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Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

RAPRA REVIEW REPORTS


A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

Source of original article Title

Item 1
Macromolecules

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

Authors and affiliation

Abstract

Location

GOODRICH B.F.
USA

Companies or organisations mentioned

Accession no.771897

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RAPRA REVIEW REPORTS VOLUME 15


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Volume 1
Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers, W.J. Feast Medical, Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers, D.F. Williams Advanced Composites, D.K. Thomas, RAE, Farnborough. Liquid Crystal Polymers, M.K. Cox, ICI, Wilton. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry, N.W. Sandland and M.J. Sebborn, Cambridge Applied Technology. Engineering Thermoplastics, I.T. Barrie, Consultant. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding, P.D. Armitage, P.D. Coates and A.F. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers, R. Spratling, British Telecom. Process Control in the Plastics Industry, R.F. Evans, Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods, D.Alvey, Hotpoint Ltd. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.

Volume 4
Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications, W.W. Wright, University of Surrey. Epoxy Resins, K.A. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications, D. Cattell, Cattell Consultancy Services. Internal Mixing of Rubber, J.C. Lupton Failure of Plastics, S. Turner, Queen Mary College. Polycarbonates, R. Pakull, U. Grigo, D. Freitag, Bayer AG. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources, J.M. Methven, UMIST. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics, J. Green, FMC Corp. Composites - Tooling and Component Processing, N.G. Brain, Tooltex. Quality Today in Polymer Processing, S.H. Coulson, J.A. Cousans, Exxon Chemical International Marketing. Chemical Analysis of Polymers, G. Lawson, Leicester Polytechnic. Plastics in Building, C.M.A. Johansson

Volume 2
Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics, A.F. Whelan, London School of Polymer Technology. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries, A.L. Cox and R.P. Brown, Rapra Technology Ltd. Polyurethane, Materials, Processing and Applications, G. Woods, Consultant. Polyetheretherketone, D.J. Kemmish, ICI, Wilton. Extrusion, G.M. Gale, Rapra Technology Ltd. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers, J.C. Garnaud, International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging, R.C. Fox, Plas/Tech Ltd. Pultrusion, L. Hollaway, University of Surrey. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry, H. Hardy, Chronos Richardson Ltd. Electronics Applications of Polymers, M.T.Goosey, Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. Offshore Applications of Polymers, J.W.Brockbank, Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging, R.A. Roberts, Pira Packaging Division.

Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18

Volume 5
Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics, H.T. van de Grampel, General Electric Plastics BV. Automotive Applications of Polymers II, A.N.A. Elliott, Consultant. Biomedical Applications of Polymers, C.G. Gebelein, Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions, P. Hodge, University of Manchester. Weathering of Polymers, S.M. Halliwell, Building Research Establishment. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, A.R. Nutt, Arnold Nutt & Co. and J. Wade. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing, E. Andreassen, . Larsen and E.L. Hinrichsen, Senter for Industriforskning, Norway. Plastics in High Temperature Applications, J. Maxwell, Consultant. Joining of Plastics, K.W. Allen, City University. Physical Testing of Rubber, R.P. Brown, Rapra Technology Ltd. Polyimides - Materials, Processing and Applications, A.J. Kirby, Du Pont (U.K.) Ltd. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics, S.W. Hawley, Rapra Technology Ltd.

Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24

Volume 3
Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents, J.M. Methven, Cellcom Technology Associates. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering, L. Hollaway, University of Surrey. Injection Moulding of Rubber, M.A. Wheelans, Consultant. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications, C. OReilly, Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. Polymers in Marine Applications, C.F.Britton, Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers, W.N. Reynolds, National NDT Centre, Harwell. Silicone Rubbers, B.R. Trego and H.W.Winnan, Dow Corning Ltd. Fluoroelastomers - Properties and Applications, D. Cook and M. Lynn, 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. Polyamides, R.S. Williams and T. Daniels, T & N Technology Ltd. and BIP Chemicals Ltd. Extrusion of Rubber, J.G.A. Lovegrove, Nova Petrochemicals Inc. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60

Volume 6
Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials, J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Coextrusion, D. Djordjevic, Klckner ER-WE-PA GmbH. Conductive Polymers II, R.H. Friend, University of Cambridge, Cavendish Laboratory. Designing with Plastics, P.R. Lewis, The Open University.

Report 33 Report 34

Report 65 Report 66

Decorating and Coating of Plastics, P.J. Robinson, International Automotive Design. Reinforced Thermoplastics - Composition, Processing and Applications, P.G. Kelleher, New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation, V.L. Kefford, MRM Engineering Consultancy. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques, B.G. Willoughby, Rapra Technology Ltd. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire, P.J. Fardell, Building Research Establishment, Fire Research Station. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers, M.E. Adams, D.J. Buckley, R.E. Colborn, W.P. England and D.N. Schissel, General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Rotational Moulding, R.J. Crawford, The Queens University of Belfast. Advances in Injection Moulding, C.A. Maier, Econology Ltd.

Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96

Rubber Mixing, P.R. Wood. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins, I. Hamerton, University of Surrey. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles, A. Hill, Meteor Gummiwerke. Advances in Thermoforming, J.L. Throne, Sherwood Technologies Inc. Compressive Behaviour of Composites, C. Soutis, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. Thermal Analysis of Polymers, M. P. Sepe, Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology, J.A. Hickman, St Clair (Polymers) Ltd.

Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70

Report 71 Report 72

Volume 9
Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory and Innovation, Part II: Processing, Bonding, Fire Retardants, C. Hepburn, University of Ulster. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers, G.F. Moore & S.M. Saunders, Rapra Technology Ltd. Recycling of Rubber, H.J. Manuel and W. Dierkes, Vredestein Rubber Recycling B.V.

Volume 7
Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers, M.W.R. Brown, P.D. Coates and A.F. Johnson, IRC in Polymer Science and Technology, University of Bradford. Speciality Rubbers, J.A. Brydson. Plastics and the Environment, I. Boustead, Boustead Consulting Ltd. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials, R.C.P. Cubbon. Advances in Tyre Mechanics, R.A. Ridha, M. Theves, Goodyear Technical Center. PVC - Compounds, Processing and Applications, J.Leadbitter, J.A. Day, J.L. Ryan, Hydro Polymers Ltd. Rubber Compounding Ingredients - Need, Theory and Innovation, Part I: Vulcanising Systems, Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers, C. Hepburn, University of Ulster. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK, PEKK and Other Polyaryls, G. Pritchard, Kingston University. Thermoplastic Elastomers - Properties and Applications, J.A. Brydson. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization, Andres Garcia-Rejon,Industrial Materials Institute, National Research Council Canada. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers, S.R. Holding and E. Meehan, Rapra Technology Ltd. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing, P. Prentice, The Nottingham Trent University.

Report 98 Report 99

Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79

Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation - Theory and Applications, J.P. Fouassier, Ecole Nationale Suprieure de Chimie, Mulhouse. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes, T. Stafford, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding, T.C. Pearson, Gas Injection Ltd.

Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion, R.J. Kent, Tangram Technology Ltd. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development, B.G. Crowther. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides, T.C.P. Lee, Oxford Brookes University. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres, P.R. Lewis, The Open University. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd.

Report 80 Report 81 Report 82

Volume 10
Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding - A Practical Guide, J.A. Lindsay. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers, R.P. Brown, M.J. Forrest and G. Soulagnet, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure, P.R. Lewis, The Open University.

Report 83

Report 84

Volume 8
Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation, N. Spassky, Universit Pierre et Marie Curie. High Performance Engineering Plastics, D.J. Kemmish, Victrex Ltd. Rubber to Metal Bonding, B.G. Crowther, Rapra Technology Ltd. Plasticisers - Selection, Applications and Implications, A.S. Wilson. Polymer Membranes - Materials, Structures and Separation Performance, T. deV. Naylor, The Smart Chemical Company.

Report 112 Polystyrene - Synthesis, Production and Applications, J.R. Wnsch, BASF AG. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics, H. Keskkula, University of Texas at Austin. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene - Nanopolyacetylene, V.M. Kobryanskii, Russian Academy of Sciences. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation, W. Kaminsky, University of Hamburg. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders, Y. Wang, Tunghai University. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping, Tooling and Manufacturing, R.J.M. Hague and P.E. Reeves, Edward Mackenzie Consulting.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Krhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. ONeill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6

PVC Compounds and Processing

Contents
1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride .......................................................................................................................... 3 PVC Compounds ............................................................................................................................ 3 History ............................................................................................................................................. 3

PVC Industry ........................................................................................................................................... 4 2.1 PVC Resin ....................................................................................................................................... 4 2.1.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture ............................................................................................... 4 2.1.2 Homopolymers ................................................................................................................... 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers ......................................................................................................... 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) ............................................................................................................... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation ........................................................................................................... 7 2.4.1 Molecular Weight ............................................................................................................... 7 2.4.2 Particle Size ........................................................................................................................ 7 2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties ...................................................................................................... 7 Key Additives ................................................................................................................................. 8 Processing Techniques .................................................................................................................... 8 Industry Outline .............................................................................................................................. 8 2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers ......................................................................................................... 8 2.7.2 PVC Compounders ............................................................................................................. 8 2.7.3 Global Market by Application ............................................................................................ 9

2.2 2.3 2.4

2.5 2.6 2.7

Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC ........................................................................................ 10 3.1 3.2 VCM and PVC Production ........................................................................................................... 10 Plasticisers .................................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.1 Phthalates .......................................................................................................................... 10 3.2.2 Adipates .............................................................................................................................11 Heat Stabilisers ..............................................................................................................................11 3.3.1 Lead Based Stabilisers.......................................................................................................11 3.3.2 Organotin Stabilisers .........................................................................................................11 3.3.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols ................................................................................................11 3.3.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) .................................................................................. 12 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 12 3.4.1 Incineration ....................................................................................................................... 12 3.4.2 Landfill ............................................................................................................................. 12 3.4.3 Recycling .......................................................................................................................... 12

3.3

3.4

Additives, Formulations and Applications .......................................................................................... 12 4.1 4.2 Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 12 Heat Stabilisers ............................................................................................................................. 12 4.2.1 Solid Stabilisers ................................................................................................................ 14 4.2.2 Liquid Stabilisers .............................................................................................................. 15 Plasticisers .................................................................................................................................... 16

4.3

PVC Compounds and Processing

4.4 4.5

4.3.1 Phthalate Alternatives ....................................................................................................... 16 4.3.2 Polymeric Plasticisers....................................................................................................... 18 Multifunctional Additives ............................................................................................................. 18 Property Modifiers ........................................................................................................................ 18 4.5.1 Process Aids...................................................................................................................... 18 4.5.2 Impact Modifiers .............................................................................................................. 19 4.5.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification ...................................................................... 19 4.5.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications ................................................... 19 Lubricants ..................................................................................................................................... 20 Fillers ............................................................................................................................................ 20 4.7.1 Calcium Carbonate ........................................................................................................... 20 4.7.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites ............................................................................ 21 4.7.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre ................................................................................................... 21 4.7.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers ..................................................................................... 21 4.7.5 Other Fillers ...................................................................................................................... 21 4.7.6 Nanocomposites ............................................................................................................... 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ................................................................ 22 Pigments ........................................................................................................................................ 23

4.6 4.7

4.8 4.9

4.10 Biocides ........................................................................................................................................ 23 4.11 Blowing Agents............................................................................................................................. 24 4.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers ............................................................................................... 24 4.13 Other Additives for PVC-P ........................................................................................................... 24 4.13.1 Antistatic Agents .............................................................................................................. 24 4.13.2 Viscosity Modifiers .......................................................................................................... 25 4.13.3 Antifogging Agents .......................................................................................................... 25 4.13.4 Bonding Agents ................................................................................................................ 25 4.14 Formulations ................................................................................................................................. 25 4.14.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing ...................................................................................... 25 4.14.2 Crosslinked PVC .............................................................................................................. 25 4.14.3 Medical and Food Contact Use ........................................................................................ 26 4.14.4 Membranes ....................................................................................................................... 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology .......................................................................................... 27 5.1 Compounding ................................................................................................................................ 27 5.1.1 Dry Blend Mixing ............................................................................................................ 27 5.1.2 Melt Compounding ........................................................................................................... 27 5.1.3 Liquid PVC Blending ....................................................................................................... 28 Processing ..................................................................................................................................... 28 5.2.1 Gelation ............................................................................................................................ 28 5.2.2 Extrusion ........................................................................................................................... 29 5.2.3 Injection Moulding ........................................................................................................... 31 5.2.4. Extrusion Blow Moulding ................................................................................................ 31 5.2.5 Orientation ........................................................................................................................ 32 5.2.6 Calendering....................................................................................................................... 32 5.2.7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes .................................................................. 33

5.2

Fabrication and Treatment ................................................................................................................... 34

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38

Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159

PVC Compounds and Processing

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.

PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earths natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds


PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.

PVC Compounds and Processing

2 PVC Industry
2.1 PVC Resin

2.1.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture


Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1).

An oxychlorination unit, in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen, is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC, while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process. The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3. A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461).

CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine

ClH2C - CH2Cl EDC

CH2Cl - CH2Cl EDC

thermal decomposition

CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride

Figure 1

Hydrogen chloride recycle

Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM

Figure 2
The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission)

CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + O2


Figure 3

CH2Cl - CH2Cl + H2O

PVC Compounds and Processing

VCM boils at -13.4 C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic).

monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging. The polymer is then dried, typically in fluidised bed drying equipment. Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle, the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent. The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149). Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35, 166, 318, 345, 429). Topics cover improved reactor economics, polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate, secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake, initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 m with a range of 50-250 m. The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as, high plasticiser absorption for flexible products, or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion.

2.1.2 Homopolymers
The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1,500. This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30,000 to 95,000. The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation. Details are covered in Section 4. Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 C.

2.1.2.1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process


Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water, initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150). Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions, the

VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging

Water

Drying

S-PVC

Water

Figure 4
The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission)

PVC Compounds and Processing

2.1.2.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process


Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC), see Figure 5, is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water, a water soluble initiator (persulfate, hydrogen peroxide, etc.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants). At the end of the polymerisation stage, the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water. From this milky emulsion (latex), the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation, special properties, such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing, are conferred on the polymer. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used. The primary particles are solid, smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 m with a range of 0.1-100 m. When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser, a paste (or plastisol) is produced. Consequently these resins are called paste resins. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating, dipping or spreading.

VCM and an emulsifier. These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets, before being placed in the autoclave. The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction. Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. After polymerisation, the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC. Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced.

2.1.2.4 The Mass Polymerisation Process


The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process. In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes, with higher bulk density. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good

2.1.2.3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process


Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water, an initiator soluble in

Water VCM

VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC

Figure 5
The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission)

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 C in comparison to PVC at 60 C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers


A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight


PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size


Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)


CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties


Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.

PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques


Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives


PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

2.7 Industry Outline


The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers


There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders


PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (www.evc-int.com)

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application


The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (www.evcint.com).

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV, www.evc-int.com)

PVC Compounds and Processing

The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. The Western European market is maturing, but Eastern Europe is developing. Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. In addition to supplier consolidations, there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110, 166). An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe, for improved cost effectiveness. In another development, orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). More details follow in subsequent sections. The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205).

3.1 VCM and PVC Production


Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM), who account for 98% of production in the EU, have signed charters covering the production of VCM, S-PVC and E-PVC. This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM, EDC, HCl, ethylene, dioxin-like components and copper. VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). Subject to external audit, the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC, and 2003 for E-PVC.

3.2 Plasticisers

3.2.1 Phthalates
Concerns have been raised at regular intervals, in Europe and the USA, regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic, endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. In particular, their use in toys, healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11, 117, 165, 228, 304, 377, 378), blood compatibility (58, 205) and differing NGO, governmental and political positions (40, 97, 98, 114, 200, 247, 257, 272, 310, 317). The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics, detergents, oils and solvents (253, 262). Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments, linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored.

3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC


PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years, primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives, such as plasticisers, used in its formulations. Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment, which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials, was being disregarded (210). Some companies, in attempts at green marketing, indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. Consequently, the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues. This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7.

10

PVC Compounds and Processing

Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90, 100). The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www.ecpi.org). DINP, the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into childrens mouths, has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment, provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7, 247). However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates, in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old, has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263). Similarly, for DIDP, the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population, but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in childrens toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EUs Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices). Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119). There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33, 219).

3.3 Heat Stabilisers


For general background information, on the regulatory situation up to 1999, refer to the regulatory update (331). The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www.stabilisers.org).

3.3.1 Lead Based Stabilisers


Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. pipe, fittings and profile, lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers. For similar reasons, plus good insulation resistance, lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world. Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled, particularly in relation to worker exposure. However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic, harmful, dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects; and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies, resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7). A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor.

3.3.2 Organotin Stabilisers


Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the elimination of heavy metal discussions. There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127, 183). The identification of a perceived hazard, of course, must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated. Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138).

3.2.2 Adipates
PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat; for food storage; and for protecting food in the home. The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA), in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil. DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations. However, some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391).

3.3.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols


Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect

11

PVC Compounds and Processing

concentration in waste water etc. The content of Bisphenol A in, and its migration from PVC film, has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14). Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160).

3.4.3 Recycling
Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability, the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). PVC recycling and sustainability issues, i.e., the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7.

3.3.4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO)


ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications. It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395).

4 Additives, Formulations and Applications


4.1 Introduction
The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2. PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements. A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser. Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties, give weathering resistance, improve cost performance, colour, etc. A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128). In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation, the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight, with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost, electrical properties, etc. Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application.

3.4 Waste Management

3.4.1 Incineration
The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment, particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66, 106, 282, 341). PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297). In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0.8%. In a modern incinerator, energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115, 146).

3.4.2 Landfill
PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives, in particular, heavy metals and phthalates (282). A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252). However, the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422).

4.2 Heat Stabilisers


Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable, due to some chain branching during polymerisation, so a heat stabiliser system is essential. The degradation process is shown in Figure 7.

12

PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment

H C H

H C Cl

H C H

H C Cl

H C H

H C Cl

H C
H

Ideal structure Non typical

H C H

H C

H C

H C Cl*

H C H Heat

H C Cl

H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom

H C H

H C

H C

H C Cl

H C
H

C C Cl- H+ Heat

Allyl chloride

H C H

H C

H C

H C

H C

H C

H C + HCl

Cl- H+

Figure 7
Thermal degradation process for PVC

13

PVC Compounds and Processing

During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress, free hydrogen chloride is evolved, starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds. These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. This increases the melt viscosity considerably. The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl- and -CH2- groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds. Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments, or tertiary chlorine structural defects, is a molecular concerted elimination, which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen, peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation. In addition, they also cure existing damage. Some excellent review articles are available (48, 62, 323). The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment. The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105). There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415).

They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl. Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure. Apart from wire and cable, their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications, preferring the use of organotins. This will be covered later in this chapter. Non/low dusting products, which include the lead components in a safe handling state, in combination with lubricants (one-pack), have been available for many years in different product forms - flake, granule, tablet and dosage packs. These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique, primarily extrusion and injection moulding, and end-use specification. Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced.

4.2.1.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based


One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis. Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46, 82, 137, 295). The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47, 220, 308, 406, 407). Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227). Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe, fittings, profile (153) and wire and cable (174, 431), from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson. Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322), due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates).

4.2.1 Solid Stabilisers

4.2.1.1 Lead Compounds


Lead compounds, usually based on a mixture of lead salts, e.g., tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite, and lead soaps, e.g., dibasic or normal lead stearates, have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years, and function as HCl absorbers (236, 365, 438).

14

PVC Compounds and Processing

4.2.1.3 Calcium-Organic Based


Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn, although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a heavy metal (159). Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe, pipe fittings, profile and cable (135, 136, 143), suppliers include Crompton.

organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium. These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270).

4.2.2.2.1 Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd)


Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. However, in the European area, their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001, due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium. Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas, but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291).

4.2.2 Liquid Stabilisers 4.2.2.1 Organotin Compounds


Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl, butyl or octyl derivatives, usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity, linked to their good compatibility (85). The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common. The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications. Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications, but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content, but on the organotin species, mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453). The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221, 347, 348, 387, 388). In North America, the use of lower cost, reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe, profile and sidings, and foam. Rohm and Haas are one supplier.

4.2.2.2.2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn)


Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414). Suppliers include Akros. One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite, solvent, etc.) during processing and from the end use application, e.g., floor and wall coverings. Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development. New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75).

4.2.2.2.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn)


Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser, much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn. This is based on the concerns about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns. In addition to further formulation development (454), complex polyphosphates (45), new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted.

4.2.2.2 Mixed Metal Compounds


Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with

4.2.2.2.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn)


K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents

15

PVC Compounds and Processing

(azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system.)

The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. Predictive equations have been developed (349). For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility, trimellitates are used (91). Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342). Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). PVC-P materials, subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions, have been extensively tested. Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser, wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature. The plasticiser structure, level, extraction resistance, volatility and solubility all have an influence (389). The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam, leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications, has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215).

4.3 Plasticisers
Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr). They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. Based on organic esters, e.g., phthalates, adipates, trimellitates, phosphates, etc., addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications. The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260). The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361). The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22, 182, 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction.

4.3.1 Phthalate Alternatives


Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted, primarily due to the considerable media, legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71). Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1,2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86). Citrate based plasticisers, although much more expensive, have particular use in medical and

The most commonly used plasticisers, together with their characteristics, are listed in Table 3. The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92). The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63). PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate - DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108).

16

PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 C11 L911P, L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance. Good high temperature, but poorer low temperature performance. High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. Automotive interior (low fogging). Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy tents, conveyor belting etc. Improved low temperature performance, higher volatility, low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing, high volatility, lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use

Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation

Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation

High gelation temperature, low extraction, good migration resistance

Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature

Superior low temperature performance, good flexibility, inferior extraction resistance

17

PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 3 Continued... Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%. Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction. High cost. Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings. Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use

Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO)

Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance

packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267). A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367). Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). A review of phthalate alternatives, taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance, has been presented (89).

effect. Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194). Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168, 209). The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181, 223).

4.3.2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4.5 Property Modifiers


For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance, polymeric esters are used (88). New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103). Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188).

4.5.1 Process Aids


Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage. Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. Chemically, these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers. The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability, end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79). The functions of acrylic process aids, with very high molecular weight, have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335).

4.4 Multifunctional Additives


There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO), or epoxidised esters, which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers), to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation

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PVC Compounds and Processing

4.5.2 Impact Modifiers


Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at, and below, ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS).

crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications, particularly for clear packaging, as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. They are not suitable for outdoor applications. Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450). Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified. They are also not suitable for outdoor applications. Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95). Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433).

Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. Having limited compatibility with PVC, it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed, which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented. Based on core shell technology, produced by emulsion polymerisation, an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437), the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261), the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224), relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77). CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature. With a similar melting point to PVC, they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance; consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). The effect of residual

4.5.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification


A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer. AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier.

