f^'h

SWivrav
:

,

.

SKkvixhuiv.

452. Spec^i

locative,

with

Korti

as

with

irpb,

V

3.

:

186
e?

lAIAAOC
/MicrryajKeiav

A

(iv)

crvfi^dWeTov
kolXtji;

o^pi/jbov

vBccp

KpovvMV eK
(S?

/j^eyaXcov

evTOcrOe '^apaBprj';irouiJL.rjv

tS)v Si T6 TrjXoae

Sovvov ev ovpeaiv eKkve
•ye.veTO
la')(ri

455

Twv

fiKTr^ofievasv
S'

re

ttovo';

re.

TTpwTO?

AvtIXo')(o<;

Tpacov ekev dvSpa Kopv(7Tr}V
®aKvcnaZr)v 'E^eTrcaXoi'
S ap" oareov elarw
460

iadXbv
Tov p

ivl

irpofjidvoicri,

e/3aKe irpwTo^ /c6pvdo<; (f)aXov liriTohaaei'q'i,
Trrj^e,

ev he fieTunraib
cd-fQir)

ireprjae

yoKKevr)' tov Be aKOTO<; oacre /cdXinjrev,

rjpiire

,B

,

ax;

ore Trvpyo';, ivl KpaTepfjt vafuvrji.

TOV Be irecrovTa ttoB&v e\a/3e Kpeiav 'EXe^i^vcop
XaXKcoSoz/TtaSi;?, fieiyadiificov
dp')(o<;

'A^dvTCOv,
465

eXKe

B'

vireK ^eKetov XeXi7)/j,ivo<; o(f>pa Td'^icrTa

453. JuicrdrreioN
8'

8tc Pap. 7^

:

yp.

TH\6ce

.

.

455. cbc i>GJNPQRP. oBpiJUON [ADS]T SjuBpiuoN Q. t&n b' Hre Pap. y\ TH\6ei P Par. b d h (Harl. b interlined) 8oOnoc Pap. y. d/jieivov di t6 TH\6ei Schol. PT (Ar. ? see Lud w.
||

:

1|

).

i|

n6N0C Ar. OP ip6Boc Q. eTXe S. bk M. 463. eXaBe
466.
: :

468. eaXacciddHN S.
||

461 om. Pap.

y.

||

bk:

iXofiiNcop P.

465. rdxicroc J.

where

453. juicrdrKeiaN, waterSTiwet, two valleys {dyKeaj join

streams (Stt. Xe7-). the picture would be clearer if 464 BBpiuoN apparently stood before 453.
:

place their Hentze remarks that

means

flight not fear, and in the present case flight has not yet begun on

from /Spi- of ^pi-$-iijy ^pLapdt, /3/x^7ri'os {N 521), §a.pis, etc. see §pZ in L. and S. Others refer it to i!/3pis. In any case
;

either side. So Lehrs Ar. p. 76. 457. Antilochos the son of Nestor has SXeN, in not before been mentioned. pregnant sense, as very often in II., Kopucri^N, slew ; see note on 328.

A

the first /i of the constantly recurring variant b/x^pi/xos seems to have no justification. The unusual preponderance of Mss. in its favour here is due to the idea that in this passage it means rain-water
(b/i^pos).

uerdXuN seems simply to denote the great body of water 'fed from mighty springs.' The XapddpH will be the ravine leading down to the /uirydyKeia. The simile is imitated in Virg. Aen. ii. 307, xii. 523. 455. TH\6ce the use of the terminus ad quem instead of a quo is frequent in cases like this the reaching to a distance is regarded as a property of the power of hearing, not of the sound, IT 515
454.
:
;

Of. r 357. KpouN&N &K

in full armotir, on the analogy of BiapijKri}s, d(7Trt(TT7}s, alxM-TjTr^s (on this formation see H. G. § 116. 2). In the compound iTTTTOKopviTTTis, howcver, the termination -rrjs seems to have the usual transitive force, 'arrayer of chariots,' and Paley suggests that the simple form may here mean ' an officer, one who marshals,
KopOatrec, his troops.'

