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Rapra Review Reports

ISSN: 0889-3144

PVC Compounds and Processing

S. Patrick

Volume 15, Number 3, 2004

Expert overviews covering the science and technology of rubber and plastics

A Rapra Review Report comprises three sections, as follows: 1. A commissioned expert review, discussing a key topic of current interest, and referring to the References and Abstracts section. Reference numbers in brackets refer to item numbers from the References and Abstracts section. Where it has been necessary for completeness to cite sources outside the scope of the Rapra Abstracts database, these are listed at the end of the review, and cited in the text as a.1, a.2, etc. 2. A comprehensive References and Abstracts section, resulting from a search of the Rapra Polymer Library database. The format of the abstracts is outlined in the sample record below. 3. An index to the References and Abstracts section, derived from the indexing terms which are added to the abstracts records on the database to aid retrieval.

Source of original article Title

Item 1

33, No.6, 21st March 2000, p.2171-83 EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOPLASTIC POLYURETHANES Pil Joong Yoon; Chang Dae Han Akron,University The effect of thermal history on the rheological behaviour of ester- and ether-based commercial thermoplastic PUs (Estane 5701, 5707 and 5714 from B.F.Goodrich) was investigated. It was found that the injection moulding temp. used for specimen preparation had a marked effect on the variations of dynamic storage and loss moduli of specimens with time observed during isothermal annealing. Analysis of FTIR spectra indicated that variations in hydrogen bonding with time during isothermal annealing very much resembled variations of dynamic storage modulus with time during isothermal annealing. Isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiments indicated that the thermoplastic PUs exhibited a hysteresis effect in the heating and cooling processes. It was concluded that the microphase separation transition or order-disorder transition in thermoplastic PUs could not be determined from the isochronal dynamic temp. sweep experiment. The plots of log dynamic storage modulus versus log loss modulus varied with temp. over the entire range of temps. (110-190C) investigated. 57 refs.

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Accession no.771897

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J. Wade. Brain. Joining of Plastics. C. B.W. Epoxy Resins. S. Methven.N. Friend. R. Norway. H. Johansson Volume 2 Report 13 Report 14 Injection Moulding of Engineering Thermoplastics. Hollaway. Building Research Establishment. International Committee for Plastics in Agriculture. P. Corrosion Monitoring Consultancy. Nova Petrochemicals Inc. and J.Winnan. Trego and H.A.Previous Titles Still Available Volume 1 Report 1 Report 2 Report 3 Report 4 Report 5 Report 8 Report 10 Report 11 Report 12 Conductive Polymers. Rapra Technology Ltd. D.Properties and Applications.G. University of Cambridge. J. Non-destructive Testing of Polymers.F.F. Report 35 Report 36 Polymers in Household Electrical Goods. Brown. Materials. Pultrusion.N.M. FMC Corp. Wilton. C. Evans. The Open University.M.A. D. N. General Electric Plastics BV. D. Recycling and Disposal of Plastics Packaging. Hodge. Engelmann & Buckham Ancillaries. J. Polymers and Structural Composites in Civil Engineering. R. Plas/Tech Ltd. and BIP Chemicals Ltd.K.G. A. U. Hinrichsen. A. Rapra Technology Ltd.A.S. Williams Advanced Composites. Kemmish. Cellcom Technology Associates. Kirby. Larsen and E. Surgical and Pharmaceutical Applications of Polymers.A. Exxon Chemical International Marketing. Klöckner ER-WE-PA GmbH. Agricultural and Horticultural Applications of Polymers. J.R. Hollaway. S. Hotpoint Ltd. R. Polycarbonates. Armitage. Polymers and Their Uses in the Sports and Leisure Industries. ICI. Rapra Technology Ltd.K. Chemical Analysis of Polymers.C. Wheelans. Computer Modelling of Polymer Processing.W. Spratling. R. Coextrusion. Cattell.J. M. Cavendish Laboratory. Roberts. Senter for Industriforskning. G. I. Electronics Applications of Polymers.J. University of Surrey. Polyetheretherketone. R. D. Andreassen. Hardy. Leicester Polytechnic. University of Manchester. Polymer Supported Chemical Reactions. Processing and Applications.R. CAD/CAM in the Polymer Industry.H. Freitag.A. Polyurethane. Lovegrove. Youngstown State University / Florida Atlantic University.J. City University. Cambridge Applied Technology. Internal Mixing of Rubber. W. RAE. R.R. Whelan. Brown. D.C. Biomedical Applications of Polymers. J. Harwell.Goosey. Cox and R. Bayer AG. Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources. W.W. Plastics in Building. Å.D. N. Farnborough.L. M. Consultant. A. Gebelein. Consultant. Pira Packaging Division. Thomas. Processing and Applications.J. Materials Handling in the Polymer Industry. O’Reilly. Adhesives for Structural and Engineering Applications. Fluoroelastomers . Tooltex. P.C. University of Surrey. Weathering of Polymers. Quality Today in Polymer Processing. Report 33 Report 34 .Tooling and Component Processing. Feast Medical. Turner. Woods. Fox. Methven. Coulson. Du Pont (U. J. M. Cox.T. Hodd Polymers in Chemically Resistant Applications. Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry. Allen.Alvey. Plastics in High Temperature Applications. Avon Industrial Polymers Ltd. Consultant. Consultant. Arnold Nutt & Co.M. R. P. J. J. Wilton.D. Pakull. G. D. A. Engineering Thermoplastics. Flammability and Flame Retardants in Plastics. Reynolds. van de Grampel. Silicone Rubbers. Cousans. K. Daniels.Britton.W. ICI. Sandland and M.A. Offshore Applications of Polymers. Report 15 Report 16 Report 17 Report 18 Volume 5 Report 49 Report 50 Report 51 Report 52 Report 53 Report 54 Blends and Alloys of Engineering Thermoplastics. C. Rapra Technology Ltd. Grigo. M. Developments in Additives to Meet Health and Environmental Concerns. Johnson Communications Applications of Polymers.P.G. Physical Testing of Thermoplastics. Barrie. Plessey Research (Caswell) Ltd. T & N Technology Ltd. W. Process Control in the Plastics Industry.H. University of Surrey.F. 3M United Kingdom Plc and 3M Belgium SA. Coates and A. Djordjevic. D.Materials. L. Chronos Richardson Ltd. Queen Mary College. S.A. Cattell Consultancy Services. British Telecom. Volume 4 Report 37 Report 38 Report 39 Report 40 Report 41 Report 42 Report 43 Report 44 Report 45 Report 46 Report 47 Report 48 Polymers in Aerospace Applications. Cook and M. D. Consultant.K. Garnaud. L. Extrusion of Rubber.) Ltd. Polyimides . Halliwell. Polymers in Marine Applications. A. Conductive Polymers II. Polyamides. Lupton Failure of Plastics. Sebborn. Maxwell.M. Williams and T. K. Loctite (Ireland) Ltd. Forrest. Reinforced Reaction Injection Moulding. Nutt. UMIST. Injection Moulding of Rubber. Rapra Technology Ltd.A. Extrusion. Designing with Plastics. Lynn. National NDT Centre.W. London School of Polymer Technology. Hawley.J.T. E. Rapra Technology Ltd. Dow Corning Ltd. Report 56 Report 57 Report 58 Report 59 Report 60 Volume 6 Report 61 Report 62 Report 63 Report 64 Food Contact Polymeric Materials. R.L. Report 19 Report 20 Report 21 Report 22 Report 23 Report 24 Volume 3 Report 55 Report 25 Report 26 Report 27 Report 28 Report 29 Report 30 Report 31 Report 32 Foams and Blowing Agents.T.F. Lewis. Gale.W. G. Sidwell. P. Green. Elliott. Liquid Crystal Polymers. Lawson. H. J. Physical Testing of Rubber.F. Recent Developments in Materials for Food Packaging. C. Automotive Applications of Polymers II.P. Composites . S. J.M.Brockbank. Wright.

deV.Compounds. Report 113 Rubber-Modified Thermoplastics. H. Recent Developments in Epoxy Resins. Y. Stafford. Kefford. Hamerton. Lee. C. Andres Garcia-Rejon. .S. Production and Applications. New Jersey Polymer Extension Center at Stevens Institute of Technology. Report 101 Solvent-Free Adhesives. M.J.Industrial Materials Institute. and Polymer Laboratories Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd. D. Polymeric Seals and Sealing Technology. Reeves.L.C.J. Thermoplastic Elastomers .M. Victrex Ltd. Building Research Establishment. Maier. Theves. Theory and Innovation. PVC .P. Continuous Vulcanisation of Elastomer Profiles. Plasticisers .C. G.A. Advances in Blow Moulding Process Optimization. Boustead. T. R. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers.Report 65 Report 66 Decorating and Coating of Plastics. Sepe. I. Polymeric Precursors for Ceramic Materials. Hill.M. M. University of Surrey. P. Rubber to Metal Bonding.G. J.R. S.G. Rheology and its Role in Plastics Processing. R. R. Kelleher. Université Pierre et Marie Curie. Part I: Vulcanising Systems. T. J.Selection. Day.A. Technology and Medicine. Advances in Thermoforming. W. Kemmish. J. The Open University. Johnson.P. Colborn. T. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie. Kingston University. Tooling and Manufacturing.R. C.F.E.J. Crowther. IRC in Polymer Science and Technology.R. B. Dierkes. P. Brydson.P.E. Edward Mackenzie Consulting. Report 67 Report 68 Report 69 Report 70 Report 71 Report 72 Volume 9 Report 97 Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Wilson. Crowther. Dickten & Masch Manufacturing Co. Report 106 Properties and Applications of Elastomeric Polysulfides. Report 110 Long-Term and Accelerated Ageing Tests on Rubbers. J. Sherwood Technologies Inc. Russian Academy of Sciences. P. T.P. Toxicity of Plastics and Rubber in Fire. Lewis. Fuller Company. Fouassier. Wünsch. Report 80 Report 81 Report 82 Volume 10 Report 109 Rubber Injection Moulding . J. Reinforced Thermoplastics . R. Molecular Weight Characterisation of Synthetic Polymers. Report 108 Chemical Characterisation of Polyurethanes.Properties and Applications.R.Synthesis. Lindsay.A. Fire Retardants. Coates and A. Speciality Rubbers. M.R. Lewis. Applications and Implications. Imperial College of Science.L. BASF AG. The Queen’s University of Belfast. PEKK and Other Polyaryls. P. G. International Automotive Design. Meteor Gummiwerke. Hague and P. R. Rotational Moulding.A. Advances in Tyre Mechanics. Tunghai University. Report 116 Compounding in Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extruders. Kaminsky. England and D. St Clair (Polymers) Ltd. Compressive Behaviour of Composites. Plastics in Thermal and Acoustic Building Insulation. Advances in Biodegradable Polymers. Crawford. Saunders. P.R. MRM Engineering Consultancy. Theory and Innovation. Report 111 Polymer Product Failure. Holding and E. Rapra Technology Ltd. V. Report 90 Report 91 Report 92 Report 93 Report 94 Report 95 Report 96 Rubber Mixing. Processing and Applications. Report 98 Report 99 Report 74 Report 75 Report 76 Report 77 Report 78 Report 79 Report 100 Photoinitiated Polymerisation .Theory and Applications.G. Antidegradants and Particulate Fillers for General Purpose Rubbers.E. M. Adams. Structures and Separation Performance. Thermal Analysis of Polymers. J. University of Texas at Austin. Report 115 Metallocene-Catalysed Polymerisation. Prentice. Recycling of Rubber. National Research Council Canada. D. Buckley. W. General Electric Corporate Research and Development Center. Rapra Technology Ltd. P. Fire Research Station. The Nottingham Trent University. University of Ulster. A. Brown.J. Forrest. M. Report 114 Developments in Polyacetylene .L. Report 107 High Performance Polymer Fibres. Pritchard.G.W. C. Kent.D.J. Cubbon. Soulagnet. Vredestein Rubber Recycling B.N. University of Ulster. B. J. Rapra Technology Ltd. Willoughby. Bonding. Ridha. Report 112 Polystyrene .M. Report 83 Report 84 Volume 8 Report 85 Report 86 Report 87 Report 88 Report 89 Ring Opening Polymerisation. Volume 7 Report 73 Reactive Processing of Polymers. Report 117 Rapid Prototyping.B. Soutis. Meehan. J. V. Forrest and G. Gas Injection Ltd. The Smart Chemical Company. Pearson.J. Wang. Brydson. Rapra Technology Ltd.J. Spassky. University of Hamburg. Hickman. M. P. C. Naylor. Mulhouse. Report 104 Plastics Profile Extrusion. Throne. Moore & S.A. University of Bradford.J. Part II: Processing. Robinson. R. Boustead Consulting Ltd. Econology Ltd. Report 103 Gas Assisted Moulding. Rapra Technology Ltd.A. P. Report 102 Plastics in Pressure Pipes. R. A. J. P.J.F.J.P. Advances in Injection Moulding. Report 105 Rubber Extrusion Theory and Development. Cure Assessment by Physical and Chemical Techniques.Need.A. Oxford Brookes University. Hydro Polymers Ltd. Brown.Composition. Anti-Corrosion Polymers: PEEK. Rubber Compounding Ingredients . Polymer Membranes . Fardell.E. Ryan. Plastics and the Environment. H.C. H. B. Rolando.Nanopolyacetylene. Manuel and W.Need. N.V. Tangram Technology Ltd. J. I. Processing and Applications. The Open University. Hepburn. Goodyear Technical Center.Materials.A Practical Guide. T. Schissel. Hepburn. Wood. Kobryanskii. Keskkula. Rapra Technology Ltd. High Performance Engineering Plastics.Leadbitter.

Report 118 Liquid Crystal Polymers - Synthesis, Properties and Applications, D. Coates, CRL Ltd. Report 119 Rubbers in Contact with Food, M.J. Forrest and J.A. Sidwell, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 120 Electronics Applications of Polymers II, M.T. Goosey, Shipley Ronal.

Volume 13
Report 145 Multi-Material Injection Moulding, V. Goodship and J.C. Love, The University of Warwick. Report 146 In-Mould Decoration of Plastics, J.C. Love and V. Goodship, The University of Warwick. Report 147 Rubber Product Failure, Roger P. Brown.

Volume 11
Report 121 Polyamides as Engineering Thermoplastic Materials, I.B. Page, BIP Ltd. Report 122 Flexible Packaging - Adhesives, Coatings and Processes, T.E. Rolando, H.B. Fuller Company. Report 123 Polymer Blends, L.A. Utracki, National Research Council Canada. Report 124 Sorting of Waste Plastics for Recycling, R.D. Pascoe, University of Exeter. Report 125 Structural Studies of Polymers by Solution NMR, H.N. Cheng, Hercules Incorporated. Report 126 Composites for Automotive Applications, C.D. Rudd, University of Nottingham. Report 127 Polymers in Medical Applications, B.J. Lambert and F.-W. Tang, Guidant Corp., and W.J. Rogers, Consultant. Report 128 Solid State NMR of Polymers, P.A. Mirau, Lucent Technologies. Report 129 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Photo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 130 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Chemical Attack, D.C. Wright. Report 131 Failure of Polymer Products Due to Thermo-oxidation, D.C. Wright. Report 132 Stabilisers for Polyolefins, C. Kröhnke and F. Werner, Clariant Huningue SA.

Report 148 Plastics Waste – Feedstock Recycling, Chemical Recycling and Incineration, A. Tukker, TNO. Report 149 Analysis of Plastics, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 150 Mould Sticking, Fouling and Cleaning, D.E. Packham, Materials Research Centre, University of Bath. Report 151 Rigid Plastics Packaging - Materials, Processes and Applications, F. Hannay, Nampak Group Research & Development. Report 152 Natural and Wood Fibre Reinforcement in Polymers, A.K. Bledzki, V.E. Sperber and O. Faruk, University of Kassel. Report 153 Polymers in Telecommunication Devices, G.H. Cross, University of Durham. Report 154 Polymers in Building and Construction, S.M. Halliwell, BRE. Report 155 Styrenic Copolymers, Andreas Chrisochoou and Daniel Dufour, Bayer AG. Report 156 Life Cycle Assessment and Environmental Impact of Polymeric Products, T.J. O’Neill, Polymeron Consultancy Network.

Volume 14
Report 157 Developments in Colorants for Plastics, Ian N. Christensen. Report 158 Geosynthetics, David I. Cook. Report 159 Biopolymers, R.M. Johnson, L.Y. Mwaikambo and N. Tucker, Warwick Manufacturing Group. Report 160 Emulsion Polymerisation and Applications of Latex, Christopher D. Anderson and Eric S. Daniels, Emulsion Polymers Institute. Report 161 Emissions from Plastics, C. Henneuse-Boxus and T. Pacary, Certech. Report 162 Analysis of Thermoset Materials, Precursors and Products, Martin J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 163 Polymer/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites, Masami Okamoto, Toyota Technological Institute. Report 164 Cure Monitoring for Composites and Adhesives, David R. Mulligan, NPL. Report 165 Polymer Enhancement of Technical Textiles, Roy W. Buckley. Report 166 Developments in Thermoplastic Elastomers, K.E. Kear Report 167 Polyolefin Foams, N.J. Mills, Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham. Report 168 Plastic Flame Retardants: Technology and Current Developments, J. Innes and A. Innes, Flame Retardants Associates Inc.

Volume 12
Report 133 Advances in Automation for Plastics Injection Moulding, J. Mallon, Yushin Inc. Report 134 Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy of Polymers, J.L. Koenig, Case Western Reserve University. Report 135 Polymers in Sport and Leisure, R.P. Brown. Report 136 Radiation Curing, R.S. Davidson, DavRad Services. Report 137 Silicone Elastomers, P. Jerschow, Wacker-Chemie GmbH. Report 138 Health and Safety in the Rubber Industry, N. Chaiear, Khon Kaen University. Report 139 Rubber Analysis - Polymers, Compounds and Products, M.J. Forrest, Rapra Technology Ltd. Report 140 Tyre Compounding for Improved Performance, M.S. Evans, Kumho European Technical Centre. Report 141 Particulate Fillers for Polymers, Professor R.N. Rothon, Rothon Consultants and Manchester Metropolitan University. Report 142 Blowing Agents for Polyurethane Foams, S.N. Singh, Huntsman Polyurethanes. Report 143 Adhesion and Bonding to Polyolefins, D.M. Brewis and I. Mathieson, Institute of Surface Science & Technology, Loughborough University. Report 144 Rubber Curing Systems, R.N. Datta, Flexsys BV.

Volume 15
Report 169 Engineering and Structural Adhesives, David J. Dunn, FLD Enterprises Inc. Report 170 Polymers in Agriculture and Horticulture, Roger P. Brown.

PVC Compounds and Processing

Stuart Patrick (FLD Enterprises Inc.)

ISBN 1-85957-472-6


...................................................................................6 2.............4 2.....2 Liquid Stabilisers ....1 Molecular Weight .................................................................2 Organotin Stabilisers ....................................................4.. 3 1...7.............1 PVC Resin ...................................................................................4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) .......................................................................... 4 2................... 12 3...................................................................................3...........4.1 Solid Stabilisers .....................1 1......................................................................................... 12 4......................... 12 Waste Management ...... 4 2.................................................................................. 8 2..............7...2 Introduction .....1 3..........1 4.. 10 Plasticisers ......... 3 PVC Compounds ....3...... 4 2.........................7 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC .......2....................................................................................................................................................................11 Heat Stabilisers ............1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture ..................................................................... 10 3...................................................................................... 8 2........2 Homopolymers .................................... 15 Plasticisers ....................................3......11 3...............2...........4......................... 10 3..........................................................................3 1 ...................................................PVC Compounds and Processing Contents 1 Introduction ............... 7 2..................................................................................................................................2 VCM and PVC Production ...........................1 Lead Based Stabilisers............11 3................. 7 2.......... 12 4......................................... 12 Heat Stabilisers ............................................. 7 2...................... 8 2.............. 16 4.. 14 4.............. 5 Copolymers and Terpolymers ..............11 3.............1 PVC Resin Producers ......................................................................................................7.....................................................................................................................................................2..............................................................................................1 Phthalates ...........................4...................................................................................... 8 Industry Outline .....11 3.......................................3 Global Market by Application ............. 8 Processing Techniques ................................................................................................................3 3......................2 PVC Compounders .................... 7 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC) ......................................................................................... 7 PVC Resin Characterisation .......................................................... Formulations and Applications ................................................................................... 12 3........................1...........3...................................................5 2..........................................................................................................................................................................4 4 Additives...........................4.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3 PVC Industry ....................................................................... 9 2.....................................................................................................................................3 2 Polyvinyl Chloride ........................................2.........................................................................................................................2 Particle Size ............................................................................................... 3 History ..............................3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols ...........................................................................1 Incineration ...................................................................................................................................................................................4..................................................................................................................................................2 2....................3 Bulk Powder Properties ................................2 Landfill .......................... 10 3......................................................................................................2 1.......................1........................................................................................................................... 12 3....................3 2........... 12 3..................................................................3 Recycling .............................................................................................................................................................................2 Adipates ................... 7 Key Additives .........................

.... 27 5..........................4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers .................................................2.............2..........................................................................................................................................................................5 Other Fillers .........................................................12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers .......................... 25 4........1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing .....6 Calendering..............................................................................................2 Melt Compounding ...............1 Calcium Carbonate ...........................................................................................4 4......1 Compounding .................................................................................................... 19 4..........................................................................5 4..........11 Blowing Agents............................................................14 Formulations ..... 26 4..2..3 Liquid PVC Blending ......................................... 25 4........................... 28 Processing ...........2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites ............13..............1 Process Aids......................................................... 19 4.. 18 4.....................................................9 4.. 24 4....................2................................. 33 5.........................................................................1............................................................... 21 4.................................................................................................... 25 4....................... 28 5............................................. 21 4..............................6 4... 25 4... 27 5...7...................3 Injection Moulding .. 23 4.........................3..........................3............................................2 Polymeric Plasticisers..........7 4...2 Extrusion ....................................13..................................................................................... 32 5.13 Other Additives for PVC-P ..........5..............................................................1 Dry Blend Mixing .................7........................................2..........................................................................................1 Antistatic Agents ................ 19 Lubricants .....2............................... 20 4....5............................................ 28 5..............14................................... 20 4........................................................ 20 Fillers ...............4.....................................................14.....................................................................................5........................................................................................ 18 Multifunctional Additives .........2 6 Fabrication and Treatment ................................................................................................................... 21 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) ......1........................................ 24 4.......................................................................PVC Compounds and Processing 4....... 26 5 Compounding and Processing Technology .......................................................................... 18 4....................................................................................................2 Impact Modifiers .............1 Gelation .................................................................................... 27 5........ 23 4................. 24 4.....................................................7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes ..............................................................................................................................13.....3 Antifogging Agents .............................7.. 31 5........... 16 4...4 Membranes .................................................................. 24 4................................................... 32 5..................... 25 4.................................................... 34 2 .......14...........4 Bonding Agents ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Biocides .... 27 5..................................................................5....................7.......................8 4.........................6 Nanocomposites ........................................................13......................................................................... 21 4....................................................7................................................................................................... 31 5...................14........................................................................................................ 29 5........................................................................3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification .............................................3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre ...............................................2........... 25 4....................................................................................................2 Crosslinked PVC .......................................................................................... 22 Pigments ..... 18 Property Modifiers .........................................4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications ...................................................1.......................................2 Viscosity Modifiers ...........3 Medical and Food Contact Use ...........5 Orientation ................................................................................................................ 21 4.......................7..... Extrusion Blow Moulding .....1 Phthalate Alternatives ....................

PVC Compounds and Processing

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 7

Thermoforming ............................................................................................................................. 34 Surface Modification Processes .................................................................................................... 34 Coatings ........................................................................................................................................ 34 Adhesion ....................................................................................................................................... 35

PVC and Sustainable Development ..................................................................................................... 35 7.1 Waste Management ....................................................................................................................... 36 7.1.1 PVC Rich Waste - Mechanical Recycling ........................................................................ 36 7.1.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling ................................................................................................ 38 7.1.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery .......................................................................................... 38


Conclusions ............................................................................................................................................. 38

Acknowledgement ......................................................................................................................................... 39 Additional References ................................................................................................................................... 39 Abbreviations and Acronyms ....................................................................................................................... 41 Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database .......................................................................................... 43 Subject Index ............................................................................................................................................... 147 Company Index ............................................................................................................................................ 159


PVC Compounds and Processing

The views and opinions expressed by authors in Rapra Review Reports do not necessarily reflect those of Rapra Technology Limited or the editor. The series is published on the basis that no responsibility or liability of any nature shall attach to Rapra Technology Limited arising out of or in connection with any utilisation in any form of any material contained therein.


PVC Compounds and Processing

1 Introduction
1.1 Polyvinyl Chloride
In the excellent previous Rapra Review Report on this subject (464) the authors mentioned briefly the environmental assaults on polyvinyl chloride (known as PVC or vinyl), but correctly considered them to be outside the scope of that technical review. However, events have moved on considerably in the discussions on sustainability issues and this author believes that no review would be complete without including the substantial efforts made by the PVC industry in this area. PVC is a product based on two of the earth’s natural resources, salt and oil. Salt water electrolysis yields chlorine (in addition to caustic soda and hydrogen). Ethylene can be derived from naphtha when oil is refined. Chlorine and ethylene can be combined to form the monomer, vinyl chloride (VCM). PVC results from the polymerisation of vinyl chloride. PVC cannot be processed on its own due to its very low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. Therefore, it is necessary to combine with the polymer a number of suitable additives to give a wide and varied range of properties to satisfy many different end-use applications. It is this scope for generating a wide range of properties through appropriate formulation that gives PVC a broad application coverage that is unmatched by any other commodity thermoplastic. Its durability (85% is used in medium- to long-term life span applications), linked to its cost effectiveness, has made it the second largest commodity plastic after polyethylene.

PVC compounds can be formulated, using plasticisers, into flexible materials, usually called PVC-P. Compounds without plasticiser for rigid applications are designated PVC-U.

1.3 History
The existence of the monomer, vinyl chloride, was reported by Regnault in 1835, but the ability of this monomer to polymerise was not fully known at that time. The effect of sunlight on vinyl chloride was later investigated by Baumann in 1872, when it was observed that a tough white substance formed as a result of exposure. Very little significant advance was then made until 1912-1916 when Fritz Klatte discovered the basis for the production of PVC. Patents were granted for the manufacture of vinyl chloride by reacting hydrogen chloride gas with acetylene at 180 °C in the presence of metal chlorides as the catalysts. They also referred to polymerisation by sunlight and suggested some uses for the polymer. Pilot plant production of PVC resins began in Germany in 1931 followed by the USA in 1933. The beginning of PVC as a technically useful product stemmed from the patent disclosures of Semon of the BF Goodrich Company and Reid of Carbide and Carbon Chemicals in 1933/34. It was discovered that PVC became a flexible material that resembled rubber or leather when it was heated in the presence of a high boiling liquid. This led to the use of phthalate esters as plasticisers for PVC giving a material that was processable at acceptable melt temperatures into products which were permanently soft and flexible. The industrial production of PVC using emulsion and suspension technology had occurred in Germany, the USA and the UK by the start of World War II. During World War II, the acute shortage of rubber accelerated developments in this area, including cable insulation and sheathing. During this period, heat stabilisers were first used in PVC formulations. In a further development during World War II, German engineers produced rigid sheet and pipe, although PVC-U was generally considered too brittle for practical use. Early PVC processing was carried out on machinery originally developed for rubber and celluloid, namely compounding, calendering, compression moulding and extrusion.

1.2 PVC Compounds
PVC compounds are based on the combination of the polymer and additives that give the formulation necessary for the end-use. The convention in recording the additive concentration is based on parts per hundred of the PVC resin (phr). The compound is generated by intimately mixing together the ingredients, which is subsequently converted into the gelled article under the influence of heat (and shear). Depending on the type of PVC and additives, the compound prior to gelation, can be a free-flowing powder (known as a dry blend) or a liquid in the form of a paste or solution.


1 PVC Resin 2.CH2Cl EDC CH2Cl .CH2Cl + H2O 4 . A new technology based on ethane-to-VCM is also being developed (461). is also employed to generate further quantities of EDC.PVC Compounds and Processing 2 PVC Industry 2. CH2 = CH2 + Cl2 ethylene chlorine ClH2C .1.CH2Cl EDC thermal decomposition CH2 = CHCl + HCl vinyl chloride hydrogen chloride Figure 1 Hydrogen chloride recycle Ethylene Oxychlorination Oxygen EDC purification Ethylene Chlorine Direct chlorination By-products Water EDC cracking VCM Figure 2 The vinyl chloride monomer production process (after EVC International NV with permission) CH2 = CH2 + 2HCl + ½ O2 Figure 3 CH2Cl . An oxychlorination unit. in which recycled hydrogen chloride is reacted with further ethylene feedstock in the presence of catalyst and oxygen. The oxychlorination reaction is shown in Figure 3.1 Vinyl Chloride Manufacture Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is produced from the chlorination of ethylene and pyrolysis of the resulting ethylene dichloride (EDC) in a cracking unit (see Figure 1). while excess hydrogen is oxidised to form water. Figure 2 is a schematic representation of the process.

initiators (organic peroxides) which are soluble in VCM and a protective colloid to stabilise the suspension. monomer droplets can agglomerate to a greater or lesser extent in the course of the polymerisation. The reaction can be chemically short-stopped when the desired conversion has been reached by the use of particular phenolics (148). Unreacted VCM is stripped from the polymer and water is separated by centrifuging.1. Recent investigations covering S-PVC polymerisation are to be found in (35. The chemical structure deviates from the theoretical chain with chain branching occurring during polymerisation. 2. The glass transition temperature of PVC homopolymer lies in the range of 70-80 °C. Details are covered in Section 4. 2. polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate. The suspended droplets of liquid monomer are progressively converted to solid or porous PVC particles. Other additives are pH regulators to counteract acidity and antifoaming agents (150).000 to 95. Typical suspension polymerised PVC has a mean particle size of 100-150 μm with a range of 50-250 μm. 429). This corresponds to a theoretical molecular weight range of approximately 30. 345. the reactor is cleaned and coated with an antifouling agent.4 °C and is normally stored as a liquid under pressure. S-PVC is the most common type of resin (around 85% of total PVC produced) used in both rigid and flexible applications and grades are formulated to meet an extensive range of requirements such as. secondary stabilisers to impart higher grain porosity to assist in improving VCM removal and plasticiser uptake. initiator stabilisers and an investigation on the effects of polymerisation conditions on PVC particles. 166. The particles are complex and irregular in shape with a dense semipermeable skin. the VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Centrifuging Water Drying S-PVC Water Figure 4 The suspension polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 5 .PVC Compounds and Processing VCM boils at -13. Depending on the dosage and nature of the protective colloid and the stirring conditions.2.500. The polymer is then dried. Topics cover improved reactor economics.1. It forms explosive mixtures with air and is toxic (carcinogenic). The properties of PVC are influenced by its average molecular weight and its molecular weight distribution.1 The Suspension Polymerisation Process Suspension polymerised PVC (S-PVC) is manufactured (see Figure 4 ) when VCM is polymerised in large scale batch reactors (autoclaves) in the presence of water. Prior to start-up of the next polymerisation cycle. The mechanism of action of antifouling agents has been studied (149). or high bulk density and good powder flow required for rigid extrusion.2 Homopolymers The VCM repeat unit is linked in a head-to-tail fashion and the number of repeat units can range between 500 and 1. 318. high plasticiser absorption for flexible products. Commercial PVC polymers are essentially amorphous but also have a crystalline phase amounting to approximately 10% and a two-dimensionally ordered nematic phase depending on processing history. typically in fluidised bed drying equipment.000.

From this milky emulsion (latex).1. At the end of the polymerisation stage. The droplets are coated with surfactant which stabilises them during the reaction. 2.) and an emulsifier (anionic surfactants).4 The Mass Polymerisation Process The mass (or bulk) polymerisation of VCM is carried out by a two-stage process. These components are circulated through a mixing pump (homogeniser) which causes the mixture to disperse into very fine droplets. with higher bulk density. A larger elementary particle size can be achieved by seeding the initial emulsion system. In the second stage (polymerisation) this material is slowly agitated and additional monomer and initiator are added. are conferred on the polymer. Consequently these resins are called paste resins. Microsuspension polymerised PVC is used for producing plastisols and paste in combination with E-PVC.2.1. Monomer and initiator are charged and polymerisation proceeds to about 10% conversion at which time the formed particles are dispersed in the bulk of the VCM. They are used in a wide range of speciality applications such as coating. hydrogen peroxide. such as improved thermal stability and greater ease of processing. A PVC polymer latex is introduced and the particles of the new polymer grow on the seed. an initiator soluble in Water VCM VCM Water Additives Polymerisation Stripping Spray drying E-PVC Figure 5 The emulsion polymerisation process (after EVC International NV with permission) 6 .1. A continuous emulsion polymerisation process is also used. VCM and an emulsifier. After polymerisation. Particular uses for this material are linked to its high transparency and good 2. etc. Initiation and polymerisation occur within the droplets. is produced in an autoclave when VCM is polymerised in the presence of water. Emulsion and microsuspension polymerised PVC account for around 10% of all PVC produced. smooth surfaced spheres which are clustered into irregular shaped aggregates with a typical mean particle size of 40-50 μm with a range of 0.2. special properties. see Figure 5.2.1-100 μm. Thereafter the subsequent operations for obtaining the final product are similar to the emulsion polymerisation process. As the resin retains most of the emulsifiers used during polymerisation. Polymerisation continues to approximately 20% conversion at which time all of the liquid VCM is absorbed into the porous structure of the grains leaving only dry powder.2 The Emulsion Polymerisation Process Emulsion polymerised PVC (E-PVC). In the first stage (prepolymerisation) vigorous agitation is necessary to obtain the desired particle size distribution. Polymerisation continues to 70-90% conversion and the unreacted monomer is recovered. A milling process follows to modify the agglomerate size before final size classification. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine PVC particles in water. a water soluble initiator (persulfate. the autoclave contains a stable dispersion of fine particles of PVC in water. When E-PVC resins are mixed with a liquid plasticiser. a paste (or plastisol) is produced. the PVC is separated from the water by evaporation in spray drying equipment. dipping or spreading.3 The Microsuspension Polymerisation Process Microsuspension PVC is produced when VCM is mixed in a vessel with water.PVC Compounds and Processing 2. The primary particles are solid. Particle size and range are similar to suspension polymer but the particles have highly spherical shapes. before being placed in the autoclave.

PVC Compounds and Processing

plasticising properties. Mass and suspension polymers have been compared on particle morphology and plasticiser absorption in the preparation of slush powders (111).

above its glass transition temperature. CPVC has a glass transition temperature approximately 50% higher than PVC but also has a higher melt viscosity in processing. The upper service temperature for CPVC is approximately 100 °C in comparison to PVC at 60 °C (463). Pipe (436), mouldings (376) and sheet are formulated for high temperature use based on CPVC or blends of CPVC and PVC.

2.2 Copolymers and Terpolymers
A number of commercial vinyl chloride copolymers are predominantly made up of VCM units with comonomer units randomly distributed in minor proportions. The suspension polymerisation process is normally used. Grafted copolymers obtained by VCM polymerisation and polyacrylic elastomer grafting, give high bulk density resins for products with high impact strength suitable for outdoor applications. The separate addition of acrylate impact modifiers to the PVC formulation is covered in Section 4.5.2. A vinyl chloride-ethylene-vinyl acetate terpolymer system gives products with superior impact strength suitable for an outdoor environment. The modifier component is a 45% vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer with PVC grafted on it. EVA modification depends on a network structure. Vinyl chloride-vinyl acetate copolymers are produced containing 5-15% of vinyl acetate. These materials, having a lower glass transition temperature, can be processed at considerably lower temperatures and are particularly suited for thermoforming. Finished products are highly transparent. A block copolymer system of PVC and poly(ethyleneco-propylene) (EPM) resulting from ultrasonic irradiation, has been investigated (248).

2.4 PVC Resin Characterisation

2.4.1 Molecular Weight
PVC resins are polymerised to different molecular weights to suit the particular processing technique and end-use application requirements. The resin contains a random distribution of molecular weights and number average, weight average and molecular weight distribution can be measured. Normally, however, for production control, the dilute solution viscosity of the resin is used and the molecular weight can be calculated from the Mark-Houwink equation expressed in terms of K value or viscosity number. Commercially available PVC grades are supplied in K values ranging from 57-80.

2.4.2 Particle Size
Various techniques are utilised to measure particle size range. Sieving is the most common technique, particularly for suspension resins, and can be used to measure particles above 30 microns. For particle sizes below 100 microns, techniques such as sedimentation, optical and electrical sensing can be used.

2.3 Chlorinated PVC (CPVC)
CPVC is manufactured by chlorination of PVC polymer thereby raising the chlorine content from 56% to around 66%. Chlorination takes place primarily at the -CH2groups along the polymer chain so that the resulting structure becomes virtually a copolymer of vinyl chloride with 1,2-dichloroethylene. Chlorination of PVC reduces the forces of attraction between the molecular chains. CPVC is also essentially amorphous. Both of these factors allow CPVC to be stretched more easily and to a greater extent than PVC

2.4.3 Bulk Powder Properties
Bulk density and packed bulk (or tapped) density are important properties. The bulk density determines the weight of resin that can be stored in a vessel and the amount a mixer can hold. It also has a major influence on extruder output rates. The bulk density of a resin depends upon its porosity, particle shape and particle size distribution. For suspension resin, bulk density is typically in the range of 450-650 kgm-3.


PVC Compounds and Processing

The packed density is based on the ability of the resin to occupy the smallest space without physical distortion and is usually 10-30% greater than the bulk density. Another important consideration is powder flow time as it governs the speed and ease of polymer discharge from a silo or from a mixer. This is influenced by the PVC particle shape, size distribution and compound formulation ingredients.

2.6 Processing Techniques
Prior to processing, it is necessary for the PVC and formulation additives to be combined intimately together in some form of mixer. The main converting processes are: • • extrusion calendering injection moulding extrusion/stretch blow moulding spreading/coating rotational moulding dip moulding slush moulding.

2.5 Key Additives
PVC formulations can include many different types of additives which assist in imparting a large range of physical and chemical characteristics. This versatility is the main reason why PVC has been so successful as a commodity thermoplastic, from medical applications such as tubing and blood bags to long life applications such as window frames and rainwater goods. The unique polar characteristics of PVC permit a wide range of appropriate additives to be incorporated within the polymer. The main groups of additives are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • heat stabiliser plasticiser impact modifier process aid lubricant filler flame retardant/smoke suppressant pigment blowing agent biocide viscosity modifier antistatic agent antioxidant UV absorber antifogging agent bonding agent.

• • • • • •

2.7 Industry Outline
The PVC industry consists of resin producers, compounders, additive suppliers and processors. Most processors specialise in processes linked to either PVC-U or PVC-P applications. In some cases, such as pipe and window frame manufacturing, the processed PVC is marketed directly by the processor. In other cases, the processor passes on the PVC in semi-finished form to another company.

2.7.1 PVC Resin Producers
There has been much rationalisation of resin producers in the last twenty years due to consolidation transactions. The major PVC industry participants, as described by EVC International NV, are shown in Table 1 for the year 2000 (166).

2.7.2 PVC Compounders
PVC compounds, formulated with all the necessary additives for the end-use, are supplied in gelled granule form, powder dry blend or liquid paste. Obviously the gelled form only requires to be heated and processed through the appropriate equipment, whereas the powder dry blend or liquid paste must include a gelation phase within the processing stage.


PVC Compounds and Processing

Table 1 Major PVC resin producers Western Europe by capacity EVC Solvin Atofina Vinnolit Norsk Hydro LVM Shin-Etsu Vestolit Cires Aiscondel Ktpa 1400 1300 880 570 545 435 390 350 180 160 Global market by capacity Shin-Etsu FPC-Formosa Occidental/Geon Solvay (including Solvin) EVC Georgia Gulf/Condea Vista Atofina Borden Vinnolit Norsk Hydro Ktp a 2450 2160 2090 1900 1400 1200 880 690 570 545

Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV (

In Western Europe, resin producers dominate the compounding market (161). The alternative to purchasing fully formulated material is to mix on site and the decision, as to whether to continue buying compound or to make in-house, depends on volume and other factors (173).

2.7.3 Global Market by Application
The PVC world market was around 25,400 kt in the year 2000 and Figure 6 shows the split by enduse application. This information has been summarised by EVC International NV (

Others 13% Coatings 2% Flooring 3% Flexible Profiles/Tubes 5% Wire & Cable 7%

Bottles 3%

Pipes/Fittings 36%

Flexible Film/Sheet 7% Rigid Film/Sheet 7%

Profiles 13%

Figure 6
Global PVC market by application (Reproduced with permission from EVC International NV,


the PVC industry has had to defend its existence and is now at the forefront of tackling sustainability issues. their use in toys. blood compatibility (58. The situation came to a head in 2000 with an EU Green Paper on PVC which included substitution options (271). but Eastern Europe is developing. 262). The PVC producers have responded by introducing foam core pipe. 378).2. 317). Subject to external audit. 3. The main phthalates under investigation are butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP). S-PVC and E-PVC. in attempts at ‘green’ marketing. linked to a lack of understanding between hazard and risk (probability of intrinsic hazard causing an effect). regarding the possible negative impact of phthalates on the environment and human health due to alleged carcinogenic. diisononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP). Some companies. indicated that substitution of PVC with other materials had/would occur. HCl. VCM concentration in PVC is also strictly controlled (particularly for food/medical applications) (126). An important area for PVC is the water transportation market and there has been competition from polyolefins in this area. The supply/demand balance is tightening for EDC/VCM due to capacity limitations caused by poor returns holding back investment. in Europe and the USA. such as plasticisers. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). 117. 114. Recycling and sustainability issues will be reviewed in Section 7. In addition to supplier consolidations. Much of the argument has been emotive rather than based on sound scientific studies. who account for 98% of production in the EU.1 VCM and PVC Production Members of the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers (ECVM). The Western European market is maturing. Much of the growth is due to profile for windows and this increased to over 20% by 2002. 257. which found there was little to choose between PVC and alternative materials. there have been customer based consolidations driving lower net prices. primarily because of its chlorine content and specific additives. More details follow in subsequent sections. This covers environmental standards for limits on emissions to air and discharges to water of VCM. More details on PVC markets and prospects are available (110. dioxin-like components and copper. Alternative sources appear to be cosmetics. orientation during processing gives improved impact resistance (195). 228.1 Phthalates Concerns have been raised at regular intervals. 272. In another development.PVC Compounds and Processing The global market is estimated to be growing at 3-4% with most growth in Asia (especially China) and some growth in North America. 377. ethylene. governmental and political positions (40. for improved cost effectiveness. Much of the data generated has been as a result of advances in trace analysis in different environments. the industry has agreed to work towards these limits from 1998 for VCM and S-PVC. Consequently. 165. 166).2 Plasticisers 3. was being disregarded (210). endocrine modulating and reproductive effects. 10 . have signed charters covering the production of VCM. detergents. 3 Health and Environmental Aspects of PVC PVC has been under intense and hostile attack for a number of years. EDC. 97. used in its formulations. dibutyl phthalate (DBP). 310. oils and solvents (253. 304. Even a UK Government Life Cycle Assessment. and 2003 for E-PVC. These investigations include EU risk assessments based on sound science but the political positions on flexible PVC and phthalates cannot be ignored. 205) and differing NGO. 98. This section will focus on the environmental debate around PVC. 247. 3. 200. The role of PVC in the healthcare industry is also significant (205). In particular. The assumption that all phthalates detected in the body are sourced from vinyl products does not appear to be the case. healthcare products and flooring has raised much debate and analysis at various levels concerning migration (11.

and their presence (heavy metal) causing issues in waste management strategies. Prior to these results some formulators had already begun to change from DEHP to DINP (119). The current position is available on the website of the European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates (ECPI) (www. There has been some concern regarding possible health hazards and its use has been voluntarily stopped or restricted to levels that do not exceed the predicted no effect 11 . 3. the EU risk assessment shows no risk to humans (247). For similar DINP. Similarly. DEHA is used in preference to phthalates due to improved flexibility at lower temperatures and also gives the necessary permeability to oxygen and water vapour to preserve the freshness of the food. 219). for DIDP.3. and for protecting food in the home.3. Full information on organotin stabilisers and their safe use over many years is available (138). Their toxicity hazards have been well known and controlled. on the regulatory situation up to 1999. plus good insulation resistance. fittings and profile. The most common plasticiser used in this application is di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA). dangerous for the environment and danger of cumulative effects. has had a positive EU and USA (Consumer Product Safety Commission) risk assessment.3 Bisphenol A/Alkylphenols Bisphenol A has been used as an inhibitor at the PVC polymerisation stage and as an antioxidant. pipe. of course.2 Adipates PVC food packaging film (cling film) has been used for a number of years for wrapping fresh meat. lead stabilisers have also been used in PVC-P in wire and cable across the world. but measures could be taken to reduce risk of exposure in children’s toys (although DEHP is not used in toys intended to be put in the mouth) and medical devices (against the opinion of the EU’s Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices).2. A new UK standard reducing the lead level in drinking water by 2003 (264) was an additional factor. 183). 100). for food storage. must be related to the chance of that hazard having an effect (the risk) and this is not always appreciated. There has been some academic work carried out to reduce DEHP migration from flexible PVC (33. Plasticisers for toys have been reviewed (263). PVC cling film formulations comply with permitted migration limits (in fact well below) set at levels which are considered totally safe by various health and government organisations.1 Lead Based Stabilisers Primarily used extensively for PVC-U applications in Europe and the Far East viz. in toys and babycare items intended to be put into the mouth by children under three years old.stabilisers. 3. 3. some consumer organisations still raise concerns (391). the most commonly used plasticiser in soft toys and items intended to be put into children’s mouths. DEHP assessment (205) has shown no risk reduction measures are necessary for the general population. refer to the regulatory update (331). resulted in their agreed phase-out in Europe (see Section 7).org). There are also improved analytical techniques now available to detect very low levels of organotin species in different environments (127. provided that recommended migration limits have been adhered to (7. particularly in relation to worker exposure. lead stabilisers have been very cost effective heat stabilisers. in combination with polymeric plasticisers and epoxidised soya bean oil. The main source of information is the website of the European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) (www. 3. However.3. harmful.PVC Compounds and Processing Hundreds of studies have been carried out on phthalates and there are regular updates on the regulatory position (90. 3. The identification of a perceived hazard. However an EU temporary ban on the use of phthalates.2 Organotin Stabilisers Organotin stabilisers have been caught up in the ‘elimination of heavy metal’ discussions.ecpi. 247). has been renewed on a regular basis since December 1999 until the date of compiling this report.3 Heat Stabilisers For general background information. However the EU classification of lead stabilisers as reprotoxic.

4. improve cost performance. In a recent study the PVC content of municipal solid waste for incineration was calculated at approximately 0.1 Introduction The main groups of additives have already been listed in Section 2. PVC formulation technology depends on the correct combination of several of these additives to suit the processing and end-use requirements. give weathering resistance. the EU automotive End-of-Life Directive (418) and EU waste management studies on mechanical and feedstock recycling (282). the political pressure on PVC continued in the late 1990s viz. In a basic flexible PVC-P formulation. the viewpoint that PVC materials should be buried in landfill in preference to being recycled is not generally accepted (422). In a modern incinerator. A study has shown that no degradation of the PVC occurred (252). Not all of these factors may be relevant for the application. 3. 282. 3.8%. 3. Other additives will be included for reasons of cost. etc. The degradation process is shown in Figure 7.4.. It has food contact approval up to certain limits but there have been some environmental/political issues concerning the possible use of genetically modified soya bean oil in the manufacture of ESBO. etc.3 Recycling Despite the evidence that PVC recycling initiatives were increasing and approaching commercial viability. so a heat stabiliser system is essential.1 Incineration The incineration of waste containing PVC has been a source of much discussion and comment. i. 4. energy and HCl recovery options are attractive (115. PVC was also targeted in the EU incineration directive (297).3. heavy metals and phthalates (282).4 Epoxidised Soya Bean Oil (ESBO) ESBO is a heat stabiliser and secondary plasticiser used in PVC-P applications. The migration of ESBO from PVC-P used in gaskets for sealing baby food jars has been examined (395). with plasticiser and heat stabiliser essential. PVC recycling and sustainability issues. The content of Bisphenol A in.2 Heat Stabilisers Commercially produced PVC is inherently thermally unstable. particularly related to the dioxin and HCl emissions (66. electrical properties. has been determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (14). Table 2 shows the main range of factors to be considered when formulating PVC for a particular enduse. due to some chain branching during polymerisation.PVC Compounds and Processing concentration in waste water etc. colour.2 Landfill PVC has been under scrutiny in landfill immersion due to perceptions about the leaching of additives. Formulations and Applications 4. 4 Additives. A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC has been described (128).e. However. and its migration from PVC film. 106.4. Other additives will be included to improve processability and physical properties. in particular. A basic rigid PVC-U formulation will contain medium to low molecular weight resin plus lubricant and heat stabiliser. 12 .4 Waste Management 3. 146). the Voluntary Commitment (275) are covered in Section 7. 3. Nonylphenol can be generated from some liquid heat stabilisers (in addition to many other possible sources) and it has been identified as persistent and oestrogenic (160). the resin usually has a medium to high molecular weight. 341).

H+ Figure 7 Thermal degradation process for PVC 13 .H+ Heat Allyl chloride H C H H C H C H C H C H C H C + HCl Cl.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 2 Formulation factors Cost efficiency Process characteristics/output Reprocessability/recycling Clarity level Density Surface finish – gloss to matt Light stability/weathering Softness/hardness Flexibility/stiffness Fire properties Electrical properties Post processing treatment Impact strength – ductile/brittle Chemical resistance Colour End-use legislative requirements Operating temperature environment H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H H C Cl H C H Ideal structure Non typical H C H H C H C H C Cl* H C H Heat H C Cl H C H Typical Labile Cl* atom H C H H C H C H H H C Cl H C H C C Cl.

4. their use has been restricted to PVC-U applications in Europe and Asia. or tertiary chlorine structural defects. Heat stabilisers retard dehydrochlorination and autoxidation and reduce fragmentation. is a molecular concerted elimination. tablet and dosage packs. Non/low dusting products. which include the lead components in a safe handling state. fittings.1. Different quantitative analysis methods for the determination of the metal contents in PVC have been listed and compared (415).. peroxide and hydroperoxide groups are also influential. e. preferring the use of organotins. 220. from suppliers such as Baerlocher and Chemson. Apart from wire and cable. in combination with lubricants (one-pack). Their cumulative toxicity has been mainly a concern for worker exposure. Solid Ca Zn systems have also been developed for PVC-P applications as replacements for liquid Ba Zn stabilisers where volatility and emissions may be an issue. starting at a weak link and resulting in discolouration and deterioration in physical and chemical properties. and lead soaps. free hydrogen chloride is evolved.2. They are particularly suitable for wire and cable electrical insulation because of their complete nonconductivity and the inert nature of the chlorides formed with HCl. The use of capillary rheometry has also been highlighted (105). 82. 323). have been available for many years in different product forms . Efforts have been made to increase the acid absorption capability in these systems (46. and end-use specification.2.flake. 62. 438).1 Lead Compounds Lead compounds. 308. Under the Voluntary Commitment (Section 7) there is an agreement to phase out lead stabilisers (159) and suitable alternatives are being introduced.and -CH2. 406. These one-packs are tailored to suit the processing technique. The role of the co-stabiliser is also critical in maintaining initial colour and early colour hold on processing (47. Initiation and chain reactions are catalysed by the hydrochloric acid generated.g.2.1 Solid Stabilisers 4. 431). Ca Zn formulations are a complex blend of calcium and zinc soaps together with acid acceptors and organic co-stabilisers. which may also be catalysed by hydrochloric acid. granule. due to the light and fluffy nature of the Ca Zn soaps (stearates). 4. 407).1. These highly reactive conjugated polyenes further react to crosslink or cleave the polymer chains. In addition. they also cure existing damage. Alternative calcium carboxylates have also been evaluated (227). Because the thermal dehydrochlorination of PVC is noticeably faster in the presence of oxygen. North America has never accepted lead compounds in PVC-U applications. e.groups in the polymer backbone that enable a chain of multiple consecutive eliminations (zipper reaction). 14 .g. The discolouration is caused by the formation of conjugated polyene sequences of 7-25 double bonds. The thermal degradation process can be followed by analysis of the colour generated in a static or dynamic environment. Intermediates formed in the thermal degradation process are allylic chlorides with progressively increased numbers of conjugated double bonds. primarily extrusion and injection moulding. Some excellent review articles are available (48. Non dusting product forms have also been developed (322). usually based on a mixture of lead salts.2 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Based One of the most successful developments in recent years has been the progress made in solid Ca Zn stabiliser formulations to replace lead on a cost effective basis.. This increases the melt viscosity considerably. The dehydrochlorination process is due to the existence of a long series of alternating -CHCl. This will be covered later in this chapter. The thermal initiation reaction from the normal monomer sequence of PVC chain fragments. 295).PVC Compounds and Processing During processing of PVC at high temperatures and shear stress. 137. have been very cost effective heat stabilisers for many years. tribasic lead sulfate or dibasic lead phosphite. Various Ca Zn systems are now available (141) for pipe. There are many different types of heat stabilisers based on different metal salts or soaps and these are covered below. 365. Technical limitations to their use have been opacity and sulfur staining. profile (153) and wire and cable (174. and function as HCl absorbers (236. dibasic or normal lead stearates.

2.2 Barium Zinc (Ba Zn) Ba Zn based systems now have the majority market share for stabilisation of PVC-P in Europe due to extensive formulation development based on increasing the barium content and the important role of new and existing organic co-stabilisers (414). linked to their good compatibility (85). 143).2.) during processing and from the end use application. organophosphites (237) and co-stabilisers in a liquid medium.2.2.2. 136.2.2 Liquid Stabilisers 4. The most powerful compounds are the thioglycolate ester derivatives and these are the most common. The performance of organotin mercaptides is not only based on the amount of tin metal content. Limitations to their use include their relatively high cost and unpleasant odour (particularly for the sulfur tins) and their use is now almost exclusively in PVC-U applications. floor and wall coverings. 4. reverse ester thiotins is common for PVC-U applications covering pipe.1 Barium Cadmium (Ba Cd) Barium cadmium based systems (may also include zinc) have been available for many years due to their cost effectiveness in combination with good initial colour and long-term stability. e. Organic based systems are being developed as lead replacement for rigid pipe.2.2.4 Potassium Zinc (K Zn) K Zn stabiliser/kickers are used primarily to activate the decomposition of blowing agents 15 . 4.2.2. but are coming under increasing health and environmental scrutiny (291). solvent.1. 4. Most costabilisers only function well in the presence of zinc. These materials are used almost exclusively in PVC-P applications (270). butyl or octyl derivatives. profile and cable (135..2. their use was voluntarily phased out by the PVC industry in 2001.2. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabiliser (453). but on the organotin species. New organophosphite-zinc technology has also been introduced to improve this characteristic (75).2. The main features of tin stabilisers are good initial and long-term colour hold coupled with excellent clarity. This is based on the ‘concerns’ about barium as a heavy metal although there is no evidence of health or environmental concerns. although initially there were also some mistaken perceptions about zinc being a ‘heavy metal’ (159). In addition to further formulation development (454).PVC Compounds and Processing 4.2 Mixed Metal Compounds Liquid mixed metal heat stabilisers are a blend of the metal soaps or salts in combination with 4. new Ca Zn intermediates (140) and new calcium technology (84) have all been promoted.2. profile and sidings. 4. 348.3 Calcium Zinc (Ca Zn) Traditionally less effective as a heat stabiliser. but require particular lubrication systems due to their anti-lubricating effect. and foam. 387. The mechanism of organothiotin stabilisation has been studied extensively (221. the use of lower cost.1 Organotin Compounds Organotin compounds are primarily based on alkyl tin such as methyl. etc. Zinc free stabilisers are claimed to have a better processing window than Ca Zn. suppliers include Crompton. 4. pipe fittings. However. They can be further classified as mercaptides or carboxylates based on different carboxylic acids.3 Calcium-Organic Based Another major development has been the replacement of zinc with specific organic co-stabilisers. complex polyphosphates (45). 388). The octyl versions are approved (up to a maximum level) for use in rigid food contact and medical applications. 347.2. One issue with liquid stabilisers is the emission of volatile components (phenol from the organophosphite. in the European area.2.2. usually mixtures of di-alkyl and mono-alkyl. much work has been carried out to develop more sophisticated and higher efficiency heat stabilisers based on Ca Zn.2. Sulfur free maleate based tins impart excellent light stability to clear PVC used in outdoor applications. Suppliers include Akros. In North America. Cadmium based stabilisers are still used in the USA and Asia Pacific areas. due to severe restrictions for environmental and toxicity reasons concerning cadmium.g. Rohm and Haas are one supplier. Analytical techniques are now available to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (151) and so influence stabiliser development.

The fundamentals of plasticiser selection have been listed (92). extraction resistance. The main factors which influence plasticiser choice are determined by the specification requirement of the finished product and depend on: • • • • Formulation cost Migration/permanence (22. 4. trimellitates. phosphates. legislative and scientific attention on phthalates. Predictive equations have been developed (349). subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions. adipates. Citrate based plasticisers. etc. The volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised (dibutyl adipate .1 Phthalate Alternatives Several alternatives to phthalate esters have been promoted. For high temperature performance linked to low migration and volatility.. (An alternative approach has been the development of modified azodicarbonamides incorporating an activator system. Di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1. A phenol alkyl sulfonate ester is claimed to replace DEHP (56). trimellitates are used (91). Properties are lost as a result of diffusion controlled desorption of the plasticiser and a mathematical description of the ageing process has been formulated to predict lifetime (277). Based on organic esters. Plasticiser loss on ageing has also been identified in the spectroscopic investigation of roof membranes in service for a varying number of years (240). are listed in Table 3. The thermodynamics of mixing PVC with phthalate esters have been studied (63). wear layer toughness and thermoplastic nature. Analytical methods have been developed to identify monomeric plasticisers in flexible PVC (412). The phenomenon of plasticiser migration into polyurethane foam. Benzoate esters have already been used for some time and new blends have been introduced for plastisols (71). 222) Plasticisation effect (441) Solvating efficiency of the plasticiser for PVC predicted using Hansen solubility parameters (350) and the Hildebrand solubility parameter (442) Volatility Plastisol viscosity Extraction. although much more expensive. They also operate as an internal lubricant between the PVC molecules. 4. have been extensively tested. The effect on the thermal stability significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system (260).. e.g.) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blend mixing operation of S-PVC or the gelation stage of plastisols. The flexibility or softness is determined by the type of plasticiser and level used in relation to the PVC (phr).3 Plasticisers Plasticisers are added to PVC to achieve flexibility and workability. Most suggested alternatives already have a niche use in specific PVC-P applications. leading to hardening and cracking in arm and head rest applications. Stain resistance of resilient sheet flooring has been related to the plasticiser. 16 . level. PVC-P materials.2-dicarboxylic ester (DINCH) has also been developed (86).DBA) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) pigmented films have been determined with CO2 being the main constituent (108). primarily due to the considerable media. PVC-plasticiser interaction has been described using light transmission (186). has been investigated and a mechanism proposed (215).PVC Compounds and Processing (azodicarbonamides) for PVC foam (372). 182. volatility and solubility all have an influence (389).3. have particular use in medical and • • • The most commonly used plasticisers. The plasticiser structure. The relative amount of crystalline PVC in PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate has been identified on the basis of a combination of carbon-13 solution and solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (361). phthalates. together with their characteristics. addition levels can be as low as 20 phr for semi-rigid to 100 phr for very flexible applications. Plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters have also been proposed (342).

inferior extraction resistance 17 . higher volatility. Automotive interior (low fogging). lower plasticising efficiency Flooring Good fusion rate and viscosity (plastisols) General purpose Characteristics Typical use Slightly less efficient but lower volatility than C8 Good solvation Toys and general purpose with good low temperature performance Flooring/coating plastisols Cable High temperature cable insulation High gelation temperature. low plastisols viscosity Secondary plasticiser. High specification electrical cable insulation and sheathing. high volatility.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Plasticiser types and applications Plasticiser type Commodity phthalate esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)/Dioctyl phthalate (DOP) Di-isooctyl phthalate (DIOP) C9 – C10 Di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) Di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP) C7 Di-isoheptyl phthalate (DIHP) Dipropylheptyl phthalate (DPHP) C13 Di-isotridecyl phthalate (DTDP) Speciality phthalate esters <C8 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) Di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP) Butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP) C10 Di-isoundecyl phthalate (DIUP) C8 – C11 L911P. conveyor belting etc. Good high temperature. low extraction. good migration resistance Low volatility isophthalate Linear and semi-linear phthalates for low viscosity applications Low temperature Superior low temperature performance. L810P Aliphatic esters C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl adipate (DEHA)/Dioctyl adipate (DOA) C9 Di-isononyl adipate (DINA) C8 Di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS) Di-2-ethylhexyl azelate (DOZ) C10 Di-isodecyl sebacate (DIDS) Phosphate esters Triaryl phosphates Isobutylated or isopropylated triaryl phosphate esters Trimellitate esters Tris-2-ethylhexyl trimellitate/Trioctyl trimellitate (TOTM) Trimellitate ester of mixed semilinear C7 and C9 alcohols (L79TM) Trimellitate ester of mixed C8 and C10 linear alcohols (L810TM) Better extraction and migration resistance. Improved low temperature performance. Flame retardants with excellent permanence Electrical cable and general applications requiring flame retardancy – tents. Used in combination with polymeric plasticiser for food cling wrap Fast fusing. but poorer low temperature performance. good flexibility.

