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Converting Raw Materials to Steel Product Forms

Raw Material Heat treatment C Mechanical treatment

Excess C 3removed 4.5% (oxidation) C

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Blast Furnace (Iron Making)

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Steel Making (Oxygen Furnace)


Pig iron: up to 30% scrap Pure oxygen reacts with liquid to create iron-oxide C reacts with iron oxide to produce CO 45 minutes => 200 tons of steel

Superior to open-hearth: sulfur contamination avoided (no external fuels) trace nitrogen in oxygen used for refining, so low N in steel (<0.004%) residual oxygen in steel less, so few deoxidizing agents required lower impurities (less scrap)
William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Open Hearth Steelmaking Process


~6-10 hours ==> 200 tons of steel
Shallow bath of steel heated with flame

Slag to remove phosphorous and sulfur

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Electric Arc Furnace


Electrodes positioned above cold steel scrap and arc is struck Increased temperature control 60-90 tons per day

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Continuous Casting

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Hot Strip Rolling Mill


(Not necessary for continuous casting)

H2O spray to control temp.

Temperature just slightly above recrystallization temp. (avoid excessive grain growth) - breaks down coarse grains of ingots - refined grains - heals porosity - strength increases in roll direction
William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Intermediate Material Product Forms


24-60 2-9

Slabs: (processes into plate, sheet)

6x612x12

Blooms: (processes into shapes and rails) Billets: (processed into bars, rods, pipe, tubes)

2x25x5

AISI-SAE carbon-steel compositions


Plain carbon steels constitute ~85% of steel used in U.S. (although very little in aerospace) 1st two digits denote type (10 = plain carbon steel) Last two digits indicate amount of C in hundredth percent

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Effect of Trace Elements on Carbon Steel


0-1% manganese: reacts with sulfur, to produce MnS soft inclusions increased yield strength 0-0.05% sulfur: if insufficient manganese, sulfur will react with iron at grain boundaries, cracking during working

0-0.04% phosphorous: forms brittle Fe3 P compound 0-0.03% silicon: forms silicate inclusions (SiO2) but has little effect on properties

Limitations of Plain Carbon Steels:

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

General Effects of Alloying Elements in Steel

- allows advantage of tempered martensite throughout - allows slower quench

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Effects of alloy elements in steel


Generally ~1-4%

Effects of alloy elements in steel


Generally ~1-4%

Effects of alloy elements in steel

Residual Elements in Steel

Alloys Favorably Affecting Properties

--- Element with most influence

Principal Types of Standard Alloy Steels


AISI-SAE System 1st two digits indicate principal alloy or group of alloys Last two digits indicate amount of C in hundredth percent

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

AISI-SAE Designations for Steels and Their Major Alloying Elements

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

AISI/SAE and UNS Designation Systems and Composition Ranges for Plain Carbon Steel and Various Low Alloy Steels

William D. Callister, Jr. Materials Science and Engineering, An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1985

Nominal Compositions and Typical Applications of Select Standard Alloy Steels

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Typical Applications and Mechanical properties for Oil-Quenched and Tempered Steels

William D. Callister, Jr. Materials Science and Engineering, An Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1985

Common Applications for Common Steels

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Chemical Compositions and Typical Applications of Low-Alloy Chromium-Molybdenum Steels

Chromium: improves hardenability, strength and wear resistance Combination allows slower oil quench to produce martensite, which reduces thermal gradients and internal stresses
William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Continuous Cooling Diagram, AISI 4140 Alloy Steel


Ferrite to pearlite transformation is delayed

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Material Properties for ChromiumMolybdenum Steels

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Chemical Compositions and Typical Applications of Low-Alloy Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Steels

Nickel with Chromium: improved elastic limit, hardenability, impact resistance and fatigue resistance Molybdenum: further improvements to hardenability and reduced embrittlement

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Continuous Cooling Diagram, AISI 4340 Alloy Steel

Ferrite to pearlite transformation is significantly delayed

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Material Properties for Normalized and Annealed Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum Alloy Steels

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Material Properties for Quenched and Tempered NickelChromiumMolybdenum Alloy Steels

William F. Smith. Structure and Properties of Engineering Alloys. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. 1981`

Stainless Steel
High Chromium content (>10%) Corrosion resistant, hight strength and ductility Stainless ==> chromium oxide resists corrosion

Stainless Steel
*

* Corrosion resistance decreases with carbon content, due to chromium carbide formation Thus, stainless steel utensils generally low in carbon content (what does this imply?)

Mechanical Properties and Applications of Select Annealed Stainless Steels

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Tool and Die Steels


High strength, impact toughness, wear resistance

Elevated operating temperature M more common

Impact toughness (dies, punches, chisels)

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Tool and Die Materials for Metalworking

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Approximate Cost of Raw Materials for Various Product Forms

Serope Kalpakjian. Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, 3rd Edition. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. 1995

Materials Properties For Steels


MIL-HDBK-5E, Chapter 2

Hardness and Hardenability

Richard A. Flinn and Paul K. Trojan. Engineering Materials and Their Applications, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990.

Representative Hardenability Curves

Richard A. Flinn and Paul K. Trojan. Engineering Materials and Their Applications, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990.

Hardenability Example

Richard A. Flinn and Paul K. Trojan. Engineering Materials and Their Applications, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990.

Hardenability Example

Richard A. Flinn and Paul K. Trojan. Engineering Materials and Their Applications, 4th Edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990.