459-61 = Z 9-11. nikse, he plunged the spear the active irriyvvfu is not intrans. in H. except in the perf. iriirriye. For q>dXoc see App. B. 462. On cbc Srre without a finite verb see B 394. 464 = B 541. 465. 89pa is perhaps to be taken with XeXiHJU^NOc, compare B 690 XeXirj/xivos 6(ttpa. rdxicrra. &aai.r' 'Kpydovs, r 367

56va(rat d^
Treir&eTo

ai)

trdvToa-' aKoieiv,
fj.^ya

of.

A

21

dpu/jievos efos Ikoi.o

:

see also

Z 361,

IT 653.

ydp K^irpovSe
the
converse

kX^os.

Of
too,

course

is

common

I 572 feXuEj- ^J dev aKoiaas,

''E,pi^e<r<pLV,

A

603

(cXio-iij-

456. n6Noc, Ar. for 06/3os of mss., because he held that (jto^os in H. always

In the second case, however, as well as in the present passage, it is possible to make 'K€kn]IJ.hoi = eagerly (as 106, II 552 §dv p W{/! i^avaGiv XeXiij/t^voi), i^pa going with the principal verl). Compare also note on A 133, and H. G. § 307.

M

lAIAAOC
rev')(ea
(XvXija-eie-

A

(iv)

187
opfioj-

filvvvOa Si ol

<yeveff'

veKpbv yap ipvovra IBmv fieydOvfiO'; 'Ayijvcop
irXevpd, to, ol KinjravTi Trap' acTTrtSo? e^e^advdrj,

\vae Se yvia. w? Tov fiev Xiire Ov/jb6<;, eV aiiTwi 8' epyov irv^dr) dpyaXeov Tpwwv koI 'A'^ai&v ol Se Xvkoi o)?
oinrjae ^varSii ^(akKripel,
dXX'ijKoi';

470

i-TTopovaav,

dvrjp

8'

dvBp' iBvoTrdXi^ev.

ev6'
fjtdeov

e/SaA,'

'KvOefiiwvo^ vlov TeXa/Mvio'i Ata?,
Xt/ioelo'cov,

daXepov
eVet
fMiv

ov Trore

firirrip

"ISrjdev

Kariovcra Trap

oyOrjicnv %i,fi6evT0'i
dp,

475

jeivar

,

pa TOKevaiv
aTreScoKe,

eaTrero p,i]ka IhecrOai

TovveKa
dpeiTTpa
BTrXeff'

KdXeov %ip,oeL<riov ovhe To/cevcn
fiivvvddSto^ Be ol atcov

<f)lXoi<;

VTT

AiavT0<i /MeyaOvfiov Bovpl Safievri.
fiiv

•jrp&Tov
Be^Lov,

ydp
S'

lovra

^dXe
cofiov

(TTrjdo^

Ttapa fxa^ov
67^^05
&<;,

480

dvTiKpii Be Si

^oXkeov

TjXOev 6
ri

ev Kovirjiat, -^afjial Treaev atyeopo^

pd T
r<ip p'

iv elafievrji eXeo? p,eydXoio Tre^vKrjt,

467. P.

[AHMS]
:

Hail.

a.

||

lp\ioNTa

:

gXKONTa
:

Z>.

468.

TO

oi

:

t^

oi

doNacSiN P. xa^KiS" Cant. 471. dyaicoN 472. &\\^45Non<S\isE(N) Vr. a, Apoll. Lex. Zonar. Lex. Xouc Pap. 7. in6po\3ceN Pap. 7^. *''6. encro J. en 6' E. 475. Sx^""^' CrQ478. eplnrpa 473. <bie' ep^HTQ Zen. JOPQRSU Par. b d f k, Vr. b 0, Mosc. 3. 482. fiXueeN T. Ar. fi 483. eiaiicNeT L {siipr. ft) R. nefl^KHl conj. G. Hermann nefijKe U ne9iiKei Q.
469. suCTcbl
II ||

:

:

||

:

:

466. For uInumgo as predicate cf. A 416. vulg. ydp p, which is at 467. r(4p best a clumsy compound (though it is found a few times) and not required by either sense or metre ; for ipiovra origin:

flutter,

flaunt
thee.'

tliy

rags,'

clothe

Neither
light

'shalt al. interpretation

throws

much

on

the

present

passage. No convincing derivation has been suggested. 474. With Ciuoeicioc cf. "ZiArviot, a

began with f, and the caesura alone in this part of the line would suffice to lengthen the short syllable. The particle has similarly invaded nearly all MSS. in B 342. neut. only here, and 468. nXeupd probably A 437, elsewhere irXevpal. Cf. A 122 vtvpa by vevpii (bowstring), trapifiov by TrapeiA. nap' dcnidoc, were exposed
ally
:

contracted form for

ZaTvi.oelcr(.os

S

443,

and
of

Z 402, all proper names Trojans derived from rivers.
'Znap.avSpi.os

478.