More difficult to process/less compatible but excellent resistance to extraction.. Polyphthalates Applications requiring excellent permanence and chemical resistance packaging films (FDA approved) and have also been proposed as an alternative to phthalates (267). polymeric esters are used (88). The heat stabilising action of polymeric plasticisers has also been investigated (181. A comparison of tri-n-butyl citrate (TBC) with DEHP has been carried out (367).2 Polymeric Plasticisers 4. 4. these products are high molecular weight methyl methacrylate and alkyl acrylate copolymers.1 Process Aids Process aids are added primarily to PVC-U (including foam) to improve fusion characteristics and melt flow during the processing stage.PVC Compounds and Processing Table 3 Continued. which can be incorporated at 2-6 phr (particularly with mixed metal heat stabilisers). 223).4 Multifunctional Additives There always has been an interest in additives that perform both a plasticising and heat stabilising effect. or epoxidised esters.3. effect. taking account of the history of phthalates and cost performance. Other products proposed to give a combination of heat stabilisation and plasticisation are plasticiser thiols (44) and chlorinated paraffin types (168. New polymeric plasticisers are in development (87) including adipate based for improved low temperature properties (103). 209).. has been presented (89).5 Property Modifiers For applications requiring high temperature and extraction resistance. The functions of acrylic process aids. Co-stabilising process aids have also been developed (335). Have some compatibility constraints and can influence heat stability Primary use as a secondary heat stabiliser but also impart flexibility. Molecular modelling has been used to establish modifications of soya bean oil to identify suitable use as a primary plasticiser (194). Compatible only at relatively low addition levels. Used in conjunction with primary plasticisers to give volume cost savings. The most obvious of these is epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO). Transparency can also be improved in clear formulations. to improve heat stability by HCl absorption and also give a secondary plasticisation 18 . Plastisols based on propyleneglycol adipate have been examined (198) and the thermal degradation has been determined using dynamic and isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (188). The role that acrylic processing aids play in compound processability. with very high molecular weight.5. Acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC) also has a niche market (263). Addition levels are typically from 1-6 phr with resultant improvements in output and surface finish. High cost. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency has been reviewed (79). have also been discussed from a rheological point of view (290). Plasticiser type Secondary plasticisers Chlorinated paraffins Hydrocarbons chlorinated to a level of 40-50%. Chemically. Chlorine content improves flame retardancy General use Characteristics Typical use Epoxidised soybean oil (ESBO) Epoxidised linseed oil (ELO) Polymeric plasticisers Polymeric adipates of differing molecular weight. A review of phthalate alternatives. 4. 4.

The effect of residual 4. They also have good processability and excellent weathering performance. an elastic core of the modifier has a hard shell to keep the product free flowing and couple the modifier to the PVC matrix. relationships between melt flow and mechanical properties (154) and achieving low gloss in sidings (364). The heat distortion temperature of the ABS modified compound can be higher in comparison to MBS modified. They are not suitable for outdoor applications. the relationship with gelation level on impact strength and morphology (261). Their impact behaviour has been studied in terms of the ductile/brittle transition (450). Specific ABS terpolymer modifiers also process well in clear applications giving low crease whitening and excellent chemical resistance. ambient temperatures and the inclusion of an impact modifier significantly improves its performance. Particular use is in deep draw forming applications. The incorporation of relatively small amounts has been shown to improve the strength and toughness of PVC pipes (171). the effect on impact strength of varying crosslinking level in the rubber component of the impact modifier (224). AMSAN-ABS polymer can be used as a combined heat and impact modifier. MBS impact modifiers are used in a wide range of applications.PVC Compounds and Processing 4. Examples of the different generic types of impact modifier that can be added to PVC formulations are as follows: • methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (MBS) acrylate-polymethacrylate copolymer (acrylic) chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). which creates blockages to crack propagation and acts as an internal energy absorber. Nitrile rubbers (NBR) are blended into PVC-P formulations giving vinyl based thermoplastic 19 .2 Impact Modifiers Unmodified PVC-U has relatively poor impact strength at. They are also not suitable for outdoor applications.5.5. Polybutene has also been shown to improve impact resistance and dynamic thermal stability in impact modified PVC-U formulations (433). produced by emulsion polymerisation. the liquid plasticiser component can be eliminated or substantially reduced. • • • Addition levels are typically from 5-12 phr and their incorporation can influence gelation and melt viscosity. Butadiene-styrene rubbers in powder form for PVC-U modification have also been proposed (95). Their use in window profile and siding applications are well documented. particularly for clear packaging. CPE impact modifiers contain around 35% of chlorine and are thermoplastic in nature. Having limited compatibility with PVC. consequently they are also used for window profiles (287). Acting as a permanent plasticiser. New and updated acrylic impact modifier grades are being introduced by companies such as Rohm and Haas to meet demands for higher output with a broad processing window (77).5. Acrylic modifiers have good processing characteristics linked to reduced die swell and good outdoor weathering stability. it is believed that the impact improvement is achieved via the interruption of the homogeneous morphology into a heterogeneous structure. influence on weld strength in window frame manufacture (437). Based on core shell technology. crystallinity on impact properties has been studied (133). ABS resins can be added to semi-rigid PVC formulations to improve hot melt strength. Much work has been carried out covering various aspects of their processing and performance characteristics viz.3 Heat Distortion Temperature Modification A major disadvantage of PVC is its relatively low service temperature (60-70 °C) and the addition of high levels of some polymers can improve the heat distortion temperature and Vicat softening point. elongation and low temperature flexibility. they initially form a network structure which changes to a particulate structure on processing (134). and below.4 Modifiers for Semi-Rigid and Plasticised Applications CPE modifiers are also suitable for flexible PVC applications where a high degree of flexibility combined with durability is required. An example of such a polymer is alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile (AMSAN) copolymer. A disperse phase in the PVC matrix is formed. With a similar melting point to PVC. as the refractive indices are similar between PVC and the modifier. 4.

Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are commercially available and are claimed to give a cost effective way of increasing impact strength (113). the correct balance and type of internal to external and addition level are crucial due to the influence on gelation level. Another important aspect is the influence on processing with respect to output. Excessive levels or incorrect choice can cause problems with post treatment. Plasticiser loss is also reduced because of the affinity of NBR for plasticisers. but vary in the ratio of one to the other in the way they perform. As extruder running speeds increase. Both types are essential for processing of PVC-U formulations.7. Lead free stabiliser formulations obviously require the removal of lead stearate.2. most lubricants have both external and internal characteristics. better low temperature flexibility and improved abrasion resistance. The rigid film calendering process (details in Section 5.6 Lubricants Lubricants function classically in two ways. formulations including NBR. 4. In PVC-P applications. 404). Typical strongly internal lubricants are glycerol esters and fatty acids. but some are also used to enhance properties and performance. have poor compatibility with PVC. plate-out of incompatible materials in the die and calibration equipment. 420). Typical strongly external lubricants are paraffin wax. In practice. 4. lower the effective viscosity. natural version is normally used. Nitrile rubbers are copolymers of acrylonitrile and butadiene which are compatible with PVC and available in powder form for ease of mixing and dispersion. the filler is usually coated with stearic acid. have good oil and chemical resistance. However. the ultrafine milled. and (2) internally to reduce frictional forces within the polymer matrix and. fillers are added primarily to reduce formulation cost. the effect of lubricants on processing has been determined (313). Tensile strength properties of PVC-U. depending on addition level. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to study the compatibility of ester lubricants. polyethylene wax. It may also be precipitated from solution to give a fine particle size suitable for use in high performance areas. of course. a very efficient lubricant. Particle size is important and. Coated ultrafine and precipitated calcium carbonates are claimed also to have a positive effect on impact properties in impact modified formulations (52.7 Fillers For most PVC-U and PVC-P applications. 4. 294. 462). Calcium stearate functions somewhere between internal and external. e. and physical properties (459).PVC Compounds and Processing elastomers for use in glazing gaskets. Internal lubricants are more compatible and have high polarity. This material is mined as calcite mineral and ground to a particular particle size range. is not significant but increases with increasing levels (177). (1) externally to reduce friction between the polymer melt and hot metal surfaces during processing. plate-out and surface finish. this puts increased pressure on the compatibility of lubricants and low plate-out lubricant systems are being developed (292). the plasticiser acts as an internal lubricant and external lubricants can be added to increase output etc. and lubricants for Ca Zn stabilised profile extrusion have been investigated (139). 20 . It also acts as an acid scavenger. Relatively easy to process. More detailed information on lubricants is available (74. in so doing.1 Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate (also known as chalk) is the most commonly used filler for PVC. tubing etc. On the basis of a PVC melt flow test (ASTM D 3364).. filled with precipitated and ground calcium carbonate. high whiteness. To ease dispersion. oxidised polyethylene wax and stearic acid.6) requires particular lubricant formulations and these have also been reviewed (132). for some applications requiring good weathering and impact performance (window profile). External lubricants. and stearic acid and its derivatives (403. on melt processing equipment. The abrasive wear of calcium carbonate. 360). at higher filler levels. Their use in impact modified PVC has improved mechanical properties (57). by definition. printing or blooming on ageing. The density of the final product will increase. footwear. have been investigated (381. There is a balance between the cost benefits and any acceptable deterioration in physical properties that could result.g.

4. 4. 366). based on impregnating continuous glass fibres with an extruded low viscosity PVC melt and subsequent application via the extrusion die of a standard PVC extrudate. A new technology. Silane coupling agents have also been used for interfacial enhancement of PVC-P/silica composites (440). Calcium carbonate is also used in this area.5 Other Fillers Depending on the geographical area. gelation and fusion behaviour. Ground dolomite (calcium magnesium carbonate) and limestone fillers are also used.7. 4. For magnetic applications. 4. the use of strontium ferrite powder has been characterised (234). has been carried out to establish the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact for PVC containing 60% wood fibre (51). They have extensive use in wire and cable where they assist.4 Conductive and Magnetic Fillers For specialised applications where electrical conductivity is required. and mechanical properties (70). A review is available of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles (416). Accelerated UV weathering performance testing indicated that wood flours are effective chromophores as they accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. has been demonstrated with improved melt strength and improved surface finish (54). there was no deterioration in strength and stiffness properties (102). Copper and nickel metal powders have also been studied (112). The use of barium ferrite has been optimised (362). phyllite. are used for PVC-U and PVC-P applications. Data is also available on investigations of composites of PVC/leather fibre (380) and PVC/newsprint fibre (430) as a means of utilising these waste materials. The influence of particle shape and silane coupling agents. particularly in the USA. on mechanical properties has also been investigated (116. muscovite and kaolinite. The positive effects of modifiers on physical properties have been identified (232). Calcium silicate mineral filler has been proposed as a replacement for calcium carbonate in primary insulation cable compound (83). has been evaluated. 4. such as antistatic flooring or shielding of electromagnetic induction. wood filled PVC has superior weathering resistance and can be used as wood (197). The use of CPE as a compatibiliser. An alternative to calcium carbonate. was characterised on the basis of paste viscosity. with and without silane coupling agent treatment. of impact durability. in combination with other additives to reduce HCl generation in a fire situation. which contains quartz.7.7.6 Nanocomposites Nanocomposites are materials that contain nanometer sized fillers at a low level. Calcined calcium sulfate has been suggested to effectively replace calcium carbonate in cable insulation (283). some with surface treatment. Cellulose fillers. for surface treatment of glass beads. Operating at molecular level.2 Wood Fillers/Fibres/Flour Composites The use of wood fillers has expanded considerably. of three different sizes. In comparison with traditional products.7. for composites containing 25% and 40% wood flour. Kaolin has a use in plastisol formulations giving good rheological control. However. have been investigated at various levels showing an increase in physical properties and viscosity (53).3 Glass Beads/Glass Fibre Work undergone in this area has looked at tensile and impact properties of a PVC composite filled with hollow glass beads. and different volume fractions (96).PVC Compounds and Processing Chalk fillers also have extensive use in PVC-P applications where the particle size restriction is not so essential. ground marble fillers.7. This material. has given PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness (201). Talc has been used in calendered PVC compounds to increase melt cohesion and modulus of the finished material. Higher addition levels can also be accommodated. Finite element analysis. these materials can give a very large improvement in properties of the composite material. such as operating 21 . Calcined kaolin clays can be used in footwear (improved abrasion resistance) and cable (improved insulation properties). specific carbon black pigment/filler is used.

203). Ethylene copolymers (high molecular weight flexibilisers) have been proposed to replace liquid plasticiser for low smoke FR PVC cable formulations (238). were overcome by pretreating the organoclay with the plasticiser. The addition of low levels of zinc borate and/or ATH was noted to improve flame retardancy and reduce smoke density in a PVC-U formulation (265). Epoxy resin has been suggested as a compatibiliser for these systems with improved transparency and processing stability (93). A review of this area covering additives and testing is available (78).8 Flame Retardants (FR) and Smoke Suppressants (SS) PVC-U formulations have low flammability due to the chlorine content. An evaluation has shown zinc hydroxystannate to give the best overall FR and SS characteristics without adversely influencing important physical properties (129). Antimony trioxide has been used extensively. 22 . PVC/montmorillonite nanocomposites have been prepared by blending organoclays of differing hydrophilicity with PVC and plasticiser. The best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading with 5-10% plasticiser content (180). The presence of clay has been noted to retard the chain stripping thermal degradation of PVC with enhanced char formation (65). usually in combination with phosphate ester plasticisers. The most recent work has involved reducing smoke emissions. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy. The increasing demand for FR PVC-U applications has prompted work in this area. The use of functional fillers can cause a dramatic deterioration of physical properties at the addition levels necessary to achieve the requirements of flame retardancy and smoke emission. Aluminium trihydrate (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) have been shown to create low smoke levels and much reduced toxic gas emission (245. In comparison to other polymers.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. The influence of calcium carbonate nanoparticles has already been covered in Section 4. particularly when used in combination (15). stiffness and toughness etc. It has been shown that ATH and MDH functional fillers coated with zinc hydroxystannate give significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution (386).7. The melt blending and preparation of PVC/sodium montmorillonite have been extensively tested (121). The addition of plasticiser in PVC-P formulations necessitates the use of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives. The thermal stability problems. The results of high energy mechanical milling of PVC with zinc borate or zinc borate/ATH mixtures have been 4. The use of zinc sulfide has been suggested (167). Calcium carbonate and lithium carbonate fillers also act as HCl absorbers and the effect on HCl generation during the combustion of PVC-P has been shown to be effective. Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC/clay nanocomposites have been produced by melt blending. Zinc borate is also an effective SS in combination with phosphate ester plasticiser (130). Solution blending was found to produce a mixed immiscible intercalated nanocomposite with the clay causing a change in the degradation path (94). 390). including halogen-antimony synergy have been reviewed (443). However. They are predominately used in cable. antimony trioxide is a suspected carcinogen and work is ongoing to replace or reduce the levels used. Improved dimensional stability and barrier properties were obtained (50.1. These additives are known as functional fillers and a correct balance is necessary to achieve all the end-use specification requirements. The combination of ammonium octamolybdate and zinc stannate is also beneficial (435). The FR mechanism is activated by the formation of antimony oxychloride which acts as a radical scavenger and flame poison. The activity of these materials is a function of the vaporisation of their water of hydration. there have been relatively few details of investigations on PVC nanocomposites. flame retardancy. Copper (I) complexes have been suggested as smoke suppressants (241). giving excellent fire performance and mechanical properties. In situ polymerisation of polymer layered silicate nanocomposites has been investigated (36). conveyer belting and roofing membrane formulations to give resistance to fire initiation and propagation. It is also important to reduce dripping in a fire situation and that as little smoke as possible is generated. Copper oxides have also been investigated with positive results (60). The degree of clay intercalation was determined and the co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. attributed to the quaternary amine used in the organoclay. a previous weakness of FR PVC formulations.

Specific titanium dioxide grades are used in PVC-U applications and contribute to outdoor weathering performance (384). 2. the Biocidal Products Directive (BPD) could influence future use of particular microbiocides. This is due to the fungi using the plasticiser at the surface of the article as a food source. the most common microbiocides are 10. Such technology covers encapsulation (385) and the use of polymer carriers (39.5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT). with the conclusion that the amount and type of alumina treatment is significant (457). 4. so permitting these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer (421). with the screening effect of the pigment protecting these polyenes against photooxidation. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) pigments are used to give ‘bright’ whiteness and opacity. 334). This drop was attributed to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine deficient in TiO2 pigment (373).10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine (OBPA). This has been attributed to the formation of particular polyenic sequences. The most recent developments in pigmenting technology relate to ease of handling. with whiteness retention and reduction in surface gloss (131). Addition levels of the active ingredient are in the 400-2000 ppm level and the active biocide is normally supplied dispersed in a plasticiser or ESBO carrier. Biocides function by becoming active on the surface of the material to destroy the fungi. as pigment extenders to partially replace TiO2 in plastisols. have been shown. Different infrared reflecting blacks have been evaluated in relation to heat build-up properties and actual weathering characteristics. are linked with the phase out of lead based stabilisers.n -octylisothiazolin-3-one (OIT) and 4.PVC Compounds and Processing shown to give a marked increase in FR and physical properties as a result of chemical bonding and increased interfacial interaction (16).10 Biocides PVC-P materials. and on the kinetics of weathering (278) have been studied. Special pigment systems based on organic or organic/inorganic combinations are available (320). Black pigment selection for outdoor use has to consider weathering performance. Various laboratory test methods are available to determine the effectiveness of biocides in simulated performance situations (42. has been observed in service. 242. This can lead to partial discolouration (pink colour or black specks) which can further cause a tacky surface where dirt can accumulate. This has been explained by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation.9 Pigments Pigments for PVC must be thermally and light stable. Pinking of PVC profiles. Paste storage stability is also important. after a period of storage of the aged material in the dark. Unpleasant odours may also be a consequence. dust free. have been investigated. 321). the fungus also acting as a leaching solvent (370). In Europe. Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a white pigmented PVC construction panel have been measured as a function of irradiation time. colour concentrates (73) and dosing on line. Inorganic pigments are the most common type. Lead chromate pigments. One predictive test has been designed and validated (13. Their influence on photodegradation (286). The influence of free iron has also been examined (344). traditionally used for pipe and cable applications. such as flooring and roofing material. Reversible discolouration effects linked to the photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloro-organic compounds dropped sharply with irradiation time. Aluminosilicates. Titanium dioxides for use in PVC plastisols must satisfy the need for good wettability and dispersion within the liquid medium. Plasticiser transfer to the surface is limited by the process of diffusion of the plasticiser within the material. can be prone to microbiological attack in humid or damp conditions. Based on their thermal stability. Other predictive tests have also been suggested. 4. in mild climatic conditions. The effects of different surface treatments on TiO2 on these parameters have been studied. have good dispersibility and be compatible within the formulation. 23 . 279). permanence and broad spectral performance against different fungi. compatibility.

which is endothermic and so absorbs heat as it releases carbon dioxide gas. There has been a relationship established between the effects of residual emulsifier in the E-PVC resin grade and foaming behaviour (101). to include an activation agent which catalyses the decomposition and so increases the total gas evolved. Consequently. 24 . Cyanoacrylates have been proposed as a new range of UV absorbers for PVC and other plastics (307). as foam density was reduced. Light stabilisers also prevent photodegradation. 81). Arizona) to test the weathering performance. 4. These can be added at very low levels at the polymerisation stage and in combination with the stabilising package at the blending stage (76.13. A three-dimensional and high resolution quantitative image technique has been proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams. The lightweight material is used for sound deadening or domestic applications. The mechanical foaming of PVC pastes has been carried out for some time on the basis of air or gas being whisked into specially formulated plastisols. The mechanical properties of foamed PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites have been characterised using different blowing agents.11 Blowing Agents Solid blowing agents are materials which decompose to release gases at particular temperatures matching the appropriate melt viscosity necessary to retain the foam structure. The azo compounds can be specially formulated. such as hindered phenols. Moisture has also been proposed as a foaming agent in the manufacture of these composite foams (55).PVC Compounds and Processing 4. produced from different PVC plastisols. Solid state microcellular foaming technology (based on carbon dioxide) has been used to investigate the influence of impact modifier on PVC-U and PVC-U/wood flour composites. Phosphites and thiosynergists are also used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the primary antioxidant by reduction of oxidation intermediates. operate as effective radical scavengers to protect the PVC material during processing and in use (preventing photodegradation). The manufacture of cellular PVC/wood composites has been studied.13 Other Additives for PVC-P 4. The most relevant point is to use as reference a formulation known to have good outdoor weathering performance. A comparison has also been made with batch microcellular processing (23). so activity is retained. Various grades are available to suit particular applications and both have well controlled particle size distribution. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to the unmodified samples (208). to prevent the build-up of static electrical charges. has been reported (120). elasticity and degree of expansion of foams. Hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) are also used but their activity is not particularly well understood (80). 4. The impact modifier accelerated the rate of gas loss which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. The influence of an exothermic and endothermic blowing agent on PVC/wood flour composite extrusion has been examined showing that density is unaffected by foaming agent content. which are cured using microwave or infrared ovens. PVC-U foams incorporate sodium bicarbonate and the results are available of an investigation into controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition (281). which could lead to an electric shock or a spark causing a fire in a dusty or flammable area. which is exothermic in nature and decomposes to give primarily nitrogen gas and (2) sodium bicarbonate. were examined showing suitability for many wood replacement applications (196).12 Antioxidants and Light Stabilisers Primary antioxidants. operate by absorbing and dissipating UV radiation prior to potential degradation of the polymer. The properties achieved. but cell size was dependent on foaming agent type (192). Granular forms improve handling.1 Antistatic Agents Antistatic agents are added to the PVC formulation. A study of the effects of several different plasticisers on the density. No permanent chemical change occurs. This provides a tool to study the relationships between foam structure and physical properties (18). but some attempts have been made for PVC-P (445). The prediction of photoageing stability based on accelerated laboratory testing is very difficult. Dust build-up is also reduced. There are various accelerated light stability test methods available and/or exposure in harsher climates (Florida. There are two main types: (1) azodicarbonamide. UV absorbers such as hydroxybenzophenone or hydroxyphenyl triazole types.

An alternative method of achieving antistatic performance.1 PVC-U Compounds and Testing New trends in PVC-U compound formulations. Peroxide crosslinking of PVC foam formulations has shown the positive benefit of a trimethacrylate compound as coagent. with good thermal stability and a very dense crosslink network (235). particularly on display in the supermarket (400). particularly at elevated temperatures and investigative work has been carried out on both PVC-U and PVC-P. aminosilanes and 4. Paste PVC resins (or blends of resins) are designed to satisfy a particular rheology profile. crosslink during processing. Formulations for construction products have been reviewed based on components and combinations. influence on the manufacturing and final products. 4. A study on the thermal decomposition behaviour showed the strong influence of an aminosilane in comparison to a mercaptosilane (337). but sometimes the addition of viscosity modifiers is necessary. triallyl cyanurate.2 Crosslinked PVC Crosslinking of PVC results in the improvement of a number of properties. The crosslinking of PVC-U formulations has also been investigated using mercaptosilanes. extruded wood flour composites and co-extruded capping applications. The addition of antistatic agents can have a detrimental effect on processing. air supported coated fabric structures and protective clothing. Based on polyisocyanurates. conducts away charges. although not so permanent. 4. of course. The influence of zeolites and iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVC based composites have been established (426).14.13. is to apply a coating after fabrication. To ensure that PVC-U products do not exhibit unacceptable heat distortion in hot climates. along with a reduction in static charge accumulation. dispersed in a plasticiser. 25 . 4. These materials are highly reactive and the plastisol formulation has to take this into account in relation to plastisol viscosity build-up.13. which by attraction of moisture and in combination with the antistatic agent itself. requires the addition of a chemical bonding agent to improve the interfacial adhesion. covering extruded foam.3 Antifogging Agents Antifogging additives are added to food packaging film used for meat and vegetables. appearance and performance (72). Crosslinking is achieved hydrolytically. as well as the manufacturing process. For some PVC-P formulations. 4. and this needs to be taken into account. organosilanes appear to be more suitable than peroxides in achieving improved solvent and abrasion resistance (409. 424). Fumed silicas are typically used. This is necessary for thinning under the appropriate shear conditions.14. The agent functions by the formation of an antistatic layer on the surface. Chemical crosslinkable formulations need to generate a sufficiently crosslinked portion with satisfactory thermal stability (usually a conflict) and should not. The use of a reactive plasticiser. Generic formulations have been listed together with the influence of each additive on processing.13. the surface resistivity is reduced.4 Bonding Agents PVC plastisol.PVC Compounds and Processing By adding an antistatic agent (complex non-ionic or cationic materials).14 Formulations 4. a methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance data has been proposed and a predictive model for different applications given (352). spread on to industrial fabrics based on polyester or polyamide fibres. particularly heat stability. have been reviewed. Calcium sulfonate gels have also been promoted (458).2 Viscosity Modifiers PVC plastisols or pastes should have a viscosity suitable for handling and storage. Typical areas of use are truck tarpaulins. Viscosity measurements of magnesium and barium mercaptide crosslinked formulations have shown that the magnesium salt is more effective in crosslinking and conclusions have been made on the suitability of different heat stabiliser systems (285). this functions by reacting with the polar groups in the synthetic fibre to give strong chemical bonding at the interface of the fabric and PVC. has improved the high temperature creep resistance of peroxide crosslinked plastisols (202). and the necessary testing to ensure suitability for the purpose (402).

A mathematical simulation of DEHP transfer between PVC-P samples submerged in olive oil has been produced (392). 4. carried out using electron beam. The interaction of blood with PVC-P based on a phthalate and trimellitate plasticiser has shown that there is a higher reactivity for the trimellitate. The influence of plasticisers on mechanical properties and dielectric characteristics has been examined (379. For medical use. infusion kits etc.1 showing the ongoing debate. This has been tested extensively and DEHP is specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for use in blood bags. A rapid extraction test for overall migration limit compliance testing has been established. Electron beam irradiation has also been investigated on a PVC-P wire coating formulation in the presence of different reactive monomers (185). The microstructure of ionselective membranes has been studied during the process of soaking in heavy water with plasticiser type and content. has reduced plasticiser diffusion in the evaluation of mass transfers between the material and liquid food or food simulants. Details are also available of the design of an autoclavable PVC-P medical device which was injection moulded (178). Different heat stabilisers were also investigated (319). significantly influencing water uptake (305). Irradiation crosslinking of PVC-U. Other plasticisers have a much less stabilising influence (41). PVC membranes have also been suggested for controlled release of agrochemicals (354). which has undergone specific treatment. usually solvent cast. oxygen face masks. Silane modified PVC films have been proposed for selective absorption of chloro-organics in the 26 . This has been reviewed in Section 3. incorporating iron chloride or cobalt chloride. based on materials approved for medical use. PVC is supplied in a range of specially formulated hardnesses covering PVC-U through PVC-P for use in pharmaceutical blister packs. PVC-P material. which correlated with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface (316). The results of corona discharge treatment of PVC-P with different plasticiser contents have shown no effect on the electrolytic equilibrium in relation to biological adsorption tests. has been developed to give low extractables and low blush with good colour and processability (239).14. An additive system. blood and plasma bags. The use of polycaprolactone-polycarbonate as a plasticiser for medical grade PVC-P shows very few changes in material or surface composition when aged in water at different temperatures (17). and is based on extraction with methanol or methanol/water (411). into the contents and so into the body. together with the addition of a lipophilic salt.4 Membranes PVC-P membranes are highly plasticised materials. during sterilisation and ageing have shown the large stabilising influence of DEHP and ESBO.3 Medical and Food Contact Use PVC has a unique role in medical devices and in protecting and preserving food on its journey from supplier to consumer (446). Most of the recent work in this area is connected with extraction testing with food simulants. Machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products have been examined (218). the main phthalate used in medical devices. Another important aspect is for the medical packaging to be suitable for sterilisation of the contents.PVC Compounds and Processing peroxides with slower crosslinking attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane. used for ion-selective electrodes and biosensors. The effect of UV irradiation on formulations.14. excessive shifts in pH and extractables can occur in inappropriately stabilised PVC-P (301). Packaging in direct contact with food must comply with migration limits set by government bodies. Details are available of improving the gamma irradiation stability of PVC-P in order to retain colour (447).2. has also been studied (67). This relates to the ‘more severe test’ criteria to satisfy the EC Directive. has shown a marked increase in glass transition temperature in the presence of a triacrylate. 432). An important issue for PVC-P is the migration of the DEHP plasticiser. The effects of different plasticisers 4. with minimal thermal degradation (216). Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content (199). 393. Flame retardancy has also been improved with the incorporation of appropriate flame retardants (118). In addition to unacceptable colour formation. Peroxide crosslinking in the presence of a trimethacrylate has shown gel contents of 30-40% with improved mechanical properties using appropriate curing agent levels (268). A mathematical model has been proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient (351).

Normally. Centrifugal forces are sufficient to throw material particles into free space where they collide with other particles. For some processes or smaller scale operations.1 Dry Blend Mixing 5. There are several types of mixers: helical ribbon. High intensity mixers are heated cylindrical tanks with the mixing tool (propellers or knives) mounted on a mixing shaft. The hot mix (now around 110-130 °C) is transferred to a much larger.1. other important criteria have also to be considered for the dry blend mixing stage and subsequent transportation to the processing equipment viz. 5. Pipe (191) and profile (325) of acceptable quality are claimed. Under the effect of transmitted and frictional heat. Continuous melt compounding extruders (9) are now the favoured option either based on: (1) Co-rotating twin screws with kneading elements. Further mixing ensures that the nonmelting components are efficiently dispersed (in some cases fillers and certain pigments are added prior to reaching the final mixing temperature). in comparison to the unmodified material where no stability was observed over time (217). the temperature rises. based on a single helical screw blade which in addition to its rotary 27 .g. free-flow ability. This may be necessary for the type of processing equipment used for shaping the material. but heating may be necessary to aid plasticiser absorption. Modifying PVC with pyridine groups has given stable and constant gas transport diffusion coefficients. 5. pipe and profile extrusion. is the most favoured process to produce PVC-U and relevant PVC-P dry blends at high outputs. usually into a pellet or dice form.g.. homogeneity. To increase output. a high performance functional membrane for treatment of radioactive waste has been obtained (172).1. with the screws designed to include mixing. By grafting acrylamide monomer on to PVC films using gamma radiation.1 Compounding The intimate mixing of the PVC resin with its associated additives is necessary prior to converting into a thermoplastic melt. the dry blend is fed directly into the processing equipment. low speed mixers offer gentler product handling with a uniform distribution of all ingredients.1. This results in reduced agglomeration and improved free-flowing properties (by reducing electrostatic charges).1 High Intensity Batch high speed mixing.2 Low Intensity 5 Compounding and Processing Technology 5.1.1. The process can be automated in relation to weighing of ingredients and spraying of liquid components into the mixture. 5. calendering. which obviously includes the melt compounding stage. with no change in particle identity. plasticising and homogenising. the double batching technique has been suggested whereby double the quantity of additives are added to the PVC in the hot mixer with the balance of PVC added in the cooler mixer. The barrel is in segments and the length is determined by the process needs. followed by a cooling stage. e.1. Virtually shear free. conveying. the dry blend (PVC-U or PVC-P) must be gelled/melt compounded. bulk density.2 Melt Compounding For certain operations or scale of operations. e. allowing the absorption of the liquid and low melting solid components. This breaks up agglomerates. cooled. ease of handling and storage. or where a high degree of homogenisation is required to achieve the performance requirements of the final product. (2) Oscillating kneader extruder. The walls of the mixer carry the bulk material by friction producing continuous dividing and reuniting of the material. this technique is used for cold mixing.PVC Compounds and Processing pervaporation separation of these compounds from water (274). ribbon bar or paddle mixers.. low intensity mixer and cooled to ~50 °C. In addition to the formulation ingredients necessary for the particular application.

particularly necessary for transparent top coat and foam particularly differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).1. thereby improving plastisol mixing. 5. This technique is reputed to give maximum mixing performance with relatively low energy consumption. The types of mixers used are: (1) High speed dispersion vertical mixers which are fitted with a variable speed drive and a toothed disc at the end of the vertical shaft. This type suits the lower viscosity plastisols used in wall and floor coverings. are interpreted as a consequence of their interactions (434). a. Gelation occurred in several steps depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles and temperature increase is necessary with higher plasticiser concentrations (394). Alternatively organosols are based on the use of a lower boiling point liquid. 28 . (2) Low speed planetary mixers fitted with vertical trellis type paddles which rotate around the drive access in a circular motion around the mixing bowl. which is hinged.3 Liquid PVC Blending Plastisol or paste PVC mixtures are dispersions of emulsion or emulsion/microsuspension PVC resins in plasticisers. Another technique is based on solvent absorption. transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). This type of mixer requires longer mixing times but is suitable for high viscosity pastes with very little friction being developed in the process. and the material is sheared in the shear gap between these teeth and the screw flights. there is an extensive network of interconnecting crystalline regions which develop with increased processing temperature. capillary rheometry. fusion and elongation followed by melting. This degree of fusion and the extent of crystallinity that exists within the polymer network are essential to achieve the finished product quality and properties (425). www. which is a multi-hole die plate through which the melt is forced into strands. It seems that there is an optimum level of gelation for a particular product and/or process method. In one complete turn of the screw there is one forward and backward motion. and visualising swelling and solution effects. A high level of mechanical heat is generated due to heat input and shear generation and it is now generally accepted that the gelation mechanism involves compaction. usually involving methylene chloride. the crystallites acting as crosslinks in a three-dimensional network. The influence of the plasticiser concentration on the gelation and fusion process has been studied rheologically. For dry blend.PVC Compounds and Processing motion also makes a reciprocating axial movement. densification. A discharge screw feeds the melt into a pelletiser unit. cut by rotating knives and cooled. melt compounding is required to give the thermomechanical energy necessary to achieve interdispersion down to microscopic and possibly intermolecular level. The behaviour of PVC plastisols has been studied during gelation and fusion using an in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique and differences in certain bands. 5. Kneading teeth or pins are mounted on the barrel. 5. The gelation or fusion level is associated with the degree of destruction of the inherent particulate boundaries of the PVC grains and the subsequent merging of the primary particles and aggregates. A twin screw feeder unit is used to dose dry blend into the compounder.hydropolymers.2.1). There may be a two stage mixing procedure used where all the solids are dispersed in part of the plasticiser. gelation occurs on the basis of heat imparted to the material during the processing stage. Several different gelation measurement methods have been described in the literature.2 Processing An excellent review of the different processing techniques can be found on the Hydro Polymers website.1 Gelation In the case of PVC plastisols. relating to the PVC and plasticiser components. Details are available of a range of extruders developed for PVC compounds (34). The remaining plasticiser is added at the second stage. The gelation level is characterised either by crystallinity related aspects or factors that relate to the development of the threedimensional network and the corresponding disappearance of the particulate structure (465. In addition. All mixers are usually enclosed and fitted with a vacuum deaeration facility. A mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone has been proposed as an improvement on this technique (107).

The resulting homogeneous viscous melt is forced through a heated die fitted to the exit end of the barrel. along the length. hose etc.. cools and pulls off the product which is also cut to desired lengths. Two main types of screw design are used. usually in different zones.g. i.. Archimedean screws. as a monitoring tool.2 Extrusion 5. such as wire and cable. 2:1.e.2. Screws are categorised by the ratio of their length to depth (L/D ratio) and have been 22/1 (22D) and 26/1 (26D). gelation and metering. The heated screws rotate in opposite directions (counter rotating) to each other and perform three basic functions which are feeding. The barrel is temperature controlled. Screw design involves higher compression ratios. in PVC degradation.2. can be used to determine if the process is under control. glazing strip. has been used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes on PVC-U compounds. The processing window for PVC-U compounds should not be too restricting to allow for batch to batch variations in formulation ingredients and minor temperature fluctuations. The positive influence of PVC grain morphology on the extrusion performance has been studied (460). PVC dry blend is fed in via a hopper at the start of the screws and is conveyed forward. By modelling the rheological properties. using sequential simplex techniques. A processing window contour mapping programme. An optimum processing window can also be defined by the use of statistical experimental design (328). with the screw flights designed accordingly. The influence of processing variables on profile gloss has shown a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness (233).2.1 Twin Screw Almost exclusively used for extrusion of PVC-U into pipe profile and sheet. sheared and finally gelled by rotation of the screws and the heat of the barrel. softened. has been examined during extrusion and suggestions made in modification of the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation (190).PVC Compounds and Processing 5. which means the volume occupied between two fights at the start of the screw is twice that occupied between two consecutive flights at the end of the screw. profile. The role of shear stress. A capillary rheometer has been used for numerical simulations to reproduce the elastic properties of the large pressure drop on entrance and small extrudate swell during PVC extrusion (299). Further information is available (356). The characterisation of apparent viscosity for PVC wood fibre extrusion has been carried out and quadratic models used to establish tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were achieved (69). linked to high output. The melt behaviour of various PVC compounds has been studied in single screw extruders and conclusions made in relation to the dominant driving force conveying the melt and melting mechanisms (455). Screws are typically chromium plated and/or nitrided to protect against acid corrosion and abrasion. The relationship 29 . This is combined with the formulation cost to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise (312). Thereafter the downstream equipment sizes or calibrates.. e. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties. Screw design is complex. 5. Barrels are internally lined with various high alloy nitrided steels. New 36D extruders have been introduced for higher output in combination with less wear (144).2. Statistical analysis has been used to establish the optimum screw design for PVC extrusion with the capability of reducing extrusion temperature and decreasing slip velocity to reduce abrasion (254). This has been positively identified in relation to the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load (398). Venting is incorporated to remove entrapped air and volatiles. PVC-P applications. extruder conditions and physical properties were achieved (338). are fed by gelled compound. run on single screw extruders.2. tubing. parallel and conical and these have been compared (427). the optimisation of the flow. intermeshed. but enables melt temperature (which can be in the region of 190-200 °C) to be controlled more accurately.2 Single Screw Single screw extruders develop more frictional heat and rely more on back pressure from the die to improve homogeneity. Statistics. extrusion equipment consists of a cylindrical barrel containing two close fitting. The use of conical twin screw extruders for the extrusion of wood filled PVC has also been presented (156). The concept of twin screw extrusion is short residence time in order to minimise thermal degradation. The effects of formulation variables on PVC-U processing and physical properties have been modelled.

has been correlated with the long time relaxation ascribed to generation and growth of PVC crystallites (189).2. Additional benefits to those associated with solid PVC are weight and cost savings.3 Downstream Equipment Die design is critical to the extrusion process. Computer aided engineering software has been used to investigate modifications to the design of a PVC sewer pipe extrusion die resulting in improved output and product quality with modest changes (170). Several analytical techniques have been used in a study of plateout using a specially developed die and calibrator unit and mechanisms described for plate-out formation (155). has been demonstrated showing advantages in reduced sensitivity to output rates. Corrugated pipe. residence time and flow channel streamlining. critical variables are temperature control. The die and calibrator are 30 . An instrumented dual slit die rheometer. associated with different cooling rates. but recently. it is now coming under more scientific investigation. For flat die extrusion of sheet.corma. has been developed to determine shear viscosity and slip velocity covering PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviour (142). is produced using thin wall extrudate feeding into corrugator equipment (www. The simulation of profile dies. sidewall effects and dimensional changes that occur after die exit). temperatures and material properties (326). in a capillary extrusion. the formulation ingredients in combination with processing conditions. screws.PVC Compounds and Processing between the physical properties of PVC-P profile extrusions and extrusion melt temperature has been Flow instability of PVC-P. have been identified as a multi-axial parameter with the magnitude shown to be a complex function of a number of interrelated variables. using a differential equation for heat transfer. Higher line speeds. cost effective tooling. has been modelled (250). 176). Plate-out is a particular problem for PVC extrusion and is the formation of undesired deposits within the extrusion process. material rheology and flow through the die. normally pipe or profile. An overall review of extrusion tooling has been made covering twin strand extrusion. showing an optimum level of temperature to achieve satisfactory physical properties and surface gloss (12). mounted on a twin screw extruder. a particular colour and surface finish with possibly good weathering performance (298). using finite element methods. flow and cooling simulation and melt homogenisation (157). the 5. 5. Profile forming is achieved by passing the extrudate through a series of calibration dies. die. there was volatilisation of DEHP and changes in the polymer molecular structure which enhanced the electrical properties (213).4 Foam Extrusion PVC-U foam extrusion has been well known since the 1960s. in PVC-U profiles. Once ascertained on a trial and error basis. primarily used in land drainage. for pipe extrudate. The bowing of PVC-U extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage. The specially formulated layer is normally virgin PVC to cap lower cost virgin or regrind or foam to give good gloss. As a consequence. Plate-out is usually caused by incompatibility within. which gave good results (206). the torpedo creating a space into which the extrudate expands. A non isothermal network flow model has been developed (this includes flow balancing. Recent developments have been presented (175. has shown a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation (251).2. without increasing reversion levels. material is sized and subsequently cooled with water by total immersion or spray. or reactions resulting from. Vacuum holes or slots are used with the water cooled walls to improve and maintain final product dimensions.2. Heat reversion effects. The influence of different cooling environments.2. Sheet and film extrusion lines include cooling and polishing rolls. Details of the process have been described (158). calibrator etc. more rapid development has taken place due to improved specialist machinery and techniques. which cool the material through contact with the metallic walls of the calibrators. Coextrusion permits the simultaneous capping of a specially formulated layer or layers of PVC onto the bulk material. Alternatively. The shear rate in passing through a copper wire coating die has been determined as higher than one million reciprocal seconds when studied using capillary rheometry. Two processes are possible: (1) Free foaming where the blowing gas freely expands in the melt extrudate as it leaves the die going into the calibrator and (2) Inward expansion (Celuka process) where the extrudate is fed on to the calibrator walls via a die mandrel. are possible by allowing for die swell (451).

for thin wall profile (280) has been reported. The most important stages of the process are melt preparation and mould filling to minimise shear heating caused by excessive back pressure. The formulation and performance criteria have been evaluated for vinyl moulding compounds (419). allowing optimisation of the processing conditions (230). was investigated using the mono-sandwich process and the properties determined. prefoamed in a batch solid state microcellular process (109). A distribution map of the various relative temperatures attained during injection has been determined (314). A mobile reciprocating screw gels. The problem of part failure in service has been addressed using diagnostic analytical tools (353). A fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density.4 Extrusion Blow Moulding For thin walled containers. The extrusion of foamed products with twin screw extruders has been reviewed (375). The co-injection moulding of PVC-U with other thermoplastics (glass fibre reinforced PVC. sheet and profile have been listed and the market reviewed (124. and then stretched and blown to its final shape in a second mould. Using timeresolved fluorescence has enabled the estimation of residual stresses on the skin layer of PVC mouldings (169). Proof of concept experiments confirm the satisfactory solid state extrusion of PVC pellets. 333). 5. tools and processes for the production of foam core pipe. permeability is reduced. including dies and calibrators. However. In the stretch blow moulding process. Polypropylene was the only polymer not to exhibit good adhesion. have been given (258).3 Injection Moulding Injection moulding is a discontinuous process that produces articles in the final shape. Screw and mould designs have made big advances. Air is fed to the centre of the parison. PVC-U gives a combination of high clarity. screw speed or injection rate. medical and electrical. with the aim of predicting an optimum formulation (339). Technical details of PVC-U foam sheet extrusion lines. the influence of injection moulding conditions was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. PVC-U applications. The mechanical properties of the other samples were intermediate between those of the constituent polymers (104). inherent rigidity and good barrier properties. transports and forces material through a nozzle and into a mould. 5. Strains imposed on the material during injection can result in undesirable shrinkage and are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. The use of processing aids facilitates foaming and cell retention in the melt phase. usually based on lower molecular weight polymer. The machinery. 31 . polypropylene. To reduce the number of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings. A model has been developed to predict degradation during moulding based on a spiral mould and the use of mathematical equations (249). automotive. cover the construction and telecommunication areas. PVC-P applications include footwear. Statistical experimental design has been used to study the effects of blowing agents. the extruded parison is initially blown undersized. the use of PVC in this area has greatly decreased due to the changeover to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) for cost reasons. processing aids and fillers in PVC-U foam formulations. Extrusion is mainly by a single screw horizontal machine which changes to vertical flow via a ‘swan neck’ arrangement. rigidity and clarity.2. which is the most common. A mathematical model has been developed to provide the basis for interpretation of shrinkage data. An alternative process for the production of PVC foam using microcellular foam technology. However. not requiring impact modifier. 359).PVC Compounds and Processing the same size and this process creates its own skin on the extrudate surface. and their function has been reviewed (346. ABS and polycarbonate). which improves impact resistance. The degree of fusion during the foaming process has been studied using DSC (324). Optimum extrusion conditions for good quality material have also been determined for a single screw extruder (413). The relatively high melt viscosity and thermal stability of PVC require close attention in relation to temperature and shear conditions. This produces biaxial molecular orientation of the container walls. has been researched (401).2.

ranging from highly polished to heavy matt.5 millimetres in thickness and up to and over 2. Monitoring of molecular orientation has also been suggested using micro-Raman spectroscopy (163). 5. In-line embossing can be carried out by feeding the hot sheet between a heated embosser and rubber backup roll. and regulated rotationally to allow stretching to the required dimensions. (374) feeding into the intake nip of the calender. e. Calendering processes and machinery for rubber and PVC products have been examined (408).0 metres in width. The surfaces of the rolls need to be contoured to an accuracy of a few microns to ensure even film thickness in both lengthwise and crosswise directions.2. The passage of hot melt between the rolls creates a pressure forcing them apart and the calculation of tolerances using a statistical model has been described (417). but higher production rates and more accurate product thickness are obtained. The mechanical properties of PVC pipe. resulting • • The effect of the drawing and filler orientation in PVC-P extrudates has been studied with improvements noted in mechanical properties (383). There is a rolling bank of feed material created in the gap or ‘nip’ set between the first pair and also the second pair of rolls. Final cooling is achieved using water cooled drums. UK and published work includes: • the dimensional stability of oriented PVC-U and PVC-P (357). usually in both directions. is produced continuously in film or sheet up to approximately 1. Hot melt is generated through a continuous extruder-compounder.PVC Compounds and Processing 5. Mini calenders or Calandrette® lines (from Battenfeld) are available for the production of rigid and semi-rigid PVC films with lower investment costs. The hot sheet is drawn from the final roll by stripper rollers which can be temperature controlled to permit gradual cooling. Calendering is much more capital intensive than the extrusion process. usually in an inverted L-shape. Much of the work investigating orientation has been carried out at the Institute of Polymer Technology and Materials Engineering.6 Calendering Early PVC calenders were modified from those used in the rubber industry. based on a batch process. the development of a machine for stretching PVC-P with enhancement of mechanical properties (303) and the structure-property relationships for oriented samples of PVC-U and PVC-P (255). One alternative is an intensive internal mixer consisting of two heavy duty teardrop shaped counterrotating rotors in a heated chamber. in such a way that they can be rotated. The final calender nip controls film thickness. feeding onto a two-roll holding mill. were found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio. and the distance between each pair of rollers adjusted. Loughborough University. at temperatures above the glass transition temperature. The surfaces of the final two rolls can also be textured. Cooling also greatly improved quality and integrity (315).5 Orientation The mechanical properties of PVC-U can be improved substantially by stretching the polymer. 358). Passage of the material is controlled by roll temperature. The calender rolls have to transmit heat evenly across the face and need to be independently variable in speed so that friction between two adjacent rolls can be applied. Extrusion manufacture of oriented PVC (and modified PVC) pipe has been presented. Consecutive rolls squeeze the material resulting finally in a continuous sheet of the desired thickness. uniaxially oriented and biaxially oriented systems has been studied using polarised infrared spectroscopy. ranging from rigid to semi-rigid to flexible. The molecular orientation in conventional extruded pipe. The biorientation process is also used in the manufacture of PVC-U sheet (64). produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel. 32 . The chemical structure of coatings. In-line processes for PVC pressure pipes are now used (332.2.. surface finish and the ratio of the roll speeds at the nip. 90 °C is normally used.g. The degree of order or crystallinity has also been studied (164). Plate-out can also be a problem in this area due to the formation of coatings which adversely influence sheet quality. A calender is essentially a set of four giant steel rollers mounted in a cast iron frame. PVC. depending on the sheet finish required. particularly with reference to the use of calcium organic stabiliser systems (145).

the amount deposited being controlled by the screen mesh size and rubber blade pressure and angle. Powder coating techniques are also used. such as lined gloves. relies on plastisol being pumped into a cylindrical metal screen with fine perforations. timing and 5.7. or metal. This process is used to manufacture balls.7. 5. usually on metal. the article is peeled from the mould.2. film packaging. 5. With the non-friable agglomerate resin a small proportion of ultrafine particles dissolved in the plasticiser. Slush and Dip Moulding Rotational moulding is carried out using closed moulds which undergo rotation through 360 ° in three dimensions. Deagglomeration. has been investigated using resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates. The moulds are fed through an oven where the paste is gelled and fused. Each process requires specific rheological characteristics and this is achieved by formulation of appropriate PVC grades and knowledge of the influence of shear rate and time under constant shear.1 Rheology An understanding of the rheological behaviour is necessary as PVC pastes are classified as nonNewtonian liquids and can be dilatent (shear thickening). such as underbody sealant. Coil coating. and different PVC K-values on the rheological behaviour of plastisol. The paste is forced through the perforations via a rubber blade onto the substrate. The final process involves pregelling and gelation in a continuous oven. wall covering and tarpaulins. dipping. These are subsequently gelled in an oven. which resulted in viscosity ageing (19). toys and skins (which are subsequently filled with foam for automotive use). caused viscosity ageing. The substrate can be a carrier material which is removed later.2. The rotation ensures that the paste is evenly coated over the mould interior. is carried out using a roller with concentric grooves. used for coated fabrics. after feeding in a fixed quantity of paste..2. Almost Newtonian flow behaviour was possible (327). has been determined (266). where viscosity increases with time. On cooling.PVC Compounds and Processing from calendering of different feedstocks. spraying and rotational and slush moulding. direct or transfer coating is used. the depth of the grooves determining the coating weight. coatings. Screen coating. brackets etc. and depends on preheating the object to be coated (100-120 °C) and dipping it into the plastisol where the PVC gels around the object. The main techniques are spreading. Layer thickness is controlled by the rheology of the paste. of the friable agglomerates. Slush moulding utilises heated open moulds which are inverted to remove excess plastisol. The paste can be applied directly using knife on roller or belt. 5.2. Model systems of paste PVC resins have shown the effects of particle size and particle size distribution on improved plastisol flow. Typical applications for PVC-P materials include floor and wall coverings. or indirectly via reverse roll coating.2 Spreading or Coating For the coating of continuous substrates. or applied to fabrics in the ungelled state by either simple flow techniques or by very low pressure processes. This process permits multilayer 33 .7. The mechanism of viscosity ageing. typically used for wallcoverings. The influence of plasticiser content and type. Cold dip and spray coating is used on fabrics. including foam. such as flooring. pseudoplastic (shear thinning) or thixotropic (viscosity reduces with time under constant shear). also permitting a reduction in plasticiser level. has been analysed and attempts made to establish the causes and mechanisms of coating formation (423).2. and embossed finishes to be carried out in-line. 5. Calendered PVC-U sheet is used for thermoforming of packs and containers.3 Dip and Spray Coating The hot dip process is used to coat wire baskets. decorative surface coatings and stationery. which is designed to split open. The use of an infrared system to cure PVC sealant compound has also been introduced (343).7 Moulding Processes for Plastisols and Pastes PVC plastisol compounds can be manipulated into shapes. including fluidised bed and electrostatic spraying.4 Rotational.7.

Spectroscopic analysis of PVC-P films has identified the formation of a barium zinc stearate complex which formed in the PVC matrix and migrated to the surface (207). or photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate (410) with subsequent UV irradiation to crosslink the surface. 6 Fabrication and Treatment 6. The fluorination of the inner surface of intravenous tubing. based on an unsaturated polyester resin and used in a UV curable powder coating. using vacuum or pressure forming over a preform or mould. using atmospheric pressure plasma glow (APG). The process parameters on wall thickness distribution in thermoformed food containers have been optimised and the process discussed (300). A closed system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces with the claim that the resulting PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. A clear topcoat for flooring. the process is limited by the fact that the forming must be capable of being demoulded from the tool. Argon plasma immersion ion implantation has resulted in increased wettability (32). A typical product made from this technique is PVC coated flexible foam for automotive trim. Consecutive layers can be built up and a double slush technique has been reported permitting recycling of production waste (289). 6. into isooctane solution has given positive results (231). Disposable gloves are manufactured by this process. on print adhesion. giving improved weathering performance and scratching and abrasion resistance (179). has been evaluated to enhance biocompatibility and suppress plasticiser migration (273). 34 . 6. thermoforming offers economical advantages due to low equipment costs and ease of changing mould designs. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide/water mixtures. and so improve print adhesion. Waterborne coatings are environmentally more desirable and silicone surfactants are claimed to give the best performance to improve substrate wetting (456). inkjet or lasers. Dip moulding utilises a preheated former which is dipped into the paste and withdrawn at a constant rate. and then cooling. on the basis of spectroscopic studies (368). has provided flexibility and scratch resistance (59). indicated that surface selectivity and degree of modification (related to level of DEHP leached out) were dependent on reaction time (38).3 Coatings Surface treatments are often necessary for aesthetic and performance reasons.2 Surface Modification Processes The surface modification of PVC has been investigated to improve some key factors such as coatability or to reduce migration. and an EVA-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement. An ultrasonic etching technique has been shown to be effective for the pretreatment of PVC for copper plating. by azide (448). The reaction of PVC film with sodium azide and amino thiophenol has also been investigated in solvent/non solvent mixtures with sodium azide occurring homogeneously through the film. using both solvent and non-solvent based inks. However. which are applied to the surface using rollers. The effect of plasma treatment on the migration of DOA. After heating in an oven and cooled. This can involve printing or lacquering. Polymeric plasticisers have been developed to increase the surface energy. Activities to reduce plasticiser migration include: nucleophilic substitution of the surface chlorine. the article is peeled off the former.1 Thermoforming Calendered or extruded sheet can be thermoformed to shape by applying heat.PVC Compounds and Processing temperature. In comparison to injection moulding. Nucleophilic substitution by sulfide ions in aqueous media has also given benefits (37). in the presence of phase transfer catalysts. pads. Chemical embossing of flooring and wall coverings involves the incorporation of a blowing agent inhibitor (which prevents the decomposition of the blowing agent) into the appropriate print area. The incorporation of stearic acid had a surface energy reducing effect when used with the polymeric plasticiser (193). in comparison to acid etching (399). UV cured acrylic clearcoats are also used. particularly heat stabilisers and lubricants. silk screen. while the amino thiophenol modified the surface (284). Printing on vinyl surfaces can be problematic due to the influence of the formulation ingredients. Surface modification.

The target is to have an additional A report is also available on solvent based pressure sensitive adhesives suitable for PVC surfaces (226). Sustainable development is not only about being able to advance and improve the standard of living today. unfortunate but timely that all the issues around modern society have been placed first at its door. Wood veneers have been surface modified chemically to improve adhesion (396). but balanced between satisfying environmental. A major European resin producer has taken on board this concept and has integrated the TNS framework into its business strategy (166). Welding techniques. Solvent cement jointing relies on softening/swelling of the material. High frequency dielectric jointing of PVC-P to PVC-U was investigated. permitting the development of new stationery items (246). The study of bond strength testing for solvent joints in piping systems has noted extreme sensitivity to minor variations in sample preparation (259). has been the use of The Natural Step (TNS) framework which applies a systems model based on scientific principles governing the Earth’s ecosystem. An in-depth study of PVC adhesion is available. In addition to setting targets on recycling of PVC rich waste (20). the earth’s resources and life support systems should not be overloaded or no build-up of persistent organic compounds. an EC Communication on PVC is still awaited). Impact strength retention after ageing. The impact performance and the effect of artificial weathering and abrasion have been compared with uncoated and wood grain effect obtained by transfer foil. the end of cadmium based stabiliser sales in the EU. electrofusion socket welding and socket jointing (309). sustainability of all additives with phase out of persistent compounds and those having toxic effects. was decreased (329).4 Adhesion Different joining techniques are used to fabricate PVC into the finished article. risk assessments to be carried out on phthalate plasticisers and lead stabilisers.PVC Compounds and Processing Foil coatings can be laminated in-line on to PVC-U profile used for windows. economic and social needs. when combined with flame treatment and adhesive. Friction welding has been assessed in relation to spin friction pressure and time (269). Bonding techniques. However. Accordingly. Hydro Polymers has also announced the commissioning of a new operation dedicated to the processing of recycled PVC-U compounds (www. include butt fusion. 7 PVC and Sustainable Development PVC has been at the centre of a continued environmental campaign against its use and it is 35 . based on hot tool and vibration welding have also been assessed with good results (256).hydropolymers. 6. involving adhesives. No other industry has yet had to face questions about sustainable development to the same degree. The manufacture of PVC-U windows utilises a hot plate welding technique and finite element analysis has been used to assess the stress in the welded corner (452).000 tonnes of post consumer PVC recycled by 2010. Techniques. reduction in the use of lead stabilisers by 50% (100% by 2015) and investigation of new technologies regarding end-of-life treatment. and was introduced to pre-empt any further legislative action (at the time of writing. but ensuring that future generations can also have the same possibilities. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was proposed to remove surface contaminants which. Restriction of Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment (RoHS) etc. Hot melt adhesives can be used. this has resulted in Vinyl 2010 (www. together with the recommendation for a solvent borne pressure sensitive adhesive (229). and will surely come through as a stronger enterprise. standards were set in place covering PVC production. and the raising of awareness about sustainable development within the industry and participation in its achievement (125). five studies covering a comprehensive investigation on all PVC issues relating to waste management. closed loop waste management. are also common. the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in Europe (275) which followed the EC ‘horizontal study’. For the PVC industry. very much focused on the environmental aspect. PVC has been evaluated by this process and five long-term challenges set covering carbon neutrality. usually with a wood grain effect. One approach to sustainability. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE). All welding techniques involve the application or generation of heat to soften the material whilst pressure is applied simultaneously. used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines. A concentrated solar beam radiation technique has also been assessed (162). gave good adhesion results (244).vinyl2010. This is in addition to Directives covering motor vehicle Endof-Life (ELV). the PVC industry has confronted all the issues head on. for the foil laminated material.

The homogeneous material is melt processable (25).1 General A research report.PVC Compounds and Processing The largest European resin supplier is also taking account of sustainability issues. Triboelectrostatic separation.5 million. As far back as 1996. based on the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures (61). by 2005. has been proposed (311).1. A major German producer has set up a facility for recycling all components from window frames and this has been operational for some time. including PVC (30). In the UK.5 million in by 2005. fluidised beds or rotating tubes. for the removal of PVC from other waste plastics.1.1. has also been described (204).3 Pipes The target for pipes and fittings is to recycle at least 50% of the collected available quantity. for Italy. A market survey.1.1 Waste Management Vinyl 2010 members (ECVM. 7. grinding and re-use was examined (449). An elastic-deformation dispersion method has been developed to obtain fine particle recycled material. for removal of trace PVC. A continuous thermal separation system.recyclepvc. A review of recycling methods being used in covering post industrial and post consumer vinyl reclaim in North America.1.Mechanical Recycling 7.1 PVC Rich Waste . 36 . An aqueous column flotation technique. at end-of-life.2 Grinding/Pulverisation/Separation An important feature of processing plastic waste is the grinding down to an appropriate particle size to suit the next processing stage.evc-int.1. a Government funded initiative is in place.1. Separation techniques.1. Conflicting issues have been low prices for virgin material and inconsistent recyclate supply (184). 7. has been compiled with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system (123). to waste management projects which were funded to a total of €16. A consortium called Recovinyl SA is being set up to facilitate the collection dispatching and recycling of post-consumer PVC waste (including pipe and profile) across Europe (www. was conducted in 1998 and results compared with other plastics (296) (www. and examples of recyclate uses has been published. The practicalities of recycling PVC in Brazil have been considered taking account of the need to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product (288). relevant to separation (428). pipe recycling was already under investigation and collection. 7. The quality of recovered materials and their use in high value products will be assessed. Spanish initiatives have been examined detailing waste sources. were initially focused on the packaging area involving separation from PET (243). A major UK producer has become the first UK company to recycle used window frames into high-end applications (68). The particle size distribution of a hammer mill ground PVC has been interpreted and a model developed to describe the distribution. The mixed polymers are subject to shear and compression that result in changes to their structure via mechanochemistry. looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive industries.4 Profile 7. for separation by sieving or hydrocyclones (405). 7. at end-of-life. utilising pH level and surfactants.1. A SolidState Shear Pulverisation technology is being developed based on a non-melting process involving a co-rotating twin screw The influence of small amounts of PVC degrading in PET scrap during reprocessing has been studied (371). between polymers with different compositions. cleaning and separating. based on cyclones. Selective grinding has been proposed to induce differences in size and shape The target in Europe for window frames is also to recycle at least 50% of the collectable available quantity. ESPA and European Plastics Converters (EuPC)) have contributed in the region of € 4. focusing on the environmental. A study of the influence of restabilisation on rheological and mechanical properties has been carried out (276). has also separated five commonly used plastics.vinyl2010. economic and social legs (www. outlets for recycled materials and PVC recyclers (122). along with the associated economic and environmental impacts (68) (www.

