Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

Source of original article Title

Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

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N. Hotpoint Ltd. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. Processing and Applications.Alvey. C. Hawley. J. Lupton Failure of Plastics. City University. Methven. K.J.Materials.C. and BIP Chemicals Ltd. R. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers.K. Cavendish Laboratory. UMIST.P. Plastics in Building. Wheelans. Chemical Analysis of Polymers. Wade. Hardy.J. Lovegrove.A. D. Grigo. Cellcom Technology Associates. J. National NDT Centre. Epoxy Resins. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd.Brockbank. Rapra Technology Ltd. Cox and R. Farnborough.R. S. Allen. P. Maxwell. Thomas. Nutt. H. Fluoroelastomers . Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers. Fox. Johansson Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. U. N. Coulson. Du Pont (U. Gale. Cook and M. Evans. Electronics Applications of Polymers. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. Rapra Technology Ltd. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics. Consultant. Cambridge Applied Technology.W. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns. Lynn. Hinrichsen. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging. S. Methven. Consultant. Cattell. Building Research Establishment. R. J. P.Goosey. Polyurethane. and J.N. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. University of Surrey.H.W. R. University of Surrey. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials. D. Elliott.) Ltd.M. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. British Telecom. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers. Materials.A.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers. Green.F.K. C. University of Surrey. Trego and H. Whelan.F. Rapra Technology Ltd. Lawson. A. Sandland and M. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. B. General Electric Plastics BV. Automotive Applications of Polymers II. G. RAE. D.A.Winnan. Å.F. Senter for Industriforskning. Halliwell. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. Williams Advanced Composites. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing.A. S. W. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources. Barrie. Polyetheretherketone. Joining of Plastics. Rapra Technology Ltd. Injection Moulding of Rubber. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. M. G. Processing and Applications. Friend.G. D. Physical Testing of Rubber. Djordjevic. Hollaway.W. Consultant. Gebelein. Internal Mixing of Rubber. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding. P. Feast Medical.M. R.Tooling and Component Processing. J. Spratling.R. Hollaway. Garnaud. J. H. R. Andreassen. Pakull. van de Grampel. G. Chronos Richardson Ltd. Williams and T. Reynolds. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents. Freitag. Plastics in High Temperature Applications. Bayer AG.L. Forrest. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. Hodge. W. Harwell. Wilton. Offshore Applications of Polymers. Leicester Polytechnic. A. Plas/Tech Ltd. K. D. Tooltex. Queen Mary College. FMC Corp.F.T.A. Extrusion of Rubber. Brown. Arnold Nutt & Co. Coates and A. R.D. Cattell Consultancy Services. Engineering Thermoplastics. Pira Packaging Division.C. Volume 4 Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. The Open University. Pultrusion. C. Conductive Polymers II. Daniels. Designing with Plastics.S. L. Coextrusion. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications.J. Kemmish. Brown.M. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries.R. R. Sebborn. Wright.A. Cousans. Rapra Technology Ltd. Polycarbonates. Woods.J. Biomedical Applications of Polymers. D. Armitage. Consultant. Dow Corning Ltd. University of Cambridge. Wilton. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. London School of Polymer Technology. P. Roberts. S. C. A.M. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. D. I. J.Britton. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry. J. J. Brain. O’Reilly.Properties and Applications. Weathering of Polymers.W. Rapra Technology Ltd. ICI. M. D. E. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions.F. Larsen and E. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods.T. Polymers in Marine Applications. Nova Petrochemicals Inc.W.M. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering.P. Polyimides . Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University. J. J. W. University of Manchester. Turner. Polyamides.T. A. Silicone Rubbers. A. M. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry.N.G. Lewis. Consultant.A.K. T & N Technology Ltd.D. L. Liquid Crystal Polymers.J. Report 33 Report 34 . Kirby. Composites .H.A. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH.L. R. Cox. Norway.G. M. ICI. Process Control in the Plastics Industry.C. Extrusion.W. Sidwell.

M.P. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Reeves. P. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd. Recycling of Rubber. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire. Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Part II: Processing. Meehan. England and D. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. V. M. Crawford. M. B. Theves. Gas Injection Ltd. PVC . Maier.C.R. Speciality Rubbers. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation . B.Materials. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. Soulagnet. Lee.Need. Crowther. BASF AG. The Nottingham Trent University. Polymer Membranes .A. Kobryanskii.A.J. V.B.C. J. Goodyear Technical Center.G.C. Rapra Technology Ltd. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers. Ridha. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion. T. Brown. Kelleher.A.N. Tangram Technology Ltd. The Open University.A. The Open University. Robinson. Buckley. Rapra Technology Ltd. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology. Rapra Technology Ltd. Lindsay.A. A. Spassky. D.R. T. Ryan. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding .R. Boustead. Processing and Applications. General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center.G. Imperial College of Science. J.E. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes.Nanopolyacetylene. R. Hepburn.G. W. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Bonding. H. Pritchard. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. R.Selection. Soutis. Sepe.P. Saunders. Fire Research Station. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. Forrest and G. Manuel and W.M.Industrial Materials Institute.L.Need. Thermoplastic Elastomers . Andres Garcia-Rejon. Report 112 Polystyrene . P. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Advances in Thermoforming. Mulhouse. University of Bradford. Kaminsky.W. R. Keskkula. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins.L. J. Colborn. C. H. deV. Stafford.Leadbitter. Fire Retardants. Edward Mackenzie Consulting.Synthesis. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation.E. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene . National Research Council Canada.V. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. J. C.M. M. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. R. Applications and Implications. Boustead Consulting Ltd. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques. Advances in Injection Moulding. Sherwood Technologies Inc.J. Econology Ltd. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers. Russian Academy of Sciences.Theory and Applications.Composition. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation.D. Tooling and Manufacturing.R. The Smart Chemical Company. R. Hickman. J. Dierkes. Crowther. Pearson.J.P. M. Rapra Technology Ltd. T. University of Ulster. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping. Victrex Ltd.A. Tunghai University. H.J. P.J. Building Research Establishment. Hague and P. J. Meteor Gummiwerke. Theory and Innovation. Rolando. J. G. University of Texas at Austin. Wood.R. Technology and Medicine. Theory and Innovation. I. P. P.A. T.Properties and Applications. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Y. Hill. Wang. Rapra Technology Ltd. P. P. J. Brydson. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers.Compounds. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. Naylor. P.E. Day. PEKK and Other Polyaryls. Kefford. J. Willoughby. Wünsch. S. Kent.S. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes. T. Oxford Brookes University. Adams. Lewis. Reinforced Thermoplastics .L. Johnson. Kingston University.J. . Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK. Fouassier.J. Throne. B. Plastics and the Environment. R. MRM Engineering Consultancy.A Practical Guide. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure. Moore & S. Wilson.J. Holding and E. Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Brown. C. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics.F. Fardell. University of Hamburg. Prentice.J. University of Surrey. R. D. A. Compressive Behaviour of Composites. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives. Hamerton. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres.Report 65 Report 66 Decorating and Coating of Plastics. Processing and Applications. G. Structures and Separation Performance. Forrest. The Queen’s University of Belfast. I. C. P. Lewis. Coates and A. Part I: Vulcanising Systems. Rubber to Metal Bonding. Rotational Moulding. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. Report 83 Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation.P. Rapra Technology Ltd. N. Hepburn. International Automotive Design.J. High Performance Engineering Plastics. Kemmish. Fuller Company. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96 Rubber Mixing.G. J. Plasticisers . M.R. Hydro Polymers Ltd.E.F. Vredestein Rubber Recycling B. Advances in Tyre Mechanics. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. Cubbon. University of Ulster. M. Schissel.P. Rapra Technology Ltd. Production and Applications. Brydson. W.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Kröhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. O’Neill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6


.......................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Organotin Stabilisers ........................2 1.....................................................................2 Liquid Stabilisers ................................ 12 3........................................... 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers ..........................1 1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3 PVC Compounds ..................................................................................3........4..............................................................4 4 Additives...................................................................................................... 7 2............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Processing Techniques ......2 Introduction ............... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation .1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture ...................1 Molecular Weight ................................ 16 4.................................. 14 4...........................................7......................... 12 3.... 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) ..........................................................................................................................3 1 ...........3 Bulk Powder Properties ........5 2................................. 3 History ........3 2... 8 Industry Outline ..................................................................................................................................2..............................................................................................3............................4................................................................................7...................4............... 4 2.1 4..................................................................2 Particle Size ................ 7 Key Additives ................... 8 2............................2 Landfill .................................................................. 7 2............................................................................................................................................1 3.................................1 Phthalates .. 12 Heat Stabilisers .................................................3............2 Adipates ...................... 12 4........7 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC .....................................................7................ 8 2.............11 Heat Stabilisers ..........................3 Recycling ............. 10 Plasticisers .....................1 Solid Stabilisers ............1 Incineration ............................................................ 10 3..............................................................................................................................................4............................................................... 15 Plasticisers .. 8 2....................................................................3 Global Market by Application ..........11 3.......................................................................1................................................................................11 3..................................................... 9 2............................. 7 2............. 4 2...1 PVC Resin Producers ........................................................................................................4 2.......3 3.........................................................................................1............................................................2 PVC Compounders ... 3 1............................................................................4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ..................................................................... Formulations and Applications ....................................................................................2.....................................................................................................2........................2............................................2 2.............................................................................11 3.....................................1 PVC Resin .............................................................................................................................. 12 4...... 12 3.............................. 10 3.. 4 2.................2 Homopolymers ...... 12 3.........................................11 3.3...........................3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride ...........................................4............................................... 3 PVC Industry .. 12 Waste Management ............................................................................................ 10 3............................................6 2..............3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols .......................4.............................................................................................2 VCM and PVC Production ...............................PVC Compounds and Processing Contents 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................1 Lead Based Stabilisers........................................

.................................... 20 Fillers ..................2 6 Fabrication and Treatment ........................................13............. 19 Lubricants .2.................................................................5..1 Calcium Carbonate ...............8 4... 21 4.. 25 4........................... 18 Multifunctional Additives .....................................................................3 Antifogging Agents ............. 22 Pigments ......... 28 5..........2........................................................................................14............................... 31 5. 21 4..........2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites ...........................................................................................................................7..................................... 32 5........................................................................................................9 4........................................... 20 4.................................................... 25 4.......................PVC Compounds and Processing 4................................................................... 33 5.............................................................................................................3 Liquid PVC Blending .......................................................................1 Process Aids.......1 Antistatic Agents ..3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre .......................................................................................................................4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers .....................................................3................................................7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes ........................................................................................................................5 Other Fillers ....................2 Melt Compounding ..............................................1............................2...............................2 Viscosity Modifiers ....2... 19 4...........3 Injection Moulding .......................11 Blowing Agents........ 23 4....14.....................4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications .......14....................................................................... 24 4...............................................................5.................................................................... 26 4............7................................................13..................................14.......................................................... 25 4. 18 4......................................................... 24 4...........................................................................................................1............................ 28 Processing ........... 29 5.....................................................................................................6 Nanocomposites ............ 27 5..................................4 Bonding Agents .. 20 4....................... 32 5................3.......................................................................................................................................7............................................................... 24 4............................................................................................. 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology ...... 25 4.................................................. 19 4..................................... 21 4........................................................ 16 4......................................................................................5 Orientation .. Extrusion Blow Moulding .......................2 Polymeric Plasticisers...............................6 Calendering...............13..........7 4.................................................................................................................... 23 4......................................................................................7...............................................................7....................................................................1.......................3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification .....................................................................................................................................1 Gelation ............................................................................................................................2..........4 4........................................................................................13................................... 25 4............1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing .............2 Crosslinked PVC .........................................................................................................................................................3 Medical and Food Contact Use ........2 Impact Modifiers ..................................... 21 4.................................................................................................... 31 5.2...................................13 Other Additives for PVC-P .................1 Phthalate Alternatives ...............................12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers .........................6 4.......... 28 5................................................................ 27 5.....................................5......1 Dry Blend Mixing ....................................................................................5 4............................ 18 4..........................4 Membranes ..14 Formulations .....5........................... 25 4......... 27 5..................................................................................................... 27 5...10 Biocides ..........................................................................................1 Compounding ......2 Extrusion ...7................................................4.............. 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ............................................................ 24 4...........2............................ 34 2 ............................... 18 Property Modifiers ...................................

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38


Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159


PVC Compounds and Processing

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PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earth’s natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 °C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds
PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.


CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine ClH2C .CH2Cl EDC CH2Cl .1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1). while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water. A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461). Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process. is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC.CH2Cl EDC thermal decomposition CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride Figure 1 Hydrogen chloride recycle Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM Figure 2 The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission) CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + ½ O2 Figure 3 CH2Cl .1.1 PVC Resin 2. An oxychlorination unit.CH2Cl + H2O 4 . The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3. in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen.PVC Compounds and Processing 2 PVC Industry 2.

1. typically in fluidised bed drying equipment.2 Homopolymers The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1. 345.4 °C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation. or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion. Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions. initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles.000. the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent. 2.1. The polymer is then dried. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 μm with a range of 50-250 μm. the VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging Water Drying S-PVC Water Figure 4 The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 5 . Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history.500. The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149). The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as. high plasticiser absorption for flexible products. Details are covered in Section 4. Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35. This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30. Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150). secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake.1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water.2. 429).000 to 95.PVC Compounds and Processing VCM boils at -13. The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution. Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle. 318. Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging. polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate. 166. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles. initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. Topics cover improved reactor economics. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic). 2. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 °C. monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation.

The primary particles are solid. see Figure 5. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good 2. After polymerisation.2.PVC Compounds and Processing 2. etc. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered.2. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process. Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. dipping or spreading. such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing. In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution. are conferred on the polymer.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants).4 The Mass Polymerisation Process The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process. From this milky emulsion (latex). The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction. with higher bulk density. before being placed in the autoclave. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water. A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used. VCM and an emulsifier. 2. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating. an initiator soluble in Water VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC Figure 5 The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 6 . Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced.1-100 μm. hydrogen peroxide.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC).3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water. smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 μm with a range of 0.1. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder.1. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. At the end of the polymerisation stage. When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added.1. Consequently these resins are called paste resins. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. special properties. These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets. a water soluble initiator (persulfate.2. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC. is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM. a paste (or plastisol) is produced. the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment.

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 °C in comparison to PVC at 60 °C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight
PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size
Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.


PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques
Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: • • extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives
PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

• • • • • •

2.7 Industry Outline
The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders
PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.


PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (www.evc-int.com)

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application
The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (www.evcint.com).

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV, www.evc-int.com)


Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP).2 Plasticisers 3. 3. More details follow in subsequent sections. The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe. linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). 205) and differing NGO.1 Phthalates Concerns have been raised at regular intervals. governmental and political positions (40. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. 166).2. An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. their use in toys. such as plasticisers. Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments. 117. Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. 262). This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM. orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). 228. 98. there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. dioxin-like components and copper. in Europe and the USA. 114. The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). Some companies. 257. 165. Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment. 200. 272. Subject to external audit. dibutyl phthalate (DBP). In addition to supplier consolidations. 3. VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). for improved cost effectiveness. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110. The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205). oils and solvents (253. healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11. S-PVC and E-PVC. Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics. In another development. 304. 310. detergents. which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials. but Eastern Europe is developing. 247. have signed charters covering the production of VCM. primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives. diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP).PVC Compounds and Processing The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. In particular. 317). 10 . The Western European market is maturing. used in its formulations. in attempts at ‘green’ marketing. blood compatibility (58. endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues.1 VCM and PVC Production Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM). was being disregarded (210). This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. 97. EDC. and 2003 for E-PVC. who account for 98% of production in the EU. ethylene. These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored. regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic. 377. The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years. The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. Consequently. the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC. indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. HCl. 378). Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7.

but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in children’s toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EU’s Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices).ecpi. on the regulatory situation up to 1999.org). fittings and profile. A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor.2 Adipates PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat. The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www. 3. has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect 11 . 3. PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations.3. Similarly. DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population. of course. 247).org). pipe. harmful. 219). Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled.2 Organotin Stabilisers Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the ‘elimination of heavy metal’ discussions. 100).PVC Compounds and Processing Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90. lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world.3. and for protecting food in the home. DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic. DINP.1 Lead Based Stabilisers Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates. lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers. The identification of a perceived hazard. must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www. the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report. 183).3 Heat Stabilisers For general background information. Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119). For similar reasons. Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138). 3. However. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263). provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7. some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391). for DIDP. 3. There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33. dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects. plus good insulation resistance. in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old. refer to the regulatory update (331).3. resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7).stabilisers. and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies. particularly in relation to worker exposure. 3. in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil. There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127. The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA).2. for food storage. the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into children’s mouths.

4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications. electrical properties. In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0. the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight. A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128). particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66. The content of Bisphenol A in.4. heavy metals and phthalates (282). A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252).3.. etc.1 Incineration The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment. PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements. due to some chain branching during polymerisation.3 Recycling Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability. PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297). etc. In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation. 146). the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO.4.2 Landfill PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives. 106. Formulations and Applications 4. improve cost performance.8%. Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. 12 . energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115. 3. so a heat stabiliser system is essential. In a modern incinerator. 3. i. colour. 3. the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422).1 Introduction The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2. 341). Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties. Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160). give weathering resistance. and its migration from PVC film. PVC recycling and sustainability issues. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395).4. has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14). 282. the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7. A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser. However.PVC Compounds and Processing concentration in waste water etc.4 Waste Management 3.2 Heat Stabilisers Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable. Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application. The degradation process is shown in Figure 7. with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost. 4. in particular. the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. 3. 4 Additives.e.

H+ Heat Allyl chloride H C H H C H C H C H C H C H C + HCl Cl.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish – gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength – ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H Ideal structure Non typical H C H H C H C H C Cl* H C H Heat H C Cl H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom H C H H C H C H H H C Cl H C H C C Cl.H+ Figure 7 Thermal degradation process for PVC 13 .

406. dibasic or normal lead stearates. 4.g. Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue. and end-use specification. 137. 4. This will be covered later in this chapter. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications.2.PVC Compounds and Processing During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress. 82. Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen. The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl.1. There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. have been available for many years in different product forms . 407). Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated. Non/low dusting products. Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415).flake. These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. Apart from wire and cable. e. tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite.and -CH2. starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. tablet and dosage packs. e. profile (153) and wire and cable (174. In addition. primarily extrusion and injection moulding. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322). The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105). The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47. 438). and lead soaps.2. usually based on a mixture of lead salts.1. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation.2. granule. free hydrogen chloride is evolved. have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years.groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. This increases the melt viscosity considerably. 14 .1 Solid Stabilisers 4. Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure. fittings.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis. Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates). preferring the use of organotins. They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments. These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique. 365. Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds. Some excellent review articles are available (48. and function as HCl absorbers (236. 220. or tertiary chlorine structural defects. 62. Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46. from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson.. Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced. their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. is a molecular concerted elimination. they also cure existing damage. 308. which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment.1 Lead Compounds Lead compounds. 431).. peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential. which include the lead components in a safe handling state. 323). in combination with lubricants (one-pack). Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227). The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds.g. Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe. 295).

reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe. In addition to further formulation development (454). 4.1 Organotin Compounds Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn) K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents 15 .2. solvent. usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl. The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221. Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn.2. New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75).2. e. 347. 4.2. 4. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids. In North America.1 Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd) Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. the use of lower cost. but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect.2.2. but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291). Suppliers include Akros. in the European area. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453). Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development. These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270). 348. organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium. However. profile and cable (135.3 Calcium-Organic Based Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers.2. One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite.2.2.2. due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium. linked to their good compatibility (85). The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common. 388). suppliers include Crompton.2. etc. 4.2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn) Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414).2.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser..2.g. Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas.2. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content.2 Mixed Metal Compounds Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with 4.2. Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. 387. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. 4. although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a ‘heavy metal’ (159).2. Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications. 143). butyl or octyl derivatives. new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted.2. floor and wall coverings.PVC Compounds and Processing 4.2. profile and sidings.2 Liquid Stabilisers 4. The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications.1. This is based on the ‘concerns’ about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns. their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001. and foam. complex polyphosphates (45). 136. much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn.) during processing and from the end use application. but on the organotin species. pipe fittings. Rohm and Haas are one supplier.

primarily due to the considerable media. trimellitates. etc. The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361). have particular use in medical and • • • The most commonly used plasticisers. are listed in Table 3. They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications. The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92). PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71). Citrate based plasticisers. although much more expensive. Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). Based on organic esters. The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: • • • • Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22.) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature. 4.DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108).3 Plasticisers Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser. The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate . Predictive equations have been developed (349). phosphates. The plasticiser structure. A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). 182. have been extensively tested. (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system. phthalates. extraction resistance. Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342). Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. adipates. legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. level.3. The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260). 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction.g. Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). volatility and solubility all have an influence (389). The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr). together with their characteristics. leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications..PVC Compounds and Processing (azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). 16 . 4. PVC-P materials. The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam. Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1. trimellitates are used (91). subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions. For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility. The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63).1 Phthalate Alternatives Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted.2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86). e. Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215)..

High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. high volatility. lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation High gelation temperature. low extraction. Automotive interior (low fogging). inferior extraction resistance 17 . higher volatility. but poorer low temperature performance. conveyor belting etc. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing. Good high temperature. Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy – tents. good migration resistance Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature Superior low temperature performance.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 – C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 – C11 L911P. L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance. Improved low temperature performance. good flexibility.

Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. or epoxidised esters. 4.3. Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168. High cost. effect. The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367). Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation 18 . Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267). Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335).5. Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194). 209). Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers). The functions of acrylic process aids. 223). polymeric esters are used (88)..1 Process Aids Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage. these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers. 4. with very high molecular weight.2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4. The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181. 4. The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability. New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103). More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Continued. taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance. Chemically. has been presented (89). Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings. have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%. Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188).5 Property Modifiers For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance. Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight. A review of phthalate alternatives..4 Multifunctional Additives There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79).