Cf P

302.
;

ep^nrpa, recompense

for rearing him

compare the irXSKa/Ms

'Ij/axut BpeirT-lipios of Aisch. Clio. 6.

beside

Ms shield.
:

hody, as opposed to the departed Bv/jJis see on A 4. The neglect of the F of Fiprou is rare (about 18 cases out of 250, Knbs de dig. p. 96, 10 of which can be easily corrected). 472. ^3Non<iXizeN, slwok, an obscure word recurring only f 512 rd ira pd/cea shalt thou apparently dvoTToKl^eis,

470. aOrcbi, the

'

479. For On' AVqntoc aoupl see T 436. 480. npcbroK, here local, in tJie forefront. 483. eiau^NHi, lowland, apparently from root -^s, to sit, for ijaaiiivii, cf. (Curt. -riijAvm iv x<^P<^i- Theok. xiii. 40. M. no. 568.) It will then be a false transcription of HBAMENBI = rjafi^pi}!.. neq»iKHi is Hermann's conjecture for TeijiiKei. of all MSS. ; the pluperf. is entirely out of place in a simile, and of course the authoi'ity of MSS. as Ijetween

188
Xeirj,

lAlAAOC A
arap re
fiev
6'
oi,

(iv)

o^oi eir

aKporaTTji

7re<j>vacn,'

Tfjv

dp/iaTOTTTjyb^ avrjp aWavt, cnSrjpai,

485

e^eTafi,
7}

o<j)pa

Irvv

Kafi^lriji

TrepiKaXXei

Si,<ppcoi'

fiev

T

a^ofievT]

KeoTat Trora/Molo Trap' o'^da^

TOLOV dp^ 'AvOefiuSrjv ^ifioeiaiov i^evdpi^ev
Ai,'a?

Bioyev'^';.

tov
6

S'

"Avrt(f)o<;

aioXoOwprj^
490

lipia/jbiBrj';

Ka9' ofiiXov dicovnaev o^ei ^ovpi,'
Se

TOV

fiev

d/j,apd',

AevKov
veKpo<;

'OSucro-eo?

iaffXov eralpo

^e^XtjKet ^ov^oiva vexvv erepcoarjpiTTe
B'
dfj,(f)'

epvovra'

avT&i,,

Se ol eKireae yeipo'i.

TOV
/3^
aTYj
dficJH

S'

'Ohvaev'; fidXa dvjMov diroKTafievoio '^(oXwdT],

Se

hid Trpofj,d^Q)v KeKopv0/Mevo<; aidoTri j^oXkwl,
677119

495

Be fidX'
e

Imv,
vtto

kol aKOVToae Bovpl (paetvwi
Be TjOtue? iceKdBovTO
B"

•jraiTTriva';.

dvBpo<;
484:.

dKOVTi<j(TavTO<;.

oif^

dXiov

/3eA.o?
o<|>p'

rjKev,

ainiip

M.

||

iKpoTaxoi

{}.

||

neqiuKaci G.
:

486.
a.

DGV.
:
||

487.

noTQUoO

napii G.

489.

ToO

t6k Vr.

490.

doupf
and

K<^t)iei Q. x°^k6!>i D.
||

||

dK6NTice Soup) 9aeiN& Q (so ^i* fiXXut A). 491. SiiapT' J. 493. ainbn N. ^Knece EK9ure Par. {supr. SKnecs) g, yp.
||

dBuccecoc
kuto.

DJMQ.
nva t&v

:

&vTiypci<pwv Eust.
is nil. La R. quotes a of instances where the perf. subj. has been thus corrupted into the plup., A 477, 633, P 435, a 316, <r 7re0i)/cet could be defended 133, X 469. only as a secondary pres. from *ire^6Koi, of. dvuyya. avibyet^ etc., H, G. § 27. SXeoc cf. p 208 aiyelpwv ijSaTOTpe<l)iwv. ei

and

5)(i)

number

488. 'ANoeuOHC, from the short form of 'AvBefiiMv (473), like AevKoXld-qs from

AevKdMajv.

n

:

aioXoec^pHs, with 489. flashing armour, does not imply a breastplate. It refers perhaps rather tp the quick movement of the wearer (cf. irbSas aWXos) than to the brightness of the

484.

