Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

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Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

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Accession no.771897

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S. Lynn.L. Methven. S. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics. Forrest. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources. Rapra Technology Ltd. Polycarbonates.Brockbank. P. Chemical Analysis of Polymers. Pultrusion. Queen Mary College.A.J. W. Kemmish. Wade.A.N.Winnan. Andreassen.M.F. W. Lewis. Daniels. Friend. Williams Advanced Composites.R. Cousans. Cellcom Technology Associates. Turner.K. A. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry. Cavendish Laboratory. R. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing. Arnold Nutt & Co.G. T & N Technology Ltd. Report 33 Report 34 .Properties and Applications. Brain. E. R. H. Process Control in the Plastics Industry. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. J. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. J. Plastics in High Temperature Applications. Pira Packaging Division. R. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents. N.G. D. Hotpoint Ltd.W. J. University of Surrey. Rapra Technology Ltd. Cox and R. G.R. P.R. Polyimides . G. Woods.J. London School of Polymer Technology. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. University of Surrey.W. Rapra Technology Ltd. P. A. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. Designing with Plastics.F.H.F. Djordjevic.J. General Electric Plastics BV. Wheelans. Armitage. D. Evans. Whelan. J. Rapra Technology Ltd.N.A. and J. M. Allen. I.Goosey.L. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. Leicester Polytechnic. FMC Corp.M. Materials. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. D. Maxwell.C. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers. Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers. J. H. J. Brown. Freitag. Larsen and E. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding. Coates and A. ICI.C. D. Internal Mixing of Rubber. D.G. Rapra Technology Ltd. D. Brown.F. Gebelein. S. Dow Corning Ltd. Sidwell.H. Green. Coextrusion.A. J. Polyamides. Methven. British Telecom. W. Polyurethane. RAE. Offshore Applications of Polymers. R. K. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications. Reynolds. Injection Moulding of Rubber. Cattell. Feast Medical.A. Polymers in Marine Applications. National NDT Centre. M. Williams and T.Tooling and Component Processing. City University. Hollaway. U. L. Tooltex. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers. Epoxy Resins. Trego and H. Automotive Applications of Polymers II.D. Consultant. Senter for Industriforskning. Hardy.K.C. Cook and M. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics. University of Cambridge. Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods. Sebborn. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. Coulson.A. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd.K. P. Composites .J. Sandland and M. van de Grampel. M.W. Spratling. Wright. Cattell Consultancy Services. Consultant.) Ltd. Consultant. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. A. M.P. Physical Testing of Rubber. Roberts.P. Lawson. Thomas. UMIST. Building Research Establishment.D. Silicone Rubbers. Halliwell. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering. Consultant. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers. C. Kirby.M. Cambridge Applied Technology. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns. Consultant. D. Weathering of Polymers. Extrusion. Hinrichsen. Bayer AG. Hodge. Conductive Polymers II.A. Hollaway. Du Pont (U. C. Norway.J.Britton. Polyetheretherketone.F. University of Manchester. S. Elliott. Gale. Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University. Å. Engineering Thermoplastics. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd. Volume 4 Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH. S. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries. Chronos Richardson Ltd.M. Garnaud. Processing and Applications. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. R. C. Extrusion of Rubber.Alvey.T. Cox. Fox. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging. C. Nutt. Farnborough.W. J. ICI. and BIP Chemicals Ltd. R. Grigo. Plastics in Building. Harwell. K. Pakull. B.W.W.T. Hawley. Fluoroelastomers . J. R. Liquid Crystal Polymers. Processing and Applications.A. Electronics Applications of Polymers. Nova Petrochemicals Inc. L. Barrie. The Open University. University of Surrey.T. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry. Wilton. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions. Lovegrove. Wilton.Materials.M. R. O’Reilly. A. Biomedical Applications of Polymers. A. Plas/Tech Ltd. D. J. Joining of Plastics. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. Lupton Failure of Plastics. Johansson Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. N. G.

Rotational Moulding. Lewis. R. Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 112 Polystyrene . Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. Reinforced Thermoplastics . Crawford.P. R. Kent. Processing and Applications. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding .G.E. P.A. Rolando. The Nottingham Trent University. Rapra Technology Ltd. Robinson. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. B.L. Tooling and Manufacturing. Adams. Recycling of Rubber. Kefford. Hague and P. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. University of Ulster. Fire Retardants. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. Hill. V.G. T.Industrial Materials Institute. Theves. Wood. Processing and Applications. Brown. Keskkula.Report 65 Report 66 Decorating and Coating of Plastics.E. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. Day. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd.A. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics. The Queen’s University of Belfast. Crowther.J.A Practical Guide.Properties and Applications. Kobryanskii. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene .S. J.Synthesis. Holding and E. P. Compressive Behaviour of Composites. Andres Garcia-Rejon. Oxford Brookes University. Plastics and the Environment. Rubber to Metal Bonding. Dierkes. M.C. The Open University.V. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK.E. deV. Spassky. Forrest.Need. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes. Hydro Polymers Ltd.A. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles. Moore & S. R. G.M. J. N. W. Advances in Thermoforming. A. Gas Injection Ltd. Colborn.M.J. Mulhouse. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers. Soulagnet. Brown. Part II: Processing. Rapra Technology Ltd.W.J. Stafford. . Willoughby. Hickman.Composition. General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96 Rubber Mixing. Kaminsky. Part I: Vulcanising Systems.J. P. Fardell.R. Rapra Technology Ltd. Russian Academy of Sciences. Forrest and G. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins. P. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Meehan. P. Hepburn.D.C. P. R. International Automotive Design. M. Fouassier. The Open University. Rapra Technology Ltd. Manuel and W. Prentice. T. Y. Econology Ltd. T.C. Fuller Company.R. PEKK and Other Polyaryls.R. Technology and Medicine. Wünsch. J.R. J. Pritchard. T. Coates and A.J. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. R. University of Ulster. Building Research Establishment. J.Leadbitter.M. R.J. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques.N. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation. MRM Engineering Consultancy. Cubbon. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. Polymer Membranes . Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients . I. PVC . Victrex Ltd. D. M. Edward Mackenzie Consulting.P. Lee. Goodyear Technical Center. Soutis. I. J. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. Brydson.R.J. Production and Applications. Theory and Innovation. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Report 83 Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation.Compounds. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. H. J. P.J. C. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation . S. Hepburn. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives. Maier. The Smart Chemical Company. Theory and Innovation. M. Tangram Technology Ltd. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers. W. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion.A. C. Johnson.A. Lewis. H.P. Structures and Separation Performance.J. Ryan. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres. Tunghai University. Saunders. Bonding. Speciality Rubbers. Lindsay. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping. Boustead Consulting Ltd.A.F. Wilson. National Research Council Canada. University of Surrey. Ridha. England and D. Hamerton. J. University of Texas at Austin.B. Sepe. Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation. C. Meteor Gummiwerke.P. Sherwood Technologies Inc. V. G. University of Bradford.Materials. Advances in Injection Moulding. Throne.Theory and Applications. Schissel. Fire Research Station. D. B.Selection. P.R.Nanopolyacetylene. Plasticisers .A. Wang. BASF AG. Imperial College of Science. B. Advances in Tyre Mechanics.P.F. T.J. R. Thermoplastic Elastomers . M.L.L. H. Naylor. Pearson.G. Reeves. Brydson. C. Applications and Implications. Rapra Technology Ltd.E. J. J.G. Kemmish. High Performance Engineering Plastics. M. Rapra Technology Ltd. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Vredestein Rubber Recycling B. University of Hamburg. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology. Kingston University.Need. P. Boustead. Buckley. A. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire. Kelleher. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. Crowther.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Kröhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. O’Neill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6


..................................................... 10 3..........1 1.................................................................7.......... 8 2..................1 3................. 12 3..11 3..............2....11 Heat Stabilisers .... 12 3................................................................... 12 4................................................2 PVC Compounders ................... 12 Waste Management .............................................................. 3 History ........................................................................... 12 4..............................1 Phthalates .....2................................3 Bulk Powder Properties ..............................3 2........................................................1 Incineration ....3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols ................. 4 2......................................................... 7 2.................................................. 7 2..................... 10 Plasticisers ...........................................................................................................................................2...................................................... 4 2...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Liquid Stabilisers ...............................................11 3........6 2.................................. 8 2.......................4..................4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ..................................................................................................2 Landfill ..................3 Global Market by Application ..1............... 10 3.............1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture .....................................1 Molecular Weight ................... 7 2.................................4............................................11 3..................1 4................................................................................................................ Formulations and Applications ........... 15 Plasticisers ............................................................................. 12 Heat Stabilisers .4 4 Additives....................................... 8 Processing Techniques ....... 10 3.......................................PVC Compounds and Processing Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................1 PVC Resin ............. 3 PVC Compounds ......................................... 14 4....................................4..................................................................................................................3 3............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9 2.........................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Homopolymers .................... 12 3........................................2 Particle Size ..... 4 2................................................................... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation .........................................................................................................................................................3............................1 Solid Stabilisers .........................3.......5 2.2 VCM and PVC Production ..........................................................4...4......................................................................................................................................... 8 Industry Outline ......11 3....................................................2 Organotin Stabilisers ..........3 Recycling .................................. 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) ....3.............................2 2..................................................................................................3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride .................................................................................................2............................................................................................. 16 4........................ 12 3..........................1....................................................................................................................... 3 PVC Industry .......................................................2 Introduction .................... 3 1...........................................................................................................1 Lead Based Stabilisers.................................................1 PVC Resin Producers ..................................................................................... 7 Key Additives ...............................7...................................................................................................................................3... 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers .................................................................2 Adipates ...........2 1.......................................... 8 2........7...........3 1 .......................................................................4......................4 2.............................................7 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC ...................................................................................................................................................................................................

..............................14...........................1.................................................................... 26 4............................................ 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ..... 16 4............4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers ...... 25 4....................3 Injection Moulding ......................................................... 25 4..............................................2............5 Other Fillers ................................................................. 24 4.................................................................................. 27 5.................................................................................7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes .......PVC Compounds and Processing 4..................................................................................................................................................................................4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications ........................... 18 Multifunctional Additives ....................... 28 Processing ...............................................7..................................................................... 22 Pigments ..................8 4......................2...4 Membranes ........3 Medical and Food Contact Use ....................................................................................................................................................... 25 4...........................14...............2...........2 6 Fabrication and Treatment .......................................................................................................................................... 19 Lubricants .......................................... 20 4......................2.. 23 4.................. 28 5.................................................................................................6 Nanocomposites ....................................................................................1 Compounding .........................................................................................4........ 27 5........................................1 Phthalate Alternatives .................................... 31 5...................................................1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing .................................................................................................................................................. 21 4....4 Bonding Agents .......................................7 4.... 25 4....... 18 Property Modifiers ...5............................................................................ 20 Fillers ................................................................................................... 33 5..........................................................................3.............................................14.....7..... 24 4...9 4.......3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre ...3 Antifogging Agents ............................................. 29 5.....................................................14 Formulations ....2................................................ 32 5........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 21 4....... 20 4.........................6 4....................13 Other Additives for PVC-P ......................................13...................2 Viscosity Modifiers ...........................11 Blowing Agents................................................ 21 4................................. 31 5............ Extrusion Blow Moulding ............................................................................................7...........................................2..............13...... 24 4.........................................................................7......................................................................................................................................... 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology ..........................................................................................3 Liquid PVC Blending ..............................14....................................................................................... 21 4..................................................................... 19 4............................................................................................6 Calendering........... 27 5......5....................................2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites .................12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers ...........1 Gelation ..........................................................................................................................1 Process Aids..................7......2 Extrusion .............................................................................................. 18 4...............3..........................................................................1................................................................................. 24 4........................5 4.............................................................2...............................5..........................2 Crosslinked PVC .............................1 Antistatic Agents ...............................10 Biocides .........1.. 23 4................................................................................................... 25 4...........1 Calcium Carbonate ................................................................................................ 34 2 ............................................................................... 19 4................................ 27 5........................................5 Orientation ................... 28 5.13...................................................2 Polymeric Plasticisers............... 32 5...... 25 4....7......1 Dry Blend Mixing .13........................ 18 4...5.........3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification ..........................2 Melt Compounding .............4 4.2 Impact Modifiers .................................

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38


Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159


PVC Compounds and Processing

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.


PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earth’s natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 °C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds
PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.


The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3.CH2Cl EDC thermal decomposition CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride Figure 1 Hydrogen chloride recycle Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM Figure 2 The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission) CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + ½ O2 Figure 3 CH2Cl .1 PVC Resin 2. A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461).CH2Cl EDC CH2Cl . CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine ClH2C . while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water.PVC Compounds and Processing 2 PVC Industry 2.CH2Cl + H2O 4 . Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1). An oxychlorination unit. is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC. in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen.1.

Details are covered in Section 4.000. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 °C. Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150). Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle.2. 345. The polymer is then dried.4 °C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35. 2. typically in fluidised bed drying equipment. the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent.PVC Compounds and Processing VCM boils at -13.500.000 to 95. This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30. 318. Topics cover improved reactor economics.2 Homopolymers The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic). secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake. The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149). 166. initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles. monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation. the VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging Water Drying S-PVC Water Figure 4 The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 5 .1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water.1. polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate.1. The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin. 429). Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation. 2. Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). high plasticiser absorption for flexible products. The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 μm with a range of 50-250 μm. initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles. or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion.

Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced.2.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC). is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered. with higher bulk density. After polymerisation.1. a water soluble initiator (persulfate. the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC.2. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. see Figure 5. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes.4 The Mass Polymerisation Process The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process.2. At the end of the polymerisation stage. VCM and an emulsifier. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM.PVC Compounds and Processing 2. These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets. Consequently these resins are called paste resins. dipping or spreading. before being placed in the autoclave. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water.1. In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution. an initiator soluble in Water VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC Figure 5 The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 6 . A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used.1. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good 2. 2. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. etc. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. special properties. The primary particles are solid. a paste (or plastisol) is produced. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water.1-100 μm. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating. such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing. are conferred on the polymer. hydrogen peroxide. The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants). When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation. From this milky emulsion (latex). smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 μm with a range of 0.3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder.

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 °C in comparison to PVC at 60 °C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight
PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size
Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.


PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques
Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: • • extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives
PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

• • • • • •

2.7 Industry Outline
The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders
PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.


PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (www.evc-int.com)

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application
The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (www.evcint.com).

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV, www.evc-int.com)


PVC Compounds and Processing The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. Some companies. Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment. endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. 304. 272. 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years. Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics. These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored. In addition to supplier consolidations. which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials. have signed charters covering the production of VCM. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. 117. 166). the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues. 200. healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11. Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments. blood compatibility (58. 257. 3. diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM. for improved cost effectiveness. detergents. linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). Subject to external audit. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110. such as plasticisers. 3. primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives. there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. in attempts at ‘green’ marketing. indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205). but Eastern Europe is developing. governmental and political positions (40. ethylene. The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). oils and solvents (253. The Western European market is maturing. who account for 98% of production in the EU. their use in toys. This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. 165. S-PVC and E-PVC. 228. 310. orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). dioxin-like components and copper. regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic. The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). 262). and 2003 for E-PVC. The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe.2. Consequently.1 VCM and PVC Production Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM). was being disregarded (210). 317). The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. 97. More details follow in subsequent sections. Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. HCl. 377. 378). 247. Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. In particular. used in its formulations. dibutyl phthalate (DBP). 205) and differing NGO. An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. EDC.1 Phthalates Concerns have been raised at regular intervals. 98. Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7. in Europe and the USA. 114. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC.2 Plasticisers 3. 10 . In another development.

DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population. harmful. The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www. 247).1 Lead Based Stabilisers Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor. There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33. For similar reasons. has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report. pipe. of course. provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7.3. plus good insulation resistance. 3. 100). in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. fittings and profile. 219). must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect 11 .3 Heat Stabilisers For general background information. particularly in relation to worker exposure. on the regulatory situation up to 1999. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263). The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138). and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies. in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil. lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers. PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations. However. 183).org).3. the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into children’s mouths. There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127.3. the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). for food storage. but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in children’s toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EU’s Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices).2. Similarly.ecpi.PVC Compounds and Processing Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90. The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www. 3.org). dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects. However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic. has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment. DINP. DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. 3. and for protecting food in the home. However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates. for DIDP. The identification of a perceived hazard.2 Adipates PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat. resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7). lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world. 3. some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391). Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled. refer to the regulatory update (331).stabilisers.2 Organotin Stabilisers Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the ‘elimination of heavy metal’ discussions. Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119). 3.

A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128). electrical properties. Formulations and Applications 4. However.3. the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties.1 Incineration The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment.e. 282. Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160). It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO.4. i. The degradation process is shown in Figure 7.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications. 3. so a heat stabiliser system is essential.PVC Compounds and Processing concentration in waste water etc. PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements. energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115.. 106. the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost.2 Heat Stabilisers Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable. has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14).4. The content of Bisphenol A in. 3. In a modern incinerator. 3. PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297). In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0. etc.1 Introduction The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395). A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser. heavy metals and phthalates (282). improve cost performance. colour. A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252).4 Waste Management 3. 3. 4. 4 Additives. etc. 146). due to some chain branching during polymerisation. In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation. Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application. PVC recycling and sustainability issues. the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422). and its migration from PVC film. in particular.4. 341). give weathering resistance.8%. Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7.2 Landfill PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives.3 Recycling Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability. particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66. 12 .

H+ Heat Allyl chloride H C H H C H C H C H C H C H C + HCl Cl.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish – gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength – ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H Ideal structure Non typical H C H H C H C H C Cl* H C H Heat H C Cl H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom H C H H C H C H H H C Cl H C H C C Cl.H+ Figure 7 Thermal degradation process for PVC 13 .

1. 4.2. and lead soaps. starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. This will be covered later in this chapter. Some excellent review articles are available (48. Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced. which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227).PVC Compounds and Processing During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress. which include the lead components in a safe handling state. e.1. Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. primarily extrusion and injection moulding. from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson. preferring the use of organotins.and -CH2. usually based on a mixture of lead salts. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322). 438). 406. 295). Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure. have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years. their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl. The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105). There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. 407). These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique. granule. Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen. profile (153) and wire and cable (174.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis. tablet and dosage packs. In addition.2. 14 . 62.groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments. 431). Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue. or tertiary chlorine structural defects. have been available for many years in different product forms . tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite. Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415). in combination with lubricants (one-pack). Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated. 308. The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications. 365. Apart from wire and cable.g. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation.. Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. is a molecular concerted elimination. 4. Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe. 220. This increases the melt viscosity considerably. and end-use specification. The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment. peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential.. 137. dibasic or normal lead stearates.1 Lead Compounds Lead compounds. 82. The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl. fittings. they also cure existing damage. Non/low dusting products. e. free hydrogen chloride is evolved. and function as HCl absorbers (236. due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates).1 Solid Stabilisers 4. Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds. 323).g.flake. Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46.2.

2. the use of lower cost. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity.) during processing and from the end use application. In addition to further formulation development (454). 347. reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe.2.g. new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted. butyl or octyl derivatives. profile and sidings. 4. Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser. but on the organotin species. pipe fittings.1 Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd) Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. In North America. usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl.1 Organotin Compounds Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl.2. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. This is based on the ‘concerns’ about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns.2.2. complex polyphosphates (45).2. organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium.1. solvent. Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe. These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270).2. 387. The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications.2 Mixed Metal Compounds Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with 4. etc. much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn. profile and cable (135. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453). Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas.2. 388).2. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids.2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn) Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414).2 Liquid Stabilisers 4. Suppliers include Akros. but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect. However.2..PVC Compounds and Processing 4.2. linked to their good compatibility (85). Rohm and Haas are one supplier. 4.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn) K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents 15 . and foam.2.2.2. e. due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium. 4.2.2. 348. but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291). The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221. their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001. 4. New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75). One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite. 136. The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common.3 Calcium-Organic Based Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers. Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications. Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development. suppliers include Crompton. although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a ‘heavy metal’ (159). 143). floor and wall coverings. 4. in the European area.2.2.

Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342). trimellitates.) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. The plasticiser structure. e.DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108). leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications. 16 . addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications. Citrate based plasticisers. PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). although much more expensive. They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361). (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system.3 Plasticisers Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions. adipates.g. volatility and solubility all have an influence (389). 4. extraction resistance. together with their characteristics. has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215). Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). Based on organic esters. have been extensively tested. primarily due to the considerable media. The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92)..PVC Compounds and Processing (azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction. The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate . Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). 4. The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63). Predictive equations have been developed (349). The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260). are listed in Table 3. For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility. 182. Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser. wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature.. Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1. legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr). The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam.2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86). have particular use in medical and • • • The most commonly used plasticisers. trimellitates are used (91). The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: • • • • Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22. level. etc. phosphates. Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71). PVC-P materials.1 Phthalate Alternatives Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted.3. phthalates.

inferior extraction resistance 17 . good migration resistance Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature Superior low temperature performance. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing. high volatility.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 – C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 – C11 L911P. low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. Automotive interior (low fogging). low extraction. Improved low temperature performance. conveyor belting etc. L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance. higher volatility. but poorer low temperature performance. good flexibility. Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy – tents. lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation High gelation temperature. High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. Good high temperature.

polymeric esters are used (88). these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers. Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188). which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers). Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. with very high molecular weight. or epoxidised esters.5 Property Modifiers For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance. Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168.. 4.1 Process Aids Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage. Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194).PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Continued. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). effect. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267). The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability. High cost.. Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79). A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367).5.3. The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181. Chemically.4 Multifunctional Additives There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103). More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction. The functions of acrylic process aids. 209). 4. 4. Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings. A review of phthalate alternatives. Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. has been presented (89). taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance. Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335).2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4. to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation 18 . Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight. Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). 223).

the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer.5. they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). The effect of residual 4. the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261). They are not suitable for outdoor applications. Acting as a permanent plasticiser. an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature. consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). Based on core shell technology. With a similar melting point to PVC. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437). Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz. Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450). Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic 19 . The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed. relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. • • • Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. particularly for clear packaging. the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224).5.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 °C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point.5. as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95). crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified. Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433). They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance. They are also not suitable for outdoor applications. AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier. Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented. 4. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: • methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance. New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77). MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications. it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. Having limited compatibility with PVC. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. and below.2 Impact Modifiers Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required. ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength. elongation and low temperature flexibility. produced by emulsion polymerisation. which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber.

