Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

Source of original article Title

Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

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Accession no.771897

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Polyamides. Friend. Whelan. UMIST. J.D. Chemical Analysis of Polymers. M. C. Wright. Plas/Tech Ltd. M.Brockbank. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics. D. Cox and R. University of Cambridge.T. Sidwell. and J.) Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd.J. N. Hotpoint Ltd. R. I. Farnborough.G. Johansson Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. Cambridge Applied Technology.W. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. Rapra Technology Ltd. G. Extrusion. FMC Corp. Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers. S. G. Volume 4 Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. Sandland and M. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding. Allen. J. D. G. N. J. Offshore Applications of Polymers. Brown. The Open University. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries.Winnan.P.A. Wade. University of Surrey. D. Cousans.N. Wilton. R. Barrie. Composites . P. General Electric Plastics BV. Grigo. London School of Polymer Technology. Arnold Nutt & Co. S. Injection Moulding of Rubber. Djordjevic. K. Joining of Plastics. R. C. Williams Advanced Composites. Feast Medical. Liquid Crystal Polymers. Turner. Polyetheretherketone.W.N. P.R.A.R. and BIP Chemicals Ltd. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. Maxwell. van de Grampel. J.F. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Report 33 Report 34 . Elliott. Polymers in Marine Applications. Processing and Applications. Gale. Armitage. Methven. Biomedical Applications of Polymers. Rapra Technology Ltd. Evans. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. R. A.A. University of Surrey. Hardy. Fluoroelastomers . Plastics in High Temperature Applications.F.J. D.Tooling and Component Processing.G. Hinrichsen. Electronics Applications of Polymers. L. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics.P. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials. Automotive Applications of Polymers II. Williams and T.M. Hollaway. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd. M. Consultant. Reynolds.A. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns. A. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. R.W.J.T. A. Extrusion of Rubber. Cattell.L. University of Manchester. Halliwell. Lawson. R. Consultant. Dow Corning Ltd. Harwell.H. University of Surrey. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry. Woods. J.F. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. Cattell Consultancy Services. Silicone Rubbers. Brown. Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers. Conductive Polymers II. Leicester Polytechnic. ICI. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. Physical Testing of Rubber. C. H. Spratling.Goosey. Senter for Industriforskning. Kemmish.S.Britton. S. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry. Chronos Richardson Ltd. Coextrusion. Epoxy Resins. Sebborn. W. Roberts. D.R.M.K. B. Thomas. Consultant. British Telecom. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering. R. H.T. Cox. Pakull. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. J. P. Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University. J. T & N Technology Ltd. National NDT Centre. Consultant. Hawley. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging.G. Rapra Technology Ltd. Hollaway. Lupton Failure of Plastics. Coates and A. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. Brain. ICI. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. M. Lynn. Trego and H. Andreassen. City University. Cook and M.A. Du Pont (U. Process Control in the Plastics Industry. Coulson. K. Larsen and E.W. Queen Mary College. Cavendish Laboratory. Designing with Plastics. Forrest. W. A. D. Fox.H. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. S. A. Norway.L. Wheelans. C. Methven. E.M.A. Pira Packaging Division. Cellcom Technology Associates.J.K. Weathering of Polymers.D.W. Plastics in Building. D. Å.C. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers. Consultant. Internal Mixing of Rubber. W.F.W. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing.A. Processing and Applications.Properties and Applications. Nova Petrochemicals Inc. Wilton. Kirby. Lovegrove. Gebelein. Nutt. Tooltex. Daniels.Alvey. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications. Rapra Technology Ltd.Materials. L.C. Engineering Thermoplastics. RAE. Pultrusion. Hodge. Polyimides .J.F. Green. R. J. Polyurethane. J. Building Research Establishment.C.M. O’Reilly. Garnaud. P. Polycarbonates. Materials. J. Freitag. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH. Lewis.M. Bayer AG. D.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers.K. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions.A. U.

Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers. Colborn. Tangram Technology Ltd. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. W. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. deV. Crawford. Dierkes. P. Pearson. Plastics and the Environment.S. Forrest. Processing and Applications.E. J. University of Ulster. B. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers.Nanopolyacetylene.V. Fouassier. Sherwood Technologies Inc.G. P. Applications and Implications. P. The Open University. Goodyear Technical Center. University of Texas at Austin. M.Compounds. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. Andres Garcia-Rejon.R.G. Wünsch.P.E.A. Plasticisers . D. Fire Research Station. Econology Ltd. Part I: Vulcanising Systems. Russian Academy of Sciences.M. High Performance Engineering Plastics.J. R. P.L. G. Fardell. Wilson. Hepburn.Leadbitter. Part II: Processing.R. Crowther. Manuel and W. Day. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins. Lindsay. Robinson. Rapra Technology Ltd. Recycling of Rubber. Building Research Establishment. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes. P.F.P.A.R.J.C. Hill. Brydson.A. R.Synthesis.C. Kemmish. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles. R. Boustead. Kingston University. P. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene .N. Polymer Membranes . T.J. Compressive Behaviour of Composites. Victrex Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd. Forrest and G. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK.A. International Automotive Design. V. Lee.P.M. Hydro Polymers Ltd. Lewis. Cubbon.L. J. Theory and Innovation. H.J.B. University of Surrey. Kelleher. Ryan. S.J. The Queen’s University of Belfast. Y. Hepburn.W. J. R. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. J. Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping. Speciality Rubbers. Soulagnet. Stafford. . Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96 Rubber Mixing. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation. Moore & S. Lewis.L. Technology and Medicine.J. V.A.R. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion.A Practical Guide. N. Edward Mackenzie Consulting. Advances in Thermoforming.Need. Vredestein Rubber Recycling B. T. G. Crowther.F.P. Prentice. Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients .M. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres. Advances in Injection Moulding. P.P. C. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. T.G. Hickman.J. Throne. J. H. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation. M. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire.Theory and Applications. C. R. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers. I. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd. Gas Injection Ltd. B. National Research Council Canada. Rapra Technology Ltd. A. Holding and E. Rotational Moulding. Rolando. J.A. Johnson. Hamerton. Pritchard.R. W.R. Oxford Brookes University.J. The Nottingham Trent University. T. Report 112 Polystyrene . Structures and Separation Performance. Adams.E. Reinforced Thermoplastics . Sepe. Rapra Technology Ltd. Theves.Properties and Applications. Coates and A. Kobryanskii. Bonding. Wang. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. Wood. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding . Rubber to Metal Bonding. Rapra Technology Ltd. The Smart Chemical Company.Industrial Materials Institute. Reeves. BASF AG.D. Brown. R. The Open University. M. England and D. P. M. Kefford. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. Ridha. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co.Materials. Production and Applications.J. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology.J. C. I. T. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. Naylor.Composition. Processing and Applications. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. Boustead Consulting Ltd. Mulhouse.A. Tooling and Manufacturing. Spassky. Kaminsky. Brydson. Hague and P. P. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure. J. Fire Retardants. MRM Engineering Consultancy. University of Ulster. Theory and Innovation.Selection. Thermoplastic Elastomers .G. Imperial College of Science. Rapra Technology Ltd. Tunghai University. Kent. Schissel. Meteor Gummiwerke. J. M. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. Report 83 Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation. H. Maier.E.Need. PVC . PEKK and Other Polyaryls. Fuller Company. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology. A. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives. M. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . J. Buckley. C. B.C. J. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Willoughby.Report 65 Report 66 Decorating and Coating of Plastics. D. Keskkula. General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Rapra Technology Ltd. Advances in Tyre Mechanics. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics. University of Hamburg. Meehan. Brown. University of Bradford. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation . Saunders. R. Soutis.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Kröhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. O’Neill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6


.............................................................................................1 Incineration ....11 3............................2 Landfill ................................................11 3.. 3 1.................................................4 2............ 10 Plasticisers .............4.......................5 2.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 2.............................................................................................................................................. 3 PVC Industry ......................... 12 4............................................................. 15 Plasticisers ....................................................................1 Lead Based Stabilisers....................1 4...........................................................................................3 Recycling ..............................................................................................................................................................................2......... 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers .................... 4 2..................11 3.............. 10 3...................1 Phthalates ...................................3...............................................................................................................................3 1 .............................................................................. 8 2..............11 3...................4..........................................................................2 Adipates ................................3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride ..3..................................................2..................................................................................................................4 4 Additives..............................4.....1 PVC Resin ...................................................................... 10 3..............................................................1........................................ 12 3..................................2 PVC Compounders ....1 1..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................7 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC ...............................................................3 Global Market by Application ...................................................................................................1 PVC Resin Producers ..2 Homopolymers ..............................................................................................................................4....3....... 3 History ....................2 Organotin Stabilisers .....3 Bulk Powder Properties ......................................................................3 3.............................1 3...................2 2.................PVC Compounds and Processing Contents 1 Introduction ........................................................... 12 4..............7......................................................................................................................................................................................................2...... 8 2................................................. 4 2........6 2..3.........................2.. 12 3...................................1 Molecular Weight ......................................................................................2 Introduction ..............2 Liquid Stabilisers ......................................2 Particle Size ...2 1.... 3 PVC Compounds ..................... 8 Processing Techniques .................7.................. 8 2............................... 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) ................................................ 12 Waste Management ......................................................................................................................................................................................................2 VCM and PVC Production ..........1..4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) .................................................... 8 Industry Outline .............3 2............................................................ 9 2............. 12 Heat Stabilisers ................................................3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 2........................... Formulations and Applications .............................1 Solid Stabilisers .................. 12 3........................................... 14 4....................................... 16 4..........................11 Heat Stabilisers ........ 12 3.....4.............................................................................................. 7 2................................................................................4.... 7 2....................................... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation ............................................. 7 Key Additives ..........1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture ............................................................................7............... 10 3.......................

.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing .........14.................................................................5 Orientation ... 25 4...... 27 5..1 Phthalate Alternatives ................................................................3 Antifogging Agents ....................2 Extrusion ..............................5 Other Fillers ................................................ 20 4. 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology ...................................................12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers ... 18 4.................................................................... 27 5...................................3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre ...............7.........................4 Bonding Agents .................................................................... 18 Multifunctional Additives ................... 32 5..........................................................................................4 Membranes ....................................7..................................13 Other Additives for PVC-P ..................................... 23 4................................................13..... 21 4............................................................. 18 4...14............... Extrusion Blow Moulding ...................1 Antistatic Agents .......................... 24 4......................................................................................5...... 31 5.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4.......1 Dry Blend Mixing ................................................................ 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ............ 19 4..............................13..............................6 Calendering..................2.............................. 26 4...........................................2........................... 28 Processing ......................................... 23 4.....13................................3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification .......................................................... 29 5...................10 Biocides ........................1 Compounding ................................2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites .................. 32 5...............2 Impact Modifiers ................................14.3.. 25 4.................................................................... 20 4.......................................1 Calcium Carbonate .................................... 25 4............................................................2 Polymeric Plasticisers.............1.......................2.14 Formulations ............................................................................................................................................................. 18 Property Modifiers .......................................................................14......................11 Blowing Agents........... 21 4................. 33 5..........................................................3 Liquid PVC Blending ...................................................................................................................................... 28 5.........................................4 4...9 4..3 Injection Moulding ...........................................................................................................................2......................................................................7..........................7 4....................................................................2....................5......................................... 28 5....... 34 2 ...................................................... 27 5........ 22 Pigments ..............................4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers ............... 24 4.........................5...................7....................................................................................................................................... 25 4....................................................................6 Nanocomposites .........8 4................................................... 25 4... 31 5................... 24 4............................................ 24 4.......................5 4.....................................................2 Melt Compounding ..................7............................................................................................................................................................... 21 4................................1............................................. 25 4.....................................7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes ...........................................2...................................................................................................................................... 21 4.. 19 4............. 27 5.......................................................................PVC Compounds and Processing 4.....................................6 4..... 19 Lubricants ..................................................13.............................2 Viscosity Modifiers ...............................1 Process Aids......4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications ........................5............................................................................................................................................................................................1 Gelation .............1.........................................................................................7.......................................................................................................................................2................................................................................... 20 Fillers .................................... 16 4................3............................................2 Crosslinked PVC ................................2 6 Fabrication and Treatment .........................3 Medical and Food Contact Use ............

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38


Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159


PVC Compounds and Processing

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.


PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earth’s natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 °C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds
PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.


1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1). is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC. while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water.1 PVC Resin 2.CH2Cl + H2O 4 .PVC Compounds and Processing 2 PVC Industry 2. in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen.CH2Cl EDC CH2Cl .CH2Cl EDC thermal decomposition CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride Figure 1 Hydrogen chloride recycle Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM Figure 2 The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission) CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + ½ O2 Figure 3 CH2Cl . Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process. CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine ClH2C . An oxychlorination unit.1. A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461). The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3.

2.000.500. Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 μm with a range of 50-250 μm. secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake. 429). Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle.PVC Compounds and Processing VCM boils at -13. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation.1. Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions. 2.2 Homopolymers The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1. 166. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic). 318. This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30.1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water. initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles. typically in fluidised bed drying equipment. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as. the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 °C. high plasticiser absorption for flexible products. 2. polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate. The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles.4 °C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin.000 to 95. monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). The polymer is then dried. 345. initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history. the VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging Water Drying S-PVC Water Figure 4 The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 5 . Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150). The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149).1. or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion. Details are covered in Section 4. Topics cover improved reactor economics.

the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water. Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced. such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing.2. 2. dipping or spreading. hydrogen peroxide. Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good 2.1. with higher bulk density. Consequently these resins are called paste resins.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants). is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water.2. From this milky emulsion (latex). These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets.1. before being placed in the autoclave. see Figure 5. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added. the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment. The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction. are conferred on the polymer. The primary particles are solid. an initiator soluble in Water VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC Figure 5 The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 6 . A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. etc. a paste (or plastisol) is produced.1. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM. At the end of the polymerisation stage.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC).4 The Mass Polymerisation Process The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC. VCM and an emulsifier. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution.2. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder. a water soluble initiator (persulfate.PVC Compounds and Processing 2. After polymerisation. smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 μm with a range of 0. When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser.1-100 μm. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation. special properties. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process.3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water.

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 °C in comparison to PVC at 60 °C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight
PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size
Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.


PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques
Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: • • extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives
PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

• • • • • •

2.7 Industry Outline
The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders
PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.


PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (www.evc-int.com)

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application
The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (www.evcint.com).

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV, www.evc-int.com)


These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored. Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials. the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC. VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). who account for 98% of production in the EU. Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment. In particular. for improved cost effectiveness. The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe. S-PVC and E-PVC. orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). More details follow in subsequent sections. An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. have signed charters covering the production of VCM.2. primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives. oils and solvents (253. was being disregarded (210). but Eastern Europe is developing. endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. 3. there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. 200. 228. indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. 165.1 VCM and PVC Production Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM). 262). in attempts at ‘green’ marketing. in Europe and the USA. dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition to supplier consolidations. ethylene. This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM. The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. 97. 257. The Western European market is maturing. healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11. regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic. Consequently. the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues. 98. EDC. In another development. linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). 272. detergents. Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7. 205) and differing NGO. 3. 166). The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). used in its formulations. The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). blood compatibility (58. their use in toys. HCl. Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). 310. 378). The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205).1 Phthalates Concerns have been raised at regular intervals. 317). 377. 304. and 2003 for E-PVC. such as plasticisers.PVC Compounds and Processing The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. Some companies. governmental and political positions (40.2 Plasticisers 3. 117. diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). 114. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110. dioxin-like components and copper. This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments. 10 . Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. Subject to external audit. 247.

DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population. A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor.2 Organotin Stabilisers Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the ‘elimination of heavy metal’ discussions. PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations. For similar reasons. 3.3. harmful.ecpi. 3. Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138).3 Heat Stabilisers For general background information. DINP. lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers.3. plus good insulation resistance.2 Adipates PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat. the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7. The identification of a perceived hazard.PVC Compounds and Processing Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90.org). 3. but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in children’s toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EU’s Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices). However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic. 3. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263). There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33. on the regulatory situation up to 1999. The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www. pipe. Similarly. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect 11 . and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies. some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391). However. 100). The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA).1 Lead Based Stabilisers Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. fittings and profile. refer to the regulatory update (331).3. in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old.stabilisers. of course. There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127. for food storage. 219). 183). 247). DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119). Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled.2. and for protecting food in the home.org). in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil. The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www. resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7). However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates. has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment. dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects. the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into children’s mouths. 3. has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report. must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated. particularly in relation to worker exposure. for DIDP.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world.

heavy metals and phthalates (282). A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128).2 Heat Stabilisers Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable. Formulations and Applications 4. the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422). The degradation process is shown in Figure 7. i. energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115. It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO.3 Recycling Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability. in particular. electrical properties. In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0. 12 .1 Introduction The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2. and its migration from PVC film. colour. the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight. 341). the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. However. A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252).8%. particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66. with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. etc. Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160). 4.2 Landfill PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives. etc. 3. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost. In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation. 3. 3.e. the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7. so a heat stabiliser system is essential.4 Waste Management 3. has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14). due to some chain branching during polymerisation.3. PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297). the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). In a modern incinerator.PVC Compounds and Processing concentration in waste water etc.4.4.. 106. Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application. Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications.4. The content of Bisphenol A in. 282. improve cost performance. Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. PVC recycling and sustainability issues. 146). give weathering resistance. 3. PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements.1 Incineration The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395). 4 Additives. A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser.

H+ Figure 7 Thermal degradation process for PVC 13 .PVC Compounds and Processing Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish – gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength – ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H Ideal structure Non typical H C H H C H C H C Cl* H C H Heat H C Cl H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom H C H H C H C H H H C Cl H C H C C Cl.H+ Heat Allyl chloride H C H H C H C H C H C H C H C + HCl Cl.

starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322). 365. Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe. 295). Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. 62. Apart from wire and cable. Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated. 220. preferring the use of organotins. from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson. 406. peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential. Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds.and -CH2.. and function as HCl absorbers (236.1. The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105). The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl. 4. in combination with lubricants (one-pack). their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment. 82. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications. Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen. 323). 14 . e.1 Solid Stabilisers 4.g. they also cure existing damage. have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years. and end-use specification. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments. The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds. 137. 308. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation.PVC Compounds and Processing During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress. e. 407). 431). which include the lead components in a safe handling state. granule.groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). is a molecular concerted elimination.. This increases the melt viscosity considerably. Some excellent review articles are available (48.1. which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. This will be covered later in this chapter. tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite. Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227). These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. fittings.2.flake. There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. or tertiary chlorine structural defects. profile (153) and wire and cable (174. free hydrogen chloride is evolved. dibasic or normal lead stearates.g. They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl.2. primarily extrusion and injection moulding. tablet and dosage packs. Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415). 438). Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue. usually based on a mixture of lead salts. and lead soaps. These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis. In addition.1 Lead Compounds Lead compounds. Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure.2. Non/low dusting products. 4. Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced. due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates). The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47. have been available for many years in different product forms . Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46.

reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe. but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291). complex polyphosphates (45). e. profile and sidings.2. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids. profile and cable (135.2.2. but on the organotin species.2.2. Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn. the use of lower cost.2 Mixed Metal Compounds Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with 4. but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect.. 387. The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser. 4. Rohm and Haas are one supplier. The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221.2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn) Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414). 4. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. etc. Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content. These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270).2.2.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn) K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents 15 . although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a ‘heavy metal’ (159). 136.2 Liquid Stabilisers Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd) Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. 348.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. In North America.g. linked to their good compatibility (85). 143). 4.2. 4. This is based on the ‘concerns’ about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns. usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl. their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001.3 Calcium-Organic Based Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers.2. Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications. In addition to further formulation development (454). The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications.) during processing and from the end use application.2. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity.2. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453).2. organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium. 4. However.1 Organotin Compounds Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl. suppliers include Crompton.2. pipe fittings. 347. new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. in the European area. Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas.2. due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium. Suppliers include Akros. much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn. Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development. floor and wall coverings.1. One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite.2. butyl or octyl derivatives. and foam. solvent. 388). New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75).

have been extensively tested. Based on organic esters.g. Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1. 16 . 182. The plasticiser structure. trimellitates. Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser. Citrate based plasticisers. addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications. extraction resistance. etc. Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). 4. primarily due to the considerable media. The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63). Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71). (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system. subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions. The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92). wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature. The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate . although much more expensive. The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam. The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: • • • • Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22. leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications. Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342).. e.. phosphates. They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. have particular use in medical and • • • The most commonly used plasticisers.3. has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215). A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. PVC-P materials. 4. The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361).) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. volatility and solubility all have an influence (389).DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108). trimellitates are used (91). adipates.3 Plasticisers Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility. The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr). are listed in Table 3. phthalates. Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). level.PVC Compounds and Processing (azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). Predictive equations have been developed (349).2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86). Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction.1 Phthalate Alternatives Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted. together with their characteristics. The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260).

low extraction. but poorer low temperature performance. High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy – tents. Good high temperature. Improved low temperature performance. lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation High gelation temperature. L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 – C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 – C11 L911P. Automotive interior (low fogging). low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. good flexibility. conveyor belting etc. inferior extraction resistance 17 . higher volatility. good migration resistance Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature Superior low temperature performance. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing. high volatility.

has been presented (89). The functions of acrylic process aids. New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103). 209). Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194). A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367). Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers).5 Property Modifiers For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance.1 Process Aids Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage. Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188).2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4. Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79).4 Multifunctional Additives There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. High cost. 223). have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). Chemically. effect. The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181. 4. 4.3.. Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168. taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance. to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation 18 . A review of phthalate alternatives. The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability. Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%. Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight.5. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267).. polymeric esters are used (88). these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Continued. 4. with very high molecular weight. Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335). Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. or epoxidised esters. Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings.

relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224). Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433).5. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented. Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95). elongation and low temperature flexibility. Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic 19 .2 Impact Modifiers Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at.5. Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450). particularly for clear packaging. Acting as a permanent plasticiser. A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed.5. as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. • • • Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. Having limited compatibility with PVC. the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced. ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength. crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). 4. Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261). ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance. MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437). With a similar melting point to PVC. Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer. an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber. Based on core shell technology. CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required. New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77). and below. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: • methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). The effect of residual 4. The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified. consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). They are also not suitable for outdoor applications. They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance. produced by emulsion polymerisation. They are not suitable for outdoor applications.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 °C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point.

plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment. have been investigated (381. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52. lower the effective viscosity. polyethylene wax. To ease dispersion. 404). for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile). It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas. printing or blooming on ageing. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment.g. e. Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57). This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform. on melt processing equipment. at higher filler levels. is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177). Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations. Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external. 420). have good oil and chemical resistance. Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax. in so doing. and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). of course. the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. Tensile strength properties of PVC-U. filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate. the ultrafine milled. tubing etc. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result. 294.6 Lubricants Lubricants function classically in two ways.1 Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364). It also acts as an acid scavenger. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion. External lubricants. 20 . In practice. 360).2.7. have poor compatibility with PVC. Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output. most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics. formulations including NBR.PVC Compounds and Processing elastomers for use in glazing gaskets. by definition. and stearic acid and its derivatives (403.. footwear. The density of the final product will increase. Relatively easy to process. plate-out and surface finish. and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and. oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid. the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. 4. Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers. Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate. natural version is normally used. 4. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants.7 Fillers For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications. Particle size is important and. More detailed information on lubricants is available (74. the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids. However. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost. better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. 462). a very efficient lubricant.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate. this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292). In PVC-P applications. but some are also used to enhance properties and performance. The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5. depending on addition level. high whiteness. 4. and physical properties (459). the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level. (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing. As extruder running speeds increase.

wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably. and mechanical properties (70).6 Nanocomposites Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. specific carbon black pigment/filler is used. 4. Operating at molecular level. based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate. Cellulose fillers.7. 366). Calcium carbonate is also used in this area. for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour. which contains quartz. has been evaluated. Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials. these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material. 4. Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. of three different sizes. with and without silane coupling agent treatment. Finite element analysis. Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material.PVC Compounds and Processing Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential.7. For magnetic applications. have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53). The use of CPE as a compatibiliser. has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201). the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234). for surface treatment of glass beads. An alternative to calcium carbonate. A new technology. such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction. such as operating 21 . Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). However.7. gelation and fusion behaviour. 4. there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102).4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required. This material. In comparison with traditional products. ground marble fillers. are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications. Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112). has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). phyllite. and different volume fractions (96). The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362). Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used. was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity. A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416). of impact durability. in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation. some with surface treatment. They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. 4.5 Other Fillers Depending on the geographical area. Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties). Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). muscovite and kaolinite. 4. has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51).7. The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents. Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283).7. particularly in the USA. The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232).3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads.