Mure quotes 'the

practice, still

armour

itself.

common

in Southern Europe, of trimming up the stem of the poplar to within a few feet of the top, which, left untouched, preserves the appearance of a bushy tuft,' so that the comparison is between this tuft and the warrior's

491. 'OBucc&c for 'OSuircr^os is found only here, with 'OSuo-eOs a 398, 'OSvaaia Cf. on 441. p 301.
492. BeBXi^KEi tensive imperf.,
§
28).
:

the plpf.

is

an
(B.

in-

made
as

his hit

G.

plume.
485. The use of so soft and weak a as poplar for the felloe of a wheel is certainly curious. The wood is suited to

wood

the purpose, however, by
elasticity.

its flexibility

and

Delbrtick remarks [Orundr. iv. 227), in use the word giwea the impression rather of an aor., while iiriir'KTiyov is used as imperf. It has been in fact suggested by Brugmann that the plpf forms in -ea were origin-

But,

Ameissuggeststhatthebronze tire (iirliX(TUTpov) would supply the requisite hardness. Probably the Homeric carpenter had not learned to bend tough

ally aorists {ibid.).
side,

Jrepcocc, to the other

from Autiphos' point of view.

wood bj the

aid of steam, and was therefore driven to the use of the weaker kinds for purposes such as the present.
487.

u^N re
add the

re, to

very

rare.

in place of the usual 5^ touch to a simile, is Of., however, E 556.
final

497. KeKdBoNTO (here and 574) is referred to x^foMt*', S'^'^'s wO'V, the gen. diN3p6c being ablative. The act. KCKaSiiv (A 334), KCKaS'fia-et {<p 153) in the sense separate from are the same word, but it is not clear why the x has become k. Perhaps the real forms are KexaSovro,
etc.

,

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

189

aXX
TOP p

vlov JJpiafioio vodov /SaXe ATJUOKOtovra,
Trap'

o; ol 'A^vBoOev ^X6e,
'OSvffeii?
rj

'mirusv

mKetdccv

500

erdpoio ^oXaxrdfievo'; /SaXe Bovpl

Kopeyrjv
alvfir)

B'

erepoio Bta Kpordcpoio Treprjcrep

yaXKeiTj' tov Be (Tkoto<; oacre Kd\vy}re,
Be •wecrtov, dpa^rjae Be rev^e
S'

BovirrjO'ev
'^(opTicrav

iir

avTwi.
505

VTTO

re irpofia'^oi Koi

<paiBt,fio<; 'E/crtB/s*

'Apyeioi Be fiija ia'^ov, ipvaavTO Be veKpovg,

'AttoWoiv Tlepjafiov eKKariBtov, Tpoieaai, Be KeKXeT dvcra^'
XOvaav Be ttoXv TrpoTepm.
" 6pvv<T&',
'Apyecoi';,
iTTTToBafjioi,
ve/jbicrrjcre

S'

*

Tpa)6?,
Xt,6o<;

firjB'

e'iKere

j^dpfiTjt;

iirel

ov

cr<f)t

;\;pa)?

ovBe aiBrjpo'i

510

^cCKkov

dvaa-'x^ea-Oai

Ta/j,ecrb'^poa

/3aXkofievoi,cri,v.

ov fiav ovB' 'AT^tXev? ©ertSo?
fjbdpvaTai,
CO?
ft)/3(T6

Trai.'?

rjVKOfioio
irecrcrei."

aXX
dirb

eVt vrjval j^oXov dvfiaX'yea
tttoXio';
Bei,vo<;

<f>dT

$eo<;'

avrap

A^atoii?
515

Ato? OvydTTjp

KvBicTTT]

TptTojeveia,

ipyofiivr)

Kad' o/mXov, odi fiedievTa^ cBoiro.
/jLolp'

evS"

'AfjbapvyKetBrjv Aooopea
aHJUtoKdeNTO
502.
||

eTreBijae'

499. npidjuou Q.

||

J.
||

BOO. fiXee
lirdpoio U.
y.
||

:

Akc Q.