PVC Compounds and Processing elastomers for use in glazing gaskets. oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid. lower the effective viscosity. the ultrafine milled. polyethylene wax. filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate. In practice. is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177).2. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result. most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics. It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas.7. footwear. Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax. the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). Relatively easy to process. have good oil and chemical resistance. in so doing. on melt processing equipment. but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform.1 Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. at higher filler levels. 4. and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). More detailed information on lubricants is available (74. fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost. In PVC-P applications. 20 . high whiteness. As extruder running speeds increase. Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers. The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5. Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external. 4. the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile). the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. External lubricants. It also acts as an acid scavenger. 404). 360). However. Tensile strength properties of PVC-U. formulations including NBR. a very efficient lubricant. depending on addition level. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). Particle size is important and. e. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52. The density of the final product will increase. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment. Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations. printing or blooming on ageing. This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment. the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level. and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and. To ease dispersion. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. 462). natural version is normally used. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants. plate-out and surface finish. Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate. by definition. this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292).6 Lubricants Lubricants function classically in two ways. 420). and physical properties (459). and stearic acid and its derivatives (403. have poor compatibility with PVC.. The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate. Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57). of course. On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364). Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output. better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. 4. but some are also used to enhance properties and performance. (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing.7 Fillers For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications. 294. have been investigated (381. Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids.g. tubing etc.

such as operating 21 . particularly in the USA.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably. of three different sizes. has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51).4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required. The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362).PVC Compounds and Processing Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential. For magnetic applications.7. In comparison with traditional products. Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials. was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity. Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416). However. Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. Calcium carbonate is also used in this area. in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation. The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents. The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232). on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116. 4. Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. of impact durability. gelation and fusion behaviour. has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201). have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53). Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112). and mechanical properties (70). 4. This material. Operating at molecular level.5 Other Fillers Depending on the geographical area. A new technology. Finite element analysis. They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist. the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234).3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads. Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate. An alternative to calcium carbonate. 4.7. ground marble fillers. such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. phyllite. The use of CPE as a compatibiliser. muscovite and kaolinite. Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties). 366). for surface treatment of glass beads.7. for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour. and different volume fractions (96). are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications. which contains quartz. 4.6 Nanocomposites Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102).7. these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material. with and without silane coupling agent treatment. 4. Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used. Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material. some with surface treatment. Cellulose fillers. Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283).7. has been evaluated. specific carbon black pigment/filler is used.

a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations. The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison. An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36). The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area. Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). flame retardancy. In comparison to other polymers. The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130).8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content. usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers. The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. particularly when used in combination (15). attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay. However. The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. Antimony trioxide has been used extensively. conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. stiffness and toughness etc. Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265).1.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser. Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending. The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443). Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245. 390). giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties. The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been 4. It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386). The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy. The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78). Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective. The thermal stability problems. The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions. They are predominately used in cable. The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180). 203). These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. 22 . The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50.7. Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4.

such as flooring and roofing material.n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences. so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). Aluminosilicates. Pinking of PVC profiles. Their influence on photodegradation (286). Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39. have been shown. with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation. 321). compatibility. the most common microbiocides are 10. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. 23 . Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time. and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). 334). Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions. 4. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence.PVC Compounds and Processing shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16). permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi. The influence of free iron has also been examined (344). Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131). Paste storage stability is also important. The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling. Other predictive tests have also been suggested. In Europe. have been investigated. dust free. have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373). The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied. with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457). traditionally used for pipe and cable applications. are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers. in mild climatic conditions. 279). Lead chromate pigments. Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42. after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. Based on their thermal stability. 2.9 Pigments Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable. One predictive test has been designed and validated (13. Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. 242.10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA). This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. has been observed in service. as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols. the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides. colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give ‘bright’ whiteness and opacity. Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material.10 Biocides PVC-P materials. 4.

but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). The properties achieved. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208). Arizona) to test the weathering performance. A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density. were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196). The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult. which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams. UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types.13 Other Additives for PVC-P 4. The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas. The azo compounds can be specially formulated. 4. 81). Granular forms improve handling. The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content. has been reported (120). There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida. 24 . but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation). There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide. to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved.13. PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101).1 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation. No permanent chemical change occurs. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18). These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76. as foam density was reduced.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers Primary antioxidants. which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. Dust build-up is also reduced. operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied. A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). 4. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution. A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. produced from different PVC plastisols. The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance. so activity is retained. The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents. to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges. Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307).11 Blowing Agents Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. such as hindered phenols. The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols. Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80). Consequently. Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation. Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55). Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites.

The use of a reactive plasticiser. 4. of course. with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). triallyl cyanurate. 4. organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409. but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary. which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself. Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not. particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P.14.4 Bonding Agents PVC plastisol. particularly on display in the supermarket (400). This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions. 25 .1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing New trends in PVC-U compound formulations. For some PVC-P formulations. A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337). the surface resistivity is reduced. conducts away charges.3 Antifogging Agents Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables. Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance. To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates. spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres. a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352). The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing. requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion. covering extruded foam. aminosilanes and 4. although not so permanent.2 Crosslinked PVC Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties. this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC. has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202).13.PVC Compounds and Processing By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials). as well as the manufacturing process. and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402). extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications. along with a reduction in static charge accumulation. have been reviewed. and this needs to be taken into account. appearance and performance (72). 424). air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing. Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up. Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins. influence on the manufacturing and final products. crosslink during processing. 4.14 Formulations 4. Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458). Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations.2 Viscosity Modifiers PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage.13.14. 4.13. dispersed in a plasticiser. The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426). The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile. is to apply a coating after fabrication. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface. Based on polyisocyanurates. Fumed silicas are typically used. particularly heat stability.

Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride. has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate. which has undergone specific treatment. Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). into the contents and so into the body. the main phthalate used in medical devices. This relates to the ‘more severe test’ criteria to satisfy the EC Directive. A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351). This has been reviewed in Section 3. The effect of UV irradiation on formulations. Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants. significantly influencing water uptake (305). blood and plasma bags. which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185).14. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags. Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U. has also been studied (67). Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents. based on materials approved for medical use. An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). with minimal thermal degradation (216). and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). PVC-P material. has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate. Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268). usually solvent cast. For medical use. 4. The effects of different plasticisers 4.14. carried out using electron beam. infusion kits etc. The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379. 393. PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354). used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239).4 Membranes PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials. together with the addition of a lipophilic salt. An additive system.1 showing the ongoing debate. PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs. Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the 26 .3 Medical and Food Contact Use PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447). Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies.PVC Compounds and Processing peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane.2. during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO. The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. oxygen face masks. excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). 432). Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218). Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199).

low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients. low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 °C. e.1 Compounding The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material.1 Dry Blend Mixing 5.1. This breaks up agglomerates. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. For some processes or smaller scale operations. 5. pipe and profile extrusion. other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz.g. the temperature rises. The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs.1. with the screws designed to include mixing. the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment. the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded.PVC Compounds and Processing pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274). Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature).2 Low Intensity 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5. Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients. conveying. or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product. 5. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges).2 Melt Compounding For certain operations or scale of operations. Virtually shear free. allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. The hot mix (now around 110-130 °C) is transferred to a much larger.1 High Intensity Batch high speed mixing.1. plasticising and homogenising. The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. calendering. the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer. Normally. bulk density.. is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs. To increase output. free-flow ability. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon. which obviously includes the melt compounding stage. 5. homogeneity. based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary 27 .1. By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat. a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172). Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles..1. with no change in particle identity.g. this technique is used for cold mixing. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements. cooled. ease of handling and storage. ribbon bar or paddle mixers.1. followed by a cooling stage. but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217). e. Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material. usually into a pellet or dice form.

relating to the PVC and plasticiser components. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction. densification. The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and aggregates. There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser. The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion.hydropolymers. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft.1.2.1 Gelation In the case of PVC plastisols. This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425). Another technique is based on solvent absorption. the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. which is hinged. there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility. melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). thereby improving plastisol mixing. gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. In addition. A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder.2 Processing An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website. www. a. This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).1). and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34). transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). 5. cut by rotating knives and cooled. 28 . Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. 5. and visualising swelling and solution effects. usually involving methylene chloride. The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature. The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands. A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit.3 Liquid PVC Blending Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers. are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). capillary rheometry. particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam formulations. A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107). 5. For dry blend. which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands. (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. fusion and elongation followed by melting. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method.PVC Compounds and Processing motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement.com. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage.

Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. e.. in PVC degradation. the optimisation of the flow.2. can be used to determine if the process is under control. has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190). sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel. using sequential simplex techniques. An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). such as wire and cable. but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 °C) to be controlled more accurately. Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254). with the screw flights designed accordingly. profile. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding.2. The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460).e. By modelling the rheological properties. tubing. Screw design involves higher compression ratios. 5. hose etc. The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156). intermeshed. Screw design is complex.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. softened.2. has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. Archimedean screws.1 Twin Screw Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet. The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation. glazing strip. PVC-P applications. along the length. Statistics. cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455).2 Extrusion 5. linked to high output. The barrel is temperature controlled. The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). are fed by gelled compound. Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates. New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144). The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled.2. This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting.g. The relationship 29 . parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. Further information is available (356). A processing window contour mapping programme. as a monitoring tool. Two main types of screw design are used. 2:1. Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels. run on single screw extruders.. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). The role of shear stress. Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338). which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. i. gelation and metering. usually in different zones. The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233).2.2 Single Screw Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity.. PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward.

com). Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies. or reactions resulting from. cost effective tooling. Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel. Once ascertained on a trial and error basis. without increasing reversion levels. For flat die extrusion of sheet. die. has been modelled (250). material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray. have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155). associated with different cooling rates. An instrumented dual slit die rheometer. the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands.PVC Compounds and Processing between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been investigated.4 Foam Extrusion PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s. which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators.corma. but recently. 5. has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189). screws. there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213). for pipe extrudate. Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. critical variables are temperature control.3 Downstream Equipment Die design is critical to the extrusion process. is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www.2. has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates. A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing. using finite element methods. mounted on a twin screw extruder. The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. normally pipe or profile. more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. Heat reversion effects. As a consequence. Higher line speeds. Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within. in PVC-U profiles. Corrugated pipe. Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material. which gave good results (206). in a capillary extrusion. temperatures and material properties (326). The simulation of profile dies. The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss. residence time and flow channel streamlining. are possible by allowing for die swell (451). Details of the process have been described (158). material rheology and flow through the die.2. the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions. The die and calibrator are 30 . the 5. it is now coming under more scientific investigation. Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process. using a differential equation for heat transfer.2. a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298). has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions.2. flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). primarily used in land drainage. has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251). showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12). The influence of different cooling environments. Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). 176). Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings. Alternatively. sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit). calibrator etc. Flow instability of PVC-P. Recent developments have been presented (175. The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage.

3 Injection Moulding Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape.2. Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines. Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. ABS and polycarbonate). 359). with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124.2. 333). inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. Screw and mould designs have made big advances. However. 5. rigidity and clarity. PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity. The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase. screw speed or injection rate. Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents. This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls. The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC. PVC-U applications. automotive. was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. which improves impact resistance. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314). The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions. polypropylene. processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations. usually based on lower molecular weight polymer. To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings. An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology. the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. permeability is reduced. which is the most common. and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. In the stretch blow moulding process. the extruded parison is initially blown undersized.PVC Compounds and Processing the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. have been given (258). medical and electrical. Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets. including dies and calibrators. tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe. The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375). A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. However. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. PVC-P applications include footwear.4 Extrusion Blow Moulding For thin walled containers. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure. for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109). Air is fed to the centre of the parison. A mobile reciprocating screw gels. The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). The machinery. 5. has been researched (401). The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). 31 . Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a ‘swan neck’ arrangement. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413). cover the construction and telecommunication areas. The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). and their function has been reviewed (346. The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104). Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). not requiring impact modifier. A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249).

Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering. and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1. ranging from highly polished to heavy matt. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417). 90 °C is normally used. and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process. UK and published work includes: • the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357). The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. in such a way that they can be rotated. ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied. Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented. but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. Mini calenders or Calandrette® lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. PVC. Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums. were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe.0 metres in width. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315). Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness. The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). usually in both directions. at temperatures above the glass transition temperature.5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2. surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip.5 Orientation The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer. based on a batch process. the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255). 5. 32 . depending on the sheet finish required. Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332.2. There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or ‘nip’ set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. 358). One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber.. (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender. usually in an inverted L-shape. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured. Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature. A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame.2. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408). particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145).6 Calendering Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. Loughborough University. resulting • • The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383). feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. The final calender nip controls film thickness. e. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). The chemical structure of coatings. produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel.g. uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder.

spraying and rotational and slush moulding.PVC Compounds and Processing from calendering of different feedstocks.2. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate. toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers.7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes.2.7.2 Spreading or Coating For the coating of continuous substrates. or indirectly via reverse roll coating. such as underbody sealant. 5. Slush and Dip Moulding Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 ° in three dimensions. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later. 5. The main techniques are spreading. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt.4 Rotational.1 Rheology An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening). after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste. including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying. 5. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven.. This process is used to manufacture balls. Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow. Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327). Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste. the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. used for coated fabrics. This process permits multilayer 33 . typically used for wallcoverings. and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line. film packaging. has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. 5. Deagglomeration. timing and 5. or metal. is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves. caused viscosity ageing. Powder coating techniques are also used. Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings. These are subsequently gelled in an oven. and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol. such as flooring. Coil coating.2.7. has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423). The mechanism of viscosity ageing. the article is peeled from the mould. which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). including foam.7. and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 °C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. of the friable agglomerates. the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser. such as lined gloves. Screen coating. coatings. has been determined (266). relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. wall covering and tarpaulins. decorative surface coatings and stationery. The influence of plasticiser content and type. which is designed to split open. also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. where viscosity increases with time. brackets etc. pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear).7.3 Dip and Spray Coating The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics. direct or transfer coating is used.2. dipping. or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. usually on metal. On cooling.2. The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343).

Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456).2 Surface Modification Processes The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating. 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6. 34 . and then cooling. on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. using both solvent and non-solvent based inks. Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine. After heating in an oven and cooled. silk screen. giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179). inkjet or lasers. in comparison to acid etching (399). 6. and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement. A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38). Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients. the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289). Surface modification. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). on print adhesion. This can involve printing or lacquering. In comparison to injection moulding. particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants. A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). by azide (448). and so improve print adhesion. The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300). UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used. or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface. Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32). using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould. 6. Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy. while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). the article is peeled off the former. has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG). Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37). The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film. pads.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA. Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process. in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. However. A clear topcoat for flooring. Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area. based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating. has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). into isooctane solution has given positive results (231).3 Coatings Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons. thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs.1 Thermoforming Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures. The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing. which are applied to the surface using rollers.

vinyl2010. One approach to sustainability. All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which. usually with a wood grain effect. No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree. Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). but balanced between satisfying environmental. electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309). Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www. unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. no build-up of persistent organic compounds. gave good adhesion results (244). used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines. The target is to have an additional 200. include butt fusion. Hot melt adhesives can be used. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today. economic and social needs. In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20). for the foil laminated material. This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV). this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 (www. Impact strength retention after ageing. 6. reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. 7 PVC and Sustainable Development PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is 35 . Bonding techniques. Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452). the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU.000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. permitting the development of new stationery items (246). and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. are also common. However. A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226). For the PVC industry. has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earth’s ecosystem. An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available. High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated. involving adhesives. Accordingly. risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). Techniques. and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality. the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC ‘horizontal study’. sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects. closed loop waste management.org). and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing. The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259). the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on. when combined with flame treatment and adhesive.com).hydropolymers. standards were set in place covering PVC production. The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil. five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management. A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). very much focused on the environmental aspect. the earth’s resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or impaired. was decreased (329). Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396).4 Adhesion Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited).PVC Compounds and Processing Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows. based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256). together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). Welding techniques.

for Italy.1. at end-of-life. at end-of-life. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184). and examples of recyclate uses has been published.5 million. 7. The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution. A market survey. A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed. ECPI.1. An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material. The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371). grinding and re-use was examined (449). including PVC (30). Separation techniques. 7. Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources.1. covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America. looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries. A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw extruder.com). by 2005.1. A continuous thermal separation system. 7.5 million in 2002. for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405).2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage.1. A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276).1.recyclepvc. has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). to waste management projects which were funded to a total of €16. between polymers with different compositions. An aqueous column flotation technique. were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243).3 Pipes The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity.4 Profile 7. cleaning and separating. The homogeneous material is melt processable (25). The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288). pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection.1. for removal of trace PVC.1 PVC Rich Waste . based on cyclones. was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www. based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61).1 Waste Management Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM.1.vinyl2010. for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics.recyclepvc.Mechanical Recycling 7. along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www. relevant to separation (428). a Government funded initiative is in place.org).1. Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity. focusing on the environmental.com). has also been described (204). by 2005. 7.com). 36 . has been proposed (311).evc-int. has also separated five commonly used plastics. The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry.PVC Compounds and Processing The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues. Triboelectrostatic separation. utilising pH level and surfactants. fluidised beds or rotating tubes. A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time. In the UK. outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122). A review of recycling methods being used in Europe. As far back as 1996. economic and social legs (www. ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of € 4.1 General A research report. A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68).

8 VinyLoop® Process This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC compound. Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area. has always been a driver. 147).1. In its second phase. 37 .9 Flooring A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). In the UK. A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling.org). A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369). has also been conducted (397) (www. if necessary) (211).1. 7.vinylinfo.10 Roofing Membranes 7. This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www.1.uk). primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop ® process (www. The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006.vinyl2010. has been assessed using hydrocyclone. enclosed in a virgin cap skin. At present. as used in supermarkets to transport and display products. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225).1. An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336). melt filtration and triboelectric techniques. remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer. which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330). have been developed.1. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols.1. Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings. PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe. Pilot collection initiatives. such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99).6 Packaging Collation trays. One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439). has been set.7 Wire and Cable In this application the desire to recycle the copper. start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. aiming for 50% by 2005.bpf. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour.PVC Compounds and Processing Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003. after service life.vinyl2010. from other polymers. from wire and cable. to separation techniques and costs. BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www. the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate ‘best practice’ solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste.1.1. 7. separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound. created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers. have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43).1. has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152).co.5 Wallcoverings A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material. this depends on post industrial waste. A recycling project.1. Changes in flooring properties.org). 7. linked to a suitable collection system.org).1. Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are ongoing. for vinyl sidings in the USA. Texyloop® has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds. Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC. The separation of PVC cable waste.1. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material (26. Based on the VinyLoop® technology. 7. Tribocharging. 7.

has been proposed (302. using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www. has been described (24). PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. However. The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts. carbon monoxide and dioxide etc. has been investigated (29). feedstock recycling of mixed plastics. with oxygen addition. has been carried out (31). on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams. Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution. which look technically and economically viable. 214). Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics. primarily to recycle the fabric (340.PVC Compounds and Processing 7. The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). 382).1. chlorine content was lower than expected (212.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115).11 Coated Fabrics An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. Test collection projects have been initiated. MSW contains an average of 0. are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste.vinyl2010. A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been described. It is still the second largest thermoplastic material. after separation from municipal solid waste. hydrogen. A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been described. and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material. The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids.1. for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil. The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area. in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49). 7. based on market volume. particularly Asia. A project involving 8 Conclusions Despite being a so called mature product.vinyl2010. (187). The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306). has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric. Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28). and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production. in coking plants.org).8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to environmental. operating in a difficult economic climate. Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has 38 . A phase separation technique. based on compression or injection moulding. This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). A progress report. is available (21).3 Incineration/Energy Recovery A survey of state-of-the-art technologies. has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride.1. Promising developments. A steam gasification technique. is in place (www. economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146). 355). VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water.org). A catalytic dehalogenation process.vinyl2010. Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www.org). using solvent and subsequent swelling. 7. for liquid fuel generation.1. showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates. including PVC.

1 A. Thanks are also due to the author’s friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material. of course. Chim. All of these issues have been. essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale. leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. Additional References a. As the reader has observed in this review. 104.PVC Compounds and Processing occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability. and are being. It is. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile. recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. Ind. 422-427. the replacement of lead stabilisers. scientific studies and support for phthalates. the innovation process is thriving within this new environment. 39 . Acknowledgement The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. 1971. a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers. Gonze. accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment. Génie chimique.

PVC Compounds and Processing 40 .

PVC Compounds and Processing Abbreviations and Acronyms ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1.2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste 41 .

PVC Compounds and Processing NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10. 10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer 42 .

7. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler.University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate.State University.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. DSC. 31 refs.2003. dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. p. USA Accession no. taking into account their size and their shape factor. Stewen U. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90. p.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.m. WESTERN EUROPE employed were an acrylic resin. including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. SOLVAY BENVIC WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. VI. Bacaloglu R. 16 refs. p.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. Suvorova A.2003. Sept. 12 refs. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. Metal oxides used included CuO. Polymeric additives Accession no. chlorinated PE. MoO3 aand FeOOH. 14th Nov. 2003.W. talc and glass fibre. No.10. USA Accession no. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. RUSSIA. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. 11 refs. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates. This article discusses calcium carbonate. Crompton Corp. Kondou M Tokuyama Corp. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B. Sept. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations. triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications.wt.3. Materials in Medicine 14.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82. UK. CHINA Accession no. No. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives. heat release.Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation. low molec. No. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. 18 refs. Fisch M H. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. PVC and polyethylene wax. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A.2003. Courtney J M Strathclyde. p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M. Oct.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin. which served as smoke suppressants..901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov.108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A. EUROPEAN UNION. p.& Associates Inc. p. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size. flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability.2003. No.3.899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.3. Somova T. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 43 . Dooley T Urals. No. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index.2003.

Cusack P A. this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates’ use in vinyl.2003. July-Aug. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. Earlier this year. JAPAN good anti-fogging performance. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry. No. p. 29 refs. No. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. creating a high mixing efficiency. low volatility. is showing 2.4. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature. which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel.13. a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering. Tin Technology Ltd. an increase in flow activation energy. UK. Zelei B. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw. peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared. 1st July 2003.000 tonnes in 2000. 16 refs. No.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand. using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics. WORLD Accession no. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. At this year’s NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced. No. Sept.647. p.894085 44 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33. and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds. low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R. EASTERN EUROPE.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. p. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2003. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. In the past. and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures.. Toth A.4.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Marosi G Brunel University. COPERION CORP. Cross M.1% annual growth for 2003. and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD. HUNGARY.9. which was at 4. USA Accession no.University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics’ sails. July-Aug. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2. The new stabiliser offers Accession no.894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38. EUROPEAN UNION. and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. p. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder. extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC.30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader. EUROPEAN UNION. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec.2003.References and Abstracts A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index. Budapest.