203). The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been 4. It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386). attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay. In comparison to other polymers. giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties. particularly when used in combination (15). The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). Antimony trioxide has been used extensively. They are predominately used in cable. were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser. Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). 390).PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison. Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. The thermal stability problems. The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area. 22 . Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). flame retardancy. conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265). Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130). A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78). PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4. The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180). usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers. In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36). The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy. The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations.7. Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content. antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245. Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50. The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions. Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443).1. there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. However. stiffness and toughness etc. Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective.

such as flooring and roofing material. compatibility. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers. 334). Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence. Other predictive tests have also been suggested. with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457). after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences. Lead chromate pigments. permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi. in mild climatic conditions. 321). have been shown. Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material. 4. traditionally used for pipe and cable applications. Pinking of PVC profiles. Their influence on photodegradation (286). Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. Based on their thermal stability. 242. This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. dust free. can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions.10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA). with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131). with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation.PVC Compounds and Processing shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give ‘bright’ whiteness and opacity.9 Pigments Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable. The influence of free iron has also been examined (344). Paste storage stability is also important.10 Biocides PVC-P materials. Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. the most common microbiocides are 10. The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied. has been observed in service. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC. 2. Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373). In Europe.n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4. as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols. One predictive test has been designed and validated (13. 23 . Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. Aluminosilicates. and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. 4. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time. so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling. colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. have been investigated. the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39. 279).

such as hindered phenols. Dust build-up is also reduced. Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307). Granular forms improve handling. The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult. The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance. to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges.13 Other Additives for PVC-P 4. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101). Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates.11 Blowing Agents Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. has been reported (120). Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55).12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers Primary antioxidants. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution. PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80). but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. The azo compounds can be specially formulated. A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). so activity is retained. Consequently. No permanent chemical change occurs. to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved. Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208).13. UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types. A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. 81). as foam density was reduced. The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area. Arizona) to test the weathering performance. The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content. which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas. The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents. operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18).1 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation. 4. were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196). The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols. There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida. A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density. The properties achieved. 24 . but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied. produced from different PVC plastisols. which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate. Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation. There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide. 4. operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation).

Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing New trends in PVC-U compound formulations. This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions.3 Antifogging Agents Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables. The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes. organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409. have been reviewed. particularly heat stability.14. The use of a reactive plasticiser. particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P. Based on polyisocyanurates. which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458). spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres. this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC. To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile. 4. crosslink during processing. of course. 4. as well as the manufacturing process. The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing. covering extruded foam. Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations.4 Bonding Agents PVC plastisol. An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance. has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202). extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications. influence on the manufacturing and final products. Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent. with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). For some PVC-P formulations. appearance and performance (72).13.14. 4.13.14 Formulations 4. and this needs to be taken into account. A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337). is to apply a coating after fabrication. Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not.2 Crosslinked PVC Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties. Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins. and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402). requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion. 25 .13. 4. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface.PVC Compounds and Processing By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials). conducts away charges. triallyl cyanurate. dispersed in a plasticiser. particularly on display in the supermarket (400). aminosilanes and 4. 424). air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing. but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary.2 Viscosity Modifiers PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage. Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. the surface resistivity is reduced. The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426). Fumed silicas are typically used. although not so permanent. a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352). along with a reduction in static charge accumulation.

into the contents and so into the body.14. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199). Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants.2. The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. 432). has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. which has undergone specific treatment. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags.14. PVC-P material. together with the addition of a lipophilic salt. The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content. A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351). Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185). the main phthalate used in medical devices. An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser. during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO. A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. significantly influencing water uptake (305). For medical use. Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). has also been studied (67). which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U. PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs. blood and plasma bags. incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379.4 Membranes PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials. The effects of different plasticisers 4. oxygen face masks. Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the 26 . carried out using electron beam. Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268).1 showing the ongoing debate. Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). This has been reviewed in Section 3. The effect of UV irradiation on formulations. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate. PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354). and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). 4. based on materials approved for medical use. An additive system. with minimal thermal degradation (216). The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447). has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239). infusion kits etc. Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218).3 Medical and Food Contact Use PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents. Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). In addition to unacceptable colour formation. 393. usually solvent cast.PVC Compounds and Processing peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane. Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies. This relates to the ‘more severe test’ criteria to satisfy the EC Directive.

low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 °C. homogeneity.1.PVC Compounds and Processing pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274). The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat. ease of handling and storage.1 Dry Blend Mixing 5.1. e. which obviously includes the melt compounding stage. For some processes or smaller scale operations. 5. but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. The hot mix (now around 110-130 °C) is transferred to a much larger.1. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements.1. pipe and profile extrusion. the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application. calendering.1 High Intensity Batch high speed mixing. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder. Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed.1. e. Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients. low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients. This breaks up agglomerates. bulk density. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges). To increase output. allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217).. other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz. this technique is used for cold mixing. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon. the temperature rises. free-flow ability. with no change in particle identity. a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172). 5. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material. the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment. the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded. cooled. By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation.1 Compounding The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt. Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature). with the screws designed to include mixing. based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary 27 . Virtually shear free. or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product.g.2 Melt Compounding For certain operations or scale of operations. Normally.. 5. plasticising and homogenising.1. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material.g. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. conveying. followed by a cooling stage. usually into a pellet or dice form. Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles. The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. ribbon bar or paddle mixers.2 Low Intensity 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5. is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs.

28 . there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. www. This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34). gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage. particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder. thereby improving plastisol mixing. The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM).1. and visualising swelling and solution effects. Another technique is based on solvent absorption.PVC Compounds and Processing motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement. relating to the PVC and plasticiser components. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel.2. which is hinged. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction. a.1 Gelation In the case of PVC plastisols. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion. the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. 5. capillary rheometry. For dry blend. and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam formulations.1). are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit. melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107). The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and aggregates. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft.2 Processing An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website.com. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method. cut by rotating knives and cooled. All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility.3 Liquid PVC Blending Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers. The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465. 5. fusion and elongation followed by melting. In addition. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands. There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser. (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings.hydropolymers. This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425). The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. usually involving methylene chloride. 5. densification.

The role of shear stress.2 Extrusion 5. New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144). as a monitoring tool.g. The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled. tubing. profile. such as wire and cable.. The relationship 29 . Further information is available (356). gelation and metering. i. The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455). the optimisation of the flow. The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233).e.2. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding. Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. e. Statistics. 2:1. PVC-P applications. The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). along the length.2. with the screw flights designed accordingly. cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. in PVC degradation. which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. The barrel is temperature controlled. softened. This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). By modelling the rheological properties. Screw design is complex. but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 °C) to be controlled more accurately. has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. intermeshed. parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254).1 Twin Screw Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet. Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. 5.. Two main types of screw design are used. This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190). The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). Screw design involves higher compression ratios. The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. run on single screw extruders. sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel.2. A processing window contour mapping programme. A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation. Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion. An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). glazing strip. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. usually in different zones. using sequential simplex techniques. Archimedean screws. The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460). PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward. Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels. extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting. are fed by gelled compound. linked to high output. can be used to determine if the process is under control.2. extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338).2. hose etc. The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156).2 Single Screw Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity..

Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within.2.2. the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands. The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss. die. there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213). Corrugated pipe. without increasing reversion levels. material rheology and flow through the die. residence time and flow channel streamlining. sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit). is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www. Recent developments have been presented (175. has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251).2. Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing. For flat die extrusion of sheet. has been modelled (250). material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray. has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates. Flow instability of PVC-P. it is now coming under more scientific investigation. in a capillary extrusion. Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings. Details of the process have been described (158). Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155). screws. or reactions resulting from. have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189).2. critical variables are temperature control.com). which gave good results (206). more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage. cost effective tooling. mounted on a twin screw extruder. Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel. calibrator etc. the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions. Heat reversion effects. showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12). Higher line speeds. An instrumented dual slit die rheometer.corma. The influence of different cooling environments.PVC Compounds and Processing between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been investigated. using a differential equation for heat transfer. but recently. 176). temperatures and material properties (326). Alternatively. has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). The die and calibrator are 30 .3 Downstream Equipment Die design is critical to the extrusion process. Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process. Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material. flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). Once ascertained on a trial and error basis. An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion. The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. 5. primarily used in land drainage. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions. the 5. The simulation of profile dies. Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. As a consequence. using finite element methods. for pipe extrudate. a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298). are possible by allowing for die swell (451). normally pipe or profile. Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies. which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators.4 Foam Extrusion PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s. in PVC-U profiles. associated with different cooling rates.

which improves impact resistance. polypropylene. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. cover the construction and telecommunication areas. medical and electrical. However. was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology. 31 . PVC-P applications include footwear.PVC Compounds and Processing the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. Screw and mould designs have made big advances. The machinery. Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314). tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe. A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. permeability is reduced. the extruded parison is initially blown undersized. automotive. A mobile reciprocating screw gels. A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249). The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase. and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. which is the most common. prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109). allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a ‘swan neck’ arrangement. 333).2. PVC-U applications. including dies and calibrators. The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions. Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure. rigidity and clarity. The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104). Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413). This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls. Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). screw speed or injection rate. have been given (258). processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations. not requiring impact modifier. The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC.2. Air is fed to the centre of the parison. and their function has been reviewed (346.3 Injection Moulding Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape. ABS and polycarbonate). Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). In the stretch blow moulding process. The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). 359). The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124. 5. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375).4 Extrusion Blow Moulding For thin walled containers. Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents. To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings. PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity. The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. However. has been researched (401). 5. usually based on lower molecular weight polymer.

. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied. 32 . at temperatures above the glass transition temperature.2.5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2. The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145). based on a batch process. 5. PVC. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured. 358). The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling.5 Orientation The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. 90 °C is normally used. the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255). resulting • • The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383). UK and published work includes: • the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357). e. usually in both directions. There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or ‘nip’ set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness.0 metres in width. in such a way that they can be rotated. In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender. Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented. were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio.2. and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. ranging from highly polished to heavy matt. The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). Loughborough University. uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe. Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature. In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332. and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. depending on the sheet finish required. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408). Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder. The final calender nip controls film thickness. Mini calenders or Calandrette® lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber. usually in an inverted L-shape. Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process. surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip.g. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315). but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. The chemical structure of coatings. produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417). A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame.6 Calendering Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1. Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums.

of the friable agglomerates. direct or transfer coating is used.7. The main techniques are spreading.2. is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves. Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327). usually on metal. This process permits multilayer 33 . The influence of plasticiser content and type.7. such as flooring. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 °C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). used for coated fabrics. Deagglomeration. wall covering and tarpaulins. or indirectly via reverse roll coating. pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear). the article is peeled from the mould. On cooling. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics. or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. coatings. including foam. brackets etc. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt. has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423). after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste. and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line. Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers. such as lined gloves. which is designed to split open. Screen coating. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later.2. 5. timing and 5. Powder coating techniques are also used. 5. The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate. where viscosity increases with time. spraying and rotational and slush moulding.2. has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. Slush and Dip Moulding Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 ° in three dimensions. dipping. Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings.4 Rotational. and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol. or metal. 5.2 Spreading or Coating For the coating of continuous substrates. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven. Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste. relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations.7. caused viscosity ageing. such as underbody sealant. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser. These are subsequently gelled in an oven. film packaging. including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying. The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343). Coil coating. the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow. has been determined (266).3 Dip and Spray Coating The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets.7.2. the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight.2. The mechanism of viscosity ageing.1 Rheology An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening).7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes. 5. also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. decorative surface coatings and stationery.PVC Compounds and Processing from calendering of different feedstocks.. This process is used to manufacture balls. typically used for wallcoverings.

The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300). or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface. in comparison to acid etching (399). 6. in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. After heating in an oven and cooled.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. 6. by azide (448). Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process. This can involve printing or lacquering. Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area. Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289). using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG). Surface modification. while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA. silk screen. An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating. UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used. The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing. the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film. A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38). Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine. A clear topcoat for flooring. which are applied to the surface using rollers. has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients. inkjet or lasers. on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37).1 Thermoforming Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat. Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould. into isooctane solution has given positive results (231). and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement.2 Surface Modification Processes The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. pads. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures. giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179).3 Coatings Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons. based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). In comparison to injection moulding. has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). However. and so improve print adhesion. the article is peeled off the former. particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants. Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy. Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32). A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. 34 . on print adhesion. thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs. and then cooling. 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6. Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456). using both solvent and non-solvent based inks.

used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines. In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20). risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers. the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU. However. usually with a wood grain effect. but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. Accordingly. based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256). Impact strength retention after ageing. closed loop waste management. and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earth’s ecosystem.PVC Compounds and Processing Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows. permitting the development of new stationery items (246). but balanced between satisfying environmental. The target is to have an additional 200. The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259). Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). 7 PVC and Sustainable Development PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is 35 . Bonding techniques. A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which. economic and social needs. the earth’s resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or impaired. unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. gave good adhesion results (244). sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects. when combined with flame treatment and adhesive. PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality.com). very much focused on the environmental aspect. High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated. reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. For the PVC industry. and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452). include butt fusion.vinyl2010. was decreased (329). Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available. an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited). electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309).org). This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV). All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www.hydropolymers. Techniques. standards were set in place covering PVC production. no build-up of persistent organic compounds. A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226). the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC ‘horizontal study’.4 Adhesion Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management. Welding techniques. are also common. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on.000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. Hot melt adhesives can be used. this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 (www. One approach to sustainability. Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396). for the foil laminated material. No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree. A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today. 6. together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). involving adhesives. The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil.

evc-int. based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61). Triboelectrostatic separation. economic and social legs (www. was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www. were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243).vinyl2010. looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries. An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material. 7.recyclepvc. ECPI. between polymers with different compositions. utilising pH level and surfactants.Mechanical Recycling 7. for Italy.2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage. Separation techniques.com). A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68). As far back as 1996. A market survey.1. has been proposed (311). A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw extruder.1 PVC Rich Waste . for removal of trace PVC. The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution. Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources. relevant to separation (428). for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405). at end-of-life.4 Profile 7. 7. covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America.1 Waste Management Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM. for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics.recyclepvc. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed. along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www. An aqueous column flotation technique. by 2005. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184). 7. The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288). grinding and re-use was examined (449).5 million. cleaning and separating.1.1. The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371).PVC Compounds and Processing The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues. at end-of-life.1. based on cyclones. The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry. and examples of recyclate uses has been published. a Government funded initiative is in place.1.5 million in 2002. Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity. A review of recycling methods being used in Europe.org).1 General A research report.1. has also been described (204). including PVC (30). pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection. to waste management projects which were funded to a total of €16. The homogeneous material is melt processable (25).3 Pipes The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity. A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www. has also separated five commonly used plastics. A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276). 36 .1. A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time.com). ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of € 4.1. focusing on the environmental. 7.com). A continuous thermal separation system. outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122).1. In the UK. by 2005. has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). fluidised beds or rotating tubes.

5 Wallcoverings A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material. linked to a suitable collection system. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225). Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings.vinylinfo. for vinyl sidings in the USA. Changes in flooring properties. remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer.bpf.co. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols.10 Roofing Membranes 7. such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99). primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop ® process (www. has been set.1.1. Based on the VinyLoop® technology. melt filtration and triboelectric techniques. start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. The separation of PVC cable waste. separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound. has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152). has always been a driver. 7. In its second phase.vinyl2010.7 Wire and Cable In this application the desire to recycle the copper. Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are ongoing. this depends on post industrial waste.8 VinyLoop® Process This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC compound. A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling.org).org). 7. as used in supermarkets to transport and display products.1.uk). has been assessed using hydrocyclone.9 Flooring A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). Tribocharging.1. from other polymers. One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439). after service life. The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006. which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330). Pilot collection initiatives. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material (26. 7. have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43). This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www. created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers. A recycling project. Texyloop® has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds. has also been conducted (397) (www.1. Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area.1.1. 147). to separation techniques and costs. 7. from wire and cable. PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe.1. An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336). 7.1.1.vinyl2010. BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www. Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC.1.6 Packaging Collation trays. aiming for 50% by 2005. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour. enclosed in a virgin cap skin. At present. 37 . In the UK.org). A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369). the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate ‘best practice’ solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste.1. if necessary) (211). have been developed.PVC Compounds and Processing Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed.

are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste. The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306). The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area.1. and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material.org).vinyl2010. with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49). is in place (www. operating in a difficult economic climate.vinyl2010. Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics. with oxygen addition. PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. has been carried out (31). Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has 38 .3 Incineration/Energy Recovery A survey of state-of-the-art technologies. However. Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www. 214). carbon monoxide and dioxide etc.org). Promising developments. and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production.8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to environmental. Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution. Test collection projects have been initiated.11 Coated Fabrics An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures. hydrogen. feedstock recycling of mixed plastics. A phase separation technique. The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids.PVC Compounds and Processing 7. which look technically and economically viable. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www. A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been described. A catalytic dehalogenation process. This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). 382). using solvent and subsequent swelling. It is still the second largest thermoplastic material. is available (21). MSW contains an average of 0.1. A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been described. for liquid fuel generation. chlorine content was lower than expected (212. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. 7. VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water. primarily to recycle the fabric (340. after separation from municipal solid waste. Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28). 7. The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil. has been described (24). has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric. A steam gasification technique. A progress report. has been proposed (302. has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride. in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). 355). has been investigated (29). economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146). The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts. particularly Asia. including PVC. in coking plants. showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates.org). based on compression or injection moulding.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115).1.vinyl2010. A project involving 8 Conclusions Despite being a so called mature product. based on market volume. on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams. (187). for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW).

the replacement of lead stabilisers. essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale. Chim. 422-427. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers. 39 . Additional References a. It is. recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. 1971. Thanks are also due to the author’s friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material. and are being. 104. accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment. scientific studies and support for phthalates. leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. Ind. As the reader has observed in this review.1 A. the innovation process is thriving within this new environment. Génie chimique.PVC Compounds and Processing occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability. Gonze. All of these issues have been. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile. of course.

PVC Compounds and Processing 40 .

PVC Compounds and Processing Abbreviations and Acronyms ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1.2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste 41 .

PVC Compounds and Processing NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10. 10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer 42 .

Metal oxides used included CuO. MoO3 aand FeOOH.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Dooley T Urals. Polymeric additives Accession no. Stewen U. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. Suvorova A.W.7. No. 11 refs. 14th Nov.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. Crompton Corp. talc and glass fibre.3. Kondou M Tokuyama Corp. CHINA Accession no. VI.m. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler. 12 refs. SOLVAY BENVIC WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Fisch M H. No. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. Sept.2003. Sept. Courtney J M Strathclyde. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations. chlorinated PE.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82. No. p. 31 refs. USA Accession no.2003. UK.University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate.Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications. flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B.State University. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 43 . p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which served as smoke suppressants.2003. 2003. p. Materials in Medicine 14. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.2003.3. No.. including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. 18 refs.wt. WESTERN EUROPE employed were an acrylic resin. Oct.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. This article discusses calcium carbonate.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin.899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. RUSSIA. No. USA Accession no. heat release. 16 refs.& Associates Inc.2003. DSC.108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A.3. dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. Somova T. taking into account their size and their shape factor. PVC and polyethylene wax. EUROPEAN UNION. low molec.901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. Bacaloglu R. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling.10. p. p.

WORLD Accession no. using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility. UK. No. No. No. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics’ sails. creating a high mixing efficiency. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Budapest. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index. 29 refs.1% annual growth for 2003. Tin Technology Ltd.000 tonnes in 2000.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds. is showing 2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications.894085 44 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures.References and Abstracts A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation.30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system. low volatility.4. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. 16 refs. Toth A. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw. EUROPEAN UNION. In the past. peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared.898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33.2003. low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results. Earlier this year. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. July-Aug. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec.13.647. this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates’ use in vinyl. JAPAN good anti-fogging performance. Cross M. EASTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION. which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC. COPERION CORP.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand. Sept.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics.2003.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R. p.2003. and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. Zelei B. The new stabiliser offers Accession no. July-Aug. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. Marosi G Brunel University. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering.9. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature. No.University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations.4. and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity. UK. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry.894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38. and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2. p. p. Cusack P A. HUNGARY. At this year’s NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced. which was at 4.. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. 1st July 2003. an increase in flow activation energy. USA Accession no.

and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined. AND ITS MIGRATION FROM. FRANCE. such as surface roughness and gloss. Spriet C CNEP. Saito I.4. The properties included tear resistance. dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Aichi.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. Tonogai Y Japan. June 2003. No.6. significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. 33 refs.5 mu g DEHA day-1. June 2003.1-15. April 2003.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y. Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). No. Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. EUROPEAN UNION.National Institute of Health Sciences. 21 refs. Atofina. USA Accession no.4 mu g BBP day-1. Ishimitsu S. The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1.References and Abstracts Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1. dipentyl. No. 12. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp. EUROPEAN UNION. June 2003. Tsuchida Y. JAPAN in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation.2. The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. Delprat P. p. Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela. reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set. diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). therefore. Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease. Parmeland G. butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP). 4. Macdonald N. 9 refs. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser. the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate. Dipropyl. The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate. The absorptions of these compounds were not. observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3.Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. tensile properties. p. Detection limits are -.2. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. An increase Accession no. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals. tear strength. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface. diisononyl phthalate (DINP). Girod N. Sakai H. 100% modulus.Prefectural Institute of Public Health. 17 refs.891698 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 45 . DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation. SPAIN. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN. PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J.891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging. Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance. p. brittleness temperature and compression set. Siampiringue N.892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.