501 om.
:

OK

||

t6n
A''eii.

p'

:

t6n

&'
:

0™.
juer' Q.

K6pcHc H.
eYaxoN Pap.

504. aiiT&i
:

<!Suun M.
Vr.
c,

506. Xlira

AG

eipOcaNTO J

ippucaNTO

509. YKere J. 510. dpreicoN 512. ukn GQ. 513. Neud supr. : ipreiouc Pap. y. XP^^^C O"^^ Pap. 7. ueeieNTec M. 514. niXioc Q. 516. jueei^Nxa 517. fiuapirPap. 7. uoTpa neBHce Ar. uoTpa ^n^Bwce P. reidHN Q {sitpr. K over second r).

B, Mosc.

1

3.

508. kckXut' J.

||

N

:

||

:

500. YnncoN apparently Priam kept a compare 648 stud-farm at Abydos His horses were of the with note. famous breed of Tros, for which see B 265-72, T 221-30. It would be .simpler beside his chariot, like to understand so Monro) Trap' da-widos above (468 but the order of the words is against this. In the Catalogue (B 836) Abydos is given to Asios, not to Priam. 508. n^prajuoc, the citadel of Troy, where was the temple of Apollo, E 446 afterwards called ri liipyaiiov (cf. 'IKiov by Homer's "IXios) or tA Hipr/afia. The
:

;

'

'

;

;

Libya. All these words are possibly connected with a, stem rpiro-, meaning «Jater, which appears in t/)(tmj', 'AjU^iTpiT?;, Skt. trita (Fick). Ameis suggests that this may contain an allusion to the myth that all the gods were children of Okeanos and Tethys (S 201) Athene has no special connexion with water, Another derivation (Eustath. ) from an alleged Tpi.Tdi=head (i.e. born from the head of Zeus) lacks all trustworthy con;

;

firmation. the epithet

The
is

original significance of

not now to be discovered,

See note on
FlSoiro,
is

6,TpvTiSjvq,

tragedians use it in its primitive sense as a common name, ' citadel ; it is doubtless conn, with iripyos, Germ.
'

Burg.
515. TpiTor^NEia, also
39,

X

183,

derived by the Greeks from a river Triton, variously located in Boiotia or Thessaly, or from the lake Tritonis in

7 378

;

the F of apparently wrongly adapted from ii.edi.ivTa in N 229. can of course read the sing, here with one MS. but it is not Homeric to apply the participle to the S/juXos at large. See note
516. juegi^ntqc,

B 157. violating

Wa

on 232.
517.

4n^8Hce,

i.e.

prevented

his

190
j(6pfiahb(i)i
icvr]p,r]v

lAIAAOC

A

(iv)

yap ^XTjto irapa a-^vpbv oKpooevTL
a<yb<i

Ze^bTeprjv /SaXe he &pr]iKav
'Jfj,^paabBr]<;,

dvBpa>j',

Uelpox;

09 ap'

Alvodev

etkrfKovOei,dvat.Brj<;

520

dfi^orepto

Be revovre Kal
o

oarea Xda<;

a.'^pK d'jrrjKoi'qaev

B

viTTWi ev KOvuTjiai
(j)iXoi,<i

Kainreaev, d/M^o)
dvfiov aTTOTrveicov.

')(elpe

erdpobcTi Treracrcrai;,

o

B'

eireBpafjuev

69 p
eic

k/SaXev irep,
B

Tieipw;,

ovra Be Bovpl

"Trap'

6p,(j)a\ov

apa

nrdaai,

5'A5

yvvTo yafial yoXdBe^, top Be (tkoto^ oaae KaXv\jre.
Tov Be @oa9 AlraXo'; direcrcrvp.evov
(TTepvov vTTep jjba^oio,
d'Y'^ifioXov
irarfj]

^dXe Bovpl
')(aX,KO<i.
'e<y')(p<i

B
eic

ev irvevijuovi

Be ol rjXOe @oa9,

B

o^pifiov
^i(f>o^

iaTrdaaTO arepvoio, epvaaaro Be
reoi,

o^v
atvvTO Ovfiov.

530

o ye
B'

yaarepa

rvyjre

fieaTjv,

e/c

S'

rev-^ea
®priiice<i

ovk dweBvae' irepia-Trjaav yap eralpoo
'^'yX'^'^

dKpoKOfuii BoXi'^
irep

X^P""'^ e^ovre';,

ol

I fiiyav
a.7ro

eovra Kal
o

i(p9ip,ov

Kal dyavov
ireXefjii'^Or).