4.5.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications


CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required. Acting as a permanent plasticiser, the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced. ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength, elongation and low temperature flexibility. Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic

19

PVC Compounds and Processing

elastomers for use in glazing gaskets, footwear, tubing etc. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion. Relatively easy to process, formulations including NBR, have good oil and chemical resistance, better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers.

The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5.2.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). In PVC-P applications, the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment, e.g., printing or blooming on ageing.

4.6 Lubricants
Lubricants function classically in two ways, (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing, and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and, in so doing, lower the effective viscosity. External lubricants, by definition, have poor compatibility with PVC. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations. In practice, most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics, but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform. However, the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level, plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment, and physical properties (459). Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax, polyethylene wax, oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid. Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids. Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external, depending on addition level. It also acts as an acid scavenger. More detailed information on lubricants is available (74, 360). Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants, and stearic acid and its derivatives (403, 420). On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364), the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate, a very efficient lubricant, and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). As extruder running speeds increase, this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292).

4.7 Fillers
For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications, fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost, but some are also used to enhance properties and performance. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result. The density of the final product will increase, of course, at higher filler levels. Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output, plate-out and surface finish.

4.7.1 Calcium Carbonate


Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas. Particle size is important and, for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile), the ultrafine milled, high whiteness, natural version is normally used. To ease dispersion, the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52, 294, 462). The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate, on melt processing equipment, is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177). Tensile strength properties of PVC-U, filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate, have been investigated (381, 404). Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57).

20

PVC Compounds and Processing

Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist, in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation.

For magnetic applications, the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234). The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362).

4.7.5 Other Fillers


Depending on the geographical area, ground marble fillers, some with surface treatment, are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications. Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used. Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material. Cellulose fillers, with and without silane coupling agent treatment, have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53). Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties). Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283). Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. Calcium carbonate is also used in this area. An alternative to calcium carbonate, phyllite, has been evaluated. This material, which contains quartz, muscovite and kaolinite, was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity, gelation and fusion behaviour, and mechanical properties (70). Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials.

4.7.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites


The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably, particularly in the USA. In comparison with traditional products, wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). Finite element analysis, of impact durability, has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51). The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232). The use of CPE as a compatibiliser, for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour, has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. However, there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102).

4.7.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre


Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads, of three different sizes, and different volume fractions (96). The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents, for surface treatment of glass beads, on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116, 366). A new technology, based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate, has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201).

4.7.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers


For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required, such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction, specific carbon black pigment/filler is used. Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112). A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416).

4.7.6 Nanocomposites
Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. Operating at molecular level, these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material, such as operating

21

PVC Compounds and Processing

temperature, flame retardancy, stiffness and toughness etc. The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4.7.1. In comparison to other polymers, there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. The thermal stability problems, attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay, were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser. The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50, 203). Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending. The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180). The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36).

The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison. However, antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy, including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443). The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions, a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations. A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78). Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245, 390). The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130). The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386). Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective, particularly when used in combination (15). The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area. The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265). The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been

4.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS)


PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content. The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. They are predominately used in cable, conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. Antimony trioxide has been used extensively, usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers, giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties.

22

PVC Compounds and Processing

shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16).

Lead chromate pigments, traditionally used for pipe and cable applications, are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers. Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling, dust free, colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39, 321). Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. The influence of free iron has also been examined (344).

4.9 Pigments
Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable, have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give bright whiteness and opacity. Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). Their influence on photodegradation (286), and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC, have been shown, after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences, with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation, so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time. This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373). Pinking of PVC profiles, in mild climatic conditions, has been observed in service. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. One predictive test has been designed and validated (13, 279). Other predictive tests have also been suggested. Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. Paste storage stability is also important. The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied, with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457). Aluminosilicates, as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols, have been investigated, with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131).

4.10 Biocides
PVC-P materials, such as flooring and roofing material, can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions. This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence. Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material, the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. Based on their thermal stability, compatibility, permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi, the most common microbiocides are 10,10-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA), 2- n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). In Europe, the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides. Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42, 242, 334).

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PVC Compounds and Processing

4.11 Blowing Agents


Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide, which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate, which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution. The azo compounds can be specially formulated, to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved. Granular forms improve handling. PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied. The properties achieved, as foam density was reduced, were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196). The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content, but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55). Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites. The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. Consequently, impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208). The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents. A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density, elasticity and degree of expansion of foams, produced from different PVC plastisols, has been reported (120). A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18).

The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols, which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101).

4.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers


Primary antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation). Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates. These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76, 81). Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation. UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types, operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. No permanent chemical change occurs, so activity is retained. Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80). Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307). There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida, Arizona) to test the weathering performance. The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult, but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance.

4.13 Other Additives for PVC-P

4.13.1 Antistatic Agents


Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation, to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges, which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area. Dust build-up is also reduced.

24

PVC Compounds and Processing

By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials), the surface resistivity is reduced, along with a reduction in static charge accumulation. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface, which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself, conducts away charges. The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426). The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing, particularly heat stability, and this needs to be taken into account. An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance, although not so permanent, is to apply a coating after fabrication.

4.14 Formulations

4.14.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing


New trends in PVC-U compound formulations, covering extruded foam, extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications, have been reviewed. Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing, appearance and performance (72). Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations, influence on the manufacturing and final products, and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402). To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates, a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352).

4.13.2 Viscosity Modifiers


PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage, as well as the manufacturing process. This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile, but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary. Fumed silicas are typically used. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458).

4.14.2 Crosslinked PVC


Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties, particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P. Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not, of course, crosslink during processing. Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. For some PVC-P formulations, organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409, 424). A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337). Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent, with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). The use of a reactive plasticiser, triallyl cyanurate, has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202). Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes, aminosilanes and

4.13.3 Antifogging Agents


Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables, particularly on display in the supermarket (400).

4.13.4 Bonding Agents


PVC plastisol, spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres, requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion. Based on polyisocyanurates, dispersed in a plasticiser, this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up. Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins; air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing.

25

PVC Compounds and Processing

peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane. Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268). Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U, carried out using electron beam, has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate, with minimal thermal degradation (216). Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185). Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). The effect of UV irradiation on formulations, incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride, has also been studied (67).

during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO. Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199). The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218). Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies. Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. This relates to the more severe test criteria to satisfy the EC Directive, and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). PVC-P material, which has undergone specific treatment, has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351).

4.14.3 Medical and Food Contact Use


PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). For medical use, PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs, blood and plasma bags, oxygen face masks, infusion kits etc. An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser, the main phthalate used in medical devices, into the contents and so into the body. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags. This has been reviewed in Section 3.2.1 showing the ongoing debate. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate, which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents. Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447). In addition to unacceptable colour formation, excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). An additive system, based on materials approved for medical use, has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239). The effects of different plasticisers

4.14.4 Membranes
PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials, usually solvent cast, used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379, 393, 432). PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354). The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content, together with the addition of a lipophilic salt, significantly influencing water uptake (305). Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the

26

PVC Compounds and Processing

pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274). By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation, a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172). Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients, in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217).

The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. To increase output, the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer. Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed.

5.1.1.2 Low Intensity

5 Compounding and Processing Technology

5.1 Compounding
The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt.

Virtually shear free, low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients, with no change in particle identity. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material. Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles. This breaks up agglomerates. Normally, this technique is used for cold mixing, but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon, ribbon bar or paddle mixers.

5.1.1 Dry Blend Mixing

5.1.1.1 High Intensity


Batch high speed mixing, followed by a cooling stage, is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application, other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz. homogeneity, free-flow ability, bulk density, ease of handling and storage. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat, the temperature rises, allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature). The hot mix (now around 110-130 C) is transferred to a much larger, cooled, low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 C. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges).

5.1.2 Melt Compounding


For certain operations or scale of operations, the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment, e.g., pipe and profile extrusion, which obviously includes the melt compounding stage. For some processes or smaller scale operations, the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded, usually into a pellet or dice form. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material, e.g., calendering, or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements. The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs, with the screws designed to include mixing, conveying, plasticising and homogenising. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder, based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary

27

PVC Compounds and Processing

motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel, which is hinged, and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder. A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit, which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands, cut by rotating knives and cooled. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34).

5.2.1 Gelation
In the case of PVC plastisols, gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands, relating to the PVC and plasticiser components, are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). For dry blend, melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction, densification, fusion and elongation followed by melting. The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and aggregates. In addition, there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425), the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature, particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), capillary rheometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465, a.1). Another technique is based on solvent absorption, usually involving methylene chloride, and visualising swelling and solution effects. A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107).

5.1.3 Liquid PVC Blending


Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers. Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft. This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings. (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser. The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage, thereby improving plastisol mixing. This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility, particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam formulations.

5.2 Processing
An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website, www.hydropolymers.com.

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PVC Compounds and Processing

5.2.2 Extrusion

5.2.2.1 Twin Screw


Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet, extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting, intermeshed, Archimedean screws. PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward, softened, sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel. The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates, cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding, gelation and metering, with the screw flights designed accordingly. Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. The barrel is temperature controlled, usually in different zones, along the length. The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation, linked to high output. Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion. Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels. The role of shear stress, in PVC degradation, has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190). Two main types of screw design are used, i.e., parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). Further information is available (356). The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156). The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254). Screw design is complex, but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 C) to be

controlled more accurately. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144). The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460). Statistics, as a monitoring tool, can be used to determine if the process is under control. This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. A processing window contour mapping programme, using sequential simplex techniques, has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. By modelling the rheological properties, the optimisation of the flow, extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338). A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233).

5.2.2.2 Single Screw


Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity. Screw design involves higher compression ratios, e.g., 2:1, which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. PVC-P applications, such as wire and cable, glazing strip, profile, tubing, hose etc., run on single screw extruders, are fed by gelled compound. The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455). The relationship

29

PVC Compounds and Processing

between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been investigated, showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12). Flow instability of PVC-P, in a capillary extrusion, has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189). The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. As a consequence, there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213).

material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray. The influence of different cooling environments, using a differential equation for heat transfer, has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251). The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage, associated with different cooling rates, has been modelled (250). Heat reversion effects, in PVC-U profiles, have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. Higher line speeds, without increasing reversion levels, are possible by allowing for die swell (451). Corrugated pipe, primarily used in land drainage, is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www.corma.com). Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material, normally pipe or profile. The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss, a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298). Details of the process have been described (158). Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process; screws, die, calibrator etc. Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within, or reactions resulting from, the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions. Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155).

5.2.2.3 Downstream Equipment


Die design is critical to the extrusion process, material rheology and flow through the die. Once ascertained on a trial and error basis, it is now coming under more scientific investigation. An instrumented dual slit die rheometer, mounted on a twin screw extruder, has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). The simulation of profile dies, using finite element methods, has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates, temperatures and material properties (326). A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing, sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit), which gave good results (206). Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). For flat die extrusion of sheet, critical variables are temperature control, residence time and flow channel streamlining. Recent developments have been presented (175, 176). Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion, cost effective tooling, flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies, which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions. Alternatively, for pipe extrudate, the

5.2.2.4 Foam Extrusion


PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s, but recently, more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings. Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel, the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands. The die and calibrator are

30

PVC Compounds and Processing

the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375). The machinery, tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe, sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124, 333). Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines, including dies and calibrators, have been given (258). The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase, and their function has been reviewed (346, 359). Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents, processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations, with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413). A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density, has been researched (401). The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology, not requiring impact modifier, for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets, prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109).

A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249). Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314). Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings, the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis, allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC, polypropylene, ABS and polycarbonate), was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104).

5.2.4 Extrusion Blow Moulding


For thin walled containers, PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity, inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. However, the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a swan neck arrangement. Air is fed to the centre of the parison. In the stretch blow moulding process, which is the most common, the extruded parison is initially blown undersized, and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls, which improves impact resistance, rigidity and clarity. However, permeability is reduced.

5.2.3 Injection Moulding


Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape. A mobile reciprocating screw gels, transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure, screw speed or injection rate. Screw and mould designs have made big advances. PVC-U applications, usually based on lower molecular weight polymer, cover the construction and telecommunication areas. The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). PVC-P applications include footwear, automotive, medical and electrical.

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PVC Compounds and Processing

5.2.5 Orientation
The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer, usually in both directions, at temperatures above the glass transition temperature, 90 C is normally used. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe, produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel, were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315). In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332, 358). The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe, uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented, particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145). The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering, Loughborough University, UK and published work includes: the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357), the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255).

A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame, usually in an inverted L-shape, in such a way that they can be rotated, and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness. PVC, ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible, is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1.5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2.0 metres in width. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process, but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. Mini calenders or Calandrette lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured, ranging from highly polished to heavy matt, depending on the sheet finish required. Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder, e.g., (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender. One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber, based on a batch process, feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417). There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or nip set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature, surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip. The final calender nip controls film thickness. The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling, and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums. Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. The chemical structure of coatings, resulting

The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383).

5.2.6 Calendering
Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408).

32

PVC Compounds and Processing

from calendering of different feedstocks, has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423). Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings, film packaging, decorative surface coatings and stationery. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers.

coatings, including foam, and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven. The influence of plasticiser content and type, and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol, used for coated fabrics, has been determined (266). Screen coating, typically used for wallcoverings, relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate; the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. Coil coating, usually on metal, is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves; the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight.

5.2.7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes


PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes, or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. The main techniques are spreading, dipping, spraying and rotational and slush moulding.

5.2.7.1 Rheology
An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening), pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear). Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear. The mechanism of viscosity ageing, where viscosity increases with time, has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. Deagglomeration, of the friable agglomerates, caused viscosity ageing. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser, which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow, also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327).

5.2.7.3 Dip and Spray Coating


The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets, brackets etc., and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics, such as lined gloves, or metal, such as underbody sealant. These are subsequently gelled in an oven. The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343). Powder coating techniques are also used, including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying.

5.2.7.4 Rotational, Slush and Dip Moulding


Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 in three dimensions, after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste. The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. On cooling, the article is peeled from the mould, which is designed to split open. This process is used to manufacture balls, toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste, timing and

5.2.7.2 Spreading or Coating


For the coating of continuous substrates, such as flooring, wall covering and tarpaulins, direct or transfer coating is used. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt, or indirectly via reverse roll coating. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later. This process permits multilayer

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PVC Compounds and Processing

temperature. Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289). A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. After heating in an oven and cooled, the article is peeled off the former. Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process.

The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing, using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG), has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA, and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement, into isooctane solution has given positive results (231). A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications, on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32).

6 Fabrication and Treatment


6.1 Thermoforming
Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat, using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould, and then cooling. In comparison to injection moulding, thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs. However, the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300).

6.3 Coatings
Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons. This can involve printing or lacquering, using both solvent and non-solvent based inks, which are applied to the surface using rollers, pads, silk screen, inkjet or lasers. Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456). UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used, giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179). A clear topcoat for flooring, based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating, has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating, in comparison to acid etching (399). Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients, particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants, on print adhesion. Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy, and so improve print adhesion. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area.

6.2 Surface Modification Processes


The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine, in the presence of phase transfer catalysts, by azide (448); or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface. The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film, while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37). Surface modification, using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures, indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38).

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PVC Compounds and Processing

Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows, usually with a wood grain effect. Hot melt adhesives can be used. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which, when combined with flame treatment and adhesive, gave good adhesion results (244). The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil. Impact strength retention after ageing, for the foil laminated material, was decreased (329). Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396).

unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree. However, the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on, and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today, but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. Accordingly, the earths resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or impaired, but balanced between satisfying environmental, economic and social needs. For the PVC industry, this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 (www.vinyl2010.org), the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC horizontal study, five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management, and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing, an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited). This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV), Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20), standards were set in place covering PVC production, the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU, risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers, reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. The target is to have an additional 200,000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. One approach to sustainability, very much focused on the environmental aspect, has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earths ecosystem. PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality, closed loop waste management, no build-up of persistent organic compounds, sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects, and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www.hydropolymers.com).

6.4 Adhesion
Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. Techniques, used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines, include butt fusion, electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309). The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259). Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). Welding techniques, based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256). High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated, permitting the development of new stationery items (246). A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452). Bonding techniques, involving adhesives, are also common. An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available, together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226).

7 PVC and Sustainable Development


PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is

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PVC Compounds and Processing

The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues, focusing on the environmental, economic and social legs (www.evc-int.com).

7.1 Waste Management


Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM, ECPI, ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of 4.5 million in 2002, to waste management projects which were funded to a total of 16.5 million.

between polymers with different compositions, for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405). A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry. The homogeneous material is melt processable (25). An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material, based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61). Separation techniques, for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics, were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243). The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371). An aqueous column flotation technique, utilising pH level and surfactants, has been proposed (311). A continuous thermal separation system, for removal of trace PVC, has also been described (204). Triboelectrostatic separation, based on cyclones, fluidised beds or rotating tubes, has also separated five commonly used plastics, including PVC (30).

7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling

7.1.1.1 General
A research report, covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America, was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www.recyclepvc.com). The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288). Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources, outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122). A review of recycling methods being used in Europe, and examples of recyclate uses has been published. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184). A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276). In the UK, a Government funded initiative is in place, looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed, along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www.recyclepvc.com).

7.1.1.3 Pipes
The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity, at end-of-life, by 2005. As far back as 1996, pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection, cleaning and separating, grinding and re-use was examined (449). A market survey, for Italy, has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www.vinyl2010.org).

7.1.1.4 Profile 7.1.1.2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation


An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage. The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution, relevant to separation (428). Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity, at end-of-life, by 2005. A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68). A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time.

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PVC Compounds and Processing

Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour, if necessary) (211). Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC, enclosed in a virgin cap skin, have been developed. At present, this depends on post industrial waste, such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99). A recycling project, for vinyl sidings in the USA, has also been conducted (397) (www.vinylinfo.org). Pilot collection initiatives, start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. In the UK, the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate best practice solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste. A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling. In its second phase, BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www.bpf.co.uk).

to separation techniques and costs. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225). The separation of PVC cable waste, from other polymers, has been assessed using hydrocyclone, melt filtration and triboelectric techniques. Tribocharging, which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330). An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336). Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area.

7.1.1.8 VinyLoop Process


This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC compound, separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material (26, 147). Based on the VinyLoop technology, Texyloop has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds.

7.1.1.5 Wallcoverings
A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols, created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers, has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152).

7.1.1.9 Flooring
A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369). Changes in flooring properties, after service life, have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43). The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006. Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are ongoing, primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop process (www.vinyl2010.org).

7.1.1.6 Packaging
Collation trays, as used in supermarkets to transport and display products, remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer, linked to a suitable collection system. One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439). PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe. Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings.

7.1.1.10 Roofing Membranes 7.1.1.7 Wire and Cable


In this application the desire to recycle the copper, from wire and cable, has always been a driver. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003, aiming for 50% by 2005, has been set. This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www.vinyl2010.org).

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7.1.1.11 Coated Fabrics


An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. Test collection projects have been initiated. Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution. Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www.vinyl2010.org). A phase separation technique, using solvent and subsequent swelling, has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric, primarily to recycle the fabric (340, 355). A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been described, based on compression or injection moulding, with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49).

feedstock recycling of mixed plastics, in coking plants, has been carried out (31). The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids, using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures, has been proposed (302, 382). A steam gasification technique, with oxygen addition, has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride, hydrogen, carbon monoxide and dioxide etc. (187).

7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery


A survey of state-of-the-art technologies, for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), is in place (www.vinyl2010.org). A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been described. This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306). The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics, including PVC, showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates. However, chlorine content was lower than expected (212, 214). MSW contains an average of 0.8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to environmental, economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146).

7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling


Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115). A progress report, on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams, is available (21). Promising developments, which look technically and economically viable, are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste, after separation from municipal solid waste, and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www.vinyl2010.org). A catalytic dehalogenation process, for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil, has been investigated (29). The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts, for liquid fuel generation, has been described (24). Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28). VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water, in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). A project involving

8 Conclusions
Despite being a so called mature product, operating in a difficult economic climate, PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. It is still the second largest thermoplastic material, based on market volume, and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material. The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area, particularly Asia. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has

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occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability, leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. It is, of course, essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale. As the reader has observed in this review, the innovation process is thriving within this new environment. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile, the replacement of lead stabilisers, scientific studies and support for phthalates, a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers, recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. All of these issues have been, and are being, accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment.

Acknowledgement
The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. Thanks are also due to the authors friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material.

Additional References
a.1 A. Gonze, Chim. Ind. Gnie chimique, 1971, 104, 422-427.

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Abbreviations and Acronyms

ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW

acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1,2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste

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PVC Compounds and Processing

NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM

nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10, 10-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer

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References and Abstracts

Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database


Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine 14, No.10, Oct.2003, p.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B; Courtney J M Strathclyde,University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate, triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

employed were an acrylic resin, chlorinated PE, low molec.wt. PVC and polyethylene wax. Metal oxides used included CuO, MoO3 aand FeOOH, which served as smoke suppressants. 18 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9, No.3, Sept.2003, p.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. VI. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A; Somova T; Suvorova A; Fisch M H; Stewen U; Bacaloglu R; Dooley T Urals,State University; Crompton Corp. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods, including isothermal calorimetry of mixing, DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. 16 refs.
RUSSIA; USA

Accession no.901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov.2003, p.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. This article discusses calcium carbonate, talc and glass fibre, taking into account their size and their shape factor. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. 12 refs. SOLVAY BENVIC
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9, No.3, Sept.2003, p.108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A.W.,& Associates Inc. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index, heat release, smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations. 31 refs.
USA

Accession no.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82, No.3, 2003, p.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin,Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation, flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq.m. Polymeric additives

Accession no.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90, No.7, 14th Nov.2003, p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M; Kondou M Tokuyama Corp.

