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()

0Page

()

.
.

. .
) (...




) :(... .

. y = y + mx

: ,

. y = y m x

: , .

y = y x m

, .
.
x y .
, .
:
.
.

1Page

()

) (: x y .

2Page

()

3Page

()

4Page

()

5Page

()

6Page

()

x y , .
- 1 .
- 2 .

, .

7 , 5 , 2.5 10 .

- 3 x y
) . (
m=10cm=100mm
0mm
30mm
48mm
60mm
70mm
78mm
85mm
90mm
95mm
100mm

m . log n
0
3.01
4.77
6.02
6.98
7.78
8.45
9.03
9.54
10

Log n
0
0.301
0.477
0.602
0.698
0.778
0.845
0.903
0.954
1

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

7Page

()

: :
.

m = 10cm

log = 0.497

10 0.497 = 49.7cm

X : Y .
10
U

y ) y
( . .
- 1 1
) . 8 (
- 2 .

c = 0.8

- 3 10 2 .
- 4 ) y ( 6.3 .

8
= 0.8
10
100.8 = 6.3
=c

y = 6.3

m = 10
log a log b = 1
log100 log10 = 1


a b
.

log10 log1 = 1
log1 log 0.1 = 1
log 0.1 log 0.01 = 1
log 5 log 0.5 = 1

8Page

()

: ,
. ) (

y = y m

x
y
=
2

:

x
y
=
2
.

9Page

()

: , .
) (

y = y x

: y = x
.
2

y = x .
2

10Page

()

y = y + mx

y y2 y1
=
= tan = m
x x2 x1

y = y + mx

y = y10 mx

y log y2 log y1
=
= tan = m
x
x2 x1
y
1
= tan = m
=
x
x
x

y = y m

11Page

()

y = y x

y log y2 log y1
=
= tan = m
x log x2 log x1
m

y = y x

sc. .


.
.
.
.

12Page

()

y = e .
x

y = e .
.
x

: y = 10 1 10 .
x

13Page

()

y = .r .
2

y = .r .
.
2

1
3

: y = x . 200 .

14Page

()


. .

y = y + mx
y y2 y1
= tan = m
=
x x2 x1

y y2 y1
3
=
=
= tan = m
x x2 x1
3
y = 2
3
= y = y + mx
+2
3

15Page

()

6
30

4
20

3
15

2
10

1
5

0
0

x
y

y y2 y1 25
= tan = m
=
=
=5
x x2 x1 5
y = 0
y = y + mx = 0 + 5 x = 5 x

16Page

()

4
39

3
15.6

2
6.2

1
2.5

x
y

0
1

mx

y = y10

y log y2 log y1
=
x
x2 x1

= tan = m

y
1
= tan = m
=
x
x
y
1
1
=
=+
=m
x
x
2.5
mx

= tan = m

y = y10
y = 1

= 2.5 x

1
x
2.5

y = y10mx = 1 10
x

y = 2.5
17Page

()

5
25

3
9

14
16

2
4

1
1

x
y

y = y x m
y
x
y log y2 log y1
=m
=
x log x2 log x1
= tan = m

y 90.3
=
=2
x 45.15

=m

y = y x m
y = 1
y = 1 x 2 = x 2

18Page

()

S . P S
.

y 3230
=
= 85000
x 0.038

=m

y y2 y1 3230
=
=
= 85000
x x2 x1 0.038

= tan = m
y = 1290

y = y + mx = 1290 + 85000 x

19Page

()

. F X .

20Page

()

y log y 2 log y1
=
x log x2 log x1

= tan = m

y 52.47
=m
=
= 1.6
x 32.65

y = y x m
y = 11.84
y = 11.84 x1.6

21Page

()

. A t .

A = A10 mt
A
1
= tan = m
=
t
t
A = 6
1
1
mt
0.0937 t
= 6 0.8 t
= m=
0.0937 A = A10 = 6 10
t 10.668
t
A = 6 0.8

22Page

nomogram

()

.
I .

P=RI2
P

x y
Z=x+y

V=RI

a2=b2+c2
P

x y
Z=x.y

.d .n
1000

= V

.
: .
)(abaque .
) (abaque
. ) ( nomogram .
) (abaque nomogram ,
.

.

23Page

()

: x y . .