(bcrav

a<^eia>v

Be ^aaadfievo';
Pap. 7.

535

518. 6Kpu6eNTi

CJMOPKS
522.

520. neipcoc

:

Hpcoc Strabo.
:

1|

Sc ^

NS. H.

II

ftXHXoiieei Q.

6nH\\o(HceN
||

CP

Vr. a

:

dnHWoiuceN L dnH*\oicdceN
527.
fi
:

524. On^SpajueN Pap. 7.

nep

:

juin
:

GNS.

dneccujmeNON
1|

GMOTD

{supr. k) Harl. a b, Par.

W

c^,

Mosc. 3
:

JUCNOC Ar. Sixwt.
320.

528.

529. SiuBpiJUON

On^p Crnb M C'GHJMOiPQ.

Inecci^ueNON {imkp Harl.
531.

dnecciijueNON or ^neccii-

a).

oYnuto

:

nXeOuoNi Phot. Lex SpNuro P. 535.

noXeuixeH GJLT.
escape

;

X

5

E/cro/ia

5'

avrov

/lelvai

SXoLT) fimp' itriS-qixev.

a 370 only). It seems to mean utterly, though this creates some difficulty in
the explanation of
ro/t

520. ndpcoc is the reading of all mss. here and in 525, though in B 844 the
is more correctly Heipooj. 521. TENONTC H. generally uses the dual, apparently from a belief that the tendons always went in pairs. itIvto. rh Terafieva peOpa. ThovTas^Ofivpos Xiyei, Ar. dNaiaiic, reckless ; on T 478 ; cf. 396. or perhaps inhuman comes nearer to the idea of the stone subject to no aldiis for the opinion of mankind. Compare 139 (where, however, there is no intimation of the stone doing any harm to a human being), and the famous description of the stone of Sisyphos, A 598. Aristotle {Met. iii. 11) mentions this as a case of the attribution of human qualities to lifeless objects. 522. Sxpic recurs IT 324, P 599, in all cases in description of wounds (the form (Sxpi as a preposition with gen.

P

form

^f ^'^
1 n 527.

a' „, ;,i j-i evidently

599, q.v. ^ r represents a ^ 1. f lost

:

X

N

dneccuuENON: vulg. iiteaa. but advance of Peiroos is completed in ^^^ °?*> 1° ^^ '^ ™°'^e natural to suppose *'i^* '^^ '"^ "°^ retreating. The usual «'°7' liowever, is iwcdfra (N 567, S 409, direcriTifievov seems rather ^'"^ ^l"-)' strong for mere retreat. Hence iirea-^iithe alteriiative read by Ar. in one >^''°h °' ^is editions, is perhaps more suitable, especially as Peiroos is wounded in the ^''^^^' °o' ^^ ^^^ ^^ck.
;

L

,

533.
Utri.Sei'

aKp6Kouoi
Kop-havres,

:

cf.

B
iv.

542 "A^avres
there.
i\j/i-

and note

X""""' &vSpe^, Pind. P. means the same thing.

172, perhaps

535. neXeufxeH, staggered

;

was shaken

by the attack,

cf.

443, II 612.

lAIAAOC
w?
ri

A

(iv)

191

T<B

y

iv KovliTjtcn Trap'
fiev

oKKriKoicn reTda-Orjv,
'^Trecmv ')(aKKO'^iTmvaiv

Tot

®p7]iKa)V,

o

8

^yefiov6<!'

iroXXol Be TrepiKreivovTO koI aXXoi,.

evdd Kev ovksti epjov dvqp ovocrairo /MereXdaiv,
o? Tt? er
hivevob
a/3\,r)T0^

koI dvovraTO<;

o^i'i

j^aXicSii

540

Kara fieaaov, ajot Be e IlaXXa? 'A.drjV7} avTap ^eXecov direpvKOi epmrjv '^€Lpo<s eKova iroKKob jap Tpwmv Kal 'A'^ai&v Tj/jbart Keivwi,

,

irprjvee';

iv
r'

KOViTjicri,

Trap'

aX\riXoo<7i reravro.
(e corr.)