892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. diisononyl phthalate (DINP). di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). Atofina. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1. p.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J.National Institute of Health Sciences. The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. EUROPEAN UNION. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals. June 2003. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP). 12. Parmeland G. FRANCE. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied. April 2003. tear strength. DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals. PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J. p. Girod N. No. and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined.5 mu g DEHA day-1. June 2003. An increase Accession no. Spriet C CNEP.4. Sakai H. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals. Siampiringue N.References and Abstracts Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging.Prefectural Institute of Public Health.6. dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. Tonogai Y Japan.Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. 17 refs. Tsuchida Y. EUROPEAN UNION. Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The properties included tear resistance. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface. p. dipentyl. Dipropyl. p.891698 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 45 . Macdonald N. The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation. Aichi.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. therefore. Detection limits are -. the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. 33 refs. 100% modulus. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease. No.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. such as surface roughness and gloss. No. Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles. The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate. tensile properties. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate. significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance. Delprat P. JAPAN in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation. Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. AND ITS MIGRATION FROM. 9 refs. USA Accession no. Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Saito I. June 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SPAIN.2.4 mu g BBP day-1. Ishimitsu S. 21 refs.1-15.2.891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set. Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. The absorptions of these compounds were not. brittleness temperature and compression set.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser. 4.

and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. which acted as HCl absorbers.References and Abstracts Item 15 Polymer Testing 22. increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. Zhang C Shanghai.5. Even when the ageing temp.Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated. No. the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC. Bergounhon P. p. 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. EUROPEAN UNION. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers. 19 refs. 18th July 2003.University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL Accession no. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates). A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials. Peres R. 3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi. p.10A. was raised to 100C. 2003. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. Fuchs G. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH.Jiao Tong University. After a brief description of the imaging system.Ltd. p. The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC.3. Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Microscopy. which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index. No. which is the conventional method of investigation of foams. was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. images only the surface of samples. only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%. impact and yield strengths. 9 refs. FRANCE. was increased to 70C.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36. No. while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. though. Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A. p.RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden. SCANDINAVIA. CHINA APPLICATIONS . 31 refs. Yong Ning Sichuan. EUROPEAN UNION. UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning.3. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC. No. Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S. Shaoyun Guo. 21st May 2003. particularly when used in combination. CHINA Accession no. Zhang Y. 27 refs.890229 46 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Peyrin F ESRF. SWEDEN.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89.

p. 28th-30th April 2003. Accession no. March 2003. 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.1.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. p.X. 10 refs. ACS Rubber Division. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. Michigan. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates.889245 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 47 . EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the mechanism involves de-agglomeration.National Museum The extent. regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. 2003.References and Abstracts Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . SCANDINAVIA. using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer. p. Ca. the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time. rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments. p. Paper 77. 2003..889784 Item 21 Polimery 48. No. 9 refs.State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised. USA BELGIUM.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. Akron. VISCOSITY AGING. a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer. (ACS. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81. while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates. In addition. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL .000 to 600. Polymer Diagnostics Inc. pp.4. the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010.000 tonnes of PVC. 14 refs.Rubber Div. by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No.340. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made. No. Oh. 28cm.Technological University. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. Harrell E R Akron. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing. Matuana L M Michigan. while development work continues. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content.27.1.Spring 2003. May 2003. which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). DENMARK. This would require the recycling of an additional 350. but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites..29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark. MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target.University. experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites. No. 19 refs. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate.

and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. Vrije University. Japan. Paper A35. commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution. USA. Testing. we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream. Japan. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Karayildirim T.References and Abstracts Item 24 ISFR 2002. the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars. 3 refs. separation of the non soluble materials. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H. modified with intensive cooling and special elements.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998.Research Assn. Yanik J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy). Vrije University. polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry. Elk Grove Village. Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels. DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel.) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process). The resultant powder is a homogeneous. 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S. Belgium.Free University. Brussels. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques. PVC. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.Free University. 8th-11th Sept.. 012 VINYLOOP(R). Japan. Ege.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002.. Mixed-colour. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2002. 2 refs. PS. CD-ROM. CD-ROM. 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K. NETHERLANDS.889105 48 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Belgium. PET). For this purpose. CD-ROM. Paper A58 pp. Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels.University (Brussels. and automotive waste. LDPE. Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe.Research Assn. by Berstorff. Germany. 0 refs.2002. Belgium. Material Sciences Corporation. USA Accession no. After pulverisation. wire and cable. and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10. 8th-11th Sept. the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties. into value Accession no.Research Assn.Free University. Paper A47 pp. Belgium. Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University. Crucifix P. PP.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002. grain size distribution. If pellets are required. a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Illinois. precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity.4. the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials. EUROPEAN UNION. Vrije University. In this study.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. according to ASTM methods. 2002.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling. Brussels. Belgium. Belgium. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee. directly from powder. pp. light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference. showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures.4. Brussels. such as carpets. and their blends. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology. TURKEY added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder. 2002. The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. 8th-11th Sept. Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams. During pulverisation.4. The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one.. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post.2002.

Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.2002. Belgium. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. 2002.3 MPa and 300 deg. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K. In this study. JAPAN Accession no. Vrije University. Uddin Md A. When Ca-C (8g) was Accession no. 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC).Research Assn. Japan. Bhaskar T. Japan. 2002. However.Free University. Belgium.Free University. Vrije University. organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm. Muto A. 4 refs. the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl. This is a twostage process. Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19. Brussels. Muto A.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002. Brussels.University (Brussels.2002. We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide. The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. Brussels. and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. CD-ROM. During dehydrohalogenation.2002.Research Assn. Belgium. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.City University (Brussels. Sakata Y Okayama.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002. Belgium. Vrije University. Kaneko J. 8th-11th Sept. CD-ROM. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC. Paper A18. consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C.C. pp. Emori N Osaka. Paper A26. pp. The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. Kaneko J.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology.University (Brussels. CD-ROM. the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3). Based on the laboratory scale study. pp. On the other hand. JAPAN used during MWP pyrolysis.888798 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 49 . Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h). JAPAN Accession no. the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides.2. 3 refs.4.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. Kusaba T. 8th-11th Sept.References and Abstracts Item 27 ISFR 2002. which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. Murata K Okayama. 3 refs. Japan.Free University. 8th-11th Sept. 2002. Kusaba T. two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent. Paper A15.Research Assn.4. the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl. Belgium. Uddin Md A. Belgium. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T.

Wielgosz Z Warsaw. Japan.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Rangel E C UNESP. pp. a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of Accession no. 21 refs.4. fluidize beds. FRANCE. p. It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely. Schreiner W H. pp. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking.Free University. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined. used to simulate contact with food.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper.800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition. Lanteri P Saint Etienne.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52. EUROPEAN UNION. aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps. WESTERN EUROPE polyolefins. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.4. Belgium. PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions). and time and temperature of drying. Belgium.2002. p. 24 refs. Villeurbanne. polypropylene (PP). and polystyrene (PS). April 2002. Belgium.5. EUROPEAN UNION. Jeziorska R. rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying. EASTERN EUROPE.2002. No. can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators.4. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones. triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Vrije University. Brussels. CD-ROM. 0 refs. Kayama M E. 8th-11th Sept. Taverdet J-L. BRAZIL Accession no. Parana. 8th-11th Sept. was investigated.References and Abstracts Item 30 ISFR 2002. roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. Machowska Z.670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L. 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M. Vrije University.Free University.888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67. p. Cruz N C. as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation.888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8. Belgium. POLAND Accession no. polyethylene (PE).for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A. analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper. Polaczek J. 2002. March 2003. as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper A08. Gauvrit J-Y. emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing. Pelka J. Honda R Y. Abramowicz A.University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid.Research Assn. Extract contents in excess of 99%. CD-ROM.Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10. Brussels. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels. Japan. The physical significance of the results is discussed.Research Assn. Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic. 21 refs. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET). 2002. Paper A07. 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES.Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels. with less than 3-5% losses.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM. No. No. FRANCE. 50 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .University. May 2003. Kowalska E.1. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.

using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp.50 U. 10 refs.University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system.2002. Ma. SEM.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong. p.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39. Washington.Div. Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang. both plasticised and unplasticised. Number 2.. and partial pressure of VC. 2003. 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y. haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements. a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed. EUROPEAN UNION. 28cm.5. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction.of Polymer Chemistry. ACS. No.8. 5 refs. such as AIBN.University (ACS. Malaba D. Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator. Zhang Li-feng. USA Accession no. Mechanical properties were examined. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston. WESTERN EUROPE were obtained in the presence of both the initiator. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system. Aguilar-Solis C.1312-3.Sci.4. No.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst.Div. p. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp. was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. GERMANY. Herrero M. Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. water and polymer phases. cell culture studies. DC. Exfoliated nanocomposites Accession no.References and Abstracts COPERION BUSS AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 51 . Mijangos C.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite.1. p. April 2003. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour. Huang Zhi-ming. Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B. 2003. 19 refs. Tiemblo P. and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined. and compared. p. Brittain W J Akron. Reaction kinetics. No. 18th-22nd Aug. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Huang X.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S. p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time. Volume 43. SPAIN. May 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators.K.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite. EUROPEAN UNION. CHINA Accession no. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. No. INDIA Accession no. Fall 2002. 2002.for Med. 31 refs.

881-2.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals. EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.. Fall 2001. NETHERLANDS. p. Paper 18. Rapra Technology Ltd. UK. Jakubowicz I. DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3. p. Washington.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints.550. No. April 2002. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption. p. 28cm. Martinsson L Sweden..of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl 52 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . SWEDEN. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds. 2nd-3rd April 2003.3. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed. Volume 42. Shawbury. ITALY. A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H. 26th-30th Aug. No.2001. Div. Costa L Turin.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC.National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported. EUROPEAN UNION. SCANDINAVIA. and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown. Bonomi S. ACS. dubbed Vynacol.. 19 refs.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning. p. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd. 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY ‘PLASTICIZER THIOLS’. No. the most common PVC plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.7mg per kg of body weight. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation. Il. p.University.159-66.College of William & Mary (ACS. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin. such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. EUROPEAN UNION. Bernardi F. a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry. Based on a study by Poon. Zaikov V G Williamsburg. but with poor stabilising effect. Number 2. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP. plasticiser depletion.References and Abstracts A technology said to produce the world’s first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin. 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83. 10 refs. 2 refs.3. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. European Vinyls Corp. 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V. 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. secondary emission products and energy recovery. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology. Other plasticisers have been employed. DC. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003. 2003. which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO. International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. Du B.Div. 29 cm. Accession no. April 2003.of Polymer Chemistry.

Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. Washington. 2001. p.2001. DC.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS. with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC. 2001.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2. ACS. In other words.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers.. USA Accession no. 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S.of Polymer Chemistry. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters.References and Abstracts function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a ‘plasticiser thiol’. Washington. Div. whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst. Jennings T.Metropolitan University (ACS.Div. probably by an ionic mechanism. 4 refs. Chaudhry H.874-5. Volume 42.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints. Il. UK. USA stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers. light stability and plate-out resistance. Fall 2001. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride. Il. 28cm. 2001. 6 refs. Volume 42. 26th-30th Aug.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction. Harr M E. p. p.. USA Accession no. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. DC. ACS.. Fall 2001.878-9. Washington. Il. Div. Fall 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. Div. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (‘blackening’) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only. 28cm. (ACS. 2001. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . ACS. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends.2001. 26th-30th Aug. also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites. Div. 9 refs. Number 2. Comparison is made with conventional additives. 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M.Div. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints. 28cm. p. Allen N S Manchester.of Polymer Chemistry. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 26th-30th Aug. Fall 2001.872-3.2001. Minsker or Michell mechanisms were Accession no. Washington. Number 2. DC. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. ACS. Volume 42.2001. Volume 42.. Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. Other properties of PVC compounds. DC.Div.of Polymer Chemistry. (ACS. Number 2. Il. efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process. 28cm. Number 2.876-7.4-dione and existing costabilisers.Div. 2 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds. 26th-30th Aug. such as clarity. Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints. 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R. Hood W.

CD-ROM. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Vaculik J. using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. Plastics and Recycling Technology 19. and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.0 mm. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. using a reciprocating screw blender. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. 2003. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Session W12Composites. Nanocomposites I.5. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost Accession no. the abrasion resistance was decreased. 2002. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites. Bai R. Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. Kimura T Shimane. Ct. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents. Ct. Paper 589. Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. pp. The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC. Session W13Composites. 4 refs. SPE. USA Accession no. particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. low temperature impact and flexural modulus). SPE. Kovarova L. An increase in Young’s modulus was obtained.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact. pp.Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights. No. HUNGARY Accession no. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking. 5th-9th May 2002.883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. 5th-9th May 2002. Malac J. Paper 596. Ca. SPE. Vinyl Composites. 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S. Hrncirik J. pp.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T.. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay. one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre..5. The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber. 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S.Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites. 2002. Brookfield. Other Reinforcements in Composites II. 2002. Simonik J Zlin. p. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.. 5th-9th May 2002.882331 54 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . CD-ROM. Paper 571.2. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure. Kyoto. the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. Ca.. Brookfield. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing. Brookfield.References and Abstracts the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A.5. Malac Z. 6 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. 12 refs. In the absence of bonding.. Ct.University. 15 refs. were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties. Ca.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. CD-ROM.. JAPAN Item 51 ANTEC 2002.

2.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. pp.4. 14 refs. Ct. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. 25 refs. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%). Session W7Vinyl Plastics. 2002. p. chemical foaming agent (CFA). The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis. SPE. with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent. additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. the tensile strength. Paper 569. Paper 570.. 13 refs. pp. giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break. Ca. USA Accession no. particularly when using low chlorine polymers. 5th-9th May 2002. 2002.. and also the impact resistance. Accession no. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content. 5th-9th May 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Vinyl Composites. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. palm and lecheguilla.882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.882253 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 55 . Paper 568. Coahuila.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds’ water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals’ Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. March-April 2003. Vinyl Composites. 012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O. 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. Brookfield. CD-ROM.and DEHP-plasticised PVC films.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. The compositions also contained lubricants.5. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained. The fillers were wood flour. 8 refs. Ca. Ca. CD-ROM. Ct. SPE.. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of Accession no. Mengeloglu F Michigan. Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila. 5th-9th May 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. CD-ROM. Ct. the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder. whilst the impact resistance decreased. MEXICO the composites. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C.References and Abstracts decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers.. Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M.. elastic modulus and viscosity increased. The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate.Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour.6. Vinyl Composites. particularly at low filler concentrations.. USA Accession no. GERMANY. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. Brookfield. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP. 2002. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. EUROPEAN UNION. With increasing filler concentration. with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples.882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002. AKVA WATERBEDS APS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. Following blending. pp. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size. No. Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness. a stabiliser and a processing aid. SPE. Brookfield. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. and foams with densities as low as 0..882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002.

21cm. CHINA Accession no. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS CHINA where. T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M. 11th-13th Sept. peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. BELGIUM. Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described. Paper 19.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos. 2002.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26. Courtney J M Strathclyde.2000. Film properties listed include details of chemical. and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming.2. 30 cm. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone. abrasion and scuff resistance. EUROPEAN UNION. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring.University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. Qiao Xiuying. 2003. an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30. when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. London. p.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000. No. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC. 2 refs. No. Zhang Yinxi Shanghai. p. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery.177-85. CuO. The elastic-deformation dispersion method.. 23 refs. triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. Cu2O. 56 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . was carried out in a single- Accession no. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. 14 refs. 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003. and flexibility. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1. UK.2. forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect. L’Etang A J. TS and EB were also studied.Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms. 2003. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry. 2000.3. is based on the idea of multiple breakdown.Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning. The flexural modulus. as a coating. pp. No. application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. p. held Krems. Resin properties. Zhang Yong. which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B. EUROPEAN UNION. Kadyrov R G. flexural strength. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Austria. 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. IOM Communications Ltd.

Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage. USA Accession no.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4. Marquette.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du. pp. the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences. 9 refs. AUSTRIA.11. 24 refs. p. Nov. No. Tokyo. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No.880107 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . No.1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy.3.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun. FRANCE. Irie H.References and Abstracts screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. RUSSIA Accession no. 4 refs. Wilkie C A. including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements. Somova T V Ural. Nakajima A. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon.University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described. and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. p. 2003.. p. Nishikawa T. p. Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz. p. pressure. The influence of additives (calcium stearate. It was Accession no. CHINA. EUROPEAN UNION. thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation. and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined.Academy of Science & Technology. rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed. zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method. Watanabe T. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd.2.2. For PVC-clay nanocomposites. 2003. 2002.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. Dongyan Wang. Jianqi Wang Beijing.2.Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC.2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. ONDEX.University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC. No. chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra. No. No. 23 refs.State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques. dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s). the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay.45). and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. RUSSIA Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded. In this initial period. April 2002.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11.Institute of Technology.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A. 2003.

Session T52Injection Moulding. pp. Ca. Meanwhile. Toffoli S M Sao Paulo.University. Hungary. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Oldak D Torun.. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst.337. and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. POLAND Accession no. Paper 520. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification. Valenzuela-Diaz F R. SPE. Degradation and Stabilisation. Young’s modulus. maximum tensile stress. No. Fourteen critical dimensions. Budapest. UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. Ribeiro A P. and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved. The photoinduced degradation.2003. Interactive Presentations. bow. Ct. p. Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased. MODEST 2002. Ca. Feb.879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. Brookfield.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. 17 refs..879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79.5. Extrusion General. Brookfield. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed.WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling.879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. SPE. CD-ROM. muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl Accession no. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h).879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. viscometry. UK.Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied. WRAP. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD. Polymer Modifiers & Additives. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. USA Accession no. the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition. pp. June/July 2002) EASTERN EUROPE. Yoshiga A. UK. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the company’s own fleet. Kowalonek J. the Government’s recycling markets development body. 30 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.6.. Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors..231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H. p.2. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements. Ormanji W. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC. Session W1Extrusion. 5th-9th May 2002. 5th-9th May 2002. Paper 540.References and Abstracts found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas. 2003. They are then stripped down 58 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 2002. Ct.. shrinkage. profile bow. oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC. which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate. JAPAN and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process. PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. 012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp. pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. CD-ROM. 2002.

51730.2002. processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP). 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A Accession no. USA Accession no. appearance and performance of the final product are discussed. rheology. USA Accession no.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 7 refs.2002. 8 refs. SPE. 2002. Paper 2. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. the same processing temperatures and heat stability. 30th-2nd Oct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 4. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 59 . Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Brookfield. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation. 27 cm.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. p.Chicago Section. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years. 27 cm. SPE..879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002. SPE. triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate.877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. 2002. a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate. Session 4..46372. 8 refs. p. Paper 1. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications. Session 4. BRAZIL NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 2002. insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance. SPE. Brookfield.41334. SPE. Il. Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described.References and Abstracts chloride) (PVC) plastisols. Ct.Vinyl Div.877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002. and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years.2002. new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam. Ct. Jarus D PolyOne Corp. 16 refs. SPE. and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity. 27 cm. SPE. Lang J. there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly... (SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The new blends offer improved efficiency.Chicago Section. 27 cm..Vinyl Div. 2002. Rabinovich. USA Accession no. Il.Chicago Section. compared with those containing calcium carbonate.43748. p. SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Paper 4.2002. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860). 012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J. heat stability. which will lead to improvements in certain key properties. surface chemistry and equipment design. tensile strength and viscoelastic properties. p. 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D. Brookfield. and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols. Ct. 30th-2nd Oct. Il. This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility. gelation and fusion temperatures. Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility. Ct... Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 30th-2nd Oct.Vinyl Div. avoiding messy pigment dusts. 30th-2nd Oct. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties. SPE. (SPE.877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002. and higher plastisol viscosity. functions very effectively as an offset to DINP. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications. Majewski T. SPE...) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers. Il. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications. (SPE. Session 48 Paper 5.) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed. Recently. Brookfield.

Brookfield.) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile. cost effective and additive intensive. 27 cm. (SPE. are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release. SPE.877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. Harr M E.2002. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. Stevenson D R.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Il. Paper 5. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. as they are effective radical scavengers.391400. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div. External lubricants on the other hand. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. USA Accession no.. Session 3. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 30th-2nd Oct. (SPE..2002. SPE.Chicago Section. 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R. processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials.. A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. Il.. Session 3.Chicago Section..References and Abstracts L & L Consulting LLC (SPE. 2002. Brookfield. 5 refs. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light.) Traditionally. SPE. temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications. storage and use lifetimes.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Chicago Section. 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E. SPE. stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing. Phosphites. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified. 27 cm. Typically. are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former.877698 60 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 3.Chicago Section. Ct. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. 2002.36774. but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year.. The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser.Vinyl Div.40310. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding.) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external. DPB. SPE. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use. (SPE. p. 30th-2nd Oct. Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOC’S FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties. Paper 8. USA Item 76 Vinyltec 2002. Dover PhosBooster. Il.2002. p. SPE. Paper 7. Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002. Papazoglou E.877701 Accession no. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Ct. SPE. 2002.. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives.. by reduction of oxidation intermediates. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification. Brookfield. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). p. SPE. 5 refs. only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole.. and to a lesser extent thiosynergists.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002.Vinyl Div. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure.Vinyl Div. USA Accession no. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose. 30th-2nd Oct. Ct. internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow. SPE. 27 cm.

their activity in PVC is neither well understood. In several laboratory studies. especially sterically hindered phenols. 2002. Il. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC. SPE.) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Brookfield. a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002.877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented. 30th-2nd Oct.& Associates Inc. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 27 cm. SPE.Chicago Section. p. Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc. SPE. hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light.Vinyl Div. antioxidants. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 61 .. p.. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS.2002. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC. heat release.32131.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented. 30th-2nd Oct. Paper 2.Vinyl Div. Session 3. Session 3. needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation Accession no. To meet specifications such as oxygen index. (SPE.2002.W. . Other effect additives . Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively. (SPE. Brookfield.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. fencing. SPE. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. In the case of flexible PVC.. are widely used throughout the PVC industry . etc. Session 3. Il. Ct. 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A..) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications. (SPE.Vinyl Div. USA Accession no.. in most instances. p. 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. detract from its resistance to fire. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A. SPE. p. Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Chicago Section. flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated. pond liners.877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002. antistats. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed. products such as patio furniture. (SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. 8 refs.) Phenolic products. as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation. however..34763. 2002. SPE. the plasticisers which contribute flexibility. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC. to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer. 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B..) The development of new applications for PVC. nor well known.Chicago Section.2002.additives such as antimicrobials. etc. Its relatively high chlorine content (58.Chicago Section.. Paper 1.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined. SPE. SPE. optical brighteners.References and Abstracts Item 78 Vinyltec 2002. Ct. 2002. Paper 4.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Unlike UV absorbers. window and door trim. Oertli A G. USA Accession no.295317. 27 cm.33543. greenhouse films. 2002. 30 refs..2002. such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications. antifog agents. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS). 30th-2nd Oct.Vinyl Div.. 27 cm. 30th-2nd Oct. Brookfield. 5 refs. SPE. SPE. SPE. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability.for instance. Il. although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability.. Il. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Session 3. 27 cm. Paper 3. USA Brookfield.. Ct. Ct.

Vinyl Div.2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.2002.Corp. and fluorescent whitening agents. lead-stabilised compounds. which give additional invaluable advantages in handling. 30th-2nd Oct. thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay. SPE. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts. are evaluated. wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity.. 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T. Ct. as published. Brookfield. thereby enhancing PVC’s environmental acceptance. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. WESTERN EUROPE desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding.Co. 2002. Ct. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength. Paper 6.26971. 27 cm. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 1 ref. filler profiles change to keep pace. it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. antistats. (SPE. Ciullo P Vanderbilt R. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time. 2 refs. this new hydrotalcite.Chicago Section. the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics. p. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants. Some years ago. In the above mentioned applications. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers.. 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S. As performance demands of plastics increase. very important for introduction into aqueous processes. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC.24766.877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002. Il.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles. etc. showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div..e.References and Abstracts of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist. (SPE. as well as a good toxicological profile..2002. Session 2. or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs.. USA Accession no. USA Accession no. Paper 7.T. or directly to the compound. Ashton H C Huber J. Session 2. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC. in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours.. 2002. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing Accession no. 62 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. with vinyl floor tile.. the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing. dosing.Chicago Section. De Massa J. As an effective acid scavenger. when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate. traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products. 27 cm. enabling broad registration and food approval status. Using calcium carbonates as filler. The data. SWITZERLAND.M. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed. and case of emulsification. as represented by a 75 deg. SPE. In another test. 30th-2nd Oct.. making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed. 30th-2nd Oct.Vinyl Div. Il.877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable. especially with requirements related to strength. SPE. Brookfield. solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. SPE. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. Il. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.