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

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References and Abstracts

A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation, and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature, and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity, an increase in flow activation energy, and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry, and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. 29 refs.
JAPAN

good anti-fogging performance, low volatility, low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104, a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering, extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5, No.4, July-Aug.2003, p.30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw, creating a high mixing efficiency. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder, which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel. COPERION CORP.
USA

Accession no.898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33, No.9, Sept.2003, p.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand, which was at 4,647,000 tonnes in 2000, is showing 2.1% annual growth for 2003. In the past, this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates use in vinyl. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics sails. Earlier this year, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. At this years NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds, using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility.
WORLD

Accession no.894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38, No.13, 1st July 2003, p.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R; Cusack P A; Cross M; Toth A; Zelei B; Marosi G Brunel University; Tin Technology Ltd.; Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Budapest,University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index, peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. 16 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; HUNGARY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5, No.4, July-Aug.2003, p.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2. The new stabiliser offers

Accession no.894085

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Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

References and Abstracts

Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20, No.4, April 2003, p.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y; Ishimitsu S; Saito I; Sakai H; Tsuchida Y; Tonogai Y Japan,National Institute of Health Sciences; Aichi,Prefectural Institute of Public Health; Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate, butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). Dipropyl, dipentyl, dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. Detection limits are -.1-15.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals. DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals, significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease. The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1, 12.5 mu g DEHA day-1, 4.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3.4 mu g BBP day-1. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals, the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging. 21 refs.
JAPAN

in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation, tear strength, 100% modulus, reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface, but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9, No.2, June 2003, p.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J; Siampiringue N; Girod N; Delprat P; Parmeland G; Macdonald N; Spriet C CNEP; Atofina; Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation. The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. The absorptions of these compounds were not, therefore, observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9, No.2, June 2003, p.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied. The properties included tear resistance, tensile properties, brittleness temperature and compression set. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate, such as surface roughness and gloss, and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined. An increase

Accession no.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20, No.6, June 2003, p.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN, AND ITS MIGRATION FROM, PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J; Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela,Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance. Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. 33 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

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Item 15 Polymer Testing 22, No.5, 2003, p.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S; Zhang Y; Zhang C Shanghai,Jiao Tong University; Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co.Ltd. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates), which acted as HCl absorbers, and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated. The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers, particularly when used in combination. 9 refs.
CHINA

APPLICATIONS - RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden,Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer, while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid, the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC, was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. Even when the ageing temp. was increased to 70C, only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%. A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp. was raised to 100C. 31 refs.
EUROPEAN UNION; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89, No.3, 18th July 2003, p.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi; Shaoyun Guo; Yong Ning Sichuan,University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB- and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH, increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends, which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index, impact and yield strengths, and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC. 27 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36, No.10A, 21st May 2003, p.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A; Fuchs G; Bergounhon P; Peres R; Peyrin F ESRF; Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. Microscopy, which is the conventional method of investigation of foams, images only the surface of samples, though, 3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented. After a brief description of the imaging system, 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. 19 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80, No.3, 2003, p.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL

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Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting - Spring 2003. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco, Ca., 28th-30th April 2003. Akron, Oh., ACS Rubber Division, 2003, Paper 77, pp.27, 28cm, O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL - X. VISCOSITY AGING, MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N; Harrell E R Akron,University; Polymer Diagnostics Inc. (ACS,Rubber Div.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing, the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time, of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates, using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer, by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates, the mechanism involves de-agglomeration, while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates, a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer. 10 refs.
USA

BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81, No.1, 2003, p.29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark,National Museum The extent, rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate, FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. 14 refs.
DENMARK; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No.340, May 2003, p.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers, the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010. This would require the recycling of an additional 350,000 to 600,000 tonnes of PVC. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS
WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9, No.1, March 2003, p.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F; Matuana L M Michigan,Technological University; Michigan,State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples, regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. In addition, experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites, but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made, which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). 19 refs.
USA

Accession no.889784 Item 21 Polimery 48, No.4, 2003, p.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far, while development work continues. 9 refs.

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References and Abstracts

Item 24 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A58 pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S; Karayildirim T; Yanik J; Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University; Ege,University (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling. In this study, we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream. For this purpose, the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5, DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel. 2 refs.
TURKEY

added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. After pulverisation, the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars, directly from powder. Testing, according to ASTM methods, showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures. Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams, such as carpets, wire and cable, and automotive waste. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee, Material Sciences Corporation, Elk Grove Village, Illinois, USA. 3 refs.
USA

Accession no.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A35, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 VINYLOOP(R), THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H; Crucifix P; Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process; separation of the non soluble materials; precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity, grain size distribution,...) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process). The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials. The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998, a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels, and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10,000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy). Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe, Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference. 0 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A47 pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K; Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder, by Berstorff, Germany, modified with intensive cooling and special elements. During pulverisation, polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry. Mixed-colour, commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution. The resultant powder is a homogeneous, light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques. If pellets are required, the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post- and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS, PVC, PET), and their blends, into value

Accession no.889105

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References and Abstracts

Item 27 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A26, pp.2, CD-ROM, 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K; Emori N Osaka,City University (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC. Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19.3 MPa and 300 deg.C. 3 refs.
JAPAN

used during MWP pyrolysis, organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm, and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation. Based on the laboratory scale study, the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3), 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h). 3 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A15, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y; Uddin Md A; Bhaskar T; Kusaba T; Kaneko J; Muto A; Murata K Okayama,University (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology. We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). In this study, two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. During dehydrohalogenation, the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides, which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. 4 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A18, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T; Kusaba T; Kaneko J; Uddin Md A; Muto A; Sakata Y Okayama,University (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC). This is a twostage process, consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl. However, the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl. On the other hand, the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap. When Ca-C (8g) was

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References and Abstracts

Item 30 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A08, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper, aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper, triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined, emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing, as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones, fluidize beds, rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics, as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polystyrene (PS). Extract contents in excess of 99%, with less than 3-5% losses, can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. 24 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

polyolefins, PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions). 0 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND

Accession no.888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8, No.1, March 2003, p.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A; Honda R Y; Kayama M E; Schreiner W H; Cruz N C; Rangel E C UNESP; Parana,Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10,800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition, roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely. Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic. 21 refs.
BRAZIL

Accession no.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52, No.5, May 2003, p.670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L; Taverdet J-L; Gauvrit J-Y; Lanteri P Saint Etienne,University; Villeurbanne,University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid, used to simulate contact with food, was investigated. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying; analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking, and time and temperature of drying. The physical significance of the results is discussed. 21 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend, Belgium, 8th-11th Sept.2002. Brussels, Belgium, Vrije University, 2002, Paper A07, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M; Abramowicz A; Jeziorska R; Kowalska E; Machowska Z; Pelka J; Polaczek J; Wielgosz Z Warsaw,Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels,Free University; Japan,Research Assn.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM, a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of

Accession no.888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67, No.4, April 2002, p.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding.

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COPERION BUSS AG
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

were obtained in the presence of both the initiator- and comonomer-modified montmorillonite. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39, No.5, May 2003, p.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong; Zhang Li-feng; Huang Zhi-ming; Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang,University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp. and partial pressure of VC. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour, water and polymer phases, a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed. 10 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B, No.1, 2003, p.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S; Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst.for Med.Sci.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction. Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements, SEM, cell culture studies, haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements. Mechanical properties were examined. 31 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44, No.8, 2003, p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J; Herrero M; Tiemblo P; Mijangos C; Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films, both plasticised and unplasticised, using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures, was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction kinetics, and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time. 19 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. Volume 43. Number 2. Fall 2002. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston, Ma., 18th-22nd Aug.2002. Washington, DC, ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2002, p.1312-3, 28cm, 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y; Malaba D; Huang X; Aguilar-Solis C; Brittain W J Akron,University (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator- and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators, such as AIBN, and compared. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite. Exfoliated nanocomposites

Accession no.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33, No.4, April 2003, p.50 U.K. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R

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A technology said to produce the worlds first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology, dubbed Vynacol. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83, No.550, April 2002, p.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals; International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. 2 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30, No.3, April 2003, p.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP, the most common PVC plasticiser. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed. Based on a study by Poon, DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3.7mg per kg of body weight. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol, a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry.
EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79, No.3, 2003, p.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N; Jakubowicz I; Martinsson L Sweden,National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling, such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption, plasticiser depletion, secondary emission products and energy recovery. 19 refs.
EUROPEAN UNION; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin, 2nd-3rd April 2003. Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2003, Paper 18, p.159-66, 29 cm, 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V; Bernardi F; Bonomi S; Costa L Turin,University; European Vinyls Corp.; Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation, and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown, which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO. Other plasticisers have been employed, but with poor stabilising effect. 10 refs.

Accession no.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints. Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th Aug.2001. Washington, DC, ACS, Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2001, p.881-2, 28cm, 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY PLASTICIZER THIOLS, A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H; Du B; Zaikov V G Williamsburg,College of William & Mary (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl

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function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a plasticiser thiol. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed, together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds. Comparison is made with conventional additives. 9 refs.
USA

stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers. 2 refs.


USA

Accession no.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints. Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th Aug.2001. Washington, DC, ACS, Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2001, p.874-5, 28cm, 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M; Chaudhry H; Allen N S Manchester,Metropolitan University (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2,4-dione and existing costabilisers. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride. 6 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints. Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th Aug.2001. Washington, DC, ACS, Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2001, p.878-9, 28cm, 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R; Harr M E; Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp. (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters, with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness. Other properties of PVC compounds, such as clarity, light stability and plate-out resistance, also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints. Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th Aug.2001. Washington, DC, ACS, Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2001, p.872-3, 28cm, 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction. In other words, efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process, probably by an ionic mechanism. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (blackening) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only, whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst, Minsker or Michell mechanisms were

Accession no.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints. Volume 42, Number 2, Fall 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago, Il., 26th-30th Aug.2001. Washington, DC, ACS, Div.of Polymer Chemistry, 2001, p.876-7, 28cm, 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S; Hood W; Jennings T; Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based

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References and Abstracts

the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. 12 refs.


EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber, Plastics and Recycling Technology 19, No.2, 2003, p.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T; Kimura T Shimane,University; Kyoto,Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites. 15 refs.
JAPAN

Item 51 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 589, Session W12Composites. Other Reinforcements in Composites II, pp.5, CD-ROM, 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S; Bai R; Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites, one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre, were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties, and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing, using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2.0 mm. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 596, Session W13Composites. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure. Nanocomposites I, pp.5, CD-ROM, 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A; Kovarova L; Malac Z; Malac J; Vaculik J; Hrncirik J; Simonik J Zlin,Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights, using a reciprocating screw blender. An increase in Youngs modulus was obtained. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay, the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. In the absence of bonding, the abrasion resistance was decreased. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC, particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. 6 refs.
CZECH REPUBLIC

Accession no.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 571, Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Vinyl Composites, pp.5, CD-ROM, 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S; Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact, low temperature impact and flexural modulus). The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost

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decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 570, Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Vinyl Composites, pp.4, CD-ROM, 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S; Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada; Coahuila,Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers, with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent. The fillers were wood flour, palm and lecheguilla. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis, and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. With increasing filler concentration, the tensile strength, elastic modulus and viscosity increased, whilst the impact resistance decreased. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size. Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness, and also the impact resistance, particularly at low filler concentrations. 14 refs.
MEXICO

the composites, giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break, particularly when using low chlorine polymers. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained, with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples. 8 refs. Accession no.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 568, Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Vinyl Composites, pp.6, CD-ROM, 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M; Mengeloglu F Michigan,Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour, chemical foaming agent (CFA), and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%), additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content, and foams with densities as low as 0.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C. 25 refs.
USA

Accession no.882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5, No.2, March-April 2003, p.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll- and DEHP-plasticised PVC films. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP.; AKVA WATERBEDS APS
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 569, Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Vinyl Composites, pp.5, CD-ROM, 012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O; Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. The compositions also contained lubricants, a stabiliser and a processing aid. Following blending, the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of

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Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26, No.1, 2003, p.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning; Qiao Xiuying; Zhang Yong; Zhang Yinxi Shanghai,Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite, forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect. The flexural modulus, flexural strength, TS and EB were also studied. 2 refs. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS
CHINA

where, as a coating, it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. Resin properties, application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. Film properties listed include details of chemical, abrasion and scuff resistance, and flexibility.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78, No.2, 2002, p.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia,Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition, the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides, Cu2O, CuO, MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate, peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone, and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming. 23 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery, held Krems, Austria, 11th-13th Sept.2000. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2000, Paper 19, p.177-85, 21cm, 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B; LEtang A J; Courtney J M Strathclyde,University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate, triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry. 14 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30, No.3, 2003, T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M; Kadyrov R G; Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described, which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. The elastic-deformation dispersion method, is based on the idea of multiple breakdown, when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms. was carried out in a single-

Accession no.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos, 2002, pp.2, 30 cm, 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003, an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring,

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screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus, pressure, rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed, and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. 4 refs. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.4, 2002, pp.45).
RUSSIA

Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54, No.3, April 2002, p.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described, and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined. ONDEX; SOLVAY SA
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11, No.2, 2003, p.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A; Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz,Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage. In this initial period, the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences. The influence of additives (calcium stearate, zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method, and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation, and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. 9 refs.
AUSTRIA; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79, No.2, 2003, p.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du; Dongyan Wang; Wilkie C A; Jianqi Wang Beijing,Institute of Technology; Marquette,University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC, dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s), chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded, thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned. For PVC-clay nanocomposites, the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon. 23 refs.
CHINA; USA

Accession no.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44, No.11, Nov.2002, p.1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P; Somova T V Ural,State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques, including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions. 24 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79, No.2, 2003, p.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun; Irie H; Nishikawa T; Nakajima A; Watanabe T; Hashimoto K Kanagawa,Academy of Science & Technology; Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd.; Tokyo,University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated. It was

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found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased, the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst, which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate. 17 refs.
JAPAN

and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process. Meanwhile, WRAP, the Governments recycling markets development body, is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD.; UK,WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 540, Session W1Extrusion. Extrusion General, pp.6, CD-ROM, 012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp. (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. Fourteen critical dimensions, profile bow, shrinkage, Youngs modulus, and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements, bow, maximum tensile stress, pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive, and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved.
USA

Accession no.879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79, No.2, 2003, p.231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H; Kowalonek J; Oldak D Torun,Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied. The photoinduced degradation, oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC, viscometry, UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h). Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC. 30 refs. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification, Degradation and Stabilisation, MODEST 2002, Budapest, Hungary, June/July 2002)
EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND

Accession no.879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 520, Session T52Injection Moulding, Polymer Modifiers & Additives. Interactive Presentations, pp.5, CD-ROM, 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S; Ribeiro A P; Valenzuela-Diaz F R; Yoshiga A; Ormanji W; Toffoli S M Sao Paulo,University; Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz, muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl

Accession no.879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No.337, Feb.2003, p.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the companys own fleet. They are then stripped down

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chloride) (PVC) plastisols. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls, and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity, heat stability, gelation and fusion temperatures, tensile strength and viscoelastic properties. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties, the same processing temperatures and heat stability, and higher plastisol viscosity, compared with those containing calcium carbonate, and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols. 8 refs.
BRAZIL

NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years, there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam, extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications. Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility, appearance and performance of the final product are discussed. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation, which will lead to improvements in certain key properties. 16 refs.
USA

Accession no.879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 48 Paper 5, p.51730, 27 cm, 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D; Lang J; Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers, and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years. Recently, new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. The new blends offer improved efficiency, processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP). Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860), a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate, triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate, functions very effectively as an offset to DINP. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications. Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 4, Paper 2, p.43748, 27 cm, 012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J; Rabinovich; Majewski T; Jarus D PolyOne Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed. This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility, rheology, surface chemistry and equipment design. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible, avoiding messy pigment dusts, insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications. 8 refs.
USA

Accession no.877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 4, Paper 1, p.41334, 27 cm, 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A

Accession no.877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 4, Paper 4, p.46372, 27 cm, 012

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L & L Consulting LLC (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external. Typically, internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. External lubricants on the other hand, are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties.
USA

Item 76 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 7, p.391400, 27 cm, 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E; Papazoglou E; Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Traditionally, stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing, storage and use lifetimes. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose, as they are effective radical scavengers. Phosphites, and to a lesser extent thiosynergists, are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former, by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light. A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding.
USA

Accession no.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 8, p.40310, 27 cm, 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOCS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R; Harr M E; Stevenson D R; Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile, cost effective and additive intensive. The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002, but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year, only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser, Dover PhosBooster, DPB. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 5, p.36774, 27 cm, 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R; Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure, processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure, temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.877701

Accession no.877698

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Item 78 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 4, p.34763, 27 cm, 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A.W.,& Associates Inc. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications. Its relatively high chlorine content (58.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers. In the case of flexible PVC, the plasticisers which contribute flexibility, in most instances, detract from its resistance to fire. To meet specifications such as oxygen index, heat release, smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests, flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated. Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively. 30 refs.
USA

Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 2, p.32131, 27 cm, 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC; products such as patio furniture, window and door trim, greenhouse films, fencing, pond liners, etc. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. Unlike UV absorbers, hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented; however, their activity in PVC is neither well understood, nor well known. In several laboratory studies, NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented. Other effect additives - additives such as antimicrobials, antistats, optical brighteners, antioxidants, antifog agents, etc. - that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined, although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability. 8 refs.
USA

Accession no.877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 3, p.33543, 27 cm, 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B; Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) The development of new applications for PVC, such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications, has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability, end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 3, Paper 1, p.295317, 27 cm, 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A; Oertli A G; Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Phenolic products, especially sterically hindered phenols, are widely used throughout the PVC industry - for instance, as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation, to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS), a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC, needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation

Accession no.877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002.

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References and Abstracts

of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants. In the above mentioned applications, traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products, which give additional invaluable advantages in handling, dosing, and case of emulsification, very important for introduction into aqueous processes, as well as a good toxicological profile, enabling broad registration and food approval status, thereby enhancing PVCs environmental acceptance. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers, or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC, solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers, or directly to the compound. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides, antistats, and fluorescent whitening agents, etc.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles, thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace. 1 ref.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding.


USA

Accession no.877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 6, p.24766, 27 cm, 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S; De Massa J; Ciullo P Vanderbilt R.T.,Co. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. As performance demands of plastics increase, filler profiles change to keep pace, especially with requirements related to strength. Some years ago, selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. The data, as published, showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate. In another test, with vinyl floor tile, the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing, in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape, the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties, it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC, as represented by a 75 deg.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay, are evaluated. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties. Using calcium carbonates as filler, wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity. 2 refs.
USA

Accession no.877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 7, p.26971, 27 cm, 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T; Ashton H C Huber J.M.,Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed. As an effective acid scavenger, this new hydrotalcite, when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate, can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs. lead-stabilised compounds. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants, making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i.e. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing

Accession no.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002.

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Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 5, p.23153, 27 cm, 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E; Hackett J A; Ford J I OMG Inc. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or green alternatives. Historically, these systems have not been performance and cost competitive. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers. The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality. Furthermore, this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC). This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions. 11 refs.
USA

thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains, which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains. 16 refs.
RUSSIA; USA

Accession no.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 2, p.193202, 27 cm, 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B; Gans G BASF Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) For some time now plasticisers, especially phthalates, have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies. In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA, Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals. Taking this into account, as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers, BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity, no sensitising properties, no peroxisome proliferation, no genotoxicity, no reprotoxicity and biodegradability. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser, di-isononylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid ester, designated Hexamoll DINCH, are discussed. The manufacturing process, physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed.
USA

Accession no.877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 3, p.20517, 27 cm, 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H; Stewen U; Bacaloglu R; Dooley T; Safronov A; Somova T Crompton Corp.; Urals,State University (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing, DSC, DMA and dielectric relaxation. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. The alkyltin alkyl

Accession no.877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 2, Paper 1, p.18190, 27 cm, 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M; Streeter B E; Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality

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applications where high permanence, resistance to extraction, low migration and weatherability are required. For special needs, the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure, molecular weight and manufacturing process. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. The performance requirements covered are printability, low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity. 4 refs.
USA

(SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances, food processing and packaging applications, as well as many other end uses. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. Nevertheless, the Precautionary Principle has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers. Known non-phthalate plasticisers are reviewed, and comparisons to the traditional General Purpose (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided; General Purpose plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost. 6 refs.
USA

Accession no.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 1, Paper 7, p.15375, 27 cm, 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS ORourke S Hall C.P.,Co. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers. However, longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required, polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable, migrating or too volatile. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications. The test data include heat ageing, extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing. It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties.
USA

Accession no.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 1, Paper 5, p.1019, 27 cm, 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co. (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible. The substances produced in highest quantity, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations, which are discussed in detail. Among these, it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans. Several of these issues are addressed, focusing specifically on the scientific evidence, and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications, although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment, so they are not persistent. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high

Accession no.877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 1, Paper 6, p.11350, 27 cm, 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co.Inc.

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levels, the relevance of these effects to humans is, at best, questionable. Finally, recent investigations reveal that, except in some very rare situations, levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals. 17 refs.
USA; WORLD

Accession no.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 1, Paper 4, p.8998, 27 cm, 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s, trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. Trimellitate plasticisers offer todays vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers. Phthalate plasticisers, long the workhorse of the industry, are efficient, process easily, impart good low temperature properties, and are well suited for general use. Unfortunately, phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications. The polymerics, which have the permanence for high temperature applications, are often inefficient, are difficult to process, have poor low temperature properties, and are expensive. Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. 5 refs.
USA

early 20th century. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers, and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter, starting around 1935. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science. Chemistry, engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers, and by some definitions, are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants, process aids and modifiers. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers. Many of these products are esters. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness, permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective, useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented.
USA

Accession no.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25, No.6, 2002, p.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W; Xiuying Q; Yong Z; Yinxi Z Shanghai,Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin, as compatibiliser, and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite, which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites. 3 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca, Il., 30th-2nd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Session 1, Paper 3, p.6986, 27 cm, 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE,Chicago Section; SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability, flexibility or distensibility. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the

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Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8, No.4, Dec.2002, p.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D; Wilkie C A Marquette,University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF, as solvent, and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing. It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. 28 refs.
USA

slowly. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level. 11 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No.335, Dec.2002, p.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments. UK,DEPT.OF HEALTH; UK,NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE; EU,SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES; HEALTH CANADA; US,FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25, No.6, 2002, p.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S; Liqiang C; Xuecheng P; Xiao L; Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0.9 mm obtained by filtering, washing, sifting and drying. The effects of crosslinking, grafting, condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied. 6 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13, No.9, Nov.2002, p.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC, AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool,University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail. 7 refs. EUROPEAN COMMISSION; INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER; US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION; HEALTH CANADA
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287, No.9, 11th Oct.2002, p.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China,University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions, and using three different sizes of bead. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Youngs modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content, but was not significantly affected by bead size. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent, independent of bead size, and then reduced only

Accession no.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov.2002, p.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C

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Polyfence has developed Supalite, a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives, while providing a big weight saving, greater durability and a higher quality appearance. The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400,000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. The core of the product, which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post, is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry. POLYFENCE
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest, Hungary, 22nd-23rd.Oct. 2002. Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2002, Paper 3, p.3343, 29 cm, 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Plasticisers, particularly, phthalates, have long been the focus of considerable media, legislative and scientific attention, with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates, and the particular advantages of certain alternatives. The results of the latest studies are summaries, and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers, including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates, are presented, together with the response from industry. 53 refs.
BELGIUM; EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; HUNGARY; WESTERN EUROPE

secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants, which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC, such as Vestolit B 7021, Pevikon D 61, AST 66, and Slovinyl K 72. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes, it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important. 6 refs.
CZECH REPUBLIC

Accession no.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42, No.8, Aug.2002, p.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M; Kamdem D P Michigan,Technological University; Michigan,State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies, contact angle measurement, colour measurement and tensile property testing. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples, they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures. 28 refs.
USA

Accession no.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol.41, No.5,2002, p.997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin,Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes, which

Accession no.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 285, Session T7Vinyl Plastics. Properties and Stabilization, pp.4, CDROM, 012

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ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E; Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp. (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s, developed to give improved low temperature flexibility, was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). The dry blend time was reduced by 10%. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. 1 ref. Accession no.872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 284, Session T7Vinyl Plastics. Properties and Stabilization, pp.5, CDROM, 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING, PROPERTIES, AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M; Toyoda P PolyOne Corp. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process, with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC), polypropylene (PP), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS), and polycarbonate (PC). The samples were characterised by optical microscopy, and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength, flexural modulus and strength, impact strength, dart impact energy, and heat distortion temperature. The core always formed a single, continuous layer adjacent to the gate, whilst further from the gate, core flow ceased, resulting in a skin-only region. More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP, and good adhesion to GFR-PVC, ABS and PC, with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer. 10 refs. Accession no.872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco, Ca., 5th-9th May 2002.