3'

536. TCO ^proN 0.
c)

:

oY

r"

G.
:

||

nerdceHN Z>J

Q.
c

539.

oCi,
:

541. diNeOei
:

GH.

||

Srei

GN

[supr. oi)

PQ

k^ SrH

ti (Ar.

?)

A.

||

{supr.
t)

oi).

542. liXoOcd

over

HJi

(?)

{nhp Eust. iXoOc' ^iip QR iKoQca ainhp OT.

A
||

{supr.

a over

and u over

G

{s^ipr.

a

dnepiiKei

DQ.
first syll. in arsis. But the not allowed in this place in 9 732, 694, and other cases

539. For oOk^i there was a curious variant otf Ke ti. ; it is not quite clear from the scholia whether Ar. adopted If so, he probably did it on it or not. The the analogy of &v kcv in 127. repetition of Ka> would be quite unoixiTi. gives a perfectly Homeric, and

has the
hiatus
503,
is

A

*

;

N

good
this,

sense,

viz.

'

it

had now come

to

that none could make light,' as might conceivably have happened before. See I 164 and note. UGreXec^N, entering the fight.

by
•*

540. SBXhtoc by missUes, diNoiiToroc thrust, as usual.

where hiatus occurs before drd/j, it is always in the principal oaesurae. ^pui^N, rush, impetus. 543. Bentley and Heyne, followed by Nauck and others, consider the last two lines of the book as spurious. The words fiuaxi KdNCON, in combination with the plupf. t^tonto, certainly look as though they belonged to the end, not to the beginning of a day's fighting, and may therefore have been a rhapsodist s 'tag meant to wind up the end of a day s
recitation,

I '

542. The MS. readings seem to point to an original e\oO<ra ardp, which is

supported by the fact that airdp always

and omitted when A was immediately followed by E. P. Knight suspects 539-42 as well.

INTEODUCTIOlsr
With
this

book we come upon the

first of

the aristeiai, sections of the Iliad

in which a single hero comes to the front and for a shorter or longer time The title assumes a prominence which does not elsewhere belong to him.
AtOjUTjSovs

dpia-Teia
(ii.

is

as

old as

Herodotos,

Z 289-92

116).

The

restriction of the

who quotes by name to E dates of

that

name

course only

from the present division into books, and the wider use recognises the fact In the early part of Z Diomedes that E and Z are a continuous narrative. is as prominent as in E, and the account of Hector's visit to Troy is based entirely upon a state of things in which Diomedes has struck more terror into the Trojans than ever Achilles did (Z 96-101). But though the narrative of the two books now forms a single story at least with the exception of two episodes, the duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos in this book, and the meeting of Diomedes and Qlaukos in the next, for these are but loosely interwoven into the texture yet none the less the structure of this part of the Iliad presents a most difficult problem. Leaving for later consideration one of the most glaring contradictions in the Iliad, that between the acts of Diomedes in E and his words in Z 128, we find in the former book itself such confusion of motive and peculiarity of style and contents as forbid us to regard it as a single and harmonious

composition.

The natural division of the book is into three parts (i.) 1-453, Diomedes makes havoc of the Trojans, and, though wounded by Pandaros, returns to the fight, and drives Aphrodite bleeding from the field (ii.) 454-710, Ares and Apollo rally the Trojans, and Diomedes for a while the principal episode is the killing of Tlepolemos retreats to the background by Sarpedon ; (iii.) 7 1 1-909, Hera and Athene come to the aid of the Greeks, and Diomedes wounds Ares with the assistance of Athene. The general plan of the Iliad is observed only in the fact that Achilles On the other hand, it is certain that the does not appear on the scene. balance of the whole story is seriously impaired by the deeds of Diomedes, who far outdoes any achievements of Achilles, the hero of the Wrath. Nor is there any clear allusion to the immediately preceding duel of Menelaos and Paris the words of Pandaros indeed in 207 contain such a reference, but they are betrayed as a later addition by the fact that they are an obvious expansion of the preceding line 188. As they stand they do little more than emphasise the complete silence of Diomedes about the gross treachery of
: ;

;

;

lAIAAOC E
Ms
victim,
or of the poet

(v)

193
imperative

who

misses

the

duty of calling

which overtakes the violator of the truce. It is patent that the Diomedeia was composed in complete independence of the two preceding books, and the passage 206-8 was only added afterwards when the Iliad was reaching its present shape. The duel of Sarpedon and Tlepolemos again stands by itself, and is
attention to the swift retribution