With a similar melting point to PVC. and below. Having limited compatibility with PVC. an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced. They are also not suitable for outdoor applications. Acting as a permanent plasticiser. particularly for clear packaging.5. Based on core shell technology. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer. The effect of residual 4. Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433). Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: • methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS).PVC Compounds and Processing 4. elongation and low temperature flexibility. ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance. it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). 4. Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77). AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier. The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437). Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz. • • • Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. They are not suitable for outdoor applications. the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261). A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed. Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450). crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber. consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224). Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95).4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required.2 Impact Modifiers Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at.5.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 °C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point. CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature. MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications. ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength. produced by emulsion polymerisation. Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic 19 .5. The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented.

this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292). (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing. Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output. natural version is normally used. Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers. It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas. However.6 Lubricants Lubricants function classically in two ways. lower the effective viscosity. Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax. To ease dispersion. 404). and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and. in so doing. Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57). but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform. Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations. filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate. depending on addition level. On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364). 4. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion.7 Fillers For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications. high whiteness. for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile).1 Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. tubing etc. the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics. This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. by definition. and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). and physical properties (459). 294.7. formulations including NBR. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. Tensile strength properties of PVC-U. The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate.. have good oil and chemical resistance. at higher filler levels. 420). 4. printing or blooming on ageing. of course. Particle size is important and. on melt processing equipment. a very efficient lubricant.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). have been investigated (381. Relatively easy to process. 20 . oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid. Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate. plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment. but some are also used to enhance properties and performance.2. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result. Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids. plate-out and surface finish. External lubricants.PVC Compounds and Processing elastomers for use in glazing gaskets. In practice. the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. 360). the ultrafine milled. 4.g. Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). have poor compatibility with PVC. the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). As extruder running speeds increase. In PVC-P applications. better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment. and stearic acid and its derivatives (403. More detailed information on lubricants is available (74. footwear. fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52. It also acts as an acid scavenger. the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants. The density of the final product will increase. The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5. is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177). 462). e. polyethylene wax.

wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material. with and without silane coupling agent treatment. 4. Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). Finite element analysis. 4.7.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required. for surface treatment of glass beads. 366). For magnetic applications. This material. Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. some with surface treatment. Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist. Operating at molecular level.PVC Compounds and Processing Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential. has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). 4. However. such as operating 21 . ground marble fillers. phyllite. 4. there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102). Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties). and different volume fractions (96). muscovite and kaolinite. of three different sizes. The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362). gelation and fusion behaviour.6 Nanocomposites Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116. of impact durability. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. and mechanical properties (70). The use of CPE as a compatibiliser. has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201). Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials. Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283). The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents. particularly in the USA. which contains quartz. 4. Cellulose fillers. Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112).7. specific carbon black pigment/filler is used. such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction. has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51). The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232). Calcium carbonate is also used in this area. Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used. for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour. in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation.7. Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate. A new technology.7.3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads. have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53). An alternative to calcium carbonate. In comparison with traditional products.7. was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably. these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material. A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416). are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications.5 Other Fillers Depending on the geographical area. the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234). has been evaluated.

The thermal stability problems. attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay. including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443). 203). giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties. The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. They are predominately used in cable. It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations. In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36).7. The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy. usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers. The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. 390). However. Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). flame retardancy. Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245. 22 . The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions. particularly when used in combination (15). were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser. An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). In comparison to other polymers. stiffness and toughness etc. It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386). Antimony trioxide has been used extensively. PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78). Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending. The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180).1. Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50. Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective. Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130). conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been 4. The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265). The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area.8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content.

and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. Their influence on photodegradation (286).10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA). Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. Lead chromate pigments. This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied. Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). dust free. Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions. This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences. have been investigated. has been observed in service. Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39. Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42. the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi. Aluminosilicates. 4. 321). Paste storage stability is also important. The influence of free iron has also been examined (344). Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give ‘bright’ whiteness and opacity.PVC Compounds and Processing shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16). Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). 334). Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time. Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material. Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. 242. have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. such as flooring and roofing material. the most common microbiocides are 10. The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling. with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131). This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373). Other predictive tests have also been suggested. 2. 279). 4. have been shown. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence. traditionally used for pipe and cable applications. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. In Europe.n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4. One predictive test has been designed and validated (13. in mild climatic conditions. are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers.10 Biocides PVC-P materials. Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. compatibility. 23 . Pinking of PVC profiles. Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols. with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides.9 Pigments Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable. Based on their thermal stability. with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457).

No permanent chemical change occurs. The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied. The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance. as foam density was reduced. operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. produced from different PVC plastisols.13 Other Additives for PVC-P 4. Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites. The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols. Arizona) to test the weathering performance. 4. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101). These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76. There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida. has been reported (120).13. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18). Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55). PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide. The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content. 24 . which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate. The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents.12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers Primary antioxidants. but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196). Consequently. Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307).1 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation. which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area. Granular forms improve handling. to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges. but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). Dust build-up is also reduced. to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved. Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80). Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation. 4. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208). UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types. which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas.11 Blowing Agents Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution. A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density. which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. The azo compounds can be specially formulated. so activity is retained. A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). The properties achieved. The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation). The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult. such as hindered phenols.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. 81).

have been reviewed. and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402). requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion.PVC Compounds and Processing By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials). Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins. 4. is to apply a coating after fabrication.13.13. A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337). appearance and performance (72). conducts away charges. 4. although not so permanent. Fumed silicas are typically used. The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing. aminosilanes and 4. of course. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up. Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations. organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface.2 Crosslinked PVC Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties. Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing. which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself. 25 . 4. particularly heat stability. air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing. The use of a reactive plasticiser. The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes. a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352). The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426). this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC. dispersed in a plasticiser. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458). To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates. has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202). Based on polyisocyanurates. and this needs to be taken into account.14. covering extruded foam.2 Viscosity Modifiers PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage. Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions. the surface resistivity is reduced. triallyl cyanurate.14 Formulations 4. as well as the manufacturing process. 4.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing New trends in PVC-U compound formulations. but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile. 424). For some PVC-P formulations.14. particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P.13. influence on the manufacturing and final products. Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent.3 Antifogging Agents Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables. particularly on display in the supermarket (400). with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres. Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). crosslink during processing.4 Bonding Agents PVC plastisol. extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications. along with a reduction in static charge accumulation. An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance. Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not.

14. used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate. usually solvent cast. The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content. into the contents and so into the body.PVC Compounds and Processing peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane. This has been reviewed in Section 3. 393. has also been studied (67). has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239). carried out using electron beam. PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs. Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268). during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO.3 Medical and Food Contact Use PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). For medical use. The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). together with the addition of a lipophilic salt. Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447). The effects of different plasticisers 4. Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354). Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the 26 . 4.14. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags. Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218). The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. the main phthalate used in medical devices. PVC-P material. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379. Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). significantly influencing water uptake (305). excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride. infusion kits etc. 432). based on materials approved for medical use. oxygen face masks. A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351). Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199). blood and plasma bags. This relates to the ‘more severe test’ criteria to satisfy the EC Directive. An additive system. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate. which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). with minimal thermal degradation (216). has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). The effect of UV irradiation on formulations. Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents. Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants.2. which has undergone specific treatment.1 showing the ongoing debate. An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser. and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185).4 Membranes PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials.

ribbon bar or paddle mixers. 5. Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material. but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients. The hot mix (now around 110-130 °C) is transferred to a much larger. is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs.. low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 °C. free-flow ability. conveying. the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment.. This breaks up agglomerates. with the screws designed to include mixing. To increase output. 5. followed by a cooling stage.1. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material.1. the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer.1. e.1 High Intensity Batch high speed mixing. Virtually shear free. homogeneity. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat. in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217). the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded. Normally. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements. pipe and profile extrusion. The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application. The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product.g. Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder.1 Dry Blend Mixing 5. ease of handling and storage. based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary 27 .1. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges). cooled. By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation. bulk density. e. which obviously includes the melt compounding stage.2 Melt Compounding For certain operations or scale of operations. a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172). allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. For some processes or smaller scale operations. with no change in particle identity. plasticising and homogenising. 5. usually into a pellet or dice form.1. the temperature rises. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon. Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients. this technique is used for cold mixing. calendering. other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz.1.2 Low Intensity 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5.g. Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature).1 Compounding The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt.PVC Compounds and Processing pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274).

The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465. (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft. 5. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. In addition. capillary rheometry.1 Gelation In the case of PVC plastisols. The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage. thereby improving plastisol mixing. There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser.1). relating to the PVC and plasticiser components.hydropolymers.PVC Compounds and Processing motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). which is hinged. 28 . All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility. are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). 5. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion. fusion and elongation followed by melting. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature. This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands. and visualising swelling and solution effects. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34). A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107). gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. Another technique is based on solvent absorption. The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and aggregates. This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425). This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings. Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). For dry blend. densification. usually involving methylene chloride. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction. there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method. A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit.com.2 Processing An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website.2. particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam formulations. A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder. which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands.3 Liquid PVC Blending Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers.1. a. cut by rotating knives and cooled. melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. 5. Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel. the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. www.

The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156).g. has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. PVC-P applications. 2:1.2. tubing. but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 °C) to be controlled more accurately. linked to high output.2. This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). gelation and metering. The barrel is temperature controlled. Further information is available (356). run on single screw extruders.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. Archimedean screws. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455). PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward. extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338). are fed by gelled compound. The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled. The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233). Statistics. sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel. can be used to determine if the process is under control. Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion. 5.1 Twin Screw Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet.2.. usually in different zones. Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels.2. The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). Screw design involves higher compression ratios. intermeshed.. New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144). Two main types of screw design are used. The relationship 29 .. cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. such as wire and cable. Screw design is complex. extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting. along the length. The role of shear stress. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding. A processing window contour mapping programme.2 Single Screw Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity. with the screw flights designed accordingly. Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates. parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). glazing strip.2. which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. e. By modelling the rheological properties. the optimisation of the flow. An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). as a monitoring tool. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation. Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254). Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. i. in PVC degradation.2 Extrusion 5. profile. using sequential simplex techniques.e. This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). softened. The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460). A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). hose etc. has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190).

in a capillary extrusion. calibrator etc. Recent developments have been presented (175. Corrugated pipe. The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155). without increasing reversion levels.com). 176). have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray.4 Foam Extrusion PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s. Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. primarily used in land drainage.2.PVC Compounds and Processing between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been investigated. more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within. Once ascertained on a trial and error basis. Heat reversion effects. screws. 5. are possible by allowing for die swell (451).3 Downstream Equipment Die design is critical to the extrusion process. die. mounted on a twin screw extruder. has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189). showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12).corma. Details of the process have been described (158). residence time and flow channel streamlining. An instrumented dual slit die rheometer. flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). has been modelled (250). a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298). Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material.2. has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251). or reactions resulting from. the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands. for pipe extrudate. As a consequence. has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates. the 5. Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process. is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www. using finite element methods. which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators. Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings. normally pipe or profile. there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213). Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel. but recently. temperatures and material properties (326). Higher line speeds. material rheology and flow through the die. Flow instability of PVC-P. it is now coming under more scientific investigation. The die and calibrator are 30 . The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage. sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit). which gave good results (206). An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion. using a differential equation for heat transfer. Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions. A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing. The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss. the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions. critical variables are temperature control. has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). associated with different cooling rates. The influence of different cooling environments.2.2. Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). cost effective tooling. Alternatively. For flat die extrusion of sheet. The simulation of profile dies. in PVC-U profiles.

In the stretch blow moulding process.4 Extrusion Blow Moulding For thin walled containers. rigidity and clarity. processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure. which is the most common. tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe. Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a ‘swan neck’ arrangement. An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology. and their function has been reviewed (346. inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. which improves impact resistance. including dies and calibrators. The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). automotive. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. not requiring impact modifier. 5. and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings. Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314). screw speed or injection rate. A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). 5.PVC Compounds and Processing the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. 333). cover the construction and telecommunication areas. Air is fed to the centre of the parison. The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). A mobile reciprocating screw gels. sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124. 359). Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents. polypropylene. However. was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. the extruded parison is initially blown undersized. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. PVC-P applications include footwear. PVC-U applications.3 Injection Moulding Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape. However. medical and electrical. allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375). The machinery. the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines.2. Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. Screw and mould designs have made big advances. permeability is reduced. The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions. 31 . The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104). have been given (258).2. ABS and polycarbonate). transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls. has been researched (401). The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC. PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity. usually based on lower molecular weight polymer. the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109). The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase. A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249). for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413).

A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame. resulting • • The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383). and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied.5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2. Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). Loughborough University. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315). The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe. is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1.6 Calendering Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. Mini calenders or Calandrette® lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. depending on the sheet finish required. particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145). Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness. usually in an inverted L-shape.0 metres in width. uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417). but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions. surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip. the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255). 5. 32 . One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber. Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder. In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe. and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. The final calender nip controls film thickness.g. in such a way that they can be rotated.2. ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible.. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured.2. Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering. The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling. feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. UK and published work includes: • the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357). Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums. In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process. Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature. The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). based on a batch process. The chemical structure of coatings. e. at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. ranging from highly polished to heavy matt.5 Orientation The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). usually in both directions. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408). 90 °C is normally used. Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented. PVC. There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or ‘nip’ set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. 358). (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender.

wall covering and tarpaulins. typically used for wallcoverings. Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste. has been determined (266). or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). or metal. and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 °C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. Deagglomeration.2. Screen coating. the article is peeled from the mould. usually on metal. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt. coatings. has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. of the friable agglomerates. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven. which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). The influence of plasticiser content and type. Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow. Slush and Dip Moulding Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 ° in three dimensions. such as underbody sealant. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers. the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. or indirectly via reverse roll coating. direct or transfer coating is used. spraying and rotational and slush moulding.. film packaging.7. is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves. Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings. caused viscosity ageing. such as lined gloves. This process is used to manufacture balls. the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight.4 Rotational. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics. brackets etc. The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343). On cooling. Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear.3 Dip and Spray Coating The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets. relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations. has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423). and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol. decorative surface coatings and stationery. This process permits multilayer 33 .7. 5. 5. The mechanism of viscosity ageing. Powder coating techniques are also used. also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear). which is designed to split open. 5. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327).7. These are subsequently gelled in an oven.7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes. where viscosity increases with time.2 Spreading or Coating For the coating of continuous substrates. timing and 5. Coil coating. including foam.2.2. The main techniques are spreading.1 Rheology An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening). such as flooring. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. 5.2.7.PVC Compounds and Processing from calendering of different feedstocks. after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste. including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying. used for coated fabrics. and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line. The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later.2. Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. dipping.

Surface modification. Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine. Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process. in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. A clear topcoat for flooring. Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). on print adhesion. Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300). and so improve print adhesion. by azide (448). using both solvent and non-solvent based inks. Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37). UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used. and then cooling.2 Surface Modification Processes The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG). 6. or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs. while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. pads. indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38). Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area. 6. which are applied to the surface using rollers. After heating in an oven and cooled. The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32). Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy.3 Coatings Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons.1 Thermoforming Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat. the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289). 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6. In comparison to injection moulding. The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film. on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants. This can involve printing or lacquering. Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients. 34 . An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating. in comparison to acid etching (399). Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456). into isooctane solution has given positive results (231). However. the article is peeled off the former. The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures. based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating. has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). inkjet or lasers. using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould. and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement. silk screen. giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179).

Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www. reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil. unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. Impact strength retention after ageing. High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated. Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). no build-up of persistent organic compounds. However.PVC Compounds and Processing Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. closed loop waste management.vinyl2010. based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256). A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which. Hot melt adhesives can be used. All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. One approach to sustainability.hydropolymers. and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. Welding techniques. and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing. the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC ‘horizontal study’. but balanced between satisfying environmental. was decreased (329). very much focused on the environmental aspect. permitting the development of new stationery items (246). used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines. this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 (www. A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226). the earth’s resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or impaired. but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management. gave good adhesion results (244). for the foil laminated material. A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). involving adhesives. Bonding techniques. Techniques. has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earth’s ecosystem. sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects. For the PVC industry. The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452). economic and social needs. Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today.org). Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396). when combined with flame treatment and adhesive. standards were set in place covering PVC production. and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU. A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). usually with a wood grain effect. PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality. The target is to have an additional 200. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE).4 Adhesion Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20). an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited). No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree.com). together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available. 7 PVC and Sustainable Development PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is 35 . include butt fusion. electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309). 6. Accordingly. are also common.000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on. risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers. This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV). The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259).

As far back as 1996. A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The homogeneous material is melt processable (25). The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371). outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122).1 PVC Rich Waste . In the UK. fluidised beds or rotating tubes.recyclepvc.1.1 General A research report. A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276). for removal of trace PVC. A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time. Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources. has also been described (204). a Government funded initiative is in place. has also separated five commonly used plastics.1. has been proposed (311). focusing on the environmental.2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage. cleaning and separating. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed. 7. for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405). Separation techniques.1. and examples of recyclate uses has been published. A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www.1.com).1. based on cyclones. at end-of-life.1 Waste Management Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM.5 million. pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection.5 million in 2002. 7.1.Mechanical Recycling 7. utilising pH level and surfactants. at end-of-life.1. based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61). Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity.1. The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry. by 2005. looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries.evc-int. The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288). to waste management projects which were funded to a total of €16. covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America. 7. ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of € 4. A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68).4 Profile 7. An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material. 7. for Italy. A continuous thermal separation system. grinding and re-use was examined (449).org). economic and social legs (www. between polymers with different compositions. by 2005.1. 36 . A review of recycling methods being used in Europe.vinyl2010. A market survey. including PVC (30). were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243).PVC Compounds and Processing The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues. along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www. for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics. The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution. was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www.com). relevant to separation (428).3 Pipes The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity. has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). Triboelectrostatic separation. ECPI. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184).recyclepvc. An aqueous column flotation technique.com).

co.1.1. have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43). Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area. 7.1.1. this depends on post industrial waste. has always been a driver. has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152).vinylinfo.10 Roofing Membranes 7. Texyloop® has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds.1.bpf.uk). Tribocharging. 7.org). A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling. has also been conducted (397) (www. from wire and cable. has been set.1. At present. 147). 7. An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336). Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings. for vinyl sidings in the USA. In its second phase. BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www. have been developed. melt filtration and triboelectric techniques. 37 .org). primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop ® process (www. Pilot collection initiatives. In the UK. start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. as used in supermarkets to transport and display products. Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC. to separation techniques and costs. separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound. A recycling project. enclosed in a virgin cap skin. The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006.7 Wire and Cable In this application the desire to recycle the copper. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material (26.1. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols.vinyl2010. if necessary) (211). linked to a suitable collection system. This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www. Changes in flooring properties. from other polymers. 7. remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer.1. PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe. after service life.vinyl2010. aiming for 50% by 2005. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225). which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330).5 Wallcoverings A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material. The separation of PVC cable waste. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003.1. has been assessed using hydrocyclone. A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369).PVC Compounds and Processing Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed.1.1.org).9 Flooring A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439). such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99). 7.8 VinyLoop® Process This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC compound. Based on the VinyLoop® technology. the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate ‘best practice’ solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste. created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers.1. Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are ongoing.6 Packaging Collation trays.

has been proposed (302. has been described (24).org). 7.org).1. This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). after separation from municipal solid waste. feedstock recycling of mixed plastics. on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams. A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been described.vinyl2010. PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. 7. has been carried out (31). which look technically and economically viable. has been investigated (29).1. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www. MSW contains an average of 0. The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids. based on market volume. operating in a difficult economic climate. with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49). Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www. including PVC. chlorine content was lower than expected (212. A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been described. based on compression or injection moulding. is available (21). A phase separation technique.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115).org). are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste. The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146). Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution. A steam gasification technique.11 Coated Fabrics An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. However. Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has 38 . Promising developments.vinyl2010. The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area. (187). VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water.1. in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). with oxygen addition. for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil. particularly Asia. in coking plants. carbon monoxide and dioxide etc. showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates.vinyl2010. A progress report. Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28).3 Incineration/Energy Recovery A survey of state-of-the-art technologies.8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to environmental. has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric. primarily to recycle the fabric (340. using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures. for liquid fuel generation. Test collection projects have been initiated. The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306). is in place (www. A catalytic dehalogenation process. hydrogen. and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material. has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride. using solvent and subsequent swelling.1. and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production. A project involving 8 Conclusions Despite being a so called mature product. The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts.PVC Compounds and Processing 7. 382). It is still the second largest thermoplastic material. 355). 214).

Additional References a. Thanks are also due to the author’s friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material. 1971. of course. essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. 422-427. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile. Ind. the replacement of lead stabilisers. 39 . All of these issues have been. 104. Gonze. a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers. recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment.1 A. leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. Génie chimique. As the reader has observed in this review. and are being.PVC Compounds and Processing occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability. Chim. the innovation process is thriving within this new environment. scientific studies and support for phthalates. It is.

PVC Compounds and Processing 40 .

2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste 41 .5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1.PVC Compounds and Processing Abbreviations and Acronyms ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4.

PVC Compounds and Processing NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10. 10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer 42 .

No. 11 refs. Somova T.901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. p. Fisch M H.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler. Sept.2003.2003. dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. No.University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate.2003. Suvorova A. p. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods.. Bacaloglu R. UK. Kondou M Tokuyama Corp. EUROPEAN UNION. Oct. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. This article discusses calcium carbonate. MoO3 aand FeOOH. PVC and polyethylene wax. taking into account their size and their shape factor.2003. 2003. p. No.Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82. Courtney J M Strathclyde. Dooley T Urals.7. 31 refs. triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications. Materials in Medicine 14.State University. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates.3.W.108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling. DSC. which served as smoke suppressants. No. 12 refs. low molec. heat release. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. USA Accession no.2003.10.m. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Sept.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. RUSSIA. p. No.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.wt. including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. Stewen U.& Associates Inc. p. Metal oxides used included CuO. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 43 . talc and glass fibre. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations. chlorinated PE. WESTERN EUROPE employed were an acrylic resin.3. 16 refs. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size. p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M. Polymeric additives Accession no. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. 18 refs. USA Accession no. CHINA Accession no. Crompton Corp. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability.899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. SOLVAY BENVIC WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. 14th Nov. VI.3.

EUROPEAN UNION.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics. and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. Sept. creating a high mixing efficiency. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications. 1st July 2003. JAPAN good anti-fogging performance. No. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index.894085 44 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . which was at 4.647.894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38. COPERION CORP. Budapest. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder.4. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec. Cross M. an increase in flow activation energy.2003. WORLD Accession no. HUNGARY. No.2003. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry.University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations. Marosi G Brunel University. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature. No. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds. low volatility. Zelei B. The new stabiliser offers Accession no. 16 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. is showing 2. No. and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures. UK. and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. July-Aug. Toth A. UK. USA Accession no. 29 refs. p. July-Aug. Cusack P A.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Hungarian Academy of Sciences.2003.4.30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader.898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33.1% annual growth for 2003. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering. In the past. p. p. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation.000 tonnes in 2000.13. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2. and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity. low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD. peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared. extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. Earlier this year.9. At this year’s NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced. which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel. this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates’ use in vinyl. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics’ sails. using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility. Tin Technology Ltd. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system.

Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. Tsuchida Y. Sakai H. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging. tensile properties. Saito I. such as surface roughness and gloss. 21 refs.References and Abstracts Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. No.1-15. 100% modulus.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. p. therefore. June 2003. SPAIN. No. The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1. AND ITS MIGRATION FROM. No.5 mu g DEHA day-1. April 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP). The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate.2.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp.891698 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 45 . reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set. Parmeland G. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation.892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.6. 33 refs. An increase Accession no. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. JAPAN in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation. PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J. tear strength. and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined. but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. Tonogai Y Japan. June 2003. Delprat P. di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA). Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles. dipentyl.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y.4. Dipropyl. the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC).Prefectural Institute of Public Health. Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. Atofina. p. Ishimitsu S. Spriet C CNEP.Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. 4. significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN.4 mu g BBP day-1. Aichi. observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering. Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. 9 refs. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1. Siampiringue N.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. Detection limits are -. 12.National Institute of Health Sciences.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser. EUROPEAN UNION. Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela. The properties included tear resistance. 17 refs. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals. Girod N. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate. June 2003. p.2. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease. dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. The absorptions of these compounds were not.891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals. USA Accession no. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). brittleness temperature and compression set. The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. Macdonald N. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals. diisononyl phthalate (DINP). No. Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance.

Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. No. p.5. Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL Accession no. which acted as HCl absorbers. Bergounhon P. FRANCE. the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers. Peyrin F ESRF. was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. which is the conventional method of investigation of foams.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89. Shaoyun Guo. Yong Ning Sichuan. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented. while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid. 3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80. 31 refs.Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC. No. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH. Microscopy. only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A. SCANDINAVIA.Ltd. particularly when used in combination. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates). 19 refs.Jiao Tong University.3. p. SWEDEN. A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp. CHINA Accession no.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S.References and Abstracts Item 15 Polymer Testing 22.890229 46 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning. 18th July 2003. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC. Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co. EUROPEAN UNION.RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden. After a brief description of the imaging system. Peres R. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing. impact and yield strengths. No.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36. 9 refs. CHINA APPLICATIONS . No. 21st May 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index. 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described.University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB. Zhang C Shanghai. 2003. Even when the ageing temp.3. and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated. images only the surface of samples.10A. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. Zhang Y. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials. 27 refs. increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. p. p. was increased to 70C. and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. Fuchs G. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. though. EUROPEAN UNION. was raised to 100C. 2003.

National Museum The extent. May 2003. using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. 28cm. while development work continues. 2003.1. This would require the recycling of an additional 350. 2003. 19 refs.000 to 600. Akron. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale. Ca. while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates.889245 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 47 .1.University. USA BELGIUM. the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples. (ACS.. In addition. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites.29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark. Michigan. 14 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. No.Technological University. ACS Rubber Division. Harrell E R Akron. of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates.4. the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81. O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL . a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco. the mechanism involves de-agglomeration. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates. by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy. p.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content.. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. Accession no. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target. p.27. experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites.X. 10 refs. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far. Matuana L M Michigan. No. Paper 77.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing. SCANDINAVIA. pp. No. DENMARK. USA Accession no. p. March 2003. FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. 9 refs. MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N.Rubber Div. Oh.340. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F.000 tonnes of PVC. VISCOSITY AGING.State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No.References and Abstracts Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . Polymer Diagnostics Inc.Spring 2003. 28th-30th April 2003. which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). 2003.889784 Item 21 Polimery 48.

PVC. The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. EUROPEAN UNION. Vrije University. TURKEY added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. Japan. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H. precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity.000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy). Mixed-colour. 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound.2002. Belgium. Elk Grove Village. Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels. 012 VINYLOOP(R). Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University. Karayildirim T.Free University. we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream. PS.) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process).Free University. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee.2002. commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution.Free University. Japan. The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder. Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference.University (Brussels.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling.and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE. 2002. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process. wire and cable. 8th-11th Sept. Material Sciences Corporation.4. directly from powder. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Belgium. Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels. Germany.Research Assn. the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars. Yanik J. During pulverisation. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology.. LDPE. Belgium. After pulverisation. In this study. Brussels. 3 refs. Paper A58 pp. 2 refs. DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel. pp.Research Assn. Illinois. separation of the non soluble materials.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002.889105 48 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 0 refs. the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. For this purpose. Brussels. and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Belgium. Brussels. 2002. Crucifix P. CD-ROM. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques.2002. showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures. Vrije University. according to ASTM methods.. USA Accession no. PP. light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry.References and Abstracts Item 24 ISFR 2002. Paper A35.4. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998. PET). Vrije University. grain size distribution. Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe. If pellets are required. Japan. a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels. and automotive waste. Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams. USA.Research Assn. such as carpets. Belgium.. into value Accession no. and their blends. 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S. 2002. Ege. the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002. modified with intensive cooling and special elements. CD-ROM. The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one. Paper A47 pp. 8th-11th Sept. NETHERLANDS. by Berstorff. The resultant powder is a homogeneous. CD-ROM. 8th-11th Sept.4. Belgium. Testing.

3 MPa and 300 deg. Uddin Md A.888798 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 49 . the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl. During dehydrohalogenation.2002.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002. Belgium.Research Assn. two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent. 8th-11th Sept. Brussels. 2002.4. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K. Belgium. the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3). The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation. The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. Murata K Okayama. which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. Kaneko J. Kusaba T.University (Brussels. Muto A.4. pp.Free University. Japan. the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap. and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h). Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Emori N Osaka. Brussels. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC.Free University. When Ca-C (8g) was Accession no. CD-ROM. 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC).for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. Paper A18. Kusaba T. Japan. In this study. 3 refs. pp. However. Sakata Y Okayama. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. 4 refs. Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. Based on the laboratory scale study.Research Assn. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. JAPAN used during MWP pyrolysis. Vrije University.C. Uddin Md A. JAPAN Accession no. Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19.2002. pp.2. CD-ROM.Free University.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002.References and Abstracts Item 27 ISFR 2002. 8th-11th Sept. organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm. Brussels. 8th-11th Sept. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. This is a twostage process. Belgium. 2002. Japan. consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C.University (Brussels. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl. Paper A15. Kaneko J. Belgium. Paper A26. Belgium. 3 refs. Bhaskar T.Research Assn. JAPAN Accession no.2002. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. 2002.City University (Brussels. We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). On the other hand. Vrije University. Belgium. Muto A. CD-ROM. The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide. the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides. Vrije University.

Villeurbanne.Free University. No. Vrije University.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels. 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M.2002.University.4. FRANCE. Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic. FRANCE. Vrije University. rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics. Cruz N C. Extract contents in excess of 99%. analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4. Kowalska E.888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8. Abramowicz A. Belgium. pp. and time and temperature of drying. p. with less than 3-5% losses. and polystyrene (PS). Machowska Z. polyethylene (PE). used to simulate contact with food. Wielgosz Z Warsaw. Rangel E C UNESP. 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES.2002. CD-ROM.Research Assn.1.Free University. Belgium. pp. a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of Accession no. 21 refs. 8th-11th Sept. 24 refs. Polaczek J. can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators. was investigated. April 2002.References and Abstracts Item 30 ISFR 2002. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper. Pelka J. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying.University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid. Gauvrit J-Y. POLAND Accession no.5. Paper A07. 0 refs. aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps. Belgium. Paper A08. BRAZIL Accession no. polypropylene (PP). fluidize beds. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.Research Assn. Japan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A. triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation. Schreiner W H. Honda R Y. No. Jeziorska R. EUROPEAN UNION. p.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM. 2002. EASTERN EUROPE.888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67. Kayama M E. PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions).800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52. Taverdet J-L. Japan. 2002. It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely. polyvinyl chloride (PVC).Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels. Parana. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET).670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L. 50 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 8th-11th Sept. CD-ROM. Lanteri P Saint Etienne. The physical significance of the results is discussed. 21 refs. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones. Belgium.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding. WESTERN EUROPE polyolefins. No.Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing. May 2003. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking.4. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined. March 2003. Brussels. Brussels. as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. EUROPEAN UNION. p.

Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements. WESTERN EUROPE were obtained in the presence of both the initiator. p. p. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp. 18th-22nd Aug.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44. Tiemblo P.K. and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined. Mijangos C. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston. No. Washington. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction. both plasticised and unplasticised.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33. April 2003.Sci.Div. 28cm. DC. p. SPAIN. 2002. Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst.5. water and polymer phases. Malaba D. 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y.References and Abstracts COPERION BUSS AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.8. 10 refs./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S. Ma. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp. Volume 43.1312-3. May 2003. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong. CHINA Accession no. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. Aguilar-Solis C. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.for Med. No. EUROPEAN UNION.University (ACS. No. p.of Polymer Chemistry. 5 refs. p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC. No.1. was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators. Fall 2002. 2003. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite. Mechanical properties were examined. Number 2. USA Accession no. 19 refs. Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films. Huang Zhi-ming. Zhang Li-feng. Exfoliated nanocomposites Accession no. cell culture studies. Huang X. Herrero M. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. such as AIBN. Reaction kinetics. ACS.University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system. 2003..and comonomer-modified montmorillonite.4. a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed.2002.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B.Div. and partial pressure of VC. Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 51 .50 U. EUROPEAN UNION. and compared. 31 refs. haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements. Brittain W J Akron. SEM.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator. INDIA Accession no. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time.

Jakubowicz I. No. the most common PVC plasticiser. International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. EUROPEAN UNION. 2003. Rapra Technology Ltd. Costa L Turin. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown. p. Fall 2001. Accession no. No.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP. Paper 18. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V.College of William & Mary (ACS. p. 28cm. Martinsson L Sweden. p. 2003.2001. Number 2.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30. but with poor stabilising effect. p. Shawbury. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds.References and Abstracts A technology said to produce the world’s first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin.881-2.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83. DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3. which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO.. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H.Div. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin. GERMANY. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. Based on a study by Poon. Div. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. SCANDINAVIA. 29 cm. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation. 2001. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD. Washington.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N.University..7mg per kg of body weight. 2nd-3rd April 2003. April 2002.of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl 52 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 26th-30th Aug. Zaikov V G Williamsburg.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals. dubbed Vynacol.159-66. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight. Il. April 2003. a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry.3. No.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology.3.National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. NETHERLANDS. Bonomi S. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.550. Other plasticisers have been employed. secondary emission products and energy recovery. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed. ITALY. DC. p. Bernardi F.. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC. 10 refs. Volume 42. plasticiser depletion. European Vinyls Corp. SWEDEN. 19 refs.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning.of Polymer Chemistry. EUROPEAN UNION. Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd. 2 refs. Du B. ACS. 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY ‘PLASTICIZER THIOLS’.

Volume 42. Il. ACS. 28cm.Div. USA stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers.4-dione and existing costabilisers. 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. 9 refs. DC. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride. 26th-30th Aug.of Polymer Chemistry. 2001. 26th-30th Aug. 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R. Number 2. p. Volume 42.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers.2001. Il. Washington. Jennings T. 26th-30th Aug. 2001. Comparison is made with conventional additives. In other words. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. 2001. Minsker or Michell mechanisms were Accession no.Div. Allen N S Manchester. Volume 42.Div.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2. USA Accession no. Hood W. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. ACS. USA Accession no. Fall 2001. Div. 28cm. (ACS.2001.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints. Div.2001. Harr M E. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends. efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process. Number 2. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints. Washington. p.Div. Volume 42. p. also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites.872-3. DC. 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS. 4 refs. such as clarity.878-9. ACS. 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M. DC.2001. Fall 2001. with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. Il. Fall 2001. Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp.876-7.References and Abstracts function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a ‘plasticiser thiol’. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction. 2 refs. Div. ACS. p.. Other properties of PVC compounds. Fall 2001. 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S. 28cm. Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. Washington.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints. Washington.Metropolitan University (ACS. Div. light stability and plate-out resistance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst..of Polymer Chemistry.of Polymer Chemistry. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. Il. EUROPEAN UNION... (ACS.of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . UK. Number 2. probably by an ionic mechanism. Chaudhry H.874-5. 28cm. DC. Number 2. 26th-30th Aug. 6 refs. together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (‘blackening’) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only.

low temperature impact and flexural modulus). 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S. The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. Ct. CD-ROM. EASTERN EUROPE.Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites. Kimura T Shimane. 12 refs. Ct. one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre. Brookfield. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing. Nanocomposites I. Session W13Composites. Malac J. Simonik J Zlin. 5th-9th May 2002. Paper 596.. Bai R. Session W7Vinyl Plastics.2. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.5. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. 2002. No. 6 refs. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. SPE.0 mm.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. Kyoto. 2002. Brookfield.. 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Kovarova L.. 15 refs. Ca. using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. p.Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights. Other Reinforcements in Composites II. Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. using a reciprocating screw blender. the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. CD-ROM. and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis. 4 refs.. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Vinyl Composites.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact. 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay.883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking. pp. An increase in Young’s modulus was obtained.University. 5th-9th May 2002.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T. Plastics and Recycling Technology 19. Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. Paper 589. Ct. Hrncirik J. particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. the abrasion resistance was decreased.5. The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2. In the absence of bonding.References and Abstracts the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. 2003. pp. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents.5. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC. USA Accession no. Ca. Vaculik J. 5th-9th May 2002. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0. SPE. were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing. Ca. CD-ROM. Brookfield. SPE. pp. JAPAN Item 51 ANTEC 2002. Malac Z. Session W12Composites.882331 54 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Paper 571. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost Accession no.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber. HUNGARY Accession no.. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites.. 2002.

Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness. 012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O. The fillers were wood flour. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll. Ct. 2002. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained. EUROPEAN UNION. Vinyl Composites.5. 2002. MEXICO the composites. Mengeloglu F Michigan.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content. The compositions also contained lubricants. Ct. Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila. Vinyl Composites. p. Ca. pp. pp. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of Accession no. 14 refs. Following blending.References and Abstracts decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers.882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002... Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. palm and lecheguilla.Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour.882253 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 55 . whilst the impact resistance decreased. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. elastic modulus and viscosity increased. 8 refs. March-April 2003. 13 refs. 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M. Ca. 5th-9th May 2002. particularly at low filler concentrations. Vinyl Composites. 25 refs. giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break. The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate. pp. Ct.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers. with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples. 2002. GERMANY. SPE.. SPE. CD-ROM. Paper 570.and DEHP-plasticised PVC films. Coahuila. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. Brookfield. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP.4. with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds’ water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals’ Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. With increasing filler concentration. a stabiliser and a processing aid. CD-ROM. and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. 5th-9th May 2002. the tensile strength.882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002. CD-ROM. additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. AKVA WATERBEDS APS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brookfield. USA Accession no. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%).882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Paper 569. Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C.. No.6.. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. particularly when using low chlorine polymers. Paper 568. USA Accession no. 5th-9th May 2002. Ca. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Brookfield. SPE.2. 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. and foams with densities as low as 0.. and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder. and also the impact resistance.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. chemical foaming agent (CFA).. Accession no.

Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described. EUROPEAN UNION. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. L’Etang A J. 14 refs. No.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30. 2002. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring.Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. Zhang Yinxi Shanghai. 56 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings. The flexural modulus. Paper 19. and flexibility. it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. 2003. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS CHINA where. 23 refs.Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition. The elastic-deformation dispersion method. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms. pp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone. held Krems. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B.2. 2000. Courtney J M Strathclyde. 11th-13th Sept. MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. Cu2O. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate.2000. when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. TS and EB were also studied.2.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000. as a coating. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos. UK. CHINA Accession no.. T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M. abrasion and scuff resistance. IOM Communications Ltd. Qiao Xiuying.3. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia. p. and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming. forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect. 2002.1. 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003. Austria. 2 refs. 21cm. Film properties listed include details of chemical. the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides. No. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. flexural strength. Kadyrov R G. was carried out in a single- Accession no. Zhang Yong. peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. CuO. EUROPEAN UNION. p.177-85. 30 cm. Resin properties. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery. No. London. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite. triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. p. BELGIUM.University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. is based on the idea of multiple breakdown. 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.

Dongyan Wang.University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated. zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy.11. USA Accession no. Irie H. In this initial period. chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra.2.2002.State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. 2003.References and Abstracts screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.45). No. 23 refs. and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC. 2003. 2002. p. p. Watanabe T. Jianqi Wang Beijing.Academy of Science & Technology. Tokyo. No. Nakajima A. FRANCE. April 2002.1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P. Nov. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions. 4 refs. 2003.2. Nishikawa T. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. Marquette.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. No. pp. the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences. It was Accession no.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described. Somova T V Ural. No. p. pressure. RUSSIA Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54. p. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded. Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz.Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage.. Hashimoto K Kanagawa.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44. CHINA. 9 refs.3.2. Wilkie C A.880107 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s).4. EUROPEAN UNION. thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Institute of Technology. rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du. ONDEX. 24 refs. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon. No. and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined. The influence of additives (calcium stearate. No. For PVC-clay nanocomposites. and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. RUSSIA Accession no.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus. EUROPEAN UNION.University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC. AUSTRIA. including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements. p.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun. the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay.

012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp. 2002.Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied.879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. Yoshiga A. muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl Accession no.. MODEST 2002. Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst. USA Accession no. Hungary. Feb. Ca. oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC. and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased.231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H. PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. Kowalonek J. Brookfield. POLAND Accession no. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification.6. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h).337.. Degradation and Stabilisation. Valenzuela-Diaz F R. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. p. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products. SPE. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements.. Session T52Injection Moulding. p. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling. pp. Paper 540. UK. Ca.. the Government’s recycling markets development body. 2002. is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors. shrinkage. WRAP. Session W1Extrusion. CD-ROM. Ormanji W. Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). Extrusion General.879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate.5. The photoinduced degradation. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed. Ct. and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive. SPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. viscometry. Interactive Presentations. Toffoli S M Sao Paulo. Ct.879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No. Budapest.WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Fourteen critical dimensions. June/July 2002) EASTERN EUROPE. 5th-9th May 2002. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the company’s own fleet. profile bow.University. CD-ROM.2003. maximum tensile stress. JAPAN and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process. Polymer Modifiers & Additives.References and Abstracts found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas. 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD. 5th-9th May 2002. Ribeiro A P. Brookfield. 2003. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC. pp. Paper 520.. bow. Young’s modulus. Meanwhile. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. 17 refs. Oldak D Torun. They are then stripped down 58 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No. 30 refs.2.

extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.References and Abstracts chloride) (PVC) plastisols.. USA Accession no. 27 cm. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties. Il. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility. USA Accession no. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. 7 refs. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented.Vinyl Div.Chicago Section.Chicago Section. heat stability. SPE.Vinyl Div. 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate.. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible. Session 4. appearance and performance of the final product are discussed.. 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam. 8 refs. BRAZIL NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP). 2002.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Ct. Brookfield. compared with those containing calcium carbonate. Il. and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years. 2002. functions very effectively as an offset to DINP. surface chemistry and equipment design. 8 refs. Jarus D PolyOne Corp. 012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J.43748. and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity. Ct. 30th-2nd Oct. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. and higher plastisol viscosity. Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. p.2002. Brookfield. and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 59 . 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A Accession no.51730. (SPE.2002. Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. (SPE. The new blends offer improved efficiency. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate. SPE. new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. Session 48 Paper 5. Il. p.877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002. SPE.) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers.. rheology.2002. Session 4. Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described. Majewski T.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years. the same processing temperatures and heat stability.. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. p. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca..877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002. 2002.) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed.879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002.. This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility. Brookfield. SPE. (SPE. Rabinovich. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 30th-2nd Oct. insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance. Il. 27 cm. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. Paper 2.41334.2002. SPE.Vinyl Div. Lang J. there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly. Recently.877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. Ct. Paper 4.. 27 cm. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls.. USA Accession no. 16 refs.46372. SPE. avoiding messy pigment dusts. tensile strength and viscoelastic properties. which will lead to improvements in certain key properties. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860).Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Ct. p. Brookfield.. Paper 1.Chicago Section. 27 cm. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. gelation and fusion temperatures. Session 4..

The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002.) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile. (SPE. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct.877701 Accession no.. Brookfield.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications.Chicago Section. storage and use lifetimes. USA Accession no. SPE.. DPB. Il. Ct. Paper 7.Vinyl Div.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002. Il.. only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. External lubricants on the other hand.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure..) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external.. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). 30th-2nd Oct. 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E. SPE. as they are effective radical scavengers. by reduction of oxidation intermediates. Session 3. USA Accession no. Session 3. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives.) Traditionally. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. Harr M E.877698 60 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Brookfield.2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 27 cm. USA Item 76 Vinyltec 2002. 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOC’S FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R. 27 cm.391400.. p. and to a lesser extent thiosynergists. SPE.2002. internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier. 2002. Ct. USA Accession no.877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials. p. A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. SPE. Dover PhosBooster. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use.Chicago Section. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light. 2002. are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former. 30th-2nd Oct..References and Abstracts L & L Consulting LLC (SPE. Brookfield. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Chicago Section. Paper 5. Il. 5 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties. Typically..40310.Vinyl Div.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. (SPE.Chicago Section. but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year.36774. 5 refs. (SPE. Ct. 27 cm. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.2002.Vinyl Div. Session 3. p. Stevenson D R. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure.Vinyl Div. 2002. SPE. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release.. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification. SPE. cost effective and additive intensive. SPE. stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. Paper 8. The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser. Phosphites. Papazoglou E. Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp.

. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Other effect additives . a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC.Vinyl Div. SPE.2002. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS).2002. detract from its resistance to fire.References and Abstracts Item 78 Vinyltec 2002. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. p. such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications.. Session 3.Chicago Section. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.) Phenolic products. Paper 1. optical brighteners.34763. Ct. SPE.W. SPE. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation Accession no.. p. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 2002. Il. In several laboratory studies. fencing. 30th-2nd Oct. In the case of flexible PVC. 5 refs. Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc..877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 61 .& Associates Inc. Ct.. Il. Ct. etc.) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC. SPE. Ct.2002. p. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS.for instance.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 2002. (SPE. Il. Paper 4.) The development of new applications for PVC. antistats. SPE. hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light.. products such as patio furniture. USA Accession no. to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer. Paper 3. 27 cm. Session 3. (SPE. flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated. SPE.33543. Brookfield. . Unlike UV absorbers. Oertli A G. 2002. Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc. are widely used throughout the PVC industry .. 27 cm..Chicago Section.) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications. 2002. their activity in PVC is neither well understood.. 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A. has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. SPE.. 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. heat release.. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented. however. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented. 27 cm.2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. SPE. pond liners. Session 3. 30th-2nd Oct. especially sterically hindered phenols. USA Brookfield. 8 refs. antifog agents. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Its relatively high chlorine content (58. (SPE. USA Accession no. SPE. SPE. etc.additives such as antimicrobials. 27 cm.Vinyl Div. window and door trim. (SPE.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 30th-2nd Oct. To meet specifications such as oxygen index. greenhouse films. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability. antioxidants. p..Vinyl Div. Il. Brookfield.that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined. Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively. Paper 2. 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B. although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability.32131.Vinyl Div. nor well known. NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC.877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002. Session 3. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Chicago Section.295317. the plasticisers which contribute flexibility. 30 refs.Chicago Section. as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation. 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A. Brookfield.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. in most instances.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers.

as published. making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed. SPE. Brookfield. USA Accession no. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs. are evaluated. this new hydrotalcite.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. Il.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 2 refs. Ct. filler profiles change to keep pace. SPE. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. with vinyl floor tile.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. dosing.. as represented by a 75 deg. as well as a good toxicological profile.Co. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides. Il..877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002. showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate. 1 ref. 30th-2nd Oct. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers. 27 cm. In another test. 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S.. Some years ago. enabling broad registration and food approval status. The data. Using calcium carbonates as filler.24766. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants. and fluorescent whitening agents. Ct... thereby enhancing PVC’s environmental acceptance. (SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time.Chicago Section.. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts. p. SPE. Ciullo P Vanderbilt R. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing Accession no. (SPE. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i. 2002.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. WESTERN EUROPE desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape. the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength. As an effective acid scavenger. wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity. As performance demands of plastics increase. p. especially with requirements related to strength.Corp. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties. or directly to the compound. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties. when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate. In the above mentioned applications.T. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC. Paper 7.References and Abstracts of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed. Brookfield.M. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers. Session 2. it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. and case of emulsification.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles. very important for introduction into aqueous processes. selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. antistats. SWITZERLAND.. De Massa J. SPE. 27 cm. 62 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . which give additional invaluable advantages in handling. USA Accession no. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC. 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T. thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Il. SPE. solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers.. the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics.2002. traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products. 30th-2nd Oct.26971.Chicago Section.2002.Vinyl Div.e. Paper 6. in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours.2002. etc. lead-stabilised compounds. Ashton H C Huber J. Session 2..Vinyl Div. 2002.877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002.