Zhang C Shanghai.RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden. Fuchs G.3. No. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. Zhang Y. p. and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated. No. Peyrin F ESRF. particularly when used in combination.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36.5. was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp. though. Shaoyun Guo. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S. 21st May 2003. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates). 19 refs. 18th July 2003.3. EUROPEAN UNION. was raised to 100C.References and Abstracts Item 15 Polymer Testing 22. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC. which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index. After a brief description of the imaging system. increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. Yong Ning Sichuan. which is the conventional method of investigation of foams. which acted as HCl absorbers. and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. 2003. the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC. CHINA Accession no. 3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample. p.and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. 31 refs. p. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL Accession no. SWEDEN. CHINA APPLICATIONS . The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC. 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described. 9 refs.Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. impact and yield strengths. Peres R. was increased to 70C. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented. images only the surface of samples. No.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A. No.Jiao Tong University.10A. UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning. Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89. Microscopy. Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams.University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB. 27 refs. Bergounhon P. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Even when the ageing temp. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. 2003. p. FRANCE. SCANDINAVIA.Ltd. only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%.890229 46 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH.

No. This would require the recycling of an additional 350. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate.Technological University. the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time. March 2003. p. SCANDINAVIA. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made. EUROPEAN UNION.1.000 tonnes of PVC. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 28th-30th April 2003. 2003.References and Abstracts Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . No. by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing. Accession no. using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer.University.4.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 14 refs. Ca. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target. rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments. a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer.. No.889245 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 47 .1. of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. p.29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark. 28cm. experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites.000 to 600.Rubber Div. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate.National Museum The extent. VISCOSITY AGING.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content. Polymer Diagnostics Inc. the mechanism involves de-agglomeration. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples.340. Akron. DENMARK. Matuana L M Michigan.889784 Item 21 Polimery 48. p.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81.X. Paper 77. the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010. 19 refs. pp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Oh. O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL . Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. 2003. MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N. 10 refs. In addition. ACS Rubber Division.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. May 2003. USA BELGIUM.. while development work continues. Harrell E R Akron. USA Accession no.State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised. (ACS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates. 2003. which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites. 9 refs.Spring 2003. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale.27.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far. Michigan. p.

Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels. separation of the non soluble materials. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process.Research Assn. light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. Japan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques.4.4. Brussels.) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process). 8th-11th Sept. CD-ROM. Paper A35. by Berstorff. Paper A47 pp.Free University. 2 refs.4. 8th-11th Sept. CD-ROM. we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream. polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry. Belgium. Elk Grove Village. Vrije University. Karayildirim T. Belgium. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002.Free University. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials. The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one.2002. Brussels. USA Accession no. 012 VINYLOOP(R). Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams. 0 refs.. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998. Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe. Germany. In this study. 2002. and automotive waste.889105 48 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Belgium. 3 refs. During pulverisation. NETHERLANDS..for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. LDPE. EUROPEAN UNION. Belgium. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post. CD-ROM. 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound. the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties. USA. such as carpets. precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity. PP. Vrije University. Japan. Material Sciences Corporation. If pellets are required. Brussels. wire and cable.. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. directly from powder. and their blends.Research Assn. Belgium. The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee. DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel. 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K. Illinois. grain size distribution. The resultant powder is a homogeneous.University (Brussels. Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University.References and Abstracts Item 24 ISFR 2002. For this purpose. Ege.and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE. PS.Free University. 2002.Research Assn. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology. modified with intensive cooling and special elements. 2002. the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H. into value Accession no.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling. TURKEY added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. Paper A58 pp.000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy). commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution. PET). Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels. Testing. The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder. Vrije University. Japan. Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference. the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. 8th-11th Sept.2002. Belgium. After pulverisation.2002. according to ASTM methods. Mixed-colour. a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels. PVC.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002. Crucifix P. and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10. Yanik J. showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures.

Brussels. During dehydrohalogenation.2002.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. Kaneko J. Uddin Md A. 2002. organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm. consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C. JAPAN Accession no. Belgium. 2002. the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3). The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. Belgium. 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y.3 MPa and 300 deg. 8th-11th Sept. CD-ROM. Brussels. Kusaba T.References and Abstracts Item 27 ISFR 2002.Research Assn. and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. Belgium.4. 8th-11th Sept. Muto A.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology. This is a twostage process. Paper A18. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Belgium. Paper A26.Free University. On the other hand. In this study.888798 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 49 .2002. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T. Japan.C. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Based on the laboratory scale study. Sakata Y Okayama. Belgium. When Ca-C (8g) was Accession no. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC). Japan.Research Assn. 3 refs. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K. Muto A. Kaneko J. pp. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl.Research Assn. Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC. CD-ROM. Belgium. Bhaskar T. JAPAN used during MWP pyrolysis. pp. pp. 2002. 8th-11th Sept. Emori N Osaka. which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. Vrije University. Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide.2.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002. Vrije University.4. CD-ROM.University (Brussels. 4 refs. Japan.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002. Uddin Md A. However. Paper A15. 3 refs. JAPAN Accession no. the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides. two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent. Brussels.Free University. Kusaba T.2002.City University (Brussels. Vrije University. We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Murata K Okayama. The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation.Free University. the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl.University (Brussels. 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h).

EASTERN EUROPE. pp.4. Parana. used to simulate contact with food. May 2003. emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing.670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L. 2002. Brussels. 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES.University. Belgium.800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition. Pelka J. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. Abramowicz A. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. EUROPEAN UNION. p.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes. analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. Belgium. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics. Vrije University. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels. fluidize beds. Kowalska E. Lanteri P Saint Etienne. Paper A07. Honda R Y. Japan. was investigated. 0 refs.4. 50 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Gauvrit J-Y. pp. Villeurbanne. Jeziorska R. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined. Paper A08. Extract contents in excess of 99%. with less than 3-5% losses.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM.888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67. 21 refs. aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps. and polystyrene (PS). WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid.Research Assn. Japan. Brussels. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones. as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation. Vrije University. 8th-11th Sept.4. polypropylene (PP).Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels. WESTERN EUROPE polyolefins. April 2002. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper. and time and temperature of drying. Cruz N C. triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. 24 refs. Rangel E C UNESP.Free University.Free University. PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions). polyethylene (PE). POLAND Accession no.Research Assn. FRANCE.2002. 2002. No. No.Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10. March 2003. CD-ROM.888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper. p. Taverdet J-L. Wielgosz Z Warsaw. The physical significance of the results is discussed. 21 refs. BRAZIL Accession no. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. Machowska Z. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Belgium. EUROPEAN UNION.1.References and Abstracts Item 30 ISFR 2002. FRANCE. 8th-11th Sept. Schreiner W H.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52. a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of Accession no. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying. CD-ROM. can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators. Polaczek J. 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M. Kayama M E. No.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic.5.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding.2002. Belgium. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking.

Mechanical properties were examined.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B. Huang Zhi-ming. p.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators.University (ACS.Div. 18th-22nd Aug. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 51 . a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed. p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC. April 2003. No.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong. Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. WESTERN EUROPE were obtained in the presence of both the initiator. SPAIN.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39. 2002. Exfoliated nanocomposites Accession no. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction. Tiemblo P. INDIA Accession no.University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston.2002. No. Herrero M. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. DC. Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang. GERMANY. Reaction kinetics. such as AIBN.1. ACS. 31 refs.1312-3. cell culture studies. p.of Polymer Chemistry. p. Zhang Li-feng. Huang X. 2003. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp. p. Number 2. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time. Brittain W J Akron. Washington.References and Abstracts COPERION BUSS AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. both plasticised and unplasticised.50 U.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite. Ma. Mijangos C.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no..Sci.K. 28cm./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system. and partial pressure of VC.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S.5.for Med. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J. 5 refs. Malaba D.8. was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SEM.Div. and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33. 10 refs.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator. Aguilar-Solis C. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. No. Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films. and compared. USA Accession no. Fall 2002. Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements. 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y. Volume 43. CHINA Accession no. No. 2003. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour.4. water and polymer phases. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures. haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements. 19 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44. May 2003. EUROPEAN UNION.

University. International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. p. Il.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30. and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown. a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry.2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Accession no. Other plasticisers have been employed. secondary emission products and energy recovery. but with poor stabilising effect. Rapra Technology Ltd.of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl 52 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .550.Div. EUROPEAN UNION. DC. which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83. UK. SWEDEN.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003.National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling.7mg per kg of body weight. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.References and Abstracts A technology said to produce the world’s first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin.. Number 2. dubbed Vynacol. 2001. such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. 26th-30th Aug. A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H. Bonomi S. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight. Jakubowicz I.College of William & Mary (ACS.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints. No. the most common PVC plasticiser.. Fall 2001. Volume 42. 19 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2003.3. 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V. 10 refs.. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption. April 2002. 2 refs. Based on a study by Poon.3. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD. Martinsson L Sweden. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation. European Vinyls Corp.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals. No.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning. plasticiser depletion. Bernardi F. April 2003. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. ACS. 28cm.881-2. p. Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd. NETHERLANDS. p. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology. SCANDINAVIA. Costa L Turin. p. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP. Div. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. EUROPEAN UNION. Washington. No. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed. Shawbury. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds. 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY ‘PLASTICIZER THIOLS’. Paper 18.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin. ITALY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Zaikov V G Williamsburg. 2nd-3rd April 2003. Du B. 29 cm.159-66. EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3. EUROPEAN UNION.of Polymer Chemistry.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. GERMANY. 2003.

2001.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction.Div. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters. Jennings T. 26th-30th Aug. 28cm. In other words. 6 refs. 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M.. Il. p. p. whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst. 26th-30th Aug. Fall 2001. DC. 26th-30th Aug.4-dione and existing costabilisers. Hood W. Comparison is made with conventional additives. probably by an ionic mechanism. USA Accession no. efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process. Div. 4 refs.. 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S. 28cm. Allen N S Manchester. 9 refs. ACS. USA Accession no.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints. ACS. 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. Fall 2001.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints. such as clarity. DC. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride. Number 2. light stability and plate-out resistance.2001. (ACS.of Polymer Chemistry. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (‘blackening’) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only.2001.Div. ACS.2001. DC. 28cm. Fall 2001.Div. Number 2. 2 refs. with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness.876-7.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers.872-3. Washington.. also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.878-9. (ACS. Div.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints. Washington. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . Number 2.of Polymer Chemistry. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.Metropolitan University (ACS. p. Other properties of PVC compounds.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2. p. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed. Volume 42. Minsker or Michell mechanisms were Accession no. Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. Harr M E.References and Abstracts function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a ‘plasticiser thiol’. Div. Volume 42. Chaudhry H.874-5. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.of Polymer Chemistry.2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS. Volume 42. Washington. Number 2. 28cm. USA stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers. EUROPEAN UNION. together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds.. 26th-30th Aug. Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. Div. DC.of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC. Il. 2001. Volume 42. Washington.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints. Il. UK. Il. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. 2001.Div. ACS. Fall 2001.

EASTERN EUROPE. Paper 596. Kovarova L. 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S. Ct. Brookfield. 5th-9th May 2002. Vinyl Composites. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing. pp. SPE. CD-ROM.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact.882331 54 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Bai R. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. 12 refs. SPE. 4 refs. 2002. Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis.References and Abstracts the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. Brookfield. 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A. 5th-9th May 2002.University.Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost Accession no. HUNGARY Accession no. Malac Z. Kimura T Shimane. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Session W12Composites. using a reciprocating screw blender. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC. were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties.. Vaculik J. Hrncirik J. Ca.2.5. 5th-9th May 2002. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing. 2002. Ct. 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S... pp. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Ct. pp. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure.. p. 15 refs.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. Paper 589. An increase in Young’s modulus was obtained.5. Simonik J Zlin. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay. The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2. 6 refs. Other Reinforcements in Composites II. USA Accession no. In the absence of bonding.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T.. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites. low temperature impact and flexural modulus).0 mm. the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. Kyoto. 2003. CD-ROM. Brookfield. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. JAPAN Item 51 ANTEC 2002. Ca. one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0. Nanocomposites I. Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. CD-ROM. Session W13Composites. Paper 571. Malac J.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber. Ca. the abrasion resistance was decreased. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites. SPE. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. Plastics and Recycling Technology 19. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking.883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. 2002. particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents.5.. No.

Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll. 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M.. The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained. and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. The fillers were wood flour.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. Paper 570.4. pp. USA Accession no. a stabiliser and a processing aid. particularly when using low chlorine polymers. SPE. elastic modulus and viscosity increased. 2002. With increasing filler concentration. and foams with densities as low as 0. CD-ROM. Brookfield. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. pp.. Ca. pp. The compositions also contained lubricants. 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. p. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP.and DEHP-plasticised PVC films. AKVA WATERBEDS APS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. palm and lecheguilla.2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. Ct.882253 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 55 . March-April 2003. Ct. MEXICO the composites. 8 refs.882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002.6. Brookfield. Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness. the tensile strength. Ca. Ct. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. 5th-9th May 2002. 25 refs. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size. Following blending. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content.Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour.. Session W7Vinyl Plastics.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers.. SPE. 5th-9th May 2002.882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. 2002. Coahuila. Vinyl Composites. with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples. SPE. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers. CD-ROM. 5th-9th May 2002. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of Accession no. Vinyl Composites. the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. GERMANY. The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate.5. particularly at low filler concentrations. Vinyl Composites. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. 2002.. Mengeloglu F Michigan. and also the impact resistance. Brookfield.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds’ water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals’ Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. Session W7Vinyl Plastics.. Ca. whilst the impact resistance decreased. chemical foaming agent (CFA). Accession no. Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila. Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. 012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%). 13 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent. and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder. 14 refs.. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C. Paper 568. CD-ROM. Paper 569.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. No.

p.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30. p. Paper 19. 2003. Qiao Xiuying. application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003. The flexural modulus. flexural strength. L’Etang A J.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC. BELGIUM. 2000. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS CHINA where. an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings. CuO. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning.References and Abstracts Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26. when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 30 cm. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring.Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition. 11th-13th Sept.2000. 23 refs. TS and EB were also studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. p. Film properties listed include details of chemical. it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery. Cu2O. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate. as a coating. peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite. IOM Communications Ltd. which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. 2 refs. 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B. pp. T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry.2. Courtney J M Strathclyde. the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides. 21cm. triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. 2003.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. No.University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. No. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC. and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming. is based on the idea of multiple breakdown. and flexibility.1. Kadyrov R G. EUROPEAN UNION. Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described. was carried out in a single- Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.3.2. London. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone. UK. The elastic-deformation dispersion method. CHINA Accession no. 2002. Resin properties.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000. 14 refs. Zhang Yinxi Shanghai.Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. Zhang Yong. Austria. held Krems.177-85.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos. abrasion and scuff resistance. No. 56 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect.. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate.

Jianqi Wang Beijing. No. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. 2002. No. EUROPEAN UNION.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. Nakajima A.880107 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . 2003. p. 24 refs. In this initial period.2.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described. 9 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. RUSSIA Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54. Tokyo.2.3. No. For PVC-clay nanocomposites. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed.45). The influence of additives (calcium stearate.University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC. 23 refs. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded. p. ONDEX..State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques. the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay. AUSTRIA. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation.University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated. FRANCE. Nov. Dongyan Wang. Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus. and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC.References and Abstracts screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. pp. No.2.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun. and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. 2003. Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz. and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined. No. p. RUSSIA Accession no. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage. pressure.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du. chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions. p. thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A.4. CHINA. Somova T V Ural. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM.Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC.Institute of Technology.1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P. 2003. including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements.2002. USA Accession no. Marquette. dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s). p. Irie H.Academy of Science & Technology. 4 refs. Nishikawa T. the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences. Watanabe T.11. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Wilkie C A. No. April 2002. It was Accession no.

6. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed. Oldak D Torun. MODEST 2002. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC.University. Kowalonek J.231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H. UK. and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. Polymer Modifiers & Additives. maximum tensile stress. pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive. Brookfield. No. UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. The photoinduced degradation.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. Interactive Presentations. SPE. Ca. the Government’s recycling markets development body. 5th-9th May 2002. Meanwhile. which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate. Session T52Injection Moulding. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. p. pp. bow. 17 refs. CD-ROM. JAPAN and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process. Brookfield.Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied. CD-ROM. Ribeiro A P. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. Ormanji W. 012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp. the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling. Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. June/July 2002) EASTERN EUROPE..2003. Ca. Hungary. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD.. Paper 540. They are then stripped down 58 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products. Budapest. Ct. Ct.References and Abstracts found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas.5. Young’s modulus. UK. Valenzuela-Diaz F R. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. 2003.. pp. p. EUROPEAN UNION. shrinkage. PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. USA Accession no. Toffoli S M Sao Paulo. Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). Session W1Extrusion. muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl Accession no. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst. Degradation and Stabilisation. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification. viscometry.337. 5th-9th May 2002. 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S. SPE.879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No. Feb. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the company’s own fleet. WRAP.. POLAND Accession no. profile bow. Extrusion General. Paper 520. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased. oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC.WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Yoshiga A. is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors. Fourteen critical dimensions. 2002. and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved. 2002..2.879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. 30 refs. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h).

) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 2002. SPE. and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity. 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. (SPE. 2002.2002. 30th-2nd Oct.Vinyl Div. SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. surface chemistry and equipment design. Recently. Ct. SPE.) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers. p.Chicago Section. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation. Ct. Brookfield.877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. p.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance. SPE. USA Accession no. heat stability. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols. appearance and performance of the final product are discussed.2002. Session 4. Paper 2. Ct.41334.51730. USA Accession no. Lang J.877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002. extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications. 16 refs. SPE... 7 refs. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860).. rheology. 27 cm. 30th-2nd Oct. 8 refs..877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002. processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP). Session 4. 012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J. avoiding messy pigment dusts. BRAZIL NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Vinyl Div.. and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years. This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility. 27 cm.2002.46372. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. (SPE. SPE. Session 48 Paper 5. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years.Chicago Section. compared with those containing calcium carbonate. gelation and fusion temperatures. Paper 1.. a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate.Chicago Section. SPE. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls. Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP. new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. 2002.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties. The new blends offer improved efficiency. p. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. p. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications. Il. Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented. there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly. 27 cm. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility. Brookfield. Il. 27 cm. Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described.. SPE. 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A Accession no.. and higher plastisol viscosity. 8 refs. 30th-2nd Oct. functions very effectively as an offset to DINP. Paper 4. (SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. Ct. Session 4.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. tensile strength and viscoelastic properties.. Il.References and Abstracts chloride) (PVC) plastisols. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Il.. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 59 .879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002. USA Accession no. which will lead to improvements in certain key properties.43748.. the same processing temperatures and heat stability. Rabinovich. SPE. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam.2002. Majewski T. Brookfield. Brookfield. Jarus D PolyOne Corp. triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications.Vinyl Div. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp.

2002. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use. 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOC’S FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R. Stevenson D R. processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials. SPE.40310. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. 30th-2nd Oct. Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. SPE. 5 refs.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Brookfield. as they are effective radical scavengers. (SPE. SPE..) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding. Paper 8.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Papazoglou E. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Paper 5. USA Accession no. cost effective and additive intensive.Vinyl Div. 2002. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties.Chicago Section. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification. The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002. Il. USA Accession no. Phosphites.Vinyl Div. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca..Chicago Section. SPE... A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R.Vinyl Div. 2002. Session 3.. SPE.. and to a lesser extent thiosynergists.877698 60 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Dover PhosBooster. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives. SPE. Brookfield.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light. Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp.2002.Vinyl Div. USA Item 76 Vinyltec 2002. (SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Paper 7. 27 cm. 2002. External lubricants on the other hand. only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole.391400. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 30th-2nd Oct. are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release. p. storage and use lifetimes. USA Accession no. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier. SPE. Brookfield. DPB.36774. 27 cm.) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external.. p. Il.) Traditionally.. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. 27 cm.Chicago Section. Ct.877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. SPE. internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure. 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E. Session 3. stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing. Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs).Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Ct. are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former. temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure.. Harr M E. 5 refs. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified.. Ct.2002.877701 Accession no. SPE.References and Abstracts L & L Consulting LLC (SPE. but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. (SPE. by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Il.Chicago Section. p. The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser. Session 3. 30th-2nd Oct. Typically.

Session 3. fencing.Vinyl Div. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Brookfield.. a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC. 2002. nor well known. Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed. Paper 1. Paper 3. needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation Accession no. has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. 2002. (SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. Ct. 27 cm. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented. SPE.. 5 refs. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Session 3. etc. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented.Vinyl Div. Brookfield. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Unlike UV absorbers. Ct. In several laboratory studies. SPE..33543.877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002. SPE.Chicago Section. USA Brookfield. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp.34763.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002. 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A. (SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. . flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated. 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B. 27 cm. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. 8 refs.. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC. Oertli A G. pond liners. 30 refs. SPE. 27 cm. Session 3.Vinyl Div.) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.2002. Brookfield. To meet specifications such as oxygen index. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS.References and Abstracts Item 78 Vinyltec 2002..877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. heat release. Il.W. USA Accession no. Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc. although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability.32131.295317.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC.) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications. optical brighteners. antistats. SPE. SPE. the plasticisers which contribute flexibility. Il. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 61 . Other effect additives . p. 2002.. Paper 2. products such as patio furniture. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. p.) The development of new applications for PVC.Chicago Section. Il. Ct. Session 3. SPE. as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation.Chicago Section. antifog agents... window and door trim. 27 cm..2002. Its relatively high chlorine content (58.that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined.Chicago Section. etc. (SPE.. their activity in PVC is neither well understood. SPE.Vinyl Div. SPE. Ct. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS). hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light.additives such as antimicrobials.2002. NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC. p. SPE. In the case of flexible PVC. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. are widely used throughout the PVC industry . such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications.) Phenolic products. greenhouse films.2002. USA Accession no.. Paper 4. (SPE. Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. antioxidants. especially sterically hindered phenols.for instance.. however.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers.& Associates Inc. to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer. detract from its resistance to fire. 30th-2nd Oct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A. p. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability. 30th-2nd Oct. in most instances.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Il. 2002.

SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. Ciullo P Vanderbilt R. solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC. enabling broad registration and food approval status. as well as a good toxicological profile. Some years ago. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i. Il.. SPE. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Brookfield. and case of emulsification. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time. as published. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties.2002. with vinyl floor tile.e.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay. In another test. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics. 27 cm. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable. or directly to the compound. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. antistats. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties. In the above mentioned applications. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants.877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002. USA Accession no. thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace.Vinyl Div.2002. USA Accession no. in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours. 62 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . filler profiles change to keep pace. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants.References and Abstracts of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. this new hydrotalcite. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts.877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002. 2002. Session 2. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs. Brookfield.. when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles.Corp. 2 refs. etc. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape. As performance demands of plastics increase. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T. traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products. 1 ref. Paper 7. SPE. (SPE. selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. Ashton H C Huber J. lead-stabilised compounds. Il. WESTERN EUROPE desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding. Using calcium carbonates as filler. showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed. The data. Session 2. As an effective acid scavenger.26971. it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. 2002.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. p.. the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC. SPE. which give additional invaluable advantages in handling..T. as represented by a 75 deg.. SWITZERLAND. Ct.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.24766.Chicago Section. thereby enhancing PVC’s environmental acceptance. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers. SPE.. can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers.Co. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing Accession no.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Paper 6.. 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S.Vinyl Div. dosing. especially with requirements related to strength. SPE.2002. 30th-2nd Oct. and fluorescent whitening agents. are evaluated.Chicago Section.M. wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity. De Massa J. (SPE. very important for introduction into aqueous processes. 30th-2nd Oct. Il. 27 cm. making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength. p. Ct.