The introduction of so important a figure as never alluded to elsewhere. Sarpedon in 47 1 is singularly abrupt, and the Herakleidai are elsewhere The episode, like the death of conspicuous by their absence from Homer. Sarpedon himself in 11, is full of vigour, but like it is easily detachable from its context, and may have been originally composed for almost any part of the Tale of Troy. 699 is evidently meant to follow 606 (cf. 702 with 604), and the Tlepolemos episode unnaturally breaks the sequence.
But
it is

when we come

to the large portions

of the

book which deal

with the intervention of the gods that the real

difficulties are felt.

They

begin early. The short colloquy of Athene and Ares in 29 - 36 is entirely devoid of motive, and the allusion to the wrath of Zeus seems to imply the command to the gods to abstain from battle which does not in fact come till 0. Athene again intervenes in 122, when Diomedes has After the prayer of Diomedes in the been wounded in the shoulder. preceding lines, we should suppose that Athene merely healed the wound, as a god, from afar. Her unexpected presence on the spot and the instructions she gives to Diomedes to attack Aphrodite are in preparation for the important episode which begins with 330. Up to that line the rescue of Aineias by his mother runs the ordinary course of such rescues in Homer
1. 23) ; Aphrodite saves Aineias, and no more need be ,But with the attack on Aphrodite herself, we enter an episode which stands quite apart from the rest of the Iliad. We find ourselves in a world of myths of which we know nothing elsewhere. It is not here a matter of contradictions or inconsistencies, though they are to be found ; we are surprised, for ipstance, to find Athene in Olympos when her personal and the poet is clearly presence on the battle-field has just been insisted on much troubled with the question of the continuance of the fighting over Diomedes too thrice Aineias, when that hero has been removed to Troy.

(see for instance

said.

;

attacks Apollo in strange forgetfulness of the injunctions

Athene has

laid

the return to earth from Olympos is beset with such difficulties that the sudden introduction of Sarpedon is almost a relief from

on him.

In

fact

But more serious than all such minor difficulties obvious embarrassment. the un-Homeric atmosphere which reigns till we return to the original stream of narrative in 519. The third section, beginning with 711, bears a most suspicious resemblance, with its exaggeration of divine faculties to the verge of grotesqueness, It is pretty obviously a deliberate to the buffoonery of the Theomachy in *. attempt to outbid the wounding of Aphrodite, and various peculiarities in Furtherthe language all seem to point to a late period of the Epos. more it will be seen that the episode contains a large number of 498-9, and make nonsense 753-4 come from obviously borrowed lines.
is

A

here, for the goddesses

in place

;

here

it

is

791 is from N 107, where it is have left Olympos. simply untrue that the Greeks are fighting " at the

VOL.

I

194
ships."

lAIAAOC E

(v)

The arming of the goddesses in 719-52 is largely identical with 381-96, though the latter book is itself such a free borrower that little stress can be laid on this. But the description of the armour bears a strong resemblance to that at the beginning of A, a notoriously late passage and is in all probability expanded by a late hand. The whole book then seems to illustrate the process of concretion and expansion which mark the Iliad as a whole. To a real Aristeia of Diomedes as a nucleus, in which there was no intervention of the gods beyond the healing of Diomedes' wound, there are additions on the one hand of the Sarpedon episode, which may have originally been composed for some other place, and on the other hand the two woundings of Aphrodite and Ares, which can only have grown up where they now stand, one on the top of the other. And as usual we find that the more personal and human the interference of the divine element, the more suspicion of late origin

9

;

accompanies

it.

But

after all is said, these

weaknesses touch only the general structure

and in no way affect the beauty of the episodes, which, though confined within narrow limits, are in the highest degree vivacious and Sarpedon, the most striking of the few new characters to whom we varied. are introduced, is here, as on the rare occasions when he reappears, a remarkable picture, drawn in few and strong lines, of the purest aristocrat, with all the chivalry and not a little of the morgue of his more than princely place. In strong contrast to him we meet another new personage in Ares, the Olympian Porthos, whose deification is little more than an exaggeration of the swashbuckler's less attractive attributes it is the human Diomedes
of the book,
;

who

typifies all the nobler qualities of pious heroism.

lAIAAOC E
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