Brookfield, Ct., SPE, 2002, Paper 282, Session T7Vinyl Plastics. Properties and Stabilization, pp.5, CDROM, 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R; Fisch M H; Stewen U; Bacaloglu I; Krainer E Crompton Corp. (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn), and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied, to optimise the stabiliser composition and content. 12 refs.
USA

Accession no.872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78, No.3, 2002, p.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION - EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D; Nishikawa T; Nakajima A; Watanabe T; Hashimoto K Kanagawa,Academy of Science & Technology; Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd.; Tokyo,University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds, such as dioxin, generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran, as a model compound. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2, as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface, resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds. 22 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22, No.1, 2003, p.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K; Sterzynski T; Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz,Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products, usually related to the instability of the extrusion process,

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leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects, allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone, and thus with various degree of gelation. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements. Consequently, it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. 23 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND

suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Houston, Tx., 22nd-23rd Oct.2002. Brookfield, Ct., 2002, Session II, p.25-46, 27cm, 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G; Kumar V BBS Corp.; Washington,University (SPE,Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div.; SPE,South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state, that is, near the Tg of the polymer. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer. Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems, using different mechanisms. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder. PVC pellets, pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process, are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. In the second system, solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density. During extrusion, the softer, lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.872008 Item 108 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 31, No.8, 2002, p.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J; Worsley D Swansea,University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA), at levels of 0-88 phr, is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. However, increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this, accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone, implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. In addition, small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series, the parent of which is the plasticiser, each with one fewer carbon atoms. All the fragments are produced at similar levels, suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission. The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation, corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2,

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Item 110 Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2002, pp.196, 30cm, 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand, price, markets and applications, environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis, additives, compounding and processing. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction, medical, wire and cable and packaging. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling, safety, legislation and end-of-life are discussed here.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WORLD

studied. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical conductivity. 39 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GREECE; UKRAINE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32, No.10, Oct.2002, p.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C; Yun J; Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15- to 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins. The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix.
SINGAPORE

Accession no.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86, No.13, 20th Dec. 2002, p.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y; Dai G East China,University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. The properties of the two different powders are compared. 6 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14, No.31, 30th Sept.2002, p.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys, as some environmental groups had urged. The agencys report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought. US,CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION
USA

Accession no.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38, No.9, Sept.2002, p.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P; Davydenko V V; Pissis P; Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences; Athens,National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were

Accession no.868089 Item 115 Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2002, pp.122, 29 cm. Rapra Review Report 148, vol. 13, No.4, 2002 PLASTICS WASTE - FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING,

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CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Rapra Review Report No.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste, including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste, based on a number of life cycle assessments. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis.485 refs.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

EXTRACTION Bouma K; Schakel D J Netherlands,Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied. In the PVC-containing toys, the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the Head over Heels agitation method. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity, Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate, tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated. 16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16, No.5, 2002, p.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura; Kazuya Nagata; Yoshiyuki Tobita; Naoki Yokouchi; Hideyuki Nigo; Takeo Iida Osaka,Institute of Technology; Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads, chosen as a model filler. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di- or tri-alkoxy structure. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy. The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress. The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion. 28 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77, No.2, 2002, p.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia,Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed. The effect of plasticisers, such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP), diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate, and different flame retardant fillers, i.e. antimony oxide, zinc borate, aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide, on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated. The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp. and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed. 13 refs. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers, Alessandria, Italy, June 2001)
SAUDI ARABIA

Accession no.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19, No.6, June 2002, p.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC

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Item 119 ENDS Report No.329, June 2002, p.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP, LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings, which they say have at least comparable properties. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way. Europes largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector, Tarkett Sommer, says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products, its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000, it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP. Details are given. TARKETT SOMMER; AMTICO CO.; DU PONT DE NEMOURS E.I.,& CO.INC.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Wang D; Parlow D; Yao Q; Wilkie C A Marquette,University; Brooklyn,Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure, thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties, flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, DMA and cone calorimetry. The effects of clay loading, DOP concentration, annealing, blending time and molec.wt. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. 15 refs.
USA

Accession no.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82, No.542, Aug.2001, p.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling, and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials, and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. AISCONDEL SA; ATOFINA ESPANA; HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA; REVINIL; ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA; CICLOPLAST SA; EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8, No.2, June 2002, p.159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J; Stojkov D; Popovic I G; Brankov K; Cvorkov L Belgrade,University; Sintelon AD; Novi Sad,University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density, elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate, DOP, butyl benzyl phthalate, dioctyl adipate, dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof. 9 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; YUGOSLAVIA

Accession no.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb.2002, p.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors, Unionplast, has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products, and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. This article provides details of the associations findings. UNIONPLAST
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8, No.2, June 2002, p.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES

Accession no.855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg, 27th-28th May 2002.

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Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2002, Paper 11, p.113-121, 29cm, 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products, including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet.
AUSTRIA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Algiers,Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied. The additives, including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser, tin-based heat stabiliser, processing aid, and internal and external lubricants, were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography, FTIR spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis. The influence of various parameters such as temp., stirring, nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated. 7 refs. (EUROMAT 2001, Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium, Rimini, Italy, June 2001)
ALGERIA

Accession no.854595 Item 125 Cheltenham, The Natural Step UK, 2000, pp.64, 30cm, 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step; UK,Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group. The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable?
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29, No.4, 2002, p.T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described. The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds, the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite, form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical, mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule. Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available. Within such a framework, catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds, on the basis of which, a method of prognosis was developed. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors, length descriptors, conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process. 5 refs. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.7, 2001, pp.36).
RUSSIA

Accession no.853889 Item 126 Brussels, ECVM, 2001, pp.22, 30cm, 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers; EUPC; ECPI; ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 - Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture, Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers; waste management; social progress and dialogue; management, monitoring and financial scheme.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.180, 2002, p.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N; Zeddam C; Ouahmed S

Accession no.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 60, p.590-601, 21cm, 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND

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References and Abstracts

SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L; Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing. Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide, zinc borate, zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate. The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC, including heat stability, colour and impact strength, was also evaluated. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

carried out on PVC wall coverings, PVC foam and clear film containing, as an aluminosilicate, Zeocros E100, are reported. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 57, p.559-68, 21cm, 012 SELECTION, USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS - WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants, their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants, viscosity reduction by internal lubricants, fusion delay by external lubricants, shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity, release effect, flow and plate-out.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 59, p.579-89, 21cm, 012 LOW-SMOKE, THERMALLY STABLE, LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J; Leeuwendal R; Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations, which show that lead-free, heat stable, flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers, fillers and other additives. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated. 6 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 56, p.555-8, 21cm, 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing, DSC and X-ray scattering. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks, that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier. 7 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; HUNGARY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 58, p.569-78, 21cm, 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P; Howick C; Toft A European Vinyls Corp.; Ineos Silicas Ltd. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests

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Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 55, p.548-54, 21cm, 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T; Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

pyrimidindiones, which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. The chemistry, stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. The recycling, environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 51, p.504-14, 21cm, 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W; Marcus B PQ Corp. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers, called Advera 401, which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates, for use in PVC applications is reported. The performance of Advera 401P, a general-purpose, less expensive zeolite costabiliser, and Advera 401S, a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required, in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated. 16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 53, p.529-39, 21cm, 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G; Allieri G Lamberti SpA; Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers, which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC, is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability, staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 50, p.496-503, 21cm, 012 TIN STABILISERS. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds, as heat stabilisers, in PVC processing technology. Various aspects are addressed, including handling of tin stabilisers, worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers, regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products, such as toys, food packaging, food-contact applications and potable water pipes, product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. 23 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 52, p.515-28, 21cm, 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems, which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives

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Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 49, p.486-95, 21cm, 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

(Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables, foamed sheets and profiles, PVC pipes and fittings and profiles, which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but, like tin, is under pressure in some European countries. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 46, p.445-57, 21cm, 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P; Hinrichsen E L; Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer, which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder, for measuring the flow properties of a material, which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die, is reported. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 48, p.471-85, 21cm, 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R; Fisch M H; Stewen U; Shah M; Fakinlede J; Krainer E; Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient, solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium, zinc, calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. 33 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 45, p.437-44, 21cm, 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S; Kellett R W; MacDonald S; Schiller M Chemson Ltd. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large

Accession no.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 47, p.461-70, 21cm, 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH

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four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. 3 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 44, p.416-36, 21cm, 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffeis twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders, which are less prone to wear, is reported. The energy balance, output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 41, p.388-98, 21cm, 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I; Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 40, p.382-7, 21cm, 012 VINYLOOP, THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process, a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material, are outlined. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 43, p.410-5, 21cm, 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J; Aylett G J Vinidex Pty.Ltd. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window, which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers, are described. The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. 7 refs.
AUSTRALIA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 32, p.322-9, 21cm, 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A; Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials)

Accession no.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002.

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The use and benefits of liquid, partially hindered phenols, such as Irganox 1141, as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SWITZERLAND; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 31, p.317-21, 21cm, 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described. The antifouling action of Evicas 90, a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate, is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined. 10 refs. EVC ITALIA SPA
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 20, p.221-7, 21cm, 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T; Howick C Pall Corp.; European Vinyls Corp. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement, media acclimatisation, optimisation trial, concentration run, cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 30, p.311-6, 21cm, 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. 7 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 17, p.186-91, 21cm, 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M; Fischer W; Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. Properties evaluated included rheological properties, heat stability, colour, gloss,

Accession no.852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 27, p.273-81, 21cm, 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J; Malcomson S P

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mechanical properties, recyclability, plate-out and artificial weathering. 6 refs.


EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 16, p.179-85, 21cm, 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage, surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed. 2 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 13, p.151-6, 21cm, 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike, wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered.
AUSTRIA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 8, p.105-15, 21cm, 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS - WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling. Trends in high speed extrusion, inexpensive tooling, flexible tooling, dual extrusion, flow simulation, bypass rheometry, melt homogenisation, process documentation and customer education.
AUSTRIA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 14, p.157-65, 21cm, 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M; Varshney N; Van Soom K; Schiller M Loughborough,University; Honeywell; Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques, including DSC, SEM-EDX, FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives, such as alumina and silica, on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. 11 refs.
AUSTRIA; BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 7, p.95-104, 21cm, 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES - THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles, including window profiles, sidings, fences and foam profiles, is described. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. 6 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

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Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton, 23rd-25th April 2002. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002. Paper 4, p. 53-62, 21cm, 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA, the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001, current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead, key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers, scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe, alternatives to lead, plastics additives with approval for direct food contact, tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL

volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION
EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol.22, No.1, Jan./Feb. 2002, p.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E; Stoynov L A; Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland,University of Technology; Swinburne,University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE, PP, PVC and PS. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance, weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. 18 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No.327, April 2002, p.13 NONYL PHENOL UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD, RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods. They suggest that pesticides, packaging and cleaning products are possible sources. Nonylphenol is a persistent, toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food, but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging. JULICH,INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56, No.4, April 2002, p.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A; Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry. Data are presented for PVC, isotactic PP, and PVDF. 21 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GREECE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37, No.8, 15th April 2002, p.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A; Truss R W Queensland,University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe, a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. The

Accession no.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76, No.2000, 8th-14th April 2002, p.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market, according to a recent study by Applied Market Information. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. However, there has been a significant increase in the

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degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR. 26 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44, Nos.1-2, Jan./Feb.2002, p.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I; Lyutikova E A; Melnik A I; Pyzhyanova L G Urals,State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D, whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system. 20 refs. (Full translation of Vys.Soed.B, 44, No.2, 2002, p.363-8)
RUSSIA

Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS, 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter, respectively. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR. The influence of ZnS, antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition, heat release, smoke production, mass loss, CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. 29 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No.5, May 2001, p.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. XII. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I; Zotov Yu L; Klimov D S; Shishkin E V; Klimov S A; Shatalin Yu V; Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC. 10 refs. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. Accession no.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83, No.12, 2002, p.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T; Shiga T; Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses, not the strains, of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn. The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on

Accession no.850492 Item 166 London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2002, 60 papers, pp.vii,608, 21cm, 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON, 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers; BPF; PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction; Challenges and markets; PVC profiles; Flexibles; Polymerisation; Sustainability; Processing; Stabilisers; Additives
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51, No.3, March 2002, p.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B; Kunze R; Neubert D; Tidjani A Germany,Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing

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the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces. 13 refs.


JAPAN

Maziad N A; Sayed M S; Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo,National Center for Radiation Res.& Technol. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation, and the preparation, characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied, i.e. their thermal properties, using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs. 18 refs.
EGYPT

Accession no.846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81, No.539, May 2001, p.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D; Castany F J; Benitez A N; Gomez R Gran Canaria,Universidad de Las Palmas; Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico; Plastican SA; Zaragoza,University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software, developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos, was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Iselin, N.J., 11th-12th Sept.2001, p.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc. (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products, automobiles and furniture. Examples include vinyl siding, vinyl windows, fencing, decking, soffits, trim, furniture and automotive trim. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes, bulk truck or bulk rail car. At some volume in a producers process the make/buy decision is imminent. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision.
USA

Accession no.846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184, No.3, March 2002, p.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D, BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles, both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co. The second tells us that Freudenberg Groups sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist, Lederer GmbH. Brief details are given. FREUDENBERG GROUP; FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG; FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO.; LEDERER GMBH
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Iselin, N.J., 11th-12th Sept.2001, p.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp. (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in

Accession no.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51, No.2, Feb.2002, p.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT

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applications where there is human contact, such as with telephone and extension cords, appliance cable and others, are discussed. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials, such as those used for fixed cable installations. However, through the 1990s, regulations such as Californias Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials, as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers, are reviewed. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed, together with current developments in vinyl, non-lead wet-rated systems.
CANADA

applications, such as building and construction, as well as thermoformed packaging, film and a variety of commercial applications, are enjoying many of these advances. Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process, die suppliers, machinery suppliers, suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet.
USA

Accession no.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Iselin, N.J., 11th-12th Sept.2001, p.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G; Boutelle T; Gatrrett S; Joiner L; Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored, as well as the effect of mineral loading level. It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is, as expected, much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd, the greater the abrasive wear on the screen. Finally, it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral. 16 refs.
USA

Accession no.845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Iselin, N.J., 11th-12th Sept.2001, p.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc. (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. Temperature control, residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented, together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5, No.2, Autumn 2001, p.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T; Shang S; Booras J; Ling M T K; Blom H; Woo L; Jin H-S; Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. Surface delamination was investigated. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted. 8 refs.
USA

Accession no.845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. Iselin, N.J., 11th-12th Sept.2001, p.71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc. (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs, less downtime, reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined. PVC processors in all

Accession no.844617

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Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.4, Dec. 2001, p.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion, transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents, chemicals, scratching and abrasion. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated. 10 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

moduli. It was found that 20 to 30 wt.% of these resins improved not only thermal, oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short- and long-term mechanical properties. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints. Volume 41. Number 2. Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 20th-24th Aug.2000, p.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark,National Museum (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic, exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface, and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. A sweet odour may also be detected. Shrinkage, embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects, although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project. 9 refs.
DENMARK; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.4, Dec. 2001, p.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION, THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D; Parlow D; Yao Q; Wilkie C A Marquette,University; Brooklyn,Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The effects of various factors, including volume fraction of clay, plasticiser content, melt compounding time and annealing, on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. 18 refs.
USA

Accession no.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15, No.12, Dec. 2001, p.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L; Varner K E; Hilton B A US,Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry

Accession no.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. 176, Nov. 2001, p.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G; Rinaldi G La Sapienza,Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear, low molec.wt. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep

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method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin, used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. 23 refs.
USA

Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28, No.11, 2001, p.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K; Gaal H; Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating, type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder, and in addition, the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination, and help in the understanding of the process, it is claimed. 7 refs. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi, No.1, 2001, p.12).
EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31, No.12, Dec.2001, p.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING, RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable, and that it is already being recycled by some companies. This article looks at the methods being used, and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material, and inconsistent supply of recyclate. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF; EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS; EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES; EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN.; EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN.; EVC; SOLVAY; LINDE AG; TECNOMETAL; VULCAFLEX; KOBE STEEL; PROGNOS; PRINCIPIA PARTNERS; VINYL INSTITUTE; MIKRON INDUSTRIES; VEKA AG; SOLVIN; DECEUNINCK; MARLEY FLOORS LTD.
BELGIUM; EU; EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; GERMANY; ITALY; JAPAN; NORTH AMERICA; SWITZERLAND; USA; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6, No.1, 2001, p.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N; Slapak M J P Eindhoven,University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described, in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction, partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air, enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products, and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74, No.2, 2001, p.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A; Ali Z I; Zahran A H Egypt,National Centre for Radiation Res.& Technol. The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, diethylene glycol diacrylate, pentaerythritol tetraacrylate, triallyl cyanurate and 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps., softening temp., swelling characteristics and volume resistivity. 18 refs.
EGYPT

Accession no.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.3, 2001, p.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A; Torre L; Kenny J M Alicante,University; Perugia,University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols, plasticised by polymeric plasticiser, were examined using dynamic and

Accession no.838274

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References and Abstracts

isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials, and were shown to be similar. 25 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 191 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V; Vasudeo Y B; Paparao C; Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd.; Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer, was compared with the double batching preparation process. In this process, twice the required additives are added to the PVC, blended in the hot mixer, and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer. This reduces the overall energy requirements. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods, and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process, with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour. 4 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82, No.5, 31st Oct.2001, p.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight, plasticised PVC. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture, although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time. The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products. 28 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F; Matuana L M Michigan,Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration, and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid, on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. The density was not influenced by the CFA content, whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type, the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC, and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. 19 refs.
USA

Accession no.831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. 01. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001. London, IOM Communications Ltd., 2001, Paper 9, p.81-7, 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J; Samsonkova P; Simonik J Compuplast International Inc.; Zlin,Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials; Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described.
CZECH REPUBLIC; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 605

Accession no.830362

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INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester. The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0.5 phr was also investigated. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578, and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy, but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. 3 refs. Accession no.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R; Benecke H; Elhard J D; McGinniss V D; Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute; Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters, and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities, volatilities, and functionalities. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs. Films were produced and the tensile modulus, elongation and tensile strength were measured. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility. 5 refs.
USA

from ductile iron and concrete, now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications, potable water and sewage pipe. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels, demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year. However, improved impact resistance, provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVCs molecular structure, is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. For sewage lines, Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP. One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes.
WORLD

Accession no.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.3, Sept.2001, p.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products. A PVC-wood composite, for example, has a specific gravity of about 1.3 g/cc. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. Overall, even with densities as low as 0.6 g/cc, the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. 6 refs.
USA

Accession no.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.3, Sept.2001, p.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W; Sookkho D; Sutthitavil W; Chantasatrasamy N; Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood, which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite, as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. Compared with traditional products, the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance, lower moisture absorption and ease of installation. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed, screwed, sawed, cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required. The bending strength of PVC wood is lower, but it can still be used for

Accession no.830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31, No.9, Sept.2001, p.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE, AND VINYL PARRIES, FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years

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decorative applications, i.e. cornices, doors and siding. 5 refs.