In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA.Vinyl Div. Paper 2. USA Accession no. no reprotoxicity and biodegradability. especially phthalates. Urals. 16 refs. no peroxisome proliferation. RUSSIA. DSC. p. p. SPE.Chicago Section. Brookfield. designated Hexamoll DINCH. SPE. SPE.2-dicarboxylic acid ester.2002. The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality... 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B. which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains. this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC). SPE..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Vinyl Div.Chicago Section. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed. SPE. 27 cm. Taking this into account. 2002. SPE. This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions.193202. 11 refs.. Ct. Somova T Crompton Corp. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1. 27 cm. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.References and Abstracts Brookfield. DMA and dielectric relaxation. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives. SPE. The alkyltin alkyl Accession no. are discussed. Session 2. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions.23153.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Paper 5.18190.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E. no sensitising properties.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002. Streeter B E.Chicago Section. Bacaloglu R. 2002.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or ‘green’ alternatives. Il. Session 2. 27 cm.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. The manufacturing process.20517. no genotoxicity. Ford J I OMG Inc.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Paper 1.. SPE. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products.. these systems have not been performance and cost competitive. Hackett J A. as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers. USA thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains. (SPE.. (SPE. Ct. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. Brookfield. Furthermore. Dooley T.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. USA Accession no. 2002.State University (SPE. p. di-isononylcyclohexane-1. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Historically.Vinyl Div. have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies. Ct.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. 27 cm. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. 2002. Il. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures.. Session 2. SPE.2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented.2002. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser.877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.Chicago Section. Brookfield. Paper 3. Il.) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 63 .) For some time now plasticisers. 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M. BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity..2002. Ct. Safronov A. Stewen U.Vinyl Div. Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals. p.877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H. Gans G BASF Corp. (SPE. Session 2. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.

. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans. SPE. and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications. Session 1. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications.. 4 refs. It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div. USA Accession no. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The test data include heat ageing. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high Accession no.Vinyl Div. food processing and packaging applications.2002.Chicago Section.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002.. which are discussed in detail. 27 cm.. 30th-2nd Oct. 6 refs.P. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. p. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances. Brookfield.2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. (SPE.Co. migrating or too volatile.2002. Paper 5. Several of these issues are addressed.. ‘General Purpose’ plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost.11350. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. focusing specifically on the scientific evidence.. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. The substances produced in highest quantity. molecular weight and manufacturing process. Brookfield. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment. Among these. 30th-2nd Oct. extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing.References and Abstracts applications where high permanence. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Ct.15375.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002. SPE.Chicago Section. resistance to extraction. p. Il. 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS O’Rourke S Hall C. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE. as well as many other end uses. Il. Ct. 2002. 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 1. However. the ‘Precautionary Principle’ has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers.1019. SPE. although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies.. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations. p. and comparisons to the traditional ‘General Purpose’ (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided. Paper 7.Inc. longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties. 27 cm. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. low migration and weatherability are required.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure. 2002.Vinyl Div. SPE. Nevertheless. 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. SPE.. Ct.877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable.) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers.Chicago Section. (SPE. so they are not persistent.. The performance requirements covered are printability. 2002. Session 1. Paper 6. low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. USA (SPE. For special needs.. Il. Brookfield. polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required. di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC. 30th-2nd Oct. Known ‘non-phthalate’ plasticisers are reviewed. 27 cm. SPE. 64 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).

WORLD Accession no. which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants. phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications.6986. Paper 3. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers. Trimellitate plasticisers offer today’s vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the Accession no.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful. 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE. Many of these products are esters. at best. recent investigations reveal that. process aids and modifiers. and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. are often inefficient. Yong Z. Xiuying Q.. Yinxi Z Shanghai. flexibility or distensibility’. useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application. SPE. USA Accession no. levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals. Phthalate plasticisers. have poor low temperature properties. Brookfield. and by some definitions. 27 cm. SPE. the relevance of these effects to humans is. Session 1. 2002. USA early 20th century.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. USA. and are expensive. permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective. Ct. Paper 4. engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. SPE. except in some very rare situations.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. p. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC. SPE. Il. Brookfield.. Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. as compatibiliser. are difficult to process.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s. and are well suited for general use. Unfortunately. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter.Chicago Section.. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite.Vinyl Div.. Session 1. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers. 17 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W. trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. 27 cm. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE. starting around 1935. 2002. p. p.. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented. CHINA Accession no. Chemistry. 5 refs. long the workhorse of the industry. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today.Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin.References and Abstracts levels. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness. Ct. which have the permanence for high temperature applications. 3 refs. Il. questionable.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as ‘a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability.8998.2002. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers. process easily.Chicago Section.2002. 30th-2nd Oct.6.Vinyl Div. impart good low temperature properties. 30th-2nd Oct. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.876688 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 65 .877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002.. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites. Finally. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. No. are efficient. SPE. The polymerics.

6.9.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.9.OF HEALTH. No. HEALTH CANADA EU. 7 refs. No. CHINA Accession no. Xiao L. CHINA Accession no. It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. No. p. 2002. UK.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES. 11th Oct. USA slowly. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.335. UK. 28 refs. p. Xuecheng P.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No. as solvent.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C 66 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing. p.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China.2002.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13. and then reduced only Accession no. independent of bead size. AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.4. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0. WESTERN EUROPE.2002. Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp.2002.FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail. Wilkie C A Marquette.NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE. and using three different sizes of bead.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC. HEALTH CANADA. Dec. The effects of crosslinking. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent.University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions. 11 refs. US. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level. UK.University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Young’s modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content. sifting and drying. EUROPEAN COMMISSION.DEPT. but was not significantly affected by bead size. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER. and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. Dec. p. No.9 mm obtained by filtering. washing.2002. Nov. Liqiang C.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S. condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied.University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF. UK.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser. p. US. grafting. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations. EU.References and Abstracts Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. p. 6 refs.2002.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov.

Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes. legislative and scientific attention. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Technological University. No. Pevikon D 61. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. 2002. 6 refs. 2002. and Slovinyl K 72. Rapra Technology Ltd. The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. phthalates. The results of the latest studies are summaries. Shawbury. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes. Brookfield. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Kamdem D P Michigan.2002. have long been the focus of considerable media.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002.4. pp. UK. particularly. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. while providing a big weight saving.000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC.997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin. a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives. such as Vestolit B 7021. 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd. The core of the product. WESTERN EUROPE secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. No. CDROM.8. EASTERN EUROPE. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. p.) Plasticisers. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002. they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures.References and Abstracts Polyfence has developed Supalite.2002. Hungary. EUROPEAN UNION. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. USA Accession no. colour measurement and tensile property testing. together with the response from industry. Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility. Paper 285. HUNGARY. Michigan. AST 66. is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry. p.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol. and the particular advantages of certain alternatives. 22nd-23rd. 29 cm. it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Oct. EUROPEAN UNION. This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. are presented.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42... with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. Ca. and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93. contact angle measurement. Properties and Stabilization. greater durability and a higher quality appearance.. Paper 3. which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post. which Accession no. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants.5.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates. 28 refs. SPE. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 67 .State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied. 53 refs. POLYFENCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3343. Ct. Aug. 2002. 5th-9th May 2002. which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste. p.41. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers. BELGIUM.

usually related to the instability of the extrusion process.University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds. developed to give improved low temperature flexibility. 2002. 2002. 5th-9th May 2002. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. 22 refs. CDROM. Nishikawa T. AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M. pp. Toyoda P PolyOne Corp. 68 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING.Academy of Science & Technology.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K. with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC). (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2.5. polypropylene (PP). 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. No.EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D. CDROM. SPE. 10 refs. as a model compound. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy. 5th-9th May 2002. PROPERTIES. Ct.References and Abstracts ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E.. Paper 284.872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002. Ct. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn). Session T7Vinyl Plastics. USA Accession no. Accession no. ABS and PC. Watanabe T. Stewen U. with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. Paper 282. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process. Hashimoto K Kanagawa.. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. Ca.. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). and good adhesion to GFR-PVC.872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. continuous layer adjacent to the gate. such as dioxin. and heat distortion temperature. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface. 1 ref. Brookfield. Tokyo. Brookfield. No. Sterzynski T.. 12 refs. dart impact energy. Fisch M H.1. resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds.5. The core always formed a single. Nakajima A. Properties and Stabilization. Accession no. pp. resulting in a skin-only region. 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R. p. JAPAN Accession no. and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied. The dry blend time was reduced by 10%. generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran. impact strength. Ca. core flow ceased. Bacaloglu I. Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz. was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight. to optimise the stabiliser composition and content.872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22.3..Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products. flexural modulus and strength. 2003. and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength. SPE. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared.872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002. and polycarbonate (PC). Session T7Vinyl Plastics. whilst further from the gate. (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s. Properties and Stabilization. Krainer E Crompton Corp. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION . p. Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process. 2002. Consequently. Accession no.References and Abstracts leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls.. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects. 2002. Ct. No.. the parent of which is the plasticiser. are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone. that is. 22nd-23rd Oct. at levels of 0-88 phr. corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density. near the Tg of the polymer. solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets. Rubber and Composites 31.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J. each with one fewer carbon atoms. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced. p. 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. All the fragments are produced at similar levels. increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. Brookfield.University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. EASTERN EUROPE. 23 refs. p. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films. SPE. small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Houston. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel. the softer. 17 refs. allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products. Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems. using different mechanisms. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr.Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div. and thus with various degree of gelation. POLAND suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised. During extrusion.University (SPE.25-46. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA). The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation.871796 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 69 .South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state.872008 Item 108 Plastics. 9 refs. Tx.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002. PVC pellets. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series. However. USA Accession no. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer.2002. Session II. accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone.8. Kumar V BBS Corp. In addition.. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2. lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder. suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission.. Worsley D Swansea. implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this. 27cm. Washington. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements. it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. In the second system. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE.

No. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 29 cm. Davydenko V V. 2002.. No.122.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y.National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were Accession no. CHINA Accession no. markets and applications. GREECE.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14. as some environmental groups had urged. Yun J. US. p.10.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C.196. WORLD studied. Sept. The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix. Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd. 2002. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand. Oct.868089 Item 115 Shawbury. The agency’s report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided.4. 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical conductivity. Athens. Dai G East China. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand. 30cm.31.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P.2002. compounding and processing. No.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. Rapra Technology Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd. 6 refs.References and Abstracts Item 110 Shawbury. 30th Sept. 2002 PLASTICS WASTE .9. EUROPEAN UNION. safety. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. wire and cable and packaging. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction.University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38.to 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. UK. medical. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15.13. The properties of the two different powders are compared. legislation and end-of-life are discussed here. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers.CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION USA Accession no. Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. WESTERN EUROPE.2002. p. pp.FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. SINGAPORE Accession no. pp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. additives. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology. environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry. 70 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Rapra Review Report 148. 13.. Pissis P. UKRAINE. 20th Dec. vol. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling. No. p.2002. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins. 39 refs. price.

5. 2002. aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16. June 2002. tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed. and different flame retardant fillers. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis. WESTERN EUROPE. antimony oxide. Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd. The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. JAPAN Accession no. No.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm.485 refs. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di.) Rapra Review Report No. p.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. 2002.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77. No.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC Accession no. Takeo Iida Osaka. Hideyuki Nigo.or tri-alkoxy structure. Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Italy. the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the ‘Head over Heels’ agitation method. 28 refs.e. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy. Yoshiyuki Tobita. zinc borate. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured. June 2001) SAUDI ARABIA Accession no. p.6. NETHERLANDS. diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL EXTRACTION Bouma K. The effect of plasticisers. on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers. In the PVC-containing toys. i. UK. p.Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications. 16 refs.Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity. Schakel D J Netherlands. including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed. NETHERLANDS. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp. 13 refs. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1.2. chosen as a model filler. The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated. Kazuya Nagata. EU. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress. Alessandria. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage. The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion.Institute of Technology.863581 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia. No. based on a number of life cycle assessments.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura. EUROPEAN UNION. Naoki Yokouchi. such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP).

DU PONT DE NEMOURS E. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects.References and Abstracts Item 119 ENDS Report No. ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way.INC. Details are given. June 2002. which they say have at least comparable properties. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate. Unionplast. No. Novi Sad. WESTERN EUROPE Wang D. SPAIN. FRANCE. butyl benzyl phthalate. Stojkov D. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Sintelon AD. it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP.2002.Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure. AISCONDEL SA. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Aug. AMTICO CO. TARKETT SOMMER. No.University. Brooklyn.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors. and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. Parlow D. blending time and molec.University.2001.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. YUGOSLAVIA Accession no. p. dioctyl adipate. HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA. Cvorkov L Belgrade. No. This article provides details of the association’s findings. dynamic mechanical properties. thermal properties. Brankov K. EUROPEAN UNION. ITALY. says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products.542. DMA and cone calorimetry. p. LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical. p. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Accession no. annealing.. TGA.wt. p. The effects of clay loading. and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. Yao Q. 27th-28th May 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites. has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products.I. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials. REVINIL. USA Accession no. EASTERN EUROPE. 15 refs. June 2002. June 2002. UNIONPLAST EUROPE-GENERAL..University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density. UK. Wilkie C A Marquette. and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. 9 refs. p. Europe’s largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector.855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 72 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J.2.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling. ATOFINA ESPANA. Popovic I G.& CO. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82. Tarkett Sommer. DOP concentration. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS EU. TEM. dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof.329. CICLOPLAST SA. DOP. EUROPEAN UNION.2.

Italy. mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds. pp.853889 Item 126 Brussels. UK..T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described. Paper 11. 2000.Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied. Zeddam C.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29.Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group. Paper 60.Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. management. p. including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet. 2002.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. processing aid. UK. 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . The Natural Step UK. 2002. The influence of various parameters such as temp. No. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. waste management. UK. (EUROMAT 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space. p. nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated. EUPC. including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser. and internal and external lubricants. 5 refs.. 21cm.853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 30cm.854595 Item 125 Cheltenham. Ouahmed S Accession no. Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available.180. catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds.113-121. pp. p. monitoring and financial scheme. IOM Communications Ltd. a method of prognosis was developed. 2002.7.36). 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers.4.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products. RUSSIA Accession no. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. social progress and dialogue. 2001. 29cm. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy.64. the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite.22. 7 refs. Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium. AUSTRIA. Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers.590-601. ECVM. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. ECPI. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable? EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture. were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography. EUROPEAN UNION. FTIR spectroscopy. UK. on the basis of which. EUROPEAN UNION. The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs. conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC.. 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd. 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step. June 2001) ALGERIA Accession no. pp. Within such a framework. stirring. Rapra Technology Ltd. No.References and Abstracts Shawbury. The additives. tin-based heat stabiliser. ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 . The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. 2001. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical. WESTERN EUROPE Algiers. length descriptors. Rimini. 2002. atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis. 23rd-25th April 2002.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 30cm. London. p.

PVC foam and clear film containing. Ineos Silicas Ltd. Paper 57. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. are reported. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. WESTERN EUROPE carried out on PVC wall coverings. colour and impact strength. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P. THERMALLY STABLE. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS . Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide.569-78. 23rd-25th April 2002.WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks. p. 6 refs.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. London. flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers. which show that lead-free. viscosity reduction by internal lubricants. The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr. 23rd-25th April 2002.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.555-8. that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier. 23rd-25th April 2002. 11 refs. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate. 2002. 2002. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss.. was also evaluated. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC. shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity. fillers and other additives. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing.. UK. 012 LOW-SMOKE. London. 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing. Paper 56. EASTERN EUROPE. London. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 59. p. IOM Communications Ltd. UK. 21cm.852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. HUNGARY. London. 7 refs. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests Accession no. p.852792 74 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations. EUROPEAN UNION.. 21cm. zinc borate. flow and plate-out. Zeocros E100.. GERMANY. UK. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002.. Toft A European Vinyls Corp.References and Abstracts SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. as an aluminosilicate. including heat stability. Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd. heat stable. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J. Paper 58. release effect.559-68.579-89. fusion delay by external lubricants. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 SELECTION. Leeuwendal R. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. DSC and X-ray scattering. Howick C. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth.

London. Marcus B PQ Corp. 23 refs. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives’ Accession no. USA. UK. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. such as toys. which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers. which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed. The recycling.852786 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 75 .852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds. 21cm. UK. less expensive zeolite costabiliser. 8 refs. GERMANY. in PVC processing technology. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required. called Advera 401.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G. 23rd-25th April 2002.. London. Paper 55. regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products. is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 53. as heat stabilisers. IOM Communications Ltd.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. The performance of Advera 401P. p. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 TIN STABILISERS. 21cm. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. 2002. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc. p. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems. EUROPEAN UNION. London. USA. 2002.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 52. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. and Advera 401S.504-14. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. food-contact applications and potable water pipes. Allieri G Lamberti SpA. London. stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported. a general-purpose. Paper 50. worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers. in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated. 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W. p. Various aspects are addressed. 16 refs.. 21cm. food packaging. WESTERN EUROPE pyrimidindiones. p. London.548-54. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T. 17 refs. ITALY.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 51. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. for use in PVC applications is reported. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach. 4 refs. USA.515-28. UK. UK.529-39. The chemistry. 21cm. product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. IOM Communications Ltd.496-503. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 2002. including handling of tin stabilisers. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

p. EUROPEAN UNION. 11 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 46. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. p. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. Schiller M Chemson Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. IOM Communications Ltd. USA. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Fisch M H.471-85. MacDonald S.852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Stewen U. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium. 23rd-25th April 2002.. PVC pipes and fittings and profiles. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future. London. Fakinlede J. 2002. Shah M. 33 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations. EUROPEAN UNION. Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer. p. for measuring the flow properties of a material. Paper 45. 2002. 2002.References and Abstracts Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Krainer E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers. p. GERMANY. UK.486-95. SCANDINAVIA. 23rd-25th April 2002. calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported. which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but. Hinrichsen E L.. 21cm. 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed. London. GERMANY. 21cm. Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. foamed sheets and profiles. like tin. UK. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH 76 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. is reported. Paper 48. zinc. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. London. UK. 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R. Paper 47. 21cm. NORWAY. 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P. p.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.461-70. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. is under pressure in some European countries. London. 2002. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 49.437-44..445-57. which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder. WESTERN EUROPE (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables. Kellett R W.

IOM Communications Ltd.388-98. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 VINYLOOP. Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers. 21cm. SCANDINAVIA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. NORWAY. EUROPEAN UNION. The energy balance. p.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 43. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process. IOM Communications Ltd. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. London. 3 refs. is reported. 7 refs. 2002.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. AUSTRALIA. IOM Communications Ltd. 2002. 21cm. Paper 32. London. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window. p.. BELGIUM. 15 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE London. 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002.References and Abstracts four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. London.416-36. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.322-9. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. Paper 40. are outlined. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . Paper 44. EUROPEAN UNION. UK.410-5. a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A. GERMANY. are described.Ltd.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION.382-7. 21cm. UK. p. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered. 21cm. 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffei’s twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. p. 2002.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 23rd-25th April 2002. Aylett G J Vinidex Pty. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. Paper 41.. which are less prone to wear. Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials) Accession no.

21cm.. EUROPEAN UNION. EVC ITALIA SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper 17.852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated. EUROPEAN UNION. London. UK. London. WESTERN EUROPE Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride.. Fischer W. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Howick C Pall Corp. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. European Vinyls Corp. 21cm. concentration run. EUROPEAN UNION. heat stability. p. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. 21cm. 21cm. London. Accession no. Paper 27. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 10 refs. UK.273-81. SWITZERLAND.. Malcomson S P 78 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. p. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit. London.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 23rd-25th April 2002. media acclimatisation. Paper 20. is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined. 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J. London. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 31. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7 refs. 2002. such as Irganox 1141. 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M.311-6. gloss.. p. 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described. Paper 30. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.186-91. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. UK. partially hindered phenols.References and Abstracts The use and benefits of liquid. ITALY. 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T. Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.221-7. The antifouling action of Evicas 90. a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate. IOM Communications Ltd. GERMANY.317-21.. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. optimisation trial. Properties evaluated included rheological properties.. EUROPEAN UNION.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. colour. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.

London. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. Paper 8. is described. Paper 13. including window profiles. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.151-6.852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M. fences and foam profiles. AUSTRIA. IOM Communications Ltd. sidings. EUROPEAN UNION. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered.. wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. bypass rheometry. 21cm. p. including DSC. p. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. UK. London. SEM-EDX.105-15. IOM Communications Ltd. 6 refs. AUSTRIA. Schiller M Loughborough. inexpensive tooling. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. FRANCE. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Trends in high speed extrusion. 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. EUROPEAN UNION. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques. recyclability. 2002.852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 16. 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS . UK. EUROPEAN UNION. 11 refs. 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. AUSTRIA. Honeywell. BELGIUM. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002.University.. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. flow simulation. IOM Communications Ltd. London.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 2 refs. p. 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES . such as alumina and silica.. Van Soom K. London. 21cm.WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling. 23rd-25th April 2002. process documentation and customer education. 23rd-25th April 2002.852743 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 79 . UK.157-65.THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles. London. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.852750 Accession no.References and Abstracts mechanical properties. 23rd-25th April 2002. dual extrusion. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed. 21cm.. GERMANY. 6 refs. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage. 2002.95-104.179-85. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 7. flexible tooling. Paper 14. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. melt homogenisation. EUROPEAN UNION. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. plate-out and artificial weathering. Varshney N. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated.

the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001. alternatives to lead./Feb. 18 refs. p. 2002. Stoynov L A. WESTERN EUROPE. weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed. plastics additives with approval for direct food contact.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E. 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. Swinburne. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.University of Technology. p. current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead. a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. No. However. tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc.University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA. RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods. isotactic PP. UK. and PVDF. p. GERMANY. They suggest that pesticides.327.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37. 2002. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56. Nonylphenol is a persistent.INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. AUSTRALIA Accession no..2000. 21 refs. but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. PP. 23rd-25th April 2002. London.University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE. No. JULICH. toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC. 53-62.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.8. Truss R W Queensland. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. PVC and PS. 21cm. p.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. April 2002. April 2002. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance. Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry. scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe. packaging and cleaning products are possible sources. according to a recent study by Applied Market Information.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A. p. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food.22. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. IOM Communications Ltd. Data are presented for PVC.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No. p. Paper 4.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. 8th-14th April 2002. 15th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. there has been a significant increase in the 80 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .4.References and Abstracts Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. Jan. key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface.13 NONYL PHENOL “UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD”. GREECE. The Accession no. No.1. No.

Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC. 2002. Challenges and markets. 21cm. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives.2. p. 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. BPF.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B. smoke production. (Full translation of Vys.608. Stabilisers. mass loss.. Neubert D. 60 papers. Processing.850492 Item 166 London. Flexibles. Klimov S A. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. AUSTRALIA Accession no. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. Nos. Kunze R. 26 refs. Jan. 2002.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No.Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 81 .2002. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR.851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses. May 2001. 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data.References and Abstracts degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR. Shatalin Yu V. March 2002. UK. whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour. EUROPEAN UNION. Additives EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Polymerisation. heat release. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system. of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn. Accession no.State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment. p. 10 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.Soed. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition. antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 29 refs. Mel’nik A I.363-8) RUSSIA Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.5. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON.vii. Pyzh’yanova L G Urals. PVC profiles. pp. Shishkin E V./Feb. No. PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future. 44. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I.1-2. Sustainability.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T. No. not the strains. p. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter. IOM Communications Ltd. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction. p. Zotov Yu L.12. XII. The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on Accession no. 2002.850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51.B. Lyutikova E A.3. 20 refs. Tidjani A Germany.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I. The influence of ZnS. Shiga T. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter. p. 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. No. Klimov D S. respectively.

13 refs. Brief details are given. Benitez A N.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT 82 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . GERMANY. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs. Castany F J. At some volume in a producer’s process the make/buy decision is imminent. EUROPEAN UNION. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc.Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products. No. SPE. EUROPEAN UNION.2.539. Iselin. Lederer GmbH.. FREUDENBERG GROUP. No. p. their thermal properties.846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184. decking.845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO. Zaragoza.. USA Accession no.e.References and Abstracts the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces.Vinyl Div. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Plastican SA. developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos. using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. (SPE.National Center for Radiation Res. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in Accession no. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation. Conference proceedings.Vinyl Div.. Pushing Profitability. May 2001. Conference proceedings. vinyl windows.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51.& Technol. bulk truck or bulk rail car. JAPAN Maziad N A. Feb. SPAIN. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes. 11th-12th Sept. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. trim. March 2002. i. p. was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production. Pushing Profitability.2001. Iselin. p. characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied. p. LEDERER GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the preparation. N. Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo. 11 refs.Universidad de Las Palmas. 18 refs.846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico. Gomez R Gran Canaria. N.2002.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D..845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. Sayed M S. SPE.J. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. 11th-12th Sept. and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D.Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications. soffits.3. Examples include vinyl siding.2001. EGYPT Accession no.University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co.J. fencing. (SPE. automobiles and furniture. The second tells us that Freudenberg Group’s sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist. FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG. BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles. furniture and automotive trim.. No. both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany.

It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is. (SPE.71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc. p. Autumn 2001. Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented.845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. p. reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined. suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet. Pushing Profitability. However.. residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral. machinery suppliers. such as with telephone and extension cords.References and Abstracts applications where there is human contact. Woo L.Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed. as well as the effect of mineral loading level.. Joiner L. regulations such as California’s Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd. such as building and construction. Booras J. Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC. Iselin.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G. die suppliers. as well as thermoformed packaging. through the 1990s.845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs.Vinyl Div.Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run. non-lead wet-rated systems. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed. 8 refs. 11th-12th Sept. CANADA applications. 11th-12th Sept. Ling M T K. are discussed. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored.J. 16 refs.2001. No. film and a variety of commercial applications. Gatrrett S. N. Pushing Profitability.Vinyl Div. appliance cable and others. such as those used for fixed cable installations. USA Accession no. Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process. Conference proceedings. SPE. the greater the abrasive wear on the screen.. as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers. Pushing Profitability. Shang S. p. USA Accession no. 11th-12th Sept. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted. together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry.. as expected. are enjoying many of these advances.845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. SPE. Surface delamination was investigated. The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials. together with current developments in vinyl.J.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001. Iselin. Iselin. (SPE.Vinyl Div. Conference proceedings.2.. Boutelle T. USA Accession no. Temperature control. PVC processors in all Accession no.2001.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc.. less downtime. SPE. much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels. N.Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. p. are reviewed.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T.844617 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 83 . 4 refs. Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE.2001. Blom H. Finally.J. N. USA Accession no. Jin H-S. Conference proceedings.

2001. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. No.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G.Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear.4. Dec.wt.. including volume fraction of clay. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Wilkie C A Marquette. embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. 2001. FRANCE. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined. Varner K E. chemicals. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2001. although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function.University.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L.C. plasticiser content.4. 2001. 18 refs. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion. attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. EUROPEAN UNION. 10 refs. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction.and long-term mechanical properties. D. Washington. Hilton B A US. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D. Nov. No. p. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated. p.National Museum (ACS. oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short.12.Div. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep 84 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. DENMARK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. 20th-24th Aug.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. 8 refs.Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry Accession no. exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface. Parlow D. 9 refs.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented. WESTERN EUROPE moduli.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. p.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark. low molec. Number 2.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Dec. The effects of various factors. EUROPEAN UNION. Brooklyn. SCANDINAVIA. transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents. p. A sweet odour may also be detected. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. p. It was found that 20 to 30 wt. ITALY. scratching and abrasion. and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. 176. Conference proceedings.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints. EUROPEAN UNION. Dec. Volume 41. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Rinaldi G La Sapienza.2000.% of these resins improved not only thermal. Yao Q. Shrinkage.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15.References and Abstracts Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer. on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project. melt compounding time and annealing.

p. trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS. No. were examined using dynamic and Accession no. carbon dioxide. and inconsistent supply of recyclate. and that it is already being recycled by some companies.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A. NETHERLANDS. No. 2001. 7 refs. type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder. LINDE AG. Gaal H. swelling characteristics and volume resistivity. Ali Z I.2.1. The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated.838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6.6-hexanediol diacrylate.12. EGYPT Accession no. p. No.1. carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. hydrogen. PRINCIPIA PARTNERS. plasticised by polymeric plasticiser. it is claimed. MIKRON INDUSTRIES. EUROPE-GENERAL. No. Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating. 23 refs. 2001... and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate. Slapak M J P Eindhoven. FRANCE. pentaerythritol tetraacrylate.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. 18 refs. in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride.3. HUNGARY Accession no. p. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material. p. Kenny J M Alicante. KOBE STEEL. EUROPEAN UNION. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi.University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described. softening temp. Dec. USA Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. VINYL INSTITUTE. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate. SWITZERLAND. diethylene glycol diacrylate. and help in the understanding of the process. TECNOMETAL. USA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Torre L. BELGIUM.University. VEKA AG. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin. GERMANY. SOLVIN.References and Abstracts method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes. SOLVAY.12). partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K. Zahran A H Egypt. JAPAN. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN.2001.& Technol. and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. This article looks at the methods being used. p. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF.11. enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Perugia. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder.National Centre for Radiation Res. Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING. 11 refs. EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES. and in addition.. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction. EU. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products. VULCAFLEX. 2001. EVC. NORTH AMERICA. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination. ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. p. 2001. RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable. used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN. No..University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols. ITALY. PROGNOS.838274 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 85 . No. triallyl cyanurate and 1.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. MARLEY FLOORS LTD. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps. 2001. DECEUNINCK.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A.

831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Paparao C. The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. Matuana L M Michigan. Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd.831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. 31st Oct.Conference proceedings. 28 refs. 19 refs.. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001. and were shown to be similar. Texas. was compared with the double batching preparation process. London. and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. ITALY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere. and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer. The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products. In this process. 6th-10th May. p. Dallas. blended in the hot mixer. The density was not influenced by the CFA content.830362 86 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Texas. UK. and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid. Vasudeo Y B. whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type.Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials.5. 6th-10th May. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process. Samsonkova P.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001. INDIA Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described.Conference proceedings. plasticised PVC. Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. Dallas. WESTERN EUROPE Item 191 Antec 2001. with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour. SPAIN. paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V. Dallas. This reduces the overall energy requirements. 2001. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight. 2001..81-7. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. Zlin. p. 01. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production. although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time. Texas.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001. Paper 9. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture. and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). paper 605 Accession no.2001. Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer. Simonik J Compuplast International Inc.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. USA Accession no. 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J. JAPAN Accession no. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods. paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F. twice the required additives are added to the PVC. 6th-10th May.Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration. on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. 4 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials. CZECH REPUBLIC. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC. 2001. 25 refs.Conference proceedings. 2001. EUROPEAN UNION.

Elhard J D. FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 87 . has a specific gravity of about 1. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578. Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP.3.Conference proceedings.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm. even with densities as low as 0. The bending strength of PVC wood is lower. Benecke H. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite. No. is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. Sookkho D.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels. Dallas. but it can still be used for Accession no. and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694.2001. USA from ductile iron and concrete. now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications. and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities. elongation and tensile strength were measured. Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE. For sewage lines. Sept. Overall. paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R.3. p. cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required. improved impact resistance. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. 5 refs. WORLD Accession no. volatilities. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed. p. USA Accession no. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year. lower moisture absorption and ease of installation. p. 2001. potable water and sewage pipe. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy. A PVC-wood composite.9. AND VINYL PARRIES. but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0.3 g/cc. Sutthitavil W. 6 refs. Sept. Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute. 6th-10th May. sawed. McGinniss V D.830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W. the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. Films were produced and the tensile modulus. No.2001.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Accession no. for example. No. However. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h. screwed. Texas.References and Abstracts INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVC’s molecular structure. the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance. Chantasatrasamy N.2001. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester.5 phr was also investigated. One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility. and functionalities. Compared with traditional products. 3 refs. Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters.6 g/cc. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Sept.

University Scanning electron microscopy. but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products. Valencia.I. Sept. June 2001.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28. WORLD Accession no. has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk. US. 21 refs. Perugia. p. with surface functionalisation which. p. 22nd August 2001. Lopez J. some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP. Iannoni A. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A. FibrePlas. p.6. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. In this technology. No.2001. while the Accession no. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content. continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder.28.References and Abstracts decorative applications. WESTERN EUROPE The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate. p.2001.I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp. together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser. from observation of biological adsorption tests. doors and siding. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products. 12 refs. new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13. Surface energy increased.e. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION. 10th Sept. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins.8.University. allowing use in biomedical applications. RUMANIA Accession no. THAILAND Accession no.Polytechnical University. No. Details are given. Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol. ITALY. does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium. The system.8. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area. i. No.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no. but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted. No. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied.Cuza A. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide. Popa G Jassy. 6th Sept. Mechanical and optical properties were examined. Borcia G. cornices.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. 5 refs. According to the report.2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N. p. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999.828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents.University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers.2001.10. Kenny J M Alicante.1/23 FDA REPORT WON’T END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S 88 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . SPAIN.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. No. where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC.

Benefits of PVC for healthcare. 2001. 2001. CANADA Accession no. so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. and the log. residence time on the plate. the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate. UK.825424 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 89 . creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density. 2001. paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D. Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds. PVC medical device application fields.References and Abstracts grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. Environmental issues . plate temperature.Technical University.826600 Item 205 Shawbury. whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing. Processing and fabrication. EUROPEAN UNION. 45 refs.University of Technology. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Texas. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate. Dallas. Texas. Simonik J. paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R. Lafleur P G. paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001. Brno. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. 6th-10th May. value and future trends. Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices. TAIWAN efficiency were investigated.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001. Dallas. 4 refs. Malac Z. pp. residence time and temperature. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay. The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. 6th-10th May.. 23 refs. the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency. Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology. Thibodeau Montreal.142. Dallas. Kosior E Swinburne. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. The influences of drum temperature.Conference proceedings. 7 refs. Rapra Technology Ltd. plate angle. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour. Toxicology. Brno.Conference proceedings. Main headings include: Global market size. Key barriers to PVC replacement. Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001. AUSTRALIA Accession no. and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which included flowbalancing. and bibliography of useful document abstracts. 2001. drum speed. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. composition.real and perceived.Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design. using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit. Kalendova A. 6th-10th May. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps.Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser. 11cm. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties. and multi-stage separation on the separation Accession no. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC.Conference proceedings. The system consisted of a heated rotating drum. 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd. which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick. Texas. The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. 6 refs. As the drum rotated. biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds. Pospisil L Aliachem jc.

Mengeloglu F Michigan. II. No. the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations.National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed. and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures. to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred. 2001. Klimov S A. its ease of manufacture.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 90 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N. Jakubowicz I. the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No. No. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy. DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment. June 2001. stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. gelation. Shatalin Y V.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC. Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface. No. without adding any additives. July 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that. p. Kaustik AOOT. USA COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. 1 ref.43) RUSSIA Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.State Technical University.11. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers.318. 2001.7. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied. 7 refs. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples.DEPT. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times. Gevert T Sweden. and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. UK. As a result of this accelerated gas loss. 2000. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion Accession no. p. EUROPEAN UNION. p. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed. stabilisers and processing conditions were studied. No. which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. No.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co.2. p. 26 refs. tensile properties and molecular level ageing. the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films. Food & Rural Affairs’ life cycle assessment of PVC.825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. The effects of different lubricants. Zotov Y L. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process. p.OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. at least in some situations. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I. which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials. 11. June 2001. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. independent of modifier type.1. UK.2. p. Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd.

Institut Pyrovac Inc. SWEDEN.. and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg. EASTERN EUROPE. mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC. C. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers.References and Abstracts pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion. Petru Poni. However. as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. PART II. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the Accession no.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. Deterioration in colour. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated. PS and PVC materials individually. Dubois C. The main gaseous and liquid products. Accession no.3. the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. PS and PVC. and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer. Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C. EASTERN EUROPE. Roy C. Lallet P. PP.Universite. Despite the observed property changes. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. Dallas. Jamois-Tasserie M. p. HDPE. Petru Poni. 2001. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. Vasile C Quebec. 6th-10th May. Villa F.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R. 12 refs. particularly yellow. Two parameters were studied. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion. comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers. 2001. p. as determined by infrared spectroscopy. Pakdel H. CANADA. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. 2001. 2001. 5 refs. 73 refs.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC.459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L. Two experimental approaches were adopted.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. No. PP. WESTERN EUROPE molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC. it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests. p. Renaud C Franche-Comte. No. RUMANIA Accession no. RUMANIA Accession no.. Jin Yang. including chlorinated hydrocarbons. 54 refs.15 mm diameter. Texas. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. EUROPEAN UNION. Pyrovac Institute Inc.Universite Laval. Vasile C Laval. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered. and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. were observed with repeated extrusion.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001. LDPE. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72.Conference proceedings. were identified by chromatography. Roy C. No.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0. It was concluded that the change in © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 91 .Universite. LDPE. CANADA.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE. SCANDINAVIA.1.3. paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s.

carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. WESTERN EUROPE and about one order of magnitude. As a result of these changes. nitrogen. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. attaining constant values after 10 days. Accession no.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80. No. No. hardness. p.814334 92 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. SPAIN. The results obtained showed that. under the irradiation conditions employed. FRANCE. Mijangos C.University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. 35 refs.818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20. Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research. No. 12 refs. 34 refs. p. Nasir M. the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. followed by drying. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.530. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. Within the dose range studied. Changes in gel fraction. Detailed experimental procedures. EUROPEAN UNION. ITALY. The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied. resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers. followed by drying. and of plasticiser into the liquid. FRANCE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. with frequent cracking.5.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane. and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity. and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed. 25 refs. samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2001. Aug.11.2000. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. 2001. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Lastly. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking.10. a month after the membranes were prepared. at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly. the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L. TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen. Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne.Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days. No.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P. was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. Riande E.References and Abstracts PVC. Diffusion of liquid into the discs. sample photographs and results are given. Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 31st May 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules. Guzman J. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS MALAYSIA Accession no.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42. Malaysia. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing. EUROPEAN UNION. the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service.

The thickness of the foil is 0.2000.University. mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg. EGYPT. 14 refs.References and Abstracts Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. Kovacic T Split. Nakan0 K. Goto H.3. as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated. p. Mrklic Z. 11th-12th Oct. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H. Yamagata. No. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp.575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A. USA Accession no. The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void Accession no. (SPE. p.811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21. Dooley T.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5. The kinetic parameters © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time.11. Pa.Institute of Technology. March 2001. p. Nissin Oil Mills Ltd.5 mg KOH/g resin). Philadelphia.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286.e. CIBA-GEIGY CO. i. No. p. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables. Nakamura Y.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama.2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H. SPE. Diaconescu C Crompton Corp. 2000. No. 14th March 2001. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers.2001.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D. CROATIA Accession no. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. JAPAN are estimated by the differential method of analysis..C. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength.5 to 20. 14 refs.Vinyl Div. a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates. having moderate acid numbers (11.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000.2. 38 refs. used as novel costabilisers with metal soap. Narisawa I. USA Accession no.6. Iida T Osaka. p. No. 28th Feb. Conference proceedings. 17 refs. Sunami M. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters. were synthesised.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer.Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups.University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed. Bacaloglu R..University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex. Higaki Y..

2000. Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. 25th-26th Oct. cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content.808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000. Basel. DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha. Naugumanova E I.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H. reviewing available information from Hatco. USA Accession no.808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd. No.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE . Conference proceedings. La. p. 5 refs. No.MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES 94 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA). allegedly. noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness. No. 3rd-5th May 2000. Conference proceedings.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups. amount of reactor charge. acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. EUROPEAN UNION.State University. and stabilising action. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties. Switzerland. and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking.5. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then. plasticity. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound. GERMANY. New Orleans. JAPAN Nafikova R F. including DEHP. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described. National Starch & Chemical BV Accession no. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC. viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers.19) RUSSIA Accession no.1. Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co. Spring 2001.. citrates and adipates. p. alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids. processability. USA Accession no. 4 refs. and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage.. Di Simone J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. adhesion to steel and deformation are examined. Sabapathy P A. 2000. 9 refs. p. diverse crosslinkers. (Translated from Plasticheskie Massy. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. Minsker K S Bashkir.1. distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC). methyl acrylate (MA).807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. 2 refs. Abdrashitov Y M.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail. TOTM. 2001. introduction time of monomers.References and Abstracts MOD. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence.810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A. commonly known as DEHP or DOP. p. Morflex and BP Amoco.

3 refs. paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. Javierre C. 7th-11th May. FRANCE.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L. Reyx D.Conference proceedings. Brosse J-C Maine. 27 refs. Fl. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers. EUROPEAN UNION. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance. Llado J. Zaragoza. Rough surfaces on the die Accession no. 2000. increasing significantly with modifier concentration. Unfortunately.. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil. NETHERLANDS.527.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79.Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene. USA Accession no. were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. USA.Conference proceedings. extruder temperature settings. No. paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC . to the normal. (SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C). Harshbarger D Geon Co. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow. King J A Michigan. whilst the elongation at break was not affected. WESTERN EUROPE acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties.8. Orlando. May 2000. 2000. Sanchez B. so increasing the gloss. Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000. Fl. PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. No. The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions.University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. EUROPEAN UNION.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. SPAIN. 4 refs. Poncin-Epaillard F. 7th-11th May. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Orlando. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. Matuana L M. The surface energy.Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre. p. EUROPEAN UNION. weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality.2001.PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E.References and Abstracts (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface. extrusion rate. Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. 22 refs.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J. p. and the die surface roughness. 22nd Feb.

but poor retention of original colour. and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour.. EUROPEAN UNION. crosslink density. paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R. paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network.. Orlando.C. D. basic lead carbonate. and related compounds with a particle size in the 0. USA Accession no. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. Conference proceedings. Matutes-Aquino J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no..Conference proceedings. paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl. Orlando. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam.Conference proceedings. Sifuentes P. Rios-Jara D Coahuila. Mexico. 14 refs. Fl. Washington. Ramos de Valle L F. provide good process safety. 5 refs. (SPE) Accession no. 7th-11th May. 2000. 7th-11th May. Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. dibasic lead phosphite. Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc.Conference proceedings. Loughborough. attributed to strong particle interactions. MEXICO Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content. Fl.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000.Inc. RETEC 2000. containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder. 2000.References and Abstracts and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss. Yanez-Flores I G. which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content. and which also provide good colour retention.1-0.& Co. and thermal stability. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally. 12 refs.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. Orlando. Ayala-Valenzuela O.804341 Item 237 Antec 2000. paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E. tribasic lead sulphate..I. Gilbert M Coahuila. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate.. 7th-11th May. USA Accession no. paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations. and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. residual unsaturation.. Fl.Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride). 2000. 2000. Orlando. MEXICO. UK. Refs.2000. Enlow W.7 micron range. Fl. and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time. 7th-11th May. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent. 17th-19th Sept. USA Accession no. 18 refs. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams. and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties. which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers. was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C.Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. attributed to increasing particle interaction.805663 Item 234 Antec 2000.805659 96 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . thermal properties and molecular weight.University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated.

p. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications. They also gave similar or increased strength. FL. as well as their thermal chemistry. Fall Meeting 2000. plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes. USA Accession no. Maeyer J T.College of William & Mary (ACS. Oct. Since copper(I) is readily reduced. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. Biocides tested © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 97 . Washington. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time. tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point. Laurin D. with corresponding controls. to improve melt processing and heat stability. Fall 1996. Levy E R Williamsburg. Starnes W H.and sulphur-based ligands are reported. increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated. Orlando. clarity. USA carbonyl. the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. Delgado A H Canada. flammability. Measurements of the bands for Accession no. Conference Proceedings. Volume 83. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation.. complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies. USA Accession no. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L. but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. LOW BLUSH. including colour. 4 refs. aqueous extractables and particle generation. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced..Conference proceedings. D. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments. and enhanced the product characteristics.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge. It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate). It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC.National Research Council (ACS. USA Accession no. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2.. and lower brittle point temperatures.References and Abstracts Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. 5 refs.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G. paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE. Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp. Orlando. McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co. 2000. 10 refs. PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M.69-70.Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. 2000. With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering. Graham P M. Fl. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char. In contrast. because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds.Div. 10 years. 1 ref. No. Volume 75. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED. Doyal A S. blush.2000. secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene). As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC. p. 7th-11th May. similar elongation and flexural modulus. which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC. the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char. LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen. 20th-24th Aug.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000. Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid.C. methylene and methyl groups were obtained.803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years.10. and 14 years were obtained. Gomaa W A. p.

(Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000).799815 Item 243 Shawbury. FRANCE. August 1999.16-8. enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. and DCOIT (4. New Orleans. 4 refs. WESTERN EUROPE adhesive.11. automotive waste. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test. and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component.Div.Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Review Report No. when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt 98 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer. Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures. OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers. were compounded by twin screw extrusion. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants. August 1999. calcium carbonate. poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties.5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one).108. whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties. GERMANY.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. 6 refs. The compositions. 7 refs. UK. Kleinert H. 2000.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000. Rapra Technology Ltd. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles. lead stabiliser and antimony oxide. thermoset composites.University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature. Petrie S Millipore Corp. when the sample surface was removed.of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends. which also containing plasticiser. p. Volume 40. Fl. 11/1/01.References and Abstracts and compared were OBPA (10. aluminium/plastic laminates. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties.1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P. Separation techniques described include those involving density.University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. the smoke suppression rankings changed.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J. No. 29 cms. Dec. 2000. and carpet sorting technology. was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile. A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described. EUROPEAN UNION. 427 refs.12. They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications. followed by manual and automated sorting systems. p. Theoretical Accession no. La. triboelectrification. Orlando. 2000. and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. 12.. the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension.. Girard-Reydet E Lyon. Number 2. electrical cables. However.124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques. 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 7th-11th May.10-oxybisphenoxarsine).Technische universitat.. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter. paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A. Rapra Review Report.799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile. pp. Massachusetts.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90.) Rapra. Hoffmann H Dresden.4. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed. No. vol.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C. which are used extensively in PVC products. p. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction.Conference proceedings. paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L.11. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000. 7th-11th May.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. and a graphical solution for the differential equations for © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 99 . 2000. Fl. polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. Orlando.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45.References and Abstracts models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers. paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc. and a centre gated plate to study radial flow. employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds. Nov. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates.State University. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. USA Accession no.. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction.. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled. melt temperatures. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections. FRANCE. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded Accession no. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. No.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27. but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould. 10 refs. and shot sizes. Summers J W Ohio. is nearing an end.2000. attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol. In September. No. Geon Co.2. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure. JAPAN Accession no. 2000. 7 refs.2000. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted. EUROPEAN UNION.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment. 7th-11th May. Minamoto Y Osaka. on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused. the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic. 28 refs. EU. slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens’ mouths. A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection. The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor. Orlando. Fl. indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects.Conference proceedings. whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould. Koelling K W. WESTERN EUROPE polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H. p. Sept. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times.

References and Abstracts

unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

Accession no.793729


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References and Abstracts

properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.


Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panel’s findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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References and Abstracts

in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S


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The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC. premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations.31-2 CITRATE.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). According to citrate manufacturer Morflex. No. p. Wu L C Tamkang. 22nd-26th Aug.. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Ga. CHINA Accession no. Loughborough.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion.References and Abstracts Yong Ning.1999. p. Laminations & Coatings Conference. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology. 19 refs.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40.University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA.7. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. Shaoyun Guo Sichuan. Aug. MORFLEX. The Accession no. PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed. USA Accession no. Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated. IRAN Accession no. July 2000. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B. No.2000. such as PX-811. SPAIN.782996 Item 270 Polymers. the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution. Gilbert M Alicante.Volume 1.1-di-t-butylperoxy3. a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion. 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated.University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.8.University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1. In Japan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77.1. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained. 14 refs. softening temperature. July 2000. No. EUROPEAN UNION. Atlanta. CHINA company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates.University.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS. Alsharif M A Isfahan. p. 2000. POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed.12.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30. p.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C. developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market. ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK JAPAN. No. UK.Conference proceedings.University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69.5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste.3. 22 refs.50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A. and the compositions of heat stabilisers © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 103 . 19 refs. 19th Sept. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined.

Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Okazaki S.1999. Kodama M Japan. p. the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 22nd-26th Aug. p.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane.University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC. No. particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC. p.Div. 24th-30th July 2000. with variable composition according to the PVC end use.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No. scavenging free radicals. for rigid applications. Koh Y J. especially PVC articles used in healthcare. No.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41. and decompose peroxides.20. July 2000. JAPAN Accession no. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks. chemical resistance and resistance to swelling.781444 Item 274 ACS.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. and mixed metal.. Volume 81. July 2000. USA (APG) DISCHARGE Prat R. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation. However.References and Abstracts used for various PVC applications. Sluszny A.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.306.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research. EUROPEAN UNION.National Inst.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commission’s “horizontal study” on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago. Babukutty Y. La. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73. Conference proceedings.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No. lead-based. 17 refs. p.1919. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water. 6 refs. Kogoma M. 2000. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S. Sophia. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers. p. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies. neutralise the HCl which is formed. the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year. ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.306. New Orleans. ISRAEL Accession no. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased. for wire and cable applications.

Moiseev Y V. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Parmeland G. ITALY. June 2000. The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12. Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg. fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005.69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. p. 15 refs. Spriet C CNEP.3. March 2000. Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39.C). EUROPEAN UNION. reprocessing conditions. modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. Pokholok T V. molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed. UV and IR spectroscopic techniques. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations. Delprat R. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. No. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. RUSSIA Accession no. Using thermogravimetric. gel permeation chromatography. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 38 refs.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo. From the basic understanding gained. p. Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated. Elf Atochem SA. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMISSION WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use. gloss degradation rate doubles. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. 8 refs. and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes.University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6.778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e.g.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.152. FRANCE. Gumargalieva K Z. Dabin P. No. it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. Chaigneau R. No. tensile strength and strain). 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. Siampiringue N.778022 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 105 . No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E. 134 refs. June 2000. chromatographic. a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions. and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these Accession no.2.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter.

The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. Trexel Inc. March/April 2000.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate. SPAIN. leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. EUROPEAN COMMISSION 106 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 16 refs. 19-20 Oct. Perugini C. p. Deweerdt M. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification. Reinecke H.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Improvements were observed in tensile. EUROPEAN UNION. while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time. 6 refs. Wu J.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. April 2000. feedstock recycling. Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction. The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No. WESTERN EUROPE EU. WESTERN EUROPE.BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q. 6 refs. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. behaviour in landfill. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. on the other hand. EUROPEAN UNION.1999. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction. URALITA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Wei Ping G. p. p. Accession no. Zhen H Y. Wu Q Qingdao. New Jersey). While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur. and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent.Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams. EUROPEAN UNION. p. while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. USA.522. (SPE Foams ’99 Conference.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR .148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J. No.References and Abstracts Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. No.15. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The studies cover mechanical recycling. The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. UK. Dec. Wang J. electrical and low temperature properties. Chen L.2.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M. CHINA Accession no.5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J. BELGIUM. The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film. No. 2000. No.303. p. March/April 2000. Parsippany. of temp. flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds..2.

16th-18th Nov. Neto M B Sao Paulo. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. SWITZERLAND. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68.775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9. No. the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues. and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE). It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 107 . 27 refs. Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. a product growing strongly in the profile industry. EUROPEAN UNION. 11 refs. Manchester.in particular the maintenance of colour. Arias G. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation. by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated.2.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder. p. 2000. Poland.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M. Rodriguez O S. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use . GERMANY. No.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification.2. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low temperature.4. p./Dec. So for each TiO2 pigment Accession no.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology. EUROPEAN UNION. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering. as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking. WESTERN EUROPE the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. to its high glass transition temperature.Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4. shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4.5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC.e. SPAIN. and impact strength over extended periods. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes. paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A.products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools.there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability . the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%.1999. it has shortcomings in impact strength. Conference proceedings.6dithio-1. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content. 5 refs. 2000.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods. and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles. gloss. p. an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC. Wiebeck H. The crosslinking reaction. Katowice. Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory. the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude . the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland. The different products used are discussed and positioned. By UVvis spectroscopy. Oct. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada.776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. such as pipes or profiles. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. Last but not least.6-dithio1. MEXICO. No. i.Escola Politecnico. In dry irradiation. In combination with metal stearates.3. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range. are expanded upon.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A. However due. compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler.3.1999.

) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view. BELGIUM.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec ’99. Shabnavard L.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. as a result. 5 refs. Sheehan S E.3. (SPE. p. Conference proceedings. Kaneka Corp.National Research Council (SPE.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec ’99.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M. EUROPEAN UNION. 1 ref.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated. 15 refs. Ontario. provide a more efficient lubricating effect. 12th-14th Oct. USA Accession no. Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings. Klein B. however. (SPE. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. March 2000. p.1999.114-7. BRAZIL Accession no. Ontario.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec ’99. No. there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends. long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances. and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems. other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced. Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA. While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis. and the result is compared to observed process behaviours.1999. 3 refs.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90.. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out. p.) 108 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Touchette-Barrette C.Vinyl Div. Ontario. the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives. such as ageing resistance. WESTERN EUROPE Concerns over worker safety. USA Accession no. p. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol.31-4 English. USA Accession no. Silbermann J. weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application. Ontario. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement.52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE. 7 refs. 12th-14th Oct.Vinyl Div. p. p. GERMANY.Vinyl Div.References and Abstracts different from traditional recycling and. 12th-14th Oct. Conference proceedings. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology.3. German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B. the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. However. Falter J A Henkel Corp. Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value. Cooney J D Canada. 2000. processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. JAPAN. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC.1999. passive safety. Western Europe has led these initiatives.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec ’99. In Accession no. 12th-14th Oct. Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp. alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product.1999.Vinyl Div. Today’s processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.90 No.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAY’S HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W.

They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. That is.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co. CANADA Accession no. March 2000.Vinyl Div. but colour hold poor. USA and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to. The results of the first phase of research. USA Accession no.1999. (SPE. conducted in September and November 1998.Vinyl Div. Conference proceedings.References and Abstracts the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers. The second phase of research. Ontario. Ontario. 9 refs. That is. expanded the study’s focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling.Vinyl Div. p. e. p. That research report. p.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec ’99. However. were presented at Vinyltec ’98.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A. 12th-14th Oct. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate.bottles and other post-consumer packaging. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser. additives such as hydrotalcite Accession no.Inc. was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs. the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. 12th-14th Oct. 12th-14th Oct. cove base extrusion.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec ’99. has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates.Halstab Div. that is.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No. USA Accession no. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites.302. acid-reactive fillers. these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers. In ‘test tube’ reactions. Mobley G. Processors’ difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is ‘unrecyclable’ without further investigating the obstacles. essentially instantaneously. for example. Ontario. that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time. the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs. In 1998. however. such as calcium carbonate. p. Bradshaw R W. conducted from February to April 1998. highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur.44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . at least to a far greater extent than common. Conference proceedings. alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling.1999. tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies . probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates. 7 refs.) Historically. the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ. (SPE. in particular. the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. (SPE. leading to the production of inorganic chlorides. When used as a primary stabiliser.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec ’99. process stability is long. In polymeric matrices. Prince J ECC International Inc. Conference proceedings. and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling.1999. Vinyl. barium stearate. ‘PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America’.g.

For most polyolefins.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30. EUROPEAN UNION. optical property evaluations and failure analysis. p. NORWAY. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation.2000. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. 49 refs.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z. and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping Accession no.1. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers. SCANDINAVIA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. physical testing. No. No. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. Feb. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile.State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature. USA Accession no. Feb. No. Data are presented for high impact PS. 4 refs.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S. Westphal S P. No.2. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL function. Zhang Q H Ohio. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated.2. In addition to unacceptable colour formation.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39. p.1.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67. and PVC. Ling M T K. For a variety of PVC formulations. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T. For PPs.References and Abstracts Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined. Jan. Irgens F. p. LDPE. excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. 2000. SINTEF Materials Technology. Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology. gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. No. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no. the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage. 17 refs. Techniques used include thermal analysis. Winter 1999. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. p.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3.2. forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated.2000. Hinrichsen E L. Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS 110 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Jan.2000. These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed.

Budapest. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified.1. p. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential. 2000. The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss. pp. The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION. Gehrmann J. Furukawa K.1999. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes. and hopes that their use will spread to other member states.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1. Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles. calcium hydroxide.) Accession no.e.1999. UK. Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd. HUNGARY Accession no.1999.University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. 27th-19th Oct. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane.University.27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J. weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated.5. 32 refs. In the dry membrane. inhomogeneities are found. Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate. MATTEL EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred.References and Abstracts AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. No. Horvai G Budapest. Marfell M Loughborough. Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid. p.Technical University. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC.759093 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 111 . Okuwaki A Tohoku.19. 1st Oct.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers. probably in the crystalline state. EASTERN EUROPE. HASBRO. Laurent P. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods. JAPAN Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide.1999. plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake.Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering.758765 Item 307 Addcon World ’99. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials. No. Oct. by chemical recycling is considered. paper 20. Type of plasticiser. Borbely S. Sept. Gilbert M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.uniaxial (constant width). 29 refs. p. BELGIUM. 2 refs.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q.411. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes .128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A. Jung C G. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 12 refs.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19. p. sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine. Prague.5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i. such as carboxylic acids. Conference proceedings.

EUROPEAN UNION. Prague.Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation. e. 27th-19th Oct. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU.3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1. London. Results (colour generation.4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals).6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J.3. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone. rigid PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference Proceedings.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J. WESTERN EUROPE Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed. p.3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency.137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC 112 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors. paper 19. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4. Hurst S J Manchester. Sept. 6-amino1. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3.1999. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds.3-dibutyluracil. The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D. 16th-17th March 1999. Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates. No. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems.1999. 6-amino-1. Harvey H B. pp. p. Lees G C. GERMANY.1999. No. thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd.47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. p. using Response Surface Methods. NETHERLANDS. 1999.2-bis-(2-cyano-3’3diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF. 16 refs. as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism. whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C). Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers. Details are given of the discussions involved. ABS. rigid PVC. 4 refs. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites.References and Abstracts Chemical structures. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. The main jointing methods for PE.3-dimethyluracil.g.758478 Item 308 Addcon World ’99.3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3. PP. 15 refs. Dec. Accession no. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets. Results (yellowness index. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. ABS and GRP are listed.3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2.299. is given particular attention. polycarbonate films.1. plasticised PVC. electrofusion socket welding. dibenzoylmethane.

It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness. employing ‘approximate’ time-temperature modulus relationships. It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . Blass C R. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. West R H. I. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity. spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated. CSMA Ltd. No. provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data.. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise.9. thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. 20 refs. 9 refs.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R. Hydro Polymers Ltd. Sept.University..755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science. USA attained within the part during injection is determined.3. p. p. antithrombotic agent. Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser. No. Sept. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test).132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. Lowe G D O Strathclyde.9. the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated.1999. Materials in Medicine 10. p. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC. there is a higher reactivity Accession no.References and Abstracts A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions. 6 refs.1999. 6 refs. Sept. Through a special design of experiment. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. JAPAN Accession no.. USA Accession no. blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure.755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39.1999. Zhao X B.3. A mathematical model. McFarland C A. Sept. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes. Glasgow. No. Courtney J M.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. Elleithy R H. USA Accession no.1999. The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design. p.Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions. To detect the changes in lubricity. No. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a ‘standard’ siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. Geon Co.

These concerns led to the development. typically in methanol. To achieve this. whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity. typically at 55% hydrolysis. during the 1980s. Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough.749320 Item 318 PVC ’99. Conference proceedings. adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water.References and Abstracts for TEHTM-PVC.747919 Item 319 PVC ’99. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence. PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. giving all the advantages of both secondary systems.5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. facilitating improved VCM removal and faster.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11.1999. BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG 114 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts. that such a water-based. has provided the Accession no. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM USA ideal solution. Brighton. are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent. plasticiser uptake. Even so.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. named Alcotex WD30. 14 refs. which are to some extent conflicting. 4th Oct. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC. aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems. No. Brighton. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices. The requirements of these. p. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC. an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material. BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity. more uniform. SPAIN. p.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M. UK. traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis. particularly at elevated temperatures. aqueous product could be supplied.University. water soluble.e. although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied. low molecular weight PVOHs. where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. Two methods.University (IOM Communications Ltd. Alicante. typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. fully dilutable grade. in conjunction with a 72. and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions. HCWH contends that Koop’s panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koop’s report. In this work. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. EUROPEAN UNION.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co. despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied.33. peroxides. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 20th-22nd April 1999. 20th-22nd April 1999.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. 8 refs. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC. modified secondary. of water-based secondary suspending agents. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. (IOM Communications Ltd. UK. 20th-22nd April 1999. which have been studied in some detail. is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC. It is demonstrated. Brighton.Ltd. are adequate gel content (i. with a low methanol content. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable. 17 refs. % crosslinked polymer). in certain S-PVC formulations. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis. using experimental design software. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. with an acceptable grain size. of 45-50% hydrolysis. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Conference proceedings.747918 Item 320 PVC ’99. with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers).NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M. it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution Accession no. Zuschnig G. wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC. AUSTRIA. However. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour. excellent dispersion in the resin. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. GERMANY. 3 refs. no health risk for the manufacturer. The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature.based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. delivery and storage in big bags or silos. BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented. p. 20th-22nd April 1999. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect. BPF) The effects of using dry pigments. HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation). A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described. Egger A. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches.747910 Item 323 PVC ’99. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd. Conference proceedings. free flowing and dustfree product forms. UK. Conference proceedings.. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc.. Wa. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives. lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness. EUROPEAN UNION.. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. advanced products. water immersion.References and Abstracts (IOM Communications Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd. p. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared. new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand. BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a ‘zipper dehydrochlorination’ process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. WESTERN EUROPE Item 322 PVC ’99. especially in tablet form. BPF) During the last decade.350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H. pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed. rheology.747913 Item 321 PVC ’99. but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions. thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. particularly for window profile. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level. no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility.747912 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . colour. Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. mechanical and electrical properties.and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined. As a consequence. dispersibility. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.. Brighton. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur. Consequently.

WESTERN EUROPE philosophy called ‘Avoid Cross-channel Flow’.747901 Item 327 PVC ’99.747908 Item 324 PVC ’99. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20th-22nd April 1999. BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. with simultaneous energy saving. Thorjussen T. 11 refs.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co. Brighton. Fire.747903 Item 326 PVC ’99. NORWAY. p. SCANDINAVIA. The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level.. 2 refs. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films. By optimising the blending ratio. including a proposed design Accession no. Conference proceedings.KG (IOM Communications Ltd. p.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO 116 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid. (IOM Communications Ltd.. 41 refs. Brighton. this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D. BPF) In PVC compounding. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd. Conference proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20th-22nd April 1999. Brighton. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process. BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications. However. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry. Brighton. Conference proceedings. 5 refs. The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing. 20th-22nd April 1999. enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0. Pedersen S. USA Accession no. Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.747906 Item 325 PVC ’99. 20th-22nd April 1999. This has several advantages. 20th-22nd April 1999. Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd. Conference proceedings. p. FRANCE.747897 Item 328 PVC ’99. Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. still providing a high-quality extruded profile. it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios. double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer. Conference proceedings..249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B. Jacobsen H.. UK. BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented. EUROPEAN UNION. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation. EUROPEAN UNION. 9 refs. temperatures and material properties. migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations. including less sensitivity to output rates. Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated.References and Abstracts only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account .

WESTERN EUROPE concluded that the relevant British Standard. Conference proceedings.747892 Item 330 PVC ’99.000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone. (IOM Communications Ltd. production waste. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. UK. UK. BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. 20th-22nd April 1999. Currently the cables are shredded. including the effect of weathering and scratching.747887 Item 331 PVC ’99. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. EUROPEAN UNION.. but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 117 . This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. EUROPEAN UNION. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine.Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd. surplus during installation and repair. melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described. AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J. it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. Brighton. gloss and degree of gelation. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range. Gardiner D UK. van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd. 12 refs. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test. separated and finally reused. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. PVC-U is notch-sensitive. 20th-22nd April 1999. or those with transfer foils.. 13 refs. and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice. BPF) Developments in the current legislation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process. NETHERLANDS. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers.200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES. BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength. p.. are outlined. colour. no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens. It is Accession no. p. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material. the metals liberated.. some of which have matching faces without foil coatings. These cables originate from (economic) end of life. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles. The hydrocyclonage. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BPF) Approximately 40. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BS 7722.747894 Item 329 PVC ’99. Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp.150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd.References and Abstracts INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L. Charging is essential for good separation. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new. which are put to landfill.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J. (IOM Communications Ltd. including the high quality PVC fraction. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering. Conference proceedings. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities.(UK) Ltd. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. p. humidity and pretreatment used. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature. In these tests. Brighton.

EUROPE-GENERAL. Aug.. AUSTRIA. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products. BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described. 12 refs.747879 Item 333 PVC ’99. 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability.10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA). No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997. EUROPEAN UNION. electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated.747886 Item 332 PVC ’99. 20th-22nd April 1999.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. Clariant GmbH. but uses the differential gravitational. 10 refs. 4. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. do not contribute to fogging. is on p.1999. July 1999. while the other products showed a clear loss of activity. however. Brighton. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals.5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not. (IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. BPF) In the early 1980s. UK. Conference proceedings. Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut. show any measurable fungistatic activity. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2. a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes. which includes tables. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate.68/74) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency. Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals. Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89.10. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. GERMANY. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised. Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec. TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE. p.747878 118 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Accession no.. a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R. sewer pipes and cable ducts. (German version of this paper. p. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products.62/6) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. MACHINERY.7. GERMANY. 20th-22nd April 1999. Richter E. UK. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10. EUROPEAN UNION. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes. other European countries are following. Brighton. unlike normal costabilisers.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires. WESTERN EUROPE Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. which includes graphs and tables. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping. SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. Today.wt.7. Meanwhile. including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines. is on p. (German version of this paper. p.92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. July 1999. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development. both industrial waste and post-use. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country. p. UK. processing aids in one product and which.

acoustics emission. July 1998). Broughton R M Auburn. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. Marcilla A. impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment.741972 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 119 . July 1999. (Part I.71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax. solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath.References and Abstracts FITT SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. SPAIN. ITALY. birefringence.28. and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser.744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions. As an example. ibid. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine.2. June 1999. No. 12 refs. No. USA Accession no.1998. the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes. and tensile testing. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. II.e. By modelling the rheological properties. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. EUROPEAN UNION. 14 refs.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L. EUROPEAN UNION. the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi).743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mijangos C Alicante. Hidalgo M. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent.(UK) Ltd. Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples. Harvey R European Vinyls Corp. EUROPEAN UNION. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied. WESTERN EUROPE Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple). Oct. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied.745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65. UK.Universidad. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents. Vol. phase separation of swelling bath. Two effective crosslinking agents were used. processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. Hou Z. i. In the case of the films prepared with ASi. as well as three clear decomposition processes. 28.65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I. oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant). p. p.1. 24 refs. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. such as DSC. a single decomposition stage was observed at temps.145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow. 5 refs. showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. p. In another application. Garcia J C. USA Accession no. No.743280 Accession no. June 1999.University The analysis of the swelling process. the amount and removability of the glue. The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques. is described. extruder conditions and final part properties. WAXD.

ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EU. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators. 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC. EUROPEAN UNION. as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer. within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure. physicochemical properties. shipment and handling. 2nd-6th May 1999. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Land Rover vehicles. 1998. Conference proceedings. and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. Volume III. such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. The infrared system is installed in Land Rover’s state-of-the-art Paintshop 21. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration. Pettijohn E Witco Corp. No.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28. Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant. Unlike other models in Land Rover’s range.13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes. Terescu-Boran S. heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics . HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment. Conference proceedings. 3 refs. p. May 1999.734261 Item 345 Antec ’99. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. p. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. All showed good thermal resistance. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry.E. EUROPEAN UNION. The effects measured included: % IR reflection. p. 21 refs. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander. LAND ROVER EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC. versatile viscosity. Details are given.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35.one year in South Florida.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. Volume III.292. and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT. At temperatures above 10 deg.C. 1999.References and Abstracts Item 341 ENDS Report No. p. UK. the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and. 2nd-6th May 1999. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P. No. New York City. medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight. which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all Accession no. to ensure that the required precuring will take place. at the same time.3. EASTERN EUROPE. p.734767 Item 344 Antec ’99. Istratuca G The synthesis.2885-9.3621-4. USA Accession no. New York City. RUMANIA Accession no. which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. 012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp. they require very low temperature storage.4. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the Freelander’s anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound. II. This precuring is essential. UK. from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender.