Il.References and Abstracts Brookfield. no peroxisome proliferation... SPE. Brookfield. 27 cm. no sensitising properties.Vinyl Div. USA thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains..Chicago Section.. SPE..2002.Chicago Section. Historically. (SPE. p. as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers. Paper 3. Brookfield. no genotoxicity.Chicago Section. 27 cm. Ct.193202. which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains..State University (SPE.Chicago Section. In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA. Ct. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. SPE. Il. SPE. p. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed. USA Accession no. p. especially phthalates.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The manufacturing process.877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) For some time now plasticisers. are discussed. this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC). Session 2. The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality.. Session 2.877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M. designated Hexamoll DINCH. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives. 30th-2nd Oct. This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions. Urals. Paper 2. 27 cm. RUSSIA. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Session 2. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. Stewen U. Somova T Crompton Corp. SPE.. have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies. 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B. Ct. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Gans G BASF Corp. no reprotoxicity and biodegradability. Bacaloglu R. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products. p.. 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. USA Accession no. SPE. these systems have not been performance and cost competitive. DSC. 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E. Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE.20517.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or ‘green’ alternatives.23153. SPE. 2002.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Furthermore. Brookfield. SPE. (SPE.. Safronov A. Il. 30th-2nd Oct. Ford J I OMG Inc. (SPE. 16 refs. Paper 1. physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1. 2002.2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented. 2002. 11 refs.Vinyl Div.) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 63 . Ct. SPE..Vinyl Div. SPE. 2002. The alkyltin alkyl Accession no. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.2002. 30th-2nd Oct. Paper 5.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. Streeter B E.18190.Vinyl Div.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Taking this into account. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures. di-isononylcyclohexane-1. 27 cm. Hackett J A. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions.2-dicarboxylic acid ester. DMA and dielectric relaxation. Dooley T. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed. Session 2. BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity.2002. SPE.

) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Vinyl Div. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. (SPE. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high Accession no. Brookfield. Ct.2002. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances. SPE.References and Abstracts applications where high permanence. Among these. Session 1. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications. 2002. Known ‘non-phthalate’ plasticisers are reviewed.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. food processing and packaging applications.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002. SPE. extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties. 30th-2nd Oct... which are discussed in detail. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required. polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC. Il.P. SPE..2002. as well as many other end uses.Vinyl Div. USA (SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. Several of these issues are addressed. the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure.Chicago Section. 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS O’Rourke S Hall C.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002. Brookfield.877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002.11350. However. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. Session 1. The performance requirements covered are printability. The substances produced in highest quantity.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. so they are not persistent. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations. Nevertheless.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. ‘General Purpose’ plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost. low migration and weatherability are required. Brookfield.15375.. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. resistance to extraction. Ct. For special needs.Chicago Section. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). (SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. p. the ‘Precautionary Principle’ has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers.1019. SPE. 6 refs. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 64 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co. di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC. 2002. longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. 27 cm. USA Accession no.. 30th-2nd Oct. The test data include heat ageing.. It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties. 27 cm. 2002.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible.Inc. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans.Chicago Section. Paper 6. USA Accession no. molecular weight and manufacturing process. SPE. Paper 7. 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. Paper 5. 27 cm. p.. Il. Ct. p.Vinyl Div. SPE. although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies.2002.Co. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment. Il. Session 1. and comparisons to the traditional ‘General Purpose’ (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided. 4 refs.. it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. focusing specifically on the scientific evidence. low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity. migrating or too volatile. SPE.

2002. Brookfield.Vinyl Div. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. 2002. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today. WORLD Accession no. Yinxi Z Shanghai. Chemistry. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE.8998. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.876688 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 65 . SPE. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers.References and Abstracts levels. SPE. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter. phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications. Il. 5 refs. 2002. and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. Many of these products are esters. Xiuying Q. except in some very rare situations. 30th-2nd Oct. at best.6986. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers. long the workhorse of the industry. 27 cm.6. SPE. USA. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the Accession no. which have the permanence for high temperature applications. Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness.Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin.Chicago Section. and are well suited for general use.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as ‘a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability. Phthalate plasticisers. USA early 20th century.. process aids and modifiers. and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. 2002.877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002. the relevance of these effects to humans is. CHINA Accession no. Brookfield. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented. p. are often inefficient. 3 refs. Session 1. 17 refs... Unfortunately. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants. p. flexibility or distensibility’.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. process easily. and are expensive. Trimellitate plasticisers offer today’s vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. 27 cm. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites. Ct.. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful. Paper 4. and by some definitions.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Finally. SPE. Ct. have poor low temperature properties. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers. impart good low temperature properties. permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. are difficult to process. recent investigations reveal that.. useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application. are efficient. questionable. No. as compatibiliser. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. Session 1. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science. trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. SPE. which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. starting around 1935. Yong Z. Paper 3.2002. p.Chicago Section. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div. engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. The polymerics. SPE. levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals. Il. 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE.

OF HEALTH. Xuecheng P.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser.2002. No. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations. WESTERN EUROPE. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments. 7 refs.335. independent of bead size.6.DEPT.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China. 11th Oct. as solvent. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMISSION.References and Abstracts Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. sifting and drying. UK. p.876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287. 2002. p.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C 66 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. and using three different sizes of bead. and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov. US.FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Wilkie C A Marquette. grafting.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0. AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER. and then reduced only Accession no.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail. CHINA Accession no. p.University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications. No.4. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Young’s modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content.University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF.2002. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level.2002. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent. Liqiang C.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. 6 refs. The effects of crosslinking.2002. p.NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE. p. EU.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES.9.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13. HEALTH CANADA EU. UK. No. Dec.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC. 28 refs. Dec. USA slowly. washing. CHINA Accession no. Nov. EUROPEAN UNION. Xiao L. HEALTH CANADA. It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S.9.2002. but was not significantly affected by bead size. UK. 11 refs. condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied. UK. No.9 mm obtained by filtering.University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions. US.

particularly. Ct. which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste. CDROM.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002. UK. p. p.. The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. BELGIUM. Properties and Stabilization. Shawbury. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility.. are presented. 6 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest. EUROPEAN UNION. Hungary.2002. Michigan. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC. Rapra Technology Ltd.. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.8. together with the response from industry. WESTERN EUROPE secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd. which Accession no. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants. 2002.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42. they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures. 2002. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 67 .5. 5th-9th May 2002. POLYFENCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 29 cm. AST 66. with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Pevikon D 61. 22nd-23rd. including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates. Brookfield. This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates. and Slovinyl K 72. USA Accession no.Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes.Technological University. Paper 285.997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin. No. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes.References and Abstracts Polyfence has developed Supalite.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002. legislative and scientific attention. EASTERN EUROPE. pp. it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important. while providing a big weight saving. such as Vestolit B 7021. have long been the focus of considerable media. Ca. Paper 3. is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry. EUROPEAN UNION. p.2002. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. phthalates. greater durability and a higher quality appearance.3343. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. SPE. Kamdem D P Michigan. Aug. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post. and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93.Oct. colour measurement and tensile property testing.State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied. and the particular advantages of certain alternatives.) Plasticisers. No.4. contact angle measurement. 2002. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples. HUNGARY.41. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers. 53 refs. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. 28 refs.000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol. The results of the latest studies are summaries. a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. The core of the product. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix.

pp. continuous layer adjacent to the gate. The dry blend time was reduced by 10%. The core always formed a single. 5th-9th May 2002. SPE. Krainer E Crompton Corp. Ca. p. USA Accession no.5. Watanabe T. 2002. p.. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn). 2003. 10 refs.3.EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D. Properties and Stabilization. 2002. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. as a model compound. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. Toyoda P PolyOne Corp. CDROM. such as dioxin. flexural modulus and strength. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING. resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds. Nakajima A.872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22. dart impact energy.. Paper 282. was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight. 2002. and good adhesion to GFR-PVC. developed to give improved low temperature flexibility. PROPERTIES. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. Ct. impact strength. Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy. Properties and Stabilization.University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds.872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002.1. 22 refs.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared. and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied.5. AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M. Accession no. Ca. Nishikawa T. 12 refs. ABS and PC. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2. More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. Sterzynski T. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer.References and Abstracts ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E. and heat distortion temperature. generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran. and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength. (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s. Brookfield. Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz. CDROM. No. with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. 5th-9th May 2002. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). and polycarbonate (PC). 1 ref. Stewen U. with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC).872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R. core flow ceased. Accession no. No. usually related to the instability of the extrusion process. whilst further from the gate.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION . polypropylene (PP). Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. SPE.. Ct. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP..Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products. Brookfield. to optimise the stabiliser composition and content. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface. Tokyo.. Bacaloglu I.872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002. resulting in a skin-only region. Fisch M H. (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. JAPAN Accession no. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. pp. 68 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Paper 284.Academy of Science & Technology.

. Tx.8... Brookfield. Worsley D Swansea.Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div. All the fragments are produced at similar levels.. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE. Ct. suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA). 23 refs. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer. small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes. Proceedings of a conference held Houston. accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone.References and Abstracts leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties.South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state. p. No. p. 27cm. Kumar V BBS Corp.2002. Washington. Rubber and Composites 31. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls. solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J. 22nd-23rd Oct. pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process. Accession no.871796 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 69 .872008 Item 108 Plastics. In the second system. it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation. USA Accession no. Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems. is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone. UK. 9 refs. near the Tg of the polymer. that is. 17 refs.University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University (SPE. POLAND suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr. Session II. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements. lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. 2002. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series. EUROPEAN UNION. using different mechanisms. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this. each with one fewer carbon atoms. In addition. the parent of which is the plasticiser. and thus with various degree of gelation. SPE. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder.25-46. the softer. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects. 2002. Consequently. corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface. During extrusion. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. However. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced. PVC pellets. 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G. are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. EASTERN EUROPE. implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. at levels of 0-88 phr. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002. increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel.

39 refs. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15.122. GREECE. Pissis P. 2002 PLASTICS WASTE . 30cm. No.31.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical. No. 13. WORLD studied. UKRAINE.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. safety. pp. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins. compounding and processing..9. CHINA Accession no. Rapra Technology Ltd. 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd. The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix. EUROPEAN UNION. 29 cm.University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys. Oct.CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION USA Accession no.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P.to 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches.4. UK. SINGAPORE Accession no.2002. Dai G East China. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. 70 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .References and Abstracts Item 110 Shawbury.2002.10. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. 20th Dec. WESTERN EUROPE. additives. Rapra Review Report 148. Yun J. Athens. The agency’s report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis. p. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling. environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry.2002. 2002. vol. wire and cable and packaging. 2002. No.868089 Item 115 Shawbury. pp. p. Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd. markets and applications.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The properties of the two different powders are compared. price. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction. No. Rapra Technology Ltd.13. Davydenko V V. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces. 30th Sept. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys. Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38. EUROPEAN UNION.FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. as some environmental groups had urged. No. medical.196. Sept. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. 6 refs. US. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical conductivity. legislation and end-of-life are discussed here.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32.. 2002.National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were Accession no. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand. p.

485 refs. EU. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis.References and Abstracts CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di. and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. June 2002. The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. NETHERLANDS. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.e.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19. the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the ‘Head over Heels’ agitation method. Schakel D J Netherlands. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77.863581 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . and different flame retardant fillers. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers. i. p. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed. No.Institute of Technology. JAPAN Accession no. Kazuya Nagata. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress. Takeo Iida Osaka. including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste. antimony oxide. aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide.or tri-alkoxy structure. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated. tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads. such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP). WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage. The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion.5. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate. p. Naoki Yokouchi. Hideyuki Nigo. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity. p. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed.) Rapra Review Report No. Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6. The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL EXTRACTION Bouma K.6. WESTERN EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION.2. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1. zinc borate. 13 refs.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp.Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications. 28 refs.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste. Yoshiyuki Tobita. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose. June 2001) SAUDI ARABIA Accession no. NETHERLANDS. No. 2002. diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate. 16 refs. chosen as a model filler.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura. EUROPEAN UNION.Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Italy. Alessandria. on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated. based on a number of life cycle assessments. 2002. The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC Accession no. In the PVC-containing toys. The effect of plasticisers. No.

it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP.2002. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser.Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82. HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA. AISCONDEL SA. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects. p. and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed. and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. p. CICLOPLAST SA.159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J. blending time and molec. annealing. No. June 2002.2001. June 2002.. UNIONPLAST EUROPE-GENERAL. SPAIN. ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA. TEM.University.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP. EUROPEAN UNION. DU PONT DE NEMOURS E. thermal properties. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS EU. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Sintelon AD. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate. WESTERN EUROPE. Brankov K.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol. DMA and cone calorimetry. Novi Sad. LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical. DOP. Parlow D. Europe’s largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector. YUGOSLAVIA Accession no. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. ATOFINA ESPANA. which they say have at least comparable properties.University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density. p. No. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Yao Q. ITALY. June 2002. EUROPEAN UNION.. 27th-28th May 2002. REVINIL. WESTERN EUROPE Wang D.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling. its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings.INC. EASTERN EUROPE. The effects of clay loading. butyl benzyl phthalate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2. Cvorkov L Belgrade. Popovic I G. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Tarkett Sommer. Brooklyn. TGA. Wilkie C A Marquette. dioctyl adipate. AMTICO CO.855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002. says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000. USA Accession no.329. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way. 15 refs. has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.542.2.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.I. Details are given. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials.References and Abstracts Item 119 ENDS Report No. FRANCE. dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof. dynamic mechanical properties. p. This article provides details of the association’s findings.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Accession no. DOP concentration.& CO. TARKETT SOMMER. flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors. No. 72 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .University. Aug. 9 refs. Stojkov D. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction.wt. and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. Unionplast.

monitoring and financial scheme. including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet. 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step. a method of prognosis was developed. 2001. pp. Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available.Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group. 29cm. conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process.7. p. processing aid. mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule.854595 Item 125 Cheltenham. No. 2001. UK.180. tin-based heat stabiliser.853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. p. 21cm.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products. The influence of various parameters such as temp. Paper 11. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors. 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs. on the basis of which.36). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium. IOM Communications Ltd.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29. FTIR spectroscopy.64. pp. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 23rd-25th April 2002.Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied. waste management. London. EUROPEAN UNION. ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 .4. 2000. and internal and external lubricants. Paper 60. June 2001) ALGERIA Accession no. 30cm. Rapra Technology Ltd. The Natural Step UK. EUROPEAN UNION. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. 2002. EUPC. 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd.113-121.. 5 refs. (EUROMAT 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N. UK. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds. Ouahmed S Accession no. length descriptors. The additives. Italy. Zeddam C.. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable? EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. social progress and dialogue. Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers.T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described..853889 Item 126 Brussels. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space. 7 refs. catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds. 30cm. nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated. the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite.Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE Algiers.References and Abstracts Shawbury. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical. Within such a framework. UK. AUSTRIA. 2002. stirring. No. ECVM. p. pp. The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. EUROPEAN UNION. management. were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography.590-601.22. RUSSIA Accession no. ECPI. p. UK. atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis. 2002. Rimini.

23rd-25th April 2002. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. EUROPEAN UNION. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests Accession no. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss. p. IOM Communications Ltd. colour and impact strength. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Howick C. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. release effect. DSC and X-ray scattering. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier. 7 refs. zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. was also evaluated. UK. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd.. fillers and other additives.. 2002. Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd.555-8. Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations. Toft A European Vinyls Corp. 2002. Paper 56. p.References and Abstracts SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L. Leeuwendal R.. London. 21cm. 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing. flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 58. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. London. including heat stability. EASTERN EUROPE.579-89.852792 74 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. viscosity reduction by internal lubricants.559-68. IOM Communications Ltd. 6 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. 11 refs. LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. zinc borate. Ineos Silicas Ltd. as an aluminosilicate. 012 SELECTION.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. heat stable. 2002. fusion delay by external lubricants. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. GERMANY. PVC foam and clear film containing. Paper 59. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants.. WESTERN EUROPE carried out on PVC wall coverings. shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity.569-78. flow and plate-out. London. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated.852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P. UK. Paper 57. are reported. p. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 LOW-SMOKE. EUROPEAN UNION.WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS . 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. which show that lead-free. HUNGARY. Zeocros E100. THERMALLY STABLE. London. The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr.

Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. 4 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. 8 refs. a general-purpose. WESTERN EUROPE pyrimidindiones. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 55.. 2002. Paper 51. less expensive zeolite costabiliser. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.852786 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 75 . The chemistry. 012 TIN STABILISERS.References and Abstracts Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. and Advera 401S. which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC.. 17 refs.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.504-14. London. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported. IOM Communications Ltd. UK. food-contact applications and potable water pipes. EUROPEAN UNION. product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. 21cm. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required. for use in PVC applications is reported. p. IOM Communications Ltd. USA. p. Paper 53. GERMANY. UK. ITALY. 2002. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers. such as toys. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems. 23rd-25th April 2002. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. food packaging. UK. The recycling. which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives’ Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W. in PVC processing technology. London.852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 2002. which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. USA.548-54.529-39. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Paper 52. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23 refs. USA. worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers. The performance of Advera 401P.. called Advera 401. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002.496-503. p. regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability. Marcus B PQ Corp. Paper 50. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds. 16 refs.. as heat stabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. Various aspects are addressed. in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated.515-28.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G. including handling of tin stabilisers. 2002. which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. Allieri G Lamberti SpA.

Stewen U. like tin. PVC pipes and fittings and profiles. USA. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables. Fisch M H. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R. 33 refs.437-44. UK.. MacDonald S.. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations. which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder. IOM Communications Ltd. 21cm. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. London. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. Krainer E. GERMANY. Shah M. 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described. London. Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer.486-95. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future. 2002. p. Paper 46. GERMANY. Paper 47. 2002. p. p. London.. for measuring the flow properties of a material. 21cm. Schiller M Chemson Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. zinc. which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die.471-85. is under pressure in some European countries. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers. Paper 49. SCANDINAVIA. 2002.461-70. p. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S. 11 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium. foamed sheets and profiles. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. 23rd-25th April 2002. 2002. 2002.445-57.. UK. Kellett R W. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. London. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed. Paper 48. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 45. which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but. UK. Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient. NORWAY. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P. IOM Communications Ltd.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Hinrichsen E L. 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH 76 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. is reported.References and Abstracts Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Fakinlede J. 21cm. calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p.References and Abstracts four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J.410-5.. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process. a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material. SCANDINAVIA.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 40.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.Ltd.. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders. 2002.. are described. Paper 43. UK. NORWAY. which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers. 15 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. is reported. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I.322-9. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. The energy balance.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. WESTERN EUROPE London. IOM Communications Ltd. London. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which are less prone to wear. 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffei’s twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. Paper 32. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials) Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. p. London. 21cm. UK. output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined. IOM Communications Ltd. BELGIUM. are outlined. 3 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 44. 2002. AUSTRALIA. p. Aylett G J Vinidex Pty. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 23rd-25th April 2002. London.416-36. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.388-98. 21cm. 7 refs. IOM Communications Ltd.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 41.382-7. UK. 2002. 21cm. Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered. The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 VINYLOOP.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A. UK. UK.

London. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. optimisation trial. SWITZERLAND. 2002. such as Irganox 1141.186-91. Paper 17. IOM Communications Ltd.852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.. Howick C Pall Corp. Paper 30. 7 refs. 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. IOM Communications Ltd.References and Abstracts The use and benefits of liquid. GERMANY. heat stability. London. 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described. 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. colour. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. UK. p. London. European Vinyls Corp. London.. 21cm. 2002. Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined. Paper 27. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.317-21. 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 20. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. 2002. ITALY. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EVC ITALIA SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. gloss. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. p. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.311-6.. as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd.273-81. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement. partially hindered phenols. 21cm. 10 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. London. p. Paper 31. IOM Communications Ltd. cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. p. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Malcomson S P 78 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. concentration run. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. Fischer W. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. Properties evaluated included rheological properties. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. media acclimatisation.221-7. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The antifouling action of Evicas 90. p.

University. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm.179-85. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.157-65. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage.95-104.. 6 refs..852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 21cm. p.852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. London. 6 refs. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 13. 21cm. 2 refs. AUSTRIA.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. GERMANY. such as alumina and silica. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. UK. wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described. EUROPEAN UNION. surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed. Paper 14. Van Soom K. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. Honeywell. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M. EUROPEAN UNION. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. recyclability. 11 refs. SEM-EDX. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. process documentation and customer education. UK.852750 Accession no. Paper 7. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques. dual extrusion. p... p.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles. sidings. IOM Communications Ltd. 2002. London. UK.References and Abstracts mechanical properties.105-15. 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. AUSTRIA.852743 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 79 . UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Schiller M Loughborough. fences and foam profiles. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated. Trends in high speed extrusion. melt homogenisation. inexpensive tooling. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives. Paper 8. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike. plate-out and artificial weathering. Paper 16. FRANCE.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. including DSC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. London. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. UK. p. flow simulation. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London.151-6. flexible tooling. BELGIUM. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. Varshney N. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. is described. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES . AUSTRIA. bypass rheometry. London.WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. including window profiles. 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS .

EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU.INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.8. Paper 4. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. according to a recent study by Applied Market Information.1. 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. p. GERMANY. JULICH. Truss R W Queensland. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. GERMANY. 15th April 2002. the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001.2000.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A. Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA. isotactic PP. London. p. plastics additives with approval for direct food contact. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GREECE. EUROPEAN UNION. alternatives to lead. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. 53-62. and PVDF. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance. IOM Communications Ltd. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food. toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC. Stoynov L A..University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe. Swinburne. RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market. 23rd-25th April 2002. 2002. a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. However. key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers.13 NONYL PHENOL “UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD”. PVC and PS. Jan.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No.4. No. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Nonylphenol is a persistent./Feb. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.22. No. scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol. WESTERN EUROPE. tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc. Data are presented for PVC. p. p. EUROPEAN UNION. April 2002. They suggest that pesticides. current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead. there has been a significant increase in the 80 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The Accession no.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56. packaging and cleaning products are possible sources. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76. AUSTRALIA Accession no. but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging. 18 refs. No.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A.327. PP. 21cm. Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry. UK. weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed. 8th-14th April 2002. No.University of Technology. 21 refs.References and Abstracts Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE. April 2002. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface. p.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E.