THAILAND

Accession no.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81, No.8, 22nd August 2001, p.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A; Lopez J; Iannoni A; Kenny J M Alicante,University; Valencia,Polytechnical University; Perugia,University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers, new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP. Mechanical and optical properties were examined, together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser. 21 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate, but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products. According to the report, some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP, one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk. Details are given. US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28, No.8, Sept.2001, p.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference, Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness. In this technology, continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area, where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC. The system, FibrePlas, has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins.
WORLD

Accession no.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81, No.10, 6th Sept.2001, p.2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N; Borcia G; Popa G Jassy,Cuza A.I. University Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents. Surface energy increased, with surface functionalisation which, from observation of biological adsorption tests, does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium, allowing use in biomedical applications. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content, but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted. 12 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41, No.6, June 2001, p.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan,I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol, while the

Accession no.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13, No.28, 10th Sept.2001, p.1/23 FDA REPORT WONT END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S

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grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps. and the log. creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density. 23 refs.
TAIWAN

efficiency were investigated. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC, the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency. 6 refs.
AUSTRALIA

Accession no.826600 Item 205 Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2001, pp.142, 11cm, 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. Main headings include: Global market size, composition, value and future trends; Benefits of PVC for healthcare; Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds; Toxicology, biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds; PVC medical device application fields; Processing and fabrication; Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices; Environmental issues - real and perceived; Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology; Key barriers to PVC replacement. The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. 45 refs. and bibliography of useful document abstracts.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J; Kalendova A; Malac Z; Simonik J; Pospisil L Aliachem jc; Brno,Technical University; Brno,Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser, using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay, and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser, so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties. 4 refs.
CZECH REPUBLIC

Accession no.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R; Kosior E Swinburne,University of Technology; Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). The system consisted of a heated rotating drum, the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. As the drum rotated, the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate, which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick, whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing. The influences of drum temperature, plate temperature, residence time on the plate, plate angle, drum speed, and multi-stage separation on the separation

Accession no.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D; Lafleur P G; Thibodeau Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design, which included flowbalancing, sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate, residence time and temperature. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour. 7 refs.
CANADA

Accession no.825424

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Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.2, June 2001, p.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. II. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that, at least in some situations, the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised, stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy, the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films, to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred. The effects of different lubricants, stabilisers and processing conditions were studied. Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface. 1 ref.
USA

COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. 11. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I; Zotov Y L; Klimov S A; Shatalin Y V; Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd,State Technical University; Kaustik AOOT; Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound, its ease of manufacture, and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed. 7 refs. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.11, 2000, p.43)
RUSSIA

Accession no.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No.318, July 2001, p.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC, DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs life cycle assessment of PVC, which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered. UK,DEPT.OF THE ENVIRONMENT
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7, No.2, June 2001, p.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M; Mengeloglu F Michigan,Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process, which impeded the growth of nucleated cells, independent of modifier type. As a result of this accelerated gas loss, impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples. 26 refs.
USA

Accession no.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N; Jakubowicz I; Gevert T Sweden,National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed, the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times, without adding any additives, to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour, gelation, tensile properties and molecular level ageing, and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion

Accession no.825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28, No.7, 2001, p.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL

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pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion. Deterioration in colour, particularly yellow, were observed with repeated extrusion. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion. Despite the observed property changes, it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN UNION; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC, and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer, as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. 5 refs. Accession no.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72, No.3, 2001, p.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R; Jin Yang; Roy C; Vasile C Laval,Universite; Institut Pyrovac Inc.; Petru Poni,Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated; HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS and PVC. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers, mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC. Two experimental approaches were adopted; comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers, and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg. C. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. 73 refs.
CANADA; EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73, No.1, 2001, p.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. PART II. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R; Pakdel H; Roy C; Vasile C Quebec,Universite Laval; Pyrovac Institute Inc.; Petru Poni,Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE, LDPE, PP, PS and PVC materials individually, and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. The main gaseous and liquid products, including chlorinated hydrocarbons, were identified by chromatography, and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. However, the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. 54 refs.
CANADA; EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72, No.3, 2001, p.459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L; Jamois-Tasserie M; Dubois C; Villa F; Lallet P; Renaud C Franche-Comte,Universite; Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C. Two parameters were studied; the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the

Accession no.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001.Conference proceedings. Dallas, Texas, 6th-10th May, 2001, paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure, as determined by infrared spectroscopy. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0.15 mm diameter. It was concluded that the change in

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PVC. with frequent cracking. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules. As a result of these changes, the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. Detailed experimental procedures, sample photographs and results are given. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

and about one order of magnitude, a month after the membranes were prepared, and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC; at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly, attaining constant values after 10 days. 34 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80, No.530, Aug.2000, p.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed, and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20, No.5, 2001, p.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T; Nasir M; Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research; Malaysia,Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy. The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied. Changes in gel fraction, hardness, TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated. The results obtained showed that, under the irradiation conditions employed, the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. Within the dose range studied, the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. 35 refs. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS
MALAYSIA

Accession no.814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80, No.10, 31st May 2001, p.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L; Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne,University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane, followed by drying, resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. Lastly, samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC, followed by drying. Diffusion of liquid into the discs, and of plasticiser into the liquid, was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity. 25 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42, No.11, 2001, p.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P; Guzman J; Riande E; Mijangos C; Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days,

Accession no.814334

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Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79, No.11, 14th March 2001, p.2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H; Goto H; Higaki Y; Sunami M; Nakan0 K; Nakamura Y; Iida T Osaka,Institute of Technology; Nissin Oil Mills Ltd. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters, used as novel costabilisers with metal soap, a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates, as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated. 17 refs.
JAPAN

are estimated by the differential method of analysis. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables. The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated, and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer. 14 refs.
CROATIA

Accession no.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286, No.2, 28th Feb.2001, p.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama,University; Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC, having moderate acid numbers (11.5 to 20.5 mg KOH/g resin), were synthesised. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters, i.e. as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. 38 refs. CIBA-GEIGY CO.
EGYPT; USA

Accession no.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000. Conference proceedings. Philadelphia, Pa., 11th-12th Oct.2000, p.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H; Bacaloglu R; Dooley T; Diaconescu C Crompton Corp. (SPE,Vinyl Div.; SPE,Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers. 14 refs.
USA

Accession no.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41, No.3, March 2001, p.575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A; Narisawa I; Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp.; Yamagata,University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength, mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void

Accession no.811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21, No.6, 2000, p.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D; Mrklic Z; Kovacic T Split,University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg.C. The thickness of the foil is 0.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%. The kinetic parameters

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MOD, and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking. 9 refs.
JAPAN

Nafikova R F; Naugumanova E I; Abdrashitov Y M; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University; Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha, alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids, noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties, processability, and stabilising action. 2 refs. (Translated from Plasticheskie Massy, No.5, 2000, p.19)
RUSSIA

Accession no.810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A; Sabapathy P A; Di Simone J; Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen.
USA

Accession no.808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000. Conference proceedings. Basel, Switzerland, 25th-26th Oct.2000, paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then, allegedly, cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, commonly known as DEHP or DOP. DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described, reviewing available information from Hatco, Morflex and BP Amoco, on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers, including DEHP, TOTM, citrates and adipates. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20, No.1, Spring 2001, p.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content, introduction time of monomers, amount of reactor charge, distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC), diverse crosslinkers, viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA); and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage, plasticity, adhesion to steel and deformation are examined. Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA), methyl acrylate (MA), acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. Conference proceedings. New Orleans, La., 3rd-5th May 2000, p.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H; Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co.; National Starch & Chemical BV

Accession no.808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28, No.1, 2001, p.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE - MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES

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(Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications. Unfortunately, PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. 22 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F; Matuana L M; King J A Michigan,Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre, modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers, were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties. The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions, whilst the elongation at break was not affected. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier, increasing significantly with modifier concentration. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene. 27 refs.
USA

Accession no.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79, No.527, May 2000, p.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J; Llado J; Sanchez B; Javierre C; Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico; Zaragoza,University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality. 3 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC - PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E; Harshbarger D Geon Co. (SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C), extruder temperature settings, extrusion rate, and the die surface roughness. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. to the normal, and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow, so increasing the gloss. Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. Rough surfaces on the die

Accession no.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79, No.8, 22nd Feb.2001, p.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L; Poncin-Epaillard F; Reyx D; Brosse J-C Maine,Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil. The surface energy, weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl

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and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss. Refs.
USA

Accession no.805663 Item 234 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S; Sifuentes P; Ramos de Valle L F; Matutes-Aquino J; Ayala-Valenzuela O; Rios-Jara D Coahuila,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada; Mexico,Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride), containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder, was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C, and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content, attributed to increasing particle interaction. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content, attributed to strong particle interactions. 14 refs.
MEXICO

Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives. RETEC 2000. Conference proceedings. Washington, D.C., 17th-19th Sept.2000, paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations, which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers, and which also provide good colour retention. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl, provide good process safety, but poor retention of original colour. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate, tribasic lead sulphate, dibasic lead phosphite, basic lead carbonate, and related compounds with a particle size in the 0.1-0.7 micron range. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently. 18 refs.
USA

Accession no.804341 Item 237 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C; Enlow W; Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers, and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour, thermal properties and molecular weight. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R; Yanez-Flores I G; Rodriguez-Fernandez O S; Gilbert M Coahuila,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada; Loughborough,University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated, and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams, which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content, residual unsaturation, crosslink density, and thermal stability. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network, attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent, and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam, and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; MEXICO; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E.I.,& Co.Inc. (SPE)

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Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation, flammability, tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates, but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower. They also gave similar or increased strength, similar elongation and flexural modulus, and lower brittle point temperatures. 4 refs.
USA

carbonyl, methylene and methyl groups were obtained. With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering, the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC, because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. 10 refs.
USA

Accession no.803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. Fall Meeting 2000. Volume 83. Washington, D.C., 20th-24th Aug.2000, p.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L; Starnes W H; Graham P M; Maeyer J T; Gomaa W A; Doyal A S; Levy E R Williamsburg,College of William & Mary (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments. Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid. In contrast, the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups, which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC. Since copper(I) is readily reduced, complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies. As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC, a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen- and sulphur-based ligands are reported, as well as their thermal chemistry. 1 ref.
USA

Accession no.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE, LOW BLUSH, LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L; Laurin D; Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate), secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene), to improve melt processing and heat stability. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time, increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated, and enhanced the product characteristics, including colour, clarity, blush, aqueous extractables and particle generation. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. Volume 75. Conference Proceedings. Orlando, FL., Fall 1996, p.69-70. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED, PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M; Delgado A H Canada,National Research Council (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced, plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years, 10 years, and 14 years were obtained, with corresponding controls. Measurements of the bands for

Accession no.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2, No.10, Oct. 2000, p.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G; McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications. Biocides tested

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and compared were OBPA (10,10-oxybisphenoxarsine), OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one), and DCOIT (4,5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test. 6 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

adhesive, enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions. A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A; Petrie S Millipore Corp.; Massachusetts,University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. The compositions, which also containing plasticiser, calcium carbonate, lead stabiliser and antimony oxide, were compounded by twin screw extrusion. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation, whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties. However, when the sample surface was removed, the smoke suppression rankings changed, and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.799815 Item 243 Shawbury, Rapra Technology Ltd., 2000, pp.108. 29 cms. 11/1/01. Rapra Review Report, vol.11, No.4, 2000. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter,University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Rapra.Review Report No.124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques, and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed, followed by manual and automated sorting systems. Separation techniques described include those involving density, triboelectrification, froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles, automotive waste, thermoset composites, electrical cables, aluminium/plastic laminates, and carpet sorting technology. 427 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints, Volume 40, Number 2, August 1999, Conference proceedings. New Orleans, La., August 1999, p.1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P; Girard-Reydet E Lyon,Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS,Div.of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends, the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension, poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer, poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers, or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component. Theoretical

Accession no.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90, No.12, Dec. 2000, p.16-8. (Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000), 12, p.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J; Kleinert H; Hoffmann H Dresden,Technische universitat; Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures, was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants, which, when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt

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models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure. The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor, the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic, polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction. 28 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system, slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction. 7 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L; Koelling K W; Summers J W Ohio,State University; Geon Co. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel, and a centre gated plate to study radial flow, employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds, melt temperatures, and shot sizes. A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted, but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould, attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual, whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol. 10 refs.
USA

Accession no.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27, No.11, Nov.2000, p.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates, which are used extensively in PVC products, is nearing an end. In September, an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens mouths, on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused.
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45, No.2, Sept.2000, p.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H; Minamoto Y Osaka,Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times, indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded

Accession no.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections, and a graphical solution for the differential equations for

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unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.
USA

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.
CZECH REPUBLIC

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY
EUROPE-GENERAL; LATIN AMERICA; USA

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.
CANADA

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

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properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

HEALTH NETWORK; EASTMAN CHEMICAL; EXXON BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES; MASSACHUSETTS,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY; HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM; ADVAMED; US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION; VINYL INSTITUTE
USA

Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.
USA

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panels findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.
USA

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.
RUSSIA

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL
USA

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S

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Yong Ning; Shaoyun Guo Sichuan,University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate, aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion. The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate, aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion. 19 refs.
CHINA

company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates. MORFLEX; ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK
JAPAN; USA

Accession no.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.12, 19th Sept. 2000, p.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C; Gilbert M Alicante,University; Loughborough,University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1,1-di-t-butylperoxy3,3,5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C, softening temperature, Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained, premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations. 22 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30, No.1, July 2000, p.50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A; Alsharif M A Isfahan,University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69, 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste. 14 refs.
IRAN

Accession no.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40, No.8, Aug.2000, p.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B; Wu L C Tamkang,University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA, PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology. 19 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30, No.7, July 2000, p.31-2 CITRATE, POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed. According to citrate manufacturer Morflex, the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution. In Japan, a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers, such as PX-811, developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market. The

Accession no.782996 Item 270 Polymers, Laminations & Coatings Conference.Volume 1.Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 22nd-26th Aug.1999, p.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and the compositions of heat stabilisers

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used for various PVC applications. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation, neutralise the HCl which is formed, scavenging free radicals, and decompose peroxides. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased, for rigid applications; lead-based, for wire and cable applications; and mixed metal, with variable composition according to the PVC end use.
USA

(APG) DISCHARGE Prat R; Koh Y J; Babukutty Y; Kogoma M; Okazaki S; Kodama M Japan,National Inst.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research; Sophia,University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. 17 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No.306, July 2000, p.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers, the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.781444 Item 274 ACS, Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. Volume 81. Conference proceedings. New Orleans, La., 22nd-26th Aug.1999, p.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S; Sluszny A; Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS,Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics, chemical resistance and resistance to swelling. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation. 6 refs.
ISRAEL

Accession no.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No.306, July 2000, p.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys, particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks, especially PVC articles used in healthcare. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73, No.1919, 24th-30th July 2000, p.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commissions horizontal study on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies. However, the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies. ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and

Accession no.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41, No.20, 2000, p.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW

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control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes, fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use. 134 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.2, June 2000, p.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U; Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure, and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers, gloss degradation rate doubles, and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens. No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found. 38 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol.152, March 2000, p.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo,University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations, reprocessing conditions, molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.2, June 2000, p.69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J; Siampiringue N; Chaigneau R; Delprat R; Parmeland G; Dabin P; Spriet C CNEP; Elf Atochem SA; Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg.C). The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter, modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. From the basic understanding gained, a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39, No.3, 2000, p.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E; Gumargalieva K Z; Pokholok T V; Moiseev Y V; Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. Using thermogravimetric, chromatographic, UV and IR spectroscopic techniques, gel permeation chromatography, mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e.g. tensile strength and strain), it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these

Accession no.778022

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Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36, No.2, March/April 2000, p.148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J; Perugini C; Deweerdt M; Chen L; Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion; Trexel Inc. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated. (SPE Foams 99 Conference, 19-20 Oct., Parsippany, New Jersey). 6 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; USA; WESTERN EUROPE

EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78, No.522, Dec.1999, p.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M; Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate. Improvements were observed in tensile, electrical and low temperature properties, flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds, while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. URALITA
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36, No.2, March/April 2000, p.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR - BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q; Wei Ping G; Wu J; Wang J; Zhen H Y; Wu Q Qingdao,Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams. The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. 6 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41, No.15, 2000, p.5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J; Reinecke H; Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated. While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur, the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction, leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification, on the other hand, took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time, of temp. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction. The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film, while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface. 16 refs.

Accession no.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No.303, April 2000, p.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. The studies cover mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling, behaviour in landfill, and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. EUROPEAN COMMISSION

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EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68, No.2, 2000, p.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A; Arias G; Rodriguez O S; Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada; Manchester,Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4,6dithio-1,3,5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content. The crosslinking reaction, as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry, shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4,6-dithio1,3,5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC. In combination with metal stearates, the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues, i.e. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; MEXICO; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes. In dry irradiation, the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%. Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory. 27 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology. Conference proceedings. Katowice, Poland, 16th-18th Nov.1999, paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A; Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland,Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods, such as pipes or profiles. However due, to its high glass transition temperature, it has shortcomings in impact strength. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low temperature. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use - there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes, and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability - in particular the maintenance of colour, gloss, and impact strength over extended periods. Last but not least, the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude - products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification. The different products used are discussed and positioned, and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE), a product growing strongly in the profile industry, are expanded upon. 5 refs.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68, No.2, 2000, p.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder, an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC, compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler. By UVvis spectroscopy, the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering, by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated. So for each TiO2 pigment

Accession no.775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9, No.4, Oct./Dec.1999, p.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M; Wiebeck H; Neto M B Sao Paulo,Escola Politecnico; Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly

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different from traditional recycling and, as a result, alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product. 15 refs.
BRAZIL

Accession no.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90, No.3, March 2000, p.31-4 English; German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B; Klein B; Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA; Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value, such as ageing resistance, passive safety, weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology. 3 refs. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol.90 No.3, 2000, p.114-7.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Concerns over worker safety, processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. Western Europe has led these initiatives; however, there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAYS HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W; Falter J A Henkel Corp. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives, the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. Todays processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out, provide a more efficient lubricating effect, and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems. 1 ref.
USA

Accession no.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R; Silbermann J; Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp.; Kaneka Corp. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement, long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC, and the result is compared to observed process behaviours. 5 refs.
JAPAN; USA

Accession no.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M; Shabnavard L; Touchette-Barrette C; Sheehan S E; Cooney J D Canada,National Research Council (SPE,Vinyl Div.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated. While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis, other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced. However, the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture. In

Accession no.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE,Vinyl Div.)

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the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers, such as calcium carbonate, the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ, leading to the production of inorganic chlorides, alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation. 9 refs.
CANADA

Accession no.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A; Bradshaw R W; Mobley G; Prince J ECC International Inc. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) Historically, the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate. However, the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque.
USA

and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to, for example, barium stearate. That is, process stability is long, but colour hold poor. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand, e.g. cove base extrusion. They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co.Inc. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling. Vinyl, in particular, has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates. Processors difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is unrecyclable without further investigating the obstacles. In 1998, the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled, probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates, and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling. That research report, PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America, was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners. The results of the first phase of research, conducted from February to April 1998, were presented at Vinyltec 98. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling. The second phase of research, conducted in September and November 1998, expanded the studys focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies - bottles and other post-consumer packaging.
USA

Accession no.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec 99. Conference proceedings. Ontario, 12th-14th Oct.1999, p.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group,Halstab Div. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers. In test tube reactions, these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2, that is, essentially instantaneously. In polymeric matrices, however, the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites, tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic, highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur. That is, that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time, at least to a far greater extent than common, acid-reactive fillers. When used as a primary stabiliser, additives such as hydrotalcite

Accession no.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No.302, March 2000, p.44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE

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Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined. The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste, and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

function. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation. 49 refs.
NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40, No.1, Jan. 2000, p.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z; Zhang Q H Ohio,State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature, forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. Data are presented for high impact PS, LDPE, and PVC. 17 refs.
USA

Accession no.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30, No.2, Feb.2000, p.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile. SOLVAY SA
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3, No.2, Winter 1999, p.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S; Ling M T K; Westphal S P; Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. Techniques used include thermal analysis, physical testing, optical property evaluations and failure analysis. For a variety of PVC formulations, gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation. In addition to unacceptable colour formation, excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed. For most polyolefins, radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. For PPs, the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39, No.1, Jan.2000, p.80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T; Hinrichsen E L; Irgens F; Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology; SINTEF Materials Technology; Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping

Accession no.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67, No.2, Feb.2000, p.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS

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AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T; Furukawa K; Okuwaki A Tohoku,University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss, weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated. Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid, a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials, such as carboxylic acids, by chemical recycling is considered. 32 refs.
JAPAN

Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71, No.19, 1st Oct.1999, p.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q; Borbely S; Horvai G Budapest,Technical University; Budapest,Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. In the dry membrane, inhomogeneities are found. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model. The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm, smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC, probably in the crystalline state. Type of plasticiser, plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i.e. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes. 29 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; HUNGARY

Accession no.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19, No.1, 2000, p.27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J; Gilbert M; Marfell M Loughborough,University; Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes - uniaxial (constant width), simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes, similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No.411, Sept.1999, p.128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A; Laurent P; Jung C G; Gehrmann J; Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles; Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate, calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine. 2 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1, No.5, Oct.1999, p.5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers, and hopes that their use will spread to other member states. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE; HASBRO; MATTEL
EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.758765 Item 307 Addcon World 99. Conference proceedings. Prague, 27th-19th Oct.1999, paper 20, pp.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H; Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd.)

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Chemical structures, thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3,3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035), 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3,3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3,3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2,2-bis-(2-cyano-33diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF. Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers. Results (yellowness index, DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets, polycarbonate films, ABS, plasticised PVC, rigid PVC, pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion, electrofusion socket welding, spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes. 4 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No.299, Dec.1999, p.47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management. Details are given of the discussions involved. EUROPEAN COMMISSION
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.758478 Item 308 Addcon World 99. Conference proceedings. Prague, 27th-19th Oct.1999, paper 19, pp.6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J; Harvey H B; Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems, including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane, dibenzoylmethane, dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2,4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals). Results (colour generation, whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C). The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D, including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone, is given particular attention. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds, e.g. 6-amino-1,3-dimethyluracil, 6-amino1,3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1,3-dibutyluracil, as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism. 16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4, No.1, 1999, p.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J; Lees G C; Hurst S J Manchester,Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency, using Response Surface Methods. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites. Conference Proceedings. London, 16th-17th March 1999, p.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed. The main jointing methods for PE, PP, rigid PVC, ABS and GRP are listed.

Accession no.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5, No.3, Sept.1999, p.137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC

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A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a standard siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. 6 refs.
USA

attained within the part during injection is determined. 6 refs.