This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity.733965 Item 347 Antec ’99. New York City.References and Abstracts most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition. Hegranes B. 2nd-6th May 1999. Takaki A.733758 Item 350 Antec ’99. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G. In other words. and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. 2nd-6th May 1999. Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these Accession no. 6 refs. JAPAN Accession no. relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength. a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed.3564-8. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp. 5 refs. predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity.Inc. IV. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 121 . p. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Using commercial grade plasticisers. p. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H. Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. New York City. making them safer to handle.. These additives effectively stabilise the product. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion.3512-25. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC. Exxon Chemical Co. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. p. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells. Volume III. USA III. Conference proceedings. Dooley T. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y. 2nd-6th May 1999. Bacaloglu R. USA Accession no. Nakanishi Y. From this aspect. 11 refs. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. USA Accession no. Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co. Volume III. USA Accession no. 2nd-6th May 1999. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R.733960 Item 349 Antec ’99. New York City. Jakubowski J. 10 refs. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. Conference proceedings. and the gelation of plastisols. 2nd-6th May 1999. p. New York City. New York City. p. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials.3569-73. store and ship.733970 Item 346 Antec ’99. their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. Conference proceedings. Volume III. New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators. Conference proceedings. Volume III. Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. 19 refs.3526-36.3592-6.733961 Item 348 Antec ’99.Inc. but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken.

grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. 16 refs.. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers. 1999. were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping. USA Accession no. USA Accession no. March 1999. N. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented. while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated.4. plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency ‘sphere’ of PVC.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics.3. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements. 19 refs. Fugit J L. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S. field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. 8 refs.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. p.Y.References and Abstracts interactive forces. EUROPEAN UNION. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets. No. No.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72.28. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1.58/64 DESIGN .University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials. INDIA Accession no. Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. USA Item 353 Injection Molding 7. Using CO-ACT service. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics. is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. Full details of the problem and the solution are presented. Plastics Design Library. New York.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. FRANCE.399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S. the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact. Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned. April 1999. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments. p. p. a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins. No. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters. Compared with other recycling techniques. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. Broughton R M Auburn. July 1998. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. Hou Z.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A. Phase separation Accession no. together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue.5967. 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. 4th April 1999. Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags. 2 refs. and liquid food or food simulants. having been subjected to a treatment. p.MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order. their size and ageing period were performed. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892). I. A mathematical model.732200 122 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

calibration table. and foam core pipe for drain. AUSTRALIA. Annealing is essential. profile. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC. Features of the machinery are described. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds.1998. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry. just like wood. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range. Boucherville. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction. haul off and profile saw.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives. allows higher design stress ratings and material savings. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. particularly in many wood replacement applications. Sweden. Rigid vinyl foam is. No.565-72. SWEDEN. Previously this has been performed as a secondary ‘off-line’ process in an external mould.. but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index. and particular details are given of the profile dies. Aspects covered Accession no.2. Retec proceedings. 14th-17th Sept. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. KOLSITE BATTENFELD INDIA Accession no. 15 refs. 23rd-25th Sept. 20 refs. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet. where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. 1998. requires little energy input and much lower capital cost.University (SPE. waste and vent applications.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied.165-74. in many ways. 6H21 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 123 . 1999.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. high rigidity. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes. Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974. and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. UK. USA A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G. EUROPEAN UNION. which is mainly used for trim and moulding. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. high water resistance. p.. 7 refs.526-34. the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume. London. improved thermal insulation. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. a process has been developed to execute the orientation process ‘in-line’ with the extrusion.Ltd. and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X.References and Abstracts was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years. SCANDINAVIA.1998. The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. Hitt D J. calibration block. and most importantly. p. p. Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty. Feb. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers. Goteborg. Kluwer. p. where the major application is signage. the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion. Conference proceedings. For flexible PVC. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam. Qc. An A-Z reference. The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam. Tabtiang A Loughborough.

The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. Nos. The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives. Kluwer. p. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G 124 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. These products are constructed with a dense. with the aid of specially developed computer programs. Chicago.96-100.713534 Item 364 Vinyltec ’98.165-74. Retec proceedings. 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc. NETHERLANDS.714178 Item 363 ARC ’98. 1998.1-2. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B. Therefore. London. Prior to the development of ER3. function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. EUROPEAN UNION. most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components .) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market. BELGIUM. are heat stabilisers.. Gondard C. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods. Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri. p. Retec proceedings. USA Accession no. 13th-14th Oct.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18. USA thermoplastic magnets. 30 refs. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. Souren F. during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point. 4 refs. Colemonts C DSM. 38 refs. No.1. They are recycled into new. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride). hardness.1998. An introduction to rigid PVC. CROATIA Accession no.J.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC. Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of Accession no. The effect of the composition on the impact strength. while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32. East Brunswick. closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling. 12th Jan. 7 refs. chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented.450-8.6 face and a vinyl composite backing system.References and Abstracts include vinyl foam processes and formulations.1998. the function and classification of lubricants. Its vision in the early 1990s was to ‘close the loop’ by recycling carpet into carpet. (SPE. low pile nylon 6. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point. Scherrenberg R L. Details are given USA Accession no. 1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1999. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology.Plastics Recycling Div. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Litvinov V M. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated. Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied. p. Il. Falter J A. and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite. 11th-13th Nov. Geick K S Lonza Inc. p. recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products. Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. An A-Z reference. N. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W.a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. Those retarding thermal decomposition.

Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. entirely as an HX scavenger. N. Fatma K. p. in cases where high water resistance is required. derived from residual catalyst.7 billion lb. Iida T Osaka. immiscible polymeric additives. Due to their low solubility. and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. consisting of a few beads on average. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE. embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering.References and Abstracts Rohm & Haas Co. agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding. Nevertheless. such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. In some halogenated polymers. 1998. The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers.407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y. the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal. 5 refs. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll. Mechanically. such as EPM or EPDM. mineral fillers. USA crosslinking. the metal may participate in crosslink formation. composites. Among additives used in the formulation. In other cases. were dispersed in the matrix. polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO).75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K. relative ease of installation. or instead. and tensile tests were carried out. chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM). and impact resistance. once mixed into a polymer. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance. 13th-14th Oct. as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions. In some of these cases. 9 refs.Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction. p. With lead-based stabilisers. or contamination of the environment. including wood. Retec proceedings. In hydrocarbon polymers.) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years.J. size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. To clarify the effect of particle shape.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec ’98. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear ‘natural’ and not ‘plastic’. p. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content.711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43. were used instead. etc.83-8. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates. but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure. The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding.6. (SPE. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin. such as chlorinated PE (CPE). which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix. However. lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride. Yoshimoto N. with more soluble halide salts. certain types of lubricants. USA Accession no..Vinyl Div. concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. No. including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach. extraction or migration of lead-based additives. No. JAPAN Accession no.1998. as in reduced impact strength. there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish. weatherability. is very low. have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1. Features such as low maintenance. Nov. particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. Okabe S. Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 125 . 12 refs.11. tooling wear and plateout. lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide Accession no. East Brunswick.) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction.Vinyl Div.1998.

N.1997. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented. Atlanta. Palermo.University. EUROPEAN UNION.4 tonnes of waste material a month. 1999. RUSSIA Accession no. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S.1. p. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R.University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC.Vinyl Div. not only no macroscopic change of the molec. p.1999. No. recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. is examined. FITT SPA.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No.1998.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC.1766. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry Accession no. presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation. low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. SCANDINAVIA. one of the world’s largest PVC flooring manufacturers. if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SWEDEN. 14th-15th Oct. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 8 refs. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and. including extraction. Heung Kim. No. ITALY.1. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied. p.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt. INDIA Semenov N. TARKETT AB EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.107-26. Zhdanova O A 126 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. Retec proceedings. tributyl citrate.. measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples. ITALY. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. Zaikov G E. EUROPEAN UNION. whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited. Semenov S A.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. p. Italy’s largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products. volatility. Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE.Institute of Chemical Physics. 10 refs. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces. Tarkett Sommer. La Mantia F P Pisa.wt. USA Accession no. 3rd Jan. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts For many years. No. p. In this study. Ga. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth. but there are concerns regarding its toxicity.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71. Furthermore. processes almost 100. 12 refs. 11th Dec.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec ’97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry.1.000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8. thermal stability. 1999. PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared. 12 refs.

.. Day M Canada. high flame resistance. It has an output of 4. PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J. In both cases. Krzymien M. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals. 26 refs.National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time. 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.7. these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. EUROPEAN UNION. excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market. No. 1st Oct. and troubleshooting. Washuettl J Vienna. GERMANY. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product. 18 refs. good chemical resistance. 9 refs. extrusion foaming methods. 1997.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62. c. This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel. USA Accession no.Co. with mass spectrometry detection. In contrast. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. 1998. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile). Similar species were also directly released during irradiation. 11 ins.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. ease of fabrication by mechanical means.. samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples. plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. a blowing agent activation approach was developed. No. pressures.8.Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. good acoustic damping properties. p. Worsfold D J.University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of children’s sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. 2nd edition.F.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING. Scharf L. p. 1/12/98. EUROPEAN UNION.705216 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity.1998. processing. startup. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of Accession no. USA Accession no. is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B.000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4. Aspects covered include structure of formulations. mould design. Hanser Publications. BATTENFELD AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. based on organometallic chemistry. the smallest model in the EMS series. pp. p.3. CANADA Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology. GERMANY. 82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s. Oh.1998. theory. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder. Fiala F. and includes details of melt preparation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.435-54. Munich.500kg/hr for plasticised. Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation.References and Abstracts of decomposition and gas formation. Pleizier G.704011 Item 376 Brecksville. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. process upsets. From this mechanism. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders.

Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles.26. but the use of DMS. Aug. No. 19 refs. p. prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone.4. 28 refs. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications. A nomogram is given to predict the strength. dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes.0. Nov. Marquez Lucero A Yucatan. In order to evaluate the technique. the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost.Centro de Investigacion Cientifica. based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio. during a tensile test was investigated. the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1. USA Accession no. Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4 for the shaking test. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications. EUROPEAN UNION. Iida T Osaka. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated. No. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film. p. NETHERLANDS.33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. MEXICO Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE in reduced ductility.700556 Item 379 Polymer 39.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio. Campos Torres A. 19 refs. No. but too rarely to be statistically measurable.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J.University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS). but there was no significant influence of particle size.1998. 1998. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test. stiffness. AUSTRIA. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25. Strength. and toughness increased at low PHR ratios. SEM observations of the specimen’s surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the 128 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70.References and Abstracts DEHP.2. Finally. Mexico.1998. defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4. Fukuoka Y. p. a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets.1998. However. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. DES and DOA resulted Accession no.10. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry. 10th Oct. No. diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate. and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser. Kusy R P North Carolina.Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices.

JAPAN Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61. Above this temperature. EUROPEAN UNION. 9th-11th December 1997. followed by oxidation. Paper 4. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. Lyon.1. ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. i. Sato T. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first. In the presence of titanium dioxide. Katowice. the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. 24 refs. No. Colouring methods have changed slowly. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates.2.in close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. FRANCE. they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations . Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc. The presence of fillers enhanced Young’s modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. p. Michel A CNRS. IV.University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions.695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions. whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath. The extrudates were stretched above and below the “gel-liquid” transition temperature of PVC (about 205C). it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm.References and Abstracts particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress. Conference proceedings. 1998.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. Audouin L. the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented. it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl Accession no. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe. the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. Mur G. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point. close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. 19 refs. The colour hold guidelines. 3rd Oct. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Okuwaki A Tohoku. Cassagnau P. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. 1998. the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C. No. were explained. at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. 19 refs.211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39. No. 15 refs. p. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h. Poland.4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I.1998. the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade. The main products were oxalic acid. with the change from full siding to coextrusion.696562 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 129 . p. JAPAN Accession no. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature). These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks. Furukawa K.e.20. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Boudeulle M. Gay M. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry.

26th-30th April 1998.3234-9. p. or more accurately appearance retention. Herbiet R. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 26th-30th April 1998. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H.692777 Item 390 Antec ’98. (SPE) Stain resistance. extraction resistance. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A. Conference proceedings. II. Conference proceedings. Cusack P A Brunel University. Conference proceedings. Ga. Bacaloglu R.. It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS. is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications. Bacaloglu R. p. 26th-30th April 1998. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance.. p. WESTERN EUROPE MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser. Ga. Schaefer R E Solutia Inc. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored.693676 Item 387 Antec ’98. concentration. volatility and solubility parameter. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts weatherable profiles.. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. Volume III. 19 refs. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler.3272-7. 10 refs. 9 refs. International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers. a few new trends are highlighted. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds. Ga. Biesiada K. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R. Volume III.. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R.692780 Item 389 Antec ’98. the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC. confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed.3310-2. The latest research developments are illustrated using Accession no. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. Brecker L R Witco Corp. Ga. Today. 26th-30th April 1998. 10 refs.3296-300. Atlanta. USA Accession no. UK. Volume III. Atlanta. 26th-30th April 1998. Volume III. Atlanta. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America. on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. Atlanta. USA Accession no.692781 Item 388 Antec ’98.3291-5. including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours. creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. Conference proceedings. Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport. Renshaw J T. Volume III..694482 Item 386 Antec ’98. Ga. 012 130 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . I. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure. functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. Biesiada K. p. Conference proceedings. Brecker L R Witco Corp. p. Atlanta. USA Accession no.

690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34. May/June 1998.15. p. in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique. Nos.References and Abstracts smoke density results. 5 refs.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D. 15 refs. Using parallel plate sensors. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. temperature and frequency.5/6. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.687797 Accession no.Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method. adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser. GERMANY.University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed. was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems. Djilani S E Annaba. No. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser. US. the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies. the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio. These obervations were discussed. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak. EUROPEAN UNION.686631 Item 394 Polymer 39.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C. The Consumers Union.000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser. p. SPAIN.18. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser. Marcilla A Alicante. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser. 29th July 1998. USA Accession no. Gelation occurred in several steps. ALGERIA Accession no. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH. Kusy R P North Carolina. said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high. the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser. 17 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model. Details are given. depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles. No. 1998.14. the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine.692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10.686435 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 131 .Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers. decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION USA Item 393 Polymer 39. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible. 13 refs. No.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. 1998. p.

685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. No. Atlanta. Park C B Toronto. USA Accession no. CHINA. Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders. widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. June 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die.References and Abstracts Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. WESTERN EUROPE Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. 2 refs. p. SCANDINAVIA.University. Gustavson H. poultry. compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial. Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co. 1998. 7 refs. No. p. Sweden. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. Svensson K. Ga.5.University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. Conference proceedings. SEM.2. pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications. Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics. image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. May 1998. 63 refs. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss.University. USA Accession no. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D. UK. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane.University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite. 18 refs. sheet. Mason T J Yunnan. EUROPEAN UNION.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics.Royal Institute of Technology. SWEDEN. Nanjing.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao. including purees of beef. p.2.9. 26th-30th April 1998.680858 132 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Volume I. CANADA Accession no. No. Accession no.University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. No.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. berries and vegetables. Karlsson S. p. Balatinecz J J. and maleated PP for surface modification. Ciguang Bao. Coventry. Rue Feng.5 mg/ kg. the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%. All the extrusion processes (film.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. dichlorodiethylsilane. surface roughness. coating. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound. 31st May 1998. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1. Uppsala. Oskarsson A Sweden. phthalic anhydride. p. fish.684907 Item 398 Antec ’98..87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co. pork. emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control.National Food Administration.247-55.

CANADA. Conference Proceedings. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. 24th-28th Aug. methyl. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles. The properties.1. lithium. the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature. p. 1998. how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product.1.References and Abstracts Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character. and various accessory items Accession no. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. March 1998. Williams J B Lonza Inc.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 133 . Typical are house siding. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. are very dependent on the density of the foam product.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. Formulation additives. 28 refs. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density.5 to 1. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A. p. No.5 phr (approximately 1. No. USA generally used for installation. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. window profiles. along with looking at ways to improve them.417-22. USA Accession no. In addition to these solid products. and foam core pipe. March 1998. typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. 9 refs. zinc. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. Book 2. fencing. or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications. No. sheet.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. p. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them. pipe. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. At a normal usage of 0. Ontario. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years. however. Toronto. II.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. March 1998. and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms. foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials.1. p. No. p. aluminium and sodium internal/external. storm doors. Geick K S.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co. and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. 3 refs. USA Accession no. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant.1997. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M. In addition. and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements. Laminations and Coatings Conference. magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants. tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. USA Accession no. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above.1.

No.1. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. EUROPEAN UNION. Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens. The effects of processing conditions.Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser. EUROPEAN UNION. 4th April 1998. Edge V. Azuma F. JAPAN beta-diketone. MEXICO. Edge V. EUROPEAN UNION. Coahuila. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported. Data are given for milling.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. e. Petty C A.676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. I.. Spring 1998. USA Accession no.University.1998. Evaluation of induction times to degradation. FRANCE.g. the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. while preheated calcium stearate reduced them.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. 4th April 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No. calcium soap. Jan. GERMANY. No. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R. carbonyl formation. No. p.670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17..37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M. 20 refs. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times.g. Coahuila. Grulke E A Michigan.SAS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68.1. During normal stabilisation conditions.. Kentucky.Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied. Allen N S. Manchester. UK.Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates. temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined. a ‘short-term’ costabiliser. II. No.1996. Allen N S. p.Metropolitan University. visible reflectance.1. Gillis P P.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. zinc stearate. 28 refs. Tellez M M Mexico. followed by press moulding and 134 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process.Metropolitan University. MEXICO. UK. 18 refs. COMERIO R. Manchester.University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC.752. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll. Tellez M M Mexico. BERSTORFF H. as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83).MASCHINENBAU GMBH. TEMPERATURE.. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using. p. flotation. e. ITALY. COMERIO ERCOLE SPA.1. Iida T Osaka. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET.References and Abstracts Nakamura Y. Gilbert M Loughborough. in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. p. Details are also given of the roller head process. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 19 refs. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R. The same effect was seen with the Accession no. and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings. and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined. Sept. p.

663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10. UK. Sept.3. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. screw speed and draw-down. No.References and Abstracts extrusion.for Med. No. 9 refs.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. EUROPEAN UNION. A ‘more severe test’ is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness. Accession no.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. Wiedl D J Geon Co. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions. Isner J D. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst.5 mm single screw. cell structure and surface appearance.Sci.205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed. therefore. the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a ‘more severe test’. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. in particular.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I. such as melt temp. time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy. 1998. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a ‘more severe test’ and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. p. 4 refs. 26 refs. For packaging converters. Goodson A. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate. However. p. No. on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile.3. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity. The © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 135 .1997. USA Accession no. No. the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive.210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B.1. 22 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. 15 refs.3. who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser.4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals. overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S. UK. No. Sept. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed. Sidor J A. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. May-June 1997. including density.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R.3. Sept. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC. p. INDIA Accession no. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA Accession no. with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2.1997.1997.. p.

-5th Oct. The Commission’s words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels. and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts. Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co. GERMANY.2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1997. This article examines the reasons why. Sept.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. LDPE.1997.656159 136 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation. CHINA Accession no. No. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world. Data are given for PVC. capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. p.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C. 17 refs. Wu G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 29th Sept. p.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S. The pyrrolidine-2.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described. business equipment.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound. USA Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. In particular. p. Today’s vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties. processability. Different methods (complexometric titration. The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Among these. in the past mainly heavy metals. whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods. Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives. Accession no.1997. p.9. No.1782. No. Oct. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment. June 1997. p. yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled. EUROPEAN UNION. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment. performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. appearance. No. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts regulatory status. 12 refs. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. LLDPE. heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals. 8 refs.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling. quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. were fitted to the equation.10.4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations. and electrical enclosures. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification. and epoxy resin. it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars.University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles.1997.2. Pan Y Zhejiang. Oct.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68. experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites. the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44. No. HDPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 13 refs. GERMANY.

most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products. Lemaire J Blaise Pascal. there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills. USA Accession no. BAYSHORE VINYL USA Accession no. but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market.107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. Potapov V A Under physical. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches. and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them.VINYL INSTITUTE.2.2. which present an absorption below 400 nm. EUROPEAN UNION. and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I. 12 refs. June 1997. despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. No. I. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length. 5 refs. Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. p. No. Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. giving them an external character. No.Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark.ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS. Nokhrina N N. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured. 1997. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association. which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.650267 Accession no.References and Abstracts however. USA Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27. No. OXYCHEM. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials. p.3. However.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. it is reported. US. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years. but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl. This effect is reversible. is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles. Lyutikova E A. 13 refs.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE). p. is not a simple process.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers. (APR). May 1997. Currently. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation. and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction. RUSSIA Accession no. chemical and mechanical effects. the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions. which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product.647875 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . 5. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R. US. 9 refs. June 1997. Hegranes B. FRANCE.

p.References and Abstracts Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. polyfunctional amines and. small-angle x-ray scattering.1. the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform. since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties. p. No. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity.4-6 CINCINNATI’S DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes. crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. No.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J. as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing. crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. derivatives of dimercaptotriazines. but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. In PVC. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing.1997. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH AUSTRIA.g. profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws. RUMANIA Accession no. which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. UK. domain structure. During processing under appropriately selected conditions. of some commercial importance.or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented. this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K. For this reason. studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC. POLAND Accession no. Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity. Dumitrescu S Jassy. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared. The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing. EUROPEAN UNION. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. 1997. and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%. EASTERN EUROPE. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values. Jassy. reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug. 14 refs. whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. WESTERN EUROPE are present in structures of microdomains and between them. 16 refs. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I.2. 1997. These Accession no. the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing. p. These machines are intended to complement the company’s Titan conical screw range. Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements.642797 138 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. 1997. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34. Daranga M. IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). depending on the formulation used. p.Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. 14 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. No. increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance.

Conference proceedings. No. porosity. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. USA mixer. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties.639926 Item 431 Antec 97. tensile strength and modulus increase significantly. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK.University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied. p. elongation at break. Patel H M. Volume III. In this region.University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index.27th April-2nd May 1997. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. No. Kentucky. and morphology is discussed. 5th July 1997. is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles. Toronto. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. Conference proceedings. May 1997. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine Accession no. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms.1.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65. toughness and notched izod impact strength. Petty C A. 3 refs. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated. However.3496-502. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industry’s concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead. Kusy R P North Carolina.639984 Item 430 Antec 97. Balatinecz J J.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M.3580-5.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S. 10 refs. and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites.11.5.27th April-2nd May 1997. Volume III. EUROPEAN UNION. tensile strength at yield. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T.State University. Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38. p.University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties. Toronto. Brooks B W Loughborough. JAPAN Accession no. p. 41 refs. whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L.University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability. electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations. puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . CANADA Accession no.p. Park C B Toronto. modulus. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size. No. Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers.References and Abstracts Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37.p. May 1997. as for example. Grulke E A Michigan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M.