1. 7. remain one possibility for mechanical recycling but this depends on a system to identify the polymer. Based on the VinyLoop® technology. Fence posts based on a core of recycled PVC.1. the British Plastics Federation (BPF) is leading a synergistic project (funded by Vinyl 2010 through the European Profile Producers Association) aimed at finding the most appropriate ‘best practice’ solutions to collect and manage PVC construction and demolition waste. 7.1. 37 . for vinyl sidings in the USA. from wire and cable. 7. have been developed.6 Packaging Collation trays. 7. Another outlet is moulding of rainwater fittings. The recycling of automotive cables was discussed in 1995 with reference A target of 25% recycling for 2003. created in the manufacturing process during screen changeovers. has been assessed using hydrocyclone. One outlet for this material is a foam layer in coextruded cladding (439). This is based on a mechanical cryogenic unit which will require additional capacity or be augmented via a solvent based process (www. A major PVC flooring manufacturer in Europe has also been recycling waste material (369). primarily based on material generated via the VinyLoop ® process (www. BPF members will look at PVC-U frames (www. aiming for 50% by 2005. An outlet for cable waste in garden hose and reinforced washing machine hose has been described (336).1. this depends on post industrial waste. which results in bodies becoming opposite electrically charged was the most effective (330).10 Roofing Membranes 7. as used in supermarkets to transport and display products.vinyl2010. In its second phase. after service life. has always been a has also been conducted (397) (www. has been shown to be possible using ceramic membrane separation technology (152). PVC water bottle scrap has also been incorporated into the foam core of coextruded pipe. This can then be processed into the same application as the original material ( Wire and Cable In this application the desire to recycle the copper. Changes in flooring properties.bpf. enclosed in a virgin cap skin. have been investigated in relation to the influence on mechanical recycling and energy recovery options (43). The separation of PVC cable At present.PVC Compounds and Processing Profile material has been successfully subjected to repeated extrusion to investigate the effect of loss of properties and durability when PVC waste is reprocessed. separation of non-soluble materials and precipitation of the pure PVC compound.1. Solvent based technology (see below) is considered to be the best option in this area. The recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols. Tribocharging. melt filtration and triboelectric techniques.8 VinyLoop® Process This patented process involves the selective dissolution of the PVC Pilot collection initiatives.1. from other polymers.1. It was shown that product quality was suitable for re-use in cable insulation (225). 7.vinyl2010. A UK government funded project is investigating increasing glass recycling.5 Wallcoverings A project is underway in the UK looking at recycling of post industrial use material.1. if necessary) (211). Applications for recycled material and cooperation in the collection and future processing of post consumer waste are A recycling project.1. Colour deterioration was the main issue (indicating a need for a virgin cap material to retain colour.1. The first target in Europe is to recycle at least 25% of the collectable available quantity of PVC flooring waste by 2006.1. 147). such as off-cuts and off specification profile materials as the source (99). start-up of new collection schemes and optimisation of existing schemes are taking place across Europe. In the UK.9 Flooring A vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme (nonsolvent based) for end-of-life material was set up by one floorcovering company in the USA in 1998 (363). Texyloop® has been developed for coated fabrics and involves specific treatment for recycling fibres and compounds. to separation techniques and costs. linked to a suitable collection system. has been set.

A process for the recovery of hydrochloric acid from thermal processing of PVC waste has been described. using solvent and subsequent swelling. 7. It is still the second largest thermoplastic material.1.vinyl2010. on potential technologies for high PVC content mixed plastic waste streams. primarily to recycle the fabric (340. MSW contains an average of 0. There has been much rationalisation and consolidation within the supply chain and there is no reason to believe that this will not continue. and co-injection with coal into a blast furnace for pig iron production. 382). A technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric has been Much needed closer integration and cooperation within the industry has 38 . 7. The aim is to replace pulverised coal in this process (www. which look technically and economically viable. is in place (www. economic and technological aspects showing that incineration is the most sustainable solution for certain types of waste (146). VCM polymerised with butyllithium was dechlorinated completely under high pressure in hot water.11 Coated Fabrics An investigation into collectable waste has indicated that truck tarpaulins and advertising posters could be the highest contributor. A progress report. A phase separation technique. The possibility of converting waste PVC into carboxylic acids. using oxygen oxidation in caustic soda solutions at high temperatures. for liquid fuel has been carried out (31). based on compression or injection moulding. chlorine content was lower than expected (212. showed some interaction with altered decomposition rates. A steam gasification technique.1. has been described to separate PVC from polyester fabric. operating in a difficult economic climate. Dechlorination using calcium based sorbent has also been examined (28). with addition of an acid absorber (hydrotalcite) (49). is available (21).PVC Compounds and Processing 7. based on market volume. A catalytic dehalogenation process. are: (1) Combustion in a rotary kiln which delivers recovered chlorine with energy recovery for new VCM/PVC production (2) Hydrolysis and pyrolysis to dechlorinate and separate into hydrocarbon and inorganic fractions (fillers and metals) followed by gas recovery and recycling of the inorganic material and (3) Dechlorination of mixed plastics from household waste. (187). The coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions using catalysts.8% PVC and a paper has been presented on energy and hydrochloric acid recovery with respect to in coking plants. particularly Asia. The elimination of chlorine during incineration has also been achieved using calcium hydroxide and calcium and sodium carbonate salts (306). 214). 355).1. Promising developments. A project involving 8 Conclusions Despite being a so called mature product. The calcium carbonate filler content within the PVC was also observed to give an in situ neutralisation (293). However. hydrogen.2 PVC Feedstock Recycling Feedstock or chemical recycling is seen as complimentary to mechanical recycling and seems appropriate for cost effective treatment of mixed and contaminated plastic waste streams (115).vinyl2010. Vacuum pyrolysis of mixed plastics. Test collection projects have been initiated. for treatment of mixed plastic waste prior to pyrolysis to oil. including PVC.3 Incineration/Energy Recovery A survey of state-of-the-art technologies.1. for the reduction and detoxification of neutralisation salts from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW). with oxygen addition.vinyl2010. has been proposed (302. in comparison to peroxide polymerised material (27). has been investigated (29). PVC is adapting to the demands of the 21st Century. This is linked to energy recovery and chlorine generation for VCM production (444). The market is developing at 3-4% per year with most growth in the construction area. has been described (24). feedstock recycling of mixed plastics. Solvent based recycling is seen as the most promising solution. carbon monoxide and dioxide etc. after separation from municipal solid waste. has been described to convert PVC into hydrogen chloride. and retains its position as a cost effective and flexible material. Alternatively feedstock recycling could be possible (www.

All of these issues have been. 39 . the innovation process is thriving within this new environment.PVC Compounds and Processing occurred as it has taken on the issues surrounding sustainability. and are being. Chim. Thanks are also due to the author’s friends and colleagues within the industry who have given their support and permission for use of their material. Génie chimique. 104. 1971. accomplished at a cost and the industry is aware of the need to balance the ongoing requirement for profitability within this environment. It is. 422-427. Additional References a. essential that the targets set out in this agreement are achieved within the specified timescale.1 A. leading to the Voluntary Commitment in Europe. The focus has been on more cost effective polymerisation plants with an improved environmental profile. As the reader has observed in this review. recycling techniques and waste management possibilities. Ind. scientific studies and support for phthalates. Acknowledgement The author would like to thank the authors of the previous review report for the content and style which have been the basis of this review. Gonze. a greater understanding of and an increasing role for impact modifiers. of course. the replacement of lead stabilisers.

PVC Compounds and Processing 40 .

PVC Compounds and Processing Abbreviations and Acronyms ABS AFM AMSAN APG ATH BBP BPD BPF CPE CPVC DBA DBP DCOIT DEHA DEHP DIDP DINCH DINP DSC ECPI ECVM EDC EPM E-PVC ESBO ESPA EuPC EVA FDA FR FTIR HALS HPLC MBS MDH MSW acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer atomic force microscopy alphamethyl styrene-acrylonitrile atmospheric pressure plasma glow aluminium trihydrate butyl benzyl phthalate Biocidal Products Directive British Plastics Federation chlorinated polyethylene chlorinated PVC dibutyl adipate dibutyl phthalate 4.2-dicarboxylic ester diisononyl phthalate differential scanning calorimetry European Council for Plasticisers and Intermediates European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers ethylene dichloride poly(ethylene-co-polypropylene) emulsion polymerised PVC epoxidised soya bean oil European Stabiliser Producers Association European Plastics Converters ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer Food and Drug Administration (US) flame retardant Fourier transform infrared hindered amine light stabilisers high performance liquid chromatography methyl methacrylate-butadiene-styrene terpolymer magnesium hydroxide municipal solid waste 41 .5-dichloro-2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one di-2-ethylhexyl adipate di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diisodecyl phthalate di-isononyl-cyclohezane-1.

10´-oxybisphenoxyarsine 2-n-octylisothiazolin-3-one polyethylene terephthalate parts per hundred polyvinyl chloride plasticised PVC unplasticised PVC Restriction of Hazardous Substances suspension polymerised PVC smoke suppressant transmission electron microscopy The Natural Step ultraviolet vinyl chloride monomer 42 .PVC Compounds and Processing NBR NMR OBPA OIT PET phr PVC PVC-P PVC-U RoHS S-PVC SS TEM TNS UV VCM nitrile rubber nuclear magnetic resonance 10.

899602 Item 5 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. WESTERN EUROPE employed were an acrylic resin. Kondou M Tokuyama Corp. Courtney J M Strathclyde. PVC and polyethylene wax.2003.wt. talc and glass fibre. No. The fibrinogen adsorption mechanism was also examined using Freundlich adsorption modelling. p.901038 Item 3 Polymer Degradation and Stability 82. Polymeric additives Accession no.900443 Item 4 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. which served as smoke suppressants.State University. Metal oxides used included CuO.467-76 INFLUENCE OF POLYMER ADDITIVES ON THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE EMISSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Li B Harbin. No. Rigidity is sensitive to the shape factor of the filler as is the dimensional stability. COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Safronov A. dynamic mechanical analysis and dielectric relaxation. Correlations between plasticiser and fibrinogen adsorption behaviour are discussed. p. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICIZER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICIZER LEVEL Zhao X B. Fisch M H.4-6 MINERAL FILLERS FOR PVC REINFORCEMENT Uprating PVC compounds often involves the careful specification and addition of mineral fillers. The impact performance is very sensitive to the particle size.3.m. triethylhexyl trimellitate or butyltrihexyl citrate as plasticisers were assessed for blood contacting applications.127-37 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. UK. Suvorova A. CHINA Accession no. The influence of the stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films was studied by DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. Materials in Medicine 14. 16 refs. Precipitated calcium carbonate is the only filler to act as an impact modifier. including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. Details are given of the addition of flame retardant and smoke suppressant additives to PVC to meet specifications such as oxygen index. 31 refs. No.3. Crompton Corp. flame retardancy and smoke suppression of rigid PVC carried out using a cone calorimeter at an incident heat flux of 25 kW sq. MoO3 aand FeOOH. p. SOLVAY BENVIC WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Oct.3. Sept. p.899600 Item 6 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 90. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 43 .. The enthalpy of mixing was measured. USA Accession no. Dooley T Urals. 11 refs.W. 12 refs. Data are presented for synergistic combinations of additives in PVC formulations.2003. No.7. EUROPEAN UNION.University Three types of plasticised PVC containing either diethylhexyl phthalate.2003.References and Abstracts Abstracts from the Polymer Library Database Item 1 Journal of Materials Science. Results are discussed in terms of the superposition of glassy state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of the glassy polymer with liquid additives. USA Accession no. heat release. VI.2003.10. This article discusses calcium carbonate. Somova T. chlorinated PE.108-15 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A.901205 Item 2 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. p1808-24 EFFECT OF GELATION ON THE FLOW PROCESSABILITY OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Fujiyama M. low molec. taking into account their size and their shape factor.Northeast Forestry University The results are reported of a study of the effect of various polymeric additives and metal oxides on the thermal degradation.& Associates Inc. 2003. Sept. Talc is more efficient than calcium carbonates. 14th Nov. RUSSIA. p. No. DSC. This study shows that glass fibre is the most efficient filler. The compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin thioglycolate stabilisers was studied by thermal methods. 18 refs.905-12 BLOOD RESPONSE TO PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. Bacaloglu R.2003. Stewen U. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

At this year’s NPE show a number of products intended as alternatives to existing plasticisers were introduced. EASTERN EUROPE.44-6 NEW MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROVIDES STEP CHANGE IN PVC STABILIZATION Holmes M Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2 has been introduced by Akcros Chemicals as the first of a new generation of PVC stabilisers for PVC-coated fabrics.2003. July-Aug.898857 Item 7 Modern Plastics International 33. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy were used to study the filler-coating interaction. This principle of the Coperion Buss Kneader has been retained in the quantec. p.40 PHTHALATES STILL FIGHTING UPHILL BATTLE TO CONVINCE PUBLIC Colvin R Global plasticiser demand. Zelei B. Tin Technology Ltd.894310 Item 9 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.894085 44 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . WORLD Accession no. Measurements were made of the limiting oxygen index. Cross M. Marosi G Brunel University. extrusion and injection moulding of clear and pigmented plasticised PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.894297 Item 10 Journal of Materials Science 38. UK.University of Technology & Economics An investigation was carried out into the fire retardant behaviour of zinc hydroxystannate-coated fillers (alumina trihydrate and magnesium hydroxide) in PVC and EVA cable formulations. No.4. HUNGARY. The wide processing window for rigid and plasticised PVC makes the quantec a versatile and productive PVC compounding system. and measuring the rheological properties using a capillary flow rheometer. 1st July 2003. Budapest. The company has also introduced Akcrostab LZB6104.647.000 tonnes in 2000. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Earlier this year. Gelation levels of the samples were controlled by adjusting milling time and temperature. an increase in flow activation energy. EUROPEAN UNION. UK.2003.References and Abstracts A study was made of the effects of gelation during the fusion of rigid polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) on the subsequent flow properties by preparing samples of the polymer with different levels of gelation.1% annual growth for 2003. No. 29 refs. Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Samples were characterised for gel level by differential scanning calorimetry.2893-9 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED METAL HYDROXIDE FIRE RETARDANTS: FIRE PERFORMANCE AND SUBSTRATE-COATING INTERACTIONS Hornsby P R. July-Aug. a selflubricating barium/zinc liquid stabiliser that is suitable for use in calendering. Comparative effects on the different parameters were reviewed and differences in flow behaviour were attributed to transition from particle flow to uniform molecular chain flow. and increased die swell at higher extrusion temperatures or greater melt fracture at lower extrusion temperatures. which was at 4. low plastisol viscosity and good adhesion results. 16 refs.13. p. A pot life of 20 hours is now possible with Vulcabond Stabiliser-Aid B2. USA Accession no. which is designed for processes where more free volume is required in the screw channel. creating a high mixing efficiency.897659 Item 8 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5.2003. The new stabiliser offers Accession no. and it was found that higher gelation levels resulted in a slight increase in viscosity. In the past. is showing 2..30 NEW KNEADING CONCEPT FOR PVC COMPOUNDING Coperion has introduced a new concept for the Coperion Buss Kneader. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.9. No. p. Also from Coperion is the ZSK Megavolume twin-screw compounder. Cusack P A. peak rate of heat release and smoke parameter and the data for unfilled and filled formulations compared. COPERION CORP. Toth A. The Kneader superimposes a radial mixing effect with the screw rotation and a lengthwise mixing effect caused by the oscillating motion of the screw. EUROPEAN UNION. AKCROS CHEMICALS LTD. JAPAN good anti-fogging performance. and for morphology as removed from the mill by scanning electron microscopy of a fractured surface. using polyolefin elastomers to yield flexibility. low volatility.4. No. Sept. this stagnation could have pointed to the enduring argument over phthalates’ use in vinyl. This new range of base and top-coat stabilisers is suitable for all plastisol applications. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission said there is no demonstrated health risk from vinyl toys containing DINP. The European Council of Plasticisers and Intermediates says the latest research studies have taken the wind out of many critics’ sails. Teknor Apex debuted its plasticiser-free FreeFlex PVC compounds.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. reduced brittleness temperature and very slight improvement in compression set.1-15. observed after the accelerated tests or after weathering. Huntsman Tioxide The pinking observed after four years of weathering in the mild oceanic conditions of West France or after accelerated testing was definitively assigned to the formation of alpha-chloropolyenes in the transconfiguration in the bulk layers of titanium dioxidepigmented PVC profiles.Universidad The bisphenol A contents of PVC stretch films for food packaging were investigated. The absorptions of these compounds were not. PVC STRETCH FILM USED FOR FOOD PACKAGING Lopez-Cervantes J. 12. No.891710 Item 14 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. Siampiringue N. diisononyl adipate (DINA) and O-acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC). The greying lead derivatives formed through the UV-induced photoreduction of lead stabilisers assisted by titanium dioxide could not be converted into pinking and were readily thermooxidised in environmental conditions into colourless compounds. Aichi. di(2ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA).891711 Item 13 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. June 2003. Macdonald N. 33 refs. DEHP is detected at 6-675 ng g-1 in 62 of 63 meals. such as surface roughness and gloss. and the relationship of the latter with the processing morphology were also examined. Parmeland G. Paseiro-Losada P Santiago de Compostela. The effect of thermal history on surface characteristics of the extrudate. dipentyl. AND ITS MIGRATION FROM.596-606 DETERMINATION OF BISPHENOL A IN. June 2003. Ishimitsu S. p. No. 9 refs. p.54-60 CONFIRMING THE PINKING MECHANISM OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. Major components were identified by FTIR and horizontal attenuated total reflectance. Spriet C CNEP. Those of ATBC are also higher in meals from another hospital: the average daily intake is 1228 mu g day-1.317-24 ESTIMATED DAILY INTAKE OF PLASTICIZERS IN 1-WEEK DUPLICATE DIET SAMPLES FOLLOWING REGULATION OF DEPH-CONTAINING PVC GLOVES IN JAPAN Tsumura Y. No. Migration of bisphenol A from these materials was determined by HPLC using both fluorescence and UV detection. butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP). Extrudate gloss increased with an increase of the extrusion melt temperature. The unsaturated compounds formed through photolysis of PVC could not be fully bleached under the photochemical protection of titanium dioxide and under conditions of oxygen starvation.892690 Item 12 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. The relationship between the physical properties of profiles extruded from flexible PVC compounds and the extrusion melt temperature was studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Levels of DINA are relatively high in meals from one hospital: in those meals. April 2003. the average daily intake is 1338 mu g day-1. FRANCE. tensile properties. diisononyl phthalate (DINP). 100% modulus. 21 refs. 4. Detection limits are -.5 mu g DEHA day-1. The properties included tear resistance.2.Prefectural Institute of Public Health. JAPAN in extrusion melt temperature was shown to result in increased tensile elongation.7 mu g DINP day-1 and 3.6 ng g-1 for each plasticiser.891698 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 45 . Tonogai Y Japan. Saito I. June 2003. Delprat P. 17 refs. Niigata Prefectural Research Laboratory for Health & Environment Duplicate hospital diet samples obtained over one week in 2001 were analysed to estimate the daily intake of plasticisers and the results are compared with those obtained in 1999. The mean intake of plasticisers estimated from all samples is 160 mu g DEHP day-1. SPAIN. The plasticisers quantified were: dibutyl phthalate.References and Abstracts Item 11 Food Additives and Contaminants 20. dihexyl and dicyclohexyl phthalate were also analysed but not detected. No. but further temperature increase could cause agglomeration and surface roughness. p. An increase in melt temperature resulted in a smoother surface. therefore.6. Atofina. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Girod N. brittleness temperature and compression set. Dipropyl. Lower levels of DEHA and DINP also decrease.61-4 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION MELT TEMPERATURE ON PROPERTIES OF FLEXIBLE PVC Rabinovitch E B PolyOne Corp. USA Accession no.4. EUROPEAN UNION.2. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. significantly lower levels compared with those detected in 1999. tear strength.National Institute of Health Sciences. The analytical procedure for this followup study is essentially the same as in the previous one. One-week duplicate diet samples provided by three hospitals in three remote prefectures of Japan are analysed as individual meals. EUROPEAN UNION. p. An increase Accession no. The sources of DINA and ATBC can be cling film or sausage packaging.4 mu g BBP day-1. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Sakai H. Tsuchida Y.

Very few changes in the material or its surface composition were observed for 98 days at 37C in water or phosphate buffer. Even when the ageing temp. A marked increase in the hydrolysis rate of PCL-PC and almost complete depletion of PCL-PC from the blend was observed when the ageing temp. SCANDINAVIA. images only the surface of samples. Peyrin F ESRF. Changes in the surface composition were followed by FTIR. Yong Ning Sichuan. Atofina A three-dimensional and high-resolution quantitative image technique is proposed for the investigation of the internal microstructure of foams.3. increasing the interfacial interaction of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. EUROPEAN UNION. particularly when used in combination. p. FRANCE. 2003.753-62 MECHANOCHEMICAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE FLAME-RETARDANT AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ZINC BORATE-ALUMINUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Hong Pi. The synergistic effect of the fillers on HCl uptake was also investigated as was the influence of the fillers on the mechanical properties and oxygen index of the plasticised PVC. and the effects of these fillers on the generation of HCl during the combustion of PVC investigated. This approach provides a tool to study the relationships between the foam microstructures and their physical properties. No. A plasticised PVC was compounded with several fillers (lithium carbonate and various calcium carbonates). No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No.891296 Item 17 Polymer Degradation and Stability 80. No. 9 refs. though. UV spectroscopic and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy results showed that mechanochemical modification of ZB and ZB-ATH effectively suppressed the release of aromatic compounds in PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends during burning. only a minor increase in the amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid was observed and the weight loss after 98 days was under 1%. 27 refs. Microscopy. which resulted in a marked increase in the limiting oxygen index.Jiao Tong University.RELEASE PROFILE OF PVC/ POLYCAPROLACTONE-POLYCARBONATE AGED IN AQUEOUS ENVIRONMENTS Hakkarainen M Sweden. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 3D imageprocessing tools to extract structural parameters quantifying the internal structure of foams are described. Fuchs G. Results of this 3D quantitative image analysis on various types of plasticised PVC foams are presented. impact and yield strengths. the final hydrolysis product of PCL-PC.Ltd. Mechanochemical modification thus provided an effective route for the improvement of the flame retardant and mechanical properties of flame retardant-filled PVC. After a brief description of the imaging system. was detected in the GC-MS chromatograms and the weight loss was negligible. The fillers were found to be effective as HCl absorbers.451-8 NEW PVC MATERIALS FOR MEDICAL Accession no. 2003. 19 refs. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy(GC-MS) were used to determine the release profile during ageing.5. Shanghai Chloralkali Chemical Co.3. CHINA Accession no.Royal Institute of Technology A medical-grade PVC plasticised with polycaprolactonepolycarbonate(PCL-PC) was subjected to aqueous environments at different temps. 31 refs. 18th July 2003. 21st May 2003. p. The milling was shown to result in chemical bonding between PVC and ZB or ZB-AH. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 3D X-ray computed microtomography (muCT) enables the non-destructive imaging of multiple slices of a sample.891587 Item 16 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 89. which is the conventional method of investigation of foams. Peres R. while only a trace amount of 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid.References and Abstracts Item 15 Polymer Testing 22. EUROPEAN UNION. and the EB of PVC/ZB and PVC/ZB-ATH blends. p. Shaoyun Guo.890229 46 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . was increased to 70C. was raised to 100C. SWEDEN.A37-43 THREE-DIMENSIONAL QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POLYMER FOAMS FROM SYNCHROTRON RADIATION X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY Elmoutaounakkil A.University The effect of the high-energy mechanical milling of a mixture of PVC with zinc borate(ZB) or ZB-aluminium trihydrate(ATH) on the flame retardant and mechanical properties of ZB. The application of 3D synchrotron radiation for the characterisation of foam samples is presented.891234 Item 18 Journal of Physics D 36.539-43 EFFECT OF CACO3/LICO3 ON THE HCL GENERATION OF PVC DURING COMBUSTION Zhu S.10A. Bergounhon P. Zhang Y. It is a powerful technique for the examination of porous and multiphase materials.and ZB-ATH-filled PVC was studied. p. Zhang C Shanghai. which acted as HCl absorbers. CHINA APPLICATIONS .

March 2003. (ACS. a small proportion of ultra fine particles dissolved in the plasticizer. EUROPEAN UNION. Oh. 19 refs. In addition. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 14 refs. Accession no.889784 Item 21 Polimery 48. experimental results indicate that foaming reduces Izod impact resistance of both neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood/flour composites.1. by particle size distribution analysis and by scanning electron microscopy.) Mechanisms of viscosity-ageing.29-36 EFFECT OF INDOOR CLIMATE ON THE RATE AND DEGRADATION MECHANISM OF PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Shashoua Y R Denmark.State University The mechanical properties of extrusion-foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using endothermic and exothermic chemical foaming agents (CFAs) are characterised.Rubber Div. 10 refs. while in a resin containing non-friable agglomerates. It was found that in a resin containing friable agglomerates. No. O12 RHEOLOGY OF PVC PLASTISOL . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4. 2003. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.X. MECHANISMS AND RESIN TYPES Nakajima N. SCANDINAVIA. May 2003. p. but that this reduction is not statistically significant for the composites.Spring 2003. using di-2-ethylhexylphthalate as plasticizer. 28th-30th April 2003.National Museum The extent. Proceedings of a conference held San Francisco. Weight loss was used to quantify loss of diethylhexyl phthalate. No. rate and mechanisms of deterioration of model and naturally aged PVC containing diethylhexyl phthalate were examined during thermal ageing in various environments. ACS Rubber Division. Harrell E R Akron. Matuana L M Michigan.890019 Item 20 ENDS Report No. 9 refs. Correlations were made between the rate and extent of deterioration of plasticised PVC and the migration and loss of diethylhexyl phthalate.27.20-1 PVC INDUSTRY RAISES THE BAR ON RECYCLING According to the European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers.000 to 600.University. Michigan.340.263-7 PROGRESS IN PVC FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING Buhl R EVC Belgium SA/NV The PVC industry is actively involved in the development of recycling solutions for contaminated mixed plastics waste streams with a high PVC content.000 tonnes of PVC. while development work continues.889469 Item 23 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 9. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1. USA Accession no. This would require the recycling of an additional 350. This paper provides an overview of the projects under investigation and the results obtained so far. 2003. p. 28cm. 2003. Potential technologies for achieving this goal are tested at present at pilot scale. p. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Ca.References and Abstracts Item 19 163rd ACS Rubber Division Meeting . Akron.26-31 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUSIONFOAMED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F... pp. p. of PVC resins for plastisol applications was investigated for resins having friable or non-friable agglomerates.889640 Item 22 Polymer Degradation and Stability 81. Paper 77. VISCOSITY AGING. the mechanism involves de-agglomeration. USA BELGIUM.889245 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 47 . FTIR to quantify concentration of diethylhexyl phthalate at surfaces and optical densitometry to examine darkening of samples. A comparison between batch microcellular processing and extrusion foam processing is made. The specific elongation at break (ductility) of the samples is improved by foaming while the opposite trend is observed for the tensile strength and modulus of the samples. the PVC industry in Europe is hoping to achieve a recycling rate of 10 to 15% for post-consumer waste by 2010. A run-down of recycling technologies in the latest report of Vinyl 2010 indicates that the industry has much to do to meet this target. DENMARK. Polymer Diagnostics Inc. which demonstrates that foams with very fine cells (microcellular processed) exhibit better impact strength than foams with larger cells (extrusion processed with CFAs). EUROPEAN UNION. No. regardless of the chemical foaming agent type. the phenomenon of viscosity increase with time.Technological University.

PP. Results of this industrial operation and the other projects in Europe.889116 Item 26 ISFR 2002. Japan. we aimed to investigate the processing of municipal waste plastics (MWP) in presence of conventional and non-conventional catalysts in a refinery stream. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Karayildirim T. Brussels. NETHERLANDS.References and Abstracts Item 24 ISFR 2002. Trials at the PTC are available as part of commercialisation from the primary licensee.. Since Solvay patented Vinyloop(r) in 1998. 3 refs. This non-melting process takes place in a pulveriser. Crucifix P. 012 CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL WASTE PLASTICS TO FUELS Karagoz S.Research Assn. precipitation of a pure PVC compound with unique characteristics (homogeneity. Vrije University. 8th-11th Sept. the materials were injection moulded into ASTM test bars. and the start-up of the first industrial facility (10.Research Assn.University (Brussels..000 tons/year) was done in February 2002 in Ferrara (Italy).2002. Paper A35. into value Accession no.889105 48 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . polymers are subjected to shear and compression that cause changes in their structure via mechanochemistry. 8th-11th Sept.Research Assn. Riddick E G Northwestern University (Brussels.. wire and cable. 2 refs. CD-ROM. Japan. a pilot Plant has been operated in Brussels.) and directly fit for the target applications (thanks to the possibility to complete the formulation within the process). After pulverisation. grain size distribution. 2002. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H. Ege. Mixed-colour. Paper A47 pp. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. If pellets are required. PET).for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Vinyloop(r) is an original recycling process for regenerating PVC waste materials into a new precipitated PVC compound. DHC-8) was carried out to obtain liquid fuel. The Vinyloop(r) process is valid for all types of PVC composites. Belgium. showed the S3P made materials to have good processability and improved physical properties over conventionally recycled mixtures. CD-ROM. and automotive waste. directly from powder. Elk Grove Village. the hydrocracking of MWP in vacuum gas oil (VGO) over metal loaded active carbon and conventional acidic catalysts (HSZM-5. During pulverisation. CD-ROM. Belgium. USA. The quality of the regenerated PVC compound is such that it can be reused in most of the applications of the virgin one.2002. TURKEY added materials without the use of pre-made compatibilisers. Vrije University. Belgium.Free University. In this study. Testing. light colour that is dependent on the dominant colour in the recycled feedstock. pp.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) A new recycling technology called Solid-State Shear Pulverisation (S3P) is under continuing development at the Polymer Technology Centre (PTC) at Northwestern University. 2002. Belgium.4. Yernaux J M SOLVAY SA (Brussels. The three main steps of the process are: selective dissolution of the PVC compound in a mixture of solvents completely recycled within the process.889126 Item 25 ISFR 2002.2002. Paper A58 pp. USA Accession no. and their blends.4. the powder can be pelletised without the loss of physical properties.Free University. 8th-11th Sept. Canada and Japan will be presented during the conference. PS. according to ASTM methods. Material Sciences Corporation. But it is especially efficient in the recovery of PVC from products in which the compound is intimately linked with other materials.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Coprocessing of waste plastics with heavy petroleum fractions have considerable interest in feedstock recycling. EUROPEAN UNION.and pre-consumer plastics (HDPE. 0 refs. The PTC has two complete lines on both laboratory and production scales for demonstrating this environmentally friendly technology. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. separation of the non soluble materials. PVC. Brussels. 012 VINYLOOP(R). The pulveriser is based on a co-rotating twinscrew extruder. Vrije University. Japan. Illinois. 012 A NEW ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY: SOLID-STATE SHEAR PULVERIZATION (S3P) Khait K. Yanik J. Ozkan A R Dokuz Eylul University. by Berstorff. The goal of this work was to demonstrate that S3P can recycle a wide range of post. The resultant powder is a homogeneous. such as carpets. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.4. Future research will demonstrate that this technology is suitable for the recycling of waste streams other than the above-mentioned streams. Belgium. LDPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Free University. Germany. commingled plastic feedstock in the form of flakes or chips is continuously converted to a powder of different particle size and particle size distribution. The S3P-made powders are meltprocessable by all conventional plastic fabrication techniques. 2002. For this purpose. modified with intensive cooling and special elements. Brussels. Belgium.

Belgium. Vrije University. 2002.3 MPa and 300 deg. The polymers obtained from polymerisation of VC with the BuLi revealed different decomposition behaviour from that obtained with radical initiator such as lauryl peroxide. two different approaches have been made to clarify the effectiveness of our proposed catalytic dehalogenation process using various iron oxides and calcium carbonate as catalyst/sorbent.References and Abstracts Item 27 ISFR 2002. Belgium. Bhaskar T. Complete dechlorination of PVC could be achieved in hot water under the conditions of 19. This was attributed to the different chemical structure of the sample PVC. Muto A. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC CONTAINING WASTE PLASTIC DERIVED OIL USING CALCIUM BASED SORBENT Bhaskar T. Kusaba T. 8th-11th Sept. the degradation of both model waste plastics (3P (150)/PVC (3). When Ca-C (8g) was Accession no. Belgium. Brussels. Paper A18. 8th-11th Sept. The thermal degradation liquid products from the 3P/PVC mixture contained 380 ppm of chlorine (organic) and water trap contains about 6100 ppm of HCl. 2002.2002.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dechlorination of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) prepared by polymerisation of vinyl chloride (VC) with butyllithium (BuLi) was investigated under the conditions of high pressure and high temperature water. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. CD-ROM. Japan. This is a twostage process. 2002.City University (Brussels. The results of the above studies confirmed that the halogenated hydrocarbons were dehydrohalogenated to their corresponding alkenes and hydrogen halides over iron oxide and calcium carbonate catalysts/sorbents. CD-ROM.Research Assn. The second approach is to apply the catalysts in the first approach to the degradation of chlorinated (PVC) and brominated (brominated flame retardant containing PS) mixed plastics directly in order to produce halogen free oil. Paper A26. 012 DECHLORINATION OF PVC WITH CONTROLLED STRUCTURE UNDER HIGH PRESSURE IN HOT WATER Endo K. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend.University (Brussels. JAPAN Accession no. Brussels. However. Belgium. Brussels. the degradation of 3P/PVC with Ca-C completely removed all organic chlorine and HCl. Dechlorination was induced completely and polyene product was formed from PVC under high pressure and high temperature. The first approach is to develop dehalogenation catalysts for the catalytic dehydrochlorination of organic chlorine compounds from PVC-containing mixed plastic-derived oil in a fixed bed flow type reactor. JAPAN Accession no. Kaneko J. 8th-11th Sept.4. Paper A15. Sakata Y Okayama.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Novel carbon composite of calcium carbonate sorbent (Ca-C) was developed and utilized in a dechlorination process during the degradation of municipal and mixed model waste plastics (PE/PP/PS(3P)/PVC).Research Assn. Belgium. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Belgium.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) Dehalogenation process is an essential process in waste plastic recycling technology. Emori N Osaka. 153 kg) and MWP (50 kg) was carried out using Ca-C in a large-scale pilot plant (250 kg/batch/12 h). 3 refs.University (Brussels. pp. consisting of plastic degradation at 430 C and dechlorination by Ca-C at 350 C.2002. 3 refs. Kusaba T. 4 refs. JAPAN used during MWP pyrolysis. Vrije University.888798 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 49 . We developed the catalytic process for the dehalogenation of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds formed after the pyrolysis of PVC and brominated flame retardant plastic (HIPS). the thermal degradation of municipal waste plastic (MWP) showed the presence of 1200 ppm chlorine in liquid products and 40 ppm in water trap. Muto A.Free University.889096 Item 28 ISFR 2002.C. Japan. Vrije University. CD-ROM. Kaneko J. On the other hand. Uddin Md A. Japan.4. the iron and calcium based catalysts were transformed into their corresponding halides.Free University. Murata K Okayama. During dehydrohalogenation.Free University. The developed Ca-C sorbent was successfully used for the removal of organic and inorganic chlorine content from the mixed model plastic and municipal waste plastic degradation. pp.888801 Item 29 ISFR 2002. 012 DEHALOGENATION OF PLASTIC DERIVED OIL: A KEY TECHNOLOGY FOR FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING OF WASTE PLASTICS BY PYROLYSIS Sakata Y. In this study. and HCl concentration decreased to only 1 ppm. which also revealed very high activity for the dehydrohalogenation of the organic halogenated compounds. organic chlorine content decreased to 290 ppm.Research Assn. Uddin Md A.2002. pp.2. Based on the laboratory scale study.

Villeurbanne.5.References and Abstracts Item 30 ISFR 2002. Corona-electrostatic separation is effectively used for the removal of nonferrous contaminants (copper.1-11 HYDROPHILIZATION OF PVC SURFACES BY ARGON PLASMA IMMERSION ION IMPLANTATION Bento W C A. 21 refs. Japan. No. as demonstrated by the laboratory experiments cited in the paper. FRANCE. Gauvrit J-Y.1. Machowska Z. Rangel E C UNESP. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Belgium. and time and temperature of drying. Extensively discussed in the main section of the paper. Taverdet J-L. 8th-11th Sept. Lanteri P Saint Etienne.224-5 Italian OPTIMISED COMPOUNDING Details are given of the Quantec range of extruders developed by Coperion Buss for use in PVC compounding. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Various tribocharging devices (cyclones. The physical significance of the results is discussed.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The paper analyzes the role of electrostatic separation in the processing of plastics wastes. 012 PLASTICS RECYCLING IN POLAND Obloj-Muzaj M.Research Assn. used to simulate contact with food.Free University. May 2003.2002.2002.Research Assn. rotating tubes) can be employed for the electrostatic separation of plastics. The factors that influence the efficiency of contact and/or frictional charging are examined. polypropylene (PP). Brussels. Extract contents in excess of 99%.888792 Item 31 ISFR 2002. Paper A07. p.Universidade Federal Sheets of PVC were subjected to argon plasma immersion ion implantation over various exposure times (from 900 to 10. A REVIEW Dascalescu L Institut Universitaire de Technologie (Brussels. Belgium. Researches are in progress for the development of new applications and the optimization of existing technologies. March 2003.4. Paper A08.800 s) and the effect of exposure time on the composition. An experimental design was developed in order to optimise the process parameters of time and temperature of soaking. Proceedings of a conference held Ostend. Belgium. and polystyrene (PS). was investigated. No. The treatment involved soaking the PVC film in n-heptane followed by drying. triboelectrostatic separation can then be employed for the recovery of the various sorts of plastics contained in multi-resin wastes. It was found that the wettability of samples increased with surface treatment and that the hydrophobic character of samples treated for shorter periods recovered either partially or completely. 24 refs. Parana. Wielgosz Z Warsaw. with less than 3-5% losses. roughness and wettability of the PVC sheets investigated. 2002. Abramowicz A. Kayama M E. polyethylene (PE). 012 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF PLASTICS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTES. EUROPEAN UNION. BRAZIL Accession no. EASTERN EUROPE. Jeziorska R. Samples exposed for the longest time remained highly hydrophilic. a new process for the utilization of plastics wastes in coking plants) as well as recycling of Accession no. pp. WESTERN EUROPE polyolefins. April 2002. Schreiner W H. POLAND Accession no. fluidize beds. aluminum) from the granulated plastics scraps. Vrije University. 50 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .670-5 TREATMENT OF PLASTICIZED PVC TO REDUCE PLASTICIZER/SOLVENT MIGRATION: OPTIMIZATION WITH AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Fugit J-L. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4. emphasizing the need of controlling the state of particle surface prior to processing. PVC and PETP (some of which have been successfully evaluated under industrial conditions). 21 refs. 2002.University A treatment to reduce mass transfer between PVC film plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and a liquid. 0 refs. as well as the surrounding ambient conditions during separation. Japan. pp. p. analysis of DEHP in solution was carried out by GC using an internal standard. polyvinyl chloride (PVC). p. Vrije University. No. Belgium.888640 Item 33 Polymer International 52. Polaczek J. CD-ROM.Industrial Chemistry Research Institute (Brussels. Kowalska E. can be obtained with commercial electrostatic separators. Pelka J.University. Cruz N C. CD-ROM. The reviewed industry applications mainly concern the five most commonly used plastics: polyethylene terephthalate (PET). FRANCE. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.4.888416 Item 34 Materie Plastiche ed Elastomeri 67.Free University. 8th-11th Sept.for Feedstock Recycling of Plastics) The state of plastics recycling in Poland is presented and the results of research projects developed in this Institute concerning feedstock recycling of mixed plastics (KARBOTERM. EUROPEAN UNION.888791 Item 32 Plasmas and Polymers 8. Honda R Y. Brussels.

1312-3.of Polymer Chemistry) Polyvinyl chloride-montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared either by in-situ suspension polymerisation using initiator. Exfoliated nanocomposites Accession no. Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.2002. CHARACTERIZATION BY FTIR-ATR AND RAMAN MICROSCOPY Reyes-Labarta J. water and polymer phases. p. Brittain W J Akron. Huang X. SPAIN. Volume 43.1.Sci.886428 Item 37 Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (Applied Biomaterials) 65B. p. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 POLYMER-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES BY SUSPENSION AND EMULSION POLYMERIZATIONS: PVC-MMT NANOCOMPOSITES Xu Y. Mechanical properties were examined.204-10 PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE OF SULFIDE-SUBSTITUTED PLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AS A BIOMATERIAL Lakshmi S. Based on the absorption of VC on calcium carbonate and VC distribution in vapour.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite. 5 refs. p2263-9 WETCHEMICAL SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICIZED PVC.for Med. INDIA Accession no./ conversion(PTC) relationship of the reaction system. 19 refs. 18th-22nd Aug. and partial pressure of VC. Zhang Li-feng. WESTERN EUROPE were obtained in the presence of both the initiator. a modified model to represent the PTC relationship of VC suspension polymerisation in the presence of calcium carbonate was proposed. Malaba D. cell culture studies. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. Fall 2002. Weng Zhi-xue Zhejiang. p. FIRM DEVELOPS POLYMER-SPECIFIC COLOR MASTERBATCH FOR RIGID PVC Colvin R © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 51 . 31 refs. Ma.K. SEM. ACS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Reaction kinetics.Div. and the amount of dioctyl phthalate plasticiser leached out during the reaction were determined.1001-6 ABSORPTION BEHAVIOR OF VINYL CHLORIDE/CALCIUM CARBONATE AND PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE/CONVERSION RELATIONSHIP FOR VINYL CHLORIDE SUSPENSION POLYMERIZATION IN THE PRESENCE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE Bao Yong-zhong. No.& Technology Plasticised PVC was surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of the chlorine atoms of PVC by sulphide ions in aqueous media in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst. was examined using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. No.885767 Item 39 Modern Plastics International 33.and comonomer-modified montmorillonite in the presence of free-radical initiators. Aguilar-Solis C.887470 Item 36 Polymer Preprints. Mijangos C. No. 2003. Number 2. Papers presented at the ACS Meeting held Boston. April 2003. Washington.885901 Item 38 Polymer 44. and compared. Huang Zhi-ming.University The absorption of vinyl chloride(VC) on surface-treated light-grade and nanoscale calcium carbonate was shown to obey the Langmuir isothermal equation in VC/calcium carbonate/water system.References and Abstracts COPERION BUSS AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Reinecke H CSIC Surface modification of polyvinyl chloride films.of Polymer Chemistry. haemolysis assay and whole-blood clotting time measurements. Tiemblo P. CHINA Accession no. DC.Div.5. 2002. GERMANY. Surfaces were evaluated by contact angle measurements. using amino thiophenol in dimethyl formamide and water mixtures. 28cm.University (ACS. Surface selectivity and degree of modification was found to depend on reaction time. It was found that monomer conversion was low when the nanocomposites were prepared using initiatormodified montmorillonite.50 U. 10 refs. p. The modified PVC was sterilised by steam autoclaving and gamma irradiation and subjected to plasticiser extraction.887783 Item 35 European Polymer Journal 39. 2003. No. such as AIBN. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The presence of calcium carbonate in VC suspension polymerisation system was found to influence the pressure/temp. both plasticised and unplasticised. The absorption of VC on calcium carbonate was shown to increase with increase of the partial pressure of VC up to the saturation absorption and the absorption of VC on nanoscale calcium carbonate was greater than that of light-grade calcium carbonate at the same temp. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.8.. Herrero M.4. May 2003.

National Testing & Research Institute The results are reported of an investigation into changes in the properties of PVC flooring during their service life as a result of ageing and the influence of these changes on methods of recycling. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2003. DC. European Vinyls Corp. EUROPEAN UNION.. Bernardi F. EUROPEAN UNION. 2003. DEHP is thought to cause reproductive effects in rats at exposure levels of 3. p. The results are discussed in terms of stabiliser consumption. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Volume 42. such as mechanical recycling and energy recovery. 2 refs. No. April 2002.References and Abstracts A technology said to produce the world’s first polymerspecific colour masterbatch for rigid PVC uses processing aids and lubricants to overcome processability and homogenisation problems related to the resin. Zaikov V G Williamsburg. International Biodeterioration Research Group A report is presented of studies undertaken by the Plastics Protection Working Group of the International Biodeterioration Research Group to evaluate the nutrient salts agar method as a technique for determining the effectiveness of fungicides in PVC films. ACS. secondary emission products and energy recovery.884068 Item 43 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79.883616 Item 44 Polymer Preprints. 29 cm.550.University.2001.159-66. 012 HEAT STABILIZATION AND PLASTICIZATION BY ‘PLASTICIZER THIOLS’. Washington. p. 2nd-3rd April 2003. Researchers at the Dutch agricultural research institute Ato are close to commercialising a plasticiser derived from natural products. Based on a study by Poon.of Polymer Chemistry. COLOURTONE MASTERBATCH LTD. A case in point is the ongoing risk assessment into DEHP. Il. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago.419-20 Spanish PROTECTION OF FLEXIBLE PLASTICS AGAINST FUNGAL ATTACK Bessems E Akzo Nobel Chemicals. SCANDINAVIA. but with poor stabilising effect. 28cm. p.. EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.439-48 PVC FLOORINGS AS POST-CONSUMER PRODUCTS FOR MECHANICAL RECYCLING AND ENERGY RECOVERY Yarahmadi N. Bonomi S. Colour Tone Masterbatch claims universal and polymer-specific masterbatches for adding colour to flexible PVC have never worked reliably in rigid PVC.of Polymer Chemistry) Preliminary results are presented of studies of the use in PVC of materials in which a stabilising sulphhydryl 52 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 26th-30th Aug. Du B. NETHERLANDS.885222 Item 40 European Plastics News 30.881-2. 10 refs. Paper 18.3. Costa L Turin.College of William & Mary (ACS. p. 012 PVC STABILIZATION DURING STERILIZATION WITH ELECTRON BEAM Brunella V. A REMARKABLE NEW CLASS OF NONMETALLIC ADDITIVES FOR PVC Starnes W H. a relatively cheap raw material that is used in the food industry. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. dubbed Vynacol. EUROPEAN UNION. Moves to restrict its use in Europe may soon be relaxed. April 2003. the most common PVC plasticiser.885155 Item 41 Medical Polymers 2003. Shawbury.884474 Item 42 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 83. Proceedings of a conference held Dublin. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. plasticiser depletion. No. which makes it possible to have materials stable during sterilisation by mixing PVC with HP and ESBO.3. It is targeted at processors who colour in-line or add colour to rigid-PVC compounds. Rapra Technology Ltd. SWEDEN. Other plasticisers have been employed. Not all the additives used for PVC biomaterials have the same stabilising effect on them during sterilisation. 19 refs.18 SOFT LANDING Reade L The pressure on plasticisers may be waning.. Div. Jakubowicz I. ITALY. Colour Tone has patented the masterbatch technology. The plasticiser is based on sorbitol. Bioster SpA (Rapra Technology Ltd. 2001. UK. A new study carried out in the US by Wolfe suggests that rats are only affected at much higher dosages of 360mg per kg of body weight.Div. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. and the large stabilising effect of bis(2-ethyl hexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and epoxidised soya bean (ESBO) is shown.7mg per kg of body weight. p. Martinsson L Sweden. GERMANY. Number 2. Fall 2001.) The effects of different plasticisers during sterilisation and ageing of PVC medical devices are reported.

of Polymer Chemistry. Chaudhry H. ACS. Div. Fall 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. Washington. DC. They offered overall improved economics and weathering performance while retaining processing characteristics and physical properties of the rigid PVC compounds. Number 2.Div. whereas this and other observed phenomena of PVC degradation in the presence of stabilisers could not be obtained if the processes claimed by the Frye-Horst. Washington. light stability and plate-out resistance. 26th-30th Aug.Div. (ACS.. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago..4-dione and existing costabilisers. Volume 42.2001. Fall 2001. USA Accession no. 2001. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. Number 2. Harr M E.876-7.874-5. ACS.of Polymer Chemistry) A comparison was made between the mechanisms of action of the PVC costabiliser N-phenyl-3acetylpyrrolidin-2. Number 2. 28cm. Hood W.2001. 6 refs. Volume 42. The stabilisation and plasticisation of PVC compounds by several plasticiser thiols is discussed. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. The results obtained demonstrated that the performance of short-term costabilisers in calcium/zinc formulations was linked to their ability to complex zinc stearate prior to the initiation of degradation and that this prevented the early formation of prodegradant zinc chloride.883240 Item 47 Polymer Preprints.883241 Item 46 Polymer Preprints.of Polymer Chemistry) Highly basic calcium stearates were shown to be superior to neutral or slightly basic grades of calcium stearate for use as secondary heat stabilisers for PVC and to allow for lower use levels of organotin-based heat stabilisers. Jakupca M R Dover Chemical Corp. 26th-30th Aug. Div. Fall 2001.of Polymer Chemistry) Systematic degradation experiments conducted previously by the author and coworkers with dilute PVC solutions in the presence of a series of stabilisers led to unexpected results which resulted in the conclusion that the main role of PVC stabilisers was blocking the fast hydrogen chloride zip-elimination reaction. Il. Minsker or Michell mechanisms were Accession no. Fender M Dover Chemical Corp. ACS.883243 Item 45 Polymer Preprints. Il..of Polymer Chemistry) Complex polyphosphites such as DP12 and DP675 were shown to outperform simple phosphite esters as replacements for heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers for PVC.Div.878-9. Washington. Il.2001. Allen N S Manchester. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 PHOSPHITE ESTER COMPOSITIONS FOR PVC COMPOUNDS Stevenson D R. USA stabilisers with the more environmentally-acceptable organotin primary stabilisers. together with the mechanism of stabilisation by these compounds. (ACS. DC. 4 refs.. Synergistic performances were observed with combinations of several phosphite esters. Comparison is made with conventional additives. 2 refs. probably by an ionic mechanism.Div. p. Number 2. p. DC. 28cm. 012 HIGHLY BASIC CALCIUM STEARATE COMPOSITIONS FOR RIGID PVC Kodali S. 26th-30th Aug. Other properties of PVC compounds. p. efficient PVC stabilisers should react rapidly with propagating species of the unzipping process. also improved markedly when heavy metal components of mixed metal stabilisers were replaced with polyphosphites. Jennings T.Metropolitan University (ACS. Fall 2001. Il.2001. Div. 28cm. 26th-30th Aug. It was found that the zinc level was critical for optimisation of the performance of the phosphite blends. ACS. The improved synergistic effects of highly basic calcium stearates with low levels of organotin stabilisers should allow for the cost effective replacement of lead-based © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 53 . Washington. p. 28cm. In other words. Volume 42. Div.of Polymer Chemistry. Papers presented at the ACS meeting held Chicago. 012 CRITICAL OVERVIEW OF PVC STABILIZATION MECHANISMS IN THE LIGHT OF RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS Ivan B Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ACS.883239 Item 48 Polymer Preprints. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 9 refs. DC.872-3. 2001. Volume 42. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. with the additional benefit of cost effectiveness. USA Accession no. 012 NEW LOOK AT THE MECHANISTIC ACTION OF COSTABILIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Edge M. 2001.of Polymer Chemistry. 2001. such as clarity. The rapid degradation of PVC at the end of the induction period (‘blackening’) could be explained by the reversible blocking mechanism only.References and Abstracts function has been bonded to a plasticiser to form a ‘plasticiser thiol’.

Paper 589. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. one consisting of poly(vinyl chloride) containing 60% fibre and the other of polyolefin with 70% fibre. It was concluded that the mechanical properties could be enhanced and the cost Accession no. 2002. Kyoto. Brookfield. Wiebking H E Specialty Minerals Inc. Nanocomposites I.5. Session W13Composites. using a reciprocating screw blender. 5th-9th May 2002. 6 refs. (SPE) Two commercial plastic-wood composites.5. Extrusions for building applications were subjected to Gardner drop dart impact testing. 2002. 012 MODIFIED CLAY IN POLYVINYLCHLORIDE (PVC) Kalendova A. Kovarova L. The experimental measured force-time relationships were used with finite element analysis (FEA) to establish that the optimum profile wall thickness to resist impact was approximately 2. No. pp. The impact properties were improved by increasing the concentrations of the impact modifier and the sub-micron calcium carbonate. Vaculik J.. Brookfield. the abrasion resistance was decreased. Joint with Engineering Properties and Structure.Institute of Technology The results are reported of an investigation carried out to establish a technique for recycling PVC coated glass fibre fabric by means of a safe and facile procedure. were characterised by measurements of tensile and compressive properties. Malac J. Brookfield.07-3 micrometre) and 0-8 phr acrylic impact modifier was characterised by measurement of mechanical properties (notched Izod and falling weight impact.0 mm. particularly when good exfoliation was achieved. The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced heat resistance compared with PVC. CD-ROM. EASTERN EUROPE. The effects of kneading history of the composites and of UV irradiation on hydrogen chloride gas generation was also examined and the addition of hydrotalcite established as an effective means of recycling the composites.882331 54 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 2003. CD-ROM. Paper 596. In the absence of bonding. pp. 012 FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF IMPACT DURABILITY ON EXTRUDED PLASTIC-WOOD FIBER COMPOSITE LINEALS Arney M S. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. Other Reinforcements in Composites II. Paper 571. Simonik J Zlin. 12 refs. p. Vinyl Composites. SPE. Kimura T Shimane. CD-ROM. HUNGARY Accession no. When significant bonding occurred between the matrix and the clay. Bai R.References and Abstracts the major reactions in the course of stabilisation of PVC. SPE..University.93-116 RECYCLING OF GLASS FABRIC COATED BY POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Takahashi T.882324 Item 52 ANTEC 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. 2002. USA Accession no. The flexural modulus increased with increasing filler and decreasing impact modifier contents.Tomas Bata University (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) nanocomposites were prepared by blending PVC with two different montmorillonites and plasticisers of different molecular weights. Ct. Session W12Composites. the abrasion resistance of the in nanocomposite was not adversely affected. 4 refs. The composite specimens were obtained by compression moulding and injection moulding and their mechanical properties determined by tensile and flexural testing. 5th-9th May 2002. Malac Z. and of viscosity by dynamic mechanical analysis. Hrncirik J. low temperature impact and flexural modulus). 5th-9th May 2002. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. The addition of hydrotalcite and zinc stearate to the composites was also examined in an attempt to inhibit the generation of hydrogen chloride gas generated during moulding. pp..5.2.883238 Item 49 Progress in Rubber. Plastics and Recycling Technology 19. Ca.. Ct. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco..883035 Item 50 ANTEC 2002. JAPAN Item 51 ANTEC 2002. 15 refs. (SPE) Rigid poly(vinyl chloride) containing 0-20 phr of calcium carbonate (size range 0. Hage R T Aspen Research Corp. An increase in Young’s modulus was obtained. Ct. using an instrumented tester to establish the drop height which gave comparable damage to that sustained by wood sash lineals. 012 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE SIZE AND LOADING LEVEL ON THE IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF RIGID PVC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING VARYING AMOUNTS OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER Bryant W S. Ca.. FEA was also used to simulate Rosenheim impact (dropped sphere) testing and impact testing of decking. SPE. Ca.

The performance advantages resulting from this switch are considered with particular attention to the greater saponification resistance of these plasticisers and their much reduced tendency to migrate. 012 AMINOSILANE SUPERFICIAL TREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FILLERS: COMPOSITE PREPARATION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. Ca.5. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. particularly at low filler concentrations. with reduced melt fracture and improved surface quality of extruded samples. Vinyl Composites. the tensile strength. 2002. Reductions in shear stress and viscosity were also obtained. 13 refs. pp. GERMANY.References and Abstracts decreased by reducing the content of expensive impact modifiers and by using ultrafine fillers. Brookfield. CD-ROM.4 kg/cu m were successfully produced with no CFA addition. the composites were characterised by rheology studies and measurements of melt strength. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. MEXICO the composites. Coahuila. and measurements of mechanical and rheological properties. and foams with densities as low as 0. 8 refs. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. palm and lecheguilla. 2002..6.882303 Item 56 Plastics Additives and Compounding 5. Brookfield.. Paper 569.Technological University (SPE) Blends of poly(vinyl chloride) with wood flour. The lowest densities were achieved using 7-10 phr modifier and die temperatures at low as 170 C..882253 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 55 . Foaming was strongly dependent upon the presence of the acrylic foam modifier and the die temperature. Ct. 012 PVC/WOOD FLOUR COMPOSITES COMPATIBILIZED WITH CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE Guffey V O. With increasing filler concentration. 5th-9th May 2002. March-April 2003. Paper 570.. CD-ROM. pp..4. Paper 568. Jimenez-Valdes L L Coahuila. The addition of chlorinated polyethylene significantly enhanced the processability of Accession no. No. a stabiliser and a processing aid. SPE. Ct.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. 25 refs. Vinyl Composites. Ca. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. The compositions also contained lubricants. Ca. particularly when using low chlorine polymers. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Ct. A quadratic response model was used to evaluate the influences of wood moisture content (3-12%). 2002. SPE. CD-ROM. Treatment of the filler with aminosilane increased the toughness. additive additions and die temperature (170-210 C) on the density of the resulting foam. 14 refs. whilst the impact resistance decreased. pp. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco.. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (SPE) Chlorinated polyethylene was evaluated as a compatibiliser for poly(vinyl chloride) composites containing 25% or 40% wood flour. with and without prior treatment of the fillers by 1-3% N-(-2aminoethyl)-3 aminopropyl trimethoxy silane coupling agent.882306 Item 53 ANTEC 2002. Mengeloglu F Michigan. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no.882305 Item 54 ANTEC 2002.. The composites were characterised by dynamic mechanical analysis. Vinyl Composites.Universidad Autonoma (SPE) Composites were prepared using plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) and 20-40 wt% cellulosic fillers. Session W7Vinyl Plastics. Accession no. AKVA WATERBEDS APS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The fillers were wood flour. BAYER CHEMICALS CORP. The tensile modulus increased with reducing filler particle size. 5th-9th May 2002.and DEHP-plasticised PVC films. Data are given on the stability of Mesamoll and phthalate plasticisers in terms of saponification and hydrolysis and on the change in EB with time of Mesamoll. chemical foaming agent (CFA). and acrylic foam modifier were extruded using a single screw extruder. elastic modulus and viscosity increased. Brookfield. Filler dispersion was assessed by electron and optical microscopy. 5th-9th May 2002. 012 MOISTURE AS A FOAMING AGENT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITE FOAMS Matuana L M.2. No synergism was observed between the CFA and the wood moisture content. giving improvements in melt strength and elongation at break.48-9 PVC PLASTICIZER ADDS VALUE TO WATERBEDS The replacement of the diethylhexyl phthalate(DEHP)plasticised PVC film in Akva Waterbeds’ water mattresses with PVC plasticised with Bayer Chemicals’ Mesamoll phenol alkyl sulphonate is discussed. Following blending. and also the impact resistance. SPE.882304 Item 55 ANTEC 2002. USA Accession no.

triethylhexyl trimellitate and butyltrihexyl citrate. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK.881957 Item 60 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. 56 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Courtney J M Strathclyde. The flexural modulus.882222 Item 58 PIMS 2000. Austria. FTIR was used to monitor surface chemistry. MoO3 and Fe2O3 were investigated. The transition metal oxides can change the thermal decomposition behaviour of the PVC. The results showed that the four transition metal oxides imparted good flame retardancy and smoke suppression by effectively reducing peak and average heat release rate.881981 Item 59 Drogenbos. Paper 19. and promote char residue formation at the end of flaming. 012 PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.1. CHINA Accession no. Zhang Yong. p. flexural strength. DEPENDENCE OF FIBRINOGEN ADSORPTION ON PLASTICISER SELECTION AND SURFACE PLASTICISER LEVEL Zhao X B.References and Abstracts Item 57 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 26. an unsaturated polyester resin for use in UV-curable powder coatings. Cu2O.2. 2000.Northeast Forestry University The thermal decomposition. Zhang Yinxi Shanghai. 21cm. Plasticisers used were diethylhexyl phthalate. pp. CuO.2. it provides flexibility and resistance to chemicals and scratches. is based on the idea of multiple breakdown.2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 23 refs. peak smoke production rate and total smoke production. Minsker K S Trials are carried out and described. 18/10/02 UVECOAT 3003 UCB SA Provisional technical information is given for Uvecoat 3003. Cone calorimetry was carried out at an incident heat flux of 50 kWm-2. L’Etang A J. Resin properties. It was shown that both the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 could increase the impact strength of PVC and that there was a synergistic toughening effect of the calcium carbonate and the Blendex 338 on PVC. BELGIUM. The copper oxides were found to be more effective than MoO3 and Fe2O3 in reducing smoke emission in the PVC. GE SPECIALTY CHEMICALS CHINA where. No. Elasticdeformation dispersion of roughly ground materials with particle diameter of 1-3 cms.44 EFFECTS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE NANOPARTICLES AND BLENDEX 338 ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC Chen Ning. No.University (Institute of Materials) Three types of plasticised PVC sheet were investigated for blood compatibility using fibrinogen adsorption. Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Polymers in Medicine and Surgery. held Krems. 30 cm. London. 2002. p. T/38-40 RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE USING ELASTICDEFORMATION DISPERSION METHOD Akhmetkhanov R M. 2003. TS and EB were also studied. was carried out in a single- Accession no. Film properties listed include details of chemical. p.3. Qiao Xiuying. application parameters and a standard clear formulation are presented. 11th-13th Sept. It was possible that nano-calcium carbonate was encapsulated by Blendex 338 in the composite.881550 Item 61 International Polymer Science and Technology 30. Kadyrov R G. The resin has been specially developed for use as a clear topcoat for PVC based resilient flooring. when the material is subjected to the combined action of high pressure and shear deformation at elevated temperatures. as a coating. They reduce the mass loss rate and mass loss of the PVC backbone.177-85. No. abrasion and scuff resistance. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. 2 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2003.349-56 A STUDY OF THE THERMAL DECOMPOSITION AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) TREATED WITH METAL OXIDES USING A CONE CALORIMETER AT A HIGH INCIDENT HEAT FLUX Bin Li Harbia. 14 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. which proves the method of elastic-deformation dispersion as a technique in making possible the effective processing of waste from various PVC materials to obtain fine-particle recycled product with wide possibilities of practical use. The elastic-deformation dispersion method. the flame retardancy and the smoke emission behaviour of PVC formulations containing transition metal oxides.Jiao Tong University The use of nano-calcium carbonate and Blendex 338 impact modifier (a modified ABS with a high rubber content from GE Specialty Chemicals) to improve the mechanical properties of PVC was investigated. and flexibility.. forming a core-shell structure that could account for this synergistic toughening effect.