Z=x.y

24Page

()

P = .d

25Page

()

26Page

()

c b

a=b+c

27Page

d1 + d 2
2

()

=a

d1 + d 2
2

=a

28Page

d1 + d 2
2

()

=a

29Page

()

90 125
710 1000

63
500

22.4 31.5
180 250

45
355
.d .n

1000
= 0.07d V = 0.07d

d 22.4
1000

V = 0.098d

= V

d 31.5
1000

V = 0.14d
V = 0.20d
V = 0.28d
V = 0.39d
V = 0.56d
V = 0.78d
V = 1.11d

= V

1000

=V

d 45
1000

d 63
1000

d 90
1000

d 125
1000

d 180
1000

d 250
1000

d 355
1000

.d .n

= 1) n = 22.4 V
2) n = 31.5

=V

3) n = 45

=V

4) n = 63

=V

5) n = 90

=V

6) n = 125

=V

7) n = 180

=V

8) n = 250

=V

9) n = 355
30Page

()

V = 1.57 d
V = 2.23d
V = 3.14d

d 500
1000

d 710
1000

d 1000
1000

=V

10) n = 500

=V

11) n = 710

=V

12) n = 1000

31Page

()

. ,
V=

.d .n

logV = log + log d + log n log1000

1000
logV = 0.5 + log d + log n 3 logV = log d + log n 2.5

log V = log d + log n 2.5


log V = log d + log n 2.5
1) n = 22.4 log V = log d + log 22.4 2.5 log V = log d 1.153
2) n = 31.5

log V = log d + log 31.5 2.5 log V = log d 1

3) n = 45

log V = log d + log 45 2.5 log V = log d 0.85

4) n = 63

log V = log d + log 63 2.5 log V = log d 0.7

5) n = 90

log V = log d + log 90 2.5 log V = log d 0.55

6) n = 125

log V = log d + log 125 2.5 log V = log d 0.4

7) n = 180

log V = log d + log 180 2.5 log V = log d 0.25

8) n = 250

log V = log d + log 250 2.5 log V = log d 0.1

9) n = 355

log V = log d + log 355 2.5 log V = log d + 0.05

32Page

()

10) n = 500

log V = log d + log 500 2.5 log V = log d + 0.2

10) n = 710

log V = log d + log 710 2.5 log V = log d + 35

10) n = 1000

33Page

log V = log d + log 1000 2.5 log V = log d + 0.5

()

34Page

()

10 1
.
.
.d .n
V=
logV = log + log d + log n log1000
1000
logV = 0.5 + log d + log n 3 logV = log d + log n 2.5
V = 1 log V = 0
log V = log d + log n 2.5 0 = log d + log n 2.5
log d + log n = 2.5

log d + log n = 2.5


log d = 1 d = 10

log n = 1.5 n = 31.6


log d = 1.5 d = 31.6

log n n = 10
V = 10 log V = 1
log V = log d + log n 2.5 1 = log d + log n 2.5
log d + log n = 3.5

log d + log n = 3.5


log d = 1 d = 10

log n = 2.5 n = 316.22


log d = 2.5 d = 316.22

log n = 1 n = 10

35Page

()

36Page

()

37Page

()

L = 120mm
]x [0,5

y = x 2

= L=120mm

L
F (U 2 ) F (U 1 ) :

=m

5.
.
5
25
125

4
16
80

y=x

3
9
45

L
120 120
=
=
=5
F ( x2 ) F ( x1 ) 25 1 24

2
4
20

= m1

x
1
Y=F(x) 1
m1 .F(x) 5
R

y = 2x3
]x [0,8
. 0.1 A4
.

8
1024
102.4

7
686
68.6

6
432
43.2

5
250
25

4
128
12.8

3
54
5.4

2
16
1.6

1
2
0.2

x
0
Y=F(x) 0
m1 .F(x) 0
R

38Page

()

2 x + 15 y = 25 z
L = 75mm
x [0,5]
y [0,10]
a + b = 60mm
L
m=
F (U 2 ) F (U 1 )
2


= L
= a+b

2 x 2 + 15 y = 25 z

m1 =

L
75
75
=
=
= 1.5
F ( x2 ) F ( x1 ) 2 25 0 50

m2 =

75
75
L
=
=
= 0.5
F ( y 2 ) F ( y1 ) 15 10 0 150

m3 =

1.5 0.5 0.75


m1m2
=
=
= 0.375
2
m1 + m2 1.5 + 0.5
x
0
F(x)
0
m1 .F(x) 0
R

y
0
F(y)
0
m2 .F(y) 0
R

1
2
3

1
15
7.5

2
30
15

3
45
22.5

2
8
12
4
60
30

3
18
27
5
75
37.5

4
32
48
6
90
45

5
500
75
7
105
52.5

8
120
60

9
135
67.5

10
150
75

F ( x) min + F ( y ) min = F ( z ) min 0 + 0 = 25 z ( z ) min = 0


F ( x) max + F ( y ) max = F ( z ) max 50 + 150 = 25 z ( z ) max =
z
0
F(z)
0
m3 .F(z) 0
R

39Page

1
2
25
50
9.375 18.75

3
4
75
100
28.125 37.5

200
=8
25

5
6
7
8
125
150
175
200
46.875 56.25 65.625 75

()

m1 a
1.5 a
a
=
= = 3 a = 3b
m2 b
0.5 b
b
a = 45mm

a + b = 60 3b + b = 60 4b = 60 b = 15mm

40.5
= 108 = 25 z z = 4.32
0.375

40Page

()