No. USA Accession no.1902-6. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC 140 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M. Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation. Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33. Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation. 19 refs. 28 refs. March 1997. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. p. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased.4. stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation. April 1997. Shen K K US Borax Inc. 27th April-2nd May 1997. USA Ferm D J. 5 refs. Garcia J C. Some examples of successful applications are described. USA Accession no.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. 6 refs.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.1. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. No. the contribution to improved Accession no. p. It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. March 1997. Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties. Strength. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion.Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique. phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one.References and Abstracts species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes. March 1997. USA Accession no. Volume II.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. p. Toronto. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated.1. 4 refs. No. p. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency. No. p. No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. profile processing conditions and welding parameters. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied.638534 Item 433 Antec 97.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M. For both plasticiser systems. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. Conference proceedings. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%. EUROPEAN UNION. Marcilla A Alicante.1. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps. SPAIN.

630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33. 1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS.Universidad del Pais Vasco.(UK) Ltd.University © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 141 .g. I. FRANCE. No. respectively. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 8 refs.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38. Bellenger V. No. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25. p. the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples. March 1997. the Hildebrand solubility parameter. p. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. UK. Cretney H European Vinyls Corp. 1997. Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers.0% and 11. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara.References and Abstracts weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line. but unique compounds of interesting structure.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4. 1997. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed. predicted the major Accession no. Del Val J J.e. or double compounds of lead oxide.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate. The predictor of compatibility. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate. No.1. TURKEY Accession no. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding. 20 refs. i. 12 refs. as suggested in most textbooks. EUROPEAN UNION. 47 refs.4. e. However. foam structure and colour. tetrabasic lead fumarate. interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS. tribasic lead maleate. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements.4. 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A. 6 refs. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F. Quirk J P. PVC.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. IX. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones. No. USA Accession no.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L. EUROPEAN UNION. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations.7. Balkose D Ege.1. indicated that these salts were not complexes. HALSTAB USA Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane. elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC. ENSAM The volumetric.9%. Verdu J San Sebastian. 1996.Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties. The results were discussed. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC. SPAIN.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Edelmann X (EMPA.Recovery. molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC. Oliverio S R F.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. Accession no. Allen N S Mexico. 2 refs.IV.629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14. 1996. Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. MEXICO.Testing & Res. SWITZERLAND. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer. 1995. The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. Manchester. Biological Processes. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight. No.1996. with a very high yield.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. p. but which can recover the most important component of it . The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. plasticiser loading. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed. Recycling. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data.REVIEW Green J FMC Corp.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE. p. p. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility. p. Santiago S L. RUMANIA Accession no.1.. 25 refs.193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. USA Accession no. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1996. but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material. Hospital Waste. 12 refs. 13 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK.as a raw product for VCM manufacture.617495 Item 444 R’95 . namely diesters and mixed esters. No. EUROPEAN UNION. Re-Integration. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed. 4 refs.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION . Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important.References and Abstracts level of compatibility for both series involved.615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2.chlorine . and choice of antioxidant. 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A. FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W.6. No. For PVC. Sept.Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit.3. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water. Volume IV: Chemical Processes. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC. Geneva.615223 142 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Eduardo R V. EASTERN EUROPE. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation.3. USA Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54.51-8. No. this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics. 31 refs. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. 1st-3rd Sept.1996. Sept. Conference proceedings. Nov/Dec. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications. stabiliser type.

Marvalin C. Conference proceedings. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion. FRANCE. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed. 1996. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. European Vinyls Corp.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A. Brighton.for Med. p. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory Accession no.379-90. 11 refs. depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels. the resultant costs. 10 refs.611174 Item 452 PVC ’96. In addition. yet shrinkage is also influenced by output. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University.& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions.611191 Item 449 PVC ’96. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN UNION. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning.611177 Item 450 PVC ’96. INDIA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No.391-405. p. Brighton.23. UK. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix. separation of foreign materials and grinding. p.References and Abstracts USA (Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition. Disson J P. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough. It is a multi-axial parameter. 19 refs. p.417-24. EUROPEAN UNION.361-8. there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. Brighton. After surface modification.Sci. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique. 23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton. Bianchi C. Conference proceedings. Many of these variables are interdependent.611175 Item 451 PVC ’96. occurring in all three principal axes of the profile. GERMANY. cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound.(UK)Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Beyond its theoretical interest. 6 refs. Stephenson R C Loughborough. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries. p. 23rd-25th April 1996. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects. Conference proceedings. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN UNION. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37. and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables. the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. Conference proceedings. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed.University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section. Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes. Morel P Elf Atochem SA © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 143 . and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems.

.259-68. the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. In particular. 23rd-25th April 1996.611170 Item 454 PVC ’96. ‘Z’ and ‘L’ shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings.209-18. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process. Brighton. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers. 23rd-25th April 1996. Most flexible and high shear. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. 4 refs. high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants. drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conroy G M Morton International Inc. p.345-53. different sizes of ‘T’. EUROPEAN UNION. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds. the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser. GERMANY.611172 Item 453 PVC ’96. Conference proceedings. 16 refs. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis. calendered flooring. that is. WESTERN EUROPE calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new Accession no.611153 144 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . UK. p. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas. Brighton. 42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A. p.611161 Item 455 PVC ’96. 23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton. Lee S H Geon Co. surface flow) are compared. 5 refs. ITALY.611156 Item 456 PVC ’96. USA Accession no. p. (Institute of Materials) In their early days. EUROPEAN UNION. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed. In solvent-free UV-curable systems. Brighton. but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. 42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted. polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results. Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. Through the correct choices of organotin species. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. 7 refs. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. Here. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability.Morton Plastics Additives Div. 23rd-25th April 1996. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.175-83. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film.

PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability. p. EUROPEAN UNION. 23rd-25th April 1996. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning. storage and optics retention are studied. The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE.611148 Item 460 PVC ’96.115-31. New software is developed which can Accession no. USA Item 459 PVC ’96. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. These days. Existing methods of rheology control. have certain drawbacks. The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied.145-51. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. machines become bigger and faster. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated. the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment. EUROPEAN UNION. Brighton. and temperature stable. p. high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BELGIUM. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque. comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown.109-14. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics. Brighton. 3 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties. liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications. GERMANY.611150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability.153-61. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations.References and Abstracts Item 457 PVC ’96. while exhibiting this behaviour. Conference proceedings. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness. 23rd-25th April 1996. Conference proceedings. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. 23rd-25th April 1996. 23rd-25th April 1996. the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins.611151 Item 458 PVC ’96. Conference proceedings. nearly pseudoplastic. p. p. Additionally. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. dispersion. Brighton. Brighton.

11th-17th Nov.Hemsley D A.1996. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Knight M Goodrich B.p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd.542367 Item 464 Shawbury. PVC/PU. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion.. and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90. The company is building a 1. no.12. Day J A.6. that meets a variety of process uses. In rigid PVC. Dec. 14 refs. No. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0. UK. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS.Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity.1994. PVC/ polyolefin. EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM.4.References and Abstracts measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Brann S. calendering and liquid PVC compositions. and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the Netherlands. Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed. blow moulding. PVC/ polycaprolactone. particularly pipes and fittings.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry. pp. Blending and alloying is described. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. BELGIUM. temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs. 4 refs. p. Rapra Technolgy Ltd. UK Accession no. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers.7.245286 146 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 1994. PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66. PVC/nitrile rubber.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure. PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples. USA Accession no. stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels. fabrication and surface treatments. injection moulding.154. 1994.000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven. technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride. the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion. UK. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3. 12ins. 23/11/94. p.1740. EUROPEAN UNION. EVC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd. the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing.F. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. This comprehensive article describes cPVC’s key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997.No.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov.075 micron. p.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS Accession no. NETHERLANDS.1996.UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed.) Rapra Review Report No. EUROPEAN UNION. using PVC/polyester.1983. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Rapra Review Report vol.Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength. EUROPEAN UNION.

196 AGEING. 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION. 19 366 404 AGREEMENT. 218 376 ANALYSIS. 1 58 B BAG. 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE. 113 122 201 ALLOY. 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL. 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT. 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE.Subject Index Subject Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE. 135 BLOCKING. 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE. 4 387 388 ALLIANCE. 257 BALL. 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE. 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL. 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 50 59 179 218 343 ABS. 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY. 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE. 464 BLOWING AGENT. 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG. 98 257 ANNEALING. 81 400 426 464 ARM REST. 302 382 BENZOATE. 48 BLOOD. 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION. 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY. 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE. 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION. 98 351 BLOW MOULDING. 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION. 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE. 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM. 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE. 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION. 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE. 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST. 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT. 421 BLEND. 362 BARIUM STEARATE. 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY. 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 147 . 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE. 239 BONDING. 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC. 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 191 C CABLE. 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE. 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND. 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE. 115 BLEACHING. 178 AUTOMATION. 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER. 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION. 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 100 247 BIOCIDE. 70 BAN. 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION. 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE. 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY. 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION. 310 BARIUM. 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE. 337 396 440 AMINOSILANE. 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION. 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY. 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION. 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT. 103 ADIPATE ESTER. 419 BUTT WELD. 236 ACQUISITION. 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT. 244 399 456 ADHESIVE. 284 AMINOURACIL. 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE. 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A. 129 435 AMORPHOUS. 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE. 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING. 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE. 122 408 BLISTERING. 150 ANTIFOGGING. 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING. 207 BATCH MIXING. 14 BLAST FURNACE. 98 ADSORPTION. 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE.

21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT. 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND. 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER. 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION. 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC. 64 439 CLARITY. 3 60 CORNICE. 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER. 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND. 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION. 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195 148 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 376 464 CHLORINATED PE. 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY. 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 209 217 263 368 CATALYST. 122 253 COST. 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION. 105 213 CARBON BLACK. 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY. 67 218 248 371 CHALK. 400 CASTING. 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE. 55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION. 352 353 CAST FILM. 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE. 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET. 243 363 CASE HISTORY.Subject Index 283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY. 197 CORRUGATED SHEET. 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT. 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND. 283 CHLORINATED. 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE. 120 165 CHAR. 35 36 461 COOLING. 149 CONE CALORIMETER. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN. 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW. 8 45 131 239 CLAY. 169 CARBON DIOXIDE. 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION. 98 100 228 257 CARPET. 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN. 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE. 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION. 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING. 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 73 COLOUR FASTNESS. 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING. 237 CONDENSATION REACTION. 220 344 400 COMBUSTION. 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING. 24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA. 99 COLOUR STABILITY. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING. 8 80 211 236 298 387 431 COLOURANT. 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE. 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER. 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM. 63 318 COATED FABRIC. 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT. 64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING. 64 COSMETICS. 160 244 CLOSED LOOP. 172 CALCIUM. 83 CALCIUM STEARATE. 184 363 CLOTHING. 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY. 218 427 COEXTRUSION. 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 458 CALENDERING. 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN. 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE. 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE. 263 281 CLADDING. 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER. 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING. 436 463 CHLORINE. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE. 98 411 CONTAMINATION. 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID. 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE. 218 427 CONSUMPTION. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY. 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER. 104 COLOUR. 408 CONVERSION. 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE. 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE. 227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE.

2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE. 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER. 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN. 99 463 DWELL TIME. 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY. 53 116 274 440 CRACKING. 181 202 CROSSLINKING. 86 244 247 DEGRADATION. 51 257 353 DAMPING. 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION. 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING. 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462 E E-MODULUS.Subject Index 196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER. 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE. 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE. 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN. 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE. 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE. 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE. 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE. 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION. 230 CYTOTOXICITY. 349 356 464 DRYING. 51 DECOMPOSITION. 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING. 419 CUTTING. 315 383 DRINKING WATER. 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE. 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE. 428 DUCTILITY. 42 242 334 DIE. 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE. 184 CREDIT CARD. 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING. 122 DRY BLENDING. 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT. 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION. 464 DIRECTIVE. 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL. 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE. 408 CREEP. 333 DRAWING. 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE. 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND. 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION. 21 27 DECKING. 183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER. 379 393 432 DIOXIN. 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE. 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION. 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY. 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE. 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE. 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES. 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE. 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE. 66 DIBENZOFURAN. 132 170 230 DEFORMATION. 104 419 DEGRADABLE. 306 DOOR. 7 8 92 110 123 171 195 DENSITY. 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT. 11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION. 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY. 70 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 149 . 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE. 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION. 11 117 DIISONONYL PHTHALATE. 184 243 408 CYLINDER. 64 244 DEFECT. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS. 37 D DAMAGE. 277 370 373 DETERGENT. 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE. 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE. 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY. 64 427 COUPLING AGENT. 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE. 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE. 43 106 302 DECORATIVE. 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND. 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING. 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION. 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE.

115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS. 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 266 464 ENDOCRINE.Subject Index 154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER. 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING. 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION. 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE. 169 243 406 FOAM. 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK. 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. 2 113 283 366 404 FILM. 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL. 195 427 FOAMABILITY. 336 405 FLOOR. 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL. 231 238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 55 192 FOAMING. 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE. 122 408 FLOW. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION. 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION. 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 441 EXFOLIATION. 197 FEEDING. 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE. 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION. 2 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE. 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY. 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL. 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER. 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING. 283 EMISSION. 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT. 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION. 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT. 39 206 313 FLUID BED. 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER. 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT. 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 464 EXTRUSION COATING. 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT. 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING. 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL. 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE. 441 EXTRACTION. 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES. 244 FLAMMABILITY. 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE. 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING. 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT. 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER. 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH. 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES. 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 99 158 FIBRE. 30 336 ELONGATION. 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL. 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME. 233 439 EXTRUDER. 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN. 98 375 FAILURE. 34 400 F FABRIC. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE. 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD. 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT. 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK. 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING. 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS. 2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION. 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE.

2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION. 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE. 27 187 I IMMERSION. 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE. 215 HEALTH HAZARD. 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING. 171 FUNGICIDE. 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY. 122 380 408 FORMULATION. 70 GELATION. 122 FUSION. 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE. 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER. 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL. 306 HOUSEWARES. 405 HYDROLYSIS. 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE. 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE. 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 151 . 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 400 HEAD REST. 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE. 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE. 125 FURNITURE. 243 311 FUEL CELL. 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION. 66 GAS EVOLUTION. 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE. 42 334 FUNGUS. 244 HOT TOOL WELD. 205 HEAT AGEING. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE. 269 FROTH FLOTATION. 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING. 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC. 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT. 15 462 GAS BARRIER. 21 115 187 GASKET. 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME. 218 427 FRICTION WELD. 42 370 FURAN. 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION. 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT. 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE. 127 351 FOOTWEAR. 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 122 311 GRANULATOR. 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL.Subject Index 375 FOGGING. 99 HORMONE. 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT. 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE. 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 253 257 HORTICULTURE. 309 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER. 7 8 110 195 385 H HARDNESS. 64 HOSE. 252 271 297 HAZE. 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD. 243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 283 HEAT DEGRADATION. 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 50 81 82 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT. 11 GRANULATION. 335 FOIL. 91 395 GEL. 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465 GASIFICATION. 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION. 15 49 281 GAS PIPE. 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE. 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION. 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE. 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC. 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE.

72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS. 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE. 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 320 LEAD COMPOUND. 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 15 LONG-TERM. 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 283 KILN. 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING. 113 122 201 K K VALUE. 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE. 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION. 234 362 MARKET SHARE. 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE. 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY. 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES. 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION. 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX. 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN. 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY. 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT. 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE. 67 IRON OXIDE. 438 LEAD PHTHALATE. 10 L LABELLING. 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER. 3 60 426 IRRADIATION. 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING. 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD. 309 JOINT VENTURE. 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL. 209 227 362 MELTING POINT. 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY. 70 393 MEMBRANE. 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING. 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT. 236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE. 62 152 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION. 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464 M MACHINERY. 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH. 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD. 224 LEACHING. 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION. 64 186 LIME. 121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY. 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE. 365 438 LEAD MALEATE. 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION. 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY. 54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY. 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER. 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT. 122 INTERACTION. 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE. 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID. 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD. 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING. 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE. 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING. 40 46 LEATHER. 8 LUBRICANT. 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION. 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE. 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE. 115 297 LATEX. 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE. 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE. 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY. 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND. 98 100 253 LANDFILL. 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH. 149 172 INJECTION MOULD. 122 184 306 INHIBITOR. 70 171 380 LEGISLATION. 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE.Subject Index 113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION. 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX. 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT. 132 346 359 MELT FLOW. 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188 118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER. 224 405 J JOINT. 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX.

3 60 MONOSANDWICH. 148 PHOSPHITE. 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL. 122 PERMEABILITY. 34 419 MOULDING FAULT. 374 PLASMA TREATMENT. 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE. 218 230 273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION. 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING. 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER. 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION. 10 65 102 N NANOCOMPOSITE. 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW. 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE. 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE. 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION. 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER. 252 ORIENTATION. 408 PIPE. 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER. 2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE. 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED. 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE. 173 191 325 408 MIXING. 308 OXIDATION. 38 361 438 O OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE. 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE. 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER. 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE. 115 122 243 306 MIXER. 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION. 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED. 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 392 OPACITY. 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND. 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 421 PHOTODEGRADATION.Subject Index MICROSCOPY. 311 369 461 PELLET. 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE. 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT. 45 132 153 155 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 153 . 104 MONTMORILLONITE. 218 427 PARTICLE. 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP. 242 298 OVEN AGEING. 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE. 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER. 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER. 462 OLIVE OIL. 101 327 PATENT. 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE. 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION. 89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE. 42 242 334 P PACKAGING. 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER. 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE. 230 MULTILAYER. 49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND. 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING. 109 302 382 PERFUME. 115 122 123 146 282 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER. 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE. 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING. 69 380 NOZZLE. 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE. 122 282 PAINT. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID. 181 421 PHTHALATE. 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT. 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY.

280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER. 71 ROUGHNESS. 144 PROCESS CONTROL. 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE. 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID. 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME. 59 PREHEATING. 8 POTABLE WATER. 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER. 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER.Subject Index POLLUTION. 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING. 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID. 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA. 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN. 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL. 188 198 PYROLYSIS. 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS. 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT. 376 RECLAIM. 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE. 149 POLYPROPYLENE. 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER. 99 184 427 RECYCLING. 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT. 25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER. 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL. 103 POLYAMIDE. 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 136 195 PRETREATMENT. 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY. 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL. 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING. 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID. 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE. 172 POWDER. 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN. 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 S SAFETY. 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE. 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE. 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146 147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE. 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER. 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION. 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING. 93 106 244 399 PRICE. 57 POLYMERISATION. 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY. 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY. 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING. 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422 R RADIATION CROSSLINKING. 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT. 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE. 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID. 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE. 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW. 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER. 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE. 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING. 138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. 408 ROOF. 187 POLYETHYLENE. 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233 154 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR. 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER. 169 178 REVIEW. 318 366 POROSITY. 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING. 47 414 Q QUALITY. 202 REACTOR. 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE.

309 STABILISATION. 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION. 125 166 SWELLING. 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 225 STAIN RESISTANCE. 243 SCRAP POLYMER. 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER. 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS. 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA. 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY. 59 179 SCRATCHING. 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS. 352 445 SOLE. 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 329 SCREW. 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER. 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING. 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS. 218 SCREW SPEED. 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT. 135 353 STANDARD. 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET. 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION. 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT. 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN. 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT. 98 SOLAR RADIATION. 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 155 . 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES. 67 218 248 371 SCRAP. 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD. 43 64 418 SEWER PIPE. 185 268 SOFTNESS.Subject Index 244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION. 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE. 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC. 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT. 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE. 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES. 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL. 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD. 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE. 122 408 SOLUBILITY. 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER. 192 282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT. 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER. 207 SEPARATION. 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION. 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM. 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION. 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT. 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING. 155 177 440 SILICATE. 196 197 329 T TALC. 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE. 170 230 SURFACE FINISH. 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH. 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS. 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER. 94 121 SOFTENING. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464 STEARIC ACID. 137 SODIUM AZIDE. 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 389 STAINING. 136 170 195 333 SHEAR. 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING. 122 306 SCRAP CAR. 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE. 377 TELEPHONE CABLE. 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY. 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING. 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH. 8 12 462 TEETHING RING. 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL. 194 SPECTROSCOPY. 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS. 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH. 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION. 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION. 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE. 336 TEMPERATURE. 111 289 SMOKE. 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING. 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE. 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY. 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM.

113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR. 31 204 THERMOFORMING. 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY. 218 VIBRATION WELDING. 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE. 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES. 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET. 306 WASTE DISPOSAL. 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION. 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION. 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION. 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION. 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY. 77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION. 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER. 231 VINYL CHLORIDE. 248 VIRGIN POLYMER. 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE. 22 286 156 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION. 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING. 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT. 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION. 280 TIME. 98 TUBING. 98 TROUBLESHOOTING. 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER. 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC. 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER. 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS. 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS. 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY. 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY. 157 158 TOUGHNESS. 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION. 8 84 151 VOLATILITY. 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE. 64 230 298 374 384 408 432 THIN FILM. 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT. 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND. 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY. 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE. 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS. 170 183 195 309 U UNPLASTICISED. 8 87 88 151 194 367 389 W WALL COVERING. 289 454 VENEER. 27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER. 93 179 284 TREND. 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT. 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 458 464 VOID. 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY. 353 376 TUBE. 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION. 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 282 VEHICLE TRIM. 253 TESTING. 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL. 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING. 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT. 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS. 374 V VEHICLE. 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 396 VENTILATOR. 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING. 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER. 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL. 67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE. 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE.Subject Index 104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN. 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE. 184 243 WASTE SORTING. 250 THERMAL STABILITY. 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY.

13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY. 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441 Y YELLOWING. 118 WOLLASTONITE. 100 WATERBED. 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT. 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE. 99 289 427 WELDING. 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE. 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION.Subject Index 449 WATER POLLUTION. 50 96 283 383 394 441 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 157 . 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE. 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE. 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND. 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION. 243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR. 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME. 185 WIRE INSULATION. 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE. 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR. 307 400 YIELD STRESS. 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING. 137 295 426 ZINC. 56 WAX. 99 439 Z ZEOLITE. 45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE. 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE. 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING. 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 32 37 456 457 WETTING. 116 366 381 404 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 131 WINDOW. 435 ZINC STEARATE. 83 WOOD. 48 X X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER. 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS. 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY.

Subject Index 158 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .






Company Index 164 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

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