Il.. SPE. p. Brookfield. Session 2. have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies.) For some time now plasticisers.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE. physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1.Vinyl Div. (SPE.20517. SPE.. no sensitising properties.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div..877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. 27 cm. di-isononylcyclohexane-1. 2002. 27 cm.. (SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Il. Session 2. Taking this into account..Chicago Section.2002. no genotoxicity.2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented.Chicago Section. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures.Chicago Section.Vinyl Div. Ct. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 63 . especially phthalates. 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E.Chicago Section. SPE.. 27 cm. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp.Vinyl Div. p. Brookfield. 27 cm. Session 2. Paper 1. these systems have not been performance and cost competitive. SPE. p.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002. 30th-2nd Oct..2-dicarboxylic acid ester. Il. Brookfield. 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Paper 3. 2002. Session 2. USA Accession no.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed... The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality. SPE. no reprotoxicity and biodegradability. which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains.. SPE.877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. The manufacturing process. designated Hexamoll DINCH. SPE. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity. This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions.State University (SPE. RUSSIA. Paper 2. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers.References and Abstracts Brookfield. 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M. 16 refs.. USA Accession no.2002. Ct. 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B. Historically. Ct. Ford J I OMG Inc. 2002. Dooley T. DMA and dielectric relaxation.Vinyl Div. Furthermore.. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or ‘green’ alternatives. this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC). SPE. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions. (SPE. USA thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains. 30th-2nd Oct. p. The alkyltin alkyl Accession no.193202. 11 refs. Ct. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. are discussed. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives. Paper 5. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Bacaloglu R.18190. no peroxisome proliferation. as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers. Streeter B E. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products. SPE.2002. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed. SPE. Safronov A. 30th-2nd Oct. 2002. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser. Stewen U.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.23153. In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA. Somova T Crompton Corp. DSC. Urals. SPE. Gans G BASF Corp. Hackett J A. Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals.

extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing. Brookfield. SPE. SPE. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties. p. 27 cm.P. 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002.Chicago Section. low migration and weatherability are required. Among these. although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies. Il. ‘General Purpose’ plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost.Co. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts applications where high permanence. 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP).. as well as many other end uses.1019.Vinyl Div. and comparisons to the traditional ‘General Purpose’ (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided. 64 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . the ‘Precautionary Principle’ has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. (SPE. Session 1.Chicago Section.11350. USA Accession no. Session 1. p.2002. SPE.. (SPE.. Paper 6. Il. polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. SPE.2002. SPE. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations. low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high Accession no. SPE.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE.Vinyl Div. Brookfield. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required. Il. The test data include heat ageing.. 27 cm.. 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC. SPE. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances. the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Vinyl Div. Paper 5. USA (SPE. molecular weight and manufacturing process.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible. Paper 7.15375. so they are not persistent. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable. However..877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. resistance to extraction.) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers. it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. Brookfield. 30th-2nd Oct. and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. food processing and packaging applications.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The performance requirements covered are printability... 6 refs. 2002.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS O’Rourke S Hall C. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications.Chicago Section. Several of these issues are addressed. It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties. 27 cm. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.2002. Ct. The substances produced in highest quantity. Nevertheless. longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. Known ‘non-phthalate’ plasticisers are reviewed.. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. migrating or too volatile. Session 1. 4 refs. For special needs. 2002. Ct. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. p. which are discussed in detail. focusing specifically on the scientific evidence. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans.Inc. Ct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.

long the workhorse of the industry.877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002. The polymerics. USA Accession no. Il. 30th-2nd Oct. and are well suited for general use. and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. and are expensive. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers.2002. at best. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful.Vinyl Div. 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. SPE. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites. as compatibiliser. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.References and Abstracts levels. and by some definitions. USA early 20th century. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter. p. trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. No. 2002. except in some very rare situations. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite. permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective. Trimellitate plasticisers offer today’s vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. p. 5 refs.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s. process easily. Finally. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented. Yong Z.Chicago Section. SPE. Chemistry. 2002. 2002.Chicago Section.. useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application. Il. p.Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin.876688 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 65 .Vinyl Div.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W. Brookfield. Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE. engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. are difficult to process.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. recent investigations reveal that. Phthalate plasticisers. 30th-2nd Oct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Unfortunately. SPE.2002. CHINA Accession no. SPE. process aids and modifiers. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants. Paper 3.6986. WORLD Accession no. Many of these products are esters. flexibility or distensibility’. are often inefficient. levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals.. SPE.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as ‘a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability. 17 refs.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. are efficient. Ct. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers... are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC. SPE. Brookfield. USA. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today. Ct. have poor low temperature properties. 27 cm. Session 1. 3 refs. Yinxi Z Shanghai.. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers. Session 1. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the Accession no. the relevance of these effects to humans is. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Xiuying Q. impart good low temperature properties.6. Paper 4. which have the permanence for high temperature applications. questionable. which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness. starting around 1935. and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications.8998. 27 cm.

grafting.2002. No.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S. US.2002.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C 66 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 6 refs. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. UK. but was not significantly affected by bead size. EUROPEAN UNION. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER. UK. Xiao L.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25.University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF. Xuecheng P. The effects of crosslinking.2002. It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. p.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13. No.335. and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction. Wilkie C A Marquette.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. 11th Oct. p.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D. 28 refs.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC.9 mm obtained by filtering. CHINA Accession no. independent of bead size.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No. p. No. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.4.References and Abstracts Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287. Dec. UK.FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.OF HEALTH. EU. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0. Nov. HEALTH CANADA. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. US. sifting and drying.DEPT. USA slowly. washing. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing.NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE. 11 refs. Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp. p. condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied. Liqiang C. WESTERN EUROPE. CHINA Accession no. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Young’s modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail.2002.6. No.University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES.9.University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions. Dec. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations. and then reduced only Accession no. HEALTH CANADA EU. as solvent.2002. UK.9. AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool. and using three different sizes of bead. 7 refs.

Ca. 29 cm. Rapra Technology Ltd. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers. BELGIUM.. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. 28 refs. Kamdem D P Michigan. have long been the focus of considerable media. and the particular advantages of certain alternatives. USA Accession no. colour measurement and tensile property testing. such as Vestolit B 7021. which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants. is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry. Paper 285. while providing a big weight saving.Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes. greater durability and a higher quality appearance. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. The results of the latest studies are summaries.State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied.4. 22nd-23rd. which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste. Paper 3.Technological University.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002. legislative and scientific attention. a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives. Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility. p. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd. pp.References and Abstracts Polyfence has developed Supalite. Ct. phthalates.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. are presented. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest. Shawbury. EUROPEAN UNION. which Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 67 . The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002.Oct. AST 66. 6 refs.2002.8.2002. together with the response from industry.) Plasticisers. This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates. particularly. they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures. Properties and Stabilization. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Pevikon D 61. with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brookfield. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. No. p. EASTERN EUROPE. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC.5. 53 refs. and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93.000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts. it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42. HUNGARY.41. CDROM. No. including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates. and Slovinyl K 72. p. POLYFENCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no.3343. Aug.. Hungary..997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. SPE. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples. contact angle measurement.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol. Michigan. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 5th-9th May 2002. The core of the product. Session T7Vinyl Plastics.

PROPERTIES. flexural modulus and strength. p. CDROM. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn). continuous layer adjacent to the gate. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. resulting in a skin-only region. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2.872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002.5. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP. No. with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC). Tokyo. 2002. SPE. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface. impact strength. More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. 5th-9th May 2002. Brookfield. Accession no. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy. SPE. as a model compound. The core always formed a single. and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength. JAPAN Accession no. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. dart impact energy. Stewen U.. and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied..872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22. 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R. (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. polypropylene (PP). whilst further from the gate. Fisch M H. Ct. 5th-9th May 2002. CDROM.. p.University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process. USA Accession no.3. pp. developed to give improved low temperature flexibility. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared. Ca.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K. ABS and PC. Accession no. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds. Sterzynski T. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer. AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M. Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz. 2002. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd.EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D. Krainer E Crompton Corp.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION . 2003. Session T7Vinyl Plastics.1. Watanabe T. No. and polycarbonate (PC). Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Brookfield.Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products. and good adhesion to GFR-PVC. 10 refs. was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight.. 68 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Paper 282. Properties and Stabilization. Toyoda P PolyOne Corp. Nishikawa T..872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. Ct. Paper 284. 1 ref. Properties and Stabilization. as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. Ca.872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002. (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s. and heat distortion temperature. 2002. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. 12 refs. Bacaloglu I.5. with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp. to optimise the stabiliser composition and content. pp. 22 refs.References and Abstracts ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E. core flow ceased. The dry blend time was reduced by 10%.Academy of Science & Technology. such as dioxin. 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING. usually related to the instability of the extrusion process. Nakajima A.

Worsley D Swansea. POLAND suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised.8.. However. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA). Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this.South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products. the parent of which is the plasticiser. No.University (SPE. that is.872008 Item 108 Plastics. solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets.. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series. 23 refs. pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process. implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. Washington. During extrusion.871796 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 69 . p. 2002. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects. The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation. accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone. 27cm. In addition. Accession no. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Consequently. near the Tg of the polymer. is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr. 17 refs. p. lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. Proceedings of a conference held Houston. each with one fewer carbon atoms. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel. corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface.25-46. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements. Session II.Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2. SPE. at levels of 0-88 phr. using different mechanisms. small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes.. All the fragments are produced at similar levels. EASTERN EUROPE.University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. EUROPEAN UNION. Brookfield.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder. are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. and thus with various degree of gelation. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls. UK. Ct. 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density. Kumar V BBS Corp. suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission. 9 refs. the softer. increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced. PVC pellets. it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. 2002.2002. Tx. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE. In the second system. 22nd-23rd Oct. Rubber and Composites 31.

Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. 29 cm. US.9. 2002. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical conductivity. compounding and processing. The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix. No.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C. 2002. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical.2002. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology. p. medical.References and Abstracts Item 110 Shawbury. as some environmental groups had urged.University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure.868089 Item 115 Shawbury. GREECE. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis. 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P. wire and cable and packaging. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Rapra Review Report 148. Pissis P. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction. Davydenko V V.122. Dai G East China. UKRAINE. legislation and end-of-life are discussed here.National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were Accession no.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38. No. WORLD studied. EUROPEAN UNION. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling. Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences. Oct.CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION USA Accession no. Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd. 13. additives. p. safety. 2002. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys. price.4. 30cm. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces. WESTERN EUROPE. Yun J. Rapra Technology Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd. p. No. pp. No. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided. p. No. 39 refs. Sept. The agency’s report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought.2002. 30th Sept. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand.. environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys. 20th Dec.31. pp. vol. The properties of the two different powders are compared.13. markets and applications.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. EUROPEAN UNION.2002.to 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand. UK.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14. 70 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. 6 refs. Athens.10. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. CHINA Accession no. 2002 PLASTICS WASTE . SINGAPORE Accession no.FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32.196. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15.

The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion.Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications.e. EU. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE. i. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. June 2002. on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated.References and Abstracts CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd.or tri-alkoxy structure. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers. Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity. chosen as a model filler.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura. Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads. June 2001) SAUDI ARABIA Accession no. No. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC Accession no. aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia. tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. antimony oxide. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy. No. 16 refs.863581 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . 28 refs. Naoki Yokouchi. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste. p. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL EXTRACTION Bouma K.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19. The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. JAPAN Accession no. Alessandria. Schakel D J Netherlands. Yoshiyuki Tobita. p. Kazuya Nagata. diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate.Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp.2. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di. NETHERLANDS. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy.Institute of Technology. and different flame retardant fillers.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16.485 refs. The effect of plasticisers. Hideyuki Nigo. In the PVC-containing toys. based on a number of life cycle assessments. the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the ‘Head over Heels’ agitation method. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate. such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP). The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp. zinc borate.) Rapra Review Report No.5. 2002.6. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage. Italy. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose. EUROPEAN UNION.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. 2002. NETHERLANDS. 13 refs. Takeo Iida Osaka. p. No.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm.

.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. Wilkie C A Marquette. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Parlow D.I. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction. and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. blending time and molec. No. 72 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . ITALY. Brankov K. Cvorkov L Belgrade. Novi Sad.wt. thermal properties.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb. EUROPEAN UNION. June 2002. its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. Stojkov D. dioctyl adipate. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.2002. Sintelon AD. p. ATOFINA ESPANA. YUGOSLAVIA Accession no. 9 refs.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP. EASTERN EUROPE.Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure. has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling. The effects of clay loading.. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser.855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002. CICLOPLAST SA. 15 refs. AISCONDEL SA. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings. EUROPEAN UNION. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate. p. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. Yao Q. and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. WESTERN EUROPE. REVINIL. Details are given. June 2002.& CO. TEM. UNIONPLAST EUROPE-GENERAL. Tarkett Sommer.2001. DU PONT DE NEMOURS E. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Aug. LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical.University.References and Abstracts Item 119 ENDS Report No. This article provides details of the association’s findings.University.329. No. HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA. it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials.159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J. Unionplast. DMA and cone calorimetry. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. USA Accession no. TARKETT SOMMER. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way. which they say have at least comparable properties. dynamic mechanical properties. DOP concentration. Popovic I G. dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof. and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed. Brooklyn. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS EU.2. p.542. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82. WESTERN EUROPE Wang D. UK. flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites. 27th-28th May 2002.INC. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects. p. TGA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SPAIN. DOP. annealing. FRANCE. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg.University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density. June 2002.2.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Accession no. Europe’s largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors. AMTICO CO. ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol. butyl benzyl phthalate.

853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. UK. pp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step. The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs.64. on the basis of which.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Within such a framework. including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser. 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . monitoring and financial scheme. EUROPEAN UNION. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture. 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical.. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable? EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. UK. (EUROMAT 2001. p.4. Ouahmed S Accession no. nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated.36). WESTERN EUROPE Algiers.22. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. 2001.180. management. 2000. 2002. ECPI. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Paper 60. mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule. the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite. The additives.T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described. RUSSIA Accession no.113-121. processing aid. 30cm. No. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors. Paper 11.7. No. 30cm. The influence of various parameters such as temp. and internal and external lubricants. ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 . Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available. waste management. 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. Rapra Technology Ltd. Italy. Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers. social progress and dialogue. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2001.Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet. length descriptors. 5 refs. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium.. a method of prognosis was developed.854595 Item 125 Cheltenham. 2002. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds. 29cm. FTIR spectroscopy. The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis. conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. tin-based heat stabiliser. were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography. p. The Natural Step UK. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. pp. form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space. pp. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC. 2002.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products. UK. EUPC.References and Abstracts Shawbury.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N. ECVM. catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds. AUSTRIA. 2002. 7 refs. June 2001) ALGERIA Accession no. Rimini.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29. Zeddam C. London. stirring..853889 Item 126 Brussels.Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group.590-601.Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied.

GERMANY. that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier..WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants. 11 refs. WESTERN EUROPE carried out on PVC wall coverings. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 58. The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr. Paper 57. 23rd-25th April 2002. Ineos Silicas Ltd. as an aluminosilicate. 21cm. release effect. Paper 59. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. Zeocros E100. flow and plate-out. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.579-89. p.References and Abstracts SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 56. THERMALLY STABLE. Toft A European Vinyls Corp. London. London. 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing. heat stable. The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC. DSC and X-ray scattering. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide.852792 74 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers. EUROPEAN UNION. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants. p. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss. EUROPEAN UNION.569-78. 2002. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks. 012 LOW-SMOKE. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. PVC foam and clear film containing. Leeuwendal R. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. p. EASTERN EUROPE.559-68. zinc borate. 012 SELECTION. 21cm. are reported. LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J. 21cm. 2002. including heat stability. IOM Communications Ltd. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing. viscosity reduction by internal lubricants. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. UK. London. 2002.. Howick C. fillers and other additives. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton... 2002. HUNGARY. shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity. fusion delay by external lubricants. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate. 23rd-25th April 2002. Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations. EUROPEAN UNION. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests Accession no. 6 refs. IOM Communications Ltd.555-8. UK. 7 refs. which show that lead-free. colour and impact strength. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated. their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth. p. 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P. 21cm. Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd. UK. was also evaluated. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS . 23rd-25th April 2002.

IOM Communications Ltd. p. Paper 52. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach. The recycling. which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC. which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates. Various aspects are addressed. UK.. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds. Paper 51. IOM Communications Ltd.496-503. 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. IOM Communications Ltd. London. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed. staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated. 2002. called Advera 401. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. p. Paper 55. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. 8 refs. less expensive zeolite costabiliser.852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T. regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products. 23rd-25th April 2002. in PVC processing technology. is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability. EUROPEAN UNION. USA.852786 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 75 . Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 50. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc.. London.. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. London. a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The chemistry. and Advera 401S.529-39. UK. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. food-contact applications and potable water pipes. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.548-54. which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. 4 refs. 2002. 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives’ Accession no. 2002. 21cm. UK. Marcus B PQ Corp. USA.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. 23 refs. 2002. London. WESTERN EUROPE pyrimidindiones.. stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported. 23rd-25th April 2002. food packaging. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. such as toys. USA. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 TIN STABILISERS.515-28. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 53.504-14. Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers. a general-purpose. London. p. ITALY. worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers. for use in PVC applications is reported. product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. p. 23rd-25th April 2002.. 17 refs. Allieri G Lamberti SpA. including handling of tin stabilisers. as heat stabilisers. GERMANY. 16 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. The performance of Advera 401P.References and Abstracts Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.

PVC pipes and fittings and profiles. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. foamed sheets and profiles. 2002. 2002. p.. London. zinc. 23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Paper 49. like tin. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. WESTERN EUROPE (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables. p. MacDonald S.References and Abstracts Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but. 23rd-25th April 2002. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. Hinrichsen E L. 33 refs. p.852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.437-44. IOM Communications Ltd.445-57. UK. Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer. Paper 47. Shah M. IOM Communications Ltd. Krainer E. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers. for measuring the flow properties of a material. UK. Kellett R W. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.. 2002. London. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p.471-85. USA. which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder. GERMANY.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 2002. London. 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.. IOM Communications Ltd. SCANDINAVIA. 21cm. Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002.. 21cm. 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH 76 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large Accession no. Fakinlede J. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future. solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 46. EUROPEAN UNION. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. p.. 11 refs. IOM Communications Ltd.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described.486-95. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Stewen U. is reported. 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P. UK. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations. Paper 45. Schiller M Chemson Ltd.461-70. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. is under pressure in some European countries. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed. London. calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported. Fisch M H. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S. 23rd-25th April 2002. NORWAY. Paper 48. 21cm. which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION.

23rd-25th April 2002. p.References and Abstracts four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window. a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials) Accession no. SCANDINAVIA. Paper 32. 7 refs.. 21cm.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.410-5. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 40. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders. 21cm. 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffei’s twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. Paper 43. 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. AUSTRALIA. 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. 15 refs. 21cm.382-7. The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. Paper 41.416-36. p. 23rd-25th April 2002. The energy balance. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. IOM Communications Ltd. 2002.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. BELGIUM. NORWAY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. Aylett G J Vinidex Pty. which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. which are less prone to wear. IOM Communications Ltd. p. are outlined.. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . UK. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. 3 refs.322-9..388-98. London. is reported. Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. p. London.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE London. Paper 44. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 23rd-25th April 2002.Ltd. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. are described. IOM Communications Ltd. 2002. output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J. London.. p. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered. 012 VINYLOOP.

7 refs. p. UK.. Paper 20.221-7.186-91.. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. concentration run. 21cm. 2002. Paper 31.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. gloss. 2002. Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. ITALY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Howick C Pall Corp. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. 10 refs. 2002. Paper 30. colour.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Malcomson S P 78 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. such as Irganox 1141. EVC ITALIA SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride. cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M.317-21. media acclimatisation. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. IOM Communications Ltd. London.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK.. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement. 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. optimisation trial. 21cm. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit. p. London. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures.. London. 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J. Fischer W. 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T. Paper 27. The antifouling action of Evicas 90. European Vinyls Corp. heat stability. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.273-81. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter.References and Abstracts The use and benefits of liquid.852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.311-6. Properties evaluated included rheological properties. p. 21cm. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002.. IOM Communications Ltd. London. Accession no. p. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. SWITZERLAND. 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. Paper 17. 2002. partially hindered phenols. p. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 8. process documentation and customer education. melt homogenisation. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. including window profiles. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. UK.WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling.852750 Accession no.151-6. Paper 7. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts mechanical properties.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 14. such as alumina and silica. EUROPEAN UNION. Paper 13. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. p. London.95-104. IOM Communications Ltd. p. 2002. London. including DSC. 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. 21cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 16.. flow simulation. 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike. UK. AUSTRIA. SEM-EDX. inexpensive tooling. bypass rheometry. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. dual extrusion. 2002. Schiller M Loughborough. AUSTRIA. sidings. GERMANY. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. plate-out and artificial weathering. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Honeywell. wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described. p. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered. 23rd-25th April 2002. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd.852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 6 refs. surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed. 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS . 21cm. 21cm. fences and foam profiles.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. Trends in high speed extrusion. BELGIUM. 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002.179-85. flexible tooling. London. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Varshney N. 6 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. recyclability. Van Soom K. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated. 2002. 21cm. p.852743 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 79 . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. AUSTRIA. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques. FRANCE. 2 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.157-65.105-15. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 11 refs.THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles. is described.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives.

p.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56. PP. plastics additives with approval for direct food contact. London. RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods. Stoynov L A. alternatives to lead. IOM Communications Ltd. Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry.INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Data are presented for PVC. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food. 21cm. 8th-14th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A. UK. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E. AUSTRALIA Accession no.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market. 15th April 2002. No.13 NONYL PHENOL “UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD”. the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA. but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging. key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers. current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead. No. scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe.2000. JULICH. PVC and PS. 53-62. toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC. p.References and Abstracts Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A. 23rd-25th April 2002. Swinburne. 2002. p. a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. 2002. 18 refs./Feb. GERMANY. isotactic PP.8.University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76. No.1.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37.University of Technology. 21 refs. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. However. GREECE. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. p. there has been a significant increase in the 80 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. No. and PVDF. April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE.327. tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc. weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed.4. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. April 2002.22. Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. EUROPEAN UNION.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. packaging and cleaning products are possible sources. Jan. WESTERN EUROPE.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance. Paper 4. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. Truss R W Queensland. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. They suggest that pesticides. The Accession no. according to a recent study by Applied Market Information. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. Nonylphenol is a persistent.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

Neubert D. No. Tidjani A Germany.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. Sustainability. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter. Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses. The influence of ZnS. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. mass loss. The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on Accession no. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON. 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. Klimov D S. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. Polymerisation. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction.2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR. not the strains.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I. No. 2002. Kunze R. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data. Nos. XII. Jan./Feb.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 10 refs. Shiga T. Lyutikova E A. Mel’nik A I. BPF. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. 20 refs. Zotov Yu L.363-8) RUSSIA Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS. EUROPEAN UNION.851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44.Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 81 .850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51. p. Klimov S A. 26 refs. Flexibles. p.vii. of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn.References and Abstracts degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR.608. p. CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter. Shatalin Yu V. heat release. 29 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.12. Shishkin E V.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B.1-2.2. AUSTRALIA Accession no. No. UK. Challenges and markets. Stabilisers. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. Accession no. whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour. March 2002. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D. respectively. May 2001. p. 2002.5. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives. 21cm. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition. Additives EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system. 60 papers.3. Pyzh’yanova L G Urals. PVC profiles. PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future.Soed. 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. (Full translation of Vys. antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated.B.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I. 44.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No. smoke production.State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment. 2002.850492 Item 166 London. p. GERMANY. Processing.