EUROPEAN UNION.State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment.2. Accession no. AUSTRALIA Accession no.References and Abstracts degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR..5. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. Stabilisers. heat release. EUROPEAN UNION. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction. Polymerisation.Soed. Nos. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system. Flexibles. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition. 10 refs. Mel’nik A I. 20 refs. Tidjani A Germany. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses.Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 81 . 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Lyutikova E A. No. p. Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. BPF. Jan.2002. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives. 44. 2002. March 2002. (Full translation of Vys. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. Shatalin Yu V. 21cm. 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. respectively. Pyzh’yanova L G Urals.850492 Item 166 London.12. Shiga T.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. XII. 60 papers. Zotov Yu L.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T. Klimov S A. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future. pp. 2002. smoke production. 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. p. GERMANY./Feb. CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter.3. p. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter. 26 refs. The influence of ZnS. No. Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC. 2002. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D. 29 refs. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data.608. May 2001. Neubert D.363-8) RUSSIA Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS.B. whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour. Challenges and markets. The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on Accession no.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I. p. Kunze R. not the strains. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn. Sustainability.1-2.851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44. mass loss.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B.vii.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No. antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated. p. Shishkin E V. Processing. PVC profiles. Klimov D S. Additives EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. No.

Universidad de Las Palmas.J.Vinyl Div. May 2001. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co. 18 refs. No. p. p.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D.Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products. soffits. automobiles and furniture. Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation. N. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D. BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles.3.2001. Examples include vinyl siding. p.References and Abstracts the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces. developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos. Feb. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs. No..& Technol. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2001.. Conference proceedings. At some volume in a producer’s process the make/buy decision is imminent. 11 refs. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc. 11th-12th Sept.846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Pushing Profitability.University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software. Benitez A N. GERMANY.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51. March 2002. SPAIN. Pushing Profitability. furniture and automotive trim. Sayed M S. Iselin. Brief details are given.845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. fencing. Castany F J. Iselin.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT 82 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184.845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001. Conference proceedings. and the preparation.. N.2. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in Accession no. was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production. USA Accession no. FREUDENBERG GROUP. decking. 11th-12th Sept. SPE. p. trim.2002. 13 refs. and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology.e. EUROPEAN UNION. using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO.539. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes. EUROPEAN UNION. i. No.Vinyl Div. FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG. p. vinyl windows. (SPE. The second tells us that Freudenberg Group’s sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist. Gomez R Gran Canaria. (SPE.J. LEDERER GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo. EGYPT Accession no. their thermal properties. JAPAN Maziad N A. Lederer GmbH. both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany. SPE. Zaragoza.Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications.National Center for Radiation Res. bulk truck or bulk rail car.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp. Plastican SA.

less downtime. Conference proceedings. 11th-12th Sept.Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed.Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run. die suppliers.845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. are enjoying many of these advances. machinery suppliers. regulations such as California’s Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. Pushing Profitability. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored. Blom H. much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels. as well as the effect of mineral loading level. 8 refs. Iselin. Autumn 2001.845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. Iselin. Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process. non-lead wet-rated systems. Woo L.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T. Boutelle T. Conference proceedings.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001.Vinyl Div.J. the greater the abrasive wear on the screen.J. Shang S. SPE. 11th-12th Sept. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs.References and Abstracts applications where there is human contact. p. Ling M T K. p. Gatrrett S.J. N. Booras J. p. as well as thermoformed packaging. N.2001. N. Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented. SPE.Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. film and a variety of commercial applications. Finally.2001. USA Accession no. through the 1990s.. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC.844617 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 83 .2001. it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral. are discussed. CANADA applications. 4 refs. as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers.Vinyl Div. residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. Joiner L. 11th-12th Sept. It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is. (SPE. No. USA Accession no. such as building and construction.845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. together with current developments in vinyl. However.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted. Pushing Profitability. SPE.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G. USA Accession no. PVC processors in all Accession no. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd.71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc.. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed. Surface delamination was investigated. USA Accession no. Jin H-S. 16 refs. Iselin. Pushing Profitability. such as with telephone and extension cords. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials. such as those used for fixed cable installations. (SPE... together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry. Conference proceedings. Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE.2. The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials. appliance cable and others. reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined. Temperature control. p. as expected..Vinyl Div. are reviewed. suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet..

It was found that 20 to 30 wt. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short. Dec. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep 84 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry Accession no. Dec.National Museum (ACS. No. p.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. 10 refs. D.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.% of these resins improved not only thermal. plasticiser content. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer. USA Accession no.Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear. p. low molec. SCANDINAVIA.Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects. Varner K E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION. chemicals. Wilkie C A Marquette.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic. Dec. although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function. Yao Q. Nov.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints. on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined.2000. Washington. FRANCE. Parlow D. No. EUROPEAN UNION. and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion. transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark. 176.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L. 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University. 8 refs. including volume fraction of clay.wt.. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction. 2001.References and Abstracts Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined.4. EUROPEAN UNION.Div.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15. No. WESTERN EUROPE moduli. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Rinaldi G La Sapienza. Number 2. Brooklyn. DENMARK. 20th-24th Aug. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. p. Shrinkage. 18 refs. 9 refs. A sweet odour may also be detected. melt compounding time and annealing. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4. 2001.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G. exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface.and long-term mechanical properties. attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. p. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated. EUROPEAN UNION. Volume 41. ITALY. Conference proceedings.12. p.C. Hilton B A US. scratching and abrasion. The effects of various factors.

The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated. EUROPEAN UNION. and help in the understanding of the process.838274 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 85 . EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN.National Centre for Radiation Res. triallyl cyanurate and 1. 2001. 7 refs. This article looks at the methods being used. and in addition.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N. SOLVIN.838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6.3. Kenny J M Alicante. EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN. VEKA AG. NETHERLANDS. used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. GERMANY.6-hexanediol diacrylate. No. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission. EASTERN EUROPE.University. MIKRON INDUSTRIES.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74.2. USA Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28.12). type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder. 2001. WESTERN EUROPE. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air. ITALY. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF. EGYPT Accession no. p.1. carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. p.1. p. USA.University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and inconsistent supply of recyclate. and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate. DECEUNINCK. 11 refs. diethylene glycol diacrylate. p. 2001.University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described. and that it is already being recycled by some companies. p. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS. Gaal H. 23 refs. EVC. swelling characteristics and volume resistivity. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin. 2001. RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable. trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate.2001. carbon dioxide. softening temp.References and Abstracts method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. VINYL INSTITUTE. hydrogen. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi.. EUROPEAN UNION. BELGIUM. TECNOMETAL. Ali Z I. MARLEY FLOORS LTD. Zahran A H Egypt.. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A. plasticised by polymeric plasticiser.. FRANCE. No. KOBE STEEL. EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES. 2001. NORTH AMERICA. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products. No. Perugia. HUNGARY Accession no. Slapak M J P Eindhoven.11. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction. PRINCIPIA PARTNERS. EU.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A. enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. Torre L.& Technol. Dec. SOLVAY. in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride. SWITZERLAND.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING. LINDE AG. EUROPE-GENERAL. were examined using dynamic and Accession no.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K. VULCAFLEX. JAPAN. and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. 18 refs. ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. p.. it is claimed. pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.12. PROGNOS. No. No.

Dallas. The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. Simonik J Compuplast International Inc. Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites. Dallas.Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials. Paper 9. 6th-10th May. was compared with the double batching preparation process. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour. whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type. WESTERN EUROPE Item 191 Antec 2001. Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer. Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Vasudeo Y B. 25 refs. Dallas.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. blended in the hot mixer. SPAIN.831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. 4 refs. CZECH REPUBLIC. Texas. Matuana L M Michigan. In this process. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture. UK.Conference proceedings. Texas. and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer.. paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 01. EUROPEAN UNION. Samsonkova P.Conference proceedings.. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials. plasticised PVC. 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001. This reduces the overall energy requirements. JAPAN Accession no. 2001. No. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods. on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. 28 refs. twice the required additives are added to the PVC. 2001. and were shown to be similar. and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production. 2001. IOM Communications Ltd. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. USA Accession no. 31st Oct. paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F. Paparao C.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001. Zlin. London. and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid. 19 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001. Texas. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described. paper 605 Accession no.Conference proceedings. p.830362 86 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products.References and Abstracts isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere.2001. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process.81-7.5.831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. The density was not influenced by the CFA content. EUROPEAN UNION. ITALY.. and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability. INDIA Accession no. 6th-10th May. 2001.Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration. although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time. 6th-10th May.

as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities. FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 87 . 3 refs. One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes. but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. USA Accession no. volatilities. Sutthitavil W. Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute. Overall. Sept. elongation and tensile strength were measured.6 g/cc. No.5 phr was also investigated. 2001. potable water and sewage pipe. paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R. sawed. USA from ductile iron and concrete. which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite.9. The bending strength of PVC wood is lower. Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood.3. lower moisture absorption and ease of installation.830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31. However. 6th-10th May. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. Sept. Sept. For sewage lines. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h. Sookkho D. AND VINYL PARRIES.3.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Dallas. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0.3 g/cc. No. 6 refs.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578.2001. Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP. has a specific gravity of about 1. Chantasatrasamy N. Accession no. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed. No. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs. Compared with traditional products. p. Elhard J D. but it can still be used for Accession no. A PVC-wood composite. is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance. Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy. McGinniss V D. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year.2001. now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications. provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVC’s molecular structure. p. WORLD Accession no. p.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W.Conference proceedings. screwed.References and Abstracts INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694. cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required. Texas. Benecke H. Films were produced and the tensile modulus. and functionalities.2001. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. improved impact resistance. the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm. 5 refs. even with densities as low as 0. for example.

University Scanning electron microscopy. where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC. i. No. Perugia. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. Mechanical and optical properties were examined. some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP. with surface functionalisation which.I. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999. p. from observation of biological adsorption tests. while the Accession no.University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. Iannoni A. SPAIN. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy.References and Abstracts decorative applications. p. No.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference.28. Kenny J M Alicante. The system. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide.10. No. p.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. According to the report.Cuza A. cornices. Lopez J.Polytechnical University. Borcia G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp. 12 refs. WESTERN EUROPE The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate. Valencia. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied.1/23 FDA REPORT WON’T END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S 88 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar. but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk. p.8.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28. doors and siding. FibrePlas. Popa G Jassy.2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N. US.e.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP. No. 21 refs. 10th Sept. WORLD Accession no. RUMANIA Accession no. continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder. allowing use in biomedical applications. Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness. infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents.2001. does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium. In this technology. but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan. No. Sept. new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised. ITALY. Surface energy increased.8. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. 5 refs. Details are given. together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser. 22nd August 2001.2001.2001.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13. EASTERN EUROPE. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area. p. THAILAND Accession no. June 2001.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no.6. 6th Sept. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol. one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products.University.

Malac Z.real and perceived. 4 refs.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. pp. Environmental issues .Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser. sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit. AUSTRALIA Accession no. Rapra Technology Ltd. 6th-10th May. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Toxicology.Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design. Lafleur P G. Processing and fabrication. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour. paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R. the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Thibodeau Montreal. Kalendova A. 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd. plate angle. using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser.. Dallas. so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. Brno. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties.Conference proceedings. composition. Pospisil L Aliachem jc. 11cm. 45 refs. paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J.Conference proceedings. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. EUROPEAN UNION. Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices. biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate. PVC medical device application fields. creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density. Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). As the drum rotated. and bibliography of useful document abstracts. the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars. Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds. Benefits of PVC for healthcare. Dallas. The influences of drum temperature.825424 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 89 . which included flowbalancing. which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Simonik J. Brno. 2001. 6th-10th May. Texas. and multi-stage separation on the separation Accession no.Conference proceedings. Dallas. Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology. TAIWAN efficiency were investigated. Kosior E Swinburne. plate temperature. whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing.826600 Item 205 Shawbury. CANADA Accession no. 2001. Texas. drum speed. 6th-10th May.References and Abstracts grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. 2001. 2001.Technical University. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps. 6 refs. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC. The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. Key barriers to PVC replacement. residence time on the plate. the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay. Main headings include: Global market size. value and future trends. UK.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001. 7 refs. 23 refs. Texas. and the log. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D.University of Technology.142. residence time and temperature. The system consisted of a heated rotating drum. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry.

Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd. p.1. Mengeloglu F Michigan. As a result of this accelerated gas loss. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied. June 2001. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers. independent of modifier type.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I. tensile properties and molecular level ageing. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that.825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. Food & Rural Affairs’ life cycle assessment of PVC. the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N. Zotov Y L. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. Jakubowicz I. No. p. No. UK. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process. II. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour. June 2001.State Technical University. July 2001. and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures. UK. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. p. USA Accession no. Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co.2. to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred. 2001.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC. 11. stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. 26 refs.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface.DEPT.318. and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants. 1 ref. the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised.References and Abstracts Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 90 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 2000. Kaustik AOOT. The effects of different lubricants. p. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. Shatalin Y V. No. gelation.OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7 refs. No. DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion Accession no. the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films. which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials.2.National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed. USA COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. EUROPEAN UNION. to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. p. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times. Gevert T Sweden. at least in some situations.7. p.43) RUSSIA Accession no. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples. 2001. stabilisers and processing conditions were studied.Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples.11. its ease of manufacture. without adding any additives. Klimov S A.

459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L.. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered. Petru Poni. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the Accession no. 6th-10th May. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0. particularly yellow. and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. SCANDINAVIA. However. EASTERN EUROPE. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. Jin Yang.15 mm diameter. Two experimental approaches were adopted.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. Jamois-Tasserie M. comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers. mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products.Universite Laval.References and Abstracts pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion. p. Lallet P. CANADA. and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. CANADA. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure. Institut Pyrovac Inc.1. PS and PVC materials individually. Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C. Accession no. 2001. C. as determined by infrared spectroscopy.3. and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer. Villa F. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results. were observed with repeated extrusion. EASTERN EUROPE. PP. as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. Roy C. SWEDEN. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R.Universite.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. Two parameters were studied.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. No. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg. Vasile C Laval. RUMANIA Accession no. p. 2001.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. 12 refs. PS and PVC. it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. Roy C. 54 refs. Vasile C Quebec.. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg. Pyrovac Institute Inc. Pakdel H. PP. It was concluded that the change in © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 91 . Petru Poni. including chlorinated hydrocarbons. WESTERN EUROPE molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC. 2001. Despite the observed property changes. 73 refs. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers. were identified by chromatography.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE. Renaud C Franche-Comte. Dallas. Texas. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated. HDPE. p. RUMANIA Accession no.Conference proceedings.3.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. LDPE.Universite. 5 refs. 2001. No. No. paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s. The main gaseous and liquid products. and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. Dubois C. LDPE.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. PART II. Deterioration in colour.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. EUROPEAN UNION. The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied.Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80. followed by drying.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed. Riande E. Changes in gel fraction. sample photographs and results are given. EUROPEAN UNION. the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam. No. FRANCE. and of plasticiser into the liquid. p. followed by drying.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P.5. the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane. Within the dose range studied. No. p. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen. Lastly.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS MALAYSIA Accession no. attaining constant values after 10 days. at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly. WESTERN EUROPE and about one order of magnitude.818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules. 12 refs. Malaysia. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Aug. the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated.11. with frequent cracking.530. Accession no. was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC. and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC. The results obtained showed that. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. Mijangos C. As a result of these changes. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. nitrogen. SPAIN. a month after the membranes were prepared. under the irradiation conditions employed. Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied.2000. Guzman J. carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC. Detailed experimental procedures. p.814334 92 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No. 35 refs. No. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L. Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research. 25 refs. Diffusion of liquid into the discs.10. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing.References and Abstracts PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days. 2001. ITALY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. hardness. 31st May 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity. Nasir M. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. FRANCE. and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42. 34 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80.

3. Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp. 28th Feb. 14 refs.11. SPE. CIBA-GEIGY CO. No. p. 2000. 11th-12th Oct.C.6.University. Diaconescu C Crompton Corp.811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21. JAPAN are estimated by the differential method of analysis.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5. No. Goto H. as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated. Conference proceedings. No. and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer..2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H. Bacaloglu R.575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A. Mrklic Z. were synthesised. Higaki Y. p. 14 refs. Iida T Osaka.Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups.e. Nissin Oil Mills Ltd. Narisawa I. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg. 38 refs. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H.University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void Accession no. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers. i. CROATIA Accession no.Vinyl Div. Sunami M. (SPE. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. USA Accession no. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC. a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates.5 mg KOH/g resin). The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated.Institute of Technology. Kovacic T Split.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000. 17 refs.2001. EGYPT.University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286. mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0. No. The thickness of the foil is 0. Nakan0 K. March 2001. Yamagata. Dooley T. 14th March 2001. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters. p. as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama.2000.2. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters.. Philadelphia. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC.5 to 20. Nakamura Y.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. having moderate acid numbers (11. used as novel costabilisers with metal soap. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength. p. The kinetic parameters © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . p.. Pa.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D.

(Translated from Plasticheskie Massy. and stabilising action. introduction time of monomers. allegedly. p. 3rd-5th May 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. No.2000. and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking. Di Simone J. on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC.19) RUSSIA Accession no. 2000.References and Abstracts MOD. alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids. Abdrashitov Y M. No. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties. plasticity.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H. p. Naugumanova E I. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GERMANY. p. 2 refs. p. Sabapathy P A. noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness. diverse crosslinkers.. USA Accession no. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen. commonly known as DEHP or DOP. New Orleans. reviewing available information from Hatco.MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES 94 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound. JAPAN Nafikova R F. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha. viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). including DEHP. acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co. paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd. Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA). adhesion to steel and deformation are examined.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE .808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28.808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000. 4 refs.5. methyl acrylate (MA). citrates and adipates. Conference proceedings. distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC). cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption. DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices. National Starch & Chemical BV Accession no. La. 5 refs.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20. Switzerland. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described. 9 refs. USA Accession no. Minsker K S Bashkir.1. TOTM.1. Morflex and BP Amoco.State University.807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. Spring 2001. Basel. and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage.810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A. processability. No. 25th-26th Oct. amount of reactor charge.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups. 2001. Conference proceedings..

(SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance. 22nd Feb. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000. Harshbarger D Geon Co. May 2000. extruder temperature settings. USA Accession no. were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. Fl. paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC . 2000. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J. extrusion rate.Conference proceedings.. Poncin-Epaillard F. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 7th-11th May.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79. p. modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil. Brosse J-C Maine. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Conference proceedings. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No.PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties.527. PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common. Llado J. EUROPEAN UNION. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. Zaragoza. Unfortunately. to the normal. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene. Reyx D. Rough surfaces on the die Accession no. NETHERLANDS. Matuana L M. The surface energy.. paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico.Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution. Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. so increasing the gloss. 3 refs. King J A Michigan.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L. Sanchez B. increasing significantly with modifier concentration. FRANCE. and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7th-11th May. The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions. SPAIN. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality. 22 refs.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . No. 27 refs. WESTERN EUROPE acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C).8. and the die surface roughness. USA.References and Abstracts (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications. 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface.Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre. 4 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Orlando. Fl. Javierre C.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000.University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis.2001. whilst the elongation at break was not affected. Orlando.

Conference proceedings. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content. residual unsaturation. 7th-11th May. attributed to increasing particle interaction. Matutes-Aquino J. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams.Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride). Rodriguez-Fernandez O S.Conference proceedings. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate.. MEXICO. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally.C. Gilbert M Coahuila. Orlando.. Orlando. EUROPEAN UNION. containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder. Fl. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content. 2000. and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. (SPE) Accession no. 7th-11th May.University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently. 14 refs. RETEC 2000.& Co. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl. 2000. MEXICO Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives.7 micron range.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R. 2000. and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties. D. paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations.. provide good process safety.1-0. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Sifuentes P. dibasic lead phosphite.2000.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000. attributed to strong particle interactions..Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada.. crosslink density. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers. basic lead carbonate. was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C. and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time. Orlando. USA Accession no. Ayala-Valenzuela O. Ramos de Valle L F. Rios-Jara D Coahuila. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers.I. and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. Washington. Refs.805659 96 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. and thermal stability. 7th-11th May. Loughborough. Mexico. thermal properties and molecular weight.805663 Item 234 Antec 2000.Inc. which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network. Conference proceedings.Conference proceedings.Conference proceedings..804341 Item 237 Antec 2000. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam. and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour. 5 refs.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C. 7th-11th May. Fl. paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E. Yanez-Flores I G. 17th-19th Sept. attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent. tribasic lead sulphate. Fl. and related compounds with a particle size in the 0.References and Abstracts and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss. and which also provide good colour retention. Fl. USA Accession no. USA Accession no. 2000. which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. 18 refs. but poor retention of original colour. Enlow W. Orlando. UK. 12 refs.

with corresponding controls.10. and lower brittle point temperatures. FL. It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC. Graham P M.Div. 2000.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Orlando. Volume 75. aqueous extractables and particle generation. 1 ref.and sulphur-based ligands are reported.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge. because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds.College of William & Mary (ACS. 10 years. 10 refs.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M. Washington. to improve melt processing and heat stability. 4 refs. Levy E R Williamsburg. USA Accession no. 20th-24th Aug. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments. 5 refs. Gomaa W A. Fl.. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. and 14 years were obtained. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications.C. LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L. They also gave similar or increased strength. McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co. complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time.. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications. methylene and methyl groups were obtained.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2.Div. D. increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated. Oct. Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid. the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene). blush. Conference Proceedings. Doyal A S. Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp. Delgado A H Canada. as well as their thermal chemistry. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate). Starnes W H.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point. With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering.References and Abstracts Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates. USA carbonyl.Conference proceedings. 2000.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L. Since copper(I) is readily reduced. p. Maeyer J T. Orlando.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED. and enhanced the product characteristics. USA Accession no.2000. including colour. which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC. paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE.National Research Council (ACS. LOW BLUSH. a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen. Fall Meeting 2000. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase. In contrast.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced. the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char. 7th-11th May. Fall 1996. USA Accession no. similar elongation and flexural modulus. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. Laurin D. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years. flammability. As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC. Volume 83.69-70.. p. No. clarity. but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower. plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes. Biocides tested © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 97 . It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups. Measurements of the bands for Accession no. p.

paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile.Technische universitat. 11/1/01. pp. 29 cms. Theoretical Accession no. They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE adhesive. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter. and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. Kleinert H. calcium carbonate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. Conference proceedings. (Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000).124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques. lead stabiliser and antimony oxide. Volume 40. aluminium/plastic laminates. EUROPEAN UNION.) Rapra. when the sample surface was removed.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J. 427 refs. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed. whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties. electrical cables. when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt 98 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Massachusetts. 2000. USA Accession no. followed by manual and automated sorting systems. the smoke suppression rankings changed. thermoset composites. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles. was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile.References and Abstracts and compared were OBPA (10.University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. FRANCE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Orlando. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. La. However. Petrie S Millipore Corp. Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures. poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers..799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints. No. Rapra Review Report. 7 refs.5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one).of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends. 2000.799815 Item 243 Shawbury. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties.. Separation techniques described include those involving density..16-8. p. which.108. p. froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature.Review Report No.Div. triboelectrification.12.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000. Hoffmann H Dresden. enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions. August 1999.1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P. Dec. Number 2. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test. Fl.. 2000. which also containing plasticiser. Rapra Technology Ltd.11. Girard-Reydet E Lyon.Conference proceedings. 12. 2000. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants. 7th-11th May. August 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 6 refs. were compounded by twin screw extrusion. and carpet sorting technology.10-oxybisphenoxarsine). A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described. the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension. vol. EUROPEAN UNION. and DCOIT (4. OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). GERMANY.4. poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties. The compositions. automotive waste. No. or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component. 4 refs. and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. p. New Orleans.Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS.