No. USA Accession no. 9 refs. the kinetics of degradation showed a linear increase in conjugated sequences. Wilkie C A. The influence of additives (calcium stearate.2. ONDEX. Nakajima A.879921 Item 65 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. It was found that most of the plasticised PVC systems were homogeneous in the temperature interval ranging from the melting point of the plasticiser to 420K and that dissolution of the plasticised systems was accompanied by an exothermic effect at high PVC concentrations and an endothermic effect in the case of dilute PVC solutions. and predicted reaction mechanisms for single components were confirmed. Intensity enhancements of vibrations belonging to conjugated double bond sequences in the corresponding spectra allowed for the detection at the very first stage. No.253-6 SUPPRESSING EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE DIOXINS EMISSION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) INCINERATION Ren-De Sun. RUSSIA Accession no. and the properties and applications of these sheets are examined. dioctyl phthalate and clay were studied by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and examination of the carbon(C1s).1208-15 THERMODYNAMICS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MIXING WITH PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS Safronov A P. and the influence of these on the particle fineness and specific surface of the recycled properties is examined. the surface at high temperatures was dominated by carbon and not the oxygen of the clay.880395 Item 63 Polymer Science Series A 44. It was Accession no. Somova T V Ural. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. RUSSIA Item 64 Plastiques et Elastomeres Magazine 54. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. 2003. Marquette.2. 2003.11. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. chlorine(C12p) and oxygen(O1s) spectra. 2002.879813 Item 66 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. including cloud point and thermomechanical measurements.Academy of Science & Technology.880107 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 57 . No.123-132 DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH DIFFERENT ADDITIVES STUDIES BY MICRO RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Gupper A.References and Abstracts screw rotary disperser designed at the Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In this initial period.2002.45). Hashimoto K Kanagawa. The presence of the clay did retard the chain-stripping degradation of the PVC and the enhanced char formation accounted for the observation of enrichment of carbon. A positive development in thermal behaviour was observed upon stabilisation. Watanabe T.Technische Universitat Raman spectroscopy was used to study the thermal degradation of PVC. No. No.University The effect of addition of calcium carbonate on the emission of dioxins from PVC incineration was investigated. pressure. EUROPEAN UNION. p. 23 refs. CHINA.319-24 XPS INVESTIGATION OF THERMAL DEGRADATION AND CHARRING ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Jianxin Du. Nishikawa T.. Jianqi Wang Beijing. Wilhelm P Schiller M Graz.25 French BIORIENTED PVC SHEETS FOR IMPROVED PROPERTIES Gouin F Extrusion and biaxial orientation processes used by Solvay subsidiary Ondex in the manufacture of PVC sheets are described. 4 refs. Dongyan Wang. pp.3. p. Irie H. AUSTRIA.4. and results are compared with those for unstabilised PVC. Nov.Institute of Technology. 24 refs. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. rate of loading of the initial raw material and the screw speed. Tokyo.State University The phase behaviour and enthalpies of interaction of PVC plasticised with various phthalates at 298K over the entire concentration range were investigated using various techniques. p. p.University The thermal degradation and charring of nanocomposites of PVC. EUROPEAN UNION. 2003. April 2002. p. No. For PVC-clay nanocomposites.2. Variable parameters were the zone temperatures of the apparatus. Comparison was made with the results of previous studies of PS-clay and PMMA-clay nanocomposites in which the clay was shown to migrate to the surface as the temperature increased and the polymer degraded.881460 Item 62 Polymers and Polymer Composites 11. thereby confirming the barrier properties as a mechanism by which these materials functioned. zinc stearate and zinc chloride) on the resistance of PVC to thermal stress was investigated by the same method.

879806 Item 67 Polymer Degradation and Stability 79. Polymer Modifiers & Additives. shrinkage. Although the amount of PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash decreased. 012 CHARACTERIZATION OF APPARENT VISCOSITY WITH RESPECT TO A PVC-WOOD FIBRE EXTRUSION PROCESS Bender T M Aspen Research Corp. 5th-9th May 2002. MODEST 2002. Odebrecht (SPE) Phyllite (containing quartz. They are then stripped down 58 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .6. UK. Ct.2. JAPAN and sent for processing together with off-cuts from the manufacturing process. 012 EFFECT OF PHYLLITE AS A FILLER FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Valera T S. EUROPEAN UNION. USA Accession no. Photodehydrochlorination was retarded in doped PVC (with the exception of PVC with 1% cobalt chloride). Toffoli S M Sao Paulo. Brookfield.879347 Item 69 ANTEC 2002. p. WRAP. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. the Government’s recycling markets development body.. ANGLIAN WINDOWS LTD. SPE. and stress and strain under maximum load were measured. Degradation and Stabilisation. Ca. p. Brookfield. Paper 520. Valenzuela-Diaz F R. PVC photocrosslinking was less efficient in the presence of additives after a longer period of degradation. 5th-9th May 2002. pp. A possible mechanism for the suppressing effect of calcium carbonate additive is discussed..5. Quadratic models were created from the dimensional measurements. Fourteen critical dimensions. 2002.Nicholaus Copernicus University The effect of UV radiation on thin PVC films modified by addition of 1 to 5 wt % iron(III) chloride or cobalt(II) chloride was studied. The photocrosslinking yield was estimated by separation of insoluble gel. (2nd International Conference on Polymer Modification. 2002. CD-ROM. Session T52Injection Moulding.32 ANGLIAN OPENS WINDOW ON PVC RECYCLING Double-glazing giant Anglian Windows has become the first UK company to recycle used PVC window frames into high-end applications. 30 refs. Oldak D Torun.879804 Item 68 ENDS Report No. profile bow. muscovite and kaolinite) was compared with calcium carbonate as a filler for poly(vinyl Accession no.WASTE & RESOURCES ACTION PROGRAMME EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Interactive Presentations.. which was simultaneously incorporated in the PVC with calcium carbonate. UK. Session W1Extrusion. Kowalonek J.References and Abstracts found that the incorporation of calcium carbonate greatly reduced the generation of polychlorinated dibenzo-pdioxins(PCDDs) and dibenzofurans(PCDFs) in the exhaust gas. oxidation and dehydrochlorination were studied by GPC. (SPE) Design of experiments methodology was used to determine the maximum variability in viscosity which a poly(vinyl chloride)/wood fibre profile extrusion process was able to tolerate. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. pressure in the die adaptor and the current drawn by the screw drive. Budapest. Feb. Ct. Ca. Ferric chloride and cobalt chloride were found to hinder main chain scission in PVC in the initial stage of irradiation but to accelerate this reaction during prolonged exposure (10-30 h).337. Ribeiro A P. Ormanji W. Ferric chloride slightly decelerated while cobalt chloride accelerated the formation of carbonyl groups in PVC. The photoinduced degradation. UV visible and FTIR absorption spectroscopies. Old window frames are being brought back to its manufacturing site in Norwich using the company’s own fleet. It will also consider the economic and environmental impacts of PVC recycling. 17 refs.231-40 INFLUENCE OF UV-IRRADIATION ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MODIFIED BY IRON AND COBALT CHLORIDES Kaczmarek H. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pp. Young’s modulus. 2003. POLAND Accession no.2003. bow.. and used to establish the tolerances within which the dimensional and physical specifications were simultaneously achieved. SPE.. Meanwhile. Extrusion General. The PCDDs and PCDFs trapped in the ash were not expected to become environmental contaminants because they were decomposed by the titanium dioxide photocatalyst. No. maximum tensile stress. CD-ROM.879145 Item 70 ANTEC 2002. The study will assess the quality of recovered materials and their use in high-value products. Paper 540. the total amount (in the gas and ash) decreased significantly after calcium carbonate addition. June/July 2002) EASTERN EUROPE. viscometry. Yoshiga A. is looking at how collection systems could be established for PVC waste from the construction and automotive sectors. Hungary.University.

012 COLOR CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Summers J. Data on formulating phthalate free plastisols for rotational moulding are presented. SPE. compared with those containing calcium carbonate. Brookfield. which will lead to improvements in certain key properties. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 27 cm. 30th-2nd Oct. p. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. Ct. 27 cm. SPE. surface chemistry and equipment design. PolyOne offers solutions for colour needs in many different polymers and applications. avoiding messy pigment dusts. and artificial leather were prepared and characterised by measurements of viscosity. 27 cm. 8 refs.. Also involved are other requirements such as making hard-todisperse pigments more dispersible.43748. extruded PVC/wood flour composites and PVC coextruded capstock applications. USA Accession no.) Benzoate ester plasticisers are high solvating plasticisers. Paper 1.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Il. and have been commercially available and used in vinyl applications for many years. Il. SPE.. triethylene glycol dibenzoate and dioctyl adipate.) Colour concentrate technology for vinyl applications is reviewed.) Although many areas of rigid PVC formulation have not seen dramatic changes in formulation technology over the past 10 or 15 years. rheology. 8 refs.Chicago Section. 2002. (SPE. the same processing temperatures and heat stability. Brookfield. appearance and performance of the final product are discussed. Lang J. SPE. tensile strength and viscoelastic properties. 7 refs. Recently. Ct.51730. functions very effectively as an offset to DINP. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. USA Accession no. Blend 2860 is a high solvating plasticiser and was designed for rotational moulding applications. SPE.. Il. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Ct. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. Session 4. there are areas where the technology is developing rapidly. p.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. insuring weatherability and thermal stability performance.. processing and performance characteristics versus older benzoates and phthalates such as diisononyl phthalate (DINP).Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. USA Accession no. The phyllite-containing compositions exhibited superior mechanical properties.46372. BRAZIL NEW TRENDS IN RIGID PVC COMPOUND FORMULATION Kroushl P Ferro Corp. Il..879125 Item 71 Vinyltec 2002. a blend of diethylene glycol dibenzoate.2002. and higher plastisol viscosity.877703 Item 74 Vinyltec 2002. Jarus D PolyOne Corp.Chicago Section. p. 2002. Rabinovich. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 59 .Vinyl Div. SPE. p. Three areas of rigid PVC formulation which are presently generating much interest are extruded PVC foam.2002. Brookfield. For each application a generic formulation is examined and the effects of each formulation additive on processibility. 012 ADDITIVES AND COMPOUNDING Lindner R A Accession no. (SPE. new benzoate plasticiser blends have been introduced as improvements for established benzoate esters and certain phthalate ester plasticisers for flexible vinyl applications. 16 refs. This is a science of distribution and dispersion that involves energy transfer through compatibility.877709 Item 72 Vinyltec 2002. Majewski T.Vinyl Div. gelation and fusion temperatures. heat stability. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. Information on processing Blend 2860 based plastisols in a Composite Mould Technology moulding machine are discussed. The new blends offer improved efficiency.. 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. 27 cm. Paper 4. Compositions suitable for the manufacture of lower and superior grade balls. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 012 NEW BENZOATE PLASTICIZER BLENDS FOR ROTATIONAL MOULDING PLASTISOLS Arendt W D.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 4.877705 Item 73 Vinyltec 2002.. 2002... Many of the recent developments in formulation technology for each area are described.2002.2002. Brookfield. Session 48 Paper 5.Vinyl Div.. Ct. Session 4. Plastisols for rotational moulding products such as toys are often compounded with DINP. Also examined are potential modifications to each formulation. SPE. One of the new benzoate blends (Blend 2860). and phyllite was considered to be a suitable filler for PVC plastisols.41334. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Paper 2. SPE.References and Abstracts chloride) (PVC) plastisols. (SPE. Blend 2860 plastisols process faster at lower temperatures than plastisols based on DINP.Chicago Section.

Papazoglou E. The volatile nature of three commercial barium-zinc stabilisers is examined in comparison with an organophosphite-zinc based stabiliser. Dover PhosBooster. The benefits and needs for the industry are examined from resin manufacture to final use. DPB.) Lubricants have been classified as either internal or external. Jennings T Dover Chemical Corp. High throughput processing with acceptable melt rheology such as melt pressure. temperature and motor load can also be achieved through polymer design and modifications. (SPE. only half of the growth rate of all thermoplastic resins as a whole. p. Chou C S Rohm & Haas Co. stabilisation is required for all polymer applications to provide acceptable processing.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. SPE. 30th-2nd Oct. storage and use lifetimes.) Traditionally. Brookfield. Brookfield.) Flexible PVC compounds are extremely versatile. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. External lubricants on the other hand. The difference between internal lubricants and plasticiser is that the internal lubricant is only soluble at high temperature whereas the plasticiser is soluble and functional at room temperature. p. SPE.Vinyl Div. processing and physical properties of extruded vinyl materials.. Il. internal lubricants have meant materials that are compatible with PVC that promote flow. 012 STABILIZATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE AGAINST OXIDATION Lee R E. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. The slow growth rate of flexible PVC may be partially attributed to perceived environmental concerns related to the polymer and its numerous additives. cost effective and additive intensive. 30th-2nd Oct. Ct. USA Accession no.2002. Stevenson D R. USA Accession no. p. 2002. Light stabilisers like hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) and UV absorbers (UVAs) provide durability when there is an exposure to light. 2002. Brookfield..Chicago Section. are said to be incompatible and come to the surface and create metal release. USA Item 76 Vinyltec 2002.Vinyl Div. Phosphites. 27 cm. In recent years the industry has focused upon the reduction of flexible PVC heat stabilisers based on heavy metals such as lead and cadmium as a mechanism for improving the environmental profile of PVC compounds. as they are effective radical scavengers. Il. 5 refs. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.877702 Item 75 Vinyltec 2002. 5 refs. A brief look is taken at phenolic antioxidant use in PVC systems. Harr M E. 012 ADAPTATION OF NEW ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIER TECHNOLOGY TO PVC EXTRUSION INDUSTRY TRENDS Martin R. Typically.391400. SPE. SPE. Paper 7. Il. Ct. Internal lubricant efficiency can be readily predicted by simple mathematical formula and that partial substitution of esters for paraffin allows the reduction of modifier or increased filler levels to achieve savings without loss of any physical properties.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.877701 Accession no..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div..877700 Item 77 Vinyltec 2002. The worldwide flexible PVC market has been estimated at 15 billion lb in 2002. SPE.) The new generation of acrylic impact modifiers is designed to address the relationship between polymer structure.2002.Chicago Section. Paper 8.Vinyl Div. 27 cm.. SPE. SPE. Emphasis is placed on phenolic antioxidants used during the polymerisation step and during initial compounding. Primary antioxidants like hindered phenols are ubiquitously used for this purpose. SPE.Vinyl Div.. Session 3. 012 EXAMINATION AND REDUCTION OF VOC’S FROM FLEXIBLE PVC FORMULATIONS Jakupca M R.. 30th-2nd Oct. 2002.References and Abstracts L & L Consulting LLC (SPE. USA Accession no.2002.. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. Session 3.877698 60 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . SPE. A broad processing window with lower levels of acrylic impact modifiers will become the future trend in PVC impact modification. (SPE. 27 cm.40310. Paper 5. but is said to be growing at a rate of only 2%/year. It is reported that there are two distinct types of external lubricants. Better impact resistance can be achieved with optimal design of core shell acrylic modifier. Emphasis is placed on methods for the further improvement of flexible PVC heat stabilisers by reducing the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. SPE. and to a lesser extent thiosynergists.36774. Session 3. are used as secondary antioxidants to extend the efficiency of the former. Pearson K Great Lakes Chemical Corp.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. (SPE.Chicago Section.Chicago Section. by reduction of oxidation intermediates.. Ct. The volatile emissions from flexible PVC formulations containing these stabilisers are measured and the sources of the emissions are identified.

Paper 4. 27 cm.References and Abstracts Item 78 Vinyltec 2002. Unlike UV absorbers. 012 NEW ADDITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR THE PVC INDUSTRY Wegmann A. especially sterically hindered phenols. USA Accession no. are widely used throughout the PVC industry . SPE. Their effectiveness as light stabilisers for polyolefins is well-documented..additives such as antimicrobials. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. (SPE.33543. Ct. NOR HALS were also compared to and found to be far more effective than traditional NH HALS. needs highly efficient protection against oxidative degradation Accession no. p. 27 cm. in most instances. although these other additives can have a substantial influence on UV stability.for instance.34763.877695 Item 81 Vinyltec 2002. 2002. antifog agents. 2002. Synergistic combinations of FR and SS additives to PVC formulations facilitate passing many stringent FR specifications cost effectively. In the case of flexible PVC.2002. Il.) The flammability performance of PVC plays a significant role in its selection for many applications.877697 Item 79 Vinyltec 2002..Vinyl Div. The important parameters of the transformation process and the role that process aids play in the optimisation and enhancement of compound processability. has dramatically highlighted the importance of processing aids as an integral part of most new and existing high productivity PVC formulations. Il.) UV absorbers such as those from the hydroxyphenyl benzotriazole and hydroxy benzophenone class of compounds have a long history of use as UV stabilisers in PVC. fencing.. SPE.Chicago Section. heat release. detract from its resistance to fire. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 012 NOR HINDERED AMINES: A NEW UV STABILIZER CLASS FOR PVC Capocci G Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corp. p. etc.32131.. NOR hindered amine light stabilisers are introduced as a new photostabiliser class for PVC. What is not so familiar is the use of NOR hindered amines as UV stabilisers for PVC.) Phenolic products.W. 30th-2nd Oct. SPE. Session 3. Paper 2. Ct. SPE.. . 30th-2nd Oct. smoke evolution or extent of burning in cable tests. 5 refs. SPE. SPE. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 2002. SPE. Brookfield. a frequently used impact modifier for rigid PVC. Session 3.Vinyl Div.Chicago Section. window and door trim. USA Accession no.Vinyl Div. Paper 1. They are especially well known for protecting products made from flexible PVC. optical brighteners. such as foam and wood composites as well as the demand for higher productivity in these and other existing commercial applications. Its relatively high chlorine content (58. 30 refs.. 27 cm. To meet specifications such as oxygen index. SPE. USA Brookfield. Brookfield. Brookfield. 30th-2nd Oct. Il. Methyl methacrylate butadiene-styrene (MBS).Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.Vinyl Div. Other effect additives . (SPE. the plasticisers which contribute flexibility.& Associates Inc. Ct. SPE. antioxidants.295317. SPE.877696 Item 80 Vinyltec 2002. Paper 3. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. to terminate the reaction and prevent degradation of the virgin resin in the stripper and dryer. hindered amine light stabilisers (HALS) do not absorb UV light. In several laboratory studies. p. greenhouse films. Session 3. A proposed explanation for their superior activity is presented.that are often present in a fully formulated PVC compound are not examined.. Voigt W Ciba Specialty Chemicals Inc. NOR HALS were found to substantially increase the weatherability of flexible PVC.) The development of new applications for PVC. products such as patio furniture. Schipper P Atofina Chemicals Inc.2002. 30th-2nd Oct.Chicago Section. Session 3. Oertli A G.Chicago Section.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.6%) makes it more resistant to ignition and burning than most organic polymers. Il..Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. (SPE. end product properties and manufacturing efficiency are reviewed. nor well known. 8 refs. SPE. (SPE. SPE. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 61 . 2002... pond liners. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.. as chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation. their activity in PVC is neither well understood. p. etc. 27 cm. however. 012 FIRE AND FLAME RETARDANTS FOR PVC Coaker A W Coaker A. 012 ACRYLIC PROCESSING AIDS: KEY TO THE FUTURE Azimipour B. flame retardant (FR) and smoke suppressant (SS) additives are often incorporated.2002. Ct. antistats.2002.

with vinyl floor tile.877691 Item 84 Vinyltec 2002. De Massa J. Brookfield. It has been shown that selected grades improve low temperature processing and cure cycles while contributing to mechanical strength. In another test. p. higher aspect ratio) morphological structure providing Accession no. thereby enhancing PVC’s environmental acceptance. This naturally occurring white calcium silicate mineral filler may be an alternative to conventional fillers in improving properties of PVC. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 27 cm.2002. USA Accession no. 2 refs. The data. when used with other metal stabilisers such as calcium or zinc stearate.Corp... solid hindered phenol antioxidants can be added to heat stabilisers. Il. SPE. it has found utility in products like those used in the wire and cable industry. as well as a good toxicological profile..T. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.References and Abstracts of its rubber phase by a synergistic blend of a phenolic antioxidant with a thiosynergist. Ct. Wollastonite is selected as a non-traditional filler for PVC.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. filler profiles change to keep pace.Chicago Section.24766.Vinyl Div.. SPE. Electrical properties as measured by volume resistivity show to be comparable between hydrotalcite-stabilised compounds and leadstabilised counterparts.. Unique in its needle-like (acicular) shape. Il.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Brookfield. Because this same mineral has desirable chemical properties.) enhance the quality of finished PVC articles. Plasticisers for flexible PVC in thermally demanding applications are also stabilised with phenolic antioxidants. Alternatively to stabilising plasticisers. making it desirable for PVC applications where excellent electrical performance is needed. p. Ashton H C Huber J. Similar mechanical properties are seen with the hydrotalcite-stabilised PVC compounds vs. In the above mentioned applications. SWITZERLAND. which give additional invaluable advantages in handling. Ct. Selected wollastonite grades in flexible PVC. As an effective acid scavenger. 012 WOLLASTONITE: A NON-TRADITIONAL FILLER FOR PVC: WHAT DOES IT OFFER? Robinson S. or directly to the compound. and fluorescent whitening agents. Session 2.) The characteristics of a new synthetic hydrotalcite product designed for use in PVC stabilisation are discussed. dosing. This new hydrotalcite is very low in Fe and Zn contaminants. enabling broad registration and food approval status. in accelerated heat and in exposure in a weatherometer for 1350 hours. SPE. Ciullo P Vanderbilt R. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. as represented by a 75 deg. etc. selected wollastonite grades were compared to calcium carbonate in a heat ageing test to observe heat and colour stability performance. SPE.. showed that wollastonite demonstrated a modest change in colour stability in contrast to the calcium carbonate. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.Co.. SPE.2002. 62 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 30th-2nd Oct.877694 Item 82 Vinyltec 2002. especially with requirements related to strength. thereby further strengthening the position of PVC applications in the marketplace. Such synergistic stabilisation improvements are shown to be beneficial to PVC formulations for various applications including wire and cable.. The hydrotalcite also has characteristically platey (i. 2002. Some years ago. (SPE. as published.) Filler technology has been undergoing a renaissance in the last several years. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. lead-stabilised compounds. USA Accession no. Paper 7.C rated PVC primary insulation compound typically filled with calcium carbonate and calcined clay. 30th-2nd Oct.Vinyl Div. SPE. 27 cm.e. 30th-2nd Oct. 1 ref. or to further boost the thermal stability of PVC. Il. Using calcium carbonates as filler. Newly developed high performance light stabilisers and other effect additives (biocides. As performance demands of plastics increase. 012 ADVANCED HYDROTALCITE FOR ENHANCED PVC STABILIZATION Chen T. antistats. are evaluated. very important for introduction into aqueous processes. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. (SPE.. The wollastonites are compared to calcium carbonates with similar particle size distributions for effects on compound tensile properties. Session 2.26971. and case of emulsification. can impart effective thermal stability to the PVC compounds as compared to heavy metal stabilisers. the data indicated that wollastonite incorporated with titanium dioxide had better colour after ageing.Chicago Section.877692 Item 83 Vinyltec 2002.2002. Paper 6. WESTERN EUROPE desirable rheological performance and reduced agglomeration during PVC compounding. 2002. wollastonite is compared to the calcined clay for effect on volume resistivity. the mineral has a long successful history as a very effective reinforcing filler in thermosets and thermoplastics.M. this new hydrotalcite. The rigid PVC compounds containing the hydrotalcite show enhanced thermal stability as demonstrated by the slower compound colour development over time. traditionally used solid antioxidants are increasingly replaced by more efficient liquid products.

Il. (SPE. Session 2.) Compatibility of PVC with liquid alkyltin alkylthioglycolates stabilisers is studied by thermal methods including isothermal calorimetry of mixing. The intrinsic value of non-phenolic lubricating calcium intermediates and unique Trimetal stabilisers are discussed.2-dicarboxylic acid ester. 012 NEW POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER DEVELOPMENT Lang J M. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 2002. 2002. SPE.877688 Item 86 Vinyltec 2002. designated Hexamoll DINCH. Session 2. The toxicology of Hexamoll DINCH is reviewed.) The global market for liquid mixed metal stabilisers is migrating toward conservational or ‘green’ alternatives..877687 Item 87 Vinyltec 2002. USA Accession no.193202.Vinyl Div. Furthermore. Ford J I OMG Inc.Chicago Section. The influence of organotin stabilisers on the glassy structure of PVC films is studied by means of DSC and the dielectric relaxation spectrum. 30th-2nd Oct.. p. 27 cm.877690 Item 85 Vinyltec 2002. Session 2.. 012 NEW PLASTICIZER FOR FLEXIBLE PVC Wadey B.Vinyl Div. 27 cm. SPE. 012 COMPATIBILITY OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZERS WITH PVC Fisch M H. Somova T Crompton Corp... 30th-2nd Oct. Historically. SPE. Dooley T. The Trimetal and Ca/Zn technology are found to be viable alternatives to Ba/Zn and Cd/Ba/Zn stabilisers. SPE. Stanhope B E Velsicol Chemical Corp. Gans G BASF Corp. Brookfield.. 30th-2nd Oct.2-dicarboxylic acid esters is presented. Il. p. The results are discussed in terms of superposition of glassy-state and molecular interaction contributions to the enthalpy of mixing of glassy polymer with liquid additives.References and Abstracts Brookfield. Stewen U. USA thioglycolates enhancement of the glassy structure of PVC is interpreted as the result of strong multi-site molecular complexes between organotin molecules and PVC chains. In the regulatory arena there is the RCRA and CERCLA requirements of the EPA.Vinyl Div. no genotoxicity... Paper 1. 012 TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN LIQUID MIXED METAL STABILIZERS Reddy J E. Brookfield. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.2002. p. (SPE.. Brookfield. SPE. It is found that all compounds are compatible with PVC in a broad concentration range and form homogeneous mixtures. SPE. Safronov A.Chicago Section. SPE. these systems have not been performance and cost competitive.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. SPE. 11 refs. 27 cm.18190. have been under pressure from environmentalists and regulatory bodies. USA Accession no. SPE..) Polymeric plasticisers are an important part of the total plasticiser market and are used primarily in speciality © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 63 .2002. SPE. Ct. Paper 5.20517. Urals. The enthalpy of mixing of PVC with the series of alkyltin alkyl thioglycolates is measured over the entire concentration range at ambient conditions. which act like additional clips in the entanglement network of polymer chains. The driving forces behind the development of a new plasticiser. Session 2. Hackett J A. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. SPE. Taking this into account.23153. Bacaloglu R. Ct. 16 refs. 27 cm. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. di-isononylcyclohexane-1. The novel calcium intermediates make performance and cost competitive stabilisers and reduced heavy metal and phenolic derivative containing stabilisers a reality. p.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. 2002. especially phthalates. DSC. Ct.. Streeter B E.) For some time now plasticisers. This new calcium technology can produce effective heat stabilisers for most applications under rigorous testing conditions. Ct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. no reprotoxicity and biodegradability. SPE. this technology permits stabiliser formulations extremely low in volatile organic content (VOC).2002. Proposition 65 in California and the EU labelling requirements of chemicals.. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. (SPE. The alkyltin alkyl Accession no. DMA and dielectric relaxation. High efficiency calcium-zinc and calcium-barium-zinc stabilisers have the potential to replace existing high volatile mixed metal products. Il. RUSSIA.Chicago Section. no peroxisome proliferation.Vinyl Div. as well as customer demand for alternative plasticisers. BASF has undertaken a project to develop a plasticiser suitable in a wide range of applications and which would meet the following predefined requirements: low acute toxicity. physical properties and a comparison of three homologue cyclohexane-1. The manufacturing process. are discussed.Chicago Section. Paper 3.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.State University (SPE. 2002. no sensitising properties. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. Paper 2.

. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. it has been asserted that these phthalates are persistent in the environment and may increase in concentration. 2002. Il.Vinyl Div. Ct.. Il.Inc. Brookfield. extraction by organic fluids and low-temperature as moulded after ageing. Il. USA (SPE. 30th-2nd Oct.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. and it is concluded that these phthalates can be used without risk to human health or the environment in nearly all of the current applications. SPE. focusing specifically on the scientific evidence.) Phthalate esters or phthalates are molecules used predominantly in commerce to make plastic flexible.1019. Ct.11350. 012 HOW ABOUT ALTERNATIVES TO PHTHALATE PLASTICIZERS? Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. SPE. molecular weight and manufacturing process. ‘General Purpose’ plasticisers are those that impart optimum overall performance properties in PVC at lowest cost. 64 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . It is shown that permanence of the plasticiser after these various ageing is the key to retention of physical properties. 2002.877686 Item 88 Vinyltec 2002.. so they are not persistent. SPE. Brookfield. 012 FUNCTION AND SELECTION OF POLYMERIC ESTER PLASTICIZERS O’Rourke S Hall C. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. 27 cm. Known ‘non-phthalate’ plasticisers are reviewed. p. A brief comparison of the performance difference between polymeric and monomeric is discussed. migrating or too volatile. 30th-2nd Oct. Paper 7. The test data include heat ageing. The performance requirements covered are printability. SPE. (SPE.References and Abstracts applications where high permanence. although some specialised uses in medical devices require further studies. 012 PHTHALATE ESTER REGULATORY UPDATE Keller L H ExxonMobil Chemical Co.2002. polymeric esters provide a unique set of properties to insure longevity of flexible PVC.Chicago Section. It has also been claimed that these phthalates may cause harm to humans.) Traditional PVC applications have for years used moderate to low performance ester plasticisers. 6 refs. Plasticisers commonly used for PVC are extractable. For special needs. (SPE.. Paper 6.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. low temperature flexibility and plasticiser viscosity.15375. p. 27 cm. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). USA Accession no. the ‘Precautionary Principle’ has caused certain segments of society to clamour for alternatives to phthalate plasticisers. di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) are used almost exclusively as plasticisers in flexible PVC.Chicago Section. SPE. Two case studies are given to illustrate the chemical structure-property approach for developing new polymeric plasticisers in order to meet the performance requirements of speciality applications. Session 1. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century..P. which are discussed in detail. the properties of polymeric plasticisers can be tailored by varying the chemical structure.Chicago Section. With the increasing high temperature and extraction resistance demands required. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Vinyl Div. Laboratory studies show that these phthalates rapidly degrade in the environment. Several of these issues are addressed.877684 Item 90 Vinyltec 2002.Vinyl Div. SPE. The substances produced in highest quantity. They provide a desirable balance of cost and performance properties.. p.) Phthalate plasticisers have historically served as the preferred plasticisers to impart flexibility to PVC and several other polar polymers. low migration and weatherability are required. 27 cm. food processing and packaging applications.. Brookfield. longevity requirements for flexible PVC articles have created a need for higher performance ester plasticisers. Session 1. Ct. These compounds also efficiently undergo biotransformation by organisms and do not biomagnify. 4 refs. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.2002. and comparisons to the traditional ‘General Purpose’ (GP) phthalate plasticisers are provided. USA Accession no.Co. resistance to extraction.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div.. Paper 5. SPE. SPE.2002..877685 Item 89 Vinyltec 2002. as well as many other end uses. Nevertheless. Among these. However. Although they produce effects of various kinds in rats and mice when given for long periods of time at high Accession no. In recent years these phthalates have been the focus of regulatory attention around the world. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. 30th-2nd Oct. This attention has been triggered by a number of allegations. Some information is provided on plasticisers that are designed for high performance applications. Session 1. SPE. Potential alternatives do not have the historical record of acceptable performance found with phthalate plasticisers. Their acceptable and safe use is unmatched in medical appliances..

6986. and are well suited for general use. The ability is still required to process high molecular weight polymers. No. 2002. trimellitates have found their place in applications requiring greater permanence than existing commercial phthalate plasticisers. p. When examining world usage of plasticisers it is easy to conclude that esters are the most effective plasticisers. flexibility or distensibility’. as compatibiliser. except in some very rare situations. The start of commercialisation of technology in PVC is much shorter. 3 refs. which have the permanence for high temperature applications. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century.. Finally.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. Session 1. The polymerics. SPE. starting around 1935. 5 refs. WORLD Accession no. SPE. Chemistry.. Ct. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca. A basic model from which a technician can build an understanding from which plasticiser choices can be screened is presented. Many of these products are esters. impart good low temperature properties.8998.6.Polymer Modifiers & Additives Div. The chemistry of esters and the interaction with PVC on the molecular level is the heart of effort for those of us who develop new plasticisers.876688 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 65 . which was pretreated with the epoxy resin. 012 TRIMELLITATES-VERSATILE PLASTICIZERS FOR THE VINYL COMPOUNDER Adams R BP Chemicals (SPE.References and Abstracts levels. and the effect of this compatibiliser on the optical properties of the nanocomposites investigated. Compounding polyvinyl chloride in the 21st century. process aids and modifiers. Il. and are expensive. 2002. 27 cm. at best. and by some definitions. Il. p. are efficient. SPE. Paper 4. USA Accession no. Ct. Xiuying Q. The history of plasticisers is long and colourful.. Emphasis is placed on a rather small range of low molecular weight esters that are compounded into PVC to effect a desired combination of stiffness. are often inefficient. This is a definition that incorporates the two technical industrial drivers of the Accession no. p. Phthalate plasticisers. Unfortunately. Most of these materials meet the early definition and do plasticise polymers.) Since the introduction of trimellitic anhydride by Amoco Chemicals in the late 1960s. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Kozlowski R Sunoco Chemicals (SPE. SPE.2002. Trimellitates fill this gap in performance for the flexible vinyl industry. Proceedings of a conference held Itasca.Chicago Section.381 OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/ MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES WITH EPOXY RESIN AS COMPATIBILIZER Chaoying W.. SPE. 2002.Chicago Section.Jiao Tong University Polyvinyl chloride/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared using an epoxy resin. levels of human exposure are far below those that cause effects in laboratory animals.Vinyl Div.. CHINA Accession no.. SPE. During this time period PVC compounding progressed from an art to a science. and the goal is to develop polymer compounds that have a flexibility necessary to be useful in product design. Paper 3. permanence and chemical resistance to produce a cost effective.877681 Item 93 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. The portion of the definition of plasticisers relating to workability for PVC is now studied within the disciplines and concepts of the materials more often called lubricants. Brookfield. The good transparency of the nanocomposites also indicated that the epoxy resin improved the processing stability of the nanocomposites.) ASTM D-883-98 defines a plasticiser as ‘a substance incorporated in a material to increase its workability.2002.Vinyl Div. Trimellitate plasticisers offer today’s vinyl compounder a unique combination of properties not attainable with polymeric or other monomeric plasticisers. 30th-2nd Oct. Brookfield. recent investigations reveal that. useable engineering polymer system suitable for its intended application.877683 Item 91 Vinyltec 2002. process easily. long the workhorse of the industry. It was found that the transparency of the nanocomposites improved with increasing content of montmorillonite. are difficult to process. In a period of less than 75 years the industry went from a handful of plasticising compounds to a few hundred in 30 years and back to a handful of commercially significant materials today. Yong Z. are perhaps the only plasticisers for PVC. USA early 20th century. the relevance of these effects to humans is. USA. Yinxi Z Shanghai. have poor low temperature properties. phthalates can be volatile and lack the permanence needed for high temperature applications.877682 Item 92 Vinyltec 2002. 30th-2nd Oct. engineering and raw materials supply have evolved into the current commercial landscape. 27 cm. questionable. Session 1. 17 refs.

It was found that solution blending produced a mixed immiscible-intercalated nanocomposite and that the presence of clay caused a change in the degradation path of the polymer. Xuecheng P.University We are told that a Scientific Committee of the European Commission has addressed toxicity concerns about PVC plasticised with diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) when used in certain medical applications. 2002.University Nanocomposites were prepared by solution blending PVC with sodium montmorillonite and an organically modified clay using THF.9 mm obtained by filtering.588-91 TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF HOLLOW GLASS BEAD FILLED PVC COMPOSITES Ji-Zhao Liang South China. Wilkie C A Marquette. p. This article discusses the basis for these opinions in detail. A mathematical formula was developed which related yield strength to filler level.35 DOH JOINS QUEST FOR NON-PVC MEDICAL DEVICES The Department of Health is reported to be searching for diethylhexyl phthalate-free products for the National Health Service following international concern over possible health effects from exposure to the plasticiser. and the layered structure of these nanocomposites characterised by TEM and X-ray diffraction. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. US.10 PVC POST WITH THE MOST Smith C 66 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN COMMISSION.NATIONAL HEALTH SERVICE. sifting and drying.2002. Dec.876667 Item 95 China Synthetic Rubber Industry 25. The effects of crosslinking. 7 refs. UK.4. UK. HEALTH CANADA.238-45 PREPARATION OF PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY SOLUTION BLENDING Wang D. grafting. and using three different sizes of bead. WESTERN EUROPE. p. INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION FOR RESEARCH IN CANCER. No. The thermal degradation of the composites was investigated by TGA and mechanical properties determined by tensile testing. It was reported that yield strength reduced only gradually and Young’s modulus increased slightly with increasing filler content. 6 refs.2002.875070 Item 99 Plastics and Rubber Weekly 29th Nov.8/12 EVEN MORE OPINIONS ON PVC. Impact strength reduced rapidly to a filler level of 5 percent.6.335. 11 refs. Xiao L. p. AND BROADER LESSONS Williams D Liverpool. No. p.876644 Item 96 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 287.335-7 Chinese DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF POWDERED BUTADIENE-STYRENE RUBBER FOR MODIFICATION OF RIGID PVC Feng S.9. but was not significantly affected by bead size.University of Technology Tensile and impact properties of a composite of polyvinyl chloride filled with hollow glass beads to different volume fractions. p.SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE ON MEDICINAL PRODUCTS & MEDICAL DEVICES. Yuanzhang Y Qilu Petrochemical Corp.875427 Item 98 Medical Device Technology 13. US.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION. UK.875470 Item 97 ENDS Report No. Nov. Liqiang C. Dec. UK. CHINA Accession no.DEPT. The EU Scientific Committee on Medicinal Products & Medical Devices has made no recommendation that hospitals should take any precautionary measures to reduce exposures of groups of patients considered to be at risk although Health Canada and the FDA have issued precautionary assessments.2002. and then reduced only Accession no.2002. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. washing. It has reached conclusions which differ from those reached by some other organisations.9. 28 refs. A powdered SBR slurry was prepared by crosslinking and graft modification and powdered SBR having a particle size less than 0.2002. No.References and Abstracts Item 94 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.OF HEALTH. EU. EUROPEAN UNION.FEDERAL DRUGS ADMINISTRATION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. HEALTH CANADA EU. No. USA slowly. EUROPEAN UNION. 11th Oct. condition of the powder and rate of rotation on particle size were investigated and the modification of PVC by powdered SBR studied. as solvent. CHINA Accession no. independent of bead size.

Photodegradation converted unfilled PVC samples to a coloured material of lower extensibility.873388 Item 102 Polymer Engineering and Science 42. Brookfield. EASTERN EUROPE. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. they retained all their original strength and stiffness properties even after 2600 hours of cyclic UV irradiation/condensation exposures. contact angle measurement. legislative and scientific attention.) Plasticisers. No. No. UK. The results of the latest studies are summaries.. Properties and Stabilization.874502 Item 101 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering Vol.41. such as Vestolit B 7021. The legislative and environmental pressures on plasticisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. have long been the focus of considerable media.997-06 THE RELATION BETWEEN THE FOAMABILITY OF PVC PASTES AND THE QUALITY OF A PVC POLYMER Simonik J Zlin.2002. HUNGARY. a hollow coextruded rigid PVC fence post that it claims will meet the performance criteria of existing wooden and concrete alternatives.Technical University The presence of surfactants make possible the mechanical foaming of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) pastes. pp. Although composite samples exhibited greater discolouration than unfilled PVC samples. it is the effect of a residual emulsifier and the character of particles in terms of their average size and distribution which is important.000 pounds sterling in two coextrusion lines to manufacture the fence posts. Shawbury. 6 refs.873203 Item 103 ANTEC 2002.. Michigan. while providing a big weight saving. Rapra Technology Ltd. p. This paper examines the reasons for the continued widespread use of phthalates. phthalates. EUROPEAN UNION. Kamdem D P Michigan. WESTERN EUROPE secure the formation of a PVC foam and its stability at the next processing. BELGIUM.State University The UV weathering performance of PVC filled with different concentrations of wood flour was studied. Proceedings of a conference held Budapest.5. 012 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 67 . which Accession no. and their impact is considered on the risk assessments being conducted on five phthalates in line with the requirements of Council Regulation 793/ 93. CDROM.. The Sheffieldbased company has invested more than 400.References and Abstracts Polyfence has developed Supalite.3343. Ct. and the particular advantages of certain alternatives. SPE. p.Technological University. Hungary. 5th-9th May 2002. p. Extruded PVC/wood-flour composite samples were subjected to cyclic UV lamps/condensation exposures and assessed over a total of 400 and 2600 hours. Aug. 2002. 22nd-23rd. The experimental results indicated that wood flours were effective chromophore materials as their incorporation into a rigid PVC matrix accelerated the degradation of the polymeric matrix. particularly. The criterion of the viscosity difference makes it possible to assess the pastes of different types of PVC. and Slovinyl K 72. which is insoluble in the non-aqueous medium of the PVC paste. Each assessment consisted of DRIFT-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies. USA Accession no. Ca. Paper 285. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2002. POLYFENCE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The coextruded products comprise a core of recycled PVC enclosed in a skin of high-quality virgin PVC. 53 refs.874602 Item 100 Addcon World 2002. greater durability and a higher quality appearance. 2002. colour measurement and tensile property testing. is manufactured from PVC recovered from the window profile extrusion and window fabrication industry.1657-66 ACCELERATED ULTRAVIOLET WEATHERING OF PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. Associated with the foamability of PVC pastes. with concerns raised regarding their possible negative impact on the environment and human health. Paper 3. EUROPEAN UNION. 28 refs.8. Session T7Vinyl Plastics. The core of the product. AST 66. are presented. Pevikon D 61.Oct. 012 PLASTICISERS FOR PVC: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT Cadogan D F European Council for Plasticisers & Intermediates (Rapra Technology Ltd. The value of this criterion has been proven by a correlation with the rate of degradation of the foam structure and is based on the hypothesis of the formation of a spatial network of molecular and supermolecular clusters of the soap surfactants. together with the response from industry. which makes up around 92% of the total weight of each post. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. An evaluation of the efficiency of the surfactants that are utilised in this technology can be carried out on the basis of the viscosity difference between the descending and rising component of the viscosity curve for the PVC pastes in the region of low shear rates. 29 cm. 2002.4. including changes in the classification and labelling of phthalates.

Watanabe T. Properties and Stabilization. Lukaszewicz E Bydgoszcz. AND APPLICATIONS Parsons M. generated during the combustion of PVC was investigated using dibenzofuran. 1 ref. Nakajima A.EFFECT OF HF-TREATED TI02 Sun R-D.5. The core always formed a single. resulting in enhanced interaction between the surface acid sites and pi electrons of the aromatic compounds. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. Ishihara Sangyo Kaisha Ltd. Brookfield. 22 refs.872894 Item 106 Polymer Degradation and Stability 78. Session T7Vinyl Plastics.1. as evidenced by an increased amount of dioxins trapped in ash generated during the incineration of PVC samples containing the treated titanium dioxide. 2002. 5th-9th May 2002. Lang J Velsicol Chemical Corp.Academy of Science & Technology.3. polypropylene (PP). such as dioxin. JAPAN Accession no. Ca. dart impact energy. Brookfield. and rigid PVC stabilised using a dialkyltin bis (alkyl thioglycolate) was studied. and good adhesion to GFR-PVC. pp. Accession no. flexural modulus and strength. developed to give improved low temperature flexibility. p. PROPERTIES.872897 Item 104 ANTEC 2002. CDROM.. The viscosity of the new plasticiser was 25% lower than that of comparable conventional adipates. No.. It was found that this treatment did improve the adsorption capability of TiO2. More uniform distribution of skin and core layers was obtained at slower injection speeds. Paper 282. core flow ceased. 2003.. Hashimoto K Kanagawa. Proceedings of the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference held San Francisco. whilst further from the gate. Tokyo. Krainer E Crompton Corp. and polycarbonate (PC).872896 Item 105 ANTEC 2002. 10 refs. The samples were characterised by optical microscopy. This improved adsorption capability is attributed to an increase in the amount of surface acid sites on the TiO2 surface. pp. Bacaloglu I. PVC exhibited poor adhesion to PP. 2002. USA Accession no. No. resulting in a skin-only region. Sterzynski T. to optimise the stabiliser composition and content. Dropped dart impact was largely determined by the skin layer. with no delamination and mechanical properties intermediate between those of the constituent polymers. p. (SPE) Degradation of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was studied using capillary rheometry to separately evaluate the static thermal degradation at very low shear rates and the dynamic degradation due to orientation of macromolecules. SPE. (SPE) Plaques were produced using the Mono-sandwich coinjection moulding process.115-9 VISUALISATION OF GELATION INHOMOGENEITY OF PVC Piszczek K.. continuous layer adjacent to the gate. CDROM.479-84 TIO2/POLYMER COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH REDUCED GENERATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING AND AFTER COMBUSTION . Accession no. usually related to the instability of the extrusion process. Ca. Properties and Stabilization. Toyoda P PolyOne Corp.. Blends containing 50 phr plasticiser were prepared. Fisch M H. Session T7Vinyl Plastics.References and Abstracts ADIPATE BASED POLYMERIC PLASTICIZER WITH IMPROVED LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES Streeter B E. and heat distortion temperature. and by measurements of tensile modulus and strength. 012 STUDY OF PVC STABILIZATION USING CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY Bacaloglu R. ABS and PC.University The effect of hydrofluoric acid treatment on the ability of titanium dioxide to adsorb toxic aromatic compounds. was compared with that of a conventional adipate plasticiser of the same molecular weight. 5th-9th May 2002.5.872763 Item 107 Polymer Testing 22. The dry blend time was reduced by 10%. Paper 284. 68 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Ct. Nishikawa T.Technical & Agricultural University The variation the PVC gelation level in extruded products. 012 CO-INJECTION MOLDING OF PVC WITH OTHER THERMOPLASTICS: PROCESSING. Stewen U. Ct. 12 refs. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS). (SPE) The behaviour of an adipic acid-based polymeric plasticiser for poly(vinyl chloride)s. 2002. The new plasticiser exhibited a similar softening efficiency and permanence whilst improving the glass transition and brittle temperatures (3-4 C lower). with rigid poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) being co-injected with glass fibrereinforced PVC (GFR-PVC). as a model compound. Degradation of flexible PVC containing solid mixed metal stabilisers (Ba-Zn and Ca-Zn). impact strength. SPE.

However. corresponding to the initial rapid photo-oxidation of plasticiser moieties bound to the TiO2 surface. These hollow pellets are made using PS as the core material and encapsulating it with polyethylene and ethylene methacrylate copolymer (EMA) that has a degree of adhesion to PS and PE.University (SPE. UK. lower melting polyolefins carry the PS through the extruder in the solid-state either unfoamed or as microcellular foam. PVC pellets. allowing determination of the gelation homogeneity in extruded PVC-U products. During extrusion. Proceedings of a conference held Houston. 2002. is shown to slow the onset of yellowing of PVC caused by the formation of polyene sequences through photodegradation of the polymer matrix. 27cm.Thermoplastic Materials & Foams Div. 9 refs. 012 NOVEL REDUCED DENSITY MATERIALS BY SOLID-STATE EXTRUSION: PROOF-OFCONCEPT EXPERIMENTS Schirmer H G. 22nd-23rd Oct.8. Consequently. 17 refs.2002. These foams have a distinct structure and properties compared to the common meltextruded foams due to the increased molecular orientation in the cell walls. Tx. suggesting that the mode fragmentation is via random scission.. All the fragments are produced at similar levels. The presence of the plasticiser dibutyl adipate (DBA).. are extruded in a way that preserves the microcellular structure of the individual pellet. No. Washington. each with one fewer carbon atoms.University of Wales A closed system incorporating FTIR continuous monitoring and GC-MS sampling is developed to study the generation under UVA illumination of volatile photodegradation products from model plasticised and TiO2 pigmented films. and thus with various degree of gelation. small quantities of organic molecular fragments are released into the gas phase above the films and are trapped using adsorption tubes. Now extrusion of solid-state foams has been accomplished in two different resin systems. Session II. These specially prepared pellets are extruded into a rod and chopped into pellets of lowered bulk density. the softer. In the second system. Ct.872008 Item 108 Plastics. 23 refs. The main task is to develop a simple visualisation method based on swelling and solution effects. Extrusion of solid-state foams has been elusive because they are foamed at the Tg of the polymer. solid state extrusion of foam has been accomplished with the special preparation of coextruded hollow pellets.25-46. The VOC emissions account for only ~3% of the total carbon emission with ~97% accounted for by CO2. Accession no.329-35 TITANIUM DIOXIDE PHOTOCATALYSED OXIDATION OF PLASTICISERS IN THIN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILMS Searle J. p. accompanied by a decreased yellowing rate of the polymer backbone. The rate of CO2 production from irradiated films increases linearly by up to a factor of 21 as the concentration of DBA is raised from 0 to 88 phr. it is ascertained that an etching procedure may be used in parallel and/or instead of rheological or DSC measurements for the determination of the homogeneity of the PVC gelation in extruded products. Worsley D Swansea. near the Tg of the polymer. DSC and rheological investigations confirm the results of the visualisation measurements. 2002.South Texas Section) Solid-state foam refers to polymer foam in which bubble nucleation and growth occurs in the solid-state. that is.871933 Item 109 Foams 2002. using different mechanisms. increasing plasticisation increases the amount of volatile by-products emitted under intense UVA illumination as a result of TiO2 catalysed photodegradation. EASTERN EUROPE.. at levels of 0-88 phr. It is found that the applied visualisation technique allows identification of the regions with a different resistance to attack of a mixture of methylene chloride with cyclohexanone. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. implies that the plasticiser is photo-oxidised in preference to the polymer matrix. Rubber and Composites 31. The production of volatile organic carbon compounds (VOCs) peaks after 1h irradiation. USA Accession no. Brookfield. SPE. The first is based on rigid PVC pellets coated with a plasticiser and dusted with flexible PVC powder. The molecular structures of the emitted species form an homologous series. In addition.871796 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 69 . pre-foamed in a batch solid-state microcellular process. POLAND suggesting that the major breakdown pathway is via complete oxidation with the majority of retained molecular fragments within the irradiated polymer film being subsequently oxidised. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Each resin system uses a different approach to the extrusion process to demonstrate that there are a variety of ways to approach extruding materials in the solid state. Kumar V BBS Corp. This increase in the rate of CO2 production suggests increasing photoactivity within the film and this.References and Abstracts leads to inhomogeneity of the local end-use properties. The efficiency of such oxidation is similar for each fragment as determined by separate complete oxidation studies over irradiated pure TiO2 films. The unique feature in both examples is that the polymer to be solid-state foamed is not melted inside the extruder barrel.. the parent of which is the plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In each case the major product is CO2 with only small quantities of other VOCs being produced.

p. No. The fusion behaviour of the powders was also investigated and the morphology of the particles analysed by scanning electron microscopy. EUROPEAN UNION. The properties of the two different powders are compared. Proprietary surface modification techniques are applied to the 15.868339 Item 113 Modern Plastics International 32. No. Pissis P.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession 40-nm-dia particles to enable compounding of masterbatches. The key to using nano-calcium carbonate to increase the toughness of plastics lies in the dispersion of the nano-calcium carbonate particles in the polymer matrix. pp. 42C382 PVC-WORLD MARKETS AND PROSPECTS Pritchard P Rapra Technology Ltd. Yun J. 30th Sept. 20th Dec. 39 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Guoquan W NanoMaterials Technology Pte Ltd. compounding and processing. The report addresses both raw materials and synthesis.1887-97 ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYMERS FILLED WITH METAL POWDERS Mamunya Y P. 6 refs. US. 2002. Descriptions of individual companies in the PVC industry are cited within the report with details of capacity and prospects provided. vol.FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. Applications are dealt by sector including building and construction.2002. price. WESTERN EUROPE. Athens.University of Science & Technology Slush powders were prepared from mass polymerised and suspension polymerised vinyl chloride polymers and the absorption of plasticisers into the polymers was investigated using the Haake rheomix procedure. wire and cable and packaging. pp. UK.82-3 NANOPARTICLES OFFER PERFORMANCE BOOST IN COMMODITY MATERIALS Jianfeng C. Rapra Technology Ltd. Dai G East China. markets and applications. 2002 PLASTICS WASTE .31.196.871566 Item 111 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 86. WORLD studied. 29 cm. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SINGAPORE Accession no.References and Abstracts Item 110 Shawbury.122. Environmental concerns in the use of PVC including recycling. A CPSC report released in September concludes the agency should not ban PVC toys or issue an advisory on health risks from soft vinyl toys.4.868174 Item 114 Plastics News(USA) 14. GREECE. 30cm. Rapra Review Report 148. safety. 2002.871469 Item 112 European Polymer Journal 38. 70 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Rapra Technology Ltd. The report focuses on global trends indicating where markets are mature and where they are likely to expand. additives. 2002. legislation and end-of-life are discussed here. Oct. p. Sept.13. This report provides an overview of the PVC industry looking at supply and demand.9.3331-5 EFFECT OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) RESIN TYPE IN THE PREPARATION PROCESS OF SLUSH POWDER Luo Y.National Technical University The electrical and thermal conductivity of systems based on epoxy resin and PVC filled with metal powders were Accession no. No. p. p. EUROPEAN UNION. The agency’s report concludes that children are exposed to much less diisononyl phthalate than previously thought. Research has shown that nanoparticles can be employed as a cost-effective means of increasing the toughness (impact strength) of PVC and PP copolymer without compromising rigidity. Davydenko V V. Calcium carbonate nanoparticles are already commercially available from NanoMaterials Technology. Copper and nickel powders having different particle shapes were used as fillers. A model is proposed to describe the shell structure electrical conductivity. Lebedev E V Ukranian Academy of Sciences. 13. environmental issues and the future prospects of the industry. No.2002. medical. as some environmental groups had urged. The economics of the process allow nano-calcium carbonate to be employed to commodity resins.1/20 AGENCY MAY ALTER OPINION ON PVC TOYS Toloken S Four years after pushing the toy industry to remove a controversial phthalate from PVC toys..2002. CHINA Accession no. UKRAINE. Current issues have been highlighted including new technology and market forces.10.868089 Item 115 Shawbury.CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION USA Accession no. the US Consumer Product Safety Commission could be reversing course and saying there is no risk to children from the chemical.

such as dioctyl phthalate(DOP). The topography of deposited silane layer was strongly affected by the silane solution composition and the number of alkoxy groups. diisodecyl phthalate and tri2-ethylhexyl trimellitate.or tri-alkoxy structure. The amount of silane detected on the bead surface was 4 to 6 times that required for a monolayer coverage. The crack propagation behaviour became more brittle with the increase in interfacial adhesion. p. EUROPEAN UNION. and different flame retardant fillers.5. Ecotoxicity and the Environment(SCTEE) guidance release value of 6. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Kazuya Nagata.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. In the PVC-containing toys. No influence of plasticiser type or flame-retardant filler on the thermal properties was observed. zinc borate. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. EU. 16 refs. The DINP and DEHP contents of the samples were also measured.863581 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 71 . The influence of radiation dose on the mechanical properties was minimal both at room temp.References and Abstracts CHEMICAL RECYCLING AND INCINERATION Tukker A TNO Edited by: Humphreys S (Rapra Technology Ltd. 13 refs. Yoshiyuki Tobita. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL EXTRACTION Bouma K.863631 Item 118 Polymer Degradation and Stability 77. No.221-6 FLAME RETARDANCY OF RADIATION CROSSLINKED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) USED AS AN INSULATING MATERIAL FOR WIRE AND CABLE Basfar A A Saudi Arabia. No.7 micrograms/min/10 sq cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. Particular reference is made to the experience of the TNO-CML Centre of Chain Analysis. Takeo Iida Osaka.6.Institute of Atomic Energy Research Attempts were made to improve the flame retardancy of formulations of radiation-crosslinked PVC for wire and cable insulation applications. June 2002.867304 Item 116 Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology 16.523-42 SURFACE STRUCTURE OF SILANE-TREATED GLASS BEADS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED COMPOSITES Yoshinobu Nakamura. based on a number of life cycle assessments. Limiting oxygen index(LOI) was used to characterise the flammability of the formulations developed. for loss of 50% mass decreased with increasing irradiation dose. 28 refs. UK. on the mechanical properties and flammability was investigated. NETHERLANDS. including aspects of the environmental and economic pros and cons relating to feedstock recycling in comparison with incineration or mechanical recycling of municipal solid waste. The highest LOI was 39% for PVC formulations containing DOP as a plasticiser and trimethylpropane triacrylate at absorbed doses of 90 and 120 kGy. Other plasticisers and additives found in minor amounts should also be regulated. Substitutes found for phthalate plasticisers were acetyltributyl citrate. Okayama Prefecture Industrial Technology Center Four different silane coupling agents were used for the surface treatment of glass beads. The yield stress was higher for a silane with a dialkoxy structure that for a silane with a trialkoxy structure for both aminopropyl and methacryloxypropyl silanes.) Rapra Review Report No.Inspectorate for Health Protection & Veterinary Public Health The plastics materials and plasticisers currently being used in soft toys were studied.148 This report discusses the options for feedstock recycling of plastics waste. tributyl citrate and diisononyl adipate. Naoki Yokouchi.Institute of Technology. JAPAN Accession no. aluminium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide. Italy. The effect of plasticisers. The DEHP migration of six toys exceeded the SCTEE guidance release value of 1. Both differential TGA peak maxima and temp. and after thermal ageing for 168 hours at 136C. Schakel D J Netherlands. (8th European Conference on Fire Retardant Polymers.e. The silanes used have an aminopropyl or a methacryloxypropyl group as an organofunctional group with di. June 2001) SAUDI ARABIA Accession no. The mechanical properties of silane-treated glass bead-filled PVC was also investigated. Alessandria. p. antimony oxide. the diisononyl phthalate(DINP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate(DEHP) release was determined in saliva simulant using the ‘Head over Heels’ agitation method. NETHERLANDS. All the toys complied with the Scientific Committee on Toxicity.485 refs. chosen as a model filler.602-10 MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PVC TOYS INTO SALIVA SIMULANT BY DYNAMIC Accession no.2.864572 Item 117 Food Additives and Contaminants 19. p. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE. i. 2002. The topography of the silane layer was studied using atomic force microscopy. Hideyuki Nigo. The elongation-at-break decreased by the surface treatment in the opposite order to the yield stress.