Conference proceedings. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO. SPAIN. 18 refs.References and Abstracts the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces.3. N. and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology. EGYPT Accession no. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes. Brief details are given. At some volume in a producer’s process the make/buy decision is imminent.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D.Vinyl Div.845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001.e. and the preparation.J. 11th-12th Sept. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs.2002. SPE. BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles. soffits. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation. Pushing Profitability. using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. JAPAN Maziad N A. FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51. (SPE. Gomez R Gran Canaria. Plastican SA. Sayed M S.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D. bulk truck or bulk rail car. furniture and automotive trim. Examples include vinyl siding. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 13 refs.. trim. was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production. Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico.2. (SPE. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in Accession no. The second tells us that Freudenberg Group’s sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist. Feb. p. EUROPEAN UNION.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp.Vinyl Div.2001. Iselin.. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. No.Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products.539. both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany. March 2002. automobiles and furniture.846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co. FREUDENBERG GROUP. p.846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. i.& Technol. N. May 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. Conference proceedings.National Center for Radiation Res. GERMANY. Iselin.. decking. vinyl windows. SPE. 11th-12th Sept. Lederer GmbH.University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software. Zaragoza. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc. developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos.. p. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo.845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. LEDERER GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT 82 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p. their thermal properties.. 11 refs.Universidad de Las Palmas. fencing.J. p.Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications. Benitez A N. Pushing Profitability.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING. USA Accession no. characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied.2001. EUROPEAN UNION. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision. Castany F J.

Conference proceedings. N. through the 1990s.Vinyl Div. Booras J. Shang S. are enjoying many of these advances. such as with telephone and extension cords. USA Accession no. However.J. SPE. Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE. USA Accession no.845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. regulations such as California’s Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. 16 refs. 4 refs. Pushing Profitability. Blom H. much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels. 11th-12th Sept. Ling M T K.J.J. are reviewed.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T. together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry. Jin H-S. as expected. Iselin. Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC. Pushing Profitability.. USA Accession no. together with current developments in vinyl.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc. are discussed.845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. Boutelle T.Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials.Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run. SPE. such as building and construction. it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral.Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed. No.844617 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 83 .71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc.. less downtime. (SPE. Iselin. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed. film and a variety of commercial applications. Temperature control. machinery suppliers. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored. p. (SPE. appliance cable and others. 11th-12th Sept.Vinyl Div. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted. Surface delamination was investigated. USA Accession no. die suppliers.. It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is. Gatrrett S.2001. 8 refs.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001. such as those used for fixed cable installations.. non-lead wet-rated systems. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs.References and Abstracts applications where there is human contact. reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined. SPE. 11th-12th Sept.2001. Conference proceedings. Woo L. Conference proceedings. Iselin.. Finally. Autumn 2001. residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. CANADA applications. as well as the effect of mineral loading level. Joiner L. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd.845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. N. N. p. as well as thermoformed packaging. The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials.2. suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet.. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process. Pushing Profitability. as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers.2001.Vinyl Div. p. Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G. PVC processors in all Accession no. the greater the abrasive wear on the screen. p.

low molec. 10 refs.wt. A sweet odour may also be detected. Wilkie C A Marquette. including volume fraction of clay. 9 refs. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. Dec. Brooklyn. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. melt compounding time and annealing. Nov. FRANCE. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction. Conference proceedings. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer. plasticiser content. on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined. 176. although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep 84 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . p.Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry Accession no. Number 2. No. Parlow D.University. Rinaldi G La Sapienza. chemicals.4. No. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D.and long-term mechanical properties. It was found that 20 to 30 wt. WESTERN EUROPE moduli. scratching and abrasion. p. 8 refs.% of these resins improved not only thermal. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION. Yao Q. Shrinkage.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L. No. ITALY.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects. embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. Dec. p.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. SCANDINAVIA.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented. 2001.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G. EUROPEAN UNION. and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. EUROPEAN UNION. D. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined. p.. oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short.Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. 2001. Washington. Hilton B A US.C. Volume 41.4. attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.References and Abstracts Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2001.National Museum (ACS. Dec. EUROPEAN UNION. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. DENMARK. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project. Varner K E.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark.Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear. 20th-24th Aug. 18 refs. exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface. The effects of various factors.Div.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints.2000. 2001. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated.12. transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15. USA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. Dec. 2001. SOLVIN.2.References and Abstracts method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes. and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. NORTH AMERICA. 2001. softening temp. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SOLVAY. carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES. VINYL INSTITUTE.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A. 18 refs.University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A.& Technol. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. No. The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated. diethylene glycol diacrylate. p.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K. and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING. type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder. Zahran A H Egypt.3. and in addition. FRANCE.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS. enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. carbon dioxide. Perugia. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps.University. EVC. HUNGARY Accession no... Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating. EU. EUROPEAN UNION. it is claimed. Gaal H.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. and help in the understanding of the process. p. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF. 2001. EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN.2001. 23 refs. triallyl cyanurate and 1. RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable. EASTERN EUROPE.. No. were examined using dynamic and Accession no. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin. WESTERN EUROPE.6-hexanediol diacrylate. KOBE STEEL. Slapak M J P Eindhoven. BELGIUM.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31. 2001. EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN. LINDE AG. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate. This article looks at the methods being used. DECEUNINCK. ITALY. No. plasticised by polymeric plasticiser. USA. SWITZERLAND.838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6. USA Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. p.11.University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described. GERMANY.12). Torre L. MIKRON INDUSTRIES. the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. No. hydrogen.National Centre for Radiation Res. partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air. 7 refs. ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. JAPAN. Kenny J M Alicante. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi. swelling characteristics and volume resistivity. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products. and that it is already being recycled by some companies. PRINCIPIA PARTNERS. VULCAFLEX.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74. p. p. PROGNOS.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N. NETHERLANDS. VEKA AG. 11 refs. EGYPT Accession no. in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride. MARLEY FLOORS LTD.1. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material. TECNOMETAL. No. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction. and inconsistent supply of recyclate. No.1. Ali Z I.838274 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 85 .12. EUROPE-GENERAL. Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission. 2001. EUROPEAN UNION. trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate. pentaerythritol tetraacrylate.

The density was not influenced by the CFA content.830362 86 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process. 25 refs. Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer. 2001.81-7. 01. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001.Conference proceedings.References and Abstracts isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere. was compared with the double batching preparation process.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001. Texas. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production. Paparao C. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight. p. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials. whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type. paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V. and were shown to be similar. 28 refs. 6th-10th May.. WESTERN EUROPE Item 191 Antec 2001. 4 refs. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). Samsonkova P.. JAPAN Accession no. 6th-10th May. Texas. ITALY. paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F. 2001.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001. paper 605 Accession no.5. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods. 2001. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites. Dallas. p. London. IOM Communications Ltd. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.Conference proceedings. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture. Simonik J Compuplast International Inc. Dallas. 6th-10th May.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J. In this process. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd. Paper 9. with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour. and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. This reduces the overall energy requirements. CZECH REPUBLIC. Dallas. Vasudeo Y B.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. No.Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials.2001. 2001. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. twice the required additives are added to the PVC.Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration. and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer. plasticised PVC.831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. Zlin. on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid.Conference proceedings. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described. UK. The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability. Matuana L M Michigan. although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time. The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products. SPAIN. blended in the hot mixer. Texas. INDIA Accession no. 31st Oct.831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. 19 refs.

but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. 6th-10th May. A PVC-wood composite. which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694.5 phr was also investigated. Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood.Conference proceedings. has a specific gravity of about 1.3. volatilities. 5 refs. Chantasatrasamy N.3 g/cc. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility. Compared with traditional products. No. WORLD Accession no.3. The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0. 3 refs. Benecke H. and functionalities. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed. Accession no. Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578. 2001. p.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE. Sept. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs. However. as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes. Sutthitavil W. even with densities as low as 0. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. screwed. Sookkho D. and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities. is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year. Elhard J D. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester. elongation and tensile strength were measured. Dallas. 6 refs. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). Sept. USA Accession no. USA from ductile iron and concrete.References and Abstracts INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. Texas. Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute. Overall. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels. McGinniss V D. cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products.6 g/cc. improved impact resistance. p. For sewage lines. Films were produced and the tensile modulus. but it can still be used for Accession no. No.2001.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.9. lower moisture absorption and ease of installation. the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance. Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP. paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R. AND VINYL PARRIES.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. No.2001. potable water and sewage pipe. the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. Sept. now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications.2001. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm. for example. The bending strength of PVC wood is lower. FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 87 .830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31. sawed. provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVC’s molecular structure. p.

2001. infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents. from observation of biological adsorption tests. Valencia. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. 21 refs.e. Sept. while the Accession no.I.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. p.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no. Mechanical and optical properties were examined. 10th Sept. Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness.1/23 FDA REPORT WON’T END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S 88 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. THAILAND Accession no. Details are given. 22nd August 2001. No. Borcia G. continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder. p. WORLD Accession no.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13. FibrePlas. 6th Sept. has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar. where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC. 5 refs. US. some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP.University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers. Perugia. EASTERN EUROPE. No. one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products. No.Cuza A. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999.Polytechnical University.2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk. RUMANIA Accession no. SPAIN. EUROPEAN UNION. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content.University. June 2001.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy. p. cornices.I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp. new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied. Surface energy increased. Kenny J M Alicante. does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium.828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference. with surface functionalisation which.2001. Iannoni A. WESTERN EUROPE The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide.28. Popa G Jassy. No. p.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. i. No. In this technology. According to the report. but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted.References and Abstracts decorative applications. p. Lopez J.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28.8. ITALY. 12 refs. doors and siding. together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A. University Scanning electron microscopy. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol.8. allowing use in biomedical applications.6. The system.10.2001.

The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. Pospisil L Aliachem jc.real and perceived. Toxicology. TAIWAN efficiency were investigated. Texas. Main headings include: Global market size. Key barriers to PVC replacement. and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser.University of Technology. Simonik J. so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. 23 refs. 6 refs.. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate. 7 refs. which included flowbalancing. which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick. The system consisted of a heated rotating drum. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Dallas. EUROPEAN UNION. residence time on the plate. Dallas. residence time and temperature.Conference proceedings. plate angle. Processing and fabrication.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001. Thibodeau Montreal. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC. Kosior E Swinburne. Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R. and multi-stage separation on the separation Accession no. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. 2001. the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars. 2001. 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd. pp. The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties. paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D. the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry. Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds. Environmental issues . Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices.826600 Item 205 Shawbury. Malac Z. 2001. Lafleur P G.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001. 11cm. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. 6th-10th May. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Brno.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001. Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology. 45 refs.Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design. plate temperature. As the drum rotated. CANADA Accession no.Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser. The influences of drum temperature. PVC medical device application fields. using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. value and future trends. Kalendova A.References and Abstracts grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. 6th-10th May.Conference proceedings. Texas.Technical University.142. the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate. Benefits of PVC for healthcare. Brno. creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density. AUSTRALIA Accession no. paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. and the log. 2001. 4 refs. Rapra Technology Ltd. drum speed. whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing. UK. and bibliography of useful document abstracts. Texas. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps. Dallas. 6th-10th May. sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit.Conference proceedings.825424 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 89 . biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds. composition.

Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface. the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N. Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. stabilisers and processing conditions were studied. UK. The effects of different lubricants. July 2001. Jakubowicz I. No. No. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed. EUROPEAN UNION. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 90 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Kaustik AOOT.43) RUSSIA Accession no. No. Food & Rural Affairs’ life cycle assessment of PVC.2. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I. June 2001. to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred. p. UK.825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. 11. independent of modifier type. 2001. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No. Gevert T Sweden.National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy. without adding any additives. which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials. 2001. 26 refs. USA Accession no. June 2001. No.1.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M.DEPT. tensile properties and molecular level ageing. Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co. at least in some situations.References and Abstracts Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. 1 ref. As a result of this accelerated gas loss. Mengeloglu F Michigan.2. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied.State Technical University. USA COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Klimov S A. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound. Zotov Y L.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73.OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour. p.7. to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. p. which impeded the growth of nucleated cells.11.318. its ease of manufacture. the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films. II. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples. p. the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations. Shatalin Y V.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC. 7 refs. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion Accession no. p. stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. p. 2000. and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants. gelation. No. and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures.Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples.

PS and PVC. PS and PVC materials individually. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R. Villa F. were identified by chromatography. Deterioration in colour.459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L.15 mm diameter. Dubois C. Despite the observed property changes. particularly yellow. p. and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73.Universite.3. 5 refs. PP. EASTERN EUROPE. mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC. as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. EUROPEAN UNION.Universite.Conference proceedings. Jamois-Tasserie M. Lallet P. Accession no. 2001. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion.. as determined by infrared spectroscopy. It was concluded that the change in © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 91 . Dallas. p. The main gaseous and liquid products.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001. SWEDEN. paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s. Institut Pyrovac Inc. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE. CANADA. RUMANIA Accession no.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72.1. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. Pakdel H. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers. No. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated. and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers. and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests. Jin Yang. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R. comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers.3.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. 73 refs. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. However. HDPE. 6th-10th May. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. PP. 2001. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg. EASTERN EUROPE. 12 refs. Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C.. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure. Renaud C Franche-Comte. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. LDPE. Pyrovac Institute Inc. Roy C. LDPE. were observed with repeated extrusion. 2001. Roy C. Petru Poni. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered.Universite Laval. C. CANADA.References and Abstracts pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion. SCANDINAVIA. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0. Texas. No. WESTERN EUROPE molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC. Vasile C Laval. the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. Two experimental approaches were adopted. Vasile C Quebec. including chlorinated hydrocarbons. and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the Accession no. p. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. 2001. 54 refs. Petru Poni. PART II. it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. No.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. RUMANIA Accession no. Two parameters were studied.

References and Abstracts PVC.818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20. a month after the membranes were prepared.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P. EUROPEAN UNION. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. Detailed experimental procedures. EUROPEAN UNION.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L. No.University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. Accession no.2000. WESTERN EUROPE and about one order of magnitude. Diffusion of liquid into the discs. No. Within the dose range studied.814334 92 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42. No. ITALY. was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. Nasir M.10.11. As a result of these changes. FRANCE. at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly. 34 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. attaining constant values after 10 days. hardness. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Changes in gel fraction. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne. 25 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. SPAIN. and of plasticiser into the liquid. sample photographs and results are given. 12 refs.Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days. p. the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service. the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam. Malaysia. Guzman J. No. p. resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers. Mijangos C. 31st May 2001. followed by drying. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane. and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined. Aug. carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC. followed by drying.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing. the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. Lastly. nitrogen. with frequent cracking. under the irradiation conditions employed. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity. samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC. 35 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen. The results obtained showed that.5. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules. 2001. The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. EUROPEAN UNION. Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research. TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80. Riande E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS MALAYSIA Accession no. 2001. and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month.530. p.

Philadelphia. No. 38 refs. p. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC. USA Accession no. 17 refs. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters.e.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286. p. Goto H. used as novel costabilisers with metal soap. 14th March 2001. i.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. The thickness of the foil is 0. CIBA-GEIGY CO.5 mg KOH/g resin). Nissin Oil Mills Ltd. USA Accession no. SPE. No..811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21. Pa. EGYPT.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void Accession no. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength. p.2000.2. Nakan0 K. mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0. The kinetic parameters © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama. p.. Conference proceedings. p. Kovacic T Split.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D. Yamagata. Nakamura Y.References and Abstracts Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79.3. Narisawa I. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers.5 to 20. Iida T Osaka. Bacaloglu R.Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups. 11th-12th Oct. Diaconescu C Crompton Corp. The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H. as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time. 28th Feb. No.Vinyl Div.University.575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A. (SPE.2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H.Institute of Technology. having moderate acid numbers (11.2001. March 2001.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC. a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates. 14 refs.C.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5. Mrklic Z. Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp. Dooley T. CROATIA Accession no. were synthesised.University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex. Sunami M.University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. 2000.11. and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer.6. Higaki Y. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg.. 14 refs. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. JAPAN are estimated by the differential method of analysis.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%. No.

Minsker K S Bashkir. p. Conference proceedings. 2001. Sabapathy P A. USA Accession no. distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC). paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd. Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA).808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000.808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. Basel. and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage. 4 refs. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC. No. acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. Spring 2001. USA Accession no. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence.References and Abstracts MOD. cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption. Morflex and BP Amoco. plasticity.2000. 3rd-5th May 2000. adhesion to steel and deformation are examined. Di Simone J. 2 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20.MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES 94 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. diverse crosslinkers. Abdrashitov Y M. 25th-26th Oct. No. and stabilising action. JAPAN Nafikova R F. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H. processability. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content.5. TOTM. La. amount of reactor charge.. alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids. noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness. 5 refs.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups.1. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. reviewing available information from Hatco.. Naugumanova E I. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then. (Translated from Plasticheskie Massy. 2000. National Starch & Chemical BV Accession no. introduction time of monomers. on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers. Switzerland.State University. Conference proceedings.810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A. viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). methyl acrylate (MA). p. commonly known as DEHP or DOP. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. p. GERMANY. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound.807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. including DEHP. citrates and adipates.19) RUSSIA Accession no.1. DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co. 9 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. allegedly. Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking. New Orleans. No.

Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common. May 2000. The surface energy. Brosse J-C Maine. No. Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality. WESTERN EUROPE acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. Llado J.References and Abstracts (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79.2001.. Reyx D. USA Accession no. Zaragoza. Orlando. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L. 22 refs.Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution..University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface. to the normal. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow. so increasing the gloss. 22nd Feb.8.527. Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties. SPAIN. Sanchez B. EUROPEAN UNION. Unfortunately. p. and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. 2000. (SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance. Rough surfaces on the die Accession no.Conference proceedings. 3 refs. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C). No. Javierre C. were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. FRANCE. paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC .Conference proceedings. paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. NETHERLANDS. Orlando.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier. Fl. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. and the die surface roughness. modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 7th-11th May. USA. The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions. 2000. Fl. weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . p. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil.PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E. increasing significantly with modifier concentration. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. extrusion rate. extruder temperature settings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. 4 refs. 27 refs. 7th-11th May. Matuana L M. Poncin-Epaillard F. whilst the elongation at break was not affected. King J A Michigan. EUROPEAN UNION. Harshbarger D Geon Co. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79.Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre.

Yanez-Flores I G. containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder. Fl. and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E. 5 refs.References and Abstracts and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss. Enlow W. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. Ayala-Valenzuela O. Washington. 7th-11th May. (SPE) Accession no. 18 refs. dibasic lead phosphite. Fl. 12 refs. which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam. tribasic lead sulphate. basic lead carbonate.. Sifuentes P.Inc. but poor retention of original colour. Fl. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. RETEC 2000. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl. and which also provide good colour retention. 2000. 2000.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000. Orlando. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams. and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour. provide good process safety. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently. 14 refs. 2000. Gilbert M Coahuila. Mexico. Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent. 7th-11th May. UK. and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time.Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride). D. Rios-Jara D Coahuila. Orlando. Orlando.University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000. 2000. USA Accession no. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network. and thermal stability. MEXICO. Matutes-Aquino J. and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers... crosslink density.I.805663 Item 234 Antec 2000.805659 96 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .7 micron range. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally. and related compounds with a particle size in the 0. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content. Refs.Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. thermal properties and molecular weight.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C.804341 Item 237 Antec 2000. Conference proceedings. 7th-11th May. and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. USA Accession no. Loughborough. MEXICO Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives.. paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R.Conference proceedings. Ramos de Valle L F. attributed to increasing particle interaction. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate.& Co.C. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content. which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers. paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations. Fl. residual unsaturation. attributed to strong particle interactions.2000.Conference proceedings.Conference proceedings.1-0. 7th-11th May. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers. Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. USA Accession no. 17th-19th Sept. Orlando.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. EUROPEAN UNION.. paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C..

With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering. USA Accession no. the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char.10. Biocides tested © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 97 .803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. USA Accession no. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point.Div. and 14 years were obtained. It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC. 10 years. In contrast.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2. Levy E R Williamsburg. including colour.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G. McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co. methylene and methyl groups were obtained. similar elongation and flexural modulus. 1 ref. Volume 75. Starnes W H.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced. Fall Meeting 2000. PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M. D.Conference proceedings. As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC. p. No. secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene). 4 refs. p. They also gave similar or increased strength. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED. 2000. Gomaa W A. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments. It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. with corresponding controls.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L. 2000. Fall 1996. a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen.. 10 refs. Orlando. Since copper(I) is readily reduced. blush. 7th-11th May. Maeyer J T. plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes.and sulphur-based ligands are reported. because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds. clarity.. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. FL. Doyal A S. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates. but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower. Washington.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000.Div. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase. Orlando. and enhanced the product characteristics.National Research Council (ACS. Conference Proceedings. Delgado A H Canada. Oct. flammability. Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp. Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid.C. 5 refs. increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated. 20th-24th Aug. Fl. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications. as well as their thermal chemistry.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L. USA Accession no.2000. the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC. complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation.69-70. USA carbonyl.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge. Graham P M.. Laurin D. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. to improve melt processing and heat stability. p. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time. aqueous extractables and particle generation.References and Abstracts Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. and lower brittle point temperatures. Volume 83. paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate). LOW BLUSH. Measurements of the bands for Accession no.College of William & Mary (ACS. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years.

was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile. Number 2.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation.1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P. Fl. lead stabiliser and antimony oxide.) Rapra. when the sample surface was removed. p. Separation techniques described include those involving density. and carpet sorting technology.Review Report No.Technische universitat. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties.16-8. thermoset composites.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90.. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed. EUROPEAN UNION. OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). August 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. electrical cables.10-oxybisphenoxarsine). Conference proceedings. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer. whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties. August 1999. Orlando.124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques. and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. Dec. calcium carbonate. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. were compounded by twin screw extrusion. USA Accession no.Conference proceedings. However. New Orleans. WESTERN EUROPE adhesive. which also containing plasticiser.University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. 2000. No. Petrie S Millipore Corp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test. Rapra Review Report.. UK. Volume 40. Rapra Technology Ltd. pp. Hoffmann H Dresden. 6 refs. the smoke suppression rankings changed. vol.4. Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures. the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension. They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications. (Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000).799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints. 2000. EUROPEAN UNION. No. Theoretical Accession no. FRANCE. 2000. automotive waste. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles.References and Abstracts and compared were OBPA (10. and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants.5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one).of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends. 2000.. 29 cms.108. A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described.11. 12. or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component.12. enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions.Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Massachusetts. p. 7 refs. paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A. followed by manual and automated sorting systems. Girard-Reydet E Lyon. The compositions. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties. 4 refs. 7th-11th May. p. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter. GERMANY.Div. which. when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt 98 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . and DCOIT (4.University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. 11/1/01. triboelectrification. 427 refs.. Kleinert H. aluminium/plastic laminates.799815 Item 243 Shawbury. poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers. La.