The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor. paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc. 7th-11th May.Conference proceedings. attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual. FRANCE. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens’ mouths. and a centre gated plate to study radial flow. JAPAN Accession no. In September. A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection.References and Abstracts models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers. an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects.11. whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould. EU. Fl. Geon Co. Orlando.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment. 2000. No. melt temperatures.2000. the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic. WESTERN EUROPE polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted. p.2000. on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused. but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould. which are used extensively in PVC products.State University. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol. USA Accession no. No. EUROPEAN UNION. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. 10 refs.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45. 7th-11th May. Summers J W Ohio. p.Conference proceedings. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates.. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. Nov.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27. and a graphical solution for the differential equations for © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 99 . 28 refs. Fl. paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L. Orlando.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction. Koelling K W.Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C. Minamoto Y Osaka. Sept. 7 refs.2. 2000. indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. and shot sizes. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure. slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded Accession no. is nearing an end. employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds.

References and Abstracts

unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

Accession no.793729


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References and Abstracts

properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.


Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panel’s findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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References and Abstracts

in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S


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and the compositions of heat stabilisers © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 103 . 14 refs. PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed.. UK. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS. softening temperature.5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C. Laminations & Coatings Conference. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. USA Accession no. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA. a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers. p. p. developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology. No. IRAN Accession no. ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK JAPAN.University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.8.References and Abstracts Yong Ning.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Shaoyun Guo Sichuan. 2000. p. CHINA company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. 19 refs. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B. 19 refs. MORFLEX.12. Atlanta. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste.1-di-t-butylperoxy3. Aug. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. Wu L C Tamkang. Ga. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. According to citrate manufacturer Morflex. EUROPEAN UNION. Alsharif M A Isfahan. the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution.Conference proceedings.University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1. POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed. No. No. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined. Loughborough.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30.Volume 1. Gilbert M Alicante. July 2000.50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A. p. July 2000. SPAIN. In Japan.7.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77. The Accession no. 22 refs. such as PX-811. 22nd-26th Aug. premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations. Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C.1. 19th Sept.University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69.782996 Item 270 Polymers. No. 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated.University. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained.31-2 CITRATE. The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC.2000. CHINA Accession no.3.1999.

20.National Inst. with variable composition according to the PVC end use.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . scavenging free radicals. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased. La. Sophia. ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and Accession no. 6 refs. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. p. No.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys. for rigid applications. neutralise the HCl which is formed..References and Abstracts used for various PVC applications. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. New Orleans. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No.781444 Item 274 ACS. Babukutty Y.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41. July 2000. chemical resistance and resistance to swelling. particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks. 17 refs. Volume 81. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Koh Y J.Div. Sluszny A. 2000. USA (APG) DISCHARGE Prat R.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane. 22nd-26th Aug. No.University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC.1919.780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73. 24th-30th July 2000. and mixed metal.306. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers. especially PVC articles used in healthcare. p.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. Kodama M Japan. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation. Conference proceedings. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water. Kogoma M. Okazaki S. July 2000. the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year. p. for wire and cable applications.1999. However. ISRAEL Accession no. JAPAN Accession no. lead-based. p.306. EUROPEAN UNION. p. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commission’s “horizontal study” on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago. Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS. and decompose peroxides. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No.

gel permeation chromatography. No. Spriet C CNEP.2. FRANCE. Moiseev Y V.3. EUROPEAN UNION. 38 refs.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. From the basic understanding gained. Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. EUROPEAN UNION. 134 refs. March 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these Accession no. No. it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005.152. p. 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2. reprocessing conditions.778022 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 105 .69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. Delprat R. molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed. Chaigneau R. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E. p.C). Parmeland G. Siampiringue N.g. 15 refs. Using thermogravimetric. Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries. Elf Atochem SA. and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12. No. Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg. June 2000. GERMANY. p. chromatographic. Gumargalieva K Z.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations.University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC.778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated.References and Abstracts control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. EUROPEAN UNION.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39. and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments. No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found. 8 refs. p.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter. Dabin P. gloss degradation rate doubles. June 2000. mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e. tensile strength and strain). UV and IR spectroscopic techniques. modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. EUROPEAN COMMISSION WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use. ITALY. Pokholok T V. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. RUSSIA Accession no.

New Jersey).5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J. No. EUROPEAN UNION. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent.148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J. Improvements were observed in tensile. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q. BELGIUM. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time.15. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 16 refs. The studies cover mechanical recycling.303.2. Wu J. Deweerdt M. on the other hand. The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. 6 refs. No. Chen L. 19-20 Oct. while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. EUROPEAN UNION. Trexel Inc. Reinecke H. March/April 2000. Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification. No. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. March/April 2000.References and Abstracts Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. SPAIN. URALITA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. behaviour in landfill. WESTERN EUROPE. feedstock recycling. Wei Ping G.Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams. while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface.522. Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated. UK. p. of temp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR . The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. Zhen H Y. p.2. WESTERN EUROPE EU. CHINA Accession no. electrical and low temperature properties. Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion. the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction. p.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. p. The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated. April 2000. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M. The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film. flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds. Perugini C.. Dec. (SPE Foams ’99 Conference. EUROPEAN UNION. Wu Q Qingdao. 2000.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No. p. EUROPEAN COMMISSION 106 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Parsippany. 6 refs. While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur.1999. No. Wang J. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. Accession no. USA.

to its high glass transition temperature. and impact strength over extended periods. However due. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range. the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude . The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking. EUROPEAN UNION. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low temperature. a product growing strongly in the profile industry.775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9. the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%. 2000. Oct.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability . Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory. shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes. Arias G.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A. i. The crosslinking reaction.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder. 2000./Dec. Manchester. SPAIN.1999. The different products used are discussed and positioned. and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles. Rodriguez O S. by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated.5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation. By UVvis spectroscopy. p. GERMANY. gloss. are expanded upon.776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 11 refs.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.3. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 107 . EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering. Neto M B Sao Paulo. In combination with metal stearates.Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4. In dry irradiation. SWITZERLAND.3.in particular the maintenance of colour.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M. WESTERN EUROPE the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. MEXICO. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content. such as pipes or profiles. Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. 27 refs. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use . Poland. Wiebeck H. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 5 refs. Conference proceedings. compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. No.e. Last but not least. an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Escola Politecnico. the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues. No.there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes. 16th-18th Nov. the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. No.6dithio-1.products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools.2.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology. So for each TiO2 pigment Accession no. it has shortcomings in impact strength.2. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. Katowice.1999. paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A. p. and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE).6-dithio1.4. as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry. Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland.5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC.

1999. Klein B.90 No. there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends.3. 7 refs. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div.Vinyl Div. alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product. p. Today’s processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product. the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. p. Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. Shabnavard L.) 108 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No.Vinyl Div. BRAZIL Accession no.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec ’99.References and Abstracts different from traditional recycling and. and the result is compared to observed process behaviours. 1 ref. and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems. USA Accession no. JAPAN. Falter J A Henkel Corp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BELGIUM.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated. p.) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view. p.114-7. 2000. (SPE. Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA. such as ageing resistance. Silbermann J. However. Western Europe has led these initiatives.3. Kaneka Corp. Conference proceedings.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec ’99. 12th-14th Oct.52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE.Vinyl Div. Touchette-Barrette C. 12th-14th Oct. processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. 12th-14th Oct.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives. Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp. Sheehan S E. In Accession no. the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture. however. passive safety.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec ’99. long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances.1999. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC. Cooney J D Canada. Ontario. USA Accession no. March 2000. Conference proceedings. GERMANY.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out. EUROPEAN UNION. While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis. p. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology.1999. Conference proceedings. as a result. Ontario.1999. 5 refs. Ontario.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAY’S HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W.31-4 English. (SPE. Conference proceedings. other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced. weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application. Ontario. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out. 3 refs.. provide a more efficient lubricating effect.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B. p. 12th-14th Oct. 15 refs.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec ’99. WESTERN EUROPE Concerns over worker safety.National Research Council (SPE. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement.

Inc. When used as a primary stabiliser. CANADA Accession no. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites. March 2000. the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs. The second phase of research. conducted from February to April 1998. such as calcium carbonate. the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ. e.302. Prince J ECC International Inc. (SPE.1999. these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2. at least to a far greater extent than common. alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation.Vinyl Div. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled.References and Abstracts the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers. p.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A.Halstab Div. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand. has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group. Ontario. (SPE. 12th-14th Oct. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate. additives such as hydrotalcite Accession no. 12th-14th Oct. In polymeric matrices.bottles and other post-consumer packaging. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser. p.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No. expanded the study’s focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling.Vinyl Div. p.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec ’99. highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies . probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates. 12th-14th Oct. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. Vinyl.) Historically. leading to the production of inorganic chlorides.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec ’99.1999. In ‘test tube’ reactions. 7 refs. Ontario. However. were presented at Vinyltec ’98. barium stearate. In 1998. USA and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to.1999. for example. essentially instantaneously. That is.44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling. They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs.g. (SPE. cove base extrusion. ‘PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America’. tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic. Conference proceedings. Bradshaw R W. Conference proceedings. Ontario. that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers. USA Accession no. p. but colour hold poor. That is. was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec ’99. conducted in September and November 1998. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling.Vinyl Div. Conference proceedings. Mobley G. however.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling. That research report. acid-reactive fillers. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. in particular. USA Accession no. The results of the first phase of research. 9 refs. Processors’ difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is ‘unrecyclable’ without further investigating the obstacles. that is. the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. process stability is long.

2. p. Techniques used include thermal analysis. Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology. The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste. excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. NORWAY. No.2. SINTEF Materials Technology.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67. Ling M T K. Feb. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL function. For a variety of PVC formulations.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS 110 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T. These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed. 17 refs. For PPs. p. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage. 4 refs. LDPE. Jan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature. Zhang Q H Ohio.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. USA Accession no.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z. gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. Winter 1999.2000. For most polyolefins. 49 refs. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated. No. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. p.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30. Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer. EUROPEAN UNION. Hinrichsen E L. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers. No.References and Abstracts Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39. Jan.1. Irgens F.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. p.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation. radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. SCANDINAVIA. Westphal S P. p. 2000.2.2000. USA Accession no. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile. No. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping Accession no.2000. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. physical testing. Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. optical property evaluations and failure analysis. and PVC. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation. Data are presented for high impact PS. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream. Feb. No. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1.

1999. The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm. MATTEL EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Prague.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1. Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd. paper 20. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model. 1st Oct. No. 29 refs. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i. p. In the dry membrane.759093 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 111 . GERMANY.758765 Item 307 Addcon World ’99.19. weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated.University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate.5. Budapest. JAPAN Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71. 2 refs. 2000.Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. Oct. Type of plasticiser. No. smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane. The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss. Gilbert M. and hopes that their use will spread to other member states. Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles. Horvai G Budapest. 27th-19th Oct.411. Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid. Marfell M Loughborough. Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC.1999. calcium hydroxide.128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A. simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential.Technical University. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes . similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19. 12 refs. plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake. inhomogeneities are found. such as carboxylic acids. EUROPEAN UNION. Okuwaki A Tohoku. Sept. 32 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes.1999. Borbely S. Furukawa K. EUROPEAN UNION. EASTERN EUROPE. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers. sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine. Laurent P. No.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No. HUNGARY Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q.) Accession no. probably in the crystalline state. p.e. Jung C G.1999. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials.University.uniaxial (constant width).27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J. by chemical recycling is considered.1. BELGIUM. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE.References and Abstracts AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. p. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods. Conference proceedings. HASBRO. Gehrmann J. UK.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H.

1999.47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors. Accession no.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY.4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals).3.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd. Sept. Conference Proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1999. London. Lees G C. p.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites. electrofusion socket welding. No. Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd. including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone.6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J.References and Abstracts Chemical structures. 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. 16 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. dibenzoylmethane. e.3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2. 6-amino1. DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets. pp. is given particular attention.758478 Item 308 Addcon World ’99. 15 refs.3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No. thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3. whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C). polycarbonate films.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. 16th-17th March 1999. Results (yellowness index. Dec. Harvey H B. Prague. as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes.299. 1999. rigid PVC. NETHERLANDS. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed. rigid PVC. plasticised PVC. pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion. 4 refs. 6-amino-1.g. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2. WESTERN EUROPE Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. ABS and GRP are listed.3-dimethyluracil.3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035). Hurst S J Manchester. Results (colour generation.2-bis-(2-cyano-3’3diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency. UK. 27th-19th Oct. p. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION.Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation.1999. paper 19. The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D. No.3-dibutyluracil. p. PP.137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC 112 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers. including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane. The main jointing methods for PE. ABS. using Response Surface Methods. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds. Details are given of the discussions involved.

The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design. Through a special design of experiment. JAPAN Accession no. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial. West R H. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio..755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. Sept. p. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a ‘standard’ siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. No.755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science.. I. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness. Sept. Geon Co. Sept. employing ‘approximate’ time-temperature modulus relationships. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes.9.1999. McFarland C A.1999. the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated.1999.. provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data. 20 refs. USA attained within the part during injection is determined.Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. 6 refs. Courtney J M. Materials in Medicine 10.References and Abstracts A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions.9. Glasgow. It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing.1999. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . CSMA Ltd. USA Accession no. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test). p. and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions.3. Blass C R. No. 9 refs. No. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. Zhao X B. Lowe G D O Strathclyde. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser.3. p. No. Sept. p. blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated. A mathematical model. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise.University. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC. there is a higher reactivity Accession no. To detect the changes in lubricity. antithrombotic agent.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q. Elleithy R H. 6 refs.132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. Hydro Polymers Ltd. USA Accession no. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure. thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. (IOM Communications Ltd. that such a water-based. UK. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices. the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. p.749320 Item 318 PVC ’99. are adequate gel content (i. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied. Conference proceedings.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity.e. The requirements of these. 14 refs. p. PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents. adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. water soluble. modified secondary. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water. is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC. Even so.747918 Item 320 PVC ’99. in certain S-PVC formulations. typically in methanol. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence.Ltd. although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced. in conjunction with a 72.747919 Item 319 PVC ’99. an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material. BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity. named Alcotex WD30.University (IOM Communications Ltd. of water-based secondary suspending agents. UK. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. Brighton. 8 refs. These concerns led to the development.. UK. which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. plasticiser uptake. p. p. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM USA ideal solution. EUROPEAN UNION. HCWH contends that Koop’s panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koop’s report. Two methods. more uniform.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co. aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems. with a low methanol content. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough. It is demonstrated. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC. which have been studied in some detail. aqueous product could be supplied. 4th Oct. low molecular weight PVOHs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11. with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. Brighton. typically at 55% hydrolysis.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M. giving all the advantages of both secondary systems. facilitating improved VCM removal and faster. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis. To achieve this. BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties.References and Abstracts for TEHTM-PVC. fully dilutable grade. Alicante. of 45-50% hydrolysis. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. has provided the Accession no. 20th-22nd April 1999. No. where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. particularly at elevated temperatures. traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG 114 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . peroxides. SPAIN. 20th-22nd April 1999. typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. In this work. Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings..5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. % crosslinked polymer). despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied. 17 refs.1999. are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent.University. with an acceptable grain size. during the 1980s. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts. EUROPEAN UNION. using experimental design software. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. which are to some extent conflicting.33. and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

747913 Item 321 PVC ’99. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. particularly for window profile. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. especially in tablet form.350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H. mechanical and electrical properties.References and Abstracts (IOM Communications Ltd. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation). thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared. Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. BPF) The effects of using dry pigments. GERMANY. A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability. delivery and storage in big bags or silos. pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed. BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a ‘zipper dehydrochlorination’ process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. Zuschnig G. Wa. water immersion... it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution Accession no. no health risk for the manufacturer. Egger A. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour. advanced products. free flowing and dustfree product forms. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur. Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour. EUROPEAN UNION. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers). lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant. p. Brighton. As a consequence.. patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N. p. Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings..based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level. colour. Conference proceedings.747912 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC. BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented. (IOM Communications Ltd. Brighton. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches. excellent dispersion in the resin. Consequently. p. Brighton. dispersibility. but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. 20th-22nd April 1999.and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined. WESTERN EUROPE Item 322 PVC ’99. 20th-22nd April 1999. However. AUSTRIA. The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature. Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS .NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process. BPF) During the last decade. no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility. 3 refs. 20th-22nd April 1999. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. rheology. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described.747910 Item 323 PVC ’99.

Conference proceedings. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account . Jacobsen H. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry.747901 Item 327 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. 20th-22nd April 1999. Pedersen S.. temperatures and material properties. BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications. 20th-22nd April 1999. 2 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios. 9 refs. 5 refs. Fire. Brighton. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation. By optimising the blending ratio. double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer. EUROPEAN UNION.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin. still providing a high-quality extruded profile. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO 116 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . USA Accession no. 41 refs. 11 refs. including a proposed design Accession no. migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations. The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Brighton. NORWAY. it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour. Brighton. (IOM Communications Ltd. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process. BPF) In PVC compounding. Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co. EUROPEAN UNION. 20th-22nd April 1999. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd. p. 20th-22nd April 1999. p.747903 Item 326 PVC ’99.low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid.KG (IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION.249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B.. including less sensitivity to output rates. GERMANY. Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings. 20th-22nd April 1999.References and Abstracts only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated.747906 Item 325 PVC ’99. Conference proceedings. with simultaneous energy saving. Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd. Brighton. This has several advantages. BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.747908 Item 324 PVC ’99.747897 Item 328 PVC ’99. Conference proceedings.. p. Thorjussen T.. Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd. SCANDINAVIA. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. However. WESTERN EUROPE philosophy called ‘Avoid Cross-channel Flow’. FRANCE. this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing. BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. UK.

NETHERLANDS. In these tests.747892 Item 330 PVC ’99. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine. Conference proceedings. BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength. The hydrocyclonage.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J.747887 Item 331 PVC ’99. and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. including the effect of weathering and scratching. p. (IOM Communications Ltd.747894 Item 329 PVC ’99. BS 7722. Charging is essential for good separation. but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process. These cables originate from (economic) end of life. Currently the cables are shredded. WESTERN EUROPE concluded that the relevant British Standard. surplus during installation and repair. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature. colour. should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering. gloss and degree of gelation. the metals liberated. BPF) Approximately 40. EUROPEAN UNION.150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers. separated and finally reused. which are put to landfill. 12 refs. humidity and pretreatment used. EUROPEAN UNION. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. or those with transfer foils. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line. are outlined. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION.(UK) Ltd. and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice. 20th-22nd April 1999. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 117 .References and Abstracts INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L..200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES. It is Accession no. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new. Conference proceedings. Brighton. Gardiner D UK. production waste. 13 refs. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities. Brighton. PVC-U is notch-sensitive. it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd.. Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY..000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone. 20th-22nd April 1999.Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd. BPF) Developments in the current legislation. UK. no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens. This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. some of which have matching faces without foil coatings. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. (IOM Communications Ltd. melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described.. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. p. including the high quality PVC fraction. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range. 20th-22nd April 1999. UK.

GERMANY. UK. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products. No..92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. July 1999. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals. other European countries are following.10.wt. Meanwhile. WESTERN EUROPE Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. 12 refs. July 1999. MACHINERY.747878 118 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .7. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated. sewer pipes and cable ducts. EUROPE-GENERAL. (German version of this paper. UK. Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products. Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec. Accession no.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires. GERMANY. 20th-22nd April 1999. is on p. p. which includes graphs and tables.1999.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No. 20th-22nd April 1999.68/74) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency. Brighton. processing aids in one product and which. Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi. EUROPEAN UNION. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development.. EUROPEAN UNION. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2. while the other products showed a clear loss of activity. 10 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. (IOM Communications Ltd.747879 Item 333 PVC ’99. BPF) In the early 1980s. No. 4. Brighton. a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market. Richter E.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION. SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.7.3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate. Conference proceedings. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes. BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described. (German version of this paper.62/6) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. however. TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE. p. Aug. p. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. is on p. a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes. 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate. over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping. but uses the differential gravitational. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings.747886 Item 332 PVC ’99.5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not. both industrial waste and post-use. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. Clariant GmbH.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D.References and Abstracts in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching. p. which includes tables. unlike normal costabilisers.10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA). Today. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. AUSTRIA. show any measurable fungistatic activity. p. do not contribute to fogging.

745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65. No. EUROPEAN UNION.71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax.2. Harvey R European Vinyls Corp. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. June 1999. As an example. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple). probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions. UK.University The analysis of the swelling process. ibid. II.2. No. Vol. No. and tensile testing. the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes. Marcilla A. the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine. p. By modelling the rheological properties. impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment. Oct. EUROPEAN UNION.(UK) Ltd.741972 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 119 . acoustics emission. and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics. July 1999.1998. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. Hidalgo M. 24 refs. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent. 5 refs.743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath. July 1998). the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product. such as DSC. phase separation of swelling bath. i. p. SPAIN. 12 refs. WAXD. WESTERN EUROPE Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.743280 Accession no. processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. as well as three clear decomposition processes.Universidad. USA Accession no. p. 14 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. June 1999.65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I. a single decomposition stage was observed at temps. birefringence. Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S. is described. and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser.1.145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. Hou Z. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Two effective crosslinking agents were used. it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In another application. (Part I.744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L. ITALY. In the case of the films prepared with ASi. showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied.e.28. Mijangos C Alicante. Garcia J C. then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example. USA Accession no. the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi). 28. p. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied. oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant). the amount and removability of the glue. extruder conditions and final part properties.References and Abstracts FITT SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. Broughton R M Auburn. The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques.

012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure. May 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight. No. EASTERN EUROPE. as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and. No. 1998.13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes. the Freelander’s anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound.one year in South Florida. at the same time. LAND ROVER EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. physicochemical properties.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC. 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN COMMISSION. and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology.E. New York City.3621-4. Istratuca G The synthesis. they require very low temperature storage.734261 Item 345 Antec ’99. shipment and handling. p. Volume III. versatile viscosity. 2nd-6th May 1999. Unlike other models in Land Rover’s range. 2nd-6th May 1999. Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28. EUROPEAN UNION. 1999. which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all Accession no. USA Accession no. Terescu-Boran S.3. Pettijohn E Witco Corp. and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Land Rover vehicles. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. UK. II. Conference proceedings.. UK. to ensure that the required precuring will take place. p. The infrared system is installed in Land Rover’s state-of-the-art Paintshop 21. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P. 3 refs. New York City. This precuring is essential. HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L. p. The effects measured included: % IR reflection.4.734767 Item 344 Antec ’99. p.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades. the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment. RUMANIA Accession no.292. such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. Conference proceedings. Volume III. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators.References and Abstracts Item 341 ENDS Report No. heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics . Details are given. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry.C.2885-9. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35.ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EU. At temperatures above 10 deg. p. All showed good thermal resistance. which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. 21 refs. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT.