ECOEMBALAJES ESPANA SA. Popovic I G. UNIONPLAST EUROPE-GENERAL. dodecyl benzene or combinations thereof.542. its own environmental policy led it to stop using DEHP. Novi Sad. No. Cvorkov L Belgrade. Unionplast.University. annealing. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.130/4 Spanish RECYCLING OF PVC Spanish initiatives in PVC recycling are examined with particular reference to mechanical recycling.859208 Item 121 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8.wt.& CO. UK. Europe’s largest supplier of vinyl flooring to the commercial sector. The effects of clay loading. Stojkov D. June 2002.. on the formation of the composites are discussed and fire properties of PVCorganically modified clay and PVC-sodium clay nanocomposites are presented and discussed. DOP concentration. REVINIL.University The results are reported of a study of the effects of several plasticisers on the density. Aug. Details are given. This article provides details of the association’s findings.2001. p. Yao Q. HISPAVIC INDUSTRIAL SA. it became the first flooring company to make a wholesale switch from DEHP to another phthalate DINP. FRANCE. Sintelon AD. USA Accession no. DMA and cone calorimetry. ATOFINA ESPANA.27 RECYCLING OF PIPES AND FITTINGS The Italian association for plastics processors. DU PONT DE NEMOURS E. blending time and molec. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. AMTICO CO.858829 Item 123 Macplas International Feb. YUGOSLAVIA Accession no. LOOK TO NON-PVC FUTURE Producers of PVC floor coverings are reported to have begun to substitute the controversial phthalate plasticiser DEHP even before the outcome of an EU risk assessment of the chemical. DOP. and has carried out a market survey specifically regarding PVC pipes and pipe-fittings. p. AISCONDEL SA. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.30 VINYL FLOORING FIRMS SHUN DEHP.Polytechnic University The results are reported of an in depth study of the structure. EASTERN EUROPE. thermal properties.2002. Investigative properties employed included X-ray diffraction. 72 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .INC. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts Item 119 ENDS Report No. No. CICLOPLAST SA. dynamic mechanical properties. and developments in chemical recycling techniques are also reviewed. 27th-28th May 2002. Plasticisers employed were di-iso-heptyl phthalate. Tarkett Sommer. SPAIN. TARKETT SOMMER. With the alarm bells sounding in 2000.2. 9 refs. The trigger for several flooring producers to stop using DEHP was an EU decision in 2001 to upgrade its classification from a category 3 to a category 2 reproductive toxicant for fertility and developmental effects. Wilkie C A Marquette. dioctyl adipate. Proceedings of a conference held Heidelberg. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. says that even though the new label does not have to be applied to finished products. Growing numbers are also developing non-PVC floorings. and a map shows the geographical distribution of PVC recyclers in Spain. Parlow D.329. Containers of DEHP must now be labelled as such and carry a skull and crossbones symbol.860448 Item 120 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 8. Brankov K. WESTERN EUROPE. has been collecting figures for many years with the aim of devising a feasible recovery and recycling system for end-of-life plastic products.139-50 MELT BLENDING PREPARATION OF PVCSODIUM CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Accession no. Statistics are presented for sources of PVC waste and forms and applications of the recycled materials. ITALY..I. TGA.2. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Wang D. butyl benzyl phthalate. flammability and smoke properties of melt blended PVC-sodium montmorillonite nanocomposites.859206 Item 122 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 82. June 2002.159-65 THE EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FOAMS Velickovic S J.855895 Item 124 Blowing Agents and Foaming Processes 2002. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS EU. which they say have at least comparable properties. p. Brooklyn. June 2002. No. EUROPEAN UNION. A full EU risk assessment of the chemical is still under way. TEM. EUROPEAN UNION. elasticity and degree of expansion of foams produced from different PVC plastisols containing either 44 parts of chalk and 52 parts of plasticiser or 60 parts of chalk and 66 parts of plasticiser. 15 refs. p.University.

36). 012 EVALUATION OF FLAME RETARDANTS AND © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 73 . The Natural Step framework evaluates the challenges needed to make PVC truly sustainable across its entire life cycle. pp. catalogues were devised of statistics of descriptors according to the classes of compounds. The additives. 2002. AUSTRIA.Ecole Nationale Polytechnique The interactions between plasticised PVC packaging and food were studied. Within such a framework. No. stirring. nature of food simulant and initial concentration of plasticiser was investigated. a method of prognosis was developed. 7 refs. ECPI. on the basis of which. London. 2000. the basis of which is that organic compounds showing a particular activity in a polymer composite. 17 PVC:AN EVALUATION USING THE NATURAL STEP FRAMEWORK Everard M (Natural Step. No.4. 012 FEEDBLOCK TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOAM CORE PRODUCTS Dobrowsky J Cincinnati Milacron Austria (Rapra Technology Ltd. p. Italy.590-601. EUROPEAN UNION. form more or less compact clusters in some n-dimensional space. p.7. UK. atomic absorption spectrometry and DSC analysis.113-121. pp. Additives-plasticisers and stabilisers. 30cm. 29cm. UK. 2002.Voluntary Commitment of the PVC Industry. Ouahmed S Accession no. UK. Paper 60. The Natural Step UK. Rapra Technology Ltd.) This paper is a replication of a PowerPoint presentation and shows slides on new feedblock technology for foamed PVC products. RUSSIA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The key questions explored in this study are whether the PVC industry is currently sustainable or is it moving towards increased sustainability and what steps are needed to make PVC sustainable? EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION.853075 Item 129 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. June 2001) ALGERIA Accession no..854595 Item 125 Cheltenham.853889 Item 126 Brussels. FTIR spectroscopy. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Algiers.853888 Item 127 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. tin-based heat stabiliser.191-201 STUDY OF THE MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES FROM PLASTICIZED PVC Belhaneche-Bensemra N.853302 Item 128 International Polymer Science and Technology 29. social progress and dialogue. The coordinate axes of such a space can represent the physicochemical. were first characterised and kinetic studies of their specific migrations were then carried out using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography.T/78-81 COMPUTER DESIGN OF ACTIVE ADDITIVES FOR PVC Germashev A computer aided technique for the design of organic active additives for PVC is described. and internal and external lubricants. Fuzzy methods of classification are employed for the classification which then uses a statistical sample of the appropriate organic compound from the total number available.. 2001.22. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Principles and actions covering the period 2000-2010 apply to the following: PVC manufacture. Zeddam C. p. EUPC. ECVM. p. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. IOM Communications Ltd. conjugation descriptors which are used in the design process. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton.180. processing aid.References and Abstracts Shawbury. length descriptors. 2001. The study uses the idea of the virtual space of chemical compounds. 23rd-25th April 2002. pp. Polymer Processing and Structure Relationships Symposium. Rimini. 30cm. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.64. mechanical and other parameters in respect of the known ideas or the fundamental values of he properties of the molecule. including di-2ethylhexyl phthalate plasticiser. The method proposed refers to the analysis of the relationship structure vs. 17 VINYL 2010: THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT OF THE PVC INDUSTRY (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. management. EUROPEAN UNION.Environment Agency) This is the full report of the Natural Step in the UK research project which was initiated by the PVC Co-ordination Group.. UK. Paper 11. 21cm. 2002. The current research uses descriptors contained in existing catalogues of the following types: structural descriptors. 2002. The influence of various parameters such as temp. waste management. property of organic substances used as additives for polymer compositions based on PVC. 5 refs. monitoring and financial scheme. ESPA) This report sets out the future objectives of the Vinyl 2010 . including coextruded foam core pipe and sheet. (EUROMAT 2001.

EUROPEAN UNION. DSC and X-ray scattering. that the original crystal structure of these long blocks was destroyed by melting of the chlorinated PE and that the impact properties of the PVC were improved when a chlorinated PE having from 2 to 3% crystallinity was employed as impact modifier. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The preparation of PVC insulation and sheathing compounds having oxygen index values greater than 30% using a combination of Firebrake ZB zinc borate and a phosphate ester plasticiser is also demonstrated. USE AND IMPACT OF LUBRICANTS .852796 Item 130 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.References and Abstracts SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR RIGID PVC Thomas N L. 2002. (Institute of Materials) The fire performance of several inorganic flame retardants in rigid PVC formulations was investigated using cone calorimetry and limited oxygen index testing. Ineos Silicas Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE carried out on PVC wall coverings. UK.852795 Item 131 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. shear liquefaction by lubricants and the suitability of various lubricants for the manufacture of calendered PVC films in relation to melt elasticity. Harvey R J EVC (UK) Ltd. PVC foam and clear film containing.569-78. IOM Communications Ltd. 11 refs.852794 Item 132 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 59. HUNGARY. release effect. as an aluminosilicate. their effects during plastics processing and their influence in the calendering process are discussed in depth. flow and plate-out. Paper 58.. EUROPEAN UNION. which show that lead-free. EUROPEAN UNION. 23rd-25th April 2002. zinc hydroxystannate and ammonium octamolybdate.559-68. The data obtained show that partial replacement of titanium dioxide makes whiteness retention possible and gives rise to a reduction in surface gloss. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY..579-89. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 LOW-SMOKE. fusion delay by external lubricants. 012 USE OF ALUMINOSILICATES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO TRADITIONAL WHITE PIGMENTS IN PVC PLASTISOLS Eastup P. p. was also evaluated. Zeocros E100. Toft A European Vinyls Corp. p. 23rd-25th April 2002.852792 74 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . The influence of the flame retardants on properties of the PVC. viscosity reduction by internal lubricants. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. Shen K K Rio Tinto Borax (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of studies on PVC formulations. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. EASTERN EUROPE. Attention is paid to the different internal/external behaviour of lubricants. 21cm. London. heat stable. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Zinc hydroxystannate was found to exhibit the best overall fire retardant and smoke suppressant characteristics and to have no detrimental effects on important physicomechanical properties. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. It was found that the residual crystallinity of the chlorinated PE originated from long blocks. 2002. LEADFREE FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Ferm D J. London. Paper 57. London. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. Leeuwendal R. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The optimum level of zinc hydroxystannate was found to be from 3 to 4 phr. THERMALLY STABLE. fillers and other additives.852793 Item 133 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.. 7 refs. 21cm. 6 refs.555-8. 2002. p.. (Institute of Materials) The potential use of aluminosilicates as pigment extenders in PVC plastisols is considered and the results of tests Accession no. are reported. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Howick C. GERMANY. Paper 56. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 SELECTION. UK. Flame retardants evaluated were antimony trioxide. zinc borate.WAXES FOR PVC FILMS Richter E Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of lubricants. colour and impact strength. flexible PVC compounds can be prepared through the proper selection of calcium/zinc stabilisers combined with selected costabilisers. UK.. including heat stability. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 EFFECT OF RESIDUAL CRYSTALLINITY OF CPE IMPACT MODIFIER ON THE IMPACT PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC Marossy K BorsodChem RT (Institute of Materials) The influence of residual crystallinity of chlorinated PE on the impact properties of rigid PVC containing various amounts of the impact modifier was investigated by means of impact and tensile testing.

852789 Item 136 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 21cm. The results of an investigation into the mechanical properties of OBS stabilised pressure pipes are also reported. less expensive zeolite costabiliser. environmental and regulation aspects and outlook for these organic based stabilisers are also discussed.504-14. product development over the years and life cycle and landfill studies on PVC containing tin stabilisers. UK. Paper 52. A HISTORY OF SAFE USE Atofina Chemicals Inc. a general-purpose. is reported and the results are reported of investigations into the heat stability. GERMANY. A comparison is also made of the performance of PVC formulations containing these stabilisers with those containing conventional stabilisers. 23rd-25th April 2002.852786 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 75 . Marcus B PQ Corp. food-contact applications and potable water pipes. London. p.515-28. Paper 55. (Institute of Materials) A discussion is presented on the safe use of tin compounds. The chemistry. 21cm. including handling of tin stabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Lagor SpA (Institute of Materials) The development of oligomeric and/or polymeric aminouracil stabilisers.496-503. Allieri G Lamberti SpA. 21cm. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p.. 012 FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMOPLASTIC IMPACT MODIFIERS FOR RIGID PVC Berard M T. 21cm. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Various aspects are addressed. Paper 50. IOM Communications Ltd. (Institute of Materials) Tailoring of the properties of zeolites is discussed and the development of zeolite costabilisers. It is shown that the treatment of a PVC melt as a fillercontaining polymer provides information on the anomalous effects observed in the rheological properties of PVC and that differences in the fusion behaviour of PVC compounds containing different impact modifiers and lubricants can be explained with the aid of this approach. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.529-39.548-54. worker exposure to tin-based heat stabilisers. in PVC processing technology. staining and blistering of plasticised PVC formulations containing these stabilisers. UK. which are based on Crompton Vinyl Additives’ Accession no. 17 refs. 012 TIN STABILISERS. The performance of Advera 401P. 012 NEW ORGANIC PVC STABILISERS Norcini G. a zeolite costabiliser for rigid PVC where high impact performance at high loadings of costabiliser is required. IOM Communications Ltd. which are suitable as heat stabilisers for rigid and flexible PVC. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002. London.852788 Item 137 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 23 refs. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. London.. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The recycling. food packaging. 8 refs.. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Sabbagh A B DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC (Institute of Materials) The concept that friction between filler particles and breakdown of filler network is heat generating is applied to an understanding of the fusion behaviour of PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. and Advera 401S. 16 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.. EUROPEAN UNION. which are organic based stabilisers particularly suitable for rigid PVC pipe applications. Paper 53. such as toys. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. p. 2002. Paper 51. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. for use in PVC applications is reported. called Advera 401. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. UK. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which are crystalline sodium aluminosilicates. WESTERN EUROPE pyrimidindiones. London.References and Abstracts Item 134 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. in flexible and rigid PVC systems is demonstrated. p. 012 ZEOLITE CO-STABILISERS FOR PVC APPLICATIONS Wypart R W. EUROPEAN UNION.852791 Item 135 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION.852787 Item 138 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 4 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. USA. USA. 2002. 21cm. USA. as heat stabilisers. ITALY. stabilisation mechanism and absorption spectra of these stabilisers are described and the results of studies on the influence of different PVCs and two different polymer K-values on a sewage pipe formulation stabilised with these OBS systems are reported.. regulations relating to the use of tin stabilisers in PVC products. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISER SYSTEM Hopfmann Th Crompton Vinyl Additives GmbH (Institute of Materials) A report is presented on the development of OBS systems.

London.486-95.471-85. London. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 33 refs. MacDonald S. foamed sheets and profiles. London. SCANDINAVIA. UK.437-44. IOM Communications Ltd. 21cm. GERMANY. PVC pipes and fittings and profiles.. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd.445-57. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. 2002. Spiral flow and colour development during injection moulding are discussed and the results of customer trials on a large Accession no. 012 DUAL SLIT IN-LINE DIE MEASURING THE FLOW PROPERTIES OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS Thorsteinsen P. Krainer E. Stabiliser systems based on calcium and zinc are considered to be the stabiliser systems of the future. zinc. (Institute of Materials) The characteristics of organic based heat stabilisers used in PVC are outlined and a comparison is made of the performance of an organic based stabiliser one-pack with a traditional lead stabiliser one-pack in the injection moulding of an unplasticised PVC pipe compound. Bacaloglu I Crompton Technical Center (Institute of Materials) The mechanism of stabilisation of PVC by calcium/zinc stabilisers is briefly discussed and the development of highly efficient. 012 OVERVIEW ON CURRENT STABILISER SYSTEMS AND OUTLOOK ON FUTURE SYSTEMS Reith W Baerlocher GmbH 76 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .. Hinrichsen E L. 23rd-25th April 2002. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Fakinlede J. p. Schiller M Chemson Ltd. 2002.852785 Item 140 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.References and Abstracts Item 139 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. Data in graph form on PVC compounds containing these stabilisers are included. 21cm. for measuring the flow properties of a material. NORWAY. Fisch M H. Shah M. The use of the rheometer and the way in which the data should be analysed are demonstrated utilising PVC formulations exhibiting very different flow behaviours. Paper 47. is under pressure in some European countries. 012 NEW INTERMEDIATES FOR CALCIUM-ZINC STABILISERS Bacaloglu R. p.852782 Item 143 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Kellett R W. p..852783 Item 142 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. These new stabilisers are capable of providing PVC compounds having equivalent or improved static heat stability when compared with commercial barium-zinc stabilisers even without the addition of high cost costabilisers. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. calcium-zinc or calcium-zinc-phosphite intermediates for PVC is reported. UK. The results of trials carried out on calcium/ zinc stabilised PVC formulations with and without lubricants run on laboratory and production twin-screw extruders aimed at optimising the formulations are also presented and discussed. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. USA. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. 11 refs. IOM Communications Ltd.461-70. IOM Communications Ltd. This rheometer permits the determination simultaneously of the shear viscosity and slip velocity according to the Mooney technique and the planar elongational using Cogswell equations. WESTERN EUROPE (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented on current stabilisers for cables. which shows that lead is the most used stabiliser but. EUROPEAN UNION. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. GERMANY. 21cm. Paper 48. London. solid and liquid calcium/zinc stabilisers based on novel types of calcium. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. 012 ORGANIC BASED STABILISERS FOR INJECTION MOULDING Cockett S. Glomsaker T Hydro Polymers AS (Institute of Materials) The development of an instrumented dual slit die rheometer. 23rd-25th April 2002. Stewen U. which is mounted on a twin-screw extruder.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p.. 23rd-25th April 2002. Paper 49. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. like tin.852784 Item 141 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. 012 LUBRICANTS FOR CA/ZN STABILISED PVCPROFILES Kling R Clariant GmbH (Institute of Materials) Lubricants used in PVC formulations are briefly described. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. is reported. Paper 46. Paper 45. 2002. which has undergone a thermomechanical history comparable to a material in a profile die. UK.

7 refs.References and Abstracts four impression pipe fitting tool equipped with tab gates are briefly reported. which help to further improve the economic performance of oriented PVC and modified PVC pipes containing calcium zinc and organic stabilisers. BELGIUM. THE NEW PROCESS THAT REGENERATES PVC COMPOUNDS OUT OF PVC COMPOSITE RESIDUES Leitner H Solvay SA (Institute of Materials) The basic principles of the Vinyloop process. 012 ENERGY AND HCL RECOVERY FROM PVC IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION Musdalslien U I. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which are less prone to wear.. London. IOM Communications Ltd.410-5. SCANDINAVIA. 2002.388-98. GERMANY. 012 HIGHER OUTPUT AND LESS WEAR Schneider H-P Krauss-Maffei Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An in-depth analysis is made of the wear behaviour of Krauss-Maffei’s twin-screw extruders for manufacturing PVC pipes. The impact of a facility for the Vinyloop process on the environment and the profitability of the process are discussed and the future for the Vinyloop process is briefly considered.322-9.852777 Item 147 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN UNION. are outlined. IOM Communications Ltd. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. Paper 44. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 77 . 21cm.382-7.. 012 EXTRUSION MANUFACTURE OF PVC-O AND PVC-M PIPES WITH ORGANIC STABILISERS THE PACIFIC PERSPECTIVE Crema J. 2002.. 012 STERICALLY HINDERED PHENOLS IN PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF PVC Wegmann A. The overall European situation with regard to residue generation and processing costs is discussed and the progress being made towards the voluntary commitment of the PVC industry in relation to municipal solid waste incineration and other recovery processes. London. 21cm. Paper 32. 21cm. a mechanical recycling process using an organic solvent to separate PVC compounds from other materials and provide a precipitated PVC compound with a formula similar to that of the original material. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. The characteristics and target applications of the precipitated PVC compound are indicated as are the best suited raw materials for the process. is reported. 012 VINYLOOP. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. NORWAY.416-36. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Paper 40. 3 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. UK. AUSTRALIA. London. Paper 43. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. output rates and configuration of these extruders are briefly described and a policy for dealing with wear problems in extruders is outlined. UK. 2002. London. 15 refs. WESTERN EUROPE London. The energy balance. UK. (Institute of Materials) Improved techniques for stabilising formulations and identifying and targeting the extrusion process window. p. UK. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm.852780 Item 145 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Aylett G J Vinidex Pty. Sandberg P Norsk Hydro (Institute of Materials) The reasons why incineration is viewed as an attractive recovery option are outlined and environmental challenges facing the incineration industry are considered. p. IOM Communications Ltd.852779 Item 146 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p.. Paper 41.. p. Xanthopoulos P Ciba Specialty Chemicals (Institute of Materials) Accession no. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. The implications of this extrusion process window concept on the whole manufacturing process and the need for a concurrent approach for developing and commercialising new technologies are briefly discussed. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. Wear mechanisms and factors for minimising wear and influencing wear behaviour are discussed and the development of a new series of 36D double degassing extruders. are described. 2002.852776 Item 148 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.852781 Item 144 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.Ltd. p.

London.852768 Item 149 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future.273-81. 2002. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.. ITALY. p.186-91. 2002. (Institute of Materials) A study was carried out into the potential recovery of plasticiser and solvent from waste PVC plastisols using a ceramic multi-bore crossflow tube filter.. gloss. optimisation trial.. Paper 30. EUROPEAN UNION. London. concentration run.221-7. Paper 27. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The antifouling action of Evicas 90. Paper 20. 012 NEW GENERATION OF STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PVC PROFILES Schiller M. The ceramic membrane successfully recovered a clear mixture of DINP and white spirit. Properties evaluated included rheological properties..852766 Item 151 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. p. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm. colour. EUROPEAN UNION. p.. as effective chain-stoppers and antioxidants in PVC polymerisation and as heat stabilisers for MBS (impact modifiers for PVC) and PVC plasticisers are demonstrated. 10 refs. UK. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. London. Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The procedure employed to perform the test sequence involved clean water flux measurement. London. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Malcomson S P 78 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. Fischer W.852763 Item 152 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 31. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 21cm. Cockett S Chemson Group (Institute of Materials) Polyvinyl chloride window profile formulations containing organic-based and calcium-zinc stabilisers were produced and the performance of the stabilised PVC compounds compared. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. IOM Communications Ltd. 012 DETECTION AND REDUCTION OF VOLATILE EMISSIONS FROM FLEXIBLE PVC Mellor M T J. 012 MAGIC INGREDIENTS FOR PVC Bechthold N Degussa (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of antifoam chemistry from Degussa and its application to the production and formulation of organo-modified siloxane anti-foaming agents for polyvinyl chloride. 21cm. is demonstrated and the main factors influencing the formation of polymer build-up and the effectiveness of antifouling agents are outlined. media acclimatisation. Permeate samples were analysed using gas chromatography and compared with standards of diisononylphthalate(DINP)/white spirit mixtures.852756 Item 153 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. London. EVC ITALIA SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 THE POTENTIAL RECOVERY OF PLASTICISER AND SOLVENT FROM WASTE PVC PLASTISOLS USING MEMBRANE SEPARATION TECHNOLOGY Bushell T. 7 refs. 012 MECHANISM OF ANTI-FOULING AGENTS IN S-PVC POLYMERISATIONS Visentini A (Institute of Materials) The formation of polymer build-up in polymerisation reactors and the routes towards minimising polymer buildup are described.852767 Item 150 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. UK. 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. IOM Communications Ltd. UK. 23rd-25th April 2002. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. a naphthol/formaldehyde condensate.311-6. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2002.317-21. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. UK. Paper 17. p. cleaning trial and final water flux measurement. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GERMANY. SWITZERLAND.References and Abstracts The use and benefits of liquid. heat stability. EUROPEAN UNION. IOM Communications Ltd. partially hindered phenols. such as Irganox 1141. UK. Howick C Pall Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Akros Chemicals (Institute of Materials) An overview is presented of the analytical methods employed to detect volatile organic compounds associated with solid and liquid stabilisers in PVC used in such applications as floor coverings and wall coverings and a description is given of the ways in which these methods are being utilised to improve stabiliser performance in flexible polyvinyl chloride.. European Vinyls Corp. EUROPEAN UNION. 21cm. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. p. IOM Communications Ltd. 23rd-25th April 2002.

852749 Item 157 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 21cm.852750 Accession no. including window profiles. London. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. p. London. IOM Communications Ltd. on plate-out are discussed and mechanisms explaining the formation of plate-out are proposed. 2002.WHERE TO GO IN TOOLING Dorninger F Technoplast Kunststofftechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) An examination is made of past and future trends in extrusion tooling. Honeywell. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. The characteristics and benefits of the products are also considered. p. plate-out and artificial weathering.852743 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 79 . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 6 refs. A Rheoplast Capillary Rheometer with a pre-shearing device was employed to investigate the melt viscoelastic properties of the formulations and the performance of the formulations in terms of post-extrusion shrinkage.University. fences and foam profiles. including DSC. 2002.852752 Item 155 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. flow simulation. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. SEM-EDX. 012 EXTRUSION TOOLS . process documentation and customer education.105-15. BELGIUM. WESTERN EUROPE Item 156 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Paper 16. Van Soom K. 012 EXTRUSION OF WOOD-PVC COMPOSITE MATERIALS Sehnal E Cincinnati Extrusion (Institute of Materials) The extrusion of woodlike. Chemson (Institute of Materials) The results are reported of a study of plate-out in PVC extrusion carried out using several analytical techniques.179-85. IOM Communications Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. IOM Communications Ltd. melt homogenisation. 2 refs. London. Trends in high speed extrusion. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. such as alumina and silica. recyclability. 2002. Paper 7. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. AUSTRIA.852753 Item 154 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. A special die and calibrator unit developed to investigate plate-out are illustrated and the reproducibility of the method evaluated.. Paper 8. p.THE TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECT Seifert S Battenfeld Extrusionstechnik GmbH (Institute of Materials) The aim of coextrusion is outlined and the tooling available for different types of profiles. EUROPEAN UNION.. Paper 13. wood-filled and wood profiles based upon wood fibres and PVC is discussed and the extruders employed are described. 012 RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED PVC PROFILES FOR WINDOW APPLICATIONS Cora B Rohm & Haas European Laboratories (Institute of Materials) The effect of the type of impact modifier on the melt flow of a PVC window profile formulation as a function of shear rates encountered during extrusion was investigated and the relationship between the melt flow and mechanical properties of the profiles evaluated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. 012 PLATE-OUT IN PVC EXTRUSION Gilbert M. inexpensive tooling. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. London. 23rd-25th April 2002. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. London. 21cm. 23rd-25th April 2002. AUSTRIA. Varshney N.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. 23rd-25th April 2002. 21cm.852744 Item 158 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. 012 COEXTRUSION OF PVC PROFILES . EUROPEAN UNION.95-104. UK.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 2002. Machinery for coextrusion is also described and details are provided on a specially designed coextruder (BEX 254CC/1) equipped with negative conical screws. FTIR spectroscopy and laser ionisation mass spectrometry.157-65. The effects of water content and anti-plate-out additives. 21cm. UK. 6 refs. sidings. 21cm. IOM Communications Ltd. Schiller M Loughborough. FRANCE. flexible tooling. UK.151-6. UK. Paper 14.References and Abstracts mechanical properties. GERMANY.. 23rd-25th April 2002. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. surface gloss and enthalpy relaxation discussed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. is described. bypass rheometry. dual extrusion. 11 refs. AUSTRIA. 23rd-25th April 2002.

No. 2002. Stoynov L A. The effect of variation of parameters such as standoff distance. p. No. 53-62. A risk assessment conducted during a recent EU review was unable to estimate human NP exposure from pesticides in food. EUROPEAN UNION.University The molecular orientation on a conventionally extruded PVC pipe. GERMANY. Jan.852455 Item 161 European Chemical News 76. 8th-14th April 2002. April 2002. 18 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.13 NONYL PHENOL “UBIQUITOUS IN FOOD”. plastics additives with approval for direct food contact. UK. packaging and cleaning products are possible sources. 2002. PVC and PS. p.8.852435 Item 162 Journal of Polymer Engineering Vol. Andrikopoulos K S HELLAS A new method is proposed for the estimation of the segmental orientation of vinyl or vinylidene polymers of moderate crystallinity by acquisition of only one Raman spectrum at a specific polarisation geometry. p. the EC Green Paper on stabilisers published on 27th July 2000 and the resolution of the EU Parliament relating to lead and cadmium stabilisers adopted on 3rd April 2001.4.. EUROPEAN UNION.1-25 THERMOPLASTIC JOINING USING SOLAR ENERGY CONCENTRATOR Siores E. isotactic PP.2000. The Accession no. GERMANY.References and Abstracts Item 159 PVC 2002: Towards a Sustainable Future. Nonylphenol is a persistent. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU.327./Feb. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p.22. 23rd-25th April 2002. PP. p. APPLIED MARKET INFORMATION EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.851725 Item 164 Journal of Materials Science 37.1675-82 POLARISED INFRARED AND DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY STUDIES ON ORIENTED VINYL PIPE MATERIALS Kwon J A. 21 refs. Tensile tests were conducted to determine the bond strength at the joint interface. Swinburne. Paper 4. Yarlagadda P K D V Queensland. RESEARCHERS FIND German researchers have reported that the oestrogenic chemical nonylphenol is detectable in all kinds of foods. a uniaxially oriented PVC pipe and a biaxially oriented PVC pipe was studied by IR dichroism. Truss R W Queensland. toxic and oestrogenic chemical used in PVC.University of Technology Details are given of the feasibility of using concentrated solar beam radiation for joining engineering thermoplastics such as HDPE.University of Technology. However. WESTERN EUROPEGENERAL volumes compounded by smaller independent producers since 1999 and this trend is set to continue. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE. These include the structure and mission of the ESPA. key milestones of the PVC Industry Voluntary Commitment relating to stabilisers. 21cm. current EU legislative status of cadmium and lead.528-35 FAST MONITORING OF THE MOLECULAR ORIENTATION IN DRAWN POLYMERS USING MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY Voyiatzis G A. tin stabilisers for PVC and issues concerning zinc. weld time and idle processing temperature along with the analysis of the tensile strength of the resultant bond is discussed. They suggest that pesticides. 15th April 2002. but did consider potential exposures from migration from food packaging. alternatives to lead. scenario of lead replacement in Western Europe.852740 Item 160 ENDS Report No. No. All the top five PVC compounders in Europe but one are major PVC producers. GREECE. London.851731 Item 163 Applied Spectroscopy 56. according to a recent study by Applied Market Information.12 PRODUCERS STILL DOMINATE MARKET Atofina continues to lead the European PVC compounding market. and PVDF. AUSTRALIA Accession no. IOM Communications Ltd. Proceedings of a conference held Brighton. April 2002.1. 012 THE VOLUNTARY COMMITMENT STABILISER CHANGES Rosenthal M ESPA (Institute of Materials) This presentation covers various aspects relating to stabilisers. The advantages and limitations of the solar energy concentrator technique are assessed. there has been a significant increase in the 80 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .INSTITUTE OF APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Data are presented for PVC. JULICH. No.

851679 Item 165 Polymer Science Series B 44. GERMANY. whereas kaolin-filled compositions exhibited a more complex behaviour.vii. 21cm. An increase in the chalk content in a PVC composition led to a monotonic increase in D.2. 20 refs.. of the PVC samples containing carbon black and 9MAn. Shishkin E V. Shiga T. AUSTRALIA Accession no.2002. Sustainability. IOM Communications Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Addition of 5% ZnS had no significant influence on the fire retardant. Additives EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 10 refs. pp.5. XII. Neubert D. The fluorescence lifetimes of 9MAn in this nondestructive measurement were correlated with the stresses. Synergism of ZnS and antimony oxide allowed the possibility of replacing half the antimony oxide with ZnS to reach equivalent fire retardancy. PROCEEDINGS OF A CONFERENCE HELD BRIGHTON. The combustion behaviour (time to ignition.Soed.State University An IR spectroscopy technique was developed to study the plasticiser migration from polymer compositions to the air environment. Polymerisation.3. 2002.2600-3 MEASUREMENT OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN INJECTION-MOLDED POLYMER PARTS BY TIME-RESOLVED FLUORESCENCE Ikawa T.850492 Item 166 London.363-8) RUSSIA Plasticised PVC containing different combinations of additives such as 5% ZnS.608. antimony oxide and the corresponding mixtures on the thermal decomposition of plasticised PVC was demonstrated. Shatalin Yu V. Knyazeva E A Data are given on the thermal stability of Sinstad composition employed for stabilising compositions based on PVC.850351 Item 167 Polymer International 51. smoke production. Tidjani A Germany. respectively. Flexibles. Okada A Toyota Central R & D Laboratories Inc. The observed pattern of changes in D with varying filler content was correlated with the competing interaction of components in the system.32 Russian SINSTAD POLYFUNCTIONAL COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. p.B. 23RD-25TH APRIL 2002 European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers. Synergism was observed for the combination of the two additives. Pyzh’yanova L G Urals. No. 29 refs. (Full translation of Vys. 26 refs. PIFA (Institute of Materials) The key theme of this three day international conference is the role the PVC industry can play in creating a sustainable future. SYNERGISTIC ADDITIVES IN SINSTAD COMPOSITION No B I. CO production) was monitored versus external heat fluxes between 30 and 75 kW/sq m with the cone calorimeter.References and Abstracts degree of order or crystallinity was also studied by DSC and FTIR. The influence of ZnS. Accession no. heat release.1-2.45-9 IR SPECTROSCOPY STUDY OF PLASTICIZER MIGRATION FROM POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)BASED COMPOSITIONS Lirova B I. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology.213-22 ZNS AS FIRE RETARDANT IN PLASTICISED PVC Schartel B. 44. Kunze R. p. mass loss. p. Lyutikova E A. Papers are divided into nine sessions: Strategic direction.12.847565 Item 168 Plasticheskie Massy No. UK. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.846968 Item 169 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 83. The thermal degradation and the combustion behaviour were studied by TGA coupled with FTIR or with mass spectrometry(MS) and using a cone calorimeter. Mel’nik A I. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 PVC 2002:TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE. Jan. Challenges and markets./Feb. 5% antimony oxide and 5% of mixtures based on antimony oxide and ZnS was studied. p. Data on the decomposition and release of the pyrolysis products were obtained using both TGAMS and TGA-FTIR. The applicability of the method was demonstrated for filled PVC compositions plasticised with di-n-butyl phthalate. May 2001. not the strains. Stabilisers. BPF. Klimov D S. Time-resolved fluorescence using 9-methylanthracene (9MAn) as a photoluminescent probe was used to detect residual stresses on polymer products. March 2002. 2002. EUROPEAN UNION.Federal Institute for Materials Research & Testing © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 81 . The test enabled the estimation of residual tensile stresses on Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Nos. p. Processing. 2002. Values for the effective diffusion coefficient(D) of the plasticiser were calculated from the spectroscopic data. Klimov S A. PVC profiles. 60 papers. Zotov Yu L.

Examples include vinyl siding. An attempt is made identify and familiarise processors with the factors and costs for the make/buy decision. USA Accession no.National Center for Radiation Res. was used to investigate modifications to the design of an extrusion die for PVC sewer pipe production. Zaragoza. Conference proceedings. both relating to the Freudenberg Group of Germany. SPE. (SPE. Benitez A N. Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico.J.845460 Item 173 Vinyltec 2001. No.539.4 FREUDENBERG ADDS R&D. fencing. SPAIN. FREUDENBERG GROUP. Gomez R Gran Canaria. soffits.150-5 USE OF RADIATION GRAFTED PVCACRYLAMIDE MEMBRANES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT 82 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .846594 Item 170 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 81. trim. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.2002.2001. Castany F J.Palisades Section) The market for PVC based compounds continues to expand as a primary substitute for natural materials the most prolific being building products. FUEL CELL COMPONENTS CO. 11 refs. N. p. Conference proceedings. Plastican SA. decking. Pushing Profitability. RECOMMENDATION FOR THE IN-HOUSE BLENDING OF PVC COMPOUNDS Mathews G C Coronado Engineering Inc. JAPAN Maziad N A. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. bulk truck or bulk rail car. and X-ray diffraction for determining changes in polymer morphology. Lederer GmbH.2. p. i. Trends driving the use of these non-lead and HMF materials in Accession no.Vinyl Div.. SPE. Pushing Profitability. 11th-12th Sept. LEDERER GMBH EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Hegazu El-Sayed A Cairo.Palisades Section) Non-lead and heavy-metal-free (HMF) stabilised PVC compounds present a viable material alternative to vinyl lead-based systems for wire and cable applications.. Comparison of the results with experimental extrusion studies showed the feasibility of improving output and product quality through modest changes in die design. 13 refs. Feb.J.103-11 MAKE/BUY PVC COMPOUNDING. The first reports that the Group has recently set up two research companies: Freudenberg Mechatronic KG and Fuel Cell Components Co. A study of the selectivity of the membranes towards various radionuclides showed that the PVC-g-PAAm polymer obtained had a very marked tendency towards preferential removal of 60Co from a radioactive liquid containing both 60Co and 137Cs.. their thermal properties. No. BUYS STAKE IN LEDERER White L This is actually two small articles. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.846198 Item 171 European Rubber Journal 184. (SPE. Iselin. EGYPT Accession no. The second tells us that Freudenberg Group’s sealing operation has purchased an interest in the German liquid silicone specialist.2001. and the preparation.Universidad de Las Palmas. p. 11th-12th Sept.. FREUDENBERG MECHATRONIC KG. using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry.. Sayed M S.97-101 NON-LEAD AND HEAVY METAL-FREE TRENDS IN WIRE AND CABLE Grant J PolyOne Corp. furniture and automotive trim.3. N. characterisation and some of the properties of the membranes were studied.845037 Item 174 Vinyltec 2001.University The Dieplast computer aided engineering software.845709 Item 172 Polymer International 51. March 2002.References and Abstracts the skin-layer of PVC injection-moulded test pieces.Vinyl Div. No. 18 refs. vinyl windows. GERMANY. developed by Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria de los Plasticos. p. There are major companies prepared to supply the pre-mixed compound usually delivered in Gaylord boxes. Iselin. p. automobiles and furniture. May 2001. High performance functional membranes useful for ion exchange were obtained by grafting acrylamide (Aam) monomer onto PVC films using gamma radiation. At some volume in a producer’s process the make/buy decision is imminent.e. EUROPEAN UNION. Brief details are given.573-80 Spanish STUDY OF AN EXTRUSION DIE FOR PVC SEWER PIPES: POSSIBILITIES OF IMPROVING OUTPUT AND PRODUCT QUALITY USING THE DIEPLAST CAE SOFTWARE Monzon M D.& Technol.

Recent developments in flat die extrusion and coextrusion technology are presented.2. through the 1990s. Jin H-S. p. Shang S. USA Accession no. 11th-12th Sept. regulations such as California’s Proposition 65 and public reaction to the issue of lead content in consumer products have put pressure on wire and cable manufacturers to reduce the lead content in cable applications where there may be human contact. p.References and Abstracts applications where there is human contact.Vinyl Div. USA Accession no. The effects of particle size and mineral contamination level are explored. as well as the chemistry of non-lead and HMF stabilisers. suppliers of resin and additive formulations and processors have worked together to improve profitability of the production of extruded PVC sheet. Blom H. are reviewed.89-96 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN VINYL FLAT DIE EXTRUSION Rincon A Extrusion Dies Inc. residence time and the streamlining of the flow channel are critical variables to be examined during the design process of extrusion equipment. 16 refs.J. USA Accession no. Iselin. are discussed. less downtime. Iselin. film and a variety of commercial applications. Boutelle T.J. SPE. non-lead wet-rated systems. it is shown that the degree of wear can be closely correlated with the level of impurities present in the natural mineral. However. reduced maintenance and better overall and layer-to-layer uniformity are examined. 11th-12th Sept.Palisades Section) Calcium carbonate loaded systems are tested for abrasive wear on extruder parts through a test which measures the weight of a bronze alloy screen placed in a supporting screen pack before and after a 5500 g extrusion run.845027 Item 178 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 5. p. Joiner L. such as building and construction. N.2001. die suppliers. as well as the effect of mineral loading level. together with their use in different segments of the PVC extrusion industry. Temperature control.55-8 SURFACE DELAMINATION OF AN INJECTION MOLDED MEDICAL DEVICE USING FLEXIBLE PVC Yang T.. Booras J. as expected. No. It is found that the abrasiveness of calcium carbonate is. Pushing Profitability. SPE. as well as thermoformed packaging. N. SPE. The regulations and factors influencing public perception driving the use of the materials. such as those used for fixed cable installations. Marcquenski D Baxter Healthcare Details are given of the design of an autoclavable medical device using flexible PVC. (SPE. 11th-12th Sept. Woo L. are enjoying many of these advances..845036 Item 175 Vinyltec 2001. Iselin. Calhoun A Imerys Pigments & Additives (SPE.Palisades Section) recent advances that have enhanced profitability of PVC sheet and film production are discussed..845035 Item 176 Vinyltec 2001. The device was injection moulded and exposed to steam autoclaving. much lower than that of titanium dioxide and increases with increased loading levels.J. Autumn 2001. The economic impact on manufacturers switching to non-lead and HMF systems is discussed. USA Accession no.71-4 IMPROVING PROFITABILITY IN VINYL SHEET AND FILM PRODUCTION Darrow D J Cloeren Inc..Vinyl Div. Ling M T K. Gatrrett S. Pushing Profitability. It is also shown that the larger the median of the psd. PVC processors in all Accession no. CANADA applications.844617 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 83 . Although PVC is one of the most difficult polymers to process.Vinyl Div.. N. Conference proceedings.2001. 8 refs. Lead is a widely and safely used stabiliser in wire and cable systems where there is minimal human contact with out-of-reach materials. (SPE. Surface delamination was investigated..Palisades Section) The degradable nature of PVC makes its extrusion a challenging task. the greater the abrasive wear on the screen.2001. 4 refs.29-38 EFFECT OF CALCIUM CARBONATE ON THE ABRASIVE WEAR OF MELT PROCESSING EQUIPMENT IN FILLED SYSTEMS Mobley G.845032 Item 177 Vinyltec 2001. p. The advances made in die design and functionality that have afforded longer production runs. Pushing Profitability. Conference proceedings. such as with telephone and extension cords. Finally. together with current developments in vinyl. Experiments on residual stresses after moulding and statistical analysis of the moulding process were conducted. machinery suppliers. Conference proceedings. appliance cable and others.

embrittlement and discolouration of the bulk plastic results. p.Environmental Protection Agency Details are given of the application of a micro-liquid chromatography-electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry Accession no. Number 2. 20th-24th Aug. although this period is highly dependent on its previous history and function. 18 refs. The most likely cause is migration of plasticiser from the bulk phase to the surface layer. THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES Wang D. and adhesion of the object to packaging materials. p. Yao Q. on nanocomposite structure and the thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were also examined.1796-7 PERMANENCE OF PLASTICISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE OBJECTS IN THE MUSEUM ENVIRONMENT Shashoua Y Denmark. Parlow D.C. Loss of permanence of phthalate plasticisers in museum objects has been observed within 15 years of collecting plasticised PVC objects. EUROPEAN UNION. SCANDINAVIA. 2001.wt. No. FRANCE. p. including volume fraction of clay. 2001.842924 Item 180 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2001. exudation of droplets which subsequently join to form films on the surface. plasticiser content.4. 2001.841755 Item 182 Polymer Preprints.Universita The thermal and UV stabilising action of linear. Shrinkage. The effects of various factors. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.% of these resins improved not only thermal.National Museum (ACS. DENMARK. p. The causes and extent of plasticiser loss from the surfaces of PVC objects stored in museums rather than in everyday use are examined. unsaturated polyesters and epoxy resins in PVC was investigated using short-term tensile and long-term tensile creep testing and calculations of isochronous creep 84 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .and long-term mechanical properties. Photochemical grafting of the clearcoat onto the PVC substrate results in coated PVC exhibiting long-term adhesion. The results presented form the first stage of a continuing research project. The successful use of this approach to recover highly photodegraded PVC and produce a material with even better weathering resistance is also demonstrated. Dec. Nov.214-21 PVC-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION. D. It is shown that light stability of PVC can be considerably improved through the use of a clearcoat containing a UV absorber and a hindered amine radical scavenger. Volume 41. 10 refs.235-43 PHOTOSTABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) BY PROTECTIVE COATINGS Decker C Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse A survey of work carried out to increase the light stability of PVC using UV-cured acrylic clearcoats is presented. chemicals.2000. 9 refs. Conference proceedings.842921 Item 181 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. No. Washington.933-8 SPECIFICATION AND DETECTION OF ORGANOTINS FROM PVC PIPE BY MICROLIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHYELECTROSPRAY-ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY Jones-Lepp T L. Dec.Polytechnic University Intercalated and partially exfoliated PVC-clay nanocomposites were produced by melt blending in the presence and absence of DOP and characterised by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. 8 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements.39-48 STABILISING ACTION OF POLYMERIC PLASTICISERS IN PVC Maura G. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. melt compounding time and annealing. It was found that 20 to 30 wt. low molec. WESTERN EUROPE moduli. p.of Polymer Chemistry) Deterioration of plasticised PVC in the museum environment is most frequently manifested by a tacky feel to the plastic. oxidative and UV stability but also provided PVC with good short. Rinaldi G La Sapienza. 176. Varner K E. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. The behaviour of model formulations is compared with that of naturally aged objects using low vacuum scanning electron microscopy. Dec.University. Brooklyn. Permanence of a plasticiser is determined by its compatibility with the resin and also by kinetic effects such as volatility and extraction. Hilton B A US. transparency and gloss after being subjected to accelerated weathering tests and improved resistance to solvents. It was found that the best mechanical properties were achieved at 2% clay loading and 5 to 10% DOP loading. ITALY.References and Abstracts Item 179 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7.12. A sweet odour may also be detected. scratching and abrasion. No.Div.840047 Item 183 Applied Organometallic Chemistry 15. Wilkie C A Marquette.4.

RECYCLATE USE Defosse M We are told in this article that PVC is in fact recyclable.University Thermal degradation and degradation kinetics of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastisols. softening temp. This article looks at the methods being used. No. WESTERN EUROPE. triallyl cyanurate and 1. p. p. VULCAFLEX. 2001. Whilst gasification with only steam is an endothermic reaction.. ethylene glycol dimethacrylate.43-8 INFLUENCE OF OXYGEN ON THE STEAM GASIFICATION OF PVC Van Kasteren J M N. EUROPE-GENERAL. No. VEKA AG. EGYPT Accession no. SOLVAY. Dec.& Technol. FRANCE. hydrogen. 2001. EUROPEAN COUNCIL OF VINYL MANUFACTURERS. p. HUNGARY Accession no. Torre L. DECEUNINCK. 11 refs. partial combustion of PVC by the addition of small amounts of air. p. TECNOMETAL. We are also told that limitations to increase PVC recycling have largely been due to low prices for virgin material. 18 refs. 2001. The dissolution temperature obtained can be used to test plasticisers and to evaluate the morphology of the PVC powder. carbon dioxide. EU. SOLVIN. type of plasticiser and effect of the molecular weight of the PVC powder.447-53 THERMAL DEGRADATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOWMIGRATION POLYMERIC PLASTICIZERS Jimenez A. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.213-8 ELECTRON BEAM STRUCTURE MODIFICATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)WIRE COATING Youssef H A. Gaal H. diethylene glycol diacrylate. MIKRON INDUSTRIES.. This work deals with the effects of the addition of air on the gasification products. ITALY. Zahran A H Egypt. The PFMs used were trimethylolpropane triacrylate. enables autothermic operation of the process to take place. VINYL INSTITUTE. USA. EUROPEAN STABILISERS PRODUCERS ASSN.1.12). and in addition.3. and inconsistent supply of recyclate.834285 Item 188 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. No.2. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.2001.38-9 INDUSTRY ADVANCES EFFORTS IN RECYCLING. it is claimed. plasticised by polymeric plasticiser. in which PVC is thermally converted in a steam atmosphere into hydrogen chloride. trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate. NORTH AMERICA. EASTERN EUROPE.6-hexanediol diacrylate. EUROPEAN PLASTICS CONVERTERS ASSN. Consideration is given to the effect of the rate of heating.University The recycling of PVC by hydrothermal techniques is described. The effect of irradiation dose and different polyfunctional monomers(PFMs) at a constant ratio of 10 phr on the physicochemical properties of a PVC formulation used as wire coating was investigated.838767 Item 184 Modern Plastics International 31..838053 Item 187 Polymer Recycling 6. NETHERLANDS. were examined using dynamic and Accession no. EVC. 2001. and also cites examples of the use of the recyclate. PROGNOS. Also described is the TX-75 device used to test the light transmissivity of the mixture of PVC powder and plasticiser. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. EUROPEAN UNION. BELGIUM. pentaerythritol tetraacrylate. MARLEY FLOORS LTD. Kenny J M Alicante.11. carbon monoxide and some gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons.. No.References and Abstracts method for the separation and detection of organotin compounds leached from potable-water PVC pipes.T/10-14 STUDY OF PVC PLASTICISER INTERACTION Marossy K. p.838578 Item 185 Polymer Degradation and Stability 74. No. EUROPEAN UNION.838274 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 85 . and that it is already being recycled by some companies. LINDE AG. JAPAN. GERMANY. USA Item 186 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. SWITZERLAND.University. Slapak M J P Eindhoven.National Centre for Radiation Res.1. swelling characteristics and volume resistivity.12. KOBE STEEL. 2001. and help in the understanding of the process. and compares an endothermic operation with autothermic and exothermic operation. Magyar E The use is described of a method of investigating PVC plasticiser interaction by means of measuring light transmission. The properties studied included tensile properties at room and elevated temps. VINNOLIT KUNSTSTOFF. Data are presented for the detection of dibutyltin. used as a heat stabiliser in the PVC. Perugia. the method can be used to determine the K value of PVC powders. EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR PLASTICISERS & INTERMEDIATES. p. 7 refs. 23 refs. Ali Z I. (Article translated from Muanyag es Gumi. Viscosity measurements are used to supplement the results obtained by optical examination. PRINCIPIA PARTNERS.

6th-10th May. Samsonkova P. Rigid PVC for pipe manufacture was processed by both methods. Vasudeo Y B. Dallas. Dallas..831826 Item 189 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 82. paper 611 OPTIMIZATION OF PVC DRY BLEND PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH DOUBLE BATCHING Kannan V.831294 Item 190 POLYMER PROCESSING ENGINEERING. Matuana L M Michigan.. WESTERN EUROPE Item 191 Antec 2001.830362 86 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 6th-10th May. 2001. p. London. Texas. IOM Communications Ltd. on the density and cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/wood flour composites was investigated. The foaming agents were modified azodicarbonamide (exothermic) and sodium bicarbonate (endothermic). Zlin. Purav Marg V N Reliance Industries Ltd. 4 refs.References and Abstracts isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under a nitrogen atmosphere. p. twice the required additives are added to the PVC. paper 609 FOAMING OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES THROUGH A CONTINUOUS EXTRUSION PROCESS Mengeloglu F. and the use of an all-acrylic processing aid. JAPAN Accession no. Chembur (SPE) Conventional poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) batch preparation in which the dry materials are blended in a heated mixer and then cooled in a cooler mixer.. CZECH REPUBLIC.830043 Item 192 Antec 2001. and were shown to be similar. Results were compared to those obtained for traditional phthalate and adipate plasticised materials. The results of TGA for different plasticiser levels and cure temperatures and times were used to optimise the formulation and processing methods suitable for industrial production.Tomas Bata University (Institute of Materials. A method of modifying the flow channel to prevent polymer degradation is described.Conference proceedings. whilst the cell size was dependent upon the CFA type. An increase in residence time in the cylinder leads to this long time relaxation and results in melt fracture. 31st Oct. 2001. 012 DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS DURING THE EXTRUSION PROCESS Vlcek J. Simonik J Compuplast International Inc. SPAIN.Conference proceedings. The foamed materials were characterised by density and cell size measurement. The density was not influenced by the CFA content. INDIA Accession no. plasticised PVC. Dallas. Texas. 25 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and offered the possibility of producing rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams without the use of CFA. This reduces the overall energy requirements. In this process. was compared with the double batching preparation process. Proceedings of a conference held June 2001. ITALY.81-7. The onset of melt fracture correlates with the long time relaxation ascribed to the generation and/or growth of PVC crystallites.2001. and the balance of the PVC then added to the mixed materials in the cooler mixer. 2001.1277-83 FLOW INSTABILITY IN CAPILLARY EXTRUSION OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Yamaguchi M Tosoh Corp. Paper 9. EUROPEAN UNION. 01. 2001. Addition of the processing aid gave foams with densities comparable to those of neat rigid PVC. The role of shear stress in polymer degradation is examined and the critical shear stress is calculated for the flow domain with degradation. 28 refs. Material of acceptable quality and pipe to the required standards were produced by the double batching process.830041 Item 193 Antec 2001. the exothermic CFA giving smaller average cell sizes compared with the endothermic agent. Texas. UK. and assessed by studying the rheological and physical properties and extrudability. Interdisciplinary Research Centre) The degradation of rigid PVC occurring in a section of converging flow where material flow is squeezed after passing through a screen changer section was investigated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Flow instability in a capillary extrusion is studied for a high molecular weight.Technological University (SPE) The influence of chemical foaming agent (CFA) type and concentration. with enhanced productivity and cost savings on power and labour. blended in the hot mixer. although the apparent shear stress remains constant irrespective of residence time.Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 19 refs. No.5. 6th-10th May. The extrudate temperature and the species of the plasticiser also have a significant influence on the apparatus of the extruded products. paper 605 Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Paparao C.

The bending strength of PVC wood is lower.3.9. The prepared materials were assessed by measurement of surface energy according to ASTM D2578.3 g/cc. now polyolefins such as HDPE and PP are taking market share from PVC in the two highest-volume applications.830037 Item 194 Antec 2001. which includes PVC foam and PVC/wood flour composite.2001. Chantasatrasamy N. demand for HDPE is rising by about 8%/year. p.6 g/cc. elongation and tensile strength were measured. However. and six grades were produced with a range of viscosities. Compared with traditional products. Sutthitavil W. The performance of PVC containing these plasticisers was compared with that containing a commercial adipate polyester. Sookkho D.3.829711 Item 196 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. Benecke H. USA Accession no. but it can still be used for Accession no. screwed. Attention was focused on solubility and volatility parameters. Cincinnati Extrusion estimates demand growth at less than 1% for PVC versus 6% for PP. No. AND VINYL PARRIES.References and Abstracts INCREASED VINYL SURFACE ENERGY THROUGH PLASTICIZER CHOICE Streeter B (SPE) Proprietary polymeric plasticisers for poly(vinyl chloride) were developed which both plasticised and also increased the surface energy to facilitate printing. While PVC use in potable water pipe is stagnating at current levels. Accession no. No. 6th-10th May. Overall. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (SPE) Molecular modelling was used establish modifications of soyabean oil which would render it suitable for use as a primary plasticiser in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC). McGinniss V D. A major disadvantage of composites of wood with thermoplastics materials is a relatively high specific gravity compared with those of many natural wood products. has a specific gravity of about 1. sawed. even with densities as low as 0. It is demonstrated that PVC wood can be nailed. for example. Elhard J D. and dry blend times according to ASTM D-239694.138-41 NEW OPPORTUNITIES WITH WOOD-FLOURFOAMED PVC Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. Dallas. Stearic acid used in conjunction with the conventional plasticiser had little effect on surface energy. p. Sept. 6 refs. is one reason processors think oriented PVC pipe can hold its own in potable water markets. The soyabean oil-based plasticisers exhibited excellent plasticising efficiency with a significant reduction in migration and volatility. Sinsermsuksakul R Thai Plastic & Chemicals The use of PVC wood. the PVC wood is shown to exhibit improved termite resistance and weathering resistance. Films were produced and the tensile modulus. The plasticisers were compared with dioctyl phthalate at high and low loadings in two PVCs. WORLD Accession no. The influence of varying the stearic acid lubricant concentration over the range 0-0. the physical properties should be adequate for many wood replacement applications. improved impact resistance. 2001. cut and bonded like wood by conventional tools without any special skills being required.Conference proceedings. as an alternative to wood and wood-like products is discussed. Volatile was was measured at 70 C for time periods of 24 and 120 h. The composites also exhibited the aesthetics of wood and economics that were favourable compared with those of both rigid and cellular PVC. Sept. 5 refs. A PVC-wood composite. paper 604 ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY PLASTICIZERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) RESINS Vijayendran B R. Ferris K F Battelle Memorial Institute. 3 refs.830036 Item 195 Modern Plastics International 31. USA from ductile iron and concrete.134-7 PVC WOOD: A NEW LOOK IN CONSTRUCTION Chetanachan W. The polymeric plasticisers gave surface energy increases of up to 4 dynes/cm.53/5 POLYOLEFINS CHALLENGE. Texas. potable water and sewage pipe. volatilities. lower moisture absorption and ease of installation.5 phr was also investigated.2001. For sewage lines. No. The manufacture of cellular PVC-based wood composites was studied and the properties that were achieved as the foam density was reduced were examined. but reduced the surface energy when used with the proprietary plasticiser. and functionalities. provided by new processing procedures that orient the PVC’s molecular structure.829656 Item 197 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. FOR WATER MARKET Defosse M Just as extruded PVC pipe has grabbed a majority share of the water transportation pipe market in the last 50 years © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 87 . One growth area for PVC is foam core pipes.2001. p. Sept.

2419-25 CORONA DISCHARGE TREATMENTS OF PLASTIFIED PVC SAMPLES USED IN BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT Dumitrascu N.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION Accession no. 12 refs. Surface energy increased. continuous glass fibres are impregnated with low viscosity PVC melt from a small extruder. where a larger extruder applies a conventional extrusion grade of PVC. Details are given. Dow Plastics introduced Fulcrum technology hardware and resin system for continous fibre pultrusion of thermoplastic PU in 1999. p.1/23 FDA REPORT WON’T END PVC PRODUCT DEBATE Toloken S 88 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . from observation of biological adsorption tests. University Scanning electron microscopy.I. No. ITALY. No. Mechanical and optical properties were examined. i. The company claims that its thermoplastic pultrusion is ten times faster at 10m/m for a 2-12mm thick profile than is typical with thermosetting resins. FibrePlas. RUMANIA Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE The Food and Drug Administration is reported to have released a long-awaited report on the safety of diethylhexyl phthalate. The report says that infants exposed to repeated treatments can receive between five and 20 times the safe levels. WORLD Accession no. infrared spectroscopy and contact angle measurements were used to study the results of corona discharge treatment of polyvinyl chloride samples with different plasticiser contents.University. while the Accession no. p. p. No. some young children undergoing medical procedures may be exposed to harmful levels of DEHP. No. 10th Sept. with surface functionalisation which. Lopez J.829655 Item 198 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81. cornices.8. US.8. Pera discussed a research project which had led to the production of PVC profiles with a 500% increase in stiffness. one of the most widely used plasticisers in PVC health-care products.University Based on low-toxicity polymeric plasticisers. No. Sept. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. together with the determination of the optimum processing conditions for the higher viscosity plastisols using the polymeric plasticiser. SPAIN.6.998-1006 STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-TRIALLYL CYANURATE PLASTISOLS Horng-Jer Tai Taiwan. The gel yield and crosslink density in the gel increased with increasing TAC concentration in the plastisol. 5 refs. According to the report.Polytechnical University.2001.I-Shou University Triallyl cyanurate(TAC) was used as a reactive plasticiser to promote the high-temp.829340 Item 200 Plastics News(USA) 13. The study used propyleneglycol adipate as the polymeric plasticiser and compared its properties with two conventional phthalates DEHP and DINP. June 2001.1881-90 FORMULATION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC PLASTISOLS BASED ON LOW-TOXICITY ADDITIVES Jimenez A.References and Abstracts decorative applications. p.28. In this technology. 21 refs.828929 Item 201 European Plastics News 28. The resultant crosslinked structure was characterised using gel content and swell ratio measurements as well as FTIR spectroscopy. EASTERN EUROPE. 22nd August 2001. Perugia. They are then drawn into the extrusion forming die area.10. new formulations of PVC plastisols were proposed and characterised.2001. EUROPEAN UNION.e. does not affect the electrolytic equilibrium. doors and siding. Kenny J M Alicante. Borcia G. 6th Sept. Popa G Jassy.40 PULLING PLASTIC PROFILES Vink D At the Profiles 2000 conference. The system. but an increase in porosity and cleaning of oligomers from the surface were noted. The effect on the network structure of using a free radical scavenger in the formulation was also studied. Iannoni A. has been used in a pultruded conservatory roof spar. but the conclusion will not end the debate on the safety of PVC health-care products.828570 Item 202 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. p.2001. allowing use in biomedical applications. Valencia.829456 Item 199 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 81.Cuza A. THAILAND Accession no. The crosslinking reaction was initiated using peroxide. Surface morphology depended on treatment time and plasticiser content. creep resistance of PVC plastisols. The report also says that a small number of adults undergoing some types of blood transfusion and patients who receive enteral nutrition treatments could be at risk.