USA

Accession no.755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39, No.9, Sept.1999, p.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness, spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated, and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. 20 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5, No.3, Sept.1999, p.132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. I. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test). It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well. Through a special design of experiment, the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated. The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design. To detect the changes in lubricity, the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions. It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine 10, No.9, Sept.1999, p.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q; Zhao X B; Courtney J M; Blass C R; West R H; Lowe G D O Strathclyde,University; Hydro Polymers Ltd.; CSMA Ltd.; Glasgow,Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial, antithrombotic agent, blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity, thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC, there is a higher reactivity

Accession no.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5, No.3, Sept.1999, p.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R; Elleithy R H; McFarland C A; Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc.; Geon Co. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. A mathematical model, employing approximate time-temperature modulus relationships, provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures

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for TEHTM-PVC, which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11, No.33, 4th Oct.1999, p.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence. HCWH contends that Koops panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koops report. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM
USA

ideal solution, giving all the advantages of both secondary systems. It is demonstrated, using experimental design software, that such a water-based, modified secondary, of 45-50% hydrolysis, is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC, with an acceptable grain size, in conjunction with a 72.5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747919 Item 319 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M; Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough,University; Alicante,University (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties, particularly at elevated temperatures. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC, with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. Two methods, which have been studied in some detail, are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent, peroxides. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. The requirements of these, which are to some extent conflicting, are adequate gel content (i.e. % crosslinked polymer), adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC, where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts, although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced, despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC, an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material. In this work, the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied. 14 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.749320 Item 318 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co.Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity, facilitating improved VCM removal and faster, more uniform, plasticiser uptake. To achieve this, PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents, traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis, low molecular weight PVOHs. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water, and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions, typically in methanol. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. These concerns led to the development, during the 1980s, of water-based secondary suspending agents, with a low methanol content, typically at 55% hydrolysis. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable, aqueous product could be supplied, whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity. Even so, in certain S-PVC formulations, aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems, typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis, water soluble, fully dilutable grade, named Alcotex WD30, has provided the

Accession no.747918 Item 320 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG

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(IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb- and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 322 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS - NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M; Zuschnig G; Egger A; Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) During the last decade, lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness. As a consequence, advanced products, new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid, free flowing and dustfree product forms, especially in tablet form; excellent dispersion in the resin; no health risk for the manufacturer; no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility; delivery and storage in big bags or silos. A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability, rheology, colour, water immersion, dispersibility, mechanical and electrical properties. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market.
AUSTRIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747913 Item 321 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N; Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) The effects of using dry pigments, wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC, particularly for window profile, pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches, but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level. Wa- based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant, thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. Consequently, patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions. 3 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747910 Item 323 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H; Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a zipper dehydrochlorination process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers). Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. However, HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation). Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process; it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution

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only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation. 41 refs.
USA

Accession no.747908 Item 324 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D; Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account - low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. 9 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

philosophy called Avoid Cross-channel Flow. This has several advantages, including less sensitivity to output rates, temperatures and material properties. The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated, enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. 2 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747901 Item 327 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B; Thorjussen T; Jacobsen H; Pedersen S; Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends. By optimising the blending ratio, it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin. However, this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing. Fire, migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations. 5 refs.
NORWAY; SCANDINAVIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747906 Item 325 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co.KG (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) In PVC compounding, double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer, with simultaneous energy saving. The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing, still providing a high-quality extruded profile. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747903 Item 326 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented, including a proposed design

Accession no.747897 Item 328 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO

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INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L; Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp.(UK) Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength, colour, gloss and degree of gelation. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range, it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line. 13 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

concluded that the relevant British Standard, BS 7722, should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747892 Item 330 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J; van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Approximately 40,000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone. These cables originate from (economic) end of life, production waste, surplus during installation and repair. Currently the cables are shredded, the metals liberated, separated and finally reused. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers, which are put to landfill, including the high quality PVC fraction. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities. The hydrocyclonage, melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged. Charging is essential for good separation. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature, humidity and pretreatment used. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747894 Item 329 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES, AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J; Gardiner D UK,Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. PVC-U is notch-sensitive, and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material, including the effect of weathering and scratching. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles, some of which have matching faces without foil coatings. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new, but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. In these tests, no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens, or those with transfer foils. This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. It is

Accession no.747887 Item 331 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) Developments in the current legislation, and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice, are outlined. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful

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in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997.
EUROPE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747886 Item 332 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89, No.7, July 1999, p.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R; Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals; Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10,10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA), 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate. 4,5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not, however, show any measurable fungistatic activity. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching, while the other products showed a clear loss of activity. 12 refs. (German version of this paper, which includes tables, is on p.68/74)
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89, No.7, July 1999, p.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D; Richter E; Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut; Clariant GmbH; Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec.wt. processing aids in one product and which, unlike normal costabilisers, do not contribute to fogging. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2,3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability. 10 refs. (German version of this paper, which includes graphs and tables, is on p.62/6)
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747879 Item 333 PVC 99. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 20th-22nd April 1999, p.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION. MACHINERY, TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE, SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd.; BPF) In the early 1980s, a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes. Meanwhile, a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes, sewer pipes and cable ducts. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development. Today, over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency, other European countries are following.
AUSTRIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No.10, Aug.1999, p.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires, both industrial waste and post-use. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals, but uses the differential gravitational, electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products, including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines.

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FITT SPA
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65, No.1, July 1999, p.65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I; Garcia J C; Marcilla A; Hidalgo M; Mijangos C Alicante,Universidad; Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied. Two effective crosslinking agents were used, the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi). Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC, as well as three clear decomposition processes, probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions. In the case of the films prepared with ASi, a single decomposition stage was observed at temps. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied, showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5, No.2, June 1999, p.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L; Harvey R European Vinyls Corp.(UK) Ltd. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents, processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. 24 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol.28, Oct.1998, p.145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. II. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S; Hou Z; Broughton R M Auburn,University The analysis of the swelling process, i.e. phase separation of swelling bath, solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath, and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics, is described. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent, the amount and removability of the glue, the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes, and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple). The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques, such as DSC, WAXD, birefringence, acoustics emission, and tensile testing. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. As an example, the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product. In another application, the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine, then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example. (Part I, ibid, Vol. 28, July 1998). 14 refs.
USA

Accession no.744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5, No.2, June 1999, p.71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax, oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant), impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. By modelling the rheological properties, it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow, extruder conditions and final part properties. 5 refs.
USA

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Item 341 ENDS Report No.292, May 1999, p.13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes, which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration. EUROPEAN COMMISSION; UK,ENVIRONMENT AGENCY
EU; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Land Rover vehicles, from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender. Unlike other models in Land Rovers range, the Freelanders anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander, the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and, at the same time, the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment, to ensure that the required precuring will take place. This precuring is essential, as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer. Details are given. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT; LAND ROVER
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35, No.4, 1998, p.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. II. HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L.E.; Terescu-Boran S; Istratuca G The synthesis, physicochemical properties, and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure, such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. All showed good thermal resistance, versatile viscosity, and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology. 21 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.734767 Item 344 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.2885-9. 012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC. They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades. The effects measured included: % IR reflection, heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics - one year in South Florida. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. 3 refs.
USA

Accession no.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28, No.3, 1999, p.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon, medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight, Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant, within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. The infrared system is installed in Land Rovers state-of-the-art Paintshop 21, which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all

Accession no.734261 Item 345 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3621-4. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P; Pettijohn E Witco Corp. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators, they require very low temperature storage, shipment and handling. At temperatures above 10 deg.C,

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most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition. In other words, their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators. These additives effectively stabilise the product, making them safer to handle, store and ship. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation. 10 refs.
USA

III. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R; Dooley T; Hegranes B; Jakubowski J; Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. 19 refs.
USA

Accession no.733970 Item 346 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3592-6. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y; Nakanishi Y; Takaki A; Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells, but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity, which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion. From this aspect, a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed. 6 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.733960 Item 349 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3526-36. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G; Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co.Inc.; Exxon Chemical Co. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC, and the gelation of plastisols. Using commercial grade plasticisers, predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity; relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength; and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.733965 Item 347 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3569-73. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. IV. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H; Bacaloglu R; Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. 11 refs.
USA

Accession no.733758 Item 350 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3512-25. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co.Inc. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials. Hansens three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these

Accession no.733961 Item 348 Antec 99. Volume III. Conference proceedings. New York City, 2nd-6th May 1999, p.3564-8. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.

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interactive forces. Using CO-ACT service, a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins, plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency sphere of PVC. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order, while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. 8 refs.
USA

Item 353 Injection Molding 7, No.4, April 1999, p.58/64 DESIGN - MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements. Full details of the problem and the solution are presented.
USA

Accession no.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72, No.1, 4th April 1999, p.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A; Fugit J L; Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC, having been subjected to a treatment, and liquid food or food simulants. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated. A mathematical model, able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters, is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. 16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39, No.3, March 1999, p.399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S; Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers, their size and ageing period were performed. Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned. 19 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics. New York, N.Y., Plastics Design Library, 1999, p.5967. 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892), field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials. 2 refs.
USA

Accession no.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol.28, July 1998, p.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. I. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S; Hou Z; Broughton R M Auburn,University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating, together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue, were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping, grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics. Compared with other recycling techniques, the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. Phase separation

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was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index, degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. 20 refs.
USA

A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G; Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty.Ltd.; Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974, and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction, allows higher design stress ratings and material savings, and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes, an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions. Previously this has been performed as a secondary off-line process in an external mould. The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers, a process has been developed to execute the orientation process in-line with the extrusion. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds, requires little energy input and much lower capital cost. The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. 15 refs.
AUSTRALIA; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44, No.2, Feb. 1999, p.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. Features of the machinery are described, and particular details are given of the profile dies, calibration block, calibration table, haul off and profile saw. KOLSITE BATTENFELD
INDIA

Accession no.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. Retec proceedings. Boucherville, Qc., 23rd-25th Sept.1998, p.565-72. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M; Hitt D J; Tabtiang A Loughborough,University (SPE; NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC. For flexible PVC, the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion. Annealing is essential. 7 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives. An A-Z reference. London, Kluwer, 1998, p.526-34. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years, but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry, sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam, particularly in many wood replacement applications. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet, where the major application is signage; profile, which is mainly used for trim and moulding; and foam core pipe for drain, waste and vent applications. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years. The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume, high rigidity, improved thermal insulation, high water resistance, and most importantly, the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. Rigid vinyl foam is, in many ways, just like wood. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam, particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries, where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes. Aspects covered

Accession no.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X. Conference proceedings. Goteborg, Sweden, 14th-17th Sept.1998, p.165-74. 6H21

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include vinyl foam processes and formulations, function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. 7 refs.
USA

Accession no.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives. An A-Z reference. London, Kluwer, 1998, p.450-8. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B; Falter J A; Geick K S Lonza Inc. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point. Therefore, during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point. Those retarding thermal decomposition, are heat stabilisers, while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers. An introduction to rigid PVC, the function and classification of lubricants, chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented. 4 refs.
USA

thermoplastic magnets. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride), and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite. The effect of the composition on the impact strength, hardness, Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied, with the aid of specially developed computer programs. 30 refs. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology.
CROATIA

Accession no.714178 Item 363 ARC 98. Retec proceedings. Chicago, Il., 11th-13th Nov.1998, p.165-74. 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc. (SPE,Plastics Recycling Div.) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market. Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly. These products are constructed with a dense, low pile nylon 6,6 face and a vinyl composite backing system. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste. Its vision in the early 1990s was to close the loop by recycling carpet into carpet. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. Prior to the development of ER3, most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components - a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale, closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling. They are recycled into new, recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated. Details are given
USA

Accession no.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32, No.1, 12th Jan.1999, p.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W; Litvinov V M; Souren F; Scherrenberg R L; Gondard C; Colemonts C DSM; Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples. The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained. 38 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18, Nos.1-2, 1997, p.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri; Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of

Accession no.713534 Item 364 Vinyltec 98. Retec proceedings. East Brunswick, N.J., 13th-14th Oct.1998, p.96-100. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G

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Rohm & Haas Co. (SPE,Vinyl Div.) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding, including wood, composites, etc. Features such as low maintenance, weatherability, relative ease of installation, and impact resistance, have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1.7 billion lb. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear natural and not plastic. The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding. Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways, including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach. Mechanically, embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering. Among additives used in the formulation, mineral fillers, immiscible polymeric additives, certain types of lubricants, and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance, as in reduced impact strength, tooling wear and plateout. However, there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish. 5 refs.
USA

crosslinking, or instead, entirely as an HX scavenger, as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions. In hydrocarbon polymers, such as EPM or EPDM, lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride, derived from residual catalyst, in cases where high water resistance is required, such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure, or contamination of the environment. Due to their low solubility, extraction or migration of lead-based additives, once mixed into a polymer, is very low, particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. Nevertheless, concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6, No.6, 1998, p.407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y; Okabe S; Yoshimoto N; Iida T Osaka,Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction, size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll, and tensile tests were carried out. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content, but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. To clarify the effect of particle shape, agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl, which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates, consisting of a few beads on average, were dispersed in the matrix. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin. The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers. 12 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec 98. Retec proceedings. East Brunswick, N.J., 13th-14th Oct.1998, p.83-8. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE,Vinyl Div.) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years. In some halogenated polymers, such as chlorinated PE (CPE), chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM), polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO), dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation. In some of these cases, the metal may participate in crosslink formation. With lead-based stabilisers, the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal, with more soluble halide salts, were used instead. In other cases, lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide

Accession no.711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43, No.11, Nov.1998, p.75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K; Fatma K; Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research

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For many years, di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC, but there are concerns regarding its toxicity. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser, tributyl citrate, is examined. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared, including extraction, volatility, thermal stability, low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. 12 refs.
INDIA

Semenov N.N.,Institute of Chemical Physics; Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth, whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent, presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation. 8 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71, No.1, 3rd Jan.1999, p.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R; Heung Kim; Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. 10 refs.
USA

Accession no.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63, No.1, 1999, p.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M; La Mantia F P Pisa,University; Palermo,University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC. In this study, PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and, if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm, not only no macroscopic change of the molec.wt. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content. Furthermore, measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples. 12 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No.1766, 11th Dec.1998, p.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt, Italys largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products, recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. Tarkett Sommer, one of the worlds largest PVC flooring manufacturers, processes almost 100,000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8.4 tonnes of waste material a month. FITT SPA; TARKETT AB
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec 97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry. Retec proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 14th-15th Oct.1997, p.107-26. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S; Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE,Vinyl Div.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry

Accession no.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63, No.1, 1999, p.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z; Zaikov G E; Semenov S A; Zhdanova O A

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of decomposition and gas formation. From this mechanism, a blowing agent activation approach was developed, based on organometallic chemistry. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62, No.3, 1998, p.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING, PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J; Krzymien M; Pleizier G; Worsfold D J; Day M Canada,National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time. Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation. Similar species were also directly released during irradiation. In both cases, these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography, with mass spectrometry detection. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile). In contrast, samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples. 18 refs.
CANADA

Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology. 2nd edition. Munich, Hanser Publications, 1997, p.435-54. 82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product, the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity, good acoustic damping properties, ease of fabrication by mechanical means, high flame resistance, good chemical resistance, excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. Aspects covered include structure of formulations, theory, extrusion foaming methods, plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. 26 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.704011 Item 376 Brecksville, Oh., c. 1998, pp.8. 11 ins. 1/12/98. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B.F.,Co.,Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions, and includes details of melt preparation, mould design, processing, pressures, startup, process upsets, and troubleshooting.
USA

Accession no.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov.1998, p.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders. It has an output of 4,000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4,500kg/hr for plasticised. This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder, the smallest model in the EMS series, is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr. BATTENFELD AG
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15, No.7, 1st Oct.1998, p.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I; Scharf L; Fiala F; Washuettl J Vienna,University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of childrens sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of

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DEHP. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test, the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1.4 for the shaking test. 19 refs.
AUSTRIA; WESTERN EUROPE

in reduced ductility. A nomogram is given to predict the strength, based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio. 19 refs.
USA

Accession no.697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19, No.4, Aug.1998, p.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J; Campos Torres A; Marquez Lucero A Yucatan,Centro de Investigacion Cientifica; Mexico,Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated. In order to evaluate the technique, a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry. Finally, the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost. 28 refs.
MEXICO

Accession no.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25, No.10, Nov.1998, p.33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months, but too rarely to be statistically measurable. However, Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.700556 Item 379 Polymer 39, No.26, 1998, p.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S; Kusy R P North Carolina,University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio, defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups. Strength, stiffness, and toughness increased at low PHR ratios, and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser. Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4.0. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS), diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate, dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes, but the use of DMS, DES and DOA resulted

Accession no.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70, No.2, 10th Oct.1998, p.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y; Fukuoka Y; Iida T Osaka,Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles, prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone, during a tensile test was investigated. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content, but there was no significant influence of particle size. SEM observations of the specimens surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the

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particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress, i.e. the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. 19 refs.
JAPAN

Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61, No.2, 1998, p.211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC. IV. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C; Mur G; Gay M; Audouin L; Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc; ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions. In the presence of titanium dioxide, the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two, whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra, it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm, close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. 15 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70, No.1, 3rd Oct.1998, p.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T; Furukawa K; Sato T; Okuwaki A Tohoku,University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions, at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first, followed by oxidation. The main products were oxalic acid, a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h. 19 refs.
JAPAN

Accession no.695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. Conference proceedings. Katowice, Poland, 9th-11th December 1997, Paper 4. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe. Colouring methods have changed slowly, with the change from full siding to coextrusion. Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath. The colour hold guidelines, the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade, were explained. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry, they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations - in close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point; it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl

Accession no.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39, No.20, 1998, p.4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I; Boudeulle M; Cassagnau P; Michel A CNRS; Lyon,Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature), the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. The presence of fillers enhanced Youngs modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. The extrudates were stretched above and below the gel-liquid transition temperature of PVC (about 205C). Above this temperature, the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented. 24 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.696562

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weatherable profiles. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America; a few new trends are highlighted, including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours.
USA

Accession no.694482 Item 386 Antec 98. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.3310-2. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R; Cusack P A Brunel University; International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers, on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene. It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS, confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler, without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance. 10 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. I. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H; Bacaloglu R; Biesiada K; Brecker L R Witco Corp. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed. 19 refs.
USA

Accession no.692780 Item 389 Antec 98. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.3272-7. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A; Renshaw J T; Schaefer R E Solutia Inc. (SPE) Stain resistance, or more accurately appearance retention, is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser, the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure, concentration, extraction resistance, volatility and solubility parameter. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.693676 Item 387 Antec 98. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.3296-300. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. II. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H; Bacaloglu R; Biesiada K; Brecker L R Witco Corp. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds, their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. 10 refs.
USA

Accession no.692777 Item 390 Antec 98. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.3234-9. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R; Herbiet R; Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. Today, functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations, creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. The latest research developments are illustrated using

Accession no.692781 Item 388 Antec 98. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.3291-5. 012

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smoke density results. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH. 5 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10, No.18, 29th July 1998, p.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1,000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing, and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible. The Consumers Union, the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue. Details are given. US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION
USA

Item 393 Polymer 39, No.14, 1998, p.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S; Kusy R P North Carolina,University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. Using parallel plate sensors, the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser, the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser, the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio, temperature and frequency. 15 refs.
USA

Accession no.686631 Item 394 Polymer 39, No.15, 1998, p.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C; Marcilla A Alicante,Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature. Gelation occurred in several steps, depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser, decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli. These obervations were discussed. 13 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34, Nos.5/6, May/June 1998, p.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D; Djilani S E Annaba,Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method, in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique, was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model, adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. 17 refs.
ALGERIA

Accession no.687797

Accession no.686435

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Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15, No.2, 1998, p.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L; Gustavson H; Svensson K; Karlsson S; Oskarsson A Sweden,National Food Administration; Sweden,Royal Institute of Technology; Uppsala,University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food, including purees of beef, pork, fish, poultry, berries and vegetables. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1.5 mg/ kg. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin. 7 refs.
SCANDINAVIA; SWEDEN; WESTERN EUROPE

Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids, Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders.
USA

Accession no.684907 Item 398 Antec 98. Volume I. Conference proceedings. Atlanta, Ga., 26th-30th April 1998, p.247-55. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D; Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial, widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. All the extrusion processes (film, sheet, coating, pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications. Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics, emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control. 2 refs.
USA

Accession no.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38, No.5, May 1998, p.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M; Balatinecz J J; Park C B Toronto,University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane, dichlorodiethylsilane, phthalic anhydride, and maleated PP for surface modification. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. 63 refs.
CANADA

Accession no.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68, No.9, 31st May 1998, p.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao; Ciguang Bao; Rue Feng; Mason T J Yunnan,University; Nanjing,University; Coventry,University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound, the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%, compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss, surface roughness, SEM, image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. 18 refs.
CHINA; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4, No.2, June 1998, p.87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co.

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Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers, Laminations and Coatings Conference. Conference Proceedings. Book 2. Toronto, Ontario, 24th-28th Aug.1997, p.417-22. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A; Geick K S; Williams J B Lonza Inc. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions, and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms. In addition, the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature, and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. 3 refs.
CANADA; USA

generally used for installation. In addition to these solid products, foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials, or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications; typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above, how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product, and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements.
USA

Accession no.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4, No.1, March 1998, p.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. II. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M; Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character. At a normal usage of 0.5 to 1.5 phr (approximately 1.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC, methyl, barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal, aluminium and sodium internal/external, zinc, lithium, magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants. 28 refs.
USA

Accession no.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4, No.1, March 1998, p.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years. Formulation additives, tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile, sheet, and foam core pipe. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights. The properties, however, are very dependent on the density of the foam product. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density, along with looking at ways to improve them. 9 refs.
USA

Accession no.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4, No.1, March 1998, p.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. Typical are house siding, window profiles, storm doors, pipe, fencing, and various accessory items

Accession no.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6, No.1, 1998, p.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE

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Nakamura Y; Azuma F; Iida T Osaka,Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll. Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens. 20 refs.
JAPAN

beta-diketone; in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects. Evaluation of induction times to degradation, carbonyl formation, visible reflectance, and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings. 18 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; MEXICO; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68, No.1, 4th April 1998, p.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. I. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R; Edge V; Allen N S; Tellez M M Mexico,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic.; Manchester,Metropolitan University; Coahuila,Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates, e.g. zinc stearate, calcium soap, as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83), a short-term costabiliser. 19 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; MEXICO; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38, No.1, Jan.1998, p.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE, TEMPERATURE, AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L; Petty C A; Gillis P P; Grulke E A Michigan,University; Kentucky,University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using, e.g. flotation. The effects of processing conditions, temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined, and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported. 28 refs.
USA

Accession no.674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No.752, Sept.1996, p.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described, and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined. Details are also given of the roller head process, a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET; BERSTORFF H.,MASCHINENBAU GMBH; COMERIO ERCOLE SPA; COMERIO R.,SAS
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; GERMANY; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68, No.1, 4th April 1998, p.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. II. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R; Edge V; Allen N S; Tellez M M Mexico,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic.; Manchester,Metropolitan University; Coahuila,Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser. During normal stabilisation conditions, the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times, while preheated calcium stearate reduced them. The same effect was seen with the

Accession no.670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17, No.1, Spring 1998, p.37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M; Gilbert M Loughborough,University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC. Data are given for milling, followed by press moulding and

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extrusion. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed. 22 refs.


EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.3, Sept.1997, p.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R; Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple, accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could, therefore, be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy, liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39, No.1, 1998, p.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S; Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst.for Med.Sci.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate, time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined. 26 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.3, Sept.1997, p.210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B; Isner J D; Sidor J A; Wiedl D J Geon Co. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions, such as melt temp., screw speed and draw-down, on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile, including density, cell structure and surface appearance. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63.5 mm single screw. 15 refs.
USA

Accession no.663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10, No.3, May-June 1997, p.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I; Goodson A; Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC, overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants. For packaging converters, in particular, who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet, the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive. However, the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a more severe test. A more severe test is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a more severe test and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. 9 refs.