WESTERN EUROPE polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system. EUROPEAN UNION. attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7th-11th May. polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. 10 refs. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled. employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds. melt temperatures. 7th-11th May. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction. Orlando. the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000. Koelling K W.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45. an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects. and a centre gated plate to study radial flow. which are used extensively in PVC products. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates. 2000.Conference proceedings.2000. paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc. and shot sizes. The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor. Orlando. p.2. p. JAPAN Accession no. Minamoto Y Osaka.Conference proceedings.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H. EUROPEAN UNION. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure. Geon Co. 28 refs.2000. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol. A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection. Nov. whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould. Fl. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel. FRANCE. and a graphical solution for the differential equations for © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 99 . paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L.. 2000. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections. EU. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens’ mouths. is nearing an end.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment.References and Abstracts models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers.. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. In September. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times.11.State University. No. Sept.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction. but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould.Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27. slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted. on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused. USA Accession no. Summers J W Ohio. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. 7 refs. indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. Fl. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded Accession no.

References and Abstracts

unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

Accession no.793729


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References and Abstracts

properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.


Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panel’s findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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References and Abstracts

in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S


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22nd-26th Aug.31-2 CITRATE. 22 refs. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. MORFLEX. PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed.University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate. UK. Wu L C Tamkang. Shaoyun Guo Sichuan.1999. p. 2000. July 2000. p. the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution. Atlanta.782996 Item 270 Polymers. 19th Sept. No.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC.Conference proceedings. 19 refs. softening temperature. such as PX-811.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30. USA Accession no.1.Volume 1.5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C. Gilbert M Alicante. Loughborough. No. CHINA company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates. Ga. p. No. 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated. ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK JAPAN. premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste. The Accession no.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30. No. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate. In Japan. Laminations & Coatings Conference. IRAN Accession no. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC). July 2000. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion. a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers.8.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C. developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market. Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated. p. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion. p.University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B.12.50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS. SPAIN. and the compositions of heat stabilisers © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 103 .University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69.3. 14 refs.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77. POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined. According to citrate manufacturer Morflex.2000.University.References and Abstracts Yong Ning. 19 refs.7.University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1. Alsharif M A Isfahan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology.1-di-t-butylperoxy3. EUROPEAN UNION. CHINA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. Aug.

lead-based. Volume 81. the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics. chemical resistance and resistance to swelling. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. 2000. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies.306. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form. July 2000.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No. EUROPEAN UNION.University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water. scavenging free radicals. Koh Y J.. Conference proceedings. No.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S. Okazaki S. and mixed metal. However. ISRAEL Accession no.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.References and Abstracts used for various PVC applications. p.Div. JAPAN Accession no.20. Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. 22nd-26th Aug. especially PVC articles used in healthcare. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers.306. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.781444 Item 274 ACS.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41. neutralise the HCl which is formed. p. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Kodama M Japan. No. p. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 24th-30th July 2000. p. Babukutty Y.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No. for rigid applications.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane. the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year. ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and Accession no.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research. 17 refs. USA (APG) DISCHARGE Prat R. Sophia. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July.780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73. Sluszny A. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased. Kogoma M. with variable composition according to the PVC end use.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commission’s “horizontal study” on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago.National Inst. p. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. La.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys. July 2000. for wire and cable applications. 6 refs. New Orleans.1919. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. and decompose peroxides. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation.1999.

38 refs.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005. it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. Siampiringue N. 8 refs. and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments. 15 refs. a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions. Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated. ITALY. Moiseev Y V.2. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers. Gumargalieva K Z. molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation.2.69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. 134 refs. Delprat R.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. June 2000. March 2000. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations. mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e. Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. reprocessing conditions. p.g. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens. Elf Atochem SA.3. p. tensile strength and strain).778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter. modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. p. Using thermogravimetric.C). Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg.778022 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 105 . No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found. Pokholok T V. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. GERMANY.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these Accession no. Dabin P. 2000. From the basic understanding gained. gloss degradation rate doubles. p. Chaigneau R. No.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Spriet C CNEP. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.152.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U. No. June 2000. Parmeland G. RUSSIA Accession no. chromatographic. Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries.References and Abstracts control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. gel permeation chromatography. FRANCE. The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12.University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC. UV and IR spectroscopic techniques. EUROPEAN COMMISSION WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use.

6 refs. SPAIN. p. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction. (SPE Foams ’99 Conference. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time. WESTERN EUROPE. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Reinecke H. the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction. The studies cover mechanical recycling. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. 16 refs. Trexel Inc. CHINA Accession no. No. p. Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. Parsippany.303. Accession no. Chen L.Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams.2. The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. Wang J.BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q. p. EUROPEAN UNION. while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface.. EUROPEAN UNION. The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated. No. on the other hand. EUROPEAN COMMISSION 106 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . March/April 2000. flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Perugini C. of temp. No.1999. Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated. 6 refs. April 2000. URALITA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. Dec.15. electrical and low temperature properties. The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. Deweerdt M. Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion. No. feedstock recycling. behaviour in landfill.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. BELGIUM. p. Wei Ping G. WESTERN EUROPE EU.5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J. 19-20 Oct. While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR . Improvements were observed in tensile. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Zhen H Y.522. Wu Q Qingdao.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41. Wu J. New Jersey). The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film. USA. 2000.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M.2.References and Abstracts Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36. UK.148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J. March/April 2000. took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

27 refs.in particular the maintenance of colour.there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes. 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SPAIN. By UVvis spectroscopy. a product growing strongly in the profile industry.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M. WESTERN EUROPE the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. No.6-dithio1. and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE).4. to its high glass transition temperature. Neto M B Sao Paulo. p. Manchester. MEXICO. Wiebeck H. The crosslinking reaction. Conference proceedings. 2000./Dec. However due. 11 refs.products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools. p.1999. Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. EUROPEAN UNION.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods. 5 refs. an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC. The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking. the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues. and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles.Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4. and impact strength over extended periods. Poland. p. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content. In combination with metal stearates. In dry irradiation.775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9. are expanded upon. Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A. Katowice. the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude . such as pipes or profiles.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder. So for each TiO2 pigment Accession no. Last but not least. it has shortcomings in impact strength. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Rodriguez O S. No.776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%. GERMANY.2. 16th-18th Nov. paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A. Arias G. the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range.3.e. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability .6dithio-1. EUROPEAN UNION. by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated. gloss.5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC. The different products used are discussed and positioned. SWITZERLAND. Oct. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification.3. as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use . i.1999. compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology.2. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low temperature. It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 107 . No.Escola Politecnico. EUROPEAN UNION. Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. UK.5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation.

GERMANY. BRAZIL Accession no. Conference proceedings. (SPE.3. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology. Conference proceedings.1999. Today’s processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product. Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated.) 108 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis.1999.) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view. 2000. 12th-14th Oct. p. (SPE. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol.114-7.. p. long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances. Silbermann J. there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAY’S HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W. p.90 No. 7 refs. however. Ontario. Kaneka Corp. Western Europe has led these initiatives. 12th-14th Oct. Cooney J D Canada. and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec ’99. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives.References and Abstracts different from traditional recycling and. Shabnavard L. USA Accession no.1999.Vinyl Div. Conference proceedings. 12th-14th Oct.31-4 English.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec ’99.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. provide a more efficient lubricating effect. However. Ontario. Conference proceedings.52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE. JAPAN. the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. Touchette-Barrette C.National Research Council (SPE.Vinyl Div. passive safety. Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA.1999. 1 ref. EUROPEAN UNION.3. 15 refs. March 2000. 3 refs.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out. 5 refs. 12th-14th Oct. WESTERN EUROPE Concerns over worker safety.Vinyl Div. p. Klein B. p.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R. Falter J A Henkel Corp. such as ageing resistance. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture. Sheehan S E. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div. other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC. Ontario. alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product. USA Accession no.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec ’99. In Accession no. Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M. weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application. and the result is compared to observed process behaviours. No.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec ’99. processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B. p. BELGIUM. as a result. Ontario.

They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. That research report. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque. probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates. in particular. 9 refs.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A. p. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. such as calcium carbonate. leading to the production of inorganic chlorides. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled. (SPE. That is. cove base extrusion.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co.Vinyl Div. acid-reactive fillers.) Historically. tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic.1999. expanded the study’s focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling. 7 refs. (SPE.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group.Vinyl Div. 12th-14th Oct. However. however. Ontario. In 1998. for example. Processors’ difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is ‘unrecyclable’ without further investigating the obstacles. p. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling. these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec ’99. the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. The second phase of research. conducted from February to April 1998. at least to a far greater extent than common. p. Vinyl.302. process stability is long. that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time. The results of the first phase of research. In ‘test tube’ reactions. Ontario. March 2000. was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners.References and Abstracts the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers.1999. the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ. CANADA Accession no. Bradshaw R W. In polymeric matrices. Conference proceedings.Halstab Div. conducted in September and November 1998. 12th-14th Oct. Ontario. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers.g. Prince J ECC International Inc. 12th-14th Oct. USA Accession no. p.bottles and other post-consumer packaging. the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec ’99. Conference proceedings.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling.Vinyl Div. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate. the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. Conference proceedings. essentially instantaneously.1999. e. USA and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser. ‘PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America’. has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. That is. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies . additives such as hydrotalcite Accession no. alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec ’99. Mobley G. (SPE. that is. When used as a primary stabiliser. were presented at Vinyltec ’98.Inc. barium stearate. USA Accession no. and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling. but colour hold poor. the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs.44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No.

The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. optical property evaluations and failure analysis. These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed. Irgens F.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67. gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. Techniques used include thermal analysis. p. Winter 1999. radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping Accession no. USA Accession no.2. Ling M T K. No. Westphal S P. p. the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage.1. LDPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. For most polyolefins.2. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39. For PPs. Jan. Hinrichsen E L. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL function. SCANDINAVIA.2000. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile. 17 refs. NORWAY. SINTEF Materials Technology. Zhang Q H Ohio. forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated.State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature.2.2000. No. EUROPEAN UNION. p. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. physical testing.80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T. and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Feb.References and Abstracts Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30. No.1. and PVC. For a variety of PVC formulations. EUROPEAN UNION. Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer.2000. Feb. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z. 2000.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. Data are presented for high impact PS. p. 4 refs. USA Accession no.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS 110 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Jan. excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated. No. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. p. Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. 49 refs.

The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm. and hopes that their use will spread to other member states.e.uniaxial (constant width). GERMANY. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model. Laurent P. Budapest. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials.1999.759093 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 111 . Conference proceedings. paper 20. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1999. Okuwaki A Tohoku.References and Abstracts AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q. 1st Oct.128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A. Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified. 2000. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC. 29 refs. Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE. EUROPEAN UNION.Technical University.) Accession no.Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. 12 refs. p. calcium hydroxide. p. Horvai G Budapest. UK. Jung C G. No. EUROPEAN UNION.5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. by chemical recycling is considered. BELGIUM.5. Borbely S.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No. such as carboxylic acids.758765 Item 307 Addcon World ’99. MATTEL EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. p. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes. Type of plasticiser. plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake. Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. inhomogeneities are found. HASBRO.27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes. sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine. Sept. Gilbert M.19. No. No. Oct.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19.1. Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd. Marfell M Loughborough. Gehrmann J. weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated. HUNGARY Accession no. smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane. EASTERN EUROPE.University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes . 32 refs. p. 27th-19th Oct. 2 refs.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1.411.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H. The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss.University. Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid. similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. JAPAN Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71. simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential.1999. In the dry membrane. Furukawa K. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods. pp. probably in the crystalline state. Prague.1999.

No. e. UK.1999. Conference Proceedings. ABS and GRP are listed. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2-bis-(2-cyano-3’3diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF.3-dibutyluracil. plasticised PVC.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4. pp. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals). pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates.References and Abstracts Chemical structures. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management.3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1. ABS.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.g.137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC 112 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 27th-19th Oct. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation. Prague. p. including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane. Dec.758478 Item 308 Addcon World ’99. Lees G C. whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C). 1999.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J. 16th-17th March 1999.299.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds. 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3. Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd. NETHERLANDS.1999. 4 refs.3.6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J. rigid PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Accession no. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed.3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3. using Response Surface Methods. Conference proceedings. GERMANY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency. The main jointing methods for PE.3-dimethyluracil. WESTERN EUROPE Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. paper 19. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. dibenzoylmethane. 15 refs. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Harvey H B. p. London.3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D. PP. UK. 16 refs. rigid PVC. 6-amino1. thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3. spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd. No. EUROPEAN UNION. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion. Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers. is given particular attention. Results (yellowness index. electrofusion socket welding. including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone.47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. EUROPEAN UNION.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites. as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism. Details are given of the discussions involved. EUROPEAN UNION. dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes.1. p. Results (colour generation. EUROPEAN UNION.3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035). Sept.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No.1999. DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets. Hurst S J Manchester. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation. polycarbonate films. 6-amino-1.

Through a special design of experiment. blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. p.1999. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . Sept.755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes. Sept. McFarland C A. p. The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.University. Glasgow. provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity. Hydro Polymers Ltd. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness. Materials in Medicine 10. It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing.3. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. JAPAN Accession no.References and Abstracts A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions. No.. It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well. I. 6 refs. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure. USA Accession no.3. Sept. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a ‘standard’ siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. CSMA Ltd.9. No. Zhao X B.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. Courtney J M. West R H.132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. p.1999. spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated.755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science. the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated. To detect the changes in lubricity.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R.Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test). No.9. Lowe G D O Strathclyde.. and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. 20 refs. there is a higher reactivity Accession no. employing ‘approximate’ time-temperature modulus relationships. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise.1999. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC. Sept. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser. p. USA Accession no. the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions. antithrombotic agent. USA attained within the part during injection is determined.. 6 refs. Geon Co. 9 refs. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. Elleithy R H.1999. A mathematical model. Blass C R. No. Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. % crosslinked polymer). BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity. HCWH contends that Koop’s panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koop’s report. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence.University. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water. p.. (IOM Communications Ltd. which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC. The requirements of these. has provided the Accession no. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts. fully dilutable grade. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM USA ideal solution. peroxides. aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems.749320 Item 318 PVC ’99. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC. which have been studied in some detail. with an acceptable grain size. Conference proceedings. To achieve this. Brighton.747919 Item 319 PVC ’99. although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced. Two methods. particularly at elevated temperatures.1999. Brighton.747918 Item 320 PVC ’99. are adequate gel content (i. which are to some extent conflicting. p. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. of water-based secondary suspending agents. BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties. named Alcotex WD30. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. typically at 55% hydrolysis. 8 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. UK. Alicante.Ltd.References and Abstracts for TEHTM-PVC. aqueous product could be supplied. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied.. more uniform. No. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC. where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. in conjunction with a 72. during the 1980s. are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent. 20th-22nd April 1999. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis. It is demonstrated. Even so. giving all the advantages of both secondary systems. p. is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. 14 refs. The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. in certain S-PVC formulations.33. EUROPEAN UNION. p. of 45-50% hydrolysis. Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough. with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M. an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material.5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. 20th-22nd April 1999. modified secondary. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG 114 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . UK.University (IOM Communications Ltd. In this work. typically in methanol. plasticiser uptake. Brighton. Conference proceedings. whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity. the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. facilitating improved VCM removal and faster. traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices. using experimental design software. 17 refs. SPAIN. with a low methanol content.e. low molecular weight PVOHs. 20th-22nd April 1999. typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co. These concerns led to the development. water soluble. that such a water-based. 4th Oct.

EUROPEAN UNION.747913 Item 321 PVC ’99. Consequently. water immersion.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N.747912 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . advanced products. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect. patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions. Egger A. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches. particularly for window profile. Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour. pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed. thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. no health risk for the manufacturer. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc. free flowing and dustfree product forms. GERMANY.based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level. Brighton. delivery and storage in big bags or silos. BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a ‘zipper dehydrochlorination’ process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility. lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness. 20th-22nd April 1999. it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution Accession no. but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions. excellent dispersion in the resin. rheology. UK. Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. Conference proceedings. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared.. wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC. 20th-22nd April 1999.and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined. EUROPEAN UNION. especially in tablet form. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. Brighton. Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand. AUSTRIA. BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability. dispersibility. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. However. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. BPF) During the last decade. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. Conference proceedings. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. p. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur. Conference proceedings. (IOM Communications Ltd. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives.. Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd.NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M. colour. p. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour. Brighton.. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described. The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BPF) The effects of using dry pigments..350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H. 20th-22nd April 1999. Wa.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS .References and Abstracts (IOM Communications Ltd. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers). Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. mechanical and electrical properties. WESTERN EUROPE Item 322 PVC ’99. 3 refs. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant. p.747910 Item 323 PVC ’99. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb. As a consequence. Zuschnig G. HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation).

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin. 9 refs. Jacobsen H. Fire. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends. 2 refs. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account . Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated. Conference proceedings. GERMANY. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level. SCANDINAVIA. enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. EUROPEAN UNION.low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid. By optimising the blending ratio. p. However.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO 116 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . UK.KG (IOM Communications Ltd. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation. EUROPEAN UNION. this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing.. Conference proceedings. FRANCE. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour.. Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd. BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B. double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer. including less sensitivity to output rates. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films.. The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 11 refs. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. BPF) In PVC compounding. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. USA Accession no.References and Abstracts only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated.747906 Item 325 PVC ’99. Conference proceedings. p.. p. 41 refs. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry. EUROPEAN UNION.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios.747901 Item 327 PVC ’99. 5 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.747897 Item 328 PVC ’99. The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing. Brighton. temperatures and material properties. p.747908 Item 324 PVC ’99. (IOM Communications Ltd. 20th-22nd April 1999. WESTERN EUROPE philosophy called ‘Avoid Cross-channel Flow’. 20th-22nd April 1999. Brighton. 20th-22nd April 1999. Conference proceedings. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0. BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. This has several advantages. BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications. Thorjussen T. NORWAY. with simultaneous energy saving. Pedersen S. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd.747903 Item 326 PVC ’99. migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations. Brighton.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co. still providing a high-quality extruded profile.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D. including a proposed design Accession no. Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd.

Charging is essential for good separation. Currently the cables are shredded. or those with transfer foils. It is Accession no.150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers. In these tests. UK. (IOM Communications Ltd. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test. BPF) Approximately 40. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. NETHERLANDS. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. BPF) Developments in the current legislation. humidity and pretreatment used.. and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice. colour. Conference proceedings. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine. PVC-U is notch-sensitive.000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone. p. melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described. BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line.747894 Item 329 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. The hydrocyclonage. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. including the effect of weathering and scratching. 20th-22nd April 1999.200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material. Brighton. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. (IOM Communications Ltd. no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens. BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. BS 7722. EUROPEAN UNION. but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd. surplus during installation and repair.747887 Item 331 PVC ’99.. the metals liberated. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. some of which have matching faces without foil coatings. 20th-22nd April 1999. p. gloss and degree of gelation. should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering. 20th-22nd April 1999. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities. it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. EUROPEAN UNION. Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process. UK.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J. Gardiner D UK. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 117 . Conference proceedings. This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. which are put to landfill. Brighton. production waste. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range.747892 Item 330 PVC ’99..References and Abstracts INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L. p. WESTERN EUROPE concluded that the relevant British Standard. separated and finally reused.(UK) Ltd. 12 refs. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles. including the high quality PVC fraction. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged. Brighton. 13 refs.. are outlined. EUROPEAN UNION.Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd. AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J. These cables originate from (economic) end of life.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes. Today. p. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. Conference proceedings.10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA). sewer pipes and cable ducts.. EUROPE-GENERAL. p. is on p. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products.747879 Item 333 PVC ’99. July 1999. Richter E. do not contribute to fogging.7. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development. (German version of this paper. but uses the differential gravitational. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2. Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching. other European countries are following. TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. p. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency. Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut.747878 118 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . which includes graphs and tables. MACHINERY. (IOM Communications Ltd.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No. 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes. is on p.3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate. Conference proceedings.1999. processing aids in one product and which. (German version of this paper.5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not. over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country. WESTERN EUROPE Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised. 12 refs. AUSTRIA. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described.wt. 20th-22nd April 1999. unlike normal costabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 4. Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi. 20th-22nd April 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability. EUROPEAN UNION. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products. both industrial waste and post-use. however. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION. Accession no.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R. EUROPEAN UNION.62/6) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. July 1999. electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Brighton.. No. UK. No. Meanwhile. BPF) In the early 1980s. show any measurable fungistatic activity. while the other products showed a clear loss of activity. p.7. including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines.68/74) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. GERMANY. 10 refs. SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping. Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec. UK. p.References and Abstracts in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997. Aug. Clariant GmbH. Brighton. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.10.747886 Item 332 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN UNION. which includes tables. a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires. GERMANY. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10.

Harvey R European Vinyls Corp.28. showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. the amount and removability of the glue. Hidalgo M.University The analysis of the swelling process. No.743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. USA Accession no. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. No. probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions. a single decomposition stage was observed at temps.References and Abstracts FITT SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 24 refs. Marcilla A. Hou Z. the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Garcia J C. As an example. 14 refs.2. oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant). it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow. solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath. (Part I. and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. EUROPEAN UNION.65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I. EUROPEAN UNION.Universidad. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents. Oct. USA Accession no.(UK) Ltd. p. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent. July 1999. Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples.e.743280 Accession no. acoustics emission. the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In the case of the films prepared with ASi. i. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and tensile testing. p. SPAIN. Two effective crosslinking agents were used. the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product.71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax. 5 refs. ITALY. phase separation of swelling bath.744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5.745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65. birefringence. Vol. impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment. Mijangos C Alicante.1.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L. such as DSC. processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. No. 28. II. is described. The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques. July 1998).145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. as well as three clear decomposition processes.2.741972 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 119 . Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied. By modelling the rheological properties. WESTERN EUROPE Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. In another application. then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example. June 1999. p. 12 refs. extruder conditions and final part properties. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S. Broughton R M Auburn.1998. p. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. UK. June 1999. EUROPEAN UNION. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC. ibid. and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser. WAXD. the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine.

heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics . USA Accession no. At temperatures above 10 deg. All showed good thermal resistance. p. the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment. 012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp. and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. Conference proceedings. They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades. EASTERN EUROPE. 2nd-6th May 1999. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry.3621-4. to ensure that the required precuring will take place. Pettijohn E Witco Corp. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC.. p.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P. from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender. such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. shipment and handling. Istratuca G The synthesis. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. EUROPEAN UNION. 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .References and Abstracts Item 341 ENDS Report No. as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer.one year in South Florida. LAND ROVER EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 3 refs. at the same time. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Volume III. 1999. Details are given.ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EU. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Land Rover vehicles. EUROPEAN UNION. which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all Accession no. New York City. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT. This precuring is essential.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. No.292. UK. physicochemical properties. 1998.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and. medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight. Conference proceedings.734261 Item 345 Antec ’99. Volume III. versatile viscosity. Unlike other models in Land Rover’s range. RUMANIA Accession no. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35. The effects measured included: % IR reflection. HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L.734767 Item 344 Antec ’99. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators. and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. No. Terescu-Boran S.4.2885-9.E. UK. New York City. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC. Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant. p. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. p.3. 21 refs. they require very low temperature storage.13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes. 2nd-6th May 1999. May 1999. The infrared system is installed in Land Rover’s state-of-the-art Paintshop 21. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure. II.C. the Freelander’s anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound.