Lafleur P G. Dallas. UK. which was heated to a temperature which softened the PVC causing it to stick. 2001. composition. Texas. Key barriers to PVC replacement. CANADA Accession no. Texas. 23 refs. paper 384 DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTINUOUS THERMAL SEPARATION SYSTEM FOR THE REMOVAL OF PVC CONTAMINATION IN POSTCONSUMER PET FLAKE Dvorak R. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 42C382 THE ROLE OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN HEALTHCARE Blass C R Rapra Technology Ltd.Conference proceedings. Main headings include: Global market size. Rapra Technology Ltd. Texas. The influences of drum temperature. The book concludes that while PVC replacement is an achievable objective a number of major obstacles have to be successfully overcome. Pospisil L Aliachem jc. The system effectively removed trace amounts of PVC. 7 refs.Polymer Institute (SPE) Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared by blending organoclays of varying levels of hydrophilicity with PVC and dioctylphthalate plasticiser. CZECH REPUBLIC Accession no. 6th-10th May. The model was used to design several dies which gave satisfactory extrusion behaviour. Kalendova A. value and future trends. using a kneader or a counterrotating twin-screw extruder. Thibodeau Montreal. 6 refs.142.827042 Item 204 Antec 2001. Brno. the inside of which was tapered and carried lifting bars.References and Abstracts grafted PVC fraction and the residual unsaturation of TAC behaved in the opposite way. residence time on the plate.825424 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 89 . the flake material fell onto an inclined vibrating plate. Composition and property profile for flexible and rigid PVC compounds. which included flowbalancing. and thermal stability problems experienced during compounding were eliminated by pre-treating the organoclay with the plasticiser. EUROPEAN UNION. 4 refs. The degree of clay intercalation was determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The simultaneous co-intercalation of the plasticiser facilitated exfoliation. plate temperature. whilst the PETP was unaffected and fell from the plate for collection and processing. drum speed.826600 Item 205 Shawbury. Visy Plastics (SPE) A thermal system was evaluated for the separation of traces of PVC from flake post-consumer poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PETP). 45 refs.827243 Item 203 Antec 2001. 2001. so creating a barrier between the polymer and the quaternary amine. sidewall effects and the dimensional changes which occur after the die exit. residence time and temperature. Recent advances in PVC medical compound technology. Dallas. Brno.Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) A non-isothermal network flow model was developed to facilitate extrusion die design. the plate temperature being the most significant parameter influencing separation efficiency. 2001. Toxicology. The drum was fed with the flake by an auger. and bibliography of useful document abstracts. Processing and fabrication.Technical University. PVC medical device application fields. and the log. Malac Z. pp. This book reports upon the use of PVC in the healthcare industry. The nanoclay additions enhanced dimensional stability and barrier properties.University of Technology. Simonik J. Introduction of TAC into the plastisol promoted creep resistance at high temps. and multi-stage separation on the separation Accession no. biocompatibility and regulatory status of PVC medical compounds.. 11cm. 6th-10th May. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites was dependent upon the type of organoclay. Sterilisation of PVC based medical devices. It discusses what key properties it has which make it the most widely used polymer within the global healthcare market despite recent media speculation as to the associated environmental damage and risk to human health. Poly(vinyl chloride) swelling measurements were made using capillary and slit dies to determine the swelling as a function of shear rate.826523 Item 206 Antec 2001. Dallas. Environmental issues . The system consisted of a heated rotating drum. 6th-10th May.Conference proceedings. paper 415 PVC/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES Trlica J. Benefits of PVC for healthcare. TAIWAN efficiency were investigated. plate angle. 2001. creep rate was found to decrease linearly with increasing crosslink density.real and perceived. AUSTRALIA Accession no.Conference proceedings. Kosior E Swinburne. As the drum rotated. paper 28 STREAMLINE DIE DESIGN FOR COMPLEX GEOMETRIES Beaumier D. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

825288 Item 209 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. Food & Rural Affairs’ life cycle assessment of PVC. p. II. The research reported consisted mainly of investigating the physical and mechanical properties of the plastic compound. June 2001.DEPT.11. June 2001. July 2001.2.State Technical University. Kaustik AOOT. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Klimov S A. Zotov Y L. FTIR AND TOF-SIMS STUDIES Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Earlier surface analysis studies suggested that. No.7. USE OF SINSTAD COMPOSITIONS IN LOWPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS No B I.National Testing & Research Institute When plastics waste is reprocessed.67-75 MICROCELLULAR FOAMING OF IMPACTMODIFIED RIGID PVC/WOOD-FLOUR COMPOSITES Matuana L M. No. USA COMPOSITIONS FOR POLYMERS. 11.93-9 EFFECTS OF REPEATED EXTRUSION ON THE PROPERTIES AND DURABILITY OF RIGID PVC SCRAP Yarahmadi N. The issue of recycling of PVC window profiles is also considered. independent of modifier type. Gevert T Sweden.824301 Item 210 ENDS Report No. The material was characterised after each extrusion run for changes in colour. It was observed that there was a significant increase in extrusion Accession no. the print adhesion properties of barium/ zinc-stabilised. to evaluate these changes using conventional processing. Gorokhovitskii G G Volgograd.43) RUSSIA Accession no. Rigid PVC profiles were re-extruded five times. As a result of this accelerated gas loss. 7 refs. p. which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. stabilisers and processing conditions were studied. and samples were also thermally aged at various temperatures. Mechanistic studies suggested that a revised hypothesis was appropriate and that the hydrolysed complex was actually formed in the PVC matrix and not at the surface. Kubra Public Joint-Stock Co. UK. No. The influence of impact modification on the sorption behaviour of carbon dioxide in the samples was also studied.Technological University Solid-state microcellular foaming technology was used to investigate the influence of impact modification on the foamability of neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood flour composite samples.28-9 HOUSING SECTOR SEEKS ALTERNATIVES TO PVC. The use is discussed of Sinstad multifunctional compositions for use in low-plasticised PVC pipe formulations as heat stabilisers and plasticisers.OF THE ENVIRONMENT EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which found that there was little to chose between PVC and alternative materials. p. impact modification inhibited the potential of producing foamed samples with void fractions similar to those achieved in unmodified samples. Jakubowicz I.References and Abstracts Item 207 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked versus uncrosslinked) and concentrations on the void fraction of foamed samples were examined. its ease of manufacture. USA Accession no. p. 1 ref. gelation. the previous study was expanded in an attempt to reproduce the effects observed on samples of commercially-produced films. 2001. 26 refs. without adding any additives. Properties of PVC compositions for the production of pipe connectors and pipes with varying formulations are discussed. Shatalin Y V. p. tensile properties and molecular level ageing. DESPITE OFFICIAL LCA A discussion is presented on the switch by some councils and local housing associations from PVC to timber despite the Department for Environment. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.76-82 PRINTING ON VINYL. 2000. The experimental results indicated that impact modification accelerated the rate of gas loss during the foaming process. the loss of properties and durability are critical considerations.2. Using the techniques of FTIR and time of flight/ secondary ion mass spectroscopy. (Article translated from Plasticheskie Massy. and processing with partial replacement of the plasticiser and stabiliser and complete replacement of the lubricants. 2001. No. The effects of different lubricants. at least in some situations. Mengeloglu F Michigan.T/67-9 SINSTAD MULTI-FUNCTIONAL 90 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .1. stearic acid-lubricated PVC were influenced by the migration of a barium/zinc stearate complex. UK.824039 Item 211 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73. to explain the origin of the migrating species and to identify the variables that influenced the extent to which the phenomenon occurred.318.825289 Item 208 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 7. No.

Renaud C Franche-Comte.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry The thermal decomposition behaviour of commingled plastics during incineration was evaluated with particular emphasis on the influence of chlorine released from PVC during pyrolysis. 54 refs. PP. Jin Yang. Roy C.3. PART II. Texas.. The main gaseous and liquid products. The activation energies of degradation were found to decrease after each extrusion. 2001.15 mm diameter. it was concluded that rigid PVC was suitable for reprocessing. No. PS and PVC materials individually. the effects of temperature inside the train and the influence of the polyurethane foam inside the rests.823706 Item 214 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. including chlorinated hydrocarbons. PRODUCT ANALYSIS Miranda R. CANADA. The results suggested that the pyrolysis yields of the plastics mixtures were similar to those calculated from the pyrolysis of the individual polymers. Petru Poni. LDPE. Laboratoire de Vitry Samples of plasticised PVC coatings backed with a thin polyamide fibre cloth used for arm and head rests of trains were analysed after both normal use in service and artificial ageing at 100 C. However. 5 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. CANADA. Vasile C Laval. EUROPEAN UNION. C.3. This initial program studied the pyrolysis kinetics of the five individual polymers. EASTERN EUROPE. PART I KINETIC STUDY Miranda R.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry Vacuum pyrolysis was performed on HDPE. Petru Poni.Universite. mixed polymers without PVC and mixed polymers including PVC.Conference proceedings. 2001. p. RUMANIA Accession no. the chlorine content was lower than expected indicating limited interaction during pyrolysis. Two experimental approaches were adopted. Pakdel H. The principal polymers found in municipal plastics waste were evaluated. C as their individual decomposition rates were significantly altered. It was concluded that the change in © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 91 . Despite the observed property changes. and that the high temperatures created by the high shear rates did not significantly degrade the polymer. 2001.References and Abstracts pressure (gelation) during the second extrusion with an associated increase in tensile strength and elongation on tested samples followed by marginal decreases with subsequent re-extrusion.469-91 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. and also on a mixed plastics sample containing the five polymers.47-67 VACUUM PYROLYSIS OF COMMINGLED PLASTICS CONTAINING PVC. Pyrovac Institute Inc. Full details of the extrusion and testing are given with detailed results. particularly yellow. Samples were heated at varying heating rates both under a vacuum and in a nitrogen atmosphere. Villa F. paper 207 RHEOLOGY BEYOND ONE MILLION RECIPROCAL SECONDS Riley D W Extrusion Engineers (SPE) It was determined that the shear rate in PVC passing through a copper wire coating die was in excess of 4000000 /s. SCANDINAVIA. were identified by chromatography. Roy C.823939 Item 213 Antec 2001. Deterioration in colour. HDPE. 6th-10th May. comparing the decomposition curves for the mixed and individual polymers. Full details of the experimental procedures are given including a detailed tabulation of all the pyrolysis products. Two parameters were studied.818936 Item 215 Polymer Degradation and Stability 72. LDPE. This resulted in volatilisation of the dioctyl phthalate plasticiser and changes in the polymer molecular structure. SWEDEN. as it was cooled to room temperature within 10 ms of leaving the die. p.. Accession no. 73 refs. No. The results indicated that some interactions occurred between the plastics materials during pyrolysis mainly above 375 deg. Vasile C Quebec. Lallet P. Plasticiser loss due to migration during ageing led to hardening of the Accession no. No. PP.Universite Laval. Dallas. Institut Pyrovac Inc. Detailed experimental procedures and results are given. Thermogravimetric weight loss and weight loss derivative curves were recorded against time. as determined by infrared spectroscopy. However the chlorine from the PVC was released almost completely below 375 deg.Universite.823944 Item 212 Polymer Degradation and Stability 73.1.459-68 PLASTICISER MIGRATION AND STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN AN AGED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COATING Monney L. 2001. were observed with repeated extrusion. 12 refs. and a comparison of the kinetic parameters for each material. and the yields and pyrolysis products were compared for the individual and mixed runs. PS and PVC. WESTERN EUROPE molecular structure enhanced the electrical properties of the PVC. RUMANIA Accession no. p. Jamois-Tasserie M. Dubois C. The flow was studied using capillary rheometry with a die of a 0.

12 refs. Detailed experimental procedures. Aug. The plasticiser migration increased when the PVC was in contact with the polyurethane foam. EUROPEAN UNION.815920 Item 218 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 80. Baharin A Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research. ITALY.5. 35 refs. was measured as a function of time for discs immersed in n-heptane. and of plasticiser into the liquid. No. WESTERN EUROPE and about one order of magnitude. 25 refs. nitrogen.814824 Item 219 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 80. and no stabilisation of the trend was seen after a month. Membranes prepared from modified PVC show short-term diffusion rate reduction similar to that in PVC. Taverdet J-L Saint Etienne.530. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.148/52 Spanish INJECTION MOULDING OF PVC FOR MEDICAL USE Bertora M Sandretto Industrie SpA Technical difficulties associated with the injection moulding of PVC are discussed.Science University Electron beam-irradiated crosslinking of unplasticised PVC was carried out over a range of irradiation doses from 20 to 200 kGy. The effects of trimethylolpropane triacrylate(TMPTA) and Irganox 1010 on the rate of crosslinking were also studied. the degradation caused by electron beam irradiation was found to be minimal. Within the dose range studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. p. EUROPEAN UNION. Reinecke H Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Gas transport coefficients of PVC and PVC modified with pyridine groups were studied. There is a two-fold reduction for PVC of the diffusion coefficients during the first two days. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The results obtained showed that. Nasir M. Structural changes also occurred inside the PVC layer due to the formation of non-filled PVC nodules.10.References and Abstracts PVC.2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. followed by drying. 34 refs. at longer times the diffusion rate decrease levels off quickly. the stabilised UPVC was crosslinked by the electron beam. carbon dioxide and methane in membranes prepared by solvent casting of PVC and pyridine modified PVC.11. Guzman J. Accession no. with frequent cracking. Riande E. samples were prepared by dipping plasticised PVC in solutions of PVC. The addition of 4 phr TMPTA was found to be effective in increasing the rate while Irganox 1010 inhibited crosslinking. a month after the membranes were prepared. 31st May 2001. Mijangos C. Diffusion rates were dependent upon the time and temperature of storage of the samples prior to testing. Changes in gel fraction.485-90 IRRADIATION CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE IN THE PRESENCE OF ADDITIVES Ratnam C T. SPAIN. hardness. the PVC layer would tend to crack when flexed in service. followed by drying.1841-7 DECREASING POLLUTION OF PLASTICIZED PVC PACKAGING: A COMPARISON OF THREE PLASTIC TREATMENTS Fugit J-L. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. A marked increase in Tg upon irradiation of UPVC in the presence of TMPTA was observed. Plasticised PVC discs were soaked in n-heptane.817821 Item 217 Polymer 42. Mass transfer was modelled in terms of diffusivity.814334 92 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .818935 Item 216 Polymer Testing 20. CIBA SPECIALITY CHEMICALS MALAYSIA Accession no. 2001. p. No. FRANCE. Further samples were prepared by pressing PVC containing 35% DEHP between sheets containing only 7% DEHP. TS and damping properties upon irradiation were investigated. p. It was found that there is a strong time dependence of the permeability and diffusivity of oxygen. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Diffusion of liquid into the discs. under the irradiation conditions employed. No. FRANCE. Lastly. p. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. As a result of these changes. and machinery and processing conditions applicable to the injection moulding of PVC medical products are examined. No. attaining constant values after 10 days.4817-23 EFFECT OF PHYSICAL AGEING ON THE GAS TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF PVC AND PVC MODIFIED WITH PYRIDINE GROUPS Tiemblo P. sample photographs and results are given. Malaysia. resulting in DEHP-depleted surface layers.University The diffusion of bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate plasticiser (DEHP) from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) packaging was studied using samples prepared in three different ways. 2001.

5 to 20.. No.3.6.. It is claimed that their capability to form complexes with HCl and transport this degradation catalyst to HCl scavengers are essential for the marked synergism observed between these two types of stabilisers. The kinetic parameters © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 93 . i. The modified polyesters were applied as dual function polyesters.186-90 Croatian THEORETICAL STUDY OF THE KINETICS OF LOSS OF PLASTICISER FROM PLASTICISED PVC FOILS Rusic D. These polyesters were modified by converting the terminal COOH group to Ba(II) and Cd(II) carboxylate salts in order to introduce the capability of heat stabilisation for PVC. The efficiencies of these modified polyesters as heat stabilisers for PVC were found to be comparable with those of Irgastab BZ 556. Yamagata. No. Higaki Y. 11th-12th Oct.2.11. Philadelphia. CROATIA Accession no.Philadelphia Section) The study of PVC stabilisation by stannic compounds in the presence of HCl scavengers shows that the essential stabilisation process is nucleophilic substitution of the allylic chlorine by the thioglycolate or mercaptopropionate groups. Diaconescu C Crompton Corp. Sunami M. No. used as novel costabilisers with metal soap.University. The linear dependence of the rate of evaporation on the residual concentration of plasticiser in the foil is demonstrated.e. Conference proceedings. 14th March 2001. The thickness of the foil is 0. Kovacic T Split. Nakamura Y.Institute of Technology.810956 Item 223 Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 286. The rate of the process of weight loss of plasticiser from the foils can be described as the function of three variables. Kuriyama T KANEKA Corp. p. Pa. The results obtained are presented and discussed with particular reference to evaluation results of Izod impact strength.2001. USA Accession no. as stabilisers for polyvinyl chloride to control undesirable discolouration when heated. p. p. MECHANISM OF PVC STABILIZATION BY STANNIC COMPOUNDS Fisch M H.814089 Item 221 Vinyltec 2000. Nakan0 K.97-103 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) 5.University A kinetic model of the physical process of loss of plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate from plasticised PVC foil is developed. CIBA-GEIGY CO.575-83 IZOD IMPACT STRENGTH OF A PRODUCT MOLDED OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)/ IMPACT MODIFIER CONTAINING VOIDS (VOID MOD) Takaki A. Dooley T.5% of allyl methacrylate content) and void Accession no. USA Accession no. 28th Feb. having moderate acid numbers (11.1 mm and the amount of the plasticiser in the plasticised polymer is 10-40%.2029-37 SYNERGETIC EFFECT OF DIMERIZED PENTAERYTHRITOL ESTERS WITH SYNERGETIC METAL SOAP ON THE STABILIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Ikeda H. No. 38 refs. 17 refs. Mrklic Z. 2000.C.. mechanism of improvement in Izod impact strengths of low crosslinked MOD (0. Narisawa I.2000. (SPE.811300 Item 222 Polimeri 21.88-93 HEAT STABILIZATION EFFICIENCY OF POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)(PVC) Farahat M S Alabama. An investigation was carried out to determine the synergetic effect of dimerised pentaerythritol esters. EGYPT. as plasticisers and stabilisers at the same time. Experimental investigations are carried out using isothermal thermogravimetry in the temperature range of 120-150 deg. p. Goto H. The thermal stabilisation efficiency of the plasticised PVC films formed was tested photometrically and the data obtained were compared with that afforded by Irgastab BZ 556. were synthesised. and it is shown that the diffusion does not affect the process of plasticiser loss from plasticised polymer. p.University The Izod impact strength of a PVC/impact modifier(MOD) moulded product was investigated by suitably reducing the amount of crosslinking agent in the rubber of MOD or by making rubber particles void when they were in the form of a latex. 14 refs. JAPAN are estimated by the differential method of analysis.Vinyl Div. a mixture of zinc and calcium stearates.References and Abstracts Item 220 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79.5 mg KOH/g resin). 14 refs. March 2001. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute Four different polyester plasticisers for PVC. Iida T Osaka. Bacaloglu R.810576 Item 224 Polymer Engineering and Science 41. Nissin Oil Mills Ltd. SPE.

adhesion to steel and deformation are examined. Abdrashitov Y M. A carrier assembly for supporting the mould centre section of a stack mould has a pair of mould supports to which the mould centre section can be attached. and stabilising action. distribution of Nvinyl caprolactam (VC). citrates and adipates.. Conference proceedings. 2 refs. processability. including DEHP. viscosity and molar mass of the synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSA). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. on the migration and extraction characteristics of various plasticisers. Test results are examined in detail for the performance of these stabilisers in terms of service properties. noted for their lower cost and adequate effectiveness.809872 Item 226 Advances in Polymer Technology 20. p.72-85 SOLVENT-BASED PRESSURE-SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR PVC SURFACES: A SPECIAL REPORT Czech Z The influence of parameters such as crosslinking agent aluminium acetylacetonate content. acrylic acid (AA) and VC are used for production of self-adhesives containing PVC carrier. Each mould support also includes a linkage assembly for connecting the mould support to other platens to synchronise movement of each mould support with movement of at least one other platen.19) RUSSIA Accession no. Spring 2001. and Izod impact strength of void MOD having an optimised degree of crosslinking. paper 1 FLEXIBLE VINYL MEDICAL PRODUCTS: DISCUSSION ABOUT THE EXTRACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS PLASTICISERS Adams R C BP Amoco Chemicals (Rapra Technology Ltd.. Minsker K S Bashkir. EUROPEAN UNION.807842 Item 229 Tech XXIII. The various mechanisms under which plasticisers leave flexible PVC medical devices are described. Potential selection criteria are discussed based on plasticiser permanence. Morflex and BP Amoco. 2001. cause damage ranging from cancer to hormone disruption.T/69-73 NEW STABILISERS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE . allegedly. 5 refs. Switzerland.References and Abstracts MOD.2000. No. No. 25th-26th Oct.) The use of plasticised PVC for toys and medical devices has been under attack from various environmental and health care activist groups. reviewing available information from Hatco. amount of reactor charge. 2000. plasticity. introduction time of monomers. p. Keir W S Husky Injection Molding Systems Ltd. Sabapathy P A. Synthesised pressure-sensitive adhesives based on acrylic polymers and containing 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2-EHA).810421 Item 225 Patent Number: US 6155811 A1 20001205 STACK MOLD CARRIER MOUNTED ON LINEAR BEARINGS Looije P A. 9 refs.MIXED SALTS OF CALCIUM CARBOXYLATES 94 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Naugumanova E I. Conference proceedings. p. DEHP is the largest volume plasticiser in use worldwide and the most widely used plasticiser for PVC medical devices. The plasticiser under most scrutiny is di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate.1. Basel. National Starch & Chemical BV Accession no.1.808344 Item 228 Addcon World 2000. New Orleans. (Translated from Plasticheskie Massy. p. La. No.State University. Smit E National Starch & Chemical Co. JAPAN Nafikova R F. and solvent balance and transfer agent kind and content on such important parameters of PSA as shrinkage. 3rd-5th May 2000. TOTM. Di Simone J. USA Accession no.808585 Item 227 International Polymer Science and Technology 28. Their concerns are related to that under certain conditions small amounts of the plasticiser may leave the flexible PVC compound. Each mould support is movable along a linear rail attached to the base of a moulding machine and has at least one block containing a linear bearing mounted thereto for engaging the linear rail. diverse crosslinkers. USA Accession no. alpha-branched carboxylic (C12-C16) acids. methyl acrylate (MA).5. 4 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The new stabilisers are based on mixed salts of stearic acid with derivatives of phthalic or maleic acid and also with branched alpha. This work aims to produce mixed calcium carboxylate stabilisers for use in place of calcium stearate for the stabilisation of PVC. This extracted plasticiser can then enter the human body and then. Kauchuk Closed Stock Co. GERMANY.115-21 NOVEL PRESSURE SENSITIVE ADHESIVES FOR VINYL FACESTOCKS Smith H. commonly known as DEHP or DOP.

Comparison of the experimental results with theoretical predictions allowed optimisation of the processing conditions for the production of parts having the required surface quality. paper 660 EFFECTS OF IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE PROPERTIES OF RIGID PVC/WOOD-FIBER COMPOSITES Mengeloglu F. SPAIN. 2000. weight loss and surface crosslinking of the films were examined and the influence of plasma treatment on plasticiser migration from films containing an elastomeric ethylene-vinyl © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 95 . May 2000. No. USA Accession no. Rough surfaces on the die Accession no.807113 Item 231 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 79. An in-depth look at PVC adhesion is provided and a solventborne adhesive with superior anchorage to PVC films as well as improved heat-resistance is described. Llado J. EUROPEAN UNION. were prepared by dry mixing followed by extrusion and compression moulding. 7th-11th May. p. Zaragoza. 22nd Feb. 27 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The tensile strength and modulus were significantly decreased by the impact modified additions. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. modified by the addition of crosslinked (acrylic and methacrylate butadiene styrene) and uncrosslinked (chlorinated polyethylene) impact modifiers. Further temperature increases reduced the agglomerate flow. Brosse J-C Maine. 3 refs..527. extrusion rate. Increasing the extrusion melt temperature from low to medium decreased the gloss due to agglomerate flow and a rougher surface. 22 refs. This can lead to long-term debonding as well as reduced holding power and chemical resistance. Fl.Universite The effect of plasma treatment of flexible PVC food packaging films on the migration of plasticisers therefrom was investigated using supercritical fluid chromatography to monitor plasticiser migration into isooctane solution. extruder temperature settings. 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. paper 655 GLOSS CONTROL IN RIGID PVC .Technological University (SPE) Composites consisting of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) and wood fibre. Sanchez B. whilst the elongation at break was not affected. (SPE) The influence of extrusion processing conditions on the gloss of rigid poly(vinyl chloride) profile was investigated. Reyx D.554-8 Spanish STUDY OF THE SURFACE QUALITY OF PVC FITTINGS ON THE BASIS OF INJECTION MOULDING PARAMETERS Castany F J. and the surface was characterised by scanning electron microscopy. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. PVC film can be difficult for many adhesives to bond to and transfer failure is common.References and Abstracts (Pressure Sensitive Tape Council) The flexibility of PVC film makes it ideal for many industrial tape and label applications. 4 refs.Conference proceedings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.. Plasticisers employed were di-2-ethylhexyladipate and epoxidised soybean oil. There was a direct relationship between gloss and surface roughness. Javierre C.University The influence of injection moulding conditions on the occurrence of surface defects on PVC pipe fittings was studied experimentally and by finite element analysis. Gloss was measured by gloss meter at an angle of 85 deg. Aisa J Taller de Inyeccion de la Industria del Plastico. The processing variables studied were: melt temperature (165-202 C). The surface energy. EUROPEAN UNION. Unfortunately. to the normal. increasing significantly with modifier concentration. The crosslinked modifiers were more effective than the chlorinated polyethylene. and the die surface roughness. No. WESTERN EUROPE acetate-carbon monoxide terpolymer as partial or complete replacement of the adipate plasticiser. The composites were characterised by measurement of tensile and impact properties. Poncin-Epaillard F. Matuana L M. USA. NETHERLANDS. Fl. Orlando. Orlando. Increasing extrusion rate decreased the gloss due to surface roughness increases associated with melt fracture. Harshbarger D Geon Co.1384-93 COLD PLASMA SURFACE MODIFICATION OF CONVENTIONALLY AND NONCONVENTIONALLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BASED FLEXIBLE FILMS: GLOBAL AND SPECIFIC MIGRATION OF ADDITIVES INTO ISOOCTANE Audic J-L.805668 Item 233 Antec 2000. The impact resistance was strongly dependent upon the type and content of impact modifier. King J A Michigan. 7th-11th May.Conference proceedings.806711 Item 232 Antec 2000.8.PART II EFFECT OF PROCESSING VARIABLES ON GLOSS OF RIGID PVC PROFILE Rabinovitch E. so increasing the gloss.807804 Item 230 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 79.2001.

805663 Item 234 Antec 2000. Conference proceedings. Time to failure and to visible discoloration are noted for the various stabilisers. paper 652 MAGNETIC MATERIALS BASED ON POLYMERS AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. 7th-11th May. 7th-11th May. Orlando. paper 651 CHEMICAL CROSSLINKING OF FLEXIBLE PVC FOAM FORMULATIONS Ibarra-Gomez R.I. Nelen T GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. and which also provide good colour retention.. Matutes-Aquino J.C. USA Accession no. 14 refs. Mexico. 17th-19th Sept. and at lower peroxide:TMPTMA ratios it was comparable to that of samples crosslinked by the triazine/ MgO system. (SPE) Accession no. thermal properties and molecular weight. UK.Inc. Fl. dibasic lead phosphite. paper 557 ROLE OF PHOSPHITES IN STABILIZATION OF NON-POLYOLEFIN POLYMERS Ashton H C. It is thought likely that the submicron versions are more mobile and can coordinate to potential degradation sites more efficiently. 18 refs.University (SPE) The peroxide crosslinking of emulsion grade poly(vinyl chloride) using trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a co-agent was investigated. containing 10-85 wt% strontium ferrite magnetic powder. MEXICO.& Co. Orlando. 2000. crosslink density. USA Accession no...Conference proceedings. attributed to the trifunctional nature of the co-agent. which were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry and by determination of gel content. residual unsaturation. Refs. D. Orlando. Ayala-Valenzuela O. Stabilisation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and polycarbonate by organophosphites was studied experimentally. attributed to strong particle interactions. provide good process safety. A method has been developed for the synthesis of dibasic lead phthalate. was compression moulded at a pressure of 10 MPa and a temperature of 180 C. 12 refs.. and compared with the use of a triazine/MgO system. 7th-11th May. Viscosity increased with increasing strontium ferrite content. Yanez-Flores I G. 7th-11th May.7 micron range. 2000. Fl.. attributed to increasing particle interaction.Conference proceedings. Rios-Jara D Coahuila.Conference proceedings. The intrinsic coercivity decreased linearly with increasing strontium ferrite content. (SPE) Mechanisms of degradation in condensation polymers. The thermal stability was superior to that of a commercial foam. basic lead carbonate. and the stabilisation of these polymers and non-polyolefin polymers such as poly(vinyl chloride) using organophosphites is discussed in terms of the stability of colour.803854 Item 238 Antec 2000.804341 Item 237 Antec 2000. paper 7 COLOR DEVELOPMENT IN PVC Grossman D Halstab (SPE) The use is examined of submicron particle size lead stabilisers in PVC formulations. EUROPEAN UNION. 5 refs.2000. MEXICO Item 236 Your Ticket to Outstanding Color and Additives.. Enhanced failure time under high shear processing conditions are obtained for submicron lead stabilisers. Orlando. Washington. Rodriguez-Fernandez O S. and characterised by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and measurements of magnetic and rheological properties.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. paper 650 HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT FLEXIBILIZERS IN LOW SMOKE FLAME RETARDANT PVC COMPOUNDS Griffin E R DuPont de Nemours E.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. Gilbert M Coahuila. Enlow W. but poor retention of original colour.References and Abstracts and sizer resulted in rough surfaces on the extrudate and low gloss. and related compounds with a particle size in the 0. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The peroxide/TMPTMA system formed a very dense network. Sifuentes P.805660 Item 235 Antec 2000. Ramos de Valle L F. RETEC 2000. Fl. tribasic lead sulphate.Conference proceedings. USA Accession no. 2000. The prepared plastisols were heated in air at 195 C for different times to obtain the crosslinked foams. which function as hydrochloric acid absorbers. Loughborough. It is generally thought that stabilisers that act only by scavenging HCl. 2000. and showed no residual unsaturation after the optimum curing time.805659 96 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Fl. and thermal stability. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados (SPE) Plasticised poly(vinyl chloride).1-0.

LOW BLUSH. complexes of Cu(I) have been the focus of recent studies.. Fl. similar elongation and flexural modulus. 4 refs. p. Biocides tested © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 97 .of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. Volume 75. 7th-11th May.. the crosslinking of the polyenes tends to block the formation of volatile aromatics and increases the yield of solid char. 1 ref. McEntee T C Rohm & Haas Co. Doyal A S. and lower brittle point temperatures. Graham P M. the intensity of the CH2-Cl band appears higher. Dehydrochlorination of the polymer produces polyene segments in the solid phase. The polyenes give rise to a combination of organic volatiles and solid char. Starnes W H..803054 Item 241 ACS Polymeric Materials: Science and Engineering. as well as their thermal chemistry. Conference Proceedings. No. A strategy of PVC smoke suppression is investigated based on the use of low-valent metal compounds. 10 refs. flammability. a variety of new complexes of Cu(I) bearing nitrogen. tensile properties and the low temperature brittle point. plasticised polyvinyl chloride roofing membranes.and sulphur-based ligands are reported. The use of the stabilisers resulted in reduced equipment down-time. Gomaa W A. Volume 83. USA carbonyl. The additives include primary stabilisers (Ca-Zn stearate and Zn stearate). including colour.803380 Item 240 ACS Polymeric Materials Science and Engineering. and 14 years were obtained. With the loss of plasticisers and/or stabilisers due to weathering. USA Accession no. FL. and enhanced the product characteristics. Maeyer J T.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng.97 NEW COPPER(I) COMPLEXES AS POTENTIAL SMOKE SUPPRESSANTS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Pike R L.References and Abstracts Ethylene copolymers were compared with liquid plasticisers for use as additives to improve the flexibility of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) for electrical cable insulation applications. They also gave similar or increased strength. It is shown that zero-valent metal promotes reductive crosslinking of allylic chloride groups. Orlando. Orlando.) The problem of smoke formation during pyrolysis of PVC represents a significant technological challenge.) This paper evaluates how well photoacoustic Fourier transform spectroscopy can be used to study the shattering phenomenon of unreinforced.Conference proceedings. because the exposed sample did not show any bands near the 1650 cm-1 typical of carbon-carbon double bonds. with corresponding controls. 10 years. PLASTICISED PVC ROOF MEMBRANES IN SERVICE FOR UP TO 13 YEARS Paroli R M. secondary stabilisers (epoxides) and lubricants (ethylene bisamide and high density polyethylene). Fall 1996. 2000. 012 SPECTROSCOPIC INVESTIGATION OF UNREINFORCED. 20th-24th Aug. USA Accession no. aqueous extractables and particle generation. Fall Meeting 2000. Spectra were obtained for an unreinforced PVC roof membrane in service for 6 years. The performance is compared of three different biocides in protecting PVC in outdoor applications. paper 533 LOW EXTRACTABLE. As part of our ongoing search for potential smokesuppressant additives for PVC. The ethylene copolymers gave similar peak heat release rates. Vapour phase combustion of these aromatics greatly contributes to the formation of smoke and to the addition of heat to the pyrolysing solid.802840 Item 242 Plastics Additives and Compounding 2. blush. LOW COLOR PVC WITH IMPROVED PROCESSABILITY FOR MEDICAL APPLICATION Buan-delos Santos L. The volatiles are largely aromatics formed through the cyclisation of the polyene segments.Div. Oct. Lynch D Baxter Healthcare Corp. Washington. USA Accession no. p.2000. 2000. increased the level of recycled material which could be incorporated. Delgado A H Canada. The three samples show very similar spectral features to each other. 5 refs.C. Levy E R Williamsburg.Div.National Research Council (ACS. clarity. Measurements of the bands for Accession no. which are present as labile centres in virgin and pyrolysing PVC. to improve melt processing and heat stability. p.10. but the peak smoke and the total smoke generation were lower.24-7 TESTING OF FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS FOR BIOSTABILITY Hamel R G. Since copper(I) is readily reduced. In contrast. D. Laurin D. It is most likely that degradation is attributable to loss of plasticisers rather than de-chlorination of PVC.College of William & Mary (ACS.803847 Item 239 Antec 2000. The PVCs were assessed by determining smoke generation.69-70. (SPE) An additive system was developed for poly(vinyl chloride) for medical applications. methylene and methyl groups were obtained.

Number 2. 6 refs. and carpet sorting technology.References and Abstracts and compared were OBPA (10. La. EUROPEAN UNION.4. FRANCE.. followed by manual and automated sorting systems. PVC containing magnesium hydroxide had the higher elongation. 2000. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. electrical cables. or poly(X-b-Y) in which each block is chemically different but thermodynamically miscible with one of the blend component. Rapra Review Report.799815 Item 243 Shawbury.799174 Item 246 Polymer Preprints. Kleinert H. They were compared in laboratory and exterior testing and the results of tests demonstrate the superior performance of DCOIT in protecting flexible PVC films in outdoor applications. were compounded by twin screw extrusion. The compositions.University (SPE) Four alternative magnesium hydroxides and alumina trihydrate were evaluated as smoke suppressants in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) wire coating compositions. the emulsifying activity of block copolymers has been widely used to solve the usual problem of large immiscibility associated with high interfacial tension.. These contaminants prevented the build-up of bond forces at the interface between the adhesive and PVC profile.Div. WESTERN EUROPE adhesive. GERMANY. 29 cms. when the sample surface was removed. Orlando. Massachusetts.799408 Item 245 Antec 2000. enabled good results to be obtained under simulated production conditions. Test methods used include the Pink Stain Test.. UK. Examples are included of plastics separation relating to mixed plastic bottles. A full-scale plant is reported to have now been commissioned that operates reliably using the process described. OIT (2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one).1092-3 USE OF BLOCK COPOLYMERS TO CONTROL THE MORPHOLOGIES AND PROPERTIES OF THERMOSET/THERMOPLASTIC BLENDS Pascault J-P. Petrie S Millipore Corp.Technische universitat. Volume 40. Dec.124 The sorting of waste plastics prior to recycling is described with reference to separation and identification techniques. 11/1/01. Methods used to identify plastics including by colour and type are reviewed. p. when combined with flame treatment and a solvent free polyurethane hot melt 98 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . New Orleans. Henkel Dorus Analytical studies of the PVC profile surface indicated that the reasons for failure of the adhesive bond between the PVC film and PVC profile in decorative film laminated structures.16-8. vol. was finely dispersed lubricant and wax particles on the PVC profile. whilst those containing alumina trihydrate exhibited the best smoke suppression properties. which. poly(Ab-B) whose segments are chemically identical to the dissimilar homopolymers. automotive waste. 427 refs.University Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. Rapra Technology Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. (Translated from Kunststoffe 90 (2000). Theoretical Accession no.) Rapra.10-oxybisphenoxarsine). 7th-11th May.11. NALOAN SORTING OF WASTE PLASTICS FOR RECYCLING Pascoe R D Exeter. lead stabiliser and antimony oxide.Conference proceedings. August 1999. froth flotation and separation based on differential softening temperature. and DCOIT (4. A biodegradable alkaline cleaning agent was developed to remove the contaminants. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and the PVCs containing magnesium hydroxide gave the better results. thermoset composites.of Polymer Chemistry) In the field of thermoplastic immiscible blends.46-51) LAMINATING PVC WINDOW PROFILES WITHOUT SOLVENTS Gehrke J. An immiscible thermoplastic blend A/B can actually be compatibilised by adding a diblock copolymer. pp. No. Hoffmann H Dresden. 2000. August 1999. calcium carbonate.5dichloro-2-n-octyl-isothiazolin-3-one). aluminium/plastic laminates.799426 Item 244 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. Samples were prepared by injection moulding and used for the determination of tensile and smoke generation properties.108. triboelectrification.Review Report No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Girard-Reydet E Lyon. the smoke suppression rankings changed. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which also containing plasticiser. 2000. Separation techniques described include those involving density. p. 12. However. 7 refs.12.. EUROPEAN UNION.Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (ACS. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Fl. USA Accession no. poor adhesion and resulting in poor mechanical properties. 2000. and cleaning and size reduction processes employed. 4 refs. paper 388 EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDES ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A SEMIRIGID PVC USED IN WIRE COATING Torone J A. Conference proceedings. No. p.

and a graphical solution for the differential equations for © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 99 .Conference proceedings. A five-year risk assessment into six phthalates. melt temperatures. The activation energy was approximately 65 kcal/mol.. paper 86 PREDICTING THERMAL DEGRADATION OF PVC COMPOUNDS DURING INJECTION MOLDING Garcia J L. Orlando. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.2000. but the model gave better agreement with results from the spiral mould. Sept. 7th-11th May. polyphenylene ether (PPE) and the reaction-induced phase separation process have been already studied. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. A model was developed to predict degradation during moulding using finite difference method in conjunction with an algorithm to calculate the velocity and temperature profiles during injection.137-44 MECHANOCHEMICAL SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE)-BLOCK-POLY(ETHYLENE-COPROPYLENE) COPOLYMERS BY ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION Fujiwara H.References and Abstracts models have been developed to describe the molecular mechanism of emulsification and compatibilisation by block copolymers. attributed to the fact that the degradation was more gradual. DINP is the phthalate most often used in soft PVC toys and items intended to be put into childrens’ mouths. Koelling K W. An attempt is made to transfer the concept of compatibilisation by poly(X-b-Y) and if possible poly(X-b-E-b-Y) triblock copolymers with an elastomer central block E to TS/TP blends generated via the reaction-induced phase separation procedure.795132 Item 248 Polymer Bulletin 45. USA Accession no. The kinetics of the epoxy-amine precursor. an EU Technical Meeting completed its assessments of DINP and DIDP and decided that the two needed no classification or labelling for environmental or health effects. 2000. Nov. p. which are used extensively in PVC products. whilst degradation in the radial mould occurred in the sprue and was transported into the mould. (SPE) The thermal degradation of polyvinyl chloride during injection moulding was studied using a spiral mould to simulate a rectangular channel. The extrusion was considered to consist of a number of rectangular sections. and a centre gated plate to study radial flow. The end radicals of PVC and EPM resulting from mechanical degradation formed PVC-block-EPM copolymers by mechanochemical synthesis. slower in the swelled PVC-EPM solution system and slowest in the homogeneous PVC-EPM system. The number-average molecular weights of PVC and EPM decreased with increasing irradiation times.State University.798453 Item 247 European Plastics News 27.793817 Item 250 Antec 2000. employing low viscosity and high viscosity polymers over a range of injection speeds. p. is nearing an end. No.Institute of Technology The mechanical degradation and mechanochemical reactions resulting from ultrasonic irradiation were studied in heterogeneous and homogeneous PVC and poly(ethylene-co-propylene) (EPM) systems at 30 C.. JAPAN Accession no. 10 refs. and shot sizes.2. Geon Co. No. The surfaces of the polymers were studied by SEM both before and after the mechanochemical reaction. 2000. (SPE) The bowing of polyvinyl chloride extrusions caused by differential thermal shrinkage associated with different cooling rates was modelled. Summers J W Ohio. FRANCE.11. 28 refs. PS is known to be miscible with PPE and it has been demonstrated that PMMA is miscible with the chosen TS precursor up to the end of the epoxyamine reaction. 7th-11th May. Fl. In September. Minamoto Y Osaka. EUROPEAN UNION. the initial solubility of the chosen thermoplastic. WESTERN EUROPE polymers were fastest in the solid PVC:EPM solution system. The degradation kinetics were different to those reported for static systems. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 7 refs. It was concluded that the degradation of PVC during injection moulding could be predicted. Orlando. paper 67 PREDICTING HOW THE COOLING AND RESULTING SHRINKAGE OF PLASTICS AFFECT THE SHAPE AND STRAIGHTNESS OF EXTRUDED PROFILES Brown R J Formtech Enterprises Inc.Conference proceedings. indicating that chain scissions of both polymers occurred in each of the three reaction systems studied. EU.2000. Fl. on which most of the recent anti-PVC furore has been focused.794367 Item 249 Antec 2000. The rates of decrease in the number-average molecular weights of the degraded Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION.10 EU IS READY TO CLEAR PHTHALATES The European Union is poised to announce that phthalate plasticisers pose no risk to either human health or to the environment.

References and Abstracts

unsteady state heat transfer develop by Schmidt was adapted for solution using a computer spreadsheet. 8 refs.

Accession no.793798 Item 251 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 66 COOLING OF EXTRUDED PLASTIC PROFILES Placek L; Svabik J; Vlcek J VUT; Compuplast International Inc. (SPE) The influence of cooling on an extruded polyvinyl chloride profile was studied using a differential equation for heat transfer which was solved using commercial software. The solution required the definition of the boundary conditions. The initial condition specified temperature distribution in the profile as it left the die, which was assumed to be a constant. The boundary conditions for the contact of the profile with the cooling medium were determined by assuming that the medium had a specified temperature and defined heat transfer coefficient (Fourier condition). Three cooling environments were modelled: for slow extrusion rates; for normal production extrusion rates, with imperfect top cooling; and with good cooling using water sprays. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the temperature profile during cooling and deformation, and that it was possible to predict the deformation using the model. 5 refs.

Item 253 ENDS Report No.308, Sept.2000, p.12-3 PHTHALATE EXPOSURE STUDY POINTS TO COSMETIC SOURCES US health scientists are to publish a study which shows that people are exposed to much higher levels of phthalates than anticipated. Phthalates are used widely in PVC and other diverse applications and many have oestrogenic properties which, at high doses, can damage reproductive tissue and cause deformities in developing embryos. The study has found strong indications that cosmetics may be an important source of this hazardous material. US,NATIONAL CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH; CHEMICAL INDUSTRY INSTITUTE OF TOXICOLOGY

Accession no.792005 Item 254 Antec 2000.Conference proceedings. Orlando, Fl., 7th-11th May, 2000, paper 45 COMPUTER DESIGN AND SCREW OPTIMIZATION Thibodeau C A; Lafleur P G Montreal,Ecole Polytechnique (SPE) Statistical analysis was used to establish the optimum screw design for the extrusion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), by evaluating the results of a series of simulations from a mathematical extrusion model which considered 5 screw parameters: angle, constant depth of feeding zone, constant depth of metering zone, length of feeding zone, and length of metering zone. The performance of the optimised screw was compared with that of a conventional PVC screw. The extrusion temperature was decreased by 7 C, the slip velocity of the solid bed was decreased by 65%, so reducing abrasion, whilst the mixing capabilities were similar. 8 refs.

Accession no.793797 Item 252 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.7, 1999, p 321-6. LONG TERM BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) PRODUCTS UNDER SOIL BURIED AND LANDFILL CONDITIONS Mersiowsky I; Stegmann R; Ejlertsson J Hamburg,Technical University; Linkoping,University The behaviour of poly(vinyl chloride) products in landfill sites longterm and their leachate products and gas evolution have been monitored. Over the period of the study no degradation of the poly(vinyl chloride) was observed. The leachate analysis determined that there was no significant contribution to the level of heavy metals in landfills, and that the presence of phthalates and organotin compounds presented no risk to the aquatic environment.14 refs.

Accession no.791357 Item 255 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 29, No.3, 2000, p.149-60 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOUNDS. II. STRUCTUREPROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS AND THEIR TIME DEPENDENCY Hitt D J; Gilbert M Loughborough,University X-ray diffraction and thermomechanical analysis are used, respectively, to examine structural order and shrinkage behaviour for oriented samples of rigid and flexible PVC. Results are compared with previously measured tensile

Accession no.793729


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References and Abstracts

properties and structure-property relationships explored. X-ray diffraction shows that drawing produces planar crystallite orientation in PVC sheets. If drawing and subsequent annealing conditions are held constant, but draw ratio is varied, there is good correlation between structural order measured by X-ray diffraction and tensile strength. Increased annealing time and temperature improve crystallite order and dimensional stability, while tensile strength is unchanged. The greatest enhancement in tensile strength is achieved by stretching PVC towards its maximum draw ratio at 90 deg.C but optimum thermal stability of the oriented structure is achieved when higher annealing temperatures are used. Room temperaturerecovery is observed for flexible PVC when the material has a glass transition temperature below ambient. This can be delayed by increased annealing time and temperature, and by increased draw ratio. 15 refs.


Accession no.787852 Item 258 Marnate, 2000, pp.6. 30 cms. 10/10/2000 Italian; English RIGID PVC FOAM SHEET EXTRUSION LINES Bausano Group SpA Technical data are given for the PVC foam line from the Bausano Group. Illustrations are included of the die and calibrators, door panel die heads, turbomixer, and extruder.

Accession no.789922 Item 256 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6, No.3, Sept.2000, p.158-65 HOT-TOOL AND VIBRATION WELDING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Stokes V K GE Corporate R & D The weldability of PVC (Geon 87416 and Geon 85885) was assessed through studies of hot-tool and 120-Hz vibration welding. Equivalent strengths were demonstrated for welds made by these two welding techniques. For these two grades of PVC, relative weld strengths of 85 and 97%, with corresponding failure strains of about 2.5 and 3.3%, respectively, were demonstrated. 52 refs.

Accession no.787654 Item 259 Limitations of Test Methods for Plastics. STP 1369. Conference proceedings. Norfolk, Va., 1st Nov.1998, p.93-106 STUDY OF BOND STRENGTH TESTING FOR SOLVENT JOINTS IN PVC PIPING SYSTEMS Paschal J R NSF International Edited by: Peraro J S (American Society for Testing & Materials) To evaluate the strength of the bond area formed by solventcementing of thermoplastic pipe and fittings, tests are conducted at 2, 16 and 72 hours. Because the data is statistical in nature, more than a single specimen must be tested to provide a representative strength at each cure time. Considering that three tests are run, each consisting of multiple specimens, a method is developed for testing joined plaques rather than pipe and fitting. This method, known as lap-shear, is much less time intensive than actual pipe joint preparation, and in theory, provides a good approximation of the anticipated strength of a pipe/fitting joint. A study of this test method is conducted to investigate variables in preparation technique and their effect on strength. The results indicate an extreme sensitivity to minor variations in preparation. The interpretation of this data with respect to joint strength is also discussed. An explanation of these significant deviations encountered due to the changes in preparation is provided, based on thermodynamic considerations of the mixing dissolution process and work input to sample/solvent system. An analysis of the sample preparation technique is presented in both a theoretical and qualitative context of solution thermodynamics, together with an evaluation of the minor changes in methodology that can cause major differences

Accession no.788892 Item 257 Chemical and Engineering News 78, No.32, 7th Aug.2000, p.52-4 ALERT ON PHTHALATES Hileman B In July 2000, a US Government panel finished a twoyear study at a meeting in which it expressed serious concern that di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices may harm the reproductive organs of critically ill and premature male infants exposed during medical treatment. This article reports fully on the panel’s findings. US,ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY; US,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH SCIENCES; AMERICAN CHEMISTRY COUNCIL; US,SCIENCE & ENVIRONMENTAL

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References and Abstracts

in test results. Notable results include changesin shear strength on the order of 12-100% based solely on sample handling within the first 30 seconds, and a lack of sensitivity to the composition of the cement within normal ranges. Solution thermodynamics analysis provides some insight as to the relative significance of the variables in the preparation method. 3 refs.

Accession no.787033 Item 260 Polymer Science Series B 42, Nos.5-6, May-June 2000, p.124-6 EFFECT OF AN ESTER PLASTICISER ON THE THERMAL STABILITY OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Kulish E I; Kolesov S V; Minsker K S Bashkir,State University The influence of dicarboxylic acid ester plasticisers on the thermal degradation of PVC significantly depends on the physical state of the PVC-plasticiser system. If PVC retains the structure formed in the stage of suspension polymerisation, the additive produces inhibition of the process of thermal dehydrochlorination. In the case of true diluted PVC solutions in ester plasticisers, the polymer exhibits accelerated degradation, in accordance with a high value of the solvent basicity. 7 refs.

A groundbreaking study by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention suggests that people are exposed to higher levels of potentially toxic phthalates than previously thought. However, the report notes that the phthalates used in vinyl products are found less often than those used in detergents, oils and solvents. The study marks the first time researchers have been able to measure the presence of phthalates processed by the body, rather than measuring phthalates in the environment. US,CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL

Accession no.785063 Item 263 Plastics Network No.10, 2000, p.25-7 PLASTICISERS FOR TOYS Cheng H C Lyte Industries Co.Ltd. For many years, the plasticiser DINP has been the primary plasticiser used in PVC toys. However, it is claimed by some pressure groups that the phthalate plasticiser leaches from PVC and poses a potential health hazard to children. Toxicity is the major concern when seeking a replacement for DINP. Others are compatibility, processability, physical properties and cost. With respect to the processability and cost ratio, a table is presented for different plasticisers used in PVC toys. The use of acetyl tributyl citrate as a plasticiser in PVC is discussed.

Accession no.786833 Item 261 Plastics, Rubber and Composites 28, No.4, 1999, p.165-9 IMPACT STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WINDOW PROFILES. RELATIONSHIP WITH GELATION LEVEL Cora B; Daumas B; Zegers A Rohm & Haas France SA Details are given of the effect of processing on mechanical properties of PVC window profiles by altering the temperature profile set on the extruder and by varying the shear heating phenomena using different lubrication balances. The effect of filler level and type of impact modifier on the impact properties of extruded profiles with various levels of free volume are presented. 7 refs.

Accession no.785046 Item 264 ENDS Report No.307, Aug.2000, p.6 PVC PIPES BREACH NEW LEAD STANDARD FOR DRINKING WATER Tests conducted for the Drinking Water Inspectorate show that some PVC pipes cause breaches of a new standard for lead due to be introduced in 2003. The failures are due to the use of lead salts to stabilise the plastic, and the DWI has warned pipe manufacturers that they must reformulate their products. UK,DRINKING WATER INSPECTORATE

Accession no.785019 Item 265 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77, No.14, 29th Sept.2000, p.3119-27 FLAME-RETARDANT AND SMOKESUPPRESSANT PROPERTIES OF ZINC BORATE AND ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE-FILLED RIGID PVC

Accession no.786464 Item 262 Plastics News(USA) 12, No.27, 4th Sept.2000, p.31 CDC: PHTHALATE LEVELS HIGHER THAN THOUGHT Toloken S


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University Rigid PVC was crosslinked with 1. The influence of the concentration of both reagents on the properties of the cured PVC was also examined. Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the char formation of PVC. No. Tg and heat stability of the cured PVC investigated.31-2 CITRATE.1999.University The effects of spin friction pressure and time on the friction welding between PMMA-PMMA. The mixture of zinc borate and aluminium trihydrate showed a good synergistic effect on the flame retardance and smoke suppression of PVC. Laminations & Coatings Conference. developed by Asahi Denka Kogyo KK for the domestic market.1. The Accession no. Gilbert M Alicante.2000. Loughborough. p. No.784843 Item 267 Modern Plastics International 30. SPAIN.University Incorporating a small amount of zinc borate.1931-41 FRICTION WELDING OF SIMILAR AND DISSIMILAR MATERIALS. 70 and 75 for coating fabrics were investigated using a coaxial viscometer and the influence of the content and type of plasticiser (dioctyl phthalate and dioctyl adipate) on these properties evaluated. Gel contents of 30 to to 40% were obtained. 19th Sept. Shaoyun Guo Sichuan. No. the roughly 300-400% higher costs of citrate plasticisers as compared to phthalates will be offset by countervailing market forces in which the safety factor surrounding the use of phthalate plasticisers is providing an opportunity for materials substitution. PVC-PVC and PMMA-PVC are discussed. 19 refs. Data are presented for the the three heat-affected zones and the three sections of tensile fracture morphology. CHINA company estimates that 10-15% of the global flexible PVC market is potentially open to non-phthalates.5-trimethyl cyclohexane peroxide in the presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and the effect of crosslinking on the tensile properties at 130C. July 2000. No. a group of phthalate alternatives are polyester plasticisers. Ga.784890 Item 266 Journal of Industrial Textiles 30. such as PX-811. Aug.784673 Item 268 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 77. 22nd-26th Aug. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. According to citrate manufacturer Morflex. CHINA Accession no. and the compositions of heat stabilisers © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 103 .References and Abstracts Yong Ning. Wu L C Tamkang. In Japan.784346 Item 269 Polymer Engineering and Science 40..3. Consistency index and power law index values for the various formulations were determined and the results obtained analysed statistically using shear stress as the variable for each paste. MORFLEX. p. aluminium trihydrate or a mixture of the two greatly increased the limiting oxygen index of rigid PVC and it reduced the smoke density of PVC during combustion. USA Accession no.2657-66 PEROXIDE CROSSLINKING OF UNPLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Garcia-Quesada J C. The amount of aromatic products released during combustion was decreased and the amount of aliphatic products was increased as a result of a series of crosslinking reactions of PVC after the evolution of hydrogen chloride during combustion. p.8. p.7. PMMA AND PVC Lin C B. EUROPEAN UNION. UK.12. Atlanta.University of Technology The rheological properties of pastes of emulsion PVC having k-values of 69.Volume 1. Alsharif M A Isfahan. premature crosslinking during processing was avoided and improved mechanical properties attained using appropriate curing agent concentrations. p. July 2000.1-di-t-butylperoxy3. 19 refs. POLYESTER PLASTICIZERS FIND OPPORTUNITIES IN FLEXIBLE PVC Leaversuch R D The substitution of phthalates as plasticisers for flexible PVC by citrates and polyesters is discussed.141-5 ROLE OF HEAT STABILIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC Skladany M E Ferro (TAPPI) The paper consists of a series of slides illustrating the mechanisms responsible for degradation in polyvinyl chloride (PVC).University. 2000. 22 refs. 14 refs. ASAHI DENKA KOGYO KK JAPAN. IRAN Accession no. softening temperature. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.50-62 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER CONTENT AND TYPE ON THE RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PLASTISOL USED IN COATED FABRICS Zadhoush A.782996 Item 270 Polymers.Conference proceedings.

ECVM decided to pre-empt any future command and Accession no. Kogoma M. p. The Directive would make permanent the temporary ban on the marketing of PVC toys and childcare articles intended for the mouth in children under three and containing six phthalates. Another amendment would require the Commission to review other applications of PVC articles which may expose people to risks. for wire and cable applications. July 2000. No. Pervaporation has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for the separation of chloro-organic compounds from water. p. with variable composition according to the PVC end use. and mixed metal.780833 Item 275 European Chemical News 73.39-40 COMMISSION BROADENS INQUIRY INTO PHTHALATES BEYOND TOYS The European Commission has accepted proposed European Parliament amendments to the draft Directive on phthalates which ask it to explore the potential health risks of phthalates in products other than PVC toys. The guidelines for choosing a membrane include selective absorption of chloro-organics. JAPAN Accession no.542-3 SILANE-MODIFIED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PERVAPORATION MEMBRANES Silverstein M S.782546 Item 273 Polymer 41. 2000. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. p. Industry saw it as a chance to consolidate information on PVC in a conclusive form. ISRAEL Accession no.Div.of Polymeric Materials Science & Engng. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 24th-30th July 2000.781444 Item 274 ACS. 17 refs. Sophia.40-1 GREEN PAPER ON PVC INCLUDES OPTION OF SUBSTITUTION Substituting PVC in certain applications is included among a range of mandatory and voluntary measures outlined in a Green Paper on PVC issued by the European Commission in July.7355-60 POLYMER DEPOSITION USING ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE PLASMA GLOW 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. p. and decompose peroxides. 6 refs. Sluszny A. A hydrophobic surface was produced on the inner surface of the tube by polymerising hexafluoropropylene or tetrafluoroethylene and the treated surfaces analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. USA (APG) DISCHARGE Prat R. the low level of recycling and the generation of hazardous waste from incineration as the main problems and promises a draft PVC strategy early next year. Membranes prepared from industrial PVC films which are modified using a vinyl silane are characterised and then evaluated for chloro-organic/water pervaporative separation.University A report is presented on the fluorination of the inner surface of blood circulating tubes made from PVC using APG discharge treatment in order to enhance biocompatibility and suppress the bleeding of plasticisers from the PVC.1919. Volume 81.782547 Item 272 ENDS Report No.306. Narkis M Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (ACS. for rigid applications. 22nd-26th Aug. La.18-9 INDUSTRY TAKES THE INITIATIVE ON PVC Johnston S The European Commission’s “horizontal study” on PVC was welcomed by the PVC industry when it was announced three years ago.for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research. especially PVC articles used in healthcare. Okazaki S. Polymeric Materials Science & Engineering Fall Meeting 1999. neutralise the HCl which is formed. EUROPEAN UNION.References and Abstracts used for various PVC applications. chemical resistance and resistance to swelling. Babukutty Y.) Pervaporation is a separation technique used to separate liquid mixtures using selective vaporisation of permeates moving through a non-porous permselective membrane.306. scavenging free radicals. p. lead-based. The stabilisers interrupt the degradation. The paper highlights the use of heavy metal stabilisers and phthalate plasticisers.20. FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.782688 Item 271 ENDS Report No. The Commission identified areas which it felt required further study and commissioned consultants to carry out five studies. particularly from floor coverings and food packaging of soft PVC.1999. Kodama M Japan. No. Koh Y J. the ECVM says it was surprised to discover these were all waste management studies. July 2000. Stabilisers are classified into three types: tinbased.National Inst. New Orleans. Conference proceedings.. However.