Accession no.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.3, Sept.1997, p.205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed, with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2,4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals. The

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regulatory status, performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described. The pyrrolidine-2,4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations. In particular, the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels. 13 refs.
USA

Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50, No.9, Sept.1997, p.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50, No.10, Oct.1997, p.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D; Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives. Among these, heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals, in the past mainly heavy metals. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification, quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. Different methods (complexometric titration, capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment, whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods. 17 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68, No.1782, 29th Sept.-5th Oct.1997, p.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling, it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars. The Commissions words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world, yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled. This article examines the reasons why.
WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL

Accession no.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44, No.2, Oct.1997, p.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S; Wu G; Pan Y Zhejiang,University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles. Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation, experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites, were fitted to the equation. The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed. Data are given for PVC, HDPE, LLDPE, LDPE, and epoxy resin. 12 refs.
CHINA

Accession no.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.2, June 1997, p.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C; Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co. Todays vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties, appearance, processability, and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts, business equipment, and electrical enclosures. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound,

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however, is not a simple process. Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. 12 refs.
USA

Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27, No. 5, May 1997, p.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers, (APR), is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles, it is reported. Currently, there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years, but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction, but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market. US,ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS; US,VINYL INSTITUTE; P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES; OXYCHEM; BAYSHORE VINYL
USA

Accession no.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.2, June 1997, p.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE). I. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R; Hegranes B; Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer, giving them an external character. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured. 13 refs.
USA

Accession no.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24, No.3, 1997, p.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I; Nokhrina N N; Lyutikova E A; Potapov V A Under physical, chemical and mechanical effects, the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions. Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body, cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them, and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment. However, despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions, most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials, which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association, and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches. 9 refs.
RUSSIA

Accession no.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.2, June 1997, p.107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L; Lemaire J Blaise Pascal,Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark. This effect is reversible, and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length, which present an absorption below 400 nm. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation, which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer. 5 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.650267

Accession no.647875

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Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24, No.2, 1997, p.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J; Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements, depending on the formulation used, but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature. For this reason, studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC, since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties. The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature, reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides, derivatives of dimercaptotriazines, polyfunctional amines and, of some commercial importance, crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC, the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto- or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented. 16 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

are present in structures of microdomains and between them, as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC, this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products. During processing under appropriately selected conditions, the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform, domain structure, which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. 14 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; POLAND

Accession no.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34, No.1, 1997, p.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I; Daranga M; Dumitrescu S Jassy,Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry; Jassy,Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values, its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. 14 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24, No.2, 1997, p.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K; Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation, and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%, whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e.g. small-angle x-ray scattering, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS), IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In PVC, crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. These

Accession no.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug.1997, p.4-6 CINCINNATIS DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes, profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared. Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. These machines are intended to complement the companys Titan conical screw range. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH
AUSTRIA; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.642797

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Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37, No.5, May 1997, p.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L; Petty C A; Grulke E A Michigan,State University; Kentucky,University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed. Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics, as for example, is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles. 3 refs.
USA

mixer. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index, tensile strength at yield, modulus, elongation at break, toughness and notched izod impact strength. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties, and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. In this region, tensile strength and modulus increase significantly, whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region. However, elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser. 41 refs.
CANADA

Accession no.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65, No.1, 5th July 1997, p.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M; Brooks B W Loughborough,University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size, porosity, and morphology is discussed. 10 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.639926 Item 431 Antec 97. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Toronto,27th April-2nd May 1997,p.3496-502. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T; Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability, electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industrys concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead.
JAPAN

Accession no.639984 Item 430 Antec 97. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Toronto,27th April-2nd May 1997,p.3580-5. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M; Balatinecz J J; Park C B Toronto,University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine

Accession no.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38, No.11, May 1997, p.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S; Patel H M; Kusy R P North Carolina,University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties, puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and

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species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes. Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. Strength, stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors, phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one. 19 refs.
USA

Ferm D J; Shen K K US Borax Inc. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. For both plasticiser systems, results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion. No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. 5 refs.
USA

Accession no.638534 Item 433 Antec 97. Volume II. Conference proceedings. Toronto, 27th April-2nd May 1997, p.1902-6. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P; Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%. 6 refs.
USA

Accession no.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.1, March 1997, p.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M; Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. Some examples of successful applications are described. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33, No.4, April 1997, p.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M; Garcia J C; Marcilla A Alicante,Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed. 28 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.1, March 1997, p.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation, profile processing conditions and welding parameters. Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency, the contribution to improved

Accession no.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.1, March 1997, p.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC

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weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line. 12 refs.
USA

Accession no.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3, No.1, March 1997, p.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS. I. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F; Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers, e.g. PVC, indicated that these salts were not complexes, or double compounds of lead oxide, as suggested in most textbooks, but unique compounds of interesting structure. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate, tribasic lead maleate, tetrabasic lead fumarate, dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water, interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction. 6 refs. HALSTAB
USA

Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24.0% and 11.9%, respectively. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements. 20 refs.
TURKEY

Accession no.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38, No.7, 1997, 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A; Del Val J J; Bellenger V; Verdu J San Sebastian,Universidad del Pais Vasco; ENSAM The volumetric, elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. However, the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed. The results were discussed. 47 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; SPAIN; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13, No.1, 1997, p.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L; Quirk J P; Cretney H European Vinyls Corp.(UK) Ltd. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density, foam structure and colour. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. 8 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33, No.4, 1996, p.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC, BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS. IX. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara,Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties. The predictor of compatibility, i.e. the Hildebrand solubility parameter, predicted the major

Accession no.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4, No.4, 1997, p.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S; Balkose D Ege,University

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level of compatibility for both series involved, namely diesters and mixed esters. 25 refs.
EASTERN EUROPE; RUMANIA

Accession no.629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14, No.6, Nov/Dec.1996, p.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION - REVIEW Green J FMC Corp. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate, molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC. 31 refs.
USA

Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54, No.1, 1996, p.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J; Oliverio S R F; Santiago S L; Eduardo R V; Allen N S Mexico,Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic.; Manchester,Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit. The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data. 13 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; MEXICO; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2, No.3, Sept.1996, p.193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications. 12 refs.
USA

Accession no.617495 Item 444 R95 - Recovery, Recycling, Re-Integration. Volume IV: Chemical Processes, Biological Processes, Hospital Waste. Conference proceedings. Geneva, 1st-3rd Sept. 1995, p.IV.51-8. 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A; Edelmann X (EMPA; Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat.Testing & Res.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important, but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material. For PVC, this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC, but which can recover the most important component of it - chlorine - as a raw product for VCM manufacture, with a very high yield. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. 4 refs.
SWITZERLAND; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2, No.3, Sept.1996, p.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE, FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W; Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight, plasticiser loading, stabiliser type, and choice of antioxidant. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation. 2 refs.

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USA

(Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed. Beyond its theoretical interest, the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. 6 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; FRANCE; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37, No.23, 1996, p.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A; Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst.for Med.Sci.& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique, depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. After surface modification, there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. 19 refs.
INDIA

Accession no.611175 Item 451 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.379-90. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B; Stephenson R C Loughborough,University; European Vinyls Corp.(UK)Ltd. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures. It is a multi-axial parameter, occurring in all three principal axes of the profile, and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects, and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion, yet shrinkage is also influenced by output, cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound. Many of these variables are interdependent, and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels. 11 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611191 Item 449 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.417-24. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning, separation of foreign materials and grinding. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes. In addition, the resultant costs, actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed. 10 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611174 Item 452 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.361-8. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough,University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory

Accession no.611177 Item 450 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.391-405. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L; Disson J P; Bianchi C; Marvalin C; Morel P Elf Atochem SA

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which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis. In particular, different sizes of T, Z and L shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. 5 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. 7 refs.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; ITALY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611161 Item 455 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.209-18. 42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T; Lee S H Geon Co. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. Most flexible and high shear, high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism, that is, drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds, the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. 16 refs.
USA

Accession no.611172 Item 453 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.345-53. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A; Conroy G M Morton International Inc.,Morton Plastics Additives Div. (Institute of Materials) In their early days, the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. Through the correct choices of organotin species, mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers, the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process, the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. 4 refs.
USA

Accession no.611156 Item 456 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.175-83. 42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability, but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation, surface flow) are compared. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants. In solvent-free UV-curable systems, polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611170 Item 454 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.259-68. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed. Here, the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film, calendered flooring, spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new

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Item 457 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.153-61. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness. Additionally, PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability, liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability, dispersion, storage and optics retention are studied. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability.
USA

Item 459 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.115-31. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics, and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties, the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment. The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE, high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. 3 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611151 Item 458 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.145-51. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. Existing methods of rheology control, while exhibiting this behaviour, have certain drawbacks. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning, nearly pseudoplastic, and temperature stable. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated, comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; GERMANY; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.611148 Item 460 PVC 96. Conference proceedings. Brighton, 23rd-25th April 1996, p.109-14. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance. These days, machines become bigger and faster, and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties, the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. New software is developed which can

Accession no.611150

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measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance. 4 refs.
BELGIUM; EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; WESTERN EUROPE

Brann S; Knight M Goodrich B.F.,Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength, temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs, that meets a variety of process uses. This comprehensive article describes cPVCs key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer, particularly pipes and fittings.
USA

Accession no.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66, No.1740, 11th-17th Nov.1996, p.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997. The company is building a 1,000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven, the Netherlands, and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity, technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride. EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM. EVC
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; NETHERLANDS; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.542367 Item 464 Shawbury, Rapra Technolgy Ltd., 1994, pp.154. 12ins. 23/11/94. Rapra Review Report vol.7, no.6, 1994. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS, PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J; Day J A; Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd.) Rapra Review Report No.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry. Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed, and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion, injection moulding, blow moulding, calendering and liquid PVC compositions, fabrication and surface treatments. Blending and alloying is described, using PVC/polyester, PVC/ polycaprolactone, PVC/PU, PVC/nitrile rubber, PVC/ polyolefin, PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov.1996, p.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0.075 micron. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers, the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing, the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions. In rigid PVC, stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels.
EUROPEAN COMMUNITY; EUROPEAN UNION; UK; WESTERN EUROPE

Accession no.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3,No.4,1983,p.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M;Hemsley D A;Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH,UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. 14 refs.
UK

Accession no.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90, No.12, Dec.1994, p.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS

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Subject Index

Subject Index
A
ABRASION RESISTANCE, 50 59 179 218 343 ABS, 57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION, 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST, 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE, 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER, 236 ACQUISITION, 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER, 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY, 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION, 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION, 244 399 456 ADHESIVE, 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE, 103 ADIPATE ESTER, 98 ADSORPTION, 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC, 196 AGEING, 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE, 19 366 404 AGREEMENT, 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION, 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE, 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE, 4 387 388 ALLIANCE, 113 122 201 ALLOY, 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE, 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE, 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE, 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE, 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE, 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE, 337 396 440 AMINOSILANE, 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL, 284 AMINOURACIL, 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE, 129 435 AMORPHOUS, 218 376 ANALYSIS, 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING, 98 257 ANNEALING, 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT, 150 ANTIFOGGING, 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT, 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE, 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE, 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT, 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT, 81 400 426 464 ARM REST, 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY, 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY, 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY, 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE, 178 AUTOMATION, 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION, 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE, 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE, 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE, 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID, 302 382 BENZOATE, 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION, 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION, 100 247 BIOCIDE, 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY, 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION, 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL, 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY, 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A, 14 BLAST FURNACE, 115 BLEACHING, 421 BLEND, 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING, 122 408 BLISTERING, 135 BLOCKING, 48 BLOOD, 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG, 98 351 BLOW MOULDING, 464 BLOWING AGENT, 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE, 239 BONDING, 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE, 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE, 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION, 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION, 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT, 419 BUTT WELD, 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE, 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM, 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE, 1 58

B
BAG, 257 BALL, 70 BAN, 310 BARIUM, 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND, 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE, 362 BARIUM STEARATE, 207 BATCH MIXING, 191

C
CABLE, 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282

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Subject Index

283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM, 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM, 172 CALCIUM, 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE, 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE, 227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE, 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND, 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE, 83 CALCIUM STEARATE, 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE, 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE, 458 CALENDERING, 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER, 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY, 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY, 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY, 105 213 CARBON BLACK, 169 CARBON DIOXIDE, 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE, 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN, 98 100 228 257 CARPET, 243 363 CASE HISTORY, 352 353 CAST FILM, 400 CASTING, 209 217 263 368 CATALYST, 24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA, 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL, 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN, 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION, 67 218 248 371 CHALK, 120 165 CHAR, 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION, 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT,

55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION, 21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT, 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION, 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING, 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE, 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE, 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY, 283 CHLORINATED, 376 464 CHLORINATED PE, 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC, 436 463 CHLORINE, 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY, 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE, 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID, 263 281 CLADDING, 64 439 CLARITY, 8 45 131 239 CLAY, 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING, 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT, 160 244 CLOSED LOOP, 184 363 CLOTHING, 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT, 63 318 COATED FABRIC, 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING, 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION, 218 427 COEXTRUSION, 64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING, 104 COLOUR, 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE, 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND, 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE, 73 COLOUR FASTNESS, 99 COLOUR STABILITY, 8 80 211

236 298 387 431 COLOURANT, 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY, 220 344 400 COMBUSTION, 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION, 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER, 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY, 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE, 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION, 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND, 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING, 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING, 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET, 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN, 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER, 237 CONDENSATION REACTION, 149 CONE CALORIMETER, 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW, 218 427 CONSUMPTION, 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE, 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER, 98 411 CONTAMINATION, 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING, 408 CONVERSION, 35 36 461 COOLING, 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER, 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE, 3 60 CORNICE, 197 CORRUGATED SHEET, 64 COSMETICS, 122 253 COST, 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195

148

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Subject Index

196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER, 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING, 64 427 COUPLING AGENT, 53 116 274 440 CRACKING, 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE, 184 CREDIT CARD, 408 CREEP, 181 202 CROSSLINKING, 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE, 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY, 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING, 419 CUTTING, 184 243 408 CYLINDER, 230 CYTOTOXICITY, 37

D
DAMAGE, 51 257 353 DAMPING, 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION, 21 27 DECKING, 51 DECOMPOSITION, 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT, 43 106 302 DECORATIVE, 64 244 DEFECT, 132 170 230 DEFORMATION, 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE, 104 419 DEGRADABLE, 86 244 247 DEGRADATION, 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT, 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE, 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE, 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION, 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND, 7 8 92 110 123 171 195

DENSITY, 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN, 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION, 277 370 373 DETERGENT, 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE, 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN, 66 DIBENZOFURAN, 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE, 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE, 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE, 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND, 183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER, 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER, 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE, 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE, 42 242 334 DIE, 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL, 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE, 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES, 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE, 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE, 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE, 11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS, 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION, 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT, 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY, 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE, 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE, 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE, 11 117

DIISONONYL PHTHALATE, 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE, 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY, 2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE, 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE, 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE, 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE, 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE, 379 393 432 DIOXIN, 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING, 464 DIRECTIVE, 115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION, 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION, 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION, 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT, 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE, 306 DOOR, 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE, 333 DRAWING, 315 383 DRINKING WATER, 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING, 122 DRY BLENDING, 349 356 464 DRYING, 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION, 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE, 428 DUCTILITY, 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY, 99 463 DWELL TIME, 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS, 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS, 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES, 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462

E
E-MODULUS, 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION, 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS, 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES, 70 120

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Subject Index

154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER, 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE, 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION, 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES, 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH, 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION, 30 336 ELONGATION, 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK, 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT, 283 EMISSION, 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL, 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION, 266 464 ENDOCRINE, 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY, 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT, 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD, 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION, 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN, 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL, 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL, 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER, 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER, 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL, 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE, 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER, 231

238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE, 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE, 441 EXFOLIATION, 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION, 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT, 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN, 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL, 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME, 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER, 441 EXTRACTION, 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE, 233 439 EXTRUDER, 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION, 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING, 464 EXTRUSION COATING, 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING, 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING, 34 400

F
FABRIC, 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION, 98 375 FAILURE, 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING, 197 FEEDING, 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK, 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING, 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE, 99 158 FIBRE, 115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS, 2

FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC, 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER, 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT, 2 113 283 366 404 FILM, 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT, 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT, 244 FLAMMABILITY, 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE, 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE, 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS, 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES, 2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION, 336 405 FLOOR, 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING, 122 408 FLOW, 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES, 39 206 313 FLUID BED, 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY, 169 243 406 FOAM, 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE, 195 427 FOAMABILITY, 55 192 FOAMING, 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT, 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372

150

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Subject Index

375 FOGGING, 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE, 335 FOIL, 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION, 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING, 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT, 127 351 FOOTWEAR, 122 380 408 FORMULATION, 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY, 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE, 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY, 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME, 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT, 218 427 FRICTION WELD, 269 FROTH FLOTATION, 243 311 FUEL CELL, 171 FUNGICIDE, 42 334 FUNGUS, 42 370 FURAN, 125 FURNITURE, 122 FUSION, 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465

GASIFICATION, 21 115 187 GASKET, 91 395 GEL, 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT, 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION, 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY, 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE, 70 GELATION, 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD, 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC, 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE, 2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS, 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE, 11 GRANULATION, 122 311 GRANULATOR, 243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING, 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE, 7 8 110 195 385

H
HARDNESS, 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL, 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE, 252 271 297 HAZE, 400 HEAD REST, 215 HEALTH HAZARD, 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION, 205 HEAT AGEING, 283 HEAT DEGRADATION, 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE, 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE, 50 81 82

G
GAMMA-IRRADIATION, 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION, 15 462 GAS BARRIER, 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION, 66 GAS EVOLUTION, 15 49 281 GAS PIPE, 309

103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER, 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY, 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT, 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL, 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE, 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE, 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE, 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL, 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE, 99 HORMONE, 253 257 HORTICULTURE, 64 HOSE, 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE, 244 HOT TOOL WELD, 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE, 306 HOUSEWARES, 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE, 405 HYDROLYSIS, 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC, 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC, 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE, 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION, 27 187

I
IMMERSION, 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER, 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES, 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104

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Subject Index

113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION, 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION, 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD, 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE, 122 184 306 INHIBITOR, 149 172 INJECTION MOULD, 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING, 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION, 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT, 122 INTERACTION, 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION, 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT, 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING, 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER, 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY, 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE, 67 IRON OXIDE, 3 60 426 IRRADIATION, 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD, 224 405

J
JOINT, 309 JOINT VENTURE, 113 122 201

K
K VALUE, 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN, 283 KILN, 115 297

LATEX, 224 LEACHING, 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD, 236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE, 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE, 320 LEAD COMPOUND, 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE, 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE, 365 438 LEAD MALEATE, 438 LEAD PHTHALATE, 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE, 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE, 40 46 LEATHER, 70 171 380 LEGISLATION, 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID, 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS, 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION, 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER, 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY, 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION, 64 186 LIME, 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX, 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL, 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE, 15 LONG-TERM, 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE, 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION, 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES, 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY, 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY, 8 LUBRICANT, 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464

M
MACHINERY, 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE, 10

L
LABELLING, 98 100 253 LANDFILL, 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION, 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188

118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER, 234 362 MARKET SHARE, 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE, 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND, 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION, 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY, 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH, 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT, 7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION, 72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS, 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION, 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING, 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING, 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION, 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT, 121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY, 132 346 359 MELT FLOW, 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX, 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE, 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING, 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES, 54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY, 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH, 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE, 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY, 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX, 209 227 362 MELTING POINT, 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE, 70 393 MEMBRANE, 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING, 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, 62

152

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Subject Index

MICROSCOPY, 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE, 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION, 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE, 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER, 2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE, 115 122 243 306 MIXER, 173 191 325 408 MIXING, 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION, 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED, 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER, 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE, 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT, 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE, 3 60 MONOSANDWICH, 104 MONTMORILLONITE, 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY, 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING, 49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND, 34 419 MOULDING FAULT, 230 MULTILAYER, 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE, 115 122 123 146 282

NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE, 38 361 438

O
OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE, 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE, 462 OLIVE OIL, 392 OPACITY, 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES, 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND, 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP, 252 ORIENTATION, 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION, 242 298 OVEN AGEING, 308 OXIDATION, 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE, 42 242 334

P
PACKAGING, 89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE, 122 282 PAINT, 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW, 218 427 PARTICLE, 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE, 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE, 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION, 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE, 101 327 PATENT, 311 369 461 PELLET, 109 302 382 PERFUME, 122 PERMEABILITY, 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE, 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT, 148 PHOSPHITE, 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING, 421 PHOTODEGRADATION, 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, 10 65 102

N
NANOCOMPOSITE, 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER, 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC, 69 380 NOZZLE, 218 230

273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION, 181 421 PHTHALATE, 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER, 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID, 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE, 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT, 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER, 408 PIPE, 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING, 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER, 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER, 374 PLASMA TREATMENT, 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION, 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED, 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER, 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE, 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL, 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT, 45 132 153 155

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153

Subject Index

POLLUTION, 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL, 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID, 103 POLYAMIDE, 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE, 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN, 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN, 187 POLYETHYLENE, 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE, 25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER, 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER, 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID, 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER, 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER, 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT, 57 POLYMERISATION, 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR, 149 POLYPROPYLENE, 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE, 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE, 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL, 318 366 POROSITY, 280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER, 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE, 8 POTABLE WATER, 138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE, 172 POWDER, 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING, 59 PREHEATING, 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE, 136 195 PRETREATMENT, 93 106 244 399

PRICE, 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD, 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION, 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING, 144 PROCESS CONTROL, 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY, 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING, 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID, 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE, 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY, 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE, 188 198 PYROLYSIS, 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE, 47 414

Q
QUALITY, 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422

R
RADIATION CROSSLINKING, 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY, 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL, 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER, 202 REACTOR, 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW, 376 RECLAIM, 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY, 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT, 99 184 427 RECYCLING, 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146

147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE, 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION, 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE, 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC, 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING, 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME, 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS, 169 178 REVIEW, 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID, 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT, 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL, 408 ROOF, 64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING, 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING, 71 ROUGHNESS, 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER, 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464

S
SAFETY, 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA, 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER, 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233

154

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Subject Index

244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION, 67 218 248 371 SCRAP, 122 306 SCRAP CAR, 243 SCRAP POLYMER, 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE, 59 179 SCRATCHING, 329 SCREW, 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN, 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER, 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH, 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION, 218 SCREW SPEED, 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL, 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY, 207 SEPARATION, 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE, 43 64 418 SEWER PIPE, 136 170 195 333 SHEAR, 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES, 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE, 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS, 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET, 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING, 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE, 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING, 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA, 155 177 440 SILICATE, 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER, 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING, 111 289 SMOKE, 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY, 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION, 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION, 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT, 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION, 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE, 137 SODIUM AZIDE, 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE, 192