2nd-6th May 1999. USA Accession no. These additives effectively stabilise the product. Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co. Conference proceedings. New York City. New York City. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H. and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G.733961 Item 348 Antec ’99. From this aspect. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y. 10 refs. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 121 .733965 Item 347 Antec ’99.3564-8.3512-25. Volume III. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation. New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators. Takaki A. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.733960 Item 349 Antec ’99. 2nd-6th May 1999. USA III. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials. IV. Jakubowski J.3592-6. Volume III. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures. their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. Volume III. 11 refs. Dooley T. Volume III. In other words.Inc. 5 refs. Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp.Inc. making them safer to handle. 2nd-6th May 1999. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. p. 2nd-6th May 1999.3569-73. predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity. p. Hegranes B. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. Nakanishi Y. Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these Accession no. New York City. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. JAPAN Accession no.References and Abstracts most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition. Conference proceedings. Conference proceedings. a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed. Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. 6 refs. which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion. p. p..733970 Item 346 Antec ’99. USA Accession no. Exxon Chemical Co. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R. Using commercial grade plasticisers. USA Accession no.3526-36. and the gelation of plastisols. Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. New York City. Conference proceedings. 19 refs. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC. Conference proceedings. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity. Bacaloglu R. Volume III. New York City.733758 Item 350 Antec ’99. store and ship. p. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed. relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells. 2nd-6th May 1999. but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken.

399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and liquid food or food simulants. INDIA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Broughton R M Auburn. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics.28. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. March 1999.58/64 DESIGN . p. New York. the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact. 16 refs. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S. p. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892). N. A mathematical model.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC. USA Item 353 Injection Molding 7.1. FRANCE. EUROPEAN UNION. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers.729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. No. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. 1999.4.732200 122 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Compared with other recycling techniques. No. July 1998.. Full details of the problem and the solution are presented.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets.3. while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. Plastics Design Library. Hou Z.MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. Fugit J L. a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins. p. plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency ‘sphere’ of PVC. grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. Using CO-ACT service. field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags. 4th April 1999. I.5967. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order. 19 refs. April 1999. were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping. 2 refs.References and Abstracts interactive forces. their size and ageing period were performed. No. Phase separation Accession no.Y. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments. 8 refs. p. Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated. able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters. Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. USA Accession no. having been subjected to a treatment. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements.University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating. p. USA Accession no.

the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion. 7 refs. 14th-17th Sept. Goteborg. in many ways. 1999. and most importantly.. where the major application is signage. For flexible PVC. No. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44. allows higher design stress ratings and material savings. The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. Feb. Kluwer. p. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. Annealing is essential.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes. and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. haul off and profile saw. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years.Ltd. particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries. and particular details are given of the profile dies. USA A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G. waste and vent applications. p. a process has been developed to execute the orientation process ‘in-line’ with the extrusion. Tabtiang A Loughborough. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC. London. requires little energy input and much lower capital cost.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. SWEDEN.1998. where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes. calibration block. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Rigid vinyl foam is. UK. the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. Retec proceedings. improved thermal insulation. calibration table. SCANDINAVIA.165-74. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet. KOLSITE BATTENFELD INDIA Accession no. Boucherville. 20 refs. Hitt D J. high water resistance. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers.2. and foam core pipe for drain. The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume. an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds. just like wood. but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. Aspects covered Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. profile. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. high rigidity. Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974. 23rd-25th Sept. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. AUSTRALIA.. Conference proceedings. 1998. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam.University (SPE.565-72.526-34. 15 refs. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M. Sweden. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range. p.References and Abstracts was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. Features of the machinery are described. Qc. 6H21 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 123 . which is mainly used for trim and moulding.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. Previously this has been performed as a secondary ‘off-line’ process in an external mould. and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years. Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty. p. NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied.1998. particularly in many wood replacement applications. An A-Z reference. EUROPEAN UNION.

a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. Those retarding thermal decomposition. 30 refs. p. Kluwer. p. 1997. An introduction to rigid PVC. chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented. Therefore. 12th Jan. Details are given USA Accession no. No. 13th-14th Oct. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. USA thermoplastic magnets. recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point. Retec proceedings. Retec proceedings.1999.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives.1-2. Litvinov V M.Plastics Recycling Div.713534 Item 364 Vinyltec ’98. p.1998. They are recycled into new. Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples. with the aid of specially developed computer programs. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride). 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc. are heat stabilisers.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32. Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G 124 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Its vision in the early 1990s was to ‘close the loop’ by recycling carpet into carpet. Colemonts C DSM.714178 Item 363 ARC ’98.References and Abstracts include vinyl foam processes and formulations. hardness. BELGIUM. closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling. Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of Accession no. USA Accession no. low pile nylon 6.165-74. most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components . N. (SPE. Scherrenberg R L. Gondard C.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri. p. and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite. 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.450-8. Chicago. 4 refs. Falter J A.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC. NETHERLANDS. Nos. The effect of the composition on the impact strength. The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale. East Brunswick. 7 refs. 11th-13th Nov. the function and classification of lubricants.) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market. p. Prior to the development of ER3.1998.. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B. CROATIA Accession no. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. An A-Z reference. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained.6 face and a vinyl composite backing system. These products are constructed with a dense. 38 refs. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied.96-100. Il. Souren F. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated.J. EUROPEAN UNION. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods.. function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. Geick K S Lonza Inc. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W. while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers.1.

including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll. concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability. derived from residual catalyst. in cases where high water resistance is required.References and Abstracts Rohm & Haas Co. p. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin. once mixed into a polymer. including wood.1998. composites. but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. No. entirely as an HX scavenger. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation. such as chlorinated PE (CPE). with more soluble halide salts.Vinyl Div. 12 refs.6. were dispersed in the matrix.407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y. size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM). certain types of lubricants.) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years. East Brunswick. 5 refs. particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix. 9 refs.75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K.711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43.Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction. p. JAPAN Accession no. embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering. immiscible polymeric additives. Nov. and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates. In some halogenated polymers. consisting of a few beads on average.11. as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions. etc. 13th-14th Oct. Features such as low maintenance. In some of these cases. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. or instead. No. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content. agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl. extraction or migration of lead-based additives. such as EPM or EPDM. Nevertheless. polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO). Yoshimoto N. relative ease of installation. the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal. However..) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction. (SPE. or contamination of the environment. USA Accession no. Mechanically. mineral fillers. 1998. Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 125 . In other cases. and tensile tests were carried out. tooling wear and plateout. To clarify the effect of particle shape. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways. Okabe S. Iida T Osaka. such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. weatherability. there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish. p. have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1. lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec ’98. is very low. With lead-based stabilisers. In hydrocarbon polymers. the metal may participate in crosslink formation. Among additives used in the formulation.83-8. were used instead. USA crosslinking. lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide Accession no. The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear ‘natural’ and not ‘plastic’. Due to their low solubility. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding.7 billion lb. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance. N. and impact resistance. Retec proceedings. as in reduced impact strength. The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers.Vinyl Div.1998. Fatma K.J. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure.

recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. 11th Dec. measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples. PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow.References and Abstracts For many years. FITT SPA.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No.University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content. if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm. RUSSIA Accession no. Furthermore. 14th-15th Oct. 10 refs. 12 refs. Retec proceedings. 8 refs. 1999. 3rd Jan.1998.Institute of Chemical Physics. Heung Kim. No. but there are concerns regarding its toxicity. Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE.107-26. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate.1. Zaikov G E. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and. Semenov S A. Italy’s largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC. Zhdanova O A 126 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .1.1999.4 tonnes of waste material a month. ITALY. In this study. INDIA Semenov N. thermal stability. presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth. volatility. low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. tributyl citrate.1. ITALY. Ga.. TARKETT AB EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent.000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8. p.Vinyl Div. is examined. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited.N. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. No. including extraction.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry Accession no. not only no macroscopic change of the molec.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. Atlanta. SCANDINAVIA. processes almost 100. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. SWEDEN. 12 refs. p. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt.1997.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. USA Accession no.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z.. No.University. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S.1766. one of the world’s largest PVC flooring manufacturers. La Mantia F P Pisa.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec ’97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces. EUROPEAN UNION.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared.wt. Tarkett Sommer. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Palermo. p. 1999. EUROPEAN UNION.

82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s. pressures. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel. In both cases.000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4. Washuettl J Vienna. startup. USA Accession no.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. Scharf L.500kg/hr for plasticised. good acoustic damping properties. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals. BATTENFELD AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 9 refs.8. 1/12/98. samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples. No.. plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. In contrast. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions. based on organometallic chemistry.. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product. extrusion foaming methods. Pleizier G. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market. GERMANY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. From this mechanism. with mass spectrometry detection. processing. Worsfold D J. ease of fabrication by mechanical means.1998. 2nd edition.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder. p. the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity. 26 refs.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING.705216 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . 18 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. mould design. It has an output of 4.University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of children’s sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. GERMANY. 1998.1998. Similar species were also directly released during irradiation. Fiala F.References and Abstracts of decomposition and gas formation. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time. p. the smallest model in the EMS series. Oh.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B.F.3. p. USA Accession no. 1997. c. Munich. 1st Oct. 1998. PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders. and includes details of melt preparation. Hanser Publications. excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. theory. good chemical resistance. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile). Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation. and troubleshooting. Krzymien M. CANADA Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology.704011 Item 376 Brecksville. a blowing agent activation approach was developed. these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. EUROPEAN UNION.Co. 11 ins. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. Day M Canada..7. pp. Aspects covered include structure of formulations. high flame resistance.Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr. process upsets. No. p.435-54.

defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications. No. A nomogram is given to predict the strength. the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4. 19 refs. Iida T Osaka. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS). Nov. and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser.0. 28 refs. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry. and toughness increased at low PHR ratios. SEM observations of the specimen’s surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the 128 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2.700556 Item 379 Polymer 39. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio. p. NETHERLANDS. In order to evaluate the technique. Marquez Lucero A Yucatan. Finally. No. p. MEXICO Accession no. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. p. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen. Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys. but too rarely to be statistically measurable. 19 refs. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications. based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio. but the use of DMS. AUSTRIA.697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19. Fukuoka Y.10.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25.1998. However.Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test.4. the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost.26. prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. USA Accession no. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content. Kusy R P North Carolina. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties. Mexico. 1998. Strength.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70.1998. during a tensile test was investigated. stiffness.References and Abstracts DEHP. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. Aug. Campos Torres A. a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets. No. diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate.33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles. dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes. DES and DOA resulted Accession no. No.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J.2. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months.4 for the shaking test. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. p. but there was no significant influence of particle size.Centro de Investigacion Cientifica.1998.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y.University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds.Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices. WESTERN EUROPE in reduced ductility. EUROPEAN UNION. 10th Oct.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. were explained. Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc. 19 refs. p. Boudeulle M. No. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C.Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FRANCE. In the presence of titanium dioxide. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first. 9th-11th December 1997. Audouin L. The extrudates were stretched above and below the “gel-liquid” transition temperature of PVC (about 205C). Gay M. the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h. The colour hold guidelines. Furukawa K. IV. 1998. Above this temperature. with the change from full siding to coextrusion. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions.1. Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39. EUROPEAN UNION. The main products were oxalic acid. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe.References and Abstracts particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress.696562 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 129 . These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. Michel A CNRS. Katowice. Colouring methods have changed slowly. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry. FRANCE. close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl Accession no. 19 refs. Poland.2. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions.1998. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra. whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five.20. Paper 4. 1998. at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. Mur G.695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. Okuwaki A Tohoku. Lyon. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm. ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps. p. JAPAN Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61. 15 refs. The presence of fillers enhanced Young’s modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. p. 3rd Oct. i. they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations .211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC. followed by oxidation.in close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Sato T. Cassagnau P. EUROPEAN UNION. No.e. the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented. JAPAN Accession no. the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade. Conference proceedings. 24 refs. the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature).4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I.

II. is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications. Atlanta.3272-7.694482 Item 386 Antec ’98. Cusack P A Brunel University. Atlanta. including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours. Biesiada K. without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H. Today. Volume III. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R. on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene. USA Accession no. Conference proceedings. Atlanta.. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H. or more accurately appearance retention..692780 Item 389 Antec ’98. concentration.. It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. extraction resistance. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. I. Biesiada K. Volume III. Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport. Conference proceedings.3310-2. Ga. 19 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Bacaloglu R. 26th-30th April 1998. creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. Schaefer R E Solutia Inc. 10 refs. p.692781 Item 388 Antec ’98. UK. Renshaw J T.References and Abstracts weatherable profiles. the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A. p. Volume III. Ga. Conference proceedings. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America. Herbiet R. p. a few new trends are highlighted. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. USA Accession no. The latest research developments are illustrated using Accession no. p. 10 refs. 26th-30th April 1998.3296-300. Volume III. Volume III. Bacaloglu R. confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser.3234-9..692777 Item 390 Antec ’98. (SPE) Stain resistance.693676 Item 387 Antec ’98. Ga. Conference proceedings. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed. Brecker L R Witco Corp. Brecker L R Witco Corp. Ga. 26th-30th April 1998. USA Accession no. p. WESTERN EUROPE MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. Ga. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds. 26th-30th April 1998. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored. Atlanta. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. volatility and solubility parameter. USA Accession no. functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations. 012 130 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .3291-5. Atlanta. 9 refs. 26th-30th April 1998.

adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model. in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed. said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high. Details are given. 1998.687797 Accession no. No. p. Kusy R P North Carolina.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. temperature and frequency. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 13 refs. was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil. 15 refs.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION USA Item 393 Polymer 39. and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser. the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH. p. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue. 29th July 1998. May/June 1998. 5 refs. No. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1. 1998.References and Abstracts smoke density results. the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies.692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10. ALGERIA Accession no. GERMANY.686435 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 131 .University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. 17 refs. depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles.000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing. Using parallel plate sensors. the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine. Djilani S E Annaba. US. the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser. decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli. No. EUROPEAN UNION. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible.Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers. EUROPEAN UNION. Nos.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser.690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34.15. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.686631 Item 394 Polymer 39. p. USA Accession no. Marcilla A Alicante.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D. SPAIN. di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate.Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems. p. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser.5/6. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak. The Consumers Union. These obervations were discussed. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.14. Gelation occurred in several steps. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature.18.

No. SWEDEN. Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders. 1998.684907 Item 398 Antec ’98. UK. berries and vegetables.5. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics.References and Abstracts Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. 31st May 1998.Royal Institute of Technology. Volume I. widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. Gustavson H. p. phthalic anhydride. Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics. SEM.University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite. dichlorodiethylsilane. Nanjing. May 1998. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss. image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ciguang Bao.University. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die. Park C B Toronto. June 1998. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound. emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion. p. Atlanta. Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co. Balatinecz J J. 18 refs. Mason T J Yunnan. Svensson K. Karlsson S.247-55. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. p.87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao. All the extrusion processes (film. compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. 7 refs. CHINA. 2 refs.9. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids. No. poultry. EUROPEAN UNION. Ga. fish. surface roughness. No. p. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. 26th-30th April 1998. Coventry.University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food. Uppsala. pork. sheet. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial.685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M. SCANDINAVIA.University. USA Accession no. coating.National Food Administration. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1.2. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food.2.. CANADA Accession no.680858 132 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 63 refs. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D.5 mg/ kg. Rue Feng. Oskarsson A Sweden. and maleated PP for surface modification. Sweden. p. Conference proceedings. including purees of beef.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. USA Accession no. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control.University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. No.

Toronto. Ontario. No. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. along with looking at ways to improve them. however. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles. zinc.1.417-22.5 phr (approximately 1. Geick K S. At a normal usage of 0.1997. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms. sheet. p. are very dependent on the density of the foam product. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. Book 2. March 1998.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co. Formulation additives. and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights. p. and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements.1. typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. 9 refs. 24th-28th Aug. p.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. 3 refs. p. window profiles. foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials. aluminium and sodium internal/external.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. and various accessory items Accession no. tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A. pipe.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. The properties. or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films.1. the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature.5 to 1. March 1998.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. USA Accession no. USA Accession no. No. magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants. USA Accession no. USA generally used for installation.References and Abstracts Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product. 1998. methyl.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years. and foam core pipe.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. Conference Proceedings. fencing. p. In addition to these solid products. Laminations and Coatings Conference. II. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M. In addition. Williams J B Lonza Inc. Typical are house siding. storm doors. No. No. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character.1. CANADA. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. lithium. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above. March 1998. barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal. 28 refs. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 133 .

37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M. II. EUROPEAN UNION. Edge V.g.Metropolitan University.Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. 4th April 1998. BERSTORFF H.. Gillis P P. ITALY. Details are also given of the roller head process.1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. I.SAS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Coahuila. TEMPERATURE.University. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Kentucky. e. carbonyl formation. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1998. Manchester. Tellez M M Mexico. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll. Data are given for milling. UK.676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. COMERIO ERCOLE SPA. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported.g. Grulke E A Michigan. p. Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET. Allen N S. No.Metropolitan University. Coahuila. During normal stabilisation conditions. and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process. while preheated calcium stearate reduced them.. MEXICO. p.1996. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using. No. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R. p. in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects. Spring 1998. JAPAN beta-diketone.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68.1. No.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. calcium soap. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R. UK. Iida T Osaka. No. followed by press moulding and 134 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION.MASCHINENBAU GMBH. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones. USA Accession no. flotation.Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser. p. as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83).. and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings. a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. Petty C A.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. Sept.. COMERIO R.1. Azuma F. Gilbert M Loughborough. visible reflectance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. e. EUROPEAN UNION. p. 28 refs. The effects of processing conditions. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. 18 refs.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described.Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates. Jan.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68.752. AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times. GERMANY. temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined.670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17. Tellez M M Mexico. a ‘short-term’ costabiliser. FRANCE.University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC.674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE. Allen N S. 20 refs. and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined. 19 refs. Edge V. Evaluation of induction times to degradation. MEXICO. the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. zinc stearate. The same effect was seen with the Accession no.References and Abstracts Nakamura Y.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. Manchester. 4th April 1998.1.

Accession no. UK.3. EUROPEAN UNION. The © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 135 . No.Sci. on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile.3.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39. Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC. No.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. 1998. Sept. the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2. 4 refs. No. p. be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies. No. USA Accession no.for Med. therefore. INDIA Accession no. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser.4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R. Sidor J A.663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10. Isner J D. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy. screw speed and draw-down.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst. For packaging converters. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions. No. A ‘more severe test’ is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a ‘more severe test’ and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. USA Accession no.5 mm single screw. May-June 1997.References and Abstracts extrusion. Sept. 22 refs. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed.205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed. Wiedl D J Geon Co. the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a ‘more severe test’.3.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. such as melt temp. EUROPEAN UNION.. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. p. including density.1997. in particular. 15 refs. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity. overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. 9 refs.1997. Sept. p. UK. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate. who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple. p. However. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S.1997.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I. 26 refs.3. cell structure and surface appearance.210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B. p. Goodson A.1. time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined.

and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts. The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S. No.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling. 12 refs. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment.2. No. Today’s vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties. Data are given for PVC.University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles. Accession no.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D. HDPE. performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world. Oct.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C. processability. p. Pan Y Zhejiang. yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled. GERMANY. In particular.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. and epoxy resin. GERMANY. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound. No. Sept. p.1782. 13 refs. 29th Sept. business equipment. p. Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation. 8 refs.-5th Oct. CHINA Accession no.References and Abstracts regulatory status. This article examines the reasons why. in the past mainly heavy metals.1997.1997. Different methods (complexometric titration. June 1997.4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase. quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. p. Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives. LLDPE. The Commission’s words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. were fitted to the equation. appearance. Among these. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 17 refs. p.2. whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods.1997.10. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification.1997. USA Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. No.9.656159 136 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment. EUROPEAN UNION. Oct. it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars. Wu G.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones. The pyrrolidine-2. heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. LDPE.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68. experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites. Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co. and electrical enclosures. EUROPEAN UNION. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product. No.647875 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products.2.2. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE). Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. 13 refs. p. USA Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27. despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions. US.3. OXYCHEM. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches. (APR). p. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. BAYSHORE VINYL USA Accession no. 9 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. June 1997. Lyutikova E A. Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body. and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. which present an absorption below 400 nm.ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS. 12 refs. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials. Nokhrina N N. US. EUROPEAN UNION. which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer. 5. 5 refs. No. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction. Lemaire J Blaise Pascal. However. Hegranes B. FRANCE. is not a simple process. there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I. and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length. and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years. May 1997.References and Abstracts however. June 1997. This effect is reversible. but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R. chemical and mechanical effects. P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES. RUSSIA Accession no. p. giving them an external character.VINYL INSTITUTE.650267 Accession no. I.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Potapov V A Under physical. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer.Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt. 1997.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Currently. it is reported. No. is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles. p. but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl. Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation. cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them. No. USA Accession no.107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L.

increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance. No.1997. Daranga M. p. p. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH AUSTRIA. whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. These machines are intended to complement the company’s Titan conical screw range. polyfunctional amines and.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity. 1997. reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures.2. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%. studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC.2. UK. 16 refs.642797 138 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature. Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing. POLAND Accession no.4-6 CINCINNATI’S DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K. 14 refs. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e. which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. EUROPEAN UNION. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing. but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared. No. 1997. derivatives of dimercaptotriazines. p. depending on the formulation used. as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto. In PVC.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug. wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). Jassy. crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties. its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. EASTERN EUROPE. the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values. IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented.Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws.1. No. small-angle x-ray scattering. of some commercial importance. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides. 1997. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. During processing under appropriately selected conditions.g. For this reason. WESTERN EUROPE are present in structures of microdomains and between them. RUMANIA Accession no. p. this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I.References and Abstracts Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC. Dumitrescu S Jassy. These Accession no. domain structure. EASTERN EUROPE. Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J. crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. 14 refs.

tensile strength and modulus increase significantly. In this region. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size. Volume III.University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties. modulus. Conference proceedings.11. UK. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability. Toronto. Patel H M. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics. Petty C A.5.References and Abstracts Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction. Grulke E A Michigan. p.27th April-2nd May 1997. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. elongation at break. Balatinecz J J.3496-502. porosity. and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties. Kentucky.639926 Item 431 Antec 97. whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region. Volume III. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industry’s concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M. as for example. May 1997. May 1997. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. CANADA Accession no. toughness and notched izod impact strength. and morphology is discussed.p. Brooks B W Loughborough. puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . No.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. 3 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. Park C B Toronto. Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers. Conference proceedings. is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles. Toronto.p.639984 Item 430 Antec 97.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38. p. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine Accession no.1. However.State University. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index. No. JAPAN Accession no. No. 10 refs.3580-5.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M.University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed. electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations. Kusy R P North Carolina.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65. elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser. USA mixer. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 5th July 1997.27th April-2nd May 1997. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. 41 refs. tensile strength at yield. p. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms.University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased. 19 refs.638534 Item 433 Antec 97.Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC 140 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No. results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion. EUROPEAN UNION.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. USA Accession no. Some examples of successful applications are described.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M. the contribution to improved Accession no. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors. No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. 5 refs. 28 refs. Volume II. p.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Garcia J C. Conference proceedings. p. Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc.4. For both plasticiser systems. April 1997. stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation. No.1. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency. p. March 1997. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. 6 refs. Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation.References and Abstracts species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes. phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one. No.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed. March 1997. SPAIN. profile processing conditions and welding parameters.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. 4 refs. Shen K K US Borax Inc. No. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P. Marcilla A Alicante.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M.1. Strength.1902-6. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%.1.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33. March 1997. Toronto. USA Accession no. Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. 27th April-2nd May 1997. The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties. p. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied. It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. p. USA Ferm D J. USA Accession no.

University © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 141 . No.e. I. Quirk J P. foam structure and colour. No. UK. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate. p. 6 refs. Bellenger V.Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties. The predictor of compatibility. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. March 1997. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements. as suggested in most textbooks. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. or double compounds of lead oxide.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use.9%.0% and 11. FRANCE. Del Val J J. indicated that these salts were not complexes. 1996.630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33. respectively. 8 refs.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13. SPAIN. ENSAM The volumetric. Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers.References and Abstracts weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38.1. elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4. IX.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. No. the Hildebrand solubility parameter.g.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC. 1997. However. the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara. 12 refs. 1997. No. BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate. 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A. HALSTAB USA Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS. Balkose D Ege. p. Cretney H European Vinyls Corp. tribasic lead maleate. The results were discussed. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations. EUROPEAN UNION. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones.Universidad del Pais Vasco. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water. tetrabasic lead fumarate. 20 refs. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24. Verdu J San Sebastian. 47 refs. e.7.(UK) Ltd. i. but unique compounds of interesting structure. p. PVC. No. p. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F. TURKEY Accession no.1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4. USA Accession no.4. interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density. 1997. predicted the major Accession no. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed.

Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. Re-Integration. Volume IV: Chemical Processes.Testing & Res. 13 refs.3.. p.Recovery. FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W. stabiliser type. p. namely diesters and mixed esters. but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water. Conference proceedings. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility.References and Abstracts level of compatibility for both series involved. Accession no. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight. EUROPEAN UNION. molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data. The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. SWITZERLAND. Sept.615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2.1. but which can recover the most important component of it .Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. Edelmann X (EMPA. EASTERN EUROPE. 25 refs.1996. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2. Eduardo R V. Biological Processes.617495 Item 444 R’95 . No. USA Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54. Geneva. p. USA Accession no. No. 31 refs. p.1996. plasticiser loading. Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.chlorine . 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. 1996.1996. Nov/Dec. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC. MEXICO. RUMANIA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained. Sept. 1st-3rd Sept. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed. Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate.629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14.3.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important.51-8.IV. and choice of antioxidant. Santiago S L. with a very high yield. 12 refs. No. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed. No. UK. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications.615223 142 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 4 refs. Recycling.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION . The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. p. For PVC. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation. Oliverio S R F. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer.6.as a raw product for VCM manufacture.193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp. Manchester. Hospital Waste. 2 refs. this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics.REVIEW Green J FMC Corp. 1995.Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J. Allen N S Mexico.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. 23rd-25th April 1996. cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound.Sci. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion.361-8. 11 refs. Brighton.References and Abstracts USA (Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B. EUROPEAN UNION. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique. Conference proceedings. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning. 23rd-25th April 1996. 10 refs. p. It is a multi-axial parameter. Morel P Elf Atochem SA © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 143 . Many of these variables are interdependent.611175 Item 451 PVC ’96. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes.University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section. and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels. 6 refs. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37. and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters. In addition. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix.& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface. depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.391-405. After surface modification. Stephenson R C Loughborough. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed.23. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. Marvalin C. Bianchi C. the resultant costs.379-90. Beyond its theoretical interest. occurring in all three principal axes of the profile. yet shrinkage is also influenced by output. GERMANY. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures. p. Brighton. FRANCE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.611174 Item 452 PVC ’96. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp. Conference proceedings. INDIA Accession no.for Med. 19 refs. p. the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. EUROPEAN UNION. European Vinyls Corp.(UK)Ltd.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries.417-24. actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory Accession no. No.611191 Item 449 PVC ’96. Brighton. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems. separation of foreign materials and grinding. Disson J P. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects. Conference proceedings. p. Brighton.University. Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst.611177 Item 450 PVC ’96. 23rd-25th April 1996.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A. 23rd-25th April 1996. 1996.

42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. Through the correct choices of organotin species. spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas.611153 144 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Brighton. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film. Conference proceedings. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN UNION. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers. 16 refs. drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow.175-83. p.References and Abstracts which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. USA Accession no. 23rd-25th April 1996. different sizes of ‘T’. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Brighton. (Institute of Materials) In their early days. In particular. surface flow) are compared. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis.Morton Plastics Additives Div. Brighton.345-53.611172 Item 453 PVC ’96. high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism. the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. EUROPEAN UNION. 23rd-25th April 1996. 42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 7 refs.259-68. Brighton.611156 Item 456 PVC ’96..209-18. Conference proceedings.611170 Item 454 PVC ’96. 23rd-25th April 1996. USA Accession no. ‘Z’ and ‘L’ shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared. Lee S H Geon Co. polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new Accession no. Conference proceedings. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted. p. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants. ITALY.611161 Item 455 PVC ’96. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. Here. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. Most flexible and high shear. UK. but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. In solvent-free UV-curable systems. 5 refs. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. Conroy G M Morton International Inc. the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone. that is. the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser. GERMANY. 4 refs. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process. calendered flooring. p. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability.

23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton. Conference proceedings. the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. 3 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. nearly pseudoplastic. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co. Brighton. New software is developed which can Accession no.153-61. dispersion. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties.611150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE. These days. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. p. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. EUROPEAN UNION. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation. p. high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness. 23rd-25th April 1996. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. Conference proceedings.611148 Item 460 PVC ’96. USA Item 459 PVC ’96. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability. Conference proceedings. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties. Conference proceedings. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics. machines become bigger and faster. Brighton. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque. and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown. 23rd-25th April 1996. comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers. Existing methods of rheology control.References and Abstracts Item 457 PVC ’96. 23rd-25th April 1996. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated. p. EUROPEAN UNION.109-14.145-51. the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability. PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BELGIUM. Brighton. and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release. Additionally. while exhibiting this behaviour. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. GERMANY. and temperature stable. liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications.115-31.611151 Item 458 PVC ’96. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. have certain drawbacks. storage and optics retention are studied. The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment.

Day J A. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK Accession no.p.. technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride. PVC/nitrile rubber.1740. particularly pipes and fittings. fabrication and surface treatments. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. p. EUROPEAN UNION. 12ins. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers. BELGIUM. using PVC/polyester. and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships.1983. the Netherlands.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd.No. Rapra Review Report vol. In rigid PVC. No. No.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997.) Rapra Review Report No. 4 refs.000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven.542367 Item 464 Shawbury. EUROPEAN UNION.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS. The company is building a 1. WESTERN EUROPE Brann S. 14 refs. p.Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength.1994. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd.154. pp. EVC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1996. no.UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed.Hemsley D A. the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion. Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd. p. UK. USA Accession no. stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs. Knight M Goodrich B. calendering and liquid PVC compositions. PVC/ polycaprolactone. blow moulding.075 micron. injection moulding. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66. EUROPEAN UNION. Dec. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion.1996. Rapra Technolgy Ltd. 23/11/94.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity. 1994. PVC/ polyolefin.6. the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M. This comprehensive article describes cPVC’s key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer.F. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure. PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J. 11th-17th Nov.7.12. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. NETHERLANDS.References and Abstracts measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture..4.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS Accession no. PVC/PU. PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples. and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed. Blending and alloying is described.245286 146 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM. 1994. that meets a variety of process uses.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90.

57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION. 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE. 284 AMINOURACIL. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A. 100 247 BIOCIDE. 48 BLOOD. 135 BLOCKING. 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE. 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE. 464 BLOWING AGENT. 239 BONDING. 191 C CABLE. 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE. 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY. 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY. 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT. 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL. 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE.Subject Index Subject Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE. 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC. 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM. 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE. 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE. 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION. 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION. 150 ANTIFOGGING. 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING. 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION. 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY. 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 103 ADIPATE ESTER. 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION. 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION. 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST. 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 147 . 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND. 98 257 ANNEALING. 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT. 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY. 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION. 207 BATCH MIXING. 113 122 201 ALLOY. 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT. 14 BLAST FURNACE. 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE. 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE. 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL. 178 AUTOMATION. 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE. 98 ADSORPTION. 98 351 BLOW MOULDING. 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE. 50 59 179 218 343 ABS. 19 366 404 AGREEMENT. 244 399 456 ADHESIVE. 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG. 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT. 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION. 419 BUTT WELD. 115 BLEACHING. 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID. 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE. 1 58 B BAG. 81 400 426 464 ARM REST. 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING. 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER. 122 408 BLISTERING. 257 BALL. 421 BLEND. 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE. 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 236 ACQUISITION. 310 BARIUM. 218 376 ANALYSIS. 129 435 AMORPHOUS. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE. 337 396 440 AMINOSILANE. 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION. 362 BARIUM STEARATE. 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE. 4 387 388 ALLIANCE. 70 BAN. 196 AGEING. 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE. 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION. 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE. 302 382 BENZOATE. 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE. 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY. 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE.

21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT. 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE. 99 COLOUR STABILITY. 376 464 CHLORINATED PE. 83 CALCIUM STEARATE. 8 80 211 236 298 387 431 COLOURANT. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY. 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER. 64 COSMETICS. 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE. 35 36 461 COOLING. 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC. 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION. 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM. 237 CONDENSATION REACTION. 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE. 122 253 COST. 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND. 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE. 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING. 8 45 131 239 CLAY. 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY. 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING. 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN. 98 100 228 257 CARPET. 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER. 283 CHLORINATED. 3 60 CORNICE. 400 CASTING. 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION. 160 244 CLOSED LOOP. 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT. 220 344 400 COMBUSTION. 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW. 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER. 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE. 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE. 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195 148 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 458 CALENDERING. 263 281 CLADDING. 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION. 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE. 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY. 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE. 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT. 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING. 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN. 243 363 CASE HISTORY. 209 217 263 368 CATALYST. 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 218 427 CONSUMPTION. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY. 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING. 436 463 CHLORINE. 24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA.Subject Index 283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM. 197 CORRUGATED SHEET. 184 363 CLOTHING. 104 COLOUR. 64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING. 98 411 CONTAMINATION. 218 427 COEXTRUSION. 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING. 73 COLOUR FASTNESS. 67 218 248 371 CHALK. 63 318 COATED FABRIC. 105 213 CARBON BLACK. 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE. 352 353 CAST FILM. 169 CARBON DIOXIDE. 55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION. 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND. 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION. 227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE. 64 439 CLARITY. 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY. 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION. 149 CONE CALORIMETER. 172 CALCIUM. 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 120 165 CHAR. 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT. 408 CONVERSION. 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE. 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER. 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND. 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE. 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID.

183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER. 306 DOOR. 349 356 464 DRYING. 2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE. 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462 E E-MODULUS. 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT. 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION. 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES. 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE. 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING. 64 244 DEFECT. 11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION. 464 DIRECTIVE. 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 99 463 DWELL TIME. 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION. 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE. 7 8 92 110 123 171 195 DENSITY. 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE. 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE. 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE. 70 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 149 . 37 D DAMAGE. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS. 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE. 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE. 184 CREDIT CARD. 181 202 CROSSLINKING. 21 27 DECKING. 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE. 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE. 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING. 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN. 51 257 353 DAMPING. 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE. 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE. 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE. 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 184 243 408 CYLINDER. 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY. 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND. 115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION. 122 DRY BLENDING. 333 DRAWING. 379 393 432 DIOXIN. 64 427 COUPLING AGENT. 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE. 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE. 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 51 DECOMPOSITION. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE. 86 244 247 DEGRADATION. 53 116 274 440 CRACKING. 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION. 104 419 DEGRADABLE. 42 242 334 DIE. 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION. 132 170 230 DEFORMATION. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE. 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE. 315 383 DRINKING WATER. 43 106 302 DECORATIVE. 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE.Subject Index 196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER. 277 370 373 DETERGENT. 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION. 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE. 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY. 428 DUCTILITY. 11 117 DIISONONYL PHTHALATE. 230 CYTOTOXICITY. 66 DIBENZOFURAN. 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE. 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE. 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE. 408 CREEP. 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT. 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY. 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE. 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER. 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING. 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND. 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 419 CUTTING. 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING. 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN. 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION. 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE. 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE. 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY.

2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION. 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT. 30 336 ELONGATION. 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES. 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION. 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT. 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT. 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS. 233 439 EXTRUDER. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE. 464 EXTRUSION COATING. 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. 336 405 FLOOR. 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION. 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 195 427 FOAMABILITY. 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN. 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL. 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL. 169 243 406 FOAM. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER. 441 EXFOLIATION. 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE. 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. 2 113 283 366 404 FILM. 244 FLAMMABILITY. 197 FEEDING. 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK. 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE. 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH. 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION. 34 400 F FABRIC. 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING. 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 39 206 313 FLUID BED. 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION. 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE. 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION. 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING. 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT. 115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS. 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT. 231 238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE. 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD. 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER. 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION. 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING. 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT. 55 192 FOAMING. 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING. 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT. 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL. 266 464 ENDOCRINE. 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER.Subject Index 154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER. 98 375 FAILURE. 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING. 441 EXTRACTION. 122 408 FLOW. 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK. 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME. 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES. 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL. 283 EMISSION. 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE. 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL. 99 158 FIBRE. 2 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY. 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.

243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 218 427 FRICTION WELD. 244 HOT TOOL WELD. 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING. 253 257 HORTICULTURE. 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL. 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE. 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT. 66 GAS EVOLUTION. 91 395 GEL. 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 122 311 GRANULATOR. 70 GELATION. 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT. 7 8 110 195 385 H HARDNESS. 15 49 281 GAS PIPE. 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING. 283 HEAT DEGRADATION. 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 127 351 FOOTWEAR. 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE. 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE. 171 FUNGICIDE. 243 311 FUEL CELL. 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC. 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD. 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE. 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. 309 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER. 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY. 15 462 GAS BARRIER. 306 HOUSEWARES. 215 HEALTH HAZARD. 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465 GASIFICATION. 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE. 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION. 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE. 50 81 82 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS. 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION. 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE. 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE. 269 FROTH FLOTATION. 122 380 408 FORMULATION. 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE. 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE.Subject Index 375 FOGGING. 122 FUSION. 405 HYDROLYSIS. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE. 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION. 11 GRANULATION. 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 205 HEAT AGEING. 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT. 99 HORMONE. 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION. 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION. 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 42 370 FURAN. 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL. 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE. 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME. 335 FOIL. 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE. 21 115 187 GASKET. 64 HOSE. 27 187 I IMMERSION. 42 334 FUNGUS. 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 151 . 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 252 271 297 HAZE. 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER. 125 FURNITURE. 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT. 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 400 HEAD REST.

121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY. 209 227 362 MELTING POINT. 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER. 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX. 54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY. 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 365 438 LEAD MALEATE. 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING. 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE. 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING. 64 186 LIME. 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 320 LEAD COMPOUND. 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE. 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188 118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER. 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464 M MACHINERY. 234 362 MARKET SHARE. 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION. 309 JOINT VENTURE. 122 INTERACTION. 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION. 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. 98 100 253 LANDFILL. 3 60 426 IRRADIATION. 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID. 67 IRON OXIDE. 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING. 236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE. 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY. 70 171 380 LEGISLATION. 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION. 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL. 113 122 201 K K VALUE. 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX. 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH. 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE. 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE. 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE. 7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION. 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT. 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 224 405 J JOINT. 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE.Subject Index 113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION. 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY. 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE. 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE. 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION. 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN. 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH. 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT. 8 LUBRICANT. 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE. 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY. 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES. 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER. 62 152 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE. 438 LEAD PHTHALATE. 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND. 40 46 LEATHER. 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY. 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY. 224 LEACHING. 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT. 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD. 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING. 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD. 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX. 132 346 359 MELT FLOW. 10 L LABELLING. 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD. 72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS. 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. 122 184 306 INHIBITOR. 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE. 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE. 70 393 MEMBRANE. 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 15 LONG-TERM. 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT. 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING. 283 KILN. 115 297 LATEX. 149 172 INJECTION MOULD. 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION.

49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND. 181 421 PHTHALATE. 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE. 45 132 153 155 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 153 . 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION. 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE. 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER. 122 PERMEABILITY. 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE. 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING. 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND. 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER. 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP. 10 65 102 N NANOCOMPOSITE. 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER. 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT. 242 298 OVEN AGEING. 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED. 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING. 89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE. 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES. 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED. 462 OLIVE OIL. 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE. 374 PLASMA TREATMENT. 148 PHOSPHITE. 2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE. 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE. 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE. 101 327 PATENT. 218 427 PARTICLE. 38 361 438 O OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE. 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER. 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE. 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER. 230 MULTILAYER. 252 ORIENTATION. 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER. 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION. 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 115 122 123 146 282 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY. 115 122 243 306 MIXER. 42 242 334 P PACKAGING. 218 230 273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION. 122 282 PAINT. 421 PHOTODEGRADATION. 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL. 104 MONTMORILLONITE. 109 302 382 PERFUME. 3 60 MONOSANDWICH. 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER. 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE.Subject Index MICROSCOPY. 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE. 308 OXIDATION. 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT. 392 OPACITY. 69 380 NOZZLE. 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION. 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID. 311 369 461 PELLET. 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING. 34 419 MOULDING FAULT. 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER. 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE. 173 191 325 408 MIXING. 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE. 408 PIPE. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW. 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION. 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE.

64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING. 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY. 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS. 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE. 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL. 71 ROUGHNESS. 93 106 244 399 PRICE. 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. 25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER. 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY. 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 S SAFETY. 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL. 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER. 103 POLYAMIDE. 99 184 427 RECYCLING. 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME. 57 POLYMERISATION. 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING. 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE. 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER. 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233 154 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT. 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING. 144 PROCESS CONTROL. 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146 147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE. 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE. 169 178 REVIEW. 408 ROOF. 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY. 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE. 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA. 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER. 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422 R RADIATION CROSSLINKING. 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER. 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION. 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING. 188 198 PYROLYSIS.Subject Index POLLUTION. 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT. 47 414 Q QUALITY. 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN. 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE. 136 195 PRETREATMENT. 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID. 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR. 187 POLYETHYLENE. 59 PREHEATING. 8 POTABLE WATER. 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 172 POWDER. 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID. 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID. 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING. 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING. 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW. 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT. 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER. 202 REACTOR. 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER. 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID. 138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. 318 366 POROSITY. 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL. 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE. 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN. 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE. 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE. 376 RECLAIM. 149 POLYPROPYLENE. 280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER.

98 SOLAR RADIATION. 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE. 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 185 268 SOFTNESS. 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES. 194 SPECTROSCOPY. 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER. 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY. 309 STABILISATION.Subject Index 244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION. 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL. 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE. 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER. 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING. 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER. 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL. 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION. 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN. 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION. 111 289 SMOKE. 377 TELEPHONE CABLE. 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE. 136 170 195 333 SHEAR. 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS. 43 64 418 SEWER PIPE. 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD. 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC. 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET. 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT. 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH. 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE. 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS. 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 155 . 352 445 SOLE. 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT. 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE. 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION. 389 STAINING. 125 166 SWELLING. 137 SODIUM AZIDE. 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS. 155 177 440 SILICATE. 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM. 225 STAIN RESISTANCE. 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION. 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA. 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING. 329 SCREW. 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH. 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 243 SCRAP POLYMER. 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 207 SEPARATION. 122 408 SOLUBILITY. 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY. 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH. 170 230 SURFACE FINISH. 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER. 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE. 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS. 192 282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION. 122 306 SCRAP CAR. 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION. 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT. 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY. 8 12 462 TEETHING RING. 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING. 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 196 197 329 T TALC. 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT. 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING. 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT. 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING. 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES. 336 TEMPERATURE. 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT. 218 SCREW SPEED. 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER. 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM. 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS. 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 67 218 248 371 SCRAP. 94 121 SOFTENING. 59 179 SCRATCHING. 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE. 135 353 STANDARD. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464 STEARIC ACID. 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD.

77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE.Subject Index 104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN. 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY. 113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR. 248 VIRGIN POLYMER. 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED. 157 158 TOUGHNESS. 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE. 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL. 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET. 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY. 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS. 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE. 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION. 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT. 27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER. 374 V VEHICLE. 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING. 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION. 282 VEHICLE TRIM. 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION. 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY. 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION. 396 VENTILATOR. 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES. 289 454 VENEER. 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT. 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION. 250 THERMAL STABILITY. 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION. 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 98 TUBING. 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND. 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION. 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT. 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION. 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING. 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE. 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER. 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION. 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE. 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. 280 TIME. 31 204 THERMOFORMING. 8 84 151 VOLATILITY. 98 TROUBLESHOOTING. 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 64 230 298 374 384 408 432 THIN FILM. 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS. 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL. 22 286 156 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 184 243 WASTE SORTING. 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY. 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT. 231 VINYL CHLORIDE. 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER. 353 376 TUBE. 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE. 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC. 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS. 67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE. 458 464 VOID. 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING. 8 87 88 151 194 367 389 W WALL COVERING. 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE. 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY. 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY. 218 VIBRATION WELDING. 170 183 195 309 U UNPLASTICISED. 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY. 306 WASTE DISPOSAL. 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 93 179 284 TREND. 253 TESTING. 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER. 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER.

131 WINDOW. 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE. 32 37 456 457 WETTING. 185 WIRE INSULATION. 137 295 426 ZINC. 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE. 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION. 48 X X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY.Subject Index 449 WATER POLLUTION. 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION. 243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT. 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY. 83 WOOD. 45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE. 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE. 100 WATERBED. 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME. 118 WOLLASTONITE. 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER. 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR. 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE. 99 439 Z ZEOLITE. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING. 435 ZINC STEARATE. 99 289 427 WELDING. 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE. 13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY. 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR. 50 96 283 383 394 441 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 157 . 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND. 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT. 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE. 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 56 WAX. 307 400 YIELD STRESS. 116 366 381 404 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING. 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE. 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441 Y YELLOWING.

Subject Index 158 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .






Company Index 164 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

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