2nd-6th May 1999. Using commercial grade plasticisers. Conference proceedings. p.733961 Item 348 Antec ’99. and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. Bacaloglu R. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity. 2nd-6th May 1999. Conference proceedings. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 121 . New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators. Dooley T. New York City. In other words.733965 Item 347 Antec ’99. Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp. but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken. Volume III. p. USA Accession no.Inc. Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these Accession no. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. JAPAN Accession no. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. p.733970 Item 346 Antec ’99. 2nd-6th May 1999. relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength. New York City.733758 Item 350 Antec ’99. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Volume III. USA III. From this aspect.3592-6. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H. Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co.3569-73. USA Accession no. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC. Hegranes B. New York City. which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion. Volume III. These additives effectively stabilise the product. 2nd-6th May 1999. USA Accession no. New York City. Volume III.733960 Item 349 Antec ’99.Inc.3512-25. Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. 2nd-6th May 1999. p. Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 5 refs. making them safer to handle.3526-36. 6 refs. Jakubowski J. Conference proceedings. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed. their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials. p. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R. Takaki A. and the gelation of plastisols. 19 refs. a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed.References and Abstracts most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition. New York City. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation. 11 refs. Nakanishi Y. 10 refs. Conference proceedings.3564-8. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G. Volume III.. Exxon Chemical Co. Conference proceedings. IV. store and ship. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y. predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity.

a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. and liquid food or food simulants.5967. Full details of the problem and the solution are presented. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC. A mathematical model. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements. having been subjected to a treatment. Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned. 2 refs. Plastics Design Library. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892). p. plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency ‘sphere’ of PVC. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order. 8 refs. is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags. p. the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A. July 1998.28.732200 122 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No.University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating. USA Item 353 Injection Molding 7. p.1. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics. FRANCE. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Phase separation Accession no.Y.399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. Fugit J L. 19 refs. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers. 4th April 1999.4. together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue. while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping. USA Accession no.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters. EUROPEAN UNION. grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. N.MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg.58/64 DESIGN . Compared with other recycling techniques. their size and ageing period were performed. No. April 1999. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets.3. Hou Z. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 16 refs. Using CO-ACT service. p. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated. March 1999. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. USA Accession no. No. INDIA Accession no. 1999.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics..729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S. I. p. Broughton R M Auburn.References and Abstracts interactive forces. New York. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range. EUROPEAN UNION. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index. SCANDINAVIA. Aspects covered Accession no. Goteborg. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes.. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. Annealing is essential. Retec proceedings. Rigid vinyl foam is. and foam core pipe for drain.1998. where the major application is signage. high water resistance. but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44. 1998. waste and vent applications. where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes. UK.References and Abstracts was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. improved thermal insulation. Boucherville. p. haul off and profile saw. which is mainly used for trim and moulding. Qc. p.. just like wood.Ltd. particularly in many wood replacement applications. p. calibration block. NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. An A-Z reference. high rigidity. profile.1998. SWEDEN. Features of the machinery are described. p.565-72. requires little energy input and much lower capital cost. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years. and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. a process has been developed to execute the orientation process ‘in-line’ with the extrusion. calibration table. Conference proceedings. allows higher design stress ratings and material savings. KOLSITE BATTENFELD INDIA Accession no. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. Kluwer. Previously this has been performed as a secondary ‘off-line’ process in an external mould. The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds. particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries. 20 refs. an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions. 6H21 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 123 . The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. London. 14th-17th Sept. Tabtiang A Loughborough. 23rd-25th Sept.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. AUSTRALIA. degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. No. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers. Sweden. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Hitt D J. Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974. USA A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1999.165-74. and most importantly.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet. 7 refs. For flexible PVC. Feb. in many ways.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X. the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion.University (SPE.2. The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume. and particular details are given of the profile dies.526-34. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. 15 refs.

The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale. They are recycled into new. Souren F..450-8. 7 refs. are heat stabilisers. and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite. recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products.713534 Item 364 Vinyltec ’98. function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. Falter J A. 38 refs. BELGIUM. Retec proceedings. low pile nylon 6.. The effect of the composition on the impact strength. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives. Prior to the development of ER3.a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W.165-74. 1998. Retec proceedings.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32. 12th Jan. Its vision in the early 1990s was to ‘close the loop’ by recycling carpet into carpet.Plastics Recycling Div. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G 124 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . These products are constructed with a dense. Kluwer. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. with the aid of specially developed computer programs. The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained. Nos. 4 refs.1999. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste. Chicago. No. USA Accession no. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride). while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers. EUROPEAN UNION.714178 Item 363 ARC ’98. Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of Accession no.1998. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Scherrenberg R L. An A-Z reference. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC. Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples.J. 11th-13th Nov. Colemonts C DSM. the function and classification of lubricants. Geick K S Lonza Inc. most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components . p. p.6 face and a vinyl composite backing system. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. N. Therefore.96-100. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated.1998. An introduction to rigid PVC. Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point. closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling. Il. London. 1997. Those retarding thermal decomposition. CROATIA Accession no. (SPE.References and Abstracts include vinyl foam processes and formulations. 30 refs. during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18. 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc.) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market. hardness.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri. Gondard C.1-2. East Brunswick. Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied. p. USA thermoplastic magnets. Litvinov V M. 13th-14th Oct.1. p. Details are given USA Accession no. NETHERLANDS. p.

p. With lead-based stabilisers.J.7 billion lb. once mixed into a polymer. East Brunswick. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear ‘natural’ and not ‘plastic’. Fatma K. 9 refs. relative ease of installation.References and Abstracts Rohm & Haas Co. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding. 1998. size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. with more soluble halide salts. which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix. as in reduced impact strength. No. USA crosslinking. and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. JAPAN Accession no.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. derived from residual catalyst. concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability. have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1.83-8.6.Vinyl Div. or instead.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec ’98. (SPE. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content. Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide Accession no. In some halogenated polymers. To clarify the effect of particle shape. is very low. Nevertheless. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates. p. including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach. certain types of lubricants..407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y. polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO).1998. immiscible polymeric additives. were used instead. and tensile tests were carried out. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin.Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction. lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride. The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways. 13th-14th Oct. were dispersed in the matrix. In hydrocarbon polymers. Due to their low solubility. 5 refs. but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. such as EPM or EPDM. as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions. tooling wear and plateout. the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal. extraction or migration of lead-based additives. there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish.Vinyl Div. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation. the metal may participate in crosslink formation. 12 refs. such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. No. In some of these cases.11. Features such as low maintenance. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll. Yoshimoto N. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure. In other cases. and impact resistance. However.75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K.1998. entirely as an HX scavenger. Among additives used in the formulation. Retec proceedings. embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering. Iida T Osaka. weatherability. or contamination of the environment. N. Okabe S.) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction. etc.) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years. Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 125 . agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl. USA Accession no. mineral fillers. The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance. Nov. composites. including wood. in cases where high water resistance is required. particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. p. Mechanically. such as chlorinated PE (CPE). chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM).711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE. consisting of a few beads on average.

Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. SCANDINAVIA.References and Abstracts For many years. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent. 8 refs.1766.1999. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content. if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth. USA Accession no.107-26. No. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC. 1999. No. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied. TARKETT AB EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. one of the world’s largest PVC flooring manufacturers.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. including extraction.1997. INDIA Semenov N.000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8.1998. Zhdanova O A 126 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .University. SWEDEN. Palermo. 10 refs.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R. recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. FITT SPA. whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited. 12 refs. p. measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples.. PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow. Italy’s largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products. 1999. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation. is examined. p. Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Vinyl Div. RUSSIA Accession no. Furthermore. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Zaikov G E. tributyl citrate.N. ITALY. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications.. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented.4 tonnes of waste material a month. low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. Tarkett Sommer.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. Semenov S A. Atlanta. 12 refs. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared.1. ITALY.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M. thermal stability.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71. La Mantia F P Pisa.Institute of Chemical Physics. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces.1. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and. p. p. Ga. not only no macroscopic change of the molec. 14th-15th Oct. Heung Kim.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec ’97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry. 11th Dec. Retec proceedings. volatility.University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No. processes almost 100. 3rd Jan.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry Accession no. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC. In this study.1.wt. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z. No. but there are concerns regarding its toxicity. EUROPEAN UNION.

Fiala F. No.Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. Day M Canada.1998. the smallest model in the EMS series. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile). This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel.1998. 1998. In both cases. 18 refs. PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J. Scharf L. 26 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Oh.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. 11 ins. USA Accession no. with mass spectrometry detection. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market.435-54. ease of fabrication by mechanical means.. plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. 82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product.. process upsets. p. p. extrusion foaming methods. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of Accession no.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders. good acoustic damping properties.705216 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . c. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder. No. Aspects covered include structure of formulations. BATTENFELD AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. In contrast. based on organometallic chemistry. CANADA Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology. It has an output of 4. USA Accession no. a blowing agent activation approach was developed. startup.. Worsfold D J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.704011 Item 376 Brecksville. 1997. high flame resistance.000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B.8. is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr.References and Abstracts of decomposition and gas formation. and includes details of melt preparation. 1st Oct. and troubleshooting. Washuettl J Vienna. Hanser Publications. Munich. p.F. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. Similar species were also directly released during irradiation.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING.University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of children’s sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. processing. 2nd edition.National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time. these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. theory. GERMANY. Pleizier G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. pressures. 9 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. 1998. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals.7. p. the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity.500kg/hr for plasticised.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I. EUROPEAN UNION.Co. Krzymien M. good chemical resistance. pp. 1/12/98. excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions. From this mechanism. GERMANY. mould design.3.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62. Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation.

AUSTRIA. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS). USA Accession no.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25.1998. the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost. Nov. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. Mexico. during a tensile test was investigated. 19 refs.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4. 10th Oct. MEXICO Accession no.4 for the shaking test. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.1998. and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser. a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets. but the use of DMS. A nomogram is given to predict the strength. NETHERLANDS. p. stiffness. Strength. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry.University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications.Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles. However. Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2. Iida T Osaka. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications.Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices.References and Abstracts DEHP.26. prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio.0. No. but there was no significant influence of particle size. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties.33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles. Fukuoka Y. 28 refs. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months. No. p. the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y. Finally. Aug. DES and DOA resulted Accession no. based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70.4. p. In order to evaluate the technique.1998. Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys. No.2. WESTERN EUROPE in reduced ductility. p. Campos Torres A. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. but too rarely to be statistically measurable. SEM observations of the specimen’s surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the 128 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .700556 Item 379 Polymer 39. Kusy R P North Carolina. dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film.10.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. No. defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups.Centro de Investigacion Cientifica. diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate. EUROPEAN UNION. Marquez Lucero A Yucatan. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated. 19 refs. and toughness increased at low PHR ratios. 1998.

Above this temperature. The presence of fillers enhanced Young’s modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point. at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade. Mur G. the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two. Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc. with the change from full siding to coextrusion. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. Poland. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry. These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks.References and Abstracts particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress. p.1. No. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. i. The main products were oxalic acid. ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps. 1998.211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC. 9th-11th December 1997.2. Cassagnau P. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Audouin L. Paper 4. the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. 24 refs.695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. IV. JAPAN Accession no. 19 refs. followed by oxidation.Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates. The colour hold guidelines. Michel A CNRS. No. it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl Accession no.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe. Okuwaki A Tohoku. The extrudates were stretched above and below the “gel-liquid” transition temperature of PVC (about 205C). JAPAN Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61. Furukawa K. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 3rd Oct. they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations . These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. 1998. EUROPEAN UNION. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions. Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath. whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five. Gay M. In the presence of titanium dioxide. FRANCE. Sato T.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70.1998.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39. it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm. were explained. p.696562 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 129 .in close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature).4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I. 19 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. Colouring methods have changed slowly. FRANCE. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C. the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented.University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h. No. Conference proceedings.20.e. Katowice. Boudeulle M. Lyon. 15 refs. p.

a few new trends are highlighted. Atlanta. concentration. International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers. It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS. or more accurately appearance retention. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H. UK. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored. creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. Bacaloglu R. p..692777 Item 390 Antec ’98. Renshaw J T. Schaefer R E Solutia Inc.3296-300.3234-9.. Conference proceedings. p. The latest research developments are illustrated using Accession no. Volume III. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. Herbiet R. Ga. Conference proceedings. Atlanta. Bacaloglu R. on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene. Conference proceedings. including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours.. is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications. Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport.694482 Item 386 Antec ’98. 26th-30th April 1998. Atlanta. their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R. Volume III. EUROPEAN UNION. Ga. Cusack P A Brunel University. Atlanta.3272-7. (SPE) Stain resistance. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H. Ga. II. 012 130 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Volume III. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.692780 Item 389 Antec ’98. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser. Brecker L R Witco Corp. I.References and Abstracts weatherable profiles. 26th-30th April 1998. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure. p.692781 Item 388 Antec ’98. Conference proceedings. 9 refs. p. Ga. 26th-30th April 1998.. Biesiada K. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America. Volume III. without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance.693676 Item 387 Antec ’98. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds. volatility and solubility parameter. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Today. USA Accession no. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed. functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations. p. 26th-30th April 1998. USA Accession no. Brecker L R Witco Corp.3310-2. WESTERN EUROPE MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R.. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A. Volume III. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler. 26th-30th April 1998. 19 refs. extraction resistance.3291-5. Ga. 10 refs. 10 refs. USA Accession no. confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. Atlanta. Biesiada K.

690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser. 29th July 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Using parallel plate sensors.18. adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. 5 refs. the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak. p. Kusy R P North Carolina. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION USA Item 393 Polymer 39. Gelation occurred in several steps. decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli. These obervations were discussed. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed. US. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser. Details are given. depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser. EUROPEAN UNION. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue. p. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1. and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Djilani S E Annaba. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model.5/6. 15 refs.15. 1998. p.Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature.000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing. GERMANY.14.686631 Item 394 Polymer 39. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.687797 Accession no. USA Accession no. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser. EUROPEAN UNION. 13 refs. No. Marcilla A Alicante. the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio.Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method. ALGERIA Accession no. said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high.692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C.References and Abstracts smoke density results. No.686435 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 131 . Nos. di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. 17 refs. No. the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine. 1998. May/June 1998.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D. p. temperature and frequency.University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. The Consumers Union. in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique. the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies. SPAIN.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S.

p. June 1998. including purees of beef. UK. No. SWEDEN. Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics. Sweden. 2 refs.University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. 31st May 1998. Rue Feng. Volume I. phthalic anhydride. Ga. Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co. Ciguang Bao. pork. image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Gustavson H. CHINA.University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L. Balatinecz J J. pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications.. fish.87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co.684907 Item 398 Antec ’98. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane. p. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1. Uppsala.5 mg/ kg. p. Park C B Toronto.685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. EUROPEAN UNION. Oskarsson A Sweden. berries and vegetables. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. Atlanta. Nanjing. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics. No.National Food Administration. poultry. Svensson K.247-55.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M. USA Accession no. No. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. sheet. Mason T J Yunnan. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin.References and Abstracts Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. SEM. USA Accession no.Royal Institute of Technology.University. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Accession no. the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%. Karlsson S. 1998.2. 63 refs. coating. compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. All the extrusion processes (film. Coventry. emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion. surface roughness. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food. Conference proceedings.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao.University. WESTERN EUROPE Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids. 18 refs.9. and maleated PP for surface modification.University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite. 7 refs. SCANDINAVIA.2. Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. CANADA Accession no. p. May 1998. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss. 26th-30th April 1998. No.680858 132 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial. widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound.5. dichlorodiethylsilane.

magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. and various accessory items Accession no. 24th-28th Aug. lithium.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4.5 phr (approximately 1. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. p. Formulation additives. fencing.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films. No. No. 28 refs. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer.1997.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 133 . along with looking at ways to improve them. methyl. are very dependent on the density of the foam product. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles. 3 refs. March 1998. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights.1. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. No. tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile. p.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co. and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. In addition. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. p.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications. March 1998. aluminium and sodium internal/external. foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials. CANADA. barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. storm doors. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years. Laminations and Coatings Conference. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product. p. In addition to these solid products. pipe. window profiles. USA Accession no.1. USA Accession no. and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC. At a normal usage of 0. p. typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. zinc. and foam core pipe. however. Toronto.1. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above. March 1998. The properties. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A. II. Conference Proceedings. Typical are house siding.5 to 1. Geick K S. USA generally used for installation. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. Williams J B Lonza Inc. sheet. Ontario. Book 2.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.417-22. No.1. 9 refs. 1998. and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements.

1.Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied. Tellez M M Mexico. EUROPEAN UNION. 4th April 1998. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones. p. ITALY. Manchester.g. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll.References and Abstracts Nakamura Y. Gilbert M Loughborough. the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. Gillis P P.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. p. MEXICO. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using. 19 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 4th April 1998. Iida T Osaka. UK.674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No. GERMANY. BERSTORFF H.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described. Grulke E A Michigan.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. EUROPEAN UNION. TEMPERATURE. calcium soap.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.Metropolitan University.MASCHINENBAU GMBH. No. Coahuila.g. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times. Manchester. as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83). 28 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M. 18 refs. UK. and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings. and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process. e. Sept. Data are given for milling. Allen N S.1996.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. The effects of processing conditions. flotation. in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Evaluation of induction times to degradation.University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. Azuma F. No. The same effect was seen with the Accession no. Petty C A.1. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R.1. Edge V. Spring 1998. 20 refs.1998. p. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported. e. followed by press moulding and 134 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens.University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC. No. Coahuila. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. EUROPEAN UNION. No.University..676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. JAPAN beta-diketone. carbonyl formation. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. I. while preheated calcium stearate reduced them. Kentucky.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. Allen N S. USA Accession no. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R. During normal stabilisation conditions. Edge V. temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined.752. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET. II. a ‘short-term’ costabiliser.Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates.670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17.Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser. Jan. FRANCE. a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. COMERIO R.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE.Metropolitan University. MEXICO. AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L. visible reflectance. p..Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. COMERIO ERCOLE SPA.SAS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. Tellez M M Mexico. Details are also given of the roller head process. zinc stearate.

210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. USA Accession no. The © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 135 .205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed. UK. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy.for Med. A ‘more severe test’ is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness. on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst. INDIA Accession no.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. Sidor J A.3. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. p.References and Abstracts extrusion. such as melt temp.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I. Sept. 22 refs. May-June 1997. time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined. with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.5 mm single screw. Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC. the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive.. Sept. 9 refs. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S.1997. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. EUROPEAN UNION. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed. For packaging converters. be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. Goodson A. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity.1997. the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a ‘more severe test’.1997. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple. No.1.Sci.3. 26 refs. 15 refs.663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. cell structure and surface appearance. Accession no. No. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. p. p. 4 refs. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63. UK. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser. who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet.3.3. overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants. No.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. in particular. p. 1998. However. Sept. screw speed and draw-down. Isner J D. USA Accession no. including density. p. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a ‘more severe test’ and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. Wiedl D J Geon Co.4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals. EUROPEAN UNION. therefore.

heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals. 29th Sept. 13 refs. the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones. No. LDPE. Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives. Different methods (complexometric titration. June 1997. Among these. p. USA Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. No. performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described. 12 refs.University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles.9. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling. Oct. processability.1997. HDPE. GERMANY. Today’s vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties. quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase.2. Oct.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound.1997. Sept. The pyrrolidine-2. and epoxy resin. were fitted to the equation.1782. and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts. appearance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. Accession no.1997.References and Abstracts regulatory status.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.1997. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world. This article examines the reasons why. 8 refs. Wu G. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. LLDPE.10.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. EUROPEAN UNION. Pan Y Zhejiang. experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites. 17 refs. Data are given for PVC. CHINA Accession no.2. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68. p.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described. No. it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled.656159 136 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed. GERMANY. p. Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods. business equipment. Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co. and electrical enclosures. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment. p. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment. p. EUROPEAN UNION. No. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification.-5th Oct. in the past mainly heavy metals. The Commission’s words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. In particular.4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations.

107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L. which present an absorption below 400 nm. US. This effect is reversible.2. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches. I. May 1997. 1997. US. USA Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers. Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl. 13 refs. Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. 5 refs. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation. p. but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R. Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer. and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer. chemical and mechanical effects. EUROPEAN UNION. June 1997. No. Currently. USA Accession no. OXYCHEM. p.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE).2.3. and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I. there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills. However. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length. 5. June 1997. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Potapov V A Under physical. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer. P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES. Nokhrina N N. is not a simple process. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials. is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles. it is reported. RUSSIA Accession no.References and Abstracts however. (APR). No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.VINYL INSTITUTE. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions.647875 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . Lemaire J Blaise Pascal. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured. No. Lyutikova E A.ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS. 9 refs. despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions. No. BAYSHORE VINYL USA Accession no. 12 refs.Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark. giving them an external character. p. which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years. Hegranes B.650267 Accession no. p. cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them. FRANCE. and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products.

domain structure. polyfunctional amines and. 1997.2. but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature.4-6 CINCINNATI’S DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes.Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. p.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing. Daranga M. EASTERN EUROPE. No. 1997. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. UK. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws. For this reason. crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. EASTERN EUROPE.2. p. its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. Dumitrescu S Jassy. crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance. of some commercial importance.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e.References and Abstracts Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides. WESTERN EUROPE are present in structures of microdomains and between them. since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared. wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature. No. p. Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. Jassy.g.1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. derivatives of dimercaptotriazines.642797 138 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC. 14 refs. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity. the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform. p. No. this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products. and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. 14 refs. During processing under appropriately selected conditions. depending on the formulation used. 1997. the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing. These machines are intended to complement the company’s Titan conical screw range.or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented.1997. POLAND Accession no. RUMANIA Accession no. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH AUSTRIA. 16 refs. small-angle x-ray scattering. whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC. These Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing. In PVC. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto.

tensile strength at yield. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction. Balatinecz J J. p. puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . Volume III. and morphology is discussed. Patel H M. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine Accession no.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65. 41 refs. toughness and notched izod impact strength.p.3580-5.3496-502.639926 Item 431 Antec 97. and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites. Kusy R P North Carolina. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Grulke E A Michigan. However. May 1997. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. Conference proceedings. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. USA mixer. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. Volume III.University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability.11. p. Petty C A. CANADA Accession no. tensile strength and modulus increase significantly. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability. 3 refs.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L. No. Kentucky.University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed. UK. Toronto.1. Toronto.University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties.5. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Brooks B W Loughborough.References and Abstracts Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37. modulus. as for example. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M. Park C B Toronto. elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser.p. 5th July 1997. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T. Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated. electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industry’s concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38. whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region.27th April-2nd May 1997. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms.State University.University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied. May 1997.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S.27th April-2nd May 1997.639984 Item 430 Antec 97. 10 refs. No. JAPAN Accession no. elongation at break. Conference proceedings. porosity. EUROPEAN UNION. Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers. p.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M. In this region. is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size. No. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties.