282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE, 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE, 94 121 SOFTENING, 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE, 185 268 SOFTNESS, 98 SOLAR RADIATION, 352 445 SOLE, 122 408 SOLUBILITY, 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION, 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT, 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING, 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE, 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL, 194 SPECTROSCOPY, 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT, 309 STABILISATION, 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER, 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY, 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD, 225 STAIN RESISTANCE, 389 STAINING, 135 353 STANDARD, 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS, 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464

STEARIC ACID, 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION, 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS, 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH, 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS, 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES, 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM, 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS, 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT, 170 230 SURFACE FINISH, 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES, 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT, 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING, 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION, 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY, 125 166 SWELLING, 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM, 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC, 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS, 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER, 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER, 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD, 196 197 329

T
TALC, 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH, 8 12 462 TEETHING RING, 377 TELEPHONE CABLE, 336 TEMPERATURE, 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE, 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT, 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES, 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102

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Subject Index

104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN, 253 TESTING, 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING, 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION, 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION, 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION, 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION, 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY, 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY, 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES, 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE, 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE, 250 THERMAL STABILITY, 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT, 31 204 THERMOFORMING, 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS, 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS, 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION, 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET, 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS, 64 230 298 374 384

408 432 THIN FILM, 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED, 280 TIME, 67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE, 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND, 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE, 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE, 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING, 157 158 TOUGHNESS, 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY, 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS, 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY, 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY, 93 179 284 TREND, 77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE, 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE, 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE, 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER, 98 TROUBLESHOOTING, 353 376 TUBE, 98 TUBING, 113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR, 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER, 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL, 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION, 374

V
VEHICLE, 282 VEHICLE TRIM, 289 454 VENEER, 396 VENTILATOR, 218 VIBRATION WELDING, 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY, 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER, 231 VINYL CHLORIDE, 27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER, 248 VIRGIN POLYMER, 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC, 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY, 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER, 458 464 VOID, 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND, 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT, 8 84 151 VOLATILITY, 8 87 88 151 194 367 389

W
WALL COVERING, 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS, 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING, 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE, 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION, 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL, 306 WASTE DISPOSAL, 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT, 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION, 184 243 WASTE SORTING, 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT, 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION, 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE, 170 183 195 309

U
UNPLASTICISED, 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION, 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION, 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE, 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY, 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER, 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY, 22 286

156

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Subject Index

449 WATER POLLUTION, 100 WATERBED, 56 WAX, 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR, 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE, 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE, 13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY, 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS, 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION, 99 289 427 WELDING, 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY, 32 37 456 457 WETTING, 243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT, 131 WINDOW, 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME, 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING, 185 WIRE INSULATION, 118 WOLLASTONITE, 83 WOOD, 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE, 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC, 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR, 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER, 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT, 99 439

Z
ZEOLITE, 137 295 426 ZINC, 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE, 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE, 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND, 45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE, 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE, 435 ZINC STEARATE, 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE, 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION, 48

X
X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY, 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING, 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441

Y
YELLOWING, 307 400 YIELD STRESS, 116 366 381 404 YOUNGS MODULUS, 50 96 283 383 394 441

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

157

Subject Index

158

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

Company Index

Company Index
A
ADVAMED, 257 AICHI,PREFECTURAL INSTITUTE OF PUBLIC HEALTH, 11 AISCONDEL SA, 122 AKCROS CHEMICALS, 8 151 207 308 331 334 414 AKRON,UNIVERSITY, 19 36 AKVA WATERBEDS APS, 56 AKZO NOBEL CHEMICALS, 42 334 AKZO NOBEL RESINS BV, 291 ALABAMA,UNIVERSITY, 223 ALGIERS,ECOLE NATIONALE POLYTECHNIQUE, 127 ALIACHEM JC, 203 ALICANTE,UNIVERSITY, 188 198 268 319 337 394 434 ALLIEDSIGNAL EUROPE NV, 459 AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL, 257 AMTICO CO., 119 ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD., 68 ANNABA,UNIVERSITE MOKHTAR BADJI, 392 APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION, 161 ARISTECH CHEMICAL, 412 ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK, 267 431 ASPEN RESEARCH CORP., 51 69 ATHENS,NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 112 ATOFINA, 13 18 ATOFINA CHEMICALS INC., 79 ATOFINA ESPANA, 122 AUBURN,UNIVERSITY, 340 355 AVON TECHNICAL PRODUCTS, 303 BATTELLE PACIFIC NORTHWEST LABORATORIES, 194 BATTENFELD AG, 374 BATTENFELD EXTRUSIONSTECHNIK GMBH, 158 BAUSANO GROUP SPA, 258 BAXTER HEALTHCARE, 178 239 301 446 BAYER CHEMICALS CORP., 56 BAYSHORE VINYL, 422 BBS CORP., 109 BEIJING,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 65 BELGRADE,UNIVERSITY, 120 BEMIS MANUFACTURING CO., 398 BERSTORFF H.,MASCHINENBAU GMBH, 408 BIOSTER SPA, 41 BLAISE PASCAL,UNIVERSITE, 421 BORSODCHEM RT, 133 BP AMOCO CHEMICALS, 228 BP CHEMICALS, 91 BPF, 166 BRNO,POLYMER INSTITUTE, 203 BROOKLYN,POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY, 121 180 BRUNEL UNIVERSITY, 10 386 BUDAPEST,RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR SOLID STATE PHYSICS & OPTICS, 305 BUDAPEST,TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 305 BUDAPEST,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY & ECONOMICS, 10 BYDGOSZCZ,TECHNICAL & AGRICULTURAL UNIVERSITY, 107 BYK-CHEMIE GMBH, 456 293 373 CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN QUIMICA APLICADA, 285 CERDEC CORP., 344 CHEMBUR, 191 CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY, 253 CHEMSON, 143 153 155 322 CIBA SPECIALTY CHEMICALS, 80 81 148 216 CIBA-GEIGY CO., 223 CICLOPLAST SA, 122 CINCINNATI EXTRUSION, 156 CINCINNATI MILACRON, 436 CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH, 124 333 427 CLARIANT GMBH, 132 139 335 CLAUSTHALER UMWELTTECHNIKINSTITUT GMBH, 306 CLOEREN INC., 176 CNEP, 13 279 CNRS, 383 COAHUILA,CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN QUIMICA APLICADA, 53 234 235 COAHUILA,UNIVERSIDAD AUTONOMA, 53 406 407 COAKER A.W.,& ASSOCIATES INC., 5 78 COLLINS & AIKMAN FLOORCOVERINGS INC., 363 COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD., 39 COMERIO ERCOLE SPA, 408 COMERIO R.,SAS, 408 COMPUPLAST INTERNATIONAL INC., 190 251 COPERION BUSS AG, 34 COPERION CORP., 9 CORONADO ENGINEERING INC., 173 COVENTRY,UNIVERSITY, 399 CROMPTON CORP., 4 85 105 221 CROMPTON TECHNICAL CENTER, 140 CROMPTON VINYL ADDITIVES GMBH, 136

B
BAERLOCHER GMBH, 141 BARLOCHER ITALIA SPA, 454 BASF AG, 307 320 BASF CORP., 86 BASHKIR,STATE UNIVERSITY, 227 260 BATTELLE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE, 194

C
CAIRO,NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIATION RES.& TECHNOL., 172 CANADA,NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL, 240

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

159

Company Index

CSIC, 38 CSMA LTD., 316

D
DAYTON TECHNOLOGIES, 352 DECEUNINCK, 184 DEGUSSA, 150 DEGUSSA-HULS, 335 DENMARK,NATIONAL MUSEUM, 22 182 DEUTSCHES KUNSTSTOFFINSTITUT, 335 DICKTEN & MASCH MFG., 353 DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, 24 DOVER CHEMICAL CORP., 45 46 75 DRESDEN,TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT, 244 DSM, 361 DU PONT DE NEMOURS E.I.,& CO.INC., 119 DUMAPLAST EXTRUSION, 280 DUPONT DE NEMOURS E.I.,& CO.INC., 238 DUPONT DOW ELASTOMERS LLC, 54 134 312 338 DUPONT DOW ELASTOMERS SA, 287 DUPONT WHITE PIGMENTS & MINERAL PRODUCTS, 457 DURAPIPE LTD., 309 DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP, 378

E
EAST CHINA,UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 111 EASTMAN CHEMICAL, 257 ECC INTERNATIONAL INC., 294 ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA, 122 ECOLE NATIONALE SUPERIEURE DE CHIMIE DE MULHOUSE, 179 EGE,UNIVERSITY, 24 440 EGYPT,NATIONAL CENTRE FOR RADIATION RES.& TECHNOL., 185 EGYPTIAN PETROLEUM RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 223 EINDHOVEN,UNIVERSITY, 187 ELF ATOCHEM, 372 ELF ATOCHEM SA, 279 450 EMANUEL INSTITUTE OF

BIOCHEMICAL PHYSICS, 370 ENSAM, 384 441 ESPA, 159 ESRF, 18 EU,SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES, 97 EUROPEAN COMMISSION, 98 159 271 272 275 282 297 310 341 EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES, 100 184 EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS, 20 122 166 184 EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN., 184 EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN., 184 EUROPEAN VINYLS CORP., 41 131 152 EUROPEAN VINYLS CORP.(DEUTSCHLAND)GMBH, 449 EUROPEAN VINYLS CORP.(UK) LTD., 328 339 439 451 EVC, 21 129 149 184 461 EXETER,UNIVERSITY, 243 EXTRUSION DIES INC., 175 EXTRUSION ENGINEERS, 213 313 EXXON BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES, 257 EXXON CHEMICAL CO., 349 EXXONMOBIL CHEMICAL CO., 90

GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS INC., 57 237 433 GEON CO., 233 249 296 314 397 413 455 GERMANY,FEDERAL INSTITUTE FOR MATERIALS RESEARCH & TESTING, 167 GLASGOW,ROYAL INFIRMARY, 316 GOODRICH B.F.,CO., 376 463 GRAN CANARIA,UNIVERSIDAD DE LAS PALMAS, 170 GRAZ,TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITAT, 62 GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL CORP., 76

H
HALL C.P.,CO., 88 HALSTAB, 236 438 HAMBURG,TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 252 HAMMOND GROUP, 295 365 438 HARBIN,NORTHEAST FORESTRY UNIVERSITY, 3 60 HARLOW CHEMICAL CO.LTD., 318 HASBRO, 304 HEALTH CANADA, 97 98 HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM, 257 317 HELLAS, 163 HENKEL CORP., 292 HENKEL DORUS, 244 HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT, 343 HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA, 122 HOLLAND COLORS AMERICAS INC., 385 HONEYWELL, 155 HUBER J.M.,CORP., 82 HUNGARIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 10 48 HUNTSMAN TIOXIDE, 13 279 HUSKY INJECTION MOLDING SYSTEMS LTD., 225 HYDRO POLYMERS, 142 299 316 327 464

F
FERRO, 270 FERRO CORP., 72 FITT SPA, 336 369 FMC CORP., 443 FORMTECH ENTERPRISES INC., 250 FRANCHECOMTE,UNIVERSITE, 215 FREUDENBERG GROUP, 171 FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG, 171 FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO., 171

I
IKA GMBH & CO.KG, 325 IMERYS PIGMENTS & ADDITIVES, 177 INDIAN INSTITUTE OF

G
GE CORPORATE R & D, 256

160

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

Company Index

CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, 354 INEOS SILICAS LTD., 131 INSTITUT PYROVAC INC., 214 INSTITUT UNIVERSITAIRE DE TECHNOLOGIE, 30 INSTITUTO DE CIENCIA Y TECNOLOGIA DE POLIMEROS, 217 284 337 INSTITUTO DO PVC, 288 INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER, 98 INTERNATIONAL BIODETERIORATION RESEARCH GROUP, 42 INTERNATIONAL TIN RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 386 ISFAHAN,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 266 ISHIHARA SANGYO KAISHA LTD., 66 106

KENTUCKY,UNIVERSITY, 405 428 KOBE STEEL, 184 KOLSITE BATTENFELD, 356 KRAUSS-MAFFEI AG, 375 KRAUSS-MAFFEI KUNSTSTOFFTECHNIK GMBH, 144 KUBRA PUBLIC JOINT-STOCK CO., 209 KYOTO,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 49

L
L & L CONSULTING LLC, 74 LA SAPIENZA,UNIVERSITA, 181 LABORATOIRE DE CHIMIE ET ENVIRONNEMENT, 351 LABORATOIRE DE VITRY, 215 LAGOR SPA, 135 LAMBERTI SPA, 135 LAND ROVER, 343 LANGER & CO.GMBH, 458 LAVAL,UNIVERSITE, 214 LEDERER GMBH, 171 LIMBURGSE VINYL MAATSCHAPPIJ NV/SA, 289 LIMBURGSE VINYL MIJ, 361 LINDE AG, 184 LINKOPING,UNIVERSITY, 252 LIVERPOOL,UNIVERSITY, 98 LONZA INC., 360 400 LOUGHBOROUGH,UNIVERSITY, 155 235 255 268 303 319 357 409 429 451 452 465 LYON,INSTITUT NATIONAL DES SCIENCES APPLIQUEES, 246 LYON,UNIVERSITE CLAUDE BERNARD, 383 LYTE INDUSTRIES CO.LTD., 263

J
JAPAN,NATIONAL INST.FOR ADVANCED INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH, 273 JAPAN,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES, 11 JASSY,CUZA A.I. UNIVERSITY, 199 JASSY,INSTITUTE OF MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, 426 JASSY,TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 426 JOHNSON MATTHEY PIGMENTS & DISPERSIONS, 321 JULICH,INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY, 160

94 121 180 MARTINSWERK GMBH, 390 MASSACHUSETTS,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 257 MASSACHUSETTS,UNIVERSITY, 245 MATTEL, 304 MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET, 408 MEXICO,CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN MATERIALES AVANZADOS, 234 MEXICO,CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN QUIMICA APLIC., 406 407 445 MEXICO,ESCUELA MILITAR DE INGENIEROS, 380 MICHIGAN,STATE UNIVERSITY, 23 102 405 428 MICHIGAN,TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY, 23 55 102 192 208 232 MIKRON INDUSTRIES, 184 MILLIPORE CORP., 245 MITSUBISHI CHEMICAL CORP., 315 MONTREAL,ECOLE POLYTECHNIQUE, 206 254 MORFLEX, 267 MORTON INTERNATIONAL INC.,MORTON PLASTICS ADDITIVES DIV., 453

N
NANJING,UNIVERSITY, 399 NANOMATERIALS TECHNOLOGY PTE LTD., 113 NATIONAL STARCH & CHEMICAL BV, 229 NATIONAL STARCH & CHEMICAL CO., 229 NETHERLANDS,INSPECTORATE FOR HEALTH PROTECTION & VETERINARY PUBLI, 117 NIIGATA PREFECTURAL RESEARCH LABORATORY FOR HEALTH & ENVIRONMENT, 11 NISSIN OIL MILLS LTD., 220 NORSK HYDRO, 146 NORTH CAROLINA,UNIVERSITY, 379 393 432 NORTH DAKOTA STATE

K
KABRA EXTRUSIONTECHNIK LTD., 356 KANAGAWA,ACADEMY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 66 106 KANEKA CORP., 224 290 346 KANEKA TEXAS CORP., 290 KAUCHUK CLOSED STOCK CO., 227 KAUSTIK AOOT, 209 KEMA NEDERLAND BV, 330

M
MAINE,UNIVERSITE, 231 MALAYSIA,SCIENCE UNIVERSITY, 216 MALAYSIAN INSTITUTE FOR NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH, 216 MANCHESTER,METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY, 47 285 311 406 407 445 MARLEY FLOORS LTD., 184 MARQUETTE,UNIVERSITY, 65

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

161

Company Index

UNIVERSITY, 368 NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, 25 NORWEGIAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, 299 NOVI SAD,UNIVERSITY, 120 NSF INTERNATIONAL, 259

QINGDAO,INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY, 281 QUEBEC,UNIVERSITE LAVAL, 212 QUEENSLAND,UNIVERSITY, 162 164

O
ODEBRECHT, 70 OHIO,STATE UNIVERSITY, 249 300 OKAYAMA PREFECTURE INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY CENTER, 116 OKAYAMA,UNIVERSITY, 28 29 OMG INC., 84 ONDEX, 64 OSAKA,CITY UNIVERSITY, 27 OSAKA,INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 116 220 248 366 381 404 OXYCHEM, 422

R
RAPRA TECHNOLOGY LTD., 110 205 RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LTD., 191 REVINIL, 122 RHONE-POULENC, 384 RIO TINTO BORAX, 130 ROHM & HAAS CO., 77 196 242 359 364 401 402 419 437 ROHM & HAAS EUROPEAN LABORATORIES, 154 ROHM & HAAS FRANCE SA, 261 ROHM & HAAS SA, 324 RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 277

P
P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES, 422 PALERMO,UNIVERSITY, 276 371 PALL CORP., 152 PARANA,UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL, 32 PEGUFORM GMBH, 289 PERUGIA,UNIVERSITY, 188 198 PETRU PONI,INSTITUTE OF MACROMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY, 212 214 PIFA, 166 PIRA INTERNATIONAL, 411 PISA,UNIVERSITY, 371 PLASTICAN SA, 170 POLIMERI, 362 POLYFENCE, 99 POLYMER DIAGNOSTICS INC., 19 314 POLYONE CORP., 12 73 104 174 PQ CORP., 137 PRINCIPIA PARTNERS, 184 PROGNOS, 184 PYROVAC INSTITUTE INC., 212

S
SACHTLEBEN CHEMIE GMBH, 278 286 SAINT ETIENNE,UNIVERSITY, 33 219 SAN SEBASTIAN,UNIVERSIDAD DEL PAIS VASCO, 441 SANDRETTO INDUSTRIE SPA, 218 SANTIAGO DE COMPOSTELA,UNIVERSIDAD, 14 SAO PAULO,ESCOLA POLITECNICO, 288 SAO PAULO,UNIVERSITY, 70 SAUDI ARABIA,INSTITUTE OF ATOMIC ENERGY RESEARCH, 118 SEMENOV N.N.,INSTITUTE OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 370 SHANGHAI CHLORALKALI CHEMICAL CO.LTD., 15 SHANGHAI,JIAO TONG UNIVERSITY, 15 57 93 SHELL RESEARCH SA, 460 SHIMANE,UNIVERSITY, 49 SHIRAM INSTITUTE FOR INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH, 367

SICHUAN,UNIVERSITY, 16 265 SINTEF MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY, 299 SINTELON AD, 120 SOLUTIA INC., 389 SOLVAY, 184 SOLVAY BENVIC, 2 SOLVAY SA, 26 64 147 298 SOLVIN, 184 SOPHIA,UNIVERSITY, 273 SOUTH CHINA,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 96 SPECIALTY MINERALS INC., 52 SPLIT,UNIVERSITY, 222 SREE CHITRA TIRUNAL INST.FOR MED.SCI.& TECHNOLOGY, 37 410 448 STRATHCLYDE,UNIVERSITY, 1 58 316 SULZER CHEMTECH AG, 444 SUNOCO CHEMICALS, 92 SWANSEA,UNIVERSITY OF WALES, 108 SWEDEN,NATIONAL FOOD ADMINISTRATION, 395 SWEDEN,NATIONAL TESTING & RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 43 211 SWEDEN,ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 17 395 SWINBURNE,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 162 204 SYMBOLIC SYSTEMS LTD., 326

T
TAIWAN,I-SHOU UNIVERSITY, 202 TALLER DE INYECCION DE LA INDUSTRIA DEL PLASTICO, 170 230 TAMKANG,UNIVERSITY, 269 TARKETT AB, 369 TARKETT SOMMER, 119 TECHNION-ISRAEL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, 274 TECHNOPLAST KUNSTSTOFFTECHNIK GMBH, 157 TECNOMETAL, 184 TEKNOR APEX CO., 447 THAI PLASTIC & CHEMICALS, 197 TIMISOARA,POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 442 TIN TECHNOLOGY LTD., 10 TNO, 115 TOHOKU,UNIVERSITY, 302 382

Q
QILU PETROCHEMICAL CORP., 95

162

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

Company Index

TOKUYAMA CORP., 6 TOKYO,UNIVERSITY, 66 106 TORONTO,UNIVERSITY, 396 430 TORUN,NICHOLAUS COPERNICUS UNIVERSITY, 67 TOSOH CORP., 189 TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE, 304 TOYOTA CENTRAL R & D LABORATORIES INC., 169 TREXEL INC., 280 TURIN,UNIVERSITY, 41

200 257 391 US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, 253 US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES, 257 US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH NETWORK, 257 US,VINYL INSTITUTE, 422

YUCATAN,CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION CIENTIFICA, 380 YUNNAN,UNIVERSITY, 399

Z
ZAGREBPLAST, 362 ZARAGOZA,UNIVERSITY, 170 230 ZENECA RESINS LTD., 462 ZHEJIANG,UNIVERSITY, 35 416 ZLIN,TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 101 ZLIN,TOMAS BATA UNIVERSITY, 50 190

V
VALENCIA,POLYTECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 198 VANDERBILT R.T.,CO., 83 VEKA AG, 184 VELSICOL CHEMICAL CORP., 71 87 103 VIENNA,UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY, 377 VILLEURBANNE,UNIVERSITY, 33 VINIDEX PTY.LTD., 145 VINIDEX TUBEMAKERS PTY.LTD., 358 VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF, 184 VINYL CONSULTING CO.INC., 89 349 350 VINYL INSTITUTE, 184 257 VISY PLASTICS, 204 VOLGOGRAD,STATE TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, 209 VULCAFLEX, 184 VUT, 251

U
UCB SA, 59 UK,BUILDING RESEARCH ESTABLISHMENT, 329 UK,DEPT.OF HEALTH, 97 UK,DEPT.OF THE ENVIRONMENT, 210 UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE, 264 UK,ENVIRONMENT AGENCY, 341 UK,NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE, 97 UK,WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME, 68 UKRANIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES, 112 UNESP, 32 UNIONPLAST, 123 UNIVERSITE LIBRE DE BRUXELLES, 306 UPONOR INNOVATION AB, 358 UPPSALA,UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, 395 URAL,STATE UNIVERSITY, 63 URALITA, 283 URALS,STATE UNIVERSITY, 4 85 165 US BORAX INC., 435 US,ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS, 422 US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL, 262 US,CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION, 114 US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, 183 257 US,FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION, 97 98

W
WARSAW,INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH INSTITUTE, 31 WASHINGTON,UNIVERSITY, 109 WAVIN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS LTD., 332 WILLIAMSBURG,COLLEGE OF WILLIAM & MARY, 44 241 WITCO CORP., 323 345 387 388 403 WITCO TECHNICAL CENTER, 347 348 420

Y
YAMAGATA,UNIVERSITY, 224 YESOS IBERICOS, 283

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

163

Company Index

164

Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited

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