25 log Z + R = T + 50
L = 100mm
0 Z 100
2

25 log Z + R 2 = T + 50

= L
= a+b
25 log Z + R 2 = T + 50
f ( Z ) + f ( R) = f (T )

0 R 10
a + b = 90mm

m=
mz =

mR =

mT =

L
F (U 2 ) F (U 1 )

L
100
100
=
=
=2
F ( z ) max F ( z1 ) min 25 log100 25 log1 50

L
100
100
= 2
=
=1
F ( R ) max F ( R ) min 10 0 100

mZ m R
2 1 2
=
=
mZ + m R 2 + 1 3

m1 a
2 a
a
= = = 2 a = 2b
m2 b
1 b
b
a + b = 90 2b + b = 90 3b = 90 b = 30mm

a = 60mm

Z
1
F(Z)
0
M Z.F(Z) 0

10
25
50

20
31.6
63.2

30
37
74

40
40
80

50
42.5
85

60
44.5
89

70
46
92

80
47.5
95

90
48.7
97.5

100
50
100

R
0
F(R)
0
M R .F(R) 0

1
1
1

2
4
4

3
9
9

4
16
16

5
25
25

6
36
36

7
49
49

8
64
64

9
81
81

10
100
100

41Page

()

F ( Z ) min + F ( R) min = F (T ) min 0 + 0 = T + 50 (T ) min = 50


F ( Z ) max + F ( R) max = F (T ) max 50 + 100 = T + 50 (T ) max = 100
T
-50
F(T)
0
M T .F(T) 0
R

42Page

-25
25

0
50

25
75

50
100

75
125

100
150

50
3

100
3

50

200
3

250
3

100

()

. x y . ). (

120
1.2

240

360

480

600

720

0.75

.46

.275

.18

0.1

43Page

()


a b

BC B/C/ , .
P

BC

BC

AB AC
=
BB CC

BC

BC

AB AC
=
BB CC
1 a
= x = ab
b x

44Page

()

a b
BC B/C/ , .
P

45Page

()

:
:

BC 2 = AB 2 + AC 2

46Page

()

AH 2 = BH HC

AC 2 = BC HC
AB 2 = HC BH

) ( a

) ( .

47Page

()

AH 2 = BH HC
AH 2 = 1 a
AH = a
U

: ab
U

AH 2 = BH HC
AH 2 = a b

AH = ab

) ( a 2:

48Page

()

a 2 : a 3
1

= a 2 :
a2

a4

a n :

1
= a 3
a3

1
= a 4
a4

y = ax b
b
a
b
= x
a
= x

1
= a n
an

ax + b = 0
ax b = 0

49Page

()

: 1

3x + 8 = 0

: 2

3 x + 100 = 0

ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :

ax 2 + bx + c = 0
b
c
x2 + x + = 0
a
a
x 2 + px + q = 0
( x1 + x2 ) = p
x1 x2 = q

50Page

()

: 1 x 2 4 x + 3 = 0 :

51Page

()

: 1 x 2 + 4 x + 5 = 0 :

: ax 2 + bx + c = 0 :
U

ax 2 bx c = 0
b
c
x 2 (+ ) x = 0
a
a
b
c
x2 x = 0
a
a
= x 2 px q

52Page

()

- 1 .
( 1/5
( 5/7

( 37

( :

( 2/7

1
2 / 52

-2 .

x
( + 120 = 0
5
(:

2 x 4 20 x 2 8 = 0

x = z :
2

(x 2 4 x 2 = 0 :

a -3 b
). (

-4

a1b1 + a2b2
a2 a1

=x

x = 2a 2 + 3b 2

.
3

- 5 a ) a (a a .
- 6 a b x a.x = b 2
). . (
1/ 4

a -7 b , .
a+b
=s
2

G = ab

2ab
=X
a+b

53Page

()

--1

x = 7 a

a - 2 b
). (

a -3

x = 2a 2 + 3b 2

b .
= ( ab ) 2

a+b
2

ab
a+b

=X

2ab
a+b

=X

2 1 1
= +
X a b

54Page

()

a -4 b .

1 a+b
=
x
ad

a -4 b
.

ad
a+b

x = 4 a 4 + b2

=x

-5 a b . .

55Page

()

- 6

- 7

a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3


=x
.
a1 + a2 + a3

a1b1 + a2b2
=x
.
a2 a1

56Page

()

a b , .a+b
=s
2

G = ab

a +b
2
2

=A

2ab
=X
a+b

57Page

()

58Page

()

59Page

()

60Page

()

61Page

()

62Page

()

: .

63Page

()

64Page

()

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()

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()

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()

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()

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()

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