References and Abstracts species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M. No.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33. Some examples of successful applications are described. Marcilla A Alicante.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M. p. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P. March 1997. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. 27th April-2nd May 1997. No. stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. 5 refs. Volume II. It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. p. No.1902-6. 6 refs. USA Accession no. the contribution to improved Accession no. Conference proceedings. For both plasticiser systems. 19 refs. Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties. 4 refs. SPAIN.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC 140 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one. Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation.1. profile processing conditions and welding parameters.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion. Strength. Shen K K US Borax Inc. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated. USA Ferm D J. 28 refs.638534 Item 433 Antec 97.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. April 1997.1. p. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased. March 1997. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. USA Accession no. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. March 1997. Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. USA Accession no. Garcia J C.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed. No. Toronto. p. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%.Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique. p. Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc.4.1. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. EUROPEAN UNION.

March 1997.References and Abstracts weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4. tribasic lead maleate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. i. Bellenger V. indicated that these salts were not complexes. No. interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction. the Hildebrand solubility parameter. as suggested in most textbooks. or double compounds of lead oxide. 1997. No. BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS.0% and 11. e.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. No. p. USA Accession no. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. p. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate.Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties.1.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L.7. FRANCE. 1997.University © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 141 . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13. the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples. Verdu J San Sebastian. SPAIN.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS. PVC. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F. 8 refs. foam structure and colour.1. HALSTAB USA Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane. No. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25. Quirk J P. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. However.e. 20 refs. ENSAM The volumetric. Del Val J J.9%. Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers. The predictor of compatibility. predicted the major Accession no. Cretney H European Vinyls Corp. IX. but unique compounds of interesting structure.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38. p. 6 refs. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations. tetrabasic lead fumarate.(UK) Ltd. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding. elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC. 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A. The results were discussed. 1997.g.630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33. 1996.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC. respectively.4. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara. No.4. 12 refs. TURKEY Accession no. UK.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. I.Universidad del Pais Vasco. Balkose D Ege. 47 refs.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use.

4 refs. 13 refs.IV. Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data.615223 142 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. Volume IV: Chemical Processes.3.1996. 1st-3rd Sept.629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14. and choice of antioxidant.1. USA Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54.as a raw product for VCM manufacture. UK. Geneva. Manchester.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. EASTERN EUROPE.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important.chlorine . stabiliser type.51-8. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate. For PVC.Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit. 1995. Sept. with a very high yield. Santiago S L. RUMANIA Accession no.References and Abstracts level of compatibility for both series involved. Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. p. Biological Processes. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed.1996. Edelmann X (EMPA. 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. Accession no. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation.Testing & Res. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. No. molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat. FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W. but which can recover the most important component of it .REVIEW Green J FMC Corp.617495 Item 444 R’95 . The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. SWITZERLAND.3.6. No. 31 refs.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Oliverio S R F. p. 1996. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J.193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE. Hospital Waste. Sept. Allen N S Mexico.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION . this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics.1996. p. 25 refs. Eduardo R V. 2 refs.. but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained. Nov/Dec. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water. Recycling. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. Re-Integration. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. 12 refs. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. plasticiser loading. MEXICO.615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer.Recovery. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed. namely diesters and mixed esters.

Conference proceedings.University. 1996. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B. EUROPEAN UNION. Disson J P. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix. It is a multi-axial parameter. p. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough. Morel P Elf Atochem SA © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 143 . Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. Brighton.611175 Item 451 PVC ’96. Brighton. Brighton. cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound. 23rd-25th April 1996.379-90. depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. Conference proceedings. 23rd-25th April 1996. 19 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory Accession no. and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables. separation of foreign materials and grinding. p. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 11 refs.University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37.(UK)Ltd.417-24. Stephenson R C Loughborough.Sci.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A.for Med. and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems. GERMANY.& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. p. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. occurring in all three principal axes of the profile. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.23. 23rd-25th April 1996. Conference proceedings. and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. INDIA Accession no. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp. 6 refs.391-405. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique. No. European Vinyls Corp.References and Abstracts USA (Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition.361-8. 23rd-25th April 1996. 10 refs.611177 Item 450 PVC ’96. Many of these variables are interdependent. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects. the resultant costs. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels. In addition. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface.611191 Item 449 PVC ’96. EUROPEAN UNION.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries.611174 Item 452 PVC ’96. yet shrinkage is also influenced by output. Bianchi C. Beyond its theoretical interest. the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. p. After surface modification. Marvalin C. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures. UK. there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. Brighton.

GERMANY. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. p. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. USA Accession no. ITALY. 23rd-25th April 1996. 42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T. Through the correct choices of organotin species. WESTERN EUROPE calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas.611170 Item 454 PVC ’96.611161 Item 455 PVC ’96. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process. 16 refs. Conference proceedings. 5 refs. Brighton. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film. the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. 42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. (Institute of Materials) In their early days. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis. p.611153 144 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .611172 Item 453 PVC ’96. the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser. 7 refs.References and Abstracts which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A. In solvent-free UV-curable systems. EUROPEAN UNION. 23rd-25th April 1996. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. In particular. drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow.Morton Plastics Additives Div. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. 4 refs.259-68. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted.175-83. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation. Brighton.611156 Item 456 PVC ’96. EUROPEAN UNION. Brighton. the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants. the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. 23rd-25th April 1996. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability. USA Accession no.209-18. that is. but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. surface flow) are compared. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results. Conference proceedings. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers. calendered flooring.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new Accession no. Conference proceedings. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. Conference proceedings.345-53. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds. different sizes of ‘T’. p. Conroy G M Morton International Inc. Here. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed. Brighton. Lee S H Geon Co. EUROPEAN UNION. Most flexible and high shear. ‘Z’ and ‘L’ shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared.

Conference proceedings. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. EUROPEAN UNION. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown. and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins. p.109-14. The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied. while exhibiting this behaviour. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning. 23rd-25th April 1996. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties. 23rd-25th April 1996. and temperature stable. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 457 PVC ’96. Conference proceedings. USA Item 459 PVC ’96. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations. the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment.145-51. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. Conference proceedings. These days. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness.611148 Item 460 PVC ’96. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN UNION. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. Additionally.115-31. The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque.611150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . Brighton. p. nearly pseudoplastic. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated. BELGIUM. and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release. Brighton.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. have certain drawbacks. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability. Conference proceedings. PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability. liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications. p. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. Existing methods of rheology control. 3 refs. GERMANY. Brighton. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance. storage and optics retention are studied.611151 Item 458 PVC ’96. the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers. 23rd-25th April 1996. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co.153-61. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. dispersion. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment. Brighton. p. New software is developed which can Accession no. machines become bigger and faster.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the Netherlands. Knight M Goodrich B. Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd. using PVC/polyester. PVC/PU.p.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M. PVC/nitrile rubber. particularly pipes and fittings.245286 146 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . fabrication and surface treatments.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. injection moulding. 1994. The company is building a 1. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance.4. p.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry. Dec.075 micron.1994.000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven.12. 4 refs. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion. no. technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride. Rapra Technolgy Ltd. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0. UK.References and Abstracts measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing. Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed. BELGIUM. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Day J A. 14 refs. 1994.. p. No.1996. PVC/ polycaprolactone. pp.7. EUROPEAN UNION.542367 Item 464 Shawbury.UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS Accession no. This comprehensive article describes cPVC’s key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer. temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs. Blending and alloying is described.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66.Hemsley D A. PVC/ polyolefin. USA Accession no. 11th-17th Nov. blow moulding. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Rapra Review Report No. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers.154. In rigid PVC. No. PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples. EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM. WESTERN EUROPE Brann S. EUROPEAN UNION.Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength.1740. that meets a variety of process uses. 12ins. and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed.6. p.F. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. calendering and liquid PVC compositions. EUROPEAN UNION.No.1983.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90. EVC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. EUROPEAN UNION. 23/11/94.Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3. the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions. Rapra Review Report vol. stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels.1996. NETHERLANDS.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity. UK Accession no. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS. UK.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997. the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion.

4 387 388 ALLIANCE. 115 BLEACHING. 98 351 BLOW MOULDING. 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE. 196 AGEING. 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID. 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER. 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION. 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE. 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL. 284 AMINOURACIL. 19 366 404 AGREEMENT. 302 382 BENZOATE. 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE. 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT. 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING. 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT. 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION. 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION. 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE. 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC. 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL. 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE. 257 BALL. 178 AUTOMATION. 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 50 59 179 218 343 ABS. 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST. 150 ANTIFOGGING. 1 58 B BAG. 48 BLOOD. 421 BLEND. 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE. 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG. 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 147 . 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY. 464 BLOWING AGENT. 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE. 100 247 BIOCIDE. 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION. 419 BUTT WELD. 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT. 70 BAN. 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY. 14 BLAST FURNACE. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE. 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION. 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION. 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND. 236 ACQUISITION. 103 ADIPATE ESTER. 57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION. 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY. 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE. 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE. 207 BATCH MIXING. 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION. 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A. 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING. 129 435 AMORPHOUS.Subject Index Subject Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE. 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION. 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM. 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 239 BONDING. 362 BARIUM STEARATE. 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE. 113 122 201 ALLOY. 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY. 218 376 ANALYSIS. 98 257 ANNEALING. 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE. 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE. 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE. 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION. 135 BLOCKING. 337 396 440 AMINOSILANE. 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE. 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 81 400 426 464 ARM REST. 191 C CABLE. 98 ADSORPTION. 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE. 310 BARIUM. 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE. 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT. 122 408 BLISTERING. 244 399 456 ADHESIVE. 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE. 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY.

227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE. 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE. 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN. 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND. 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195 148 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING. 64 COSMETICS. 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 98 100 228 257 CARPET. 209 217 263 368 CATALYST. 35 36 461 COOLING. 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND. 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE. 99 COLOUR STABILITY. 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION. 55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY. 218 427 COEXTRUSION. 458 CALENDERING. 73 COLOUR FASTNESS. 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER. 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION. 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE. 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM. 160 244 CLOSED LOOP. 197 CORRUGATED SHEET. 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING. 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING. 83 CALCIUM STEARATE. 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE. 21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT. 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE. 64 439 CLARITY. 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE. 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 376 464 CHLORINATED PE. 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT. 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY. 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING. 184 363 CLOTHING. 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE. 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 120 165 CHAR. 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER. 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 220 344 400 COMBUSTION. 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION. 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND. 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER. 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER. 64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING. 218 427 CONSUMPTION. 283 CHLORINATED. 169 CARBON DIOXIDE. 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION. 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING. 67 218 248 371 CHALK. 237 CONDENSATION REACTION. 400 CASTING.Subject Index 283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM. 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE. 98 411 CONTAMINATION. 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE. 243 363 CASE HISTORY. 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY. 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY. 105 213 CARBON BLACK. 63 318 COATED FABRIC. 352 353 CAST FILM. 8 80 211 236 298 387 431 COLOURANT. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW. 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE. 149 CONE CALORIMETER. 122 253 COST. 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC. 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT. 104 COLOUR. 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET. 3 60 CORNICE. 436 463 CHLORINE. 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE. 24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA. 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN. 8 45 131 239 CLAY. 263 281 CLADDING. 408 CONVERSION. 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY. 172 CALCIUM. 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION.

115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION. 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN. 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT. 464 DIRECTIVE. 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462 E E-MODULUS. 428 DUCTILITY. 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE. 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY. 315 383 DRINKING WATER. 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS. 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND. 181 202 CROSSLINKING. 70 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 149 . 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE. 230 CYTOTOXICITY. 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE. 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE. 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE. 419 CUTTING. 37 D DAMAGE. 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY. 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION. 132 170 230 DEFORMATION. 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE. 53 116 274 440 CRACKING. 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE. 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION. 11 117 DIISONONYL PHTHALATE. 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE. 86 244 247 DEGRADATION. 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION. 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION. 99 463 DWELL TIME. 51 DECOMPOSITION. 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE. 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE. 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE. 43 106 302 DECORATIVE. 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION. 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE. 11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 42 242 334 DIE. 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 184 CREDIT CARD. 183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER. 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE. 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION. 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE. 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE. 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION. 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES. 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING. 2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE. 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY. 306 DOOR. 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN. 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE. 122 DRY BLENDING. 184 243 408 CYLINDER. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 7 8 92 110 123 171 195 DENSITY. 349 356 464 DRYING. 64 244 DEFECT. 333 DRAWING. 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL. 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 64 427 COUPLING AGENT. 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE. 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE.Subject Index 196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER. 104 419 DEGRADABLE. 379 393 432 DIOXIN. 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER. 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE. 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE. 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE. 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT. 277 370 373 DETERGENT. 51 257 353 DAMPING. 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE. 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING. 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING. 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY. 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE. 408 CREEP. 21 27 DECKING. 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND. 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE. 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE. 66 DIBENZOFURAN.

99 158 FIBRE. 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE. 169 243 406 FOAM. 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER. 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER. 336 405 FLOOR. 441 EXTRACTION. 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS. 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY.Subject Index 154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER. 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT. 197 FEEDING. 231 238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 283 EMISSION. 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL. 39 206 313 FLUID BED. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH. 244 FLAMMABILITY. 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION. 2 113 283 366 404 FILM. 441 EXFOLIATION. 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT. 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION. 195 427 FOAMABILITY. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION. 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT. 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT. 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE. 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING. 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL. 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME. 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING. 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT. 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE. 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE. 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN. 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK. 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE. 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE. 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES. 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK. 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION. 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING. 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING. 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER. 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION. 122 408 FLOW. 115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS. 34 400 F FABRIC. 55 192 FOAMING. 2 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING. 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY. 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE. 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER. 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT. 98 375 FAILURE. 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT. 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES. 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL. 266 464 ENDOCRINE. 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE. 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. 30 336 ELONGATION. 233 439 EXTRUDER. 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL. 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL. 464 EXTRUSION COATING.

11 GRANULATION. 269 FROTH FLOTATION. 64 HOSE. 42 334 FUNGUS. 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465 GASIFICATION. 335 FOIL. 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 15 49 281 GAS PIPE. 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING. 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL. 2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS. 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE. 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION. 66 GAS EVOLUTION. 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 151 . 253 257 HORTICULTURE. 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE. 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME. 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. 42 370 FURAN. 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION. 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE. 127 351 FOOTWEAR. 215 HEALTH HAZARD. 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC. 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE. 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT. 122 380 408 FORMULATION. 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD. 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION. 7 8 110 195 385 H HARDNESS. 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY. 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE. 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT. 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION. 99 HORMONE. 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER. 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 15 462 GAS BARRIER. 244 HOT TOOL WELD. 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 400 HEAD REST. 70 GELATION. 91 395 GEL. 283 HEAT DEGRADATION. 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE. 218 427 FRICTION WELD. 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE. 306 HOUSEWARES. 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 205 HEAT AGEING. 122 FUSION. 309 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER. 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT. 125 FURNITURE. 243 311 FUEL CELL. 252 271 297 HAZE. 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC. 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE. 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION. 405 HYDROLYSIS. 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING. 50 81 82 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT. 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY.Subject Index 375 FOGGING. 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE. 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE. 122 311 GRANULATOR. 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 21 115 187 GASKET. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE. 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE. 171 FUNGICIDE. 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE. 243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 27 187 I IMMERSION. 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL. 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID.

54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY. 3 60 426 IRRADIATION. 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. 320 LEAD COMPOUND. 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE. 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX. 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION. 122 184 306 INHIBITOR. 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE. 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT. 132 346 359 MELT FLOW. 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 365 438 LEAD MALEATE. 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION. 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH. 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 283 KILN. 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE. 438 LEAD PHTHALATE. 70 171 380 LEGISLATION. 72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS. 224 405 J JOINT. 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464 M MACHINERY. 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT. 122 INTERACTION. 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY. 115 297 LATEX. 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING. 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND. 209 227 362 MELTING POINT. 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188 118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER. 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING. 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE. 64 186 LIME. 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY. 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE. 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH. 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD. 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD. 70 393 MEMBRANE. 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION. 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE. 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN. 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE. 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE. 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. 234 362 MARKET SHARE. 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION. 40 46 LEATHER. 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX. 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE. 121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY. 309 JOINT VENTURE. 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD. 98 100 253 LANDFILL. 10 L LABELLING. 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES. 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION. 15 LONG-TERM. 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING. 8 LUBRICANT. 224 LEACHING. 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT. 149 172 INJECTION MOULD. 62 152 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID. 236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE. 67 IRON OXIDE. 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY. 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE. 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 113 122 201 K K VALUE. 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING. 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX. 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY.Subject Index 113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION. 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER. 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION. 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE. 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING. 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER. 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY. 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL. 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE. 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT.

2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE. 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING. 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED. 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT. 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 69 380 NOZZLE. 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION. 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE. 392 OPACITY. 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED. 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE. 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER. 115 122 123 146 282 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 242 298 OVEN AGEING. 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE. 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER. 10 65 102 N NANOCOMPOSITE. 49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND. 122 PERMEABILITY. 408 PIPE.Subject Index MICROSCOPY. 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 34 419 MOULDING FAULT. 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY. 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION. 3 60 MONOSANDWICH. 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION. 252 ORIENTATION. 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING. 104 MONTMORILLONITE. 421 PHOTODEGRADATION. 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE. 311 369 461 PELLET. 374 PLASMA TREATMENT. 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE. 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE. 115 122 243 306 MIXER. 42 242 334 P PACKAGING. 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE. 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID. 308 OXIDATION. 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE. 462 OLIVE OIL. 89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE. 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION. 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE. 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL. 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW. 109 302 382 PERFUME. 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER. 122 282 PAINT. 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE. 181 421 PHTHALATE. 230 MULTILAYER. 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER. 173 191 325 408 MIXING. 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP. 218 427 PARTICLE. 38 361 438 O OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE. 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 148 PHOSPHITE. 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE. 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND. 218 230 273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION. 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER. 45 132 153 155 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 153 . 101 327 PATENT. 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER. 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT. 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE. 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER. 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING.

25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER. 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE.Subject Index POLLUTION. 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW. 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE. 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE. 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT. 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING. 169 178 REVIEW. 172 POWDER. 136 195 PRETREATMENT. 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME. 8 POTABLE WATER. 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE. 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER. 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 376 RECLAIM. 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL. 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID. 57 POLYMERISATION. 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422 R RADIATION CROSSLINKING. 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID. 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE. 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT. 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING. 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE. 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN. 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY. 99 184 427 RECYCLING. 144 PROCESS CONTROL. 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN. 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL. 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE. 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID. 59 PREHEATING. 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING. 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS. 138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. 188 198 PYROLYSIS. 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 187 POLYETHYLENE. 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 71 ROUGHNESS. 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING. 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION. 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE. 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE. 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY. 149 POLYPROPYLENE. 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL. 47 414 Q QUALITY. 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER. 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 S SAFETY. 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233 154 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 202 REACTOR. 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER. 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER. 93 106 244 399 PRICE. 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY. 408 ROOF. 64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING. 318 366 POROSITY. 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146 147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE. 280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER. 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA. 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING. 103 POLYAMIDE. 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER. 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID. 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT. 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER.

8 12 462 TEETHING RING. 43 64 418 SEWER PIPE. 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE. 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES. 389 STAINING. 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH. 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER. 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464 STEARIC ACID. 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER. 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL. 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH. 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE. 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM. 155 177 440 SILICATE. 137 SODIUM AZIDE. 122 408 SOLUBILITY. 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING. 135 353 STANDARD. 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER. 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION. 225 STAIN RESISTANCE. 122 306 SCRAP CAR. 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT. 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS. 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE. 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT. 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT. 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER. 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION. 111 289 SMOKE. 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING. 196 197 329 T TALC. 136 170 195 333 SHEAR. 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS. 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING. 185 268 SOFTNESS. 94 121 SOFTENING. 336 TEMPERATURE. 377 TELEPHONE CABLE. 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS. 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET. 194 SPECTROSCOPY. 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION.Subject Index 244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION. 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE. 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY. 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH. 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM. 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION. 59 179 SCRATCHING. 218 SCREW SPEED. 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT. 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC. 243 SCRAP POLYMER. 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER. 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT. 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY. 125 166 SWELLING. 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL. 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE. 170 230 SURFACE FINISH. 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT. 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS. 352 445 SOLE. 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING. 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD. 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA. 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS. 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD. 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION. 192 282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 155 . 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION. 309 STABILISATION. 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING. 67 218 248 371 SCRAP. 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES. 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY. 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE. 207 SEPARATION. 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN. 329 SCREW. 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE. 98 SOLAR RADIATION.

20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION. 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY. 184 243 WASTE SORTING. 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE. 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE. 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE. 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE. 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY.Subject Index 104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN. 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION. 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS. 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION. 248 VIRGIN POLYMER. 306 WASTE DISPOSAL. 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL. 396 VENTILATOR. 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER. 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION. 353 376 TUBE. 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY. 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY. 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE. 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES. 8 84 151 VOLATILITY. 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING. 170 183 195 309 U UNPLASTICISED. 98 TUBING. 282 VEHICLE TRIM. 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION. 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY. 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED. 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION. 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER. 289 454 VENEER. 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT. 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER. 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 22 286 156 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 250 THERMAL STABILITY. 280 TIME. 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS. 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 218 VIBRATION WELDING. 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT. 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND. 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY. 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS. 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 231 VINYL CHLORIDE. 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION. 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET. 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC. 98 TROUBLESHOOTING. 8 87 88 151 194 367 389 W WALL COVERING. 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS. 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING. 374 V VEHICLE. 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT. 93 179 284 TREND. 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER. 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION. 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION. 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT. 253 TESTING. 64 230 298 374 384 408 432 THIN FILM. 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL. 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING. 67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE. 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE. 157 158 TOUGHNESS. 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY. 27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER. 113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR. 458 464 VOID. 31 204 THERMOFORMING.

243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT. 48 X X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 83 WOOD. 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE. 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE. 307 400 YIELD STRESS. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR. 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE. 100 WATERBED. 32 37 456 457 WETTING. 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION. 50 96 283 383 394 441 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 157 . 13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING. 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY. 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND.Subject Index 449 WATER POLLUTION. 99 289 427 WELDING. 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE. 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE. 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION. 118 WOLLASTONITE. 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT. 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441 Y YELLOWING. 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 131 WINDOW. 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER. 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME. 116 366 381 404 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE. 435 ZINC STEARATE. 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR. 137 295 426 ZINC. 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE. 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS. 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE. 185 WIRE INSULATION. 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING. 56 WAX. 99 439 Z ZEOLITE.

Subject Index 158 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .






Company Index 164 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

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