Moiseev Y V. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Spriet C CNEP. Zaikov V G Russian Academy of Sciences The results of the complex study of samples of plasticised PVC subjected to ageing under model and climatic conditions or being in use for a long time (from 15 to 30 years at 253-301 K) studied by various techniques and the mechanism of their ageing are presented. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Gumargalieva K Z. No indications for specific interactions between pigment and stabiliser are found. Chaigneau R. No. molecular parameters of the polymers and the type and content of stabilisers on the properties of the recycled polymers are discussed.References and Abstracts control action by the Commission by implementing a voluntary approach to improve the environmental performance of PVC. Pokholok T V. p. 38 refs. Delprat R. Huntsman Tioxide Pinking of TiO2-pigmented PVC can be observed for profiles exposed to the mild environmental conditions of North European countries. Elf Atochem SA. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.778697 Item 277 Polymer Plastics Technology and Engineering 39. 134 refs. 8 refs. chromatographic. and a scheme of two consecutive reactions is fitted to the intermediate losses of brightness observed for the most photoactive pigments. RUSSIA Accession no. UV and IR spectroscopic techniques.778055 Item 278 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.778023 Item 279 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 6.567-650 KINETIC ASPECTS OF AGEING OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE-BASED POLYMER MATERIALS Zaikov G E.3.201-10 RE-STABILISATION OF RECYCLED POLYMERS La Mantia F P Palermo. The effects of the number of reprocessing operations. and the energetic spread of irradiation defects broadens. Information about the ageing conditions can be derived from the experimental time histories of the weight loss or additive depletion in the course of functioning of PVC samples or their exposure to different impacts. p. EUROPEAN UNION. FRANCE. No. fittings and window frames by 2003 and 50% by 2005. Parmeland G.24 apparatus can be converted into shorter. Hocken J Sachtleben Chemie GmbH The influences of doping the core of TiO2 pigments with Al2O3 and of various inorganic surface modifications on the rate of PVC weathering are investigated. it is shown that the service and functional properties of plasticised PVC are lost as a result of diffusion-controlled desorption of a plasticiser or other additives. EUROPEAN COMMISSION WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL systems and to predict the lifetime of such materials in use.69-79 TOWARDS THE PREDICTION OF PINKING OF PVC PROFILES IN MILD CLIMATIC CONDITIONS Lemaire J. The kinetics of loss of gloss are transformed into photooxidation rates by using Weibull statistics of failure. gel permeation chromatography.80-7 TIO2 PIGMENT STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF PVC WEATHERING Gesenhues U. The polyenic sequences which account for an initial greying after brief exposure in the SEPAP 12. March 2000. When Ca/Zn stabilisers in PVC are exchanged for Pb stabilisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.C). p. Using thermogravimetric.780190 Item 276 Macromolecular Symposia Vol. Photoreduction of TiO2 to give Ti(III) species accounts for greying which cannot be converted into pinking under mild thermooxidative conditions (65 deg. ITALY. gloss degradation rate doubles. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. June 2000. 15 refs. GERMANY. tensile strength and strain). June 2000. These experimental data are used to formulate a mathematical description of the ageing process in these Accession no.University The results are reported of a study of the influence of stabilisers and antioxidants (Irganox B900 and Sandostab P-EPQ) on the rheological and mechanical properties of recycled PP and PVC. mercury porosimetry and techniques for measuring mechanical strength properties of the materials (e. a predictive test is designed and validated by comparison with results obtained under natural exposure conditions. reprocessing conditions.2. The pinking phenomenon is accounted for at the molecular level by the formation of polyene sequences not completely photooxidatively bleached under conditions of oxygen starvation.778022 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 105 . modified polyene sequences which explain the pinking. 2000. No. Siampiringue N. The voluntary commitment includes a commitment to mechanically recycle 25% of all PVC pipes. Dabin P. From the basic understanding gained.g.2. EUROPEAN UNION.152.

No.BALANCED BLOWING AGENT Zhou Q. CHINA Accession no. The determination of the overall degree of modification of films of different thickness allowed conclusions to be drawn about the surface selectivity of the reaction. Reinecke H. while no significant differences in water absorption and hydrolysis were noted. Wei Ping G.5577-82 SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PVC FILMS IN SOLVENT-NON-SOLVENT MIXTURES Sacristan J. Studies of rheological properties showed improved processability in mixing and extrusion trials. (SPE Foams ’99 Conference. EUROPEAN UNION. March/April 2000.699-708 Spanish NEW MINERAL FILLERS FOR COMPOUNDS USED IN THE INSULATION OF ELECTRIC CABLES Hidalgo M. WESTERN EUROPE EU. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. on the other hand.777387 Item 282 ENDS Report No. leading to a loss in both surface smoothness and transparency of the film. Trexel Inc. p. 19-20 Oct. Perugini C. New Jersey). Chen L. 6 refs. EUROPEAN COMMISSION 106 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . electrical and low temperature properties. EUROPEAN UNION.. Burnham T Dumaplast Extrusion. of temp.Institute of Chemical Technology The results are reported of an investigation into the formulation of endo-exothermic blowing agents aimed at controlling the rate of gas evolution and heat of decomposition during the extrusion of PVC foams. Accession no.777388 Item 281 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36.777317 Item 283 Revista de Plasticos Modernos 78. Sanchez M Yesos Ibericos Oparex 15 calcined calcium sulphate (Yesos Ibericos) was evaluated as a filler in plasticised PVC cable insulation compounds in comparison with two grades of calcium carbonate. The reaction with sodium azide appeared to occur homogeneously through the film. Wu J.2.303. URALITA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.522. USA. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.15. While the use of a phase transfer agent made it possible for the nucleophilic substitution reaction to occur.1999. feedstock recycling. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. The decomposition features of NaHCO3/citric acid and the mechanism of strong exothermic H2N-CON=NOCNH2 are discussed as are the properties of endo-exothermic and exo-endothermic blowing agents and the density and tensile strength of rigid PVC foams produced in a Brabender extruder. The degree of modification could be varied as a function of time. Mijangos C Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros Suitable reaction conditions for the selective surface modification of PVC films with sodium azide and amino thiophenol were investigated. Parsippany. BELGIUM. 16 refs. No.2. No. SPAIN. The importance of proper gelation prior to supercritical fluid injection and proper cell nucleation and growth control is highlighted and the roles of screw design and process conditions in achieving microcellular structure are indicated. and of the solvent/ non-solvent ratio used in the reaction. behaviour in landfill. p.776778 Item 284 Polymer 41. flammability and heat ageing characteristics and chemical resistance for calcium sulphate filled compounds. Wang J. Improvements were observed in tensile. and the influence of PVC on incinerator flue gas cleaning residues. Dec. No. took place in a controlled manner and the film remained both smooth and transparent. 6 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. p. 2000.References and Abstracts Item 280 Journal of Cellular Plastics 36.29-31 WASTE PROBLEMS LOOM LARGER FOR PVC This article presents details of the gloomy picture of the environmental impacts associated with PVC waste which has been painted by four PVC waste management studies carried out for the European Commission. the morphology of the film was changed by the reaction.148-57 MICROCELLULAR PVC FOAM FOR THIN WALL PROFILE Vanvuchelen J. WESTERN EUROPE.126-47 COMPOUND MECHANISM OF THE ENDOEXOTHERMIC + OR . while the use of amino thiophenol led to a polymer film which was preferentially modified at the surface. Zhen H Y. p. Deweerdt M. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. The studies cover mechanical recycling. UK. April 2000. The production of PVC foam having excellent toughness without the addition of impact modifier using microcellular foam technology is described. March/April 2000. Performing the reaction in mixtures of a good and a nonsolvent for PVC modification. Wu Q Qingdao.

4. it has shortcomings in impact strength. SWITZERLAND./Dec. such as pipes or profiles. Rodriguez O S. a product growing strongly in the profile industry. The different products used are discussed and positioned. are expanded upon. Manchester. It is pointed out that Brazilian recycling technology is slightly © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 107 .776307 Item 285 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the processor seeks products with sufficient processing latitude . Instituto do PVC The practicalities of recycling PVC are considered. The extent of crosslinking is determined by measuring the solvent (tetrahydrofuran) insoluble gel content. The crosslinking reaction.6dithio-1. It has therefore to be modified to provide impact strength at ambient and low particular the maintenance of colour. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Gloss losses are correlated with surface roughness measurements and electron microscopic images to elucidate the underlying morphological changes.776024 Item 287 Advances in Plastics Technology.1999. In dry irradiation. 2000. the Ca/Zn stearates give shorter induction times than their Ba/Zn analogues.185-96 INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE PIGMENTS ON THE PHOTODEGRADATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gesenhues U Sachtleben Chemie GmbH A nanocrystalline rutile powder.3. the intermediate transfer of oxygen from the TiO2 surface to the polymer is proved. However due. No. Arias G. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. to its high glass transition temperature. an anatase white pigment and a photoactive as well as a photostable rutile pigment are examined for their influence on the photodegradation of PVC. The data are discussed with a view to the development of appropriate stabiliser/ sensitiser packages for PVC with a window that allows effective process stabilisation coupled with postcrosslinking.Escola Politecnico.6-dithio1.2. as measured by torque and parallel plate rheometry.products which are easy to formulate and run reliably on a wide range of extruders and tools. the stabilisers are less effective in inhibiting crosslinking. and impact strength over extended periods. UK.5-triazine) combined with various thermal stabiliser combinations (calcium/zinc and barium/zinc stearates) is examined by parallel plate and torque rheometry and gel formation. Allen N S Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada. 11 refs. The requirements for impact strength depend on the end use . MEXICO. gloss. and the possibilities for chlorinated PE (CPE). EUROPEAN UNION.775955 Item 288 Polimeros: Ciencia e Tecnologia 9. p. and notched (fast) impact tests for window profiles. the photooxidation of PVC comes to a standstill when the irradiation intensity is reduced by only 50%. WESTERN EUROPE the individual balance of UV-protective and photocatalytic properties can be quantified. Last but not least. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.776031 Item 286 Polymer Degradation and Stability 68. So for each TiO2 pigment Accession no. paper 9 NEW GENERATION CPE MODIFIER FOR PVC WINDOW PROFILES Kim A. Neto M B Sao Paulo. Katowice. GERMANY.Metropolitan University The chemical crosslinking of PVC induced by metallic mercaptides (Ba and Mg salts of 2-dibutylamino-4. No. EUROPEAN UNION.253-9 VISCOSITY CHANGES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHEMICALLY INDUCED CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE MEASURED BY PARALLEL PLATE TORQUE RHEOMETRY: INFLUENCE OF MAGNESIUM AND BARIUM MERCAPTIDES Rosales-Jasso A.5-triazine is more effective than the barium salt in crosslinking the PVC.e.195-200 Portuguese RECYCLING OF PVC IN BRAZIL Piva A M. EUROPEAN UNION. Thus the space of UV-protective influence around a rutile pigment particle is much larger than its ideal UV extinction sphere calculated from electromagnetic theory. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. compared to blanc fixe as an inert filler. A short overview is given of principles and mechanisms of impact modification. i.there are weight drop or slow fracture toughness tests for pipes. by the Weibull statistical model of failure the rates of PVC photooxidation are calculated. No. Additional needs for outdoor use are weathering and ageing stability . 5 refs. Impact modifiers provide consistently ductile behaviour over a broad temperature range. Wiebeck H. From the gloss losses during dry irradiation and full weathering.Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) PVC is an outstanding material for the production of rigid extruded goods. In combination with metal stearates. By UVvis spectroscopy.1999. 16th-18th Nov. Gerlach D DuPont Dow Elastomers SA (Poland. SPAIN. 27 refs. 2000. Poland. Oct. p.References and Abstracts EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3. shows that the magnesium salt of the 2-dibutylamino-4.2. p. Conference proceedings.

.1999. alternative procedures for recycling are required in order to avoid devaluation of the recycled end product. Translated form Kunstoffe Vol.1999. Conference proceedings.Vinyl Div. Touchette-Barrette C.114-7.3. p. passive safety. there are now signs that the USA marketplace is changing in order to conform with these environmental trends.90 No. long polymer chain of process aid plays an important role in forming and maintaining polymer chain entanglement structure and contributes to improve several process performances. 12th-14th Oct. BELGIUM. BRAZIL Accession no. Unique test methods are adopted to estimate the effect of chain entanglement to the molten state of PVC.) Advancements in processing equipment have forced changes in PVC compounds. p. Nakanishi Y Kaneka Texas Corp.National Research Council (SPE.References and Abstracts different from traditional recycling and.771750 Item 290 Vinyltec ’99. However. p. processing emissions and finished product acceptability continue to drive new product development in this area. Ontario. p. March 2000. the fundamental requirement of a stabiliser and lubricant system to facilitate processing still exists. The Audi A2 now marks the first production car to have come onto the market with an instrument panel surface developed according to this technology. such as ageing resistance.31-4 English. 1 ref. Besides conventional ideas of fusion promotion and melt viscosity/elasticity enhancement. No. JAPAN.42-7 ROLE OF PVC IN THE RESOURCE RECOVERY OF HYDROCARBONS FROM MIXED PLASTIC WASTES BY PYROLYSIS Day M. 12th-14th Oct.1999. Sheehan S E. While these compounds run the gamut of complexity in terms of additives. 12th-14th Oct.48-51 NEW LOW PLATE OUT RIGID PVC LUBRICANT SYSTEM TO MEET THE PROCESSING CHALLENGES OF TODAY’S HIGH-OUTPUT EXTRUSION PROCESS Decker R W. and allow faster extrusion speeds compared to conventional lubricant systems.769502 Item 291 Vinyltec ’99.Vinyl Div. the composition and yield of these compounds are very much dependent upon the other polymers present in the plastic mixture.) 108 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .52-8 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF LIQUID MIXED-METAL PVC STABILISER DEVELOPMENT Burley J W Akzo Nobel Resins BV (SPE. Conference proceedings. Peguform GmbH The double slush technique offers added service value.Vinyl Div. Wolfgramm P Limburgse Vinyl Maatschappij NV/SA. GERMANY. other chlorinated hydrocarbons are produced. Ontario. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the result is compared to observed process behaviours. A new lubricant system is developed with improved compatibility to reduce the tendency to plate-out. USA Accession no. 3 refs. Ontario. (SPE. In Accession no.83-7 HIGH PERFORMANCE ACRYLIC PROCESS AID FOR PVC Nishimura R. Technological aspects of the replacement of cadmium in liquid stabilisers and the reduction of volatile constituents and phenol in these materials is reviewed. Ontario. as a result. provide a more efficient lubricating effect. weight savings and the recycling of production waste in the same application.) Functions of acrylic process aid with extremely high molecular weight are discussed from a rheological point of view. Shabnavard L. WESTERN EUROPE Concerns over worker safety. Western Europe has led these initiatives. USA Accession no. however. Cooney J D Canada. USA Accession no. 7 refs. p.) The pyrolysis products obtained from a variety of mixed plastics containing PVC are investigated. 5 refs. German DOUBLE SLUSH Bouwman B. Current challenges are related to output rate and achieving longer run times by reducing plate out.769496 Item 293 Vinyltec ’99. 12th-14th Oct.1999. Conference proceedings.769497 Item 292 Vinyltec ’99. Silbermann J.Vinyl Div. p. While hydrochloric acid is the major chlorinated product produced by PVC pyrolysis.774214 Item 289 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 90. 2000. (SPE. Kaneka Corp. Falter J A Henkel Corp. EUROPEAN UNION.3. Klein B. Conference proceedings. 15 refs. Today’s processor is challenged to use these additives to maximise the investment in equipment while producing a high quality product.

such as calcium carbonate. 12th-14th Oct.Vinyl Div. in particular. March 2000.Vinyl Div. the HCl produced by the PVC can be neutralised in situ. Conference proceedings. That research report. They are also widely available costabilisers for organotin mercaptides in rigid PVC. The goals were to confirm the amount of vinyl actually being recycled. barium stearate. essentially instantaneously. USA Accession no. The results of the first phase of research. Acid absorbers coated with zinc carboxylates are useful in flexible PVC compounds where the application has rather modest stabiliser demand. was issued by the consulting firm Principia Partners.Halstab Div.302. In ‘test tube’ reactions. conducted from February to April 1998. This more complete analysis compared vinyl to the other plastic resins in application areas commonly evaluated by traditional recycling rate studies . Processors’ difficulties in recycling vinyl bottles and other post-consumer packaging have led some to allege that vinyl is ‘unrecyclable’ without further investigating the obstacles.) It is well known that acid acceptors such as hydrotalcite and zeolite have stabiliser value in PVC and other halogenated polymers. additives such as hydrotalcite Accession no.769493 Item 295 Vinyltec ’99. 7 refs.44 PARLIAMENT TARGETS PVC IN VOTE ON INCINERATION DIRECTIVE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 109 . the fatter additives have very little stabilising effect and are at best secondary stabilisers. were presented at Vinyltec ’98. This has been corrected in practice by combination with zinc carboxylates. In polymeric matrices.13-7 ACID ABSORBERS AS PVC COSTABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group. these materials react with aqueous HCl at about the same rate as CaCO3 or Mg(OH)2. conducted in September and November 1998. probe allegations of low vinyl recycling rates. CANADA Accession no. 12th-14th Oct. p.) Historically. In working to meet this goal a great deal of energy has been exerted to identify what effects calcium carbonate has on the final properties of rigid vinyl products. The concept of calcium carbonate as a filler is still strongly held by many purchasers of carbonate. p. at least to a far greater extent than common. that stabilisers have coordinating properties that enable their being at the right place at the right time.References and Abstracts the case of a polymeric waste stream containing inorganic fillers. that is. That is. acid-reactive fillers.Vinyl Div. When used as a primary stabiliser. 12th-14th Oct. However. for example. and identify obstacles to and opportunities for increased vinyl recycling. however. Ontario.769495 Item 294 Vinyltec ’99. e. The effect has been to treat the acid absorber as if it were a barium or calcium component of a mixed metal stabiliser.Inc. Vinyl. (SPE. Conference proceedings.32-7 USE OF CALCIUM CARBONATE TO ENHANCE THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RIGID VINYL PRODUCTS Callhoun A. p.769490 Item 296 Vinyltec ’99. (SPE.1999. 9 refs.769488 Item 297 ENDS Report No. It has been suggested that acid absorbers that are effective as stabilisers form addition complexes at degrading sites. expanded the study’s focus to post-use and postconsumer recycling. process stability is long. Bradshaw R W.1-7 VINYL RECYCLING: THE (UNTIL NOW) UNTOLD STORY Wisner D Geon Co. USA Accession no. ‘PostIndustrial and Post-consumer Vinyl Reclaim: Material Flow and Uses in North America’. Mobley G. leading to the production of inorganic chlorides. Ontario. the Vinyl Institute and the Chlorine Chemistry Council commissioned a comprehensive study of the state of vinyl recycling. This initial research focused on post-industrial vinyl recycling. In 1998. the leaders in the mineral industry have shifted their focus from supplying standard products as fillers to supplying functional additives engineered to meet customer needs.1999. Ontario.g. It is discovered that two application properties are integrally dependent on the form of the calcium carbonate: impact strength and fusion time/torque. the use of calcium carbonate in PVC applications has been driven by a desire to cut formulation costs. (SPE. The second phase of research.) Much has been reported over the last several years about the declining state of plastics recycling. Conference proceedings.1999. but colour hold poor.bottles and other post-consumer packaging. USA and zeolite (and certain others) provide stability comparable to. alleviating many of the concerns associated with HCl formation. highly mobile HCl before elimination of further HCl can occur. tending to deactivate such sites and to capture catalytic. That is. has been singled out as lagging behind other plastics in recycling rates. Prince J ECC International Inc. cove base extrusion. p.

No.1-10 WALL THICKNESS DISTRIBUTION IN THERMOFORMED FOOD CONTAINERS PRODUCED BY A BENCO ASEPTIC PACKAGING MACHINE Ayhan Z. These examples and methods to ensure radiation compatibility and shelf life stability are presented. The gamma sterilisation compatibility for three medical packaging materials is examined. SCANDINAVIA.References and Abstracts Amendments to the draft EC Directive on the incineration of PVC are outlined.766399 Item 301 Journal of Applied Medical Polymers 3. NORWAY. The optimum operating conditions of the packaging machine for the thermoforming process are discussed. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL function. p. forming air pressure and heating time on wall thickness distribution in plug-assisted thermoformed food containers were investigated. SINTEF Materials Technology. The European Parliament voted to tighten emission levels for new cement kilns coincinerating waste. excessive pH shifts and high extractables are often observed.766482 Item 300 Polymer Engineering and Science 40. Other amendments relating to the combustion of fibrous waste are indicated. No. radiation is found to deplete the antioxidant package leading to discolouration and/or mechanical failures. Feb. EUROPEAN UNION.2. Jan. Data are presented for high impact PS. 49 refs.2000.285-90 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF RIGID PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS 110 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . For most polyolefins. Winter 1999. Feb. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. For a variety of PVC formulations.2000. Tests were carried out on two PVC formulations having different morphologies and gelatinisation. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. SOLVAY SA BELGIUM. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. optical property evaluations and failure analysis.State University The effects of process parameters such as forming temperature. 17 refs. Ling M T K.93 COLOURED PVC COMPOUNDS HOLD STRONG PROMISE IN EXTERIOR PROFILE APPLICATIONS Rainbow compounds from Solvay are said to overcome problems associated with compounds used to date for coloured PVC profiles. No.766820 Item 299 Rheologica Acta 39. Westphal S P. p.764996 Item 302 Polymer Degradation and Stability 67. No. This results from conjugated poly-ene sequences formed through dehydrohalogenation degradation during ionising radiation.768077 Item 298 Modern Plastics International 30.1. Also agreed was an amendment which would require incinerator operators to take steps to remove large PVC items from the waste stream. Hydro Polymers Nordic A study was made of the ability of viscoelastic models to describe the measured material functions of unplasticised PVC during extrusion and to determine whether it was possible to reproduce the elastic properties of the large entrance pressure drop and small extrudate swell during the extrusion of PVC using a capillary rheometer. Irgens F.44-9 RADIATION STERILISATION COMPATIBILITY OF MEDICAL PACKAGING MATERIALS Shang S. Zhang Q H Ohio. The low IR absorption rate of the skin reduces thermal deformation of the profile by hindering heat accumulation on the profile. Techniques used include thermal analysis. LDPE. physical testing. Hinrichsen E L. and reduced by one year the proposed exemptions for existing cement kilns burning less than three tonnes of waste per hour. No. EUROPEAN UNION. p. The approach involves coextruding a UV-resistant coloured PVC skin on a base profile of low-cost PVC containing no UV stabilisers. USA Accession no. The all-PVC compounds are cost competitive and maintain colour and mechanical properties for years regardless of weather conditions. Jan. 2000. These would have to be upgraded by January 2007 rather than January 2008 as previously agreed. p. gamma radiation often leads to discolouration. Woo L Baxter Healthcare Corp. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In addition to unacceptable colour formation. and PVC. For PPs.2. 4 refs.2000. USA Accession no. Models used were the Phan-Thien and Tanner model and the KBKZ-Wagner model with a single exponential damping Accession no.2.1. Thorsteinsen P Norwegian University of Science & Technology. the degradation can lead to the well-publicised catastrophic failures during post radiation shelf life storage.80-96 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF EXTRUSION OF S-PVC FORMULATIONS IN A CAPILLARY RHEOMETER Glomsaker T. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.

The effects of reaction conditions on weight loss. Okuwaki A Tohoku. smaller than the estimated dimension of a single statistically curled PVC polymer chain in the membrane. Clausthaler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH Results are presented of studies of the thermolysis of PVC-containing wastes in which calcium carbonate. EUROPEAN UNION. Type of plasticiser. pp.759006 Item 306 Info Chimie Magazine No. sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were used for the capture of chlorine.19. Prague. Furukawa K.758765 Item 307 Addcon World ’99. weight loss kinetics and product yield and distribution were investigated.References and Abstracts AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. GERMANY. 27th-19th Oct. In the dry membrane. No. No.5. and hopes that their use will spread to other member states. p. Marfell M Loughborough. The Toy Industries of Europe organisation hopes that the new test methods will eventually lead to a common method within the EU to ensure the safety of toys and child care items to reassure consumers. The membrane structure is well described by a polydisperse hardsphere model.128-9 French TREATMENT OF WASTES: ELIMINATION OF CHLORINE IN WASTE THERMOLYSIS Fontana A.University Rigid PVC pellets were subjected to oxidative degradation with oxygen in 1 to 25 mol/kg-H2O sodium hydroxide solutions at 150 to 260C in order to establish the fundamental conditions necessary for recycling waste PVC using a novel method. similar enhancements of mechanical properties occurred. TOY INDUSTRIES OF EUROPE. HUNGARY Accession no. Laurent P.759093 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 111 .5 TOY INDUSTRY COMMITTED TO TEST SOFT PVC TOYS This article briefly describes new Dutch and UK test methods for measuring the migration of phthalate plasticisers in PVC toys.1999. 2 refs. MATTEL EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.University. The mean diameter of the dispersed spherical inhomogeneities is ~6 nm. inhomogeneities are found.760936 Item 304 Plastics Additives and Compounding 1.Technical University.760988 Item 303 Polymer Testing 19.1999.5 CYANOACRYLATES AS UV ABSORBERS FOR SPECIALITY PLASTICS Trauth H. Horvai G Budapest. No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. Beckmann M Universite Libre de Bruxelles.uniaxial (constant width).411. p. Avon Technical Products The stretching mechanism of an equal biaxial stretching machine was modified. Gilbert M. probably in the crystalline state.4313-20 MICROSTRUCTURE OF ION-SELECTIVE PLASTICISED PVC MEMBRANES STUDIED BY SMALL-ANGLE NEUTRON SCATTERING Ye Q. such as carboxylic acids.) Accession no. dry state) inhomogeneities in the membranes. HASBRO. by chemical recycling is considered.1999. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Sept. If plasticised PVC was biaxially oriented to the same draw ratios by different stretching modes. 12 refs. plasticiser content and addition of a lipophilic salt are found to significantly influence water uptake. calcium hydroxide. Oct. Water uptake does not change the microstructure due to the original (i. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Borbely S.1999. The values of the best-fit parameters and their change with membrane composition suggest that the particles consist of unplasticised PVC. 32 refs. Tests with plasticised PVC showed that the machine could produce oriented sheets under different stretching modes . Budapest. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Jung C G. p. 1st Oct.Research Institute for Solid State Physics & Optics The microstructure of plasticised PVC membranes in the dry state and during the process of soaking in heavy water is studied by small-angle neutron scattering. 29 refs. Major decomposition products were identified as oxalic acid. EUROPEAN UNION.27-41 DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE FOR THE STRETCHING OF POLYMERS Hitt D J. Krockenberger J BASF AG (RAPRA Technology Ltd. The possibility of converting PVC into raw materials. Conference proceedings. UK.e. Companies Hasbro and Mattel have already adopted these methods.1. JAPAN Item 305 Analytical Chemistry 71. EASTERN EUROPE. paper 20. 2000. BELGIUM. simultaneous (equal and unequal) biaxial and sequential. Gehrmann J. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide.

p.g. EUROPEAN COMMISSION EU. using Response Surface Methods. electrofusion socket welding. GERMANY. DECIE and retained TS) are shown graphically for the ageing up to 6000 hours of polycarbonate sheets. NETHERLANDS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. Conference proceedings. 6-amino-1.3diphenylacrylate (Uvinul 3035).47-8 EC SCIENTIFIC ADVISERS FAIL TO STOP BAN ON PHTHALATES IN PVC TOYS An immediate ban on phthalates used in soft PVC toys intended to be chewed or sucked by children under three has been agreed by EC Member State representatives on 1 December. EUROPEAN UNION. 4 refs. UK. No.2-bis-(2-cyano-3’3diphenylacryloyl)oxyl)methyl)propane (Uvinol 3030) UV stabilisers from BASF. Sept.1999.4-diones (P24D organic costabilisers from Akcros Chemicals).3. p.References and Abstracts Chemical structures. The main jointing methods for PE. PP. Details are given of the discussions involved. The study has shown that column flotation could be used to give close to 100% separation of PVC from PETP in a single operation. rigid PVC. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Metropolitan University A mixed granulate produced from PETP and PVC postconsumer bottles has been separated using the technology of column flotation. London. pp. 6-amino1. e. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 1999. is given particular attention. No.758477 Item 309 Joining and Repair of Plastics and Composites. thermal degradation behaviour and light absorption spectra are shown for ethyl-2-cyano-3. Schmets G H F Akcros Chemicals BV (RAPRA Technology Ltd. UK. dibenzoylmethane.758456 Item 310 ENDS Report No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Patents are cited on the use of uracil compounds. including the grafting of the co-stabiliser to the backbone.757682 Item 311 Polymer Recycling 4. ABS. EUROPEAN UNION.758478 Item 308 Addcon World ’99. 15 refs. The aqueous separation medium pH and surfactant concentration were optimised with respect to separation efficiency. Lees G C.) The stabilisation process by heavy metal-free systems.3-dibutyluracil.185-92 PLASTICS PIPELINE JOINTING METHODS IN THE UTILITIES Hill D J Durapipe Ltd.6 INCREASING ROLE OF ORGANIC COSTABILISERS IN PVC STABILISATION Mellor M T J. spigot and socket jointing (with elastomeric O-rings or lip seals as sealing means) and flange adaptors. ABS and GRP are listed. pigmented polyamide and PETP fibres containing various stabilisation systems including the above cyanoacrylates. Molecular structures are shown for a range of stabilisers. plasticised PVC. It is pointed out that techniques used at installation are not always suitable for repairing pipes. Accession no. polycarbonate films. 2-ethylhexyl-2-cyano3.3-dimethyluracil.1-11 SEPARATION OF PETP FROM PVC USING COLUMN FLOTATION Read S J. Hurst S J Manchester. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. (Institution of Mechanical Engineers) Techniques used by the gas and water industries to join and repair pipelines are discussed.756659 Item 312 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. The measure was only adopted following disagreement between the European Commission and its scientific advisers about where the boundary lies between risk assessment and risk management.1999.3-diphenylacrylate (Uvinol 3039) and 3-bis((2-cyano3.3-dipropyluracil and 6-amino-1.1999. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Results (yellowness index.299. rigid PVC. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. paper 19. 16th-17th March 1999. p.3'-diphenylacryloyl)oxy)2. Dec. as compounds that do not need zinc salts to catalyse their stabilisation mechanism.1. Detailed descriptions and evaluations are given of butt fusion. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no. whiteness index and yellowness index) are given for both oven ageing (95C) and mill ageing (180C).137-42 RIGID PVC FORMULATION OPTIMISATION USING SEQUENTIAL SIMPLEX Berard M T DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC 112 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . WESTERN EUROPE Listed too are the main techniques for welding and mechanical joints. Prague. including co-stabilisers is explained briefly and results are given for stabilisation systems that contain stearoyl benzoylmethane. p. 27th-19th Oct. Results (colour generation. dehydroacetic acid and the pyrrolidine-2. Harvey H B. The mechanism of stabilisation by P24D. 16 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference Proceedings.

755486 Item 315 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. A distribution map of the various relative temperatures © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 113 . A mathematical model.755465 Item 316 Journal of Materials Science. p. Sept. JAPAN Accession no. Hydro Polymers Ltd. 20 refs. Sept. This is combined with the formulation cost by using desirability functions to give an overall response for the simplex to optimise.755488 Item 314 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. USA Accession no.Royal Infirmary A study has been carried out on the interactions of blood with plasticised poly(vinyl chloride) biomaterials in a tubular form. provide the basis for interpreting the shrinkage data.References and Abstracts A rigid PVC formulation is optimised for processing window and cost using sequential simplex techniques in combination with desirability functions. employing ‘approximate’ time-temperature modulus relationships. Sept. p. Through a special design of experiment. West R H. the effect of three lubricants on extrusion of dry blends of PVC (with and without calcium stearate) is investigated. blood condition and the nature of the application is represented when considering the blood response in the clinical utilisation of the plasticised PVC. This optimisation is performed on seven of the ten ingredients from a ‘standard’ siding compound with a relatively limited number of experiments. CSMA Ltd. I. USA Accession no. No.755489 Item 313 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. p.. Zhao X B. Sept. and it is shown that bath cooling greatly improves the quality and integrity of the product. The blood response was measured in terms of the measurement of fibrinogen adsorption capacity. thrombin-antithrombin III complex and the complement component C3a. USA attained within the part during injection is determined. Biaxial mechanical properties of products produced by drawing over an expanding mandrel are found to be closely associated with the imposed axial and hoop draw ratio.527-31 BLOOD INTERACTIONS WITH PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): RELEVANCE OF PLASTICIZER SELECTION Yin H Q. McFarland C A.9. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used for surface characterisation of the polymers and the data obtained indicated that in comparison with DEHP-PVC.132-6 EFFECT OF LUBRICANTS ON PROCESSING. Courtney J M. The effects of extrusion on extruded pellets are also studied as part of this design. Geon Co. No. No.University. No. Lowe G D O Strathclyde. The PVC was plasticised with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and tri-(2ethylhexyl)trimellitate (TEHTM)and in-vitro and ex-vivo procedures used to study the biomaterial with respect to the selection of the plasticiser. The influence of different factors such as the biomaterial. An attempt is made to further understanding of the deformation behaviour and related mechanical improvements in a processed PVC tube and it is shown that behaviour is controlled by the polymer network structure.. Summers J W Polymer Diagnostics Inc.1999. To detect the changes in lubricity. 9 refs. 6 refs. The processing window contour mapping technique is used to evaluate the effects of formulation changes.3. The basic mechanics of sequential simplex and desirability functions are described along with the results of the optimisation. Glasgow. the ASTM D 3364 techniques are modified to include new higher pressures on the ram as well as other revisions.1710-6 DEFORMATION BEHAVIOUR OF A POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) TUBE BY MANDREL DRAWING Ulas I Mitsubishi Chemical Corp. Blass C R. The viscoelastic nature of PVC cannot be ignored during the injection moulding process. The effect of post-mandrel bath cooling on product straightness. Strains imposed on the compound during the injection stage display recovery dynamics that are indicative of the temperature at which the strains are imposed. DETECTION BY PVC MELT FLOW Riley D W Extrusion Engineers It has been known for decades molecular structural changes in the processing of PVC can be detected by using ASTM D 3364 (PVC Melt Flow Test).1999.. p. Materials in Medicine 10.3. Elleithy R H. spring-back and thickness distribution is investigated.116-24 CONTRIBUTION OF FLOW DEFORMATION TO THE SHRINKAGE OF INJECTION MOULDED PVC Harrell E R.1999. there is a higher reactivity Accession no. antithrombotic agent.9. It has been realised that this test can detect small changes in the ingredients as well. 6 refs.1999. It is shown how the various lubricants at differing concentrations and types can alter the PVC melt flow test results and imply differences in processing.

14 refs.747918 Item 320 PVC ’99.451-8 WATER DILUTABLE SECONDARY STABILISERS IN THE SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION OF PVC Prince K D Harlow Chemical Co. The effects of different thermal stabilisers are also studied.33. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. whilst imparting good PVC grain porosity. BPF) Crosslinking of PVC can result in the improvement of a number of properties.751990 Item 317 Plastics News(USA) 11. typically at 55% hydrolysis. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. water soluble. Work has shown that both systems can produce successful crosslinkable formulations. 8 refs. are the use of silanes and to a lesser extent. which correlates with the plasticiser distribution at the polymer surface. despite the fact that reduced thermal stability was implied. No. 20th-22nd April 1999. in conjunction with a 72. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and as such have to be supplied as alcohol or alcohol-rich solutions. Brighton. p.441-50 CROSSLINKING OF RIGID PVC Gilbert M.Ltd. facilitating improved VCM removal and faster. In this work. UK. although no comment was made on the thermal stability of the compounds produced. The requirements of these.5% hydrolysed PVOH as primary. PVC producers have adopted the use of specific secondary suspending agents. UK.398-409 COLOURING CA/ZN STABILISED PVC Dittes M BASF AG 114 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN UNION. adequate thermal stability and the avoidance of premature crosslinking during processing. using experimental design software.1999. Conference proceedings. Even so.e. peroxides. Crosslinking of rigid PVC was shown to be slower than for plasticised PVC.747919 Item 319 PVC ’99. with a low methanol content. Less attention has been devoted to the chemical crosslinking of rigid PVC. p. of water-based secondary suspending agents. Brighton. Two methods. % crosslinked polymer). (IOM Communications Ltd.3/59 HEALTHCARE GROUP ARGUES AGAINST PVC SAFETY FINDINGS Toloken S Health Care Without Harm claims that a report by former Surgeon General C. which are to some extent conflicting. HCWH is leading the charge to get rid of PVC in medical devices. p. It is demonstrated. aqueous product could be supplied.University (IOM Communications Ltd. giving all the advantages of both secondary systems. are adequate gel content (i. SPAIN. where achieving the above requirements is considerably more difficult. Brighton. typically in methanol. which have been studied in some detail. fully dilutable grade.749320 Item 318 PVC ’99. the possibility of using aminosilanes and peroxides to crosslink rigid PVC is investigated. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. UK. The recent development of a lower hydrolysis. Low-hydrolysis PVOHs are insoluble in water. with an acceptable grain size. These concerns led to the development. The use of methanol presents safety and environmental hazards relating to its particular toxicity and flammability. Alicante. To achieve this. 17 refs. These PVOHs remained for a long time the optimum hydrolysis at which a stable. It was shown that high levels of crosslinking could be achieved in the presence of basic lead salts. traditionally in the form of low-hydrolysis. BPF) One of the continuing trends in the development of superior quality suspension PVC (S-PVC) resin has been the need to impart higher grain porosity. In the 1990s there has been renewed interest in the chemical crosslinking of PVC. modified secondary. HCWH contends that Koop’s panel selectively used data about the health effects of phthalates leaching from PVC and questions the intellectual honesty of Koop’s report. HEALTH CARE WITHOUT HARM USA ideal solution. p. is the optimum product for producing high porosity PVC.. an effect attributed to the reduced diffusion of water required to hydrolyse the silane in the rigid material. named Alcotex WD30. The most significant work is that of Kelnar and Schatz who reported the crosslinking of rigid PVC using mercaptosilanes. in certain S-PVC formulations.. more uniform. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. with most work focusing on plasticised compounds. EUROPEAN UNION. 4th Oct. EUROPEAN UNION. 20th-22nd April 1999. Everett Koop misrepresents scientific evidence. during the 1980s. low molecular weight PVOHs. 20th-22nd April 1999. that such a water-based. Conference proceedings. Garcia-Quesada J c Loughborough. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University. of 45-50% hydrolysis. particularly at elevated temperatures.References and Abstracts for TEHTM-PVC. typically with hydrolysis levels below 50%. aqueous-based 55% hydrolysed secondaries were failing to achieve the same high porosity levels as the solvent-based systems. plasticiser uptake. has provided the Accession no.

. no risk of cross contamination due to incompatibility. Consequently. This is followed by important findings about colouring PVCs that use different stabiliser systems. GERMANY. UK. Wa. The natural choice for the new range of environmentally-friendly stabilisers was therefore based on calcium and zinc. Work carried out at Loughborough University has demonstrated that impact strength is a function of fusion level. Pigment dispersions of this type have traditionally been based on low melting point waxes or on PVC masterbatches. AUSTRIA. wax dispersions and polymeric dispersions to colour rigid PVC.747913 Item 321 PVC ’99. The new generation of these stabilisers is characterised by solid. (IOM Communications Ltd. HG scavenging considerably reduces the rate of degradation and avoids the very fast process that eventually causes PVC blackening (catastrophic degradation). new delivery forms and new technologies are in demand.and Ba/Cd-stabilised PVC with Ca/Zn-stabilised PVC are outlined. This knowledge is important in order to be able to substitute heavy metal pigments with economic and technically suitable alternatives. BPF) The effects of using dry pigments. dispersibility.370-6 NEW GENERATION OF LEAD-FREE STABILISERS . but recent developments have led to novel PVC free polymeric dispersions.747910 Item 323 PVC ’99. Some alternatives are described and their costs compared. Practical examples of lead substitution are explained. BPF) An objective view of the issues concerning lead chromate pigments and their replacements is presented.388-97 PERFORMANCE OF POLYMERIC CARRIER BASED COLOURANT SYSTEMS IN RIGID PVC EXTRUSION Smith N. delivery and storage in big bags or silos. A comparison of different product forms of calcium-zinc stabilisers is shown with reference to heat stability. BPF) PVC thermal degradation is the result of a ‘zipper dehydrochlorination’ process that involves allylic chlorides as intermediates and is catalysed by hydrochloric acid. Work carried out on a small-scale twin-screw extrusion line coupled to a torque rheometer for rheological data collection and process control is described. 3 refs. 20th-22nd April 1999. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Results demonstrate that it is possible to use trends found in the laboratory to scale up to production plant. colour.. The propagation step in chain dehydrochlorination is a very fast process. PVC stabilisers can stop the degradation process by reacting with allylic chlorine atoms (primary stabilisers) or by scavenging hydrochloric acid (secondary stabilisers). WESTERN EUROPE Item 322 PVC ’99. An overview of organic and inorganic pigments is given. Scavenging HO cannot stop the degradation process completely as it is diffusion controlled. advanced products.based dispersions have been shown to have lubricating properties that can have adverse effects on fusion level.350-9 MECHANISM OF PVC STABILISATION Fisch M H. They have to be able to associate with PVC at the surface of primary particles where the mobility of PVC chains allows dehydrochlorination to occur. However. it can be stopped by nucleophilic substitution Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. pipe and rainwater applications are reviewed.747912 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 115 . water immersion.. Brighton. p. patents have been applied for covering the manufacture and use of these new polymer based dispersions. Subsequent impact data is gathered on the samples produced and used to quantify the effects of the dispersion systems with respect to impact testing used within the PVC industry. 20th-22nd April 1999. particularly for window profile.NON-DUSTING MELT PRODUCTS Schiller M. As a consequence. thus proving the validity of the laboratory scale trials. This in turn has an effect on the melt rheology and degree of gelation of the PVC. 20th-22nd April 1999. The main findings from a comparison of the weathering resistance of Pb. Egger A. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN UNION. free flowing and dustfree product forms. Compounds that substitute the allylic chlorine atoms can stop the degradation in its early stages and do maintain good early colour. The new polymeric dispersions minimise this effect. BPF) During the last decade. Stabilisers that scavenge HCl improve long term stability but do not give very good early colour. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. excellent dispersion in the resin. p. Matthey J Johnson Matthey Pigments & Dispersions (IOM Communications Ltd. Conference proceedings. rheology. Zuschnig G. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. EUROPEAN UNION. Videler C Chemson Polymer Additive GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. Emphasis is placed on advantages of meltable product forms and experience of these products in the market.References and Abstracts (IOM Communications Ltd. Brighton. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. no health risk for the manufacturer. Brighton. lead-free PVC stabilisers have assumed a higher significance through increasing ecological awareness.. Conference proceedings. mechanical and electrical properties. especially in tablet form. The polymeric-based dispersions studied differ from waxbased dispersions by their inherently elastic nature.

However.747901 Item 327 PVC ’99. p. p.. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.KG (IOM Communications Ltd. BPF) The use of the Brabender Plasticorder is widespread in the development and quality control of formulations destined to be used in uPVC foam extrusion applications. Additional effects of the well defined and very fine particle size of the studied resins are the freedom from sedimentation in the plastisols and the possibility to make very thin films. Brighton. Brighton. including a proposed design Accession no. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This has several advantages. Different types of stabilisers are discussed concerning their mechanism of PVC stabilisation. Wall slip and cooling of PVC profiles can now be simulated. Conference proceedings. 20th-22nd April 1999. 9 refs. Conference proceedings. double batching permits a significant increase in throughput in the heating and cooling mixer. it is found to be possible to reduce plasticiser levels in the formulation from 50 to 30 phr and still have a satisfactory low viscosity and an almost Newtonian flow behaviour. 41 refs. Brighton.747906 Item 325 PVC ’99.2-2 mu) and a resin of 15 mu monodisperse PVC particles in different ratios.. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Leth-Olsen K-A Hydro Polymers AS (IOM Communications Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd. The effects of particle size and particle size distribution on particle packing and plastisol rheology are assessed in plastisols prepared from these resin blends. 5 refs. this could be compensated for by the reduction of plasticiser level made possible by the more optimised packing. WESTERN EUROPE philosophy called ‘Avoid Cross-channel Flow’. 11 refs. with simultaneous energy saving. BPF) Adverse effects from the usage of plasticisers and diluents in the manufacture of flexible PVC products have lately received increased environmental concern. EUROPEAN UNION. Model systems of paste-PVC resins are prepared by blending a fine particle resin (0.. USA Accession no. Pedersen S. 20th-22nd April 1999. The morphology transformations associated with the process have been widely studied but the particularities of the application have not often been taken into account . The steps in the simulation and design are detailed. SCANDINAVIA. Thorjussen T. By optimising the blending ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to observe the degree of fusion. enabling these critical elements to be fully visualised and optimised. 20th-22nd April 1999. FRANCE.. GERMANY. Conference proceedings. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. BPF) Simulation of PVC dies for profiles using finite element methods is presented. BPF) In PVC compounding. EUROPEAN UNION. Film tensile strengths are found to be reduced on increasing the relative amount of the larger particle resin.302-10 DOUBLE BATCHING IN WINDOW-PROFILE MANUFACTURE Grosse-Aschhoff M IKA GmbH & Co. This work uses a commercially viable formulation to examine the fusion aspect of the transformation process. As a consequence there is a lot of work in progress to find more environmentally friendly systems and/or systems that can reduce the consumption of organic liquids in the plastisol industry. temperatures and material properties.747903 Item 326 PVC ’99. Jacobsen H.249-57 IMPROVED PLASTISOL FLOW AND REDUCED LEVEL OF PLASTICISER IN PASTE POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FORMULATIONS Saethre B. migration and film hardness properties are all found to be improved when reducing the level of plasticiser in the formulations.281-93 SIMULATION OF PVC PROCESSING Busby W J Symbolic Systems Ltd.747897 Item 328 PVC ’99. UK.747908 Item 324 PVC ’99. Conference proceedings.References and Abstracts only if the stabiliser is already associated with the chlorine atom that becomes allylic when HCl is eliminated. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 20th-22nd April 1999.low K-value and high concentration of high molecular weight process aid. The separation of the compound can be compensated by homogenisation effects during processing.219-31 USE OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO 116 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 2 refs. still providing a high-quality extruded profile. including less sensitivity to output rates. EUROPEAN UNION. p. Brighton. p. NORWAY. Brighton. Fire. Conference proceedings.331-40 FUSION OF PVC FOAM Armstrong D. 20th-22nd April 1999. Satisfactory mechanical and physical properties for fused films and coated steel plates are maintained even at the lowest plasticiser level. Daumas B Rohm & Haas SA (IOM Communications Ltd.

WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. which are put to landfill... it is possible to use the experimental design approach without initiating unwieldy experimental programmes by using Evolutionary Operation. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY..150-9 REGULATORY AND MARKETING UPDATE ON STABILISERS USED IN PVC Donnelly P J Akcros Chemicals Ltd. BPF) Approximately 40. In these tests. This indicates that PVC-U windows with laminated foil coatings may be more susceptible to impact damage in service than uncoated windows. and thus scratches or a brittle surface layer can affect its impact resistance. NETHERLANDS.747892 Item 330 PVC ’99. 20th-22nd April 1999. surplus during installation and repair. should be enhanced to incorporate a test for impact strength retention for surface coated profiles following weathering.References and Abstracts INVESTIGATE PROCESSING CONDITIONS AND K-VALUE EFFECTS IN PVC WINDOW PROFILE EXTRUSION Thomas N L. gloss and degree of gelation. BPF) Developments in the current legislation. p. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. The effects of these treatments on impact resistance are then analysed. Some of the specimens are artificially weathered prior to impact testing using a Xenon arc weathering machine. 13 refs. Conference proceedings. 20th-22nd April 1999. Impact resistance is evaluated using a multi-axial failing weight test. It is demonstrated how this approach can be used to define the optimum processing window. humidity and pretreatment used. The quantities and distribution of the charging depend on temperature. Tribocharging is the process in which two bodies are contacted and separated again with the result that each body becomes opposite electrically charged.000 tons of polymer-insulated wires are recycled every year in the Netherlands alone.200-9 IMPACT PERFORMANCE OF WOOD-GRAIN FOIL COATED PVC-U WINDOW PROFILES. some of which have matching faces without foil coatings. Currently the cables are shredded. p.(UK) Ltd. BPF) Statistical experimental design is used on a laboratoryscale twin-screw extruder (Krauss-Maffei KMD 2-25 KKL) to investigate how processing conditions and polymer K-value affect both the extrusion process and important extrudate properties: viz Charpy impact strength. (IOM Communications Ltd. including the effect of weathering and scratching. Specimens with laminated foil coatings show a satisfactory performance when new. UK. Gardiner D UK.747887 Item 331 PVC ’99. Specimens are taken from a broad range of foil coated window profiles. p. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and political views on stabilisers and their effects on customer choice. Charging is essential for good separation. Both laboratory experiments and pilot scale tests show that the different polymers can be separated and the PVC used again. This is illustrated with reference to trials carried out on a Krauss-Maffei 50KK extrusion line. BPF) Foil coatings are now widely used on PVC-U windows to give wood-grain finishes. production waste. Often both the density and the shape of the mixed polymers are identical and no methods are available to separate the polymers in large quantities.. An evaluation shows that the process is economically feasible and steps are taken to implement the process. Brighton. The impact resistance of foil coated profile material is compared with that of uncoated material. About 50% of the cables consist of polymers. colour. 12 refs. Conference proceedings. (IOM Communications Ltd. Brighton. It is Accession no. or those with transfer foils. UK. AND THE EFFECT OF ARTIFICIAL WEATHERING AND ABRASION Newman C J. WESTERN EUROPE concluded that the relevant British Standard.747894 Item 329 PVC ’99.Building Research Establishment (IOM Communications Ltd. 20th-22nd April 1999. Brighton. Material recycling of mixed polymers is usually impossible when these polymers are not separated. melt filtration and the tribo-electric separation method to separate the PVC from other polymers are described. Conference proceedings.160-4 SEPARATION OF CABLE-PVC USING TRIBOELECTRIC CHARGING Bosma T J. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. BS 7722. Other specimens are abraded in a controlled manner. PVC-U is notch-sensitive. Harvey R J European Vinyls Corp. no equivalent reduction in impact resistance is produced in uncoated specimens. the metals liberated. but scratching or artificially weathering causes a substantial drop in impact resistance. including the high quality PVC fraction. separated and finally reused. It is updated to 16th March 1999 and is useful © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 117 . The hydrocyclonage. van den Ende C A M KEMA Nederland BV (IOM Communications Ltd. are outlined. EUROPEAN UNION. Although in production situations it may be impractical or too expensive to vary large numbers of variables over a wide processing range. These cables originate from (economic) end of life. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.

which includes graphs and tables. processing aids in one product and which. Brighton.747375 Item 335 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89. is on p. BPF) In the early 1980s. PVC and PE thus obtained can be reused in a range of products. Pipe design is discussed and it is shown how the relevant property improvements are utilised. Clear fungistatic activity was observed for 10. Akcros Chemicals Four fungicide products commonly used in plasticised PVC were investigated with regard to their activity against five different test fungi.. No. (German version of this paper. (German version of this paper. The functional copolymers are particularly suitable for applications necessitating good dimensional stability. p. unlike normal costabilisers. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. which includes tables.747879 Item 333 PVC ’99. MACHINERY.92-7 BIAXIAL ORIENTED PVC PIPE MADE BY A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Holloway L R Wavin Industrial Products Ltd. UK. The separation and purification process operates without the use of chemicals. UK.7.747374 Item 336 Macplas International No. 12 refs. a number of pipe products representing a composite of several layers are established products on the market.10. sewer pipes and cable ducts. Conference proceedings. SHEET AND PROFILE Polz K Cincinnati Milacron Austria GmbH (IOM Communications Ltd. (IOM Communications Ltd. both industrial waste and post-use. Today.62/6) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.747878 118 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Brighton. EUROPEAN UNION. BPF) A continuous extrusion process that introduces molecular orientation to an unplasticised PVC pipe is described. 2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one and 3-iodo-2propynylbutylcarbamate. 4. do not contribute to fogging. p. electrical and magnetic behaviour of the materials to be separated. GERMANY. 10 refs. over 80% of all pipes for non-pressure applications are produced in the form of foam core pipes in that country.References and Abstracts in conjunction with a detailed lifecycle paper presented at the OSPARCOM workshop in May 1997. Materials costs are reduced while short and long term performance is enhanced offering an outstanding opportunity for PVC pressure piping. WESTERN EUROPE Item 334 Kunststoffe Plast Europe 89.84-91 PVC FOAM CORE EXTRUSION. France has played the role of a pacesetter in this development. Belik P Deutsches Kunststoff-Institut. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. GERMANY. Conference proceedings.wt. AUSTRIA. The technology of the coextruded foam core pipe builds on these developments. other European countries are following. Since the common market realised within the EU is connected with a strong market equalisation tendency. p. Accession no. This product has developed into an important and very competitive alternative for non-pressure applications such as drain pipes.17-20 ACTIVITY OF FUNGISTATIC AGENTS IN PVC-P Borgmann-Strahsen R. The foam core type of PVC plastic pipe today takes the largest volume share of all coextruded foam core products.747886 Item 332 PVC ’99. EUROPEAN UNION. July 1999. p. but uses the differential gravitational.. show any measurable fungistatic activity. 20th-22nd April 1999. a multitude of patents and patent applications were registered in the field of coextrusion of multi-layer pipes.5-Dichloro-2-noctylisothiazolin-3-one did not. Richter E. 20th-22nd April 1999.44-5 FROM WIRES TO PIPES Fitt recycles the plastic which covers electrical and phone wires. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. including garden hoses and reinforced pipes for washing machines. No.68/74) EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Meanwhile. Further tests showed OBPA to be highly resistant to water leaching. Degussa-Huls New additives for PVC are described which combine the properties of co-stabilisers and high molec. July 1999. The additives are prepared by copolymerising two different methyl acrylates (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and 2. Mellor M T J Akzo Nobel Chemicals.15-7 CO-STABILIZING PROCESSING AIDS FOR POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D.7. while the other products showed a clear loss of activity.10'-oxybisphenoxyarsine(OBPA). EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. TOOLS AND PROCESSES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF FOAM CORE PIPE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Aug. EUROPEAN UNION. UK. p. Clariant GmbH. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPE-GENERAL.3epoxypropyl methacrylate) with methyl methacrylate. however.1999. is on p.

No. Hou Z.745355 Item 337 Polymer Degradation and Stability 65. and the extent of recovery of the plasticiser. MSi crosslinked films showed a certain delay in the decomposition process as compared with plasticised PVC. 14 refs.(UK) Ltd. Statistical experimental design was used to study the effects of blowing agents.1998. oxidised PE and co-stabilising ester lubricant).744063 Item 338 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. No. acoustics emission.2. No. the amount and removability of the glue. Marcilla A. p. Clear differences were observed in the TGA behaviour of the different samples. and tensile testing. birefringence. EUROPEAN UNION. extruder conditions and final part properties. processing aids and fillers in rigid PVC foam formulations. (Part I. i. p. As an example. ibid. By modelling the rheological properties. it was possible to optimise simultaneously the flow. USA Accession no. 24 refs. and swelling extent of each component in coated fabrics. EUROPEAN UNION. then needle punched to form a non-woven fabric as another application example.e. Broughton R M Auburn. SPAIN. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. much lower than those obtained in the other PVC films studied. Experimental results are evaluated and analysed to draw optimal parameters that will make mass production feasible. the recovered PETP scraps are directly used to reinforce the epoxy resin composites to demonstrate an application of the recovered product. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. II. 28. Initial recovery PETP fabrics (scraps) are further treated with removal of glue from the fabric surface in a dimethyl formamide (DMF) solution. Vol. June 1999. is described. solubility properties of coated fabrics in swelling bath. ITALY. UK. a single decomposition stage was observed at temps. ANALYSIS OF THE COMPONENTS SEPARATED FROM PVC COATED PETP FABRICS Adanur S. Garcia J C. A variety of analytical methods is used to characterise the separation solvent. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. as well as three clear decomposition processes. impact modifier (chlorinated PE) and processing aid on the processing and physical properties of a rigid PVC compound were modelled using a central composite designed experiment.145-68 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS.Universidad. the sodium salt of gammamercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane(MSi) and gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane(ASi). July 1999.741972 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 119 . Mijangos C Alicante. showing the strong influence of this compound on the thermal behaviour of plasticised PVC. probably involving the plasticiser and different fractions produced in the crosslinking reactions.2. July 1998).65-73 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF CROSSLINKED PLASTICIZED PVC Beltran M I. It provided information about interactions between variables and could be used to help to predict an optimum formulation. WAXD.References and Abstracts FITT SPA EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.University The analysis of the swelling process. USA Accession no. The structure and performance of recovered PETP fibre are examined by several testing techniques. The results may lay the groundwork for a commercial recovery process of this very important group of individual fabrics. Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Polimeros The thermal stability and the thermal decomposition behaviour of plasticised PVC and crosslinked plasticised PVC films were studied.28. Capillary rheology was used to evaluate the flow properties of the various formulations studied. Harvey R European Vinyls Corp. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. WESTERN EUROPE Item 339 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 5. 12 refs. the recovered PETP staple is opened and combed on a special machine. In the case of the films prepared with ASi. EUROPEAN UNION. Oct. p. phase separation of swelling bath.63-70 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO OPTIMIZE FORMULATIONS FOR FOAM VINYL APPLICATIONS Thomas N L. the changes in the chemical and physical properties of the PVC and PETP polymers during the processes. In another application.1. Two effective crosslinking agents were used.743279 Item 340 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol. This technique provided an alternative approach to the classical experimental method of changing one variable at a time. 5 refs. p. June 1999. such as DSC.743280 Accession no. The final product is the recycled PETP fibre (staple).71-5 EFFECTS OF FORMULATION VARIABLES ON RHEOLOGY OF RIGID PVC Hayes V O DuPont Dow Elastomers LLC The effects of lubricants (paraffin wax. Hidalgo M.

They were evaluated both as individual pigments and when formulated in typical vinyl siding shades. 1999. the Freelander’s anti-chip protection in the sill area is in the form of a sprayed-on PVC sealant compound. Volume III. 2nd-6th May 1999. The original paper considered the effects three different IR reflecting black pigments have on weatherable R-PVC. at the same time. p.734261 Item 345 Antec ’99.292. 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 1998.13-4 INCINERATOR EMISSIONS BREACHES FOCUS ATTENTION ON PVC This article discusses the incineration of PVC wastes. The effects measured included: % IR reflection. A new weathering study is initiated to examine variations in both the pigments and the R-PVC compounds to more fully understand the interaction of all factors. The infrared system is installed in Land Rover’s state-of-the-art Paintshop 21. EUROPEAN UNION. 3 year in South Florida.References and Abstracts Item 341 ENDS Report No. Pettijohn E Witco Corp. 012 STABILISERS FOR PEROXYDICARBONATE INITIATOR SOLUTIONS Frenkel P. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. New York City. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Land Rover vehicles.3. May 1999. The two alcohols studied were a special aromatic alcohol with a complex structure. which it reports is facing renewed scrutiny in the UK in the light of numerous breaches of emission limits for hydrogen chloride. shipment and handling. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the spray system applying the PVC compound is activated and. No. heat build-up properties and weathering characteristics . EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. At temperatures above 10 deg. from the new Freelander to the wellestablished Defender. p. the tracking system connects with a plc for the infrared curing equipment. and characteristics are presented of PVC plasticisers based on pyromellitic tetraesters with a symmetrical and mixed structure respectively. (SPE) An update is presented of a paper written for the 1996 CAD RETEC.740784 Item 342 Materiale Plastice 35. 012 UPDATE ON THE EFFECT OF BLACK PIGMENT SELECTION ON WEATHERABLE R-PVC Burkhart G Cerdec Corp.239-46 Rumanian PLASTICIZERS FOR PVC OF THE PYROMELLITIC CLASS. medium wave infrared emitters from Heraeus Noblelight. New York City. as any softness in the anti-chip coating could lead to it being damaged during further production operations carried out before the vehicle is painted with primer. UK.2885-9.740727 Item 343 Pigment and Resin Technology 28. Conference proceedings. Volume III. which reflects the latest drying and curing technology and handles all Accession no.. versatile viscosity. such as 2-phenoxy-ethanol and a long branched aliphatic alcohol such as isotridecanol. Due to the thermal reactivity of these initiators. physicochemical properties.E. No. Terescu-Boran S. they require very low temperature storage. (SPE) Liquid dialkylperoxydicarbonates are used as initiators in the PVC industry. II. EUROPEAN UNION. The new system has also proved more energy efficient than competitive techniques and provides a better working environment. When the line tracking system identifies an approaching Freelander. The issue is likely to attract further attention as operators grapple with tighter hydrogen chloride controls proposed in the draft EC Directive on incineration.3621-4. 2nd-6th May 1999. within the time constraints dictated by the assembly line speed. Emphasis is placed on the three year South Florida weathering results and the possible effect free iron has on the weathering performance is examined. to ensure that the required precuring will take place.4. p. Unlike other models in Land Rover’s range.C. Details are given. Conference proceedings. p. This precuring is essential. RUMANIA Accession no. HERAEUS NOBLELIGHT. Istratuca G The synthesis. UK. LAND ROVER EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EASTERN EUROPE. Land Rover has been able to achieve the required cure of a PVC sealant and anti-chip coating applied to Freelander vehicles at its Solihull plant. USA Accession no. All showed good thermal resistance.ENVIRONMENT AGENCY EU. p. 21 refs.734767 Item 344 Antec ’99. HIGHER MIXED ESTERS Mirci L.167-8 CARBON INFRA-RED EMITTERS PROVIDE CURE FOR LAND ROVER ANTI-CHIP PROTECTION Due to the use of carbon. and the esters with a mixed structure are shown to have adequate plasticising properties for PVC technology.

Conference proceedings. p. Volume III. Yamazaki K Kaneka Corp. Hansen’s three-dimensional solubility parameters provide a quantitative measure of these Accession no. (SPE) The ease with which plasticiser is combined with PVC resin is a measure of processing characteristics critical in the dry blending of suspension PVC. New York City. Volume III.3569-73. relative initial gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser molecular weight and solvating strength. 2nd-6th May 1999. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation are discussed. Fisch M H Witco Technical Center (SPE) A series of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl thioglycolates and alkyltin chlorides studied by IR and 119Sn NMR. Hegranes B. Takaki A. 5 refs. PVC STABILISATION BY ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES Fisch M H. USA III. Bacaloglu R.733758 Item 350 Antec ’99. 012 STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF CELLULAR PVC AND A SUITABLE PROCESSING AID Miki Y. and the gelation of plastisols. This information allows the prediction of the relative processing characteristics of any dialkyl phthalate plasticiser for PVC on the basis of its chemical and physical properties. New York City.3512-25. Godwin A D Vinyl Consulting Co.733970 Item 346 Antec ’99. (SPE) The solvating strength of a plasticiser for PVC is a measure of the interactive forces between these two materials. 012 PREDICTION OF PLASTICISER SOLVENCY USING HANSEN SOLUBILITY PARAMETERS Krauskopf L G Vinyl Consulting Co. 012 PLASTICISER FACTORS INFLUENCING TAKEUP BY PVC RESINS Krauskopf L G. The proprietary additives and a mechanism of stabilisation are discussed.Inc. Compatibility with PVC is determined using DMA analysis of glass transition temperatures.Inc. From this aspect. New York City. 19 refs. Using commercial grade plasticisers.References and Abstracts most undergo auto-accelerated self-induced decomposition.733961 Item 348 Antec ’99. These additives effectively stabilise the product. which is strongly related to the molecular chain entanglement between PVC and processing aid dispersion. In other words. p. Volume III. making them safer to handle. USA Accession no. their self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT) is exceeded. store and ship. This characteristic is enhanced by its high melt elasticity. USA Accession no. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Bacaloglu R.. IV. Also included is a section concerning the implications these products have for future initiator formulation. but PVC can retain foamability even after the cells are partly broken. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. New York City. Conference proceedings. a suitable processing aid is designed and its remarkable foamability is confirmed. © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 121 .733965 Item 347 Antec ’99. 2nd-6th May 1999. 10 refs. and relative final gelation temperatures in plastisols as a function of plasticiser solvating strength. Conference proceedings. New additives have been discovered which increase the SADT of the initiators. 2nd-6th May 1999. (SPE) The morphology of cellular PVC and the results of model experiments compared with PS suggested that cellular PVC products contain a high ratio of open cells. 012 MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.3592-6.3564-8. Conference proceedings. Exxon Chemical Co. New York City. p. 2nd-6th May 1999. p. Dooley T. predictive equations are developed for the following processing parameters of dialkyl phthalates in PVC: relative dryblend rates in suspension PVC as a function of plasticiser viscosity.733960 Item 349 Antec ’99. 11 refs. Volume III. Conference proceedings. Volume III.3526-36. 2nd-6th May 1999. 6 refs. USA Accession no. Nakanishi Y. p. Dooley T Witco Technical Center (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin 2-ethylhexyl mercaptopropionates is studied by the measurement of colour change on heating a PVC formulation. Jakubowski J. JAPAN Accession no.

Phase separation Accession no.4. This is part 19 of a series of articles designed to help injection moulders understand how a few analytical tools can help diagnose a part failure problem. plasticisers are found to lie near the edge of the solvency ‘sphere’ of PVC. July 1998. USA Item 353 Injection Molding 7. No.MATERIALS ANALYST: PART 19 Sepe M Dickten & Masch Mfg. N. Full details of the problem and the solution are presented. A methodology for predicting maximum field service temperatures from solar reflectance measurements is presented. having been subjected to a treatment. EUROPEAN UNION.University The polyester(PETP) in the base fabrics and the PVC coating. Compared with other recycling techniques. New York.729119 Item 355 Journal of Coated Fabrics Vol.58/64 DESIGN . FRANCE. USA Accession no. p.49-58 MODELLING OF MASS TRANSFERS BETWEEN FOOD SIMULANTS AND TREATED PLASTICISED PVC Bichara A. 19 refs. The treatment reduces the diffusion of the plasticiser and the influence of some factors of this processing were investigated. p. p. their size and ageing period were performed. Yaseen M Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Details are given of the preparation of PVC membranes containing dialkylphthalate. I.3. April 1999.399-405 CONTROLLED RELEASE PVC MEMBRANES: INFLUENCE OF PHTHALATE PLASTICISERS ON THEIR TENSILE PROPERTIES AND PERFORMANCE Donempudi S. while known solvents show strong association and lubricating additives fall outside the solvency sphere of PVC. together with plasticisers and adhesive/glue. p. The selection of the swelling agent of MEK was made after an analysis of the physical and chemical properties of several chemicals. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.732200 122 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Applications in the controlled release of agrochemicals are mentioned. 4th April 1999. Plastics Design Library. March 1999. It deals with the particular case of exterior parts moulded from flexible PVC that developed black stains after a relatively short period of time exposed to the elements..Y.733517 Item 352 Coloring Technology for Plastics. and liquid food or food simulants. Hou Z. No.729317 Item 354 Polymer Engineering and Science 39. Taverdet J L Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement PVC is often used in food packaging and blood bags.1. MEASUREMENTS OF VINYL Hardcastle H K Dayton Technologies Edited by: Harris R M Vinyl products continue penetrating Western US markets.References and Abstracts interactive forces. INDIA Accession no. 8 refs. the swelling method was a simple procedure with minimal environmental impact. No. 16 refs. p. were separated from a commercial coated fabric by a scheme of chopping. The relative positions of various plasticiser structures are in the expected order. USA Accession no. A mathematical model. The tensile strength and percent elongation of these membranes as a function of concentration of the phthalate plasticisers.5967.28. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This methodology may be used in addition to ASTM D-4803 and is not limited to vinyl materials. Fugit J L. 2 refs. Vinyl products may show unacceptable heat distortion when installed in Western environments even after demonstrating a long tradition of acceptable heat build performance in Eastern US environments. field measurement data and a predictive model for a variety of vinyl systems are shown. grinding and extracting with a selected preferred aqueous MEK solution. This study concerns mass transfers between plasticised PVC. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES AND SEPARATION OF FABRIC COMPONENTS Adanur S.37-55 RECOVERY AND REUSE OF WASTE PVC COATED FABRICS. Broughton R M Auburn. is proposed to quantify the diffusion rate in terms of an average diffusion coefficient. A swelling method was introduced to separate and reuse waste PVC-coated PETP fabrics. a computer program designed for solvent systems with various resins. Using CO-ACT service. Solar reflectance data (ASTM E-903 and E-892). 52 PREDICTING MAXIMUM FIELD SERVICE TEMPERATURES FROM SOLAR REFLECTANCE. 1999. able to simulate these mass transfers and to quantify treatment parameters.733757 Item 351 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 72.

The benefits that vinyl foam offers include: low cost per unit volume.1998. Aspects covered Accession no. Molecular orientation enhances tensile strength in the orientation direction. high rigidity. profile. Tabtiang A Loughborough. and particular details are given of the profile dies. improved thermal insulation. Goteborg. Feb. Uponor Innovation AB (Institute of Materials) Oriented PVC pipes have been produced since 1974. and confers improved resistance to crack initiation and propagation. Biaxial stretching equipment was used to produce biaxial orientation. requires little energy input and much lower capital cost. Kluwer. USA A NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR IN-LINE MANUFACTURING OF BIAXIALLY-ORIENTED PVC PIPES Chapman P G.727086 Item 356 Popular Plastics and Packaging 44. particularly in many wood replacement applications. Rigid PVC reverted almost to its original size in the vicinity of Tg. It has becomes one of the fastest growing markets in the vinyl industry. calibration table. The development work and extensive evaluation testing of the product are described. the crystallinity is the major factor controlling reversion.University (SPE. Agren L Vinidex Tubemakers Pty. London.Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. Features of the machinery are described. KOLSITE BATTENFELD INDIA Accession no. Previously this has been performed as a secondary ‘off-line’ process in an external mould. 5 PROCESSING AIDS FOR VINYL FOAM Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co. just like wood. Boucherville. Retec proceedings. NRC/IMI) Rigid and flexible PVC samples with Tg range -41C to +80C were studied. An A-Z reference. At 60C shrinkage was quite small in rigid PVC.References and Abstracts was found in the MEK/water system that served as swelling bath. allows higher design stress ratings and material savings. No. The behaviour of the swelling system and the swelling properties of recovered components were investigated in terms of parameters such as refractive index. which is mainly used for trim and moulding. Hitt D J. sparking enthusiasm among processors over new opportunities for vinyl foam. high water resistance. in many ways.726350 Item 357 International Symposium on Orientation of Polymers: Application to Films and Fibres. the ease and versatility of being able to work with it. particularly in wood replacement applications in the building and construction industries. The production of rigid PVC profiles is described with reference to state-of-the-art twin screw profile extruders and downstream equipment from Battenfeld. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 8(11)32 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF ORIENTED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gilbert M. UK. p. In a joint development programme between Uponor and Vinidex Tubemakers.. These markets have grown worldwide at an annual rate of greater than 12% over the last three years.565-72.526-34. calibration block. and have demonstrated performance characteristics superior to standard PVC. 7 refs. SCANDINAVIA. p. and foam core pipe for drain.724350 Item 358 Plastics Pipes X. a process has been developed to execute the orientation process ‘in-line’ with the extrusion. Shrinkage data for up to 800 days are shown for plasticised samples. an extruded feedstock is stretched under carefully controlled temperature conditions. 15 refs. where its water resistance and high stiffness per unit weight are important attributes..1998. Impressive growth rates are forecast for vinyl foam. but is now becoming increasingly important because of recent improvements in technology and a broadening of applications. 23rd-25th Sept. To achieve circumferential orientation for pressure pipes. (Institute of Materials) Foamed PVC has been commercially available for at least 20 years. 14th-17th Sept. The two phases existed over a wide concentration range.165-74. SWEDEN.2. AUSTRALIA. 6H21 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 123 . Annealing is essential. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. There are currently three major existing markets for PVC foam: sheet. 1999. haul off and profile saw.718897 Item 359 Plastics Additives. Sweden.80-2 HIGH PERFORMANCE RPVC PROFILE LINES Khan G A Kabra Extrusiontechnik Ltd. Increased annealing time and temperature delayed recovery. 20 refs. where the major application is signage. Irradiation crosslinking modified the recovery behaviour of plasticised samples. The disadvantage of this process is its high cost. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. waste and vent applications. 1998. The process operates at normal extrusion speeds. Conference proceedings. degree of swelling and the average particle size of recovered PVC. and most importantly. Qc. Rigid vinyl foam is. p. For flexible PVC.

BELGIUM.. closed-loop recycling programme where customers return their vinyl-backed carpet at the end of its useful life for recycling. 8(13) PROCESS FOR RECYCLING VINYL BACKED CARPET Preston L Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings Inc. Articles from this journal can be requested for translation by subscribers to the Rapra produced International Polymer Science and Technology. The thermoplastic matrix is poly(vinyl chloride). 13th-14th Oct. Trends clearly indicate that the number of landfills nationally is declining while the cost of disposal is rising. low pile nylon 6. N.718858 Item 361 Macromolecules 32. p. Details are given USA Accession no. are heat stabilisers. Vicat softening point and melt flow index were studied. EUROPEAN UNION.6 face and a vinyl composite backing system.167-80 CRYSTALLINITY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF PLASTICISED PVC. Zagrebplast Techniques are described for the preparation of ferromagnetic mixtures to be used in the manufacture of Accession no. An A-Z reference. East Brunswick.References and Abstracts include vinyl foam processes and formulations. while those that lower the melting point and Tg are plasticisers. 11th-13th Nov. The Infinity Initiative programme is a production-scale. with the aid of specially developed computer programs. Colemonts C DSM. recycled content ER3 floor coverings and other products.714353 Item 362 Polimeri 18.96-100. Its vision in the early 1990s was to ‘close the loop’ by recycling carpet into carpet. hardness. The company decided several years ago to recycle rather than landfill vinyl carpet waste. Retec proceedings. 1998.718868 Item 360 Plastics Additives. during processing additives must be incorporated to retard the thermal decomposition mechanism and to lower its melting point. most recycling research in the carpet industry involved separation of components .a costly step that often leaves no recycling options for the components separated. p. Nos. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1-2. Il. the function and classification of lubricants. 7 refs. A CARBON 13 AND PROTON SOLID STATE NMR STUDY Barendswaard W. They are available in modular carpet tile and six-foot width roll goods. 42C382 ACHIEVING LOW GLOSS IN VINYL SIDING WITH ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFICATION Szamborski G 124 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . London. 30 refs. USA thermoplastic magnets. No. Geick K S Lonza Inc. (Institute of Materials) PVC polymer has an unusual property in that its thermal decomposition temperature is lower than its melting point.1. 4 refs. These products are constructed with a dense. An introduction to rigid PVC. 38 refs. 5 LUBRICATING SYSTEMS FOR RIGID PVC Williams J B. Falter J A.165-74. and the ferromagnetic filler is barium ferrite.450-8. Scherrenberg R L. Retec proceedings. 12th Jan. Powerbond products are engineered for maximum performance and designed to be environmentally friendly.59-70 Croatian OPTIMISATION OF THE COMPOSITION OF FERROMAGNETIC BLENDS USING A FLOW CHART FOR EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND DATA MANAGEMENT Orlic R Polimeri. CROATIA Accession no. Customers are provided a written warranty certifying that carpet returned to the facility will be 100 % recycled and not landfilled or incinerated.) Collins & Aikman Floorcoverings is one of the largest suppliers of specialty floor coverings designed for the commercial floor covering market. The vinyl-backed carpet recycling programme was the first of its kind. The relative amount of different triad sequences in the crystallites of PVC were obtained. Kluwer. Those retarding thermal decomposition. p.. USA Accession no. Souren F.1998.J. chemical classes of lubricants and testing of lubricants are presented. Gondard C. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. p. (SPE. They are recycled into new. The effect of the composition on the impact strength. NETHERLANDS. p. An estimated 4 billion lbs of carpet are landfilled annually. Therefore.Plastics Recycling Div. function/ benefits of processing aids in rigid vinyl foam and guidelines for the use of processing aids. Chicago. Limburgse Vinyl Mij A combination of carbon 13 solution and solid state NMR was used to reveal the relative amount of crystalline PVC in two PVC/diethylhexyl phthalate samples.1999.714178 Item 363 ARC ’98. 1997. Prior to the development of ER3. Litvinov V M.713534 Item 364 Vinyltec ’98.1998.

75/82 COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DI-2-ETHYL HEXYL PHTHALATE AND TRI-N-BUTYL CITRATE AS PLASTICISER IN PVC COMPOSITIONS Jain K K. The decrease in the yield stress was smaller in the agglomerate-filled resin than in the original beadfilled resin. 12 refs. Nov. 13th-14th Oct.407-14 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SHAPE ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PARTICLEFILLED PVC Nakamura Y. No.11. the result is typically a product with greater water and chemical resistance than if a light metal. An additional feature for siding is to have house siding appear ‘natural’ and not ‘plastic’. Okabe S.711020 Item 367 Popular Plastics and Packaging 43. there is one type of additive that can impart gloss reduction without the acrylic impact modifier specifically designed to produce a low gloss extruded surface finish. It was confirmed by SEM that the agglomerates. Iida T Osaka. extraction or migration of lead-based additives.Vinyl Div.. immiscible polymeric additives. Saroop M Shiram Institute for Industrial Research © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 125 . lead stabilisers may be used solely for function in metal oxide Accession no. agglomerates of the glass beads were prepared by treating them with PVAl. polychloroprene (CR) and epichlorohydrin (ECO). The shape of the particles appeared to be important in moderating the decrease in the yield stress of particle-filled ductile polymers. were dispersed in the matrix. p. mineral fillers. lead stabilisers are used to scavenge chloride. as in PVC and certain fluoropolymer compositions.83-8. once mixed into a polymer.713516 Item 366 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. such as chlorinated PE (CPE). certain types of lubricants. 42C382 LOW EXTRACTABLE LEAD STABILISERS Grossman R F Hammond Group (SPE. the metal may participate in crosslink formation.713518 Item 365 Vinyltec ’98. derived from residual catalyst.6. but only decreased slightly with an increase in particle size. N. such as in medium voltage electrical insulation. The production of lead-containing additives involves sophisticated engineering and design to prevent worker exposure. Due to their low solubility. in cases where high water resistance is required. size and shape on the yield stress of a particle-filled ductile polymer were investigated. or instead. concern over the toxicity of lead stabilisers is real and has given rise to development of modified stabilisers having even lower extractability. weatherability.1998. Among additives used in the formulation. In some of these cases. relative ease of installation. USA Accession no. entirely as an HX scavenger. and impact resistance. In some halogenated polymers. The homeowner desires the look of wood in a PVC siding. East Brunswick. USA crosslinking. Yoshimoto N. The yield stress decreased significantly with an increase in filler content. Fatma K.1998. or contamination of the environment.7 billion lb.Vinyl Div. However. including mechanical means and by the formulation additive approach. and even high molecular grades of PVC resin have been used to attain some level of gloss reduction. Retec proceedings. composites. is very low.J. To clarify the effect of particle shape. 5 refs. were used instead. consisting of a few beads on average. With lead-based stabilisers. such as EPM or EPDM. (SPE. PVC has captured the majority share of the cladding market and has virtually eliminated aluminum siding and is significantly challenging other construction materials used for house siding. Such a feature is not given for PVC because it typically tends to be glossy as a result of the relatively high melt temperatures developed during extrusion. These approaches generally show a downside in cost and/or performance. with more soluble halide salts. In hydrocarbon polymers. Nevertheless. p. 9 refs.References and Abstracts Rohm & Haas Co. as in reduced impact strength. have elevated PVC siding to an annual volume of nearly 1. In other cases.Institute of Technology The effects of particle volume fraction. No. embossing is commonly used for obtaining a wide variety of wood grain textures designed to disrupt the panel surface to effect light scattering. particularly in comparison to salts of light metals. Features such as low maintenance. The surface gloss of the extrusion can be reduced in several ways. Mechanically. chlorosulphonated polyethylene (CSM). dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead phosphite are used to scavenge HCl arising from crosslinking as well as from degradation.) PVC siding has grown rapidly during the last decade to reach a prominent position in the North American housing market both in remodeling and in new construction. 1998. JAPAN Accession no. p. Ten to 15 parts of glass beads ranging in size from about 50 to 200 micrometres were mixed with 100 parts of PVC as a ductile matrix using a mixing roll.) Lead stabilisers have been used in a variety of PVC as well as other polymers for many years. which had poor compatibility with the PVC matrix. and tensile tests were carried out. including wood. etc. tooling wear and plateout.

p. INDIA Semenov N.1-6 MICROWAVE PLASMA REACTIONS OF IMIDAZOLE ON POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) SURFACES: A SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY Schmitt B R. Urban M W North Dakota State University A closed-system microwave plasma reactor was used to react imidazole molecules to PVC surfaces.107-26.Institute of Chemical Physics. including extraction. di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate has been the primary plasticiser for medical devices made of PVC. SCANDINAVIA.111-2 INFLUENCE OF BIODEGRADATION ON THE LOSS OF A PLASTICISER FROM POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Gumargalieva K Z. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.) This paper describes experimentation carried out on an exothermic blowing agent to understand the chemistry Accession no. recently presented a process for treating and using recycled post-use plastics from cables in the manufacture of pipe and moulded products. if the PVC content was lower than 2000 ppm. 12 refs. Tarkett Sommer. Zaikov G E. Palermo. Bertelo C A Elf Atochem (SPE.000 t/y of PVC at seven plants in Europe and is recycling about 8.708123 Item 372 Vinyl Retec ’97: Plastic Systems for the Building Industry.708810 Item 370 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. No. EUROPEAN UNION.1. Retec proceedings. Heung Kim. A mechanism for the PVC-imidazole reactions was also presented.Vinyl Div.. 12 refs.N. The properties of plasticised vinyl compositions were compared.University. Ga. whereas loss from the same polymer in the absence of bio-overgrowth was evaporation-limited. ITALY.1999. was observed but some increase was measured that increased on decreasing the PVC content. Zhdanova O A 126 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . thermal stability. PVCcontaminated PETP was processed under nitrogen flow. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. TARKETT AB EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No.709419 Item 368 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 71.1. La Mantia F P Pisa. 3rd Jan. p. not only no macroscopic change of the molec.1997.References and Abstracts For many years. one of the world’s largest PVC flooring manufacturers. 1999. No. p. 14th-15th Oct. In this study. The PVC was useful as an implant for biomedical applications. It was shown that the loss of DAP accelerated with bioovergrowth on the PVC. low temperature flexibility and mechanical properties. 10 refs. The results obtained indicated that competition between degradation and regradation occurred under these processing conditions and.1. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics The effect of biodegradation by the microscopic fungus Aspergillus niger on the diffusion desorption of a dialkyl phthalate(DAP) plasticiser from PVC was studied.11-4 INFLUENCE OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE ON THE RECYCLING OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE Paci M. measurement of the torque during processing and the good reproducibility of these tests permitted detection of the amount of PVC in recycled PETP samples. Furthermore.708138 Item 371 Polymer Degradation and Stability 63. FITT SPA. ITALY. volatility. The potential of a lesser used plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.4 tonnes of waste material a month. processes almost 100. 42C382 BLOWING AGENTS IN PVC FOAM APPLICATIONS: NOVELTY IN ACTIVATION CHEMISTRY Girois S. RUSSIA Accession no. 8 refs. 1999. 11th Dec. but there are concerns regarding its toxicity.wt. SWEDEN.1766.709309 Item 369 Plastics and Rubber Weekly No. p..1998. USA Accession no. is examined. Semenov S A. Italy’s largest producer of PVC extruded and injection moulded products. Loss of plasticiser was limited by its diffusion in the material volume in the case of bioovergrowth. Newly created surfaces were analysed using ATR FTIR spectroscopy. Surface reactions on PVC were heavily dependent on a prior thermal history of the PVC substrate. p. presumably because it effectively removed plasticiser from the surface of the material by biodegradation.University The presence of PVC in recycled PETP is generally a problem because of the chain scission induced by the hydrogen chloride evolved from the macromolecules during degradation of PVC. The fungus thus acted as a leaching solvent. Atlanta. tributyl citrate.6 PVC PROCESSORS LEADING BY EXAMPLE Fitt.

F. theory. Interesting results were obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of exothermic blowing agent activation by a new family of chemicals. samples exposed to sunlight did not undergo surface crosslinking but did thermally desorb volatiles in a similar way to laboratoryexposed samples. p. Pleizier G. Residual organic and chloroorganic compounds were detected in the polymer surface after irradiation. GERMANY. Similar species were also directly released during irradiation. is designed for throughputs from 300 to 700kg/hr.3. and troubleshooting.812-7 MIGRATION OF DI(2ETHYLHEXYL)PHTHALATE(DEHP) FROM PVC CHILD ARTICLES INTO SALIVA AND SALIVA SIMULANT Steiner I.704011 Item 376 Brecksville. startup.. Information is included for the correct selection of equipment and operating conditions. pp. Worsfold D J. Rates of volatilisation of organic and chloroorganic compounds were measured directly during accelerated exposure conditions and dropped sharply with irradiation time. Foam products are well established in their specific areas of application and indispensable on the market. c. Oh.706571 Item 374 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. Aspects covered include structure of formulations. No. p. p. 1998. This type of machine has a planetary roller extruder connected to a melt extruder via a vacuum channel. plant for foamed intermediate products and selection criteria. USA Accession no. There are numerous reasons for using PVC as a foamed semi-finished product.1998. 1/12/98. In contrast. 2nd edition. The static migration test of a film containing about 30% DEHP with saliva simulant gave the lowest values of Accession no. 11 ins. with mass spectrometry detection. based on organometallic chemistry. a blowing agent activation approach was developed. The new Battenfeld 2-90-22V 90mm PVC pelletising extruder. Washuettl J Vienna. TEMPRITE CPVC INDUSTRIAL MOLDING PROCESSING GUIDE Goodrich B. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.413-9 VOLATILES RELEASE FROM PHOTODEGRADING.Co. these were identified and quantified by gas chromatography.8. high flame resistance.33 NEW BATTENFELD DUO FOR PVC Battenfeld has developed the ZSE 355/320 two stage extruder to feed large calenders.National Research Council Volatile species produced during the UV irradiation of a rigid PVC construction panel were established as a function of irradiation time.706761 Item 373 Polymer Degradation and Stability 62. 82 EXTRUSION OF FOAMED SEMI-FINISHED PRODUCTS WITH TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS Schneider H P Krauss-Maffei AG Edited by: Hensen F Foam extrusion of PVC has been well known since the beginning of the early 1960s. excellent weatherability and low material costs due to low density. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. In both cases. processing. PIGMENTED PVC: KINETIC CHANGES Carlsson D J. mould design.Specialty Polymers & Chemicals Detailed guidelines are presented for the correct moulding of TempRite chlorinated PVC industrial moulding compounds. EUROPEAN UNION. This drop could be attributable to the crosslinking of the irradiated surface which became chlorine-deficient and rich in titanium dioxide pigment (rutile).435-54. Munich. 9 refs. CANADA Item 375 Plastics Extrusion Technology. good acoustic damping properties.1998.References and Abstracts of decomposition and gas formation. p.500kg/hr for plasticised.. It has an output of 4. 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. 1st Oct. good chemical resistance.703064 Item 377 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. pressures. 18 refs.705216 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 127 . Krzymien M. ease of fabrication by mechanical means. No.7. Scharf L.000kg/hr for uPVC and approximately 4. USA Accession no. the most significant of these being low thermal conductivity. Day M Canada.. Hanser Publications. BATTENFELD AG EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. the smallest model in the EMS series. GERMANY. 1997. and includes details of melt preparation. From this mechanism.University of Technology A simple migration test and a more complex simulation of children’s sucking and biting were used to establish migration of DEHP from PVC child-use articles into saliva and the results were compared with a mimic test. process upsets. extrusion foaming methods. Fiala F. 26 refs.

Aug. Ductilities increased up to ratios of about 2. AUSTRIA. 1998.Centro de Investigacion Cientifica.700556 Item 379 Polymer 39. The more complex arrangements to simulate sucking and biting were not so suitable for standard applications. 19 refs. The yield stress was found to decrease with increase in particle content.10. Nov. A tensile test was carried out using a dumbbell specimen. USA Accession no. The process produced a leather-like sheet that could be used in several applications.University Ion-selective polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membranes were plasticised using three citrate-related and six sebacaterelated compounds. based on the plasticiser selection and the PHR ratio.1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Finally. p.4. Ten to 15 parts of the particles having two different mean sizes (2 and 8 micrometres) without further surface treatment were mixed with 100 parts of PVC and 3 parts of lead stearate as a stabiliser using a mixing roll. A nomogram is given to predict the strength. diethyl sebacate (DES) and dioctyl adipate (DOA) plasticised membranes were in general stronger and stiffer than the dioctyl sebacate.26. prepared by crushing natural raw crystalline limestone. The tests revealed that the sheets were flexible and exhibited suitable water absorption levels for several applications in the footwear and clothing industry. Marquez Lucero A Yucatan. Fukuoka Y.6755-65 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGHLY PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. Iida T Osaka. 28 refs. NETHERLANDS. but the use of DMS.311-6 TENSILE TEST OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FILLED WITH GROUND CALCIUM CARBONATE PARTICLES Nakamura Y. Greenpeace claims that no acceptable limits for intake from toys can be set and Mattel has announced it is phasing out phthalates from its teething toys.700962 Item 378 European Plastics News 25. p. the tests showed that this composite could be formulated and processed at high productivity levels and at a low cost.Escuela Militar de Ingenieros A method is proposed for using chrome tanned leather wastes produced by the footwear and clothing industry as fillers in polymer matrices. No. and toughness increased at low PHR ratios.33-4 MIXED NEWS FOR PVC IN TOYS The Dutch Consensus Group has published its report regarding a reproducible testing method for the migration of phthalate plasticisers from soft PVC toys and other childcare articles.1998. No. DES and DOA resulted Accession no. p.Institute of Technology The fracture behaviour of PVC filled with ground calcium carbonate particles.1998. The report concludes that exposure levels to phthalates would never exceed the tolerable daily intake for children over 12 months. DUTCH CONSENSUS GROUP EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mexico.0. The influence of the filler content on the processability and final properties of the composite sheets was evaluated. The citraterelated compounds all gave similar mechanical properties.697784 Item 380 Polymer Composites 19. Campos Torres A. However. MEXICO Accession no. but too rarely to be statistically measurable. A technique for processing the composite obtained by continuous extrusion is also demonstrated. Kusy R P North Carolina. dibutyl sebacate and dioctyl azelate plasticised membranes. the factors were 25 and 29 for the static tests (3 and 6 hours) and 1.0 and decreased above ratios of about 4. and then monotonically decreased with further increases of plasticiser. Dimethyl sebacate (DMS).2. 19 refs. Migration can approximate or exceed this for children of 3-12 months. but there was no significant influence of particle size. Simple shaking increased the amounts of DEHP from 25 + or -8 to 499 + or -153 micro g/g film. WESTERN EUROPE in reduced ductility. Strength. stiffness. The mechanical properties of the membranes were evaluated as a function of the PHR ratio. No. EUROPEAN UNION. SEM observations of the specimen’s surfaces during the tensile test showed that the particle/matrix interfaces were delaminated and formed voids around the 128 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . a series of PVC-leather fibre composites was prepared and extruded through a flat die to produce sheets. In order to evaluate the technique. No. When comparing the in-vitro migration tests with the mimic test.4 for the shaking test. during a tensile test was investigated.References and Abstracts DEHP. p. defined as the actual concentration of plasticiser to PVC divided by the minimum concentration of plasticiser required to isolate all the PVC polar groups.431-9 EXTRUSION AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PVC-LEATHER FIBER COMPOSITES Madera-Santana T J.697137 Item 381 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. 10th Oct.

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. at 150-260C and an oxygen partial pressure of 1-10 MPa. Furukawa K. Correlations between the extrusion conditions (draw ratio and temperature). 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. the development of filler particle orientation and the tensile properties of the plasticised PVC were studied. 9th-11th December 1997. Gay M. p. Lyon. From a comparison of photooxidation rates with sources of distinct spectra.University The oxidative degradation of a flexible PVC pellet with oxygen was carried out in 1-25 mol/kg(m)-water sodium hydroxide solutions. 15 refs. These colour hold guidelines have lead to the creation of new special pigments such as IR-Blacks. The main products were oxalic acid. No. One kg of flexible PVC yielded 320g of oxalic acid and 130g of benzenecarboxylic acids (as phthalic acid) under conditions of a 15m sodium hydroxide solution at 250C and an oxygen partial pressure of 5 MPa for 5 h.20. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Mur G. EUROPEAN UNION.696863 Item 382 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 70. whereas the screen effect was multiplied by five. it was suggested that the observed penetration of photoageing could be due to a radiation wavelength of about 390 nm. IV. No.1. The changes in thickness distribution of carbonyl and conjugated polyene concentrations were followed by IR and UV spectrophotometry on microtomed slices and discussed on the basis of kinetic results obtained on thin films under the same conditions. Sato T. Boudeulle M. Verdu J Rhone-Poulenc. Poland. 8 COLOURING OF VINYL SIDING AND OTHER WEATHERABLE RIGID PVC PROFILES WITH HOLCOBATH ENCAPSULATED PIGMENTS Groot R Holland Colors Americas Inc. the thickness of the degraded layer was divided by about two. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Michel A CNRS.Universite Claude Bernard X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the orientation of talc and lead carboxylate fillers in plasticised PVC extrudates. followed by oxidation. 1998.2. Katowice. These observations appeared to be the reason for the decrease of yield stress by the incorporation of particles. the PVC could be stretched more and the tensile results indicated that the crystallites which were surrounded by more flexible chains were more oriented. Okuwaki A Tohoku. Above this temperature. 3rd Oct. the weathering parameters in which vinyl siding colours should maintain their shade. a mixture of benzenecarboxylic acids and carbon dioxide. it also generates and publishes studies on the weathering performance of all basic inorganic and organic pigments for vinyl Accession no. Paper 4.695466 Item 385 Advances in Plastics Technology. Audouin L.e. FRANCE. i. These parameters are the basis on which colour concentrate producers determine suitable pigment choices in relation to items like weathering and heat build up. p. (Institute of Plastics & Paint Industry) The North American vinyl siding industry has developed into the second largest rigid PVC segment after PVC pipe. In the presence of titanium dioxide. JAPAN Accession no. Holland Colours (HCA) services the industry not only from a colourmatch stand point.1998. The colour hold guidelines.211-6 PHOTOAGEING OF RIGID PVC. were explained.129-35 CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF FLEXIBLE PVC BY OXYGEN OXIDATION IN NAOH SOLUTIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES Yoshioka T. 24 refs.References and Abstracts particles when the applied stress approached the yield stress. ENSAM The photoageing of unpigmented and 5% titanium dioxide pigmented rigid PVC samples was studied in reactors equipped with different types of fluorescent lamps. EFFECTS OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE Anton-Prinet C. 19 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.4773-83 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES PF PLASTICIZED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE): EFFECT OF DRAWING AND FILLER ORIENTATION Fras I. As colour concentrate suppliers are now the direct suppliers to the industry. No. Dehydrochlorination of flexible PVC occurred first. they have taken the lead with regard to developing the industry with colour pigment formulations . the particles acted as voids and the matrix around the voids was plastically deformed effectively. FRANCE.696848 Item 383 Polymer 39. 19 close co-operation with manufacturers of basic pigments. Cassagnau P.696562 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 129 . Achieved originally with pigments in the hot/cool mixer it changed to colouring on-line with free flowing concentrates like Holcobath. close to the absorption cut-off of titanium dioxide. with the change from full siding to coextrusion. p. Colouring methods have changed slowly. JAPAN Item 384 Polymer Degradation and Stability 61. The presence of fillers enhanced Young’s modulus and this was predicted well by the model developed by Halpin and Tsai. The extrudates were stretched above and below the “gel-liquid” transition temperature of PVC (about 205C).

Ga. p. USA Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES AND THEIR COMPATIBILITY WITH PVC Fisch M H. Volume III.3234-9. on the fire properties of plasticised PVC and polychloroprene.. Ga. I. Information is given on an industry not too well known outside North America. Renshaw J T. It is shown that magnesium and aluminium hydroxides specially coated with ZHS. Cusack P A Brunel University. Volume III. confer significantly increased combustion resistance and lower levels of smoke evolution to these polymers. p. Biesiada K. Ga. including new stabiliser systems that can be used for darker colours.References and Abstracts weatherable profiles. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. 012 STAIN RESISTANCE IN RESILIENT SHEET FLOORING APPLICATIONS: ROLE OF THE PLASTICISER Colletti T A. is a complex phenomenon in resilient sheet flooring applications. 10 refs. Conference proceedings. SIGNIFICANCE FOR PVC STABILISATION OF STRUCTURE AND EQUILIBRIA OF ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATES/CHLORIDES Fisch M H. USA Accession no. 012 130 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 26th-30th April 1998. Atlanta. Conference proceedings. Data are presented to illustrate relationships between stain resistance and plasticiser structure. without sacrificing flame retardant or smoke suppressant performance. a few new trends are highlighted. Volume III. Conference proceedings. 26th-30th April 1998.693676 Item 387 Antec ’98. 26th-30th April 1998. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to determine their compatibility with PVC. Conference proceedings. volatility and solubility parameter. (SPE) The stabilisation effect of alkyltin thioglycolates is determined by the measurement of discoloration in a PVC formulation. (SPE) A series of alkyltin thioglycolates is synthesised and their structure and equilibria with alkyltin chlorides is studied by IR analysis. Brecker L R Witco Corp. Questions regarding smoke and toxic combustion gas evolved by PVC cable materials have repeatedly been posed. International Tin Research Institute (SPE) Consideration is given to the influence of combinations of zinc hydroxystannate (ZHS) with hydrated fillers. Today. Conference proceedings. The latest research developments are illustrated using Accession no. or more accurately appearance retention. Atlanta. Schaefer R E Solutia Inc. Herbiet R. functional fillers such as aluminium hydroxide (ATH) and magnesium hydroxide (MDH) are available to optimise PVC formulations. Biesiada K.692781 Item 388 Antec ’98.3272-7. 012 NOVEL ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE-COATED FILLERS AS FIRE RETARDANT AND SMOKE SUPPRESSANT ADDITIVES FOR HALOGENATED POLYMERS Hornsby P R. p. concentration. The results are interpreted considering the structure of these compounds.3310-2. Volume III.. p. their equilibration with alkyltin chlorides and the postulated association with chlorine atoms at the PVC primary particle surfaces. Atlanta. creating extremely low smoke and much less toxic gases. WESTERN EUROPE MECHANISM OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. 26th-30th April 1998. 012 SMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES Schmidt R.3291-5. Atlanta. the overall toughness (or abrasion resistance) of the wear layer and the thermoplastic nature of plasticised PVC..692777 Item 390 Antec ’98. USA Accession no. USA Accession no. Bacaloglu R. The plasticiser-related portions of the stain resistance phenomenon are explored. Ga. This permits large reductions to additive loading relative to unmodified filler. The implications of these results on PVC stabilisation is discussed.. Atlanta. 10 refs. Brecker L R Witco Corp. Bacaloglu R. UK.694482 Item 386 Antec ’98. II. p. 9 refs. Volume III. 012 MECHANISMS OF ORGANOTIN STABILISATION OF POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. (SPE) Stain resistance. extraction resistance.. Ga. 26th-30th April 1998. The process can be complex involving the plasticiser.692780 Item 389 Antec ’98. Amberg M U Martinswerk GmbH (SPE) An attempt is made to contribute to the objective analysis of the role of PVC cabling in major fires such as that at Dusseldorf airport.3296-300. 19 refs.

692770 Item 391 Plastics News(USA) 10. NBS smoke chamber data demonstrate that the amount of generated smoke is considerably reduced when PVC is filled with ATH and/ or MDH.14. the ionic conductivity could be predicted at a given phr ratio. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. adjusted by neglecting the (small) amounts of oil which diffused into the polymer. US.15. 29th July 1998. p. 17 refs. p. Configurational changes of the plasticisers had no effect above the melting point of each plasticiser.000 lb of the cheese a day to approach danger levels seen in animal testing.18. Increasing the amount of plasticiser in the membrane generally improved the ionic conductivity and lowered the temperature of the tan delta peak. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 15 refs. p. These obervations were discussed. the ionic conductivity of the PVC membrane increased with increasing amount of plasticiser.3167-78 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICIZER CONFIGURATIONAL CHANGES ON THE DIELECTRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGHLY PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gibbons W S. 1998.686435 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 131 .687797 Accession no. Above the melting point of a given plasticiser.Universidad SEM and viscoelastic measurements were used to study the gelation and fusion of different plastisols from different commercial PVC resins and with different concentrations of several plasticisers with different solvent powers.FOOD & DRUG ADMINISTRATION USA Item 393 Polymer 39. The Consumers Union. said in a letter to FDA that it tested mainly cheddar cheese wrapped in PVC films and found levels of DEHA that it said were too high. USA Accession no. 13 refs. temperature and frequency. and said that the Food & Drug Administration permits unlimited use of the plasticiser.References and Abstracts smoke density results. decreasing its concentration and a decrease in the size of the PVC particles or its molecular weight caused noticeable changes in the behaviour of both moduli. No. Nos. depending on the speed of dissolution of the PVC particles.5 FILM PLASTICISER FOR CHEESE GETS BAD RAP Toloken S A new study by Consumer Reports magazine contends that some plastic cheese wraps leach a plasticiser at levels that could pose health problems.University Six sebacate-related and three citrate-related plasticisers were used to study the effects of configurational changes in plasticiser on the dielectric properties of ion-selective PVC membranes. in conjunction with a radioactive tracer technique. the ionic conductivity and tan delta of the plasticised PVC membranes were measured between -100C and +100C and at seven log frequencies. Using the appropriate nomogram for a given plasticiser. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. But an industry organisation says that an adult would have to eat 1. Kusy R P North Carolina.Universite Mokhtar Badji A peeling method. The material is used in PVC food packaging to make it flexible. Progressively higher concentrations of plasticiser resulted in an increase in the temperature at which the gelation process was completed.5/6. ALGERIA Accession no. No. was used to obtain actual profiles of DOP concentration developed through the matrix of a PVC disc dipped into a limited volume of olive oil. SPAIN. p. Increasing the solvent power of the plasticiser.686631 Item 394 Polymer 39. Details are given. Using parallel plate sensors. The plasticiser concentration distributions were reproduced to a good approximation using a known model. No. Gelation occurred in several steps. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.3507-14 RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PLASTICIZER CONCENTRATION IN THE GELATION AND FUSION PROCESSES OF PVC PLASTISOLS Garcia J C. Marcilla A Alicante. di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate. Djilani S E Annaba. GERMANY. The magazine published a story on packaging and endocrine disrupters in its June issue.815-8 French MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF TRANSFER OF DIOCTYL PHTHALATE(DOP) BETWEEN SAMPLES OF PLASTICISED PVC SUBMERGED IN OLIVE OIL: COMPARISON OF CALCULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL PROFILES Messadi D. Increases in elastic and viscous moduli corresponded to the dissolution of the PVC particles whose size and number decreased progressively with temperature.690438 Item 392 European Polymer Journal 34. 5 refs. EUROPEAN UNION. May/June 1998. 1998. the publisher of Consumer Reports magazine.

Sweden. compared with that of chromic-sulphuric acid etching. June 1998. SWEDEN. p. Schick S Bemis Manufacturing Co.National Food Administration. and maleated PP for surface modification. Nanjing. (SPE) The advantages of statistics as a monitoring tool for products are beneficial. Park C B Toronto. Ga.University.5 mg/ kg.University An ultrasonic etching method was shown to be effective for pretreatment of PVC for electroless plating with copper without chemical pollution. 2 refs. emphasis is placed on melt rheology principles and identifying how statistics can play an important role for root cause analysis for profile extrusion. Volume I. p.University The interface between plastic and wood fibres strongly influences the mechanical properties of a plastic/wood fibre composite. Michigan by the National Association of Home Builders.9. p. Gustavson H. Replicating the same viscosity and output rate are necessary to ensure a balanced flow velocity in a profile extrusion die.. USA Accession no. A means for evaluating the effectiveness of surface treatment on the wood fibres in the PVC/wood fibre composites is presented that investigated the adhesion between PVC and laminated wood veneers. WESTERN EUROPE Brief details are given of a recycling project for vinyl siding conducted in Grand Rapids. image analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mason T J Yunnan. p. The chemical modification made on the wood surfaces was then characterised by different complementary surface analytical techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and surface tension measurements. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.87-9 RECYCLING DURABLE VINYL PRODUCTS Wisner D Geon Co. UK.Royal Institute of Technology. No. p. Coventry.University of Agricultural Sciences Epoxidised soya bean oil (ESBO) is used as a plasticiser in PVC gaskets in lids for glass jars used for packaging of ready-cooked baby food.685246 Item 397 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. May 1998. SEM.University. The profile extrusion process defers to a higher degree of complexity to maintain multiple dimensions and aesthetics. the adhesion strength of Cu-PVC could increase by 13%. No. sheet. The level of ESBO in baby food was determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with a detection limit of 1. fish. Svensson K. Uppsala. poultry.2.5. 7 refs. Balatinecz J J. CANADA Accession no.765-73 EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE ADHESION BETWEEN PVC AND WOOD VENEER LAMINATES Matuana L M. 18 refs. EUROPEAN UNION.683326 Item 399 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. All the extrusion processes (film. coating.References and Abstracts Item 395 Food Additives and Contaminants 15. surface roughness. Accession no.2. Wood veneers were first treated with gammaaminopropyltriethoxysilane. 012 SIGNIFICANCE AND USE OF STATISTICS IN THE PROFILE EXTRUSION PROCESS Cykana D.680858 132 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Although all extrusion processes can benefit from the use of statistics. It was determined that the presented levels of ESBO in the baby food were only due to migration from the lids and not of natural origin. phthalic anhydride. The migration of ESBO from the lids was determined in 81 samples of different dishes of baby food. Karlsson S. pork.686117 Item 396 Polymer Engineering and Science 38.684907 Item 398 Antec ’98.1411-6 NEW ETCHING METHOD OF PVC PLASTIC FOR PLATING BY ULTRASOUND Yiyun Zhao. After being etched for 60 min by 28 kHz ultrasound. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. widely documented and frequently used in many of the plastic processes. Atlanta. Rue Feng. 31st May 1998. Conference proceedings. berries and vegetables. USA Accession no. SCANDINAVIA. CHINA.203-8 MIGRATION OF EPOXIDISED SOYA BEAN OIL FROM PLASTICISED PVC GASKETS INTO BABY FOOD Hammarling L. No. including purees of beef. The mechanism of adhesion improvement was studied by examination of weight loss. Oskarsson A Sweden. 26th-30th April 1998. The identification and understanding of the mean and standard deviation of the melt pressure and motor load are critical to determine if the process is under control. No. 63 refs. pipe and profile) require a process that is in control to produce products to the proper defined specifications. Ciguang Bao. 1998.247-55. dichlorodiethylsilane.

and foam core pipe. 9 refs. p. zinc. Book 2. Toronto. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt.References and Abstracts Item 400 TAPPI 1997 Polymers. Formulation additives.5 to 1. Rigid PVC extruded construction products take many forms. At a normal usage of 0. The saturation concentration represents the maximum amount of lubricant compatible with PVC in a specific formulation. Ontario. 24th-28th Aug. USA Accession no.6-5 meq stearate) to 100 g PVC. and various accessory items Accession no. fencing. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. Williams J B Lonza Inc. The technology of extruding rigid vinyl foam has grown substantially over the last ten years.1. The anti-fogging properties were measured under refrigerated conditions.417-22.679003 Item 401 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4.1. however. USA generally used for installation. No. Laminations and Coatings Conference. Under these testing conditions the complex esters gave better anti-fogging properties than some commercial additives with which they were compared. along with looking at ways to improve them.4-11 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYVINYL CHLORIDE. are very dependent on the density of the foam product. Emphasis is placed on the formulation ingredients constituting the articles above. CANADA. Bacaloglu R Witco Corp. No. and the optical and static decay properties of the films were measured. USA Accession no. pipe.676571 Item 404 Polymers and Polymer Composites 6. barium and calcium stearates may be considered internal. p. March 1998.676572 Item 403 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. magnesium stearates and stearic acid itself external lubricants.12-21 MATERIALS AND TESTING FOR EXTRUSION OF RPVC CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS Rapacki S R Rohm & Haas Co.1. Geick K S. typical forms now in use include interior moulding profiles and foam core pipe. lithium. tooling and processing expertise have made possible a variety of applications such as profile. or allowing PVC to capture other maintenance free applications. sheet. USA Accession no. and how they can be tested to determine fit to the application requirements.26-9 VINYL FOAM: EFFECT OF DENSITY ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Patterson J Rohm & Haas Co.1. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF PVC LUBRICATION BY STEARIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES Fisch M. An attempt is made to gain a fundamental understanding of the relationship of physical properties to foam density. (TAPPI) Complex esters were evaluated as anti-fogging agents in linear LDPE and flexible PVC films. aluminium and sodium internal/external. The properties. Increased temperature or longer time ensures the release of lubricants from these pools at the surface of the polymer giving the lubricants an external character. storm doors. The glass transition temperatures of PVC containing stearic acid derivatives as lubricants have been used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. No. how they are put together and influence the manufacturing process and final product. No. 1998. II. and a study was made of the effects of the additives on the colour and consistency of mushrooms. Many PVC foam manufacturers are interested in reducing the density of their products to reduce costs and achieve lighter weights. p. window profiles. foam or cellular rigid PVC materials are entering the marketplace as substitutes for the traditional solid materials.1997. March 1998. In addition to these solid products. Typical are house siding. March 1998. p. The antistatic properties of PVC films were also improved. 3 refs. methyl. 28 refs. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations than saturation concentration leads to formation of lubricant pools between PVC primary particles.7-13 TENSILE PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) FILLED WITH PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 133 . Conference Proceedings. p. the anti-fogging properties of PVC films containing these additives were tested at room temperature. In addition. 012 ANTI-FOG ADDITIVES FOR EXTRUDED FILM Falter J A.676574 Item 402 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 4. The lubricant molecules are associated with the surface molecules of the PVC primary particles or are in the interstitial space between them.5 phr (approximately 1.

No. in that case the results seem to be the sum of both separated effects. No. Iida T Osaka. MEXICO. temperature and impact rate on the model coefficients were determined. Tellez M M Mexico. Manchester. No.37-51 SILANE CROSSLINKING OF PLASTICISED PVC Fiaz M. calcium soap.1998. Coahuila. The development of failure mechanism diagrams and their comparison with impact failure tests for PVC and PETP are reported. Manchester. EUROPEAN UNION. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.Institute of Technology Tensile properties of PVC filled with precipitated calcium carbonate particles having two different mean sizes were studied.1-10 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PRETREATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. II. UK.1.675012 Item 406 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. as heat stabilisers for PVC was evaluated using dibenzoyl methane (Rhodastab-83). Sept.194-203 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRAIN RATE. Edge V. e. The same effect was seen with the Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.MASCHINENBAU GMBH.1.g. p. These mixtures can then be separated using one of several technologies including conventional sieving or hydrocyclones.Universidad Autonoma The influence of a beta-diketone on the already observed anomalous behaviour of preheated metal stearates.41-5 French CALENDERING: AN OUT OF BREATH TECHNOLOGY? Forest J P Calendering processes and machinery are described. and then were used to engineer a selective grinding process. Data are given for milling. the polyol enhanced the induction time to degradation but produced large amounts of polyenes. GERMANY. The use of the preheated mixture of metal soaps and preheated zinc stearate enhanced even more such times. and UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopy supported these findings. During normal stabilisation conditions. Grulke E A Michigan. Petty C A.University. Recycled PVC and PETP often are cross-contaminated with each other since they have overlapping density ranges and are very difficult to separate using. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. COMERIO R.676447 Item 405 Polymer Engineering and Science 38. followed by press moulding and 134 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . flotation. a cross between calendering and extrusion coating. p.g. Azuma F.University Details are given of the use of three different types of aminosilanes for crosslinking plasticised PVC.Metropolitan University..University One approach to purification of recycled thermoplastic mixtures is selective grinding to induce differences in sizes and shapes between polymers with different compositions. The effects of processing conditions. Allen N S. 10-50 parts of the particles were mixed with 100 parts PVC and 3 parts lead stearate using a mixing roll. FRANCE. Evaluation of induction times to degradation. Tellez M M Mexico.670797 Item 409 Advances in Polymer Technology 17. zinc stearate. Kentucky. Gilbert M Loughborough.674719 Item 407 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 68. Edge V. a ‘short-term’ costabiliser. UK. USE OF A POLYOL Benavides R. I. MCNEIL AKRON REPIQUET.. JAPAN beta-diketone.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. 18 refs..674718 Item 408 Revue Generale des Caoutchoucs et Plastiques No.SAS EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.1996. No. USE OF A BETA-DIKETONE Benavides R. p. Gillis P P. Details are also given of the roller head process.752. EUROPEAN UNION. ITALY.1. MEXICO. Tensile tests were carried out using dumbbell test specimens. COMERIO ERCOLE SPA.1. Spring 1998. 20 refs. BERSTORFF H.11-27 STABILISATION OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH PREHEATED METAL STEARATES AND COSTABILISERS. while preheated calcium stearate reduced them. 4th April 1998. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 4th April 1998. 19 refs. TEMPERATURE. p. visible reflectance. The particles were porous agglomerates of spherical primary particles. p.Universidad Autonoma Pentaerythritol was chosen as long-term costabiliser. and types of rubber and PVC products manufactured by this technology are examined. Jan. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. AND IMPACT FAILURE MECHANISM FOR POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) Green J L. Coahuila. Allen N S. carbonyl formation. USA Accession no..References and Abstracts Nakamura Y.Metropolitan University. e. 28 refs.

EUROPEAN UNION. Accession no. Results are presented of an investigation of the effect of extrusion conditions. Sept.3.151-7 PHOTO-CROSSLINKING OF DITHIOCARBAMATE-SUBSTITUTED PVC REDUCES PLASTICISER MIGRATION Lakshmi S. Sept.3. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. No. therefore.3. p.5 mm single screw. Wiedl D J Geon Co.4diones) recently patented by Akcros Chemicals. Tensile properties and thermal stabilities are discussed.Sci. No. accurate and fast method of plasticiser identification could. Sidor J A. For packaging converters.169-75 PVC THERMOFORMED CONTAINERS FOR FOOD PACKAGING: ESTABLISHMENT OF RAPID EXTRACTION TEST FOR OVERALL MIGRATION LIMIT COMPLIANCE TESTING Cooper I. with particular attention to a new class of polyketones (pyrrolidine-2. p. UK. 9 refs. the Directive also allows compliance to be demonstrated by use of a ‘more severe test’. May-June 1997. 26 refs. UK. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. overall migration tests are usually performed on finished food packaging with food stimulants. including density. such as melt temp.. No. 22 refs.661993 Item 413 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. Isner J D. The optimum conditions for the best quality profile found in this study were 190 to 196C melt temp. USA Accession no. and no greater than 20 rpm screw speed on a 63. No. cell structure and surface appearance. However. The effect of concentration of phase transfer catalyst and diethyl dithiocarbamate.1997. 15 refs.205-9 NEW ORGANIC COSTABILIZERS FOR THE STABILIZATION OF PVC Burley J W Akcros Chemicals America Recent developments in the use of organic costabilisers for stabilisation of PVC are reviewed.210-5 EFFECT OF EXTRUSION CONDITIONS ON RIGID PVC FOAM Rabinovitch E B. Jayakrishnan A Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. liquid chromatography and physical observations to confirm identity.& Technology Medical grade PVC sheets and tubes were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atoms by photoactive diethyl dithiocarbamate in the presence of a suitable phase transfer catalyst. Goodson A. USA Accession no. Gallagher T K Aristech Chemical The performance of a flexible PVC compound is often defined by its plasticiser content and composition and a simple. The modified surface was crosslinked by UV light to create a barrier for the diffusion of plasticiser. This procedure is optimised so that it is simple and rapid to perform and gives slightly higher results for the extruded sheet compared to overall migration tests conducted with fatty and aqueous food simulants. on process morphology of rigid PVC foams and the properties of the extruded profile.669483 Item 410 Polymer 39.References and Abstracts extrusion. Gas chromatography was shown to provide the most effective identification method and it was demonstrated that it could be complemented by IR spectroscopy.661986 Item 414 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. screw speed and draw-down. WESTERN EUROPE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. No. p. in particular. the cost of testing for compliance can be prohibitive. who thermoform a wide range of containers from an extruded sheet. A ‘more severe test’ is developed for PVC and VC/VA copolymer materials involving extraction with methanol or a methanol/water mixture and evaporation to dryness. time of reaction and irradiation dose on the extent of plasticiser migration was examined.3.for Med.1997.249-55 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF MONOMERIC PLASTICIZERS IN FLEXIBLE PVC COMPOUNDS Kozlowski R R. EUROPEAN UNION. 1998.1997. INDIA Accession no. Results are presented demonstrating the rapid extraction test to be a ‘more severe test’ and that it can be used by converters in conjunction with good manufacturing practice (GMP) to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit in a cost-effective way. 4 refs. The © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 135 .663337 Item 411 Packaging Technology and Science 10. Sept. be an effective quality control and benchmark performance test in new product development studies.662337 Item 412 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.1. p. Tice P A PIRA International In order to demonstrate compliance with the overall migration limit given in amended EC Directive 901128/ EEC.

1782.696-703 German QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF HEAT STABILISERS IN POLYVINYL CHLORIDE Braun D.9. and cost requirements in a variety of specialty injection moulding applications such as appliance parts.University A review is presented of the electrical properties of polymers filled with different types of conducting particles. p. This article examines the reasons why. Good performance can be obtained at low addition levels.117-24 PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS OF FILLED CONDUCTIVE POLYMER COMPOSITES Yi X-S. Today’s vinyl moulding compounds are successfully meeting the combined challenges of physical properties. processability. Determination of an appropriate combination of PVC resin and additives to produce an effective and cost-competitive compound. EUROPEAN UNION. were fitted to the equation.118-25 VINYL MOULDING COMPOUNDS: FORMULATION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION Stevenson J C. Wu G. No. In particular.2. Oct. yet only between 1 and 4% is recycled.1997. No.650397 Item 419 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. quantitative analysis of metals currently used is of interest. whereas capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy have several advantages compared with chemical methods.4-diones are shown to be effective as organic costabilisers with a variety of different metal soap stabilisers and in a range of PVC formulations. The classic titration gives rather good results of the metal content in the samples without large apparative equipment. p. p. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. performance characteristics and mechanism of action of this type of material are described. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. The Commission’s words are hardly a vote of confidence in the face of growing evidence that the quality of PVC recyclate is improving and recycling initiatives are approaching commercial viability in some European countries. p.653542 Item 418 European Chemical News 68. and electrical enclosures.2. and epoxy resin. GERMANY. the compounds exhibit superior colour control in comparison with established beta-diketones. USA Item 417 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. Richter E PVC is usually processed with various different additives.-5th Oct. Fazey A C Rohm & Haas Co.References and Abstracts regulatory status. Among these. Oct. For the recycling of PVC along with the identification. No. It represents a logical expansion of known methods for the use of such models and might be relevant for quality control and for cost efficient running of equipment. June 1997. LDPE. appearance. 17 refs.10. 29th Sept. CHINA Accession no.39-40 IS THERE LIFE AFTER DEATH? Johnston S The European Commission has stated that in view of the problems caused by PVC recycling. capillary electrophoresis and atom absorption spectroscopy) can be used to analyse the content of heavy metals in PVC. PVC is the second most widely used plastic in the world.645-7 CALCULATIONS OF TOLERANCES WITH STATISTICAL MODEL FOR CALENDER TO PRODUCE PVC Oelschlaegel F The application of interval mathematics for tolerance calculations using a statistical model to describe calendering is described. LLDPE. HDPE.1997. 13 refs.661985 Item 415 Kautchuk und Gummi Kunststoffe 50. Data are given for PVC. GERMANY.1997. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.656159 136 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . No. The calculated property-related parameters in the equation are discussed. No. For all investigated methods the metals must be separated from the polymer and transferred into an aqueous phase. business equipment. The pyrrolidine-2. heat-stabilisers for PVC contain metals. 12 refs. WESTERN EUROPE-GENERAL Accession no.656330 Item 416 Polymer International 44. One of the major reasons why vinyl materials are so versatile is that the PVC resins on which they are based can be easily modified with a variety of additives to tailor the particular performance features of the compounds to their intended applications. in the past mainly heavy metals. Sept. experimental conductivityvolume fraction data for thermoplastic filled with vanadium oxide particles as well as thermosetting polymer composites. p.1997. 8 refs. Accession no. Different methods (complexometric titration. Pan Y Zhejiang. Following a theoretical description of a general effective media equation. it would further analyse the scientific evidence in order to propose appropriate measures for controlling future use of PVC in new cars.

is not a simple process. However. Currently. No. Lemaire J Blaise Pascal. which permits these polyenes to accumulate in the degraded polymer.650268 Item 421 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. most available studies are concerned with identification of gas liberation products. June 1997. OXYCHEM. US. 9 refs. 1997. No. This behaviour can be attributed to the formation of polyenic sequences with a short conjugation length. June 1997.ASSOCIATION OF POSTCONSUMER PLASTIC RECYCLERS. 12 refs. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS (DMA) OF IMPACT MODIFIED RIGID PVC CONTAINING ESTER LUBRICANTS Bacaloglu R. p. Nokhrina N N.2.3. The screen effect of the pigment protects these polyenes against photooxidation. Potapov V A Under physical. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.107-11 REVERSIBLE DISCOLORATION EFFECTS IN THE PHOTOAGEING OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Gardette J L. Hegranes B. p. despite the urgent need to solve the problem of the release of lowmolecular weight substances from PVC compositions. 5 refs. Important considerations in formulating a vinyl moulding compound and evaluating its performance are discussed. and lead to the formation of a coating (plating) on the processing surfaces of equipment. OxyChem is said to be the only virgin resin producer to financially support a PVC bottle recovery program in the last five years. No. EUROPEAN UNION. Due attention has not been paid to the study of processes of migration of low molecular weight components of PVC compositions and the mechanism of migration under the action of liquid media. (APR). 13 refs. and photobleaching can be provoked by a new irradiation of the polymer.34-5 PVC BOTTLES ARE BEING LANDFILLED The Association of Postconsumer Plastic Recyclers. USA Accession no. giving them an external character. but has since sold its program to Bayshore Vinyl. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. FRANCE. No. May 1997.VINYL INSTITUTE. P & R ENVIRONMENTAL INDUSTRIES. OxyChem is now exploring the use of PVC bottles in construction.649292 Item 423 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. They then act as internal lubricants reducing the viscosity of the melt.References and Abstracts however. This effect is reversible. The described procedure can be applied to any polymer and all the additives that can migrate in the polymeric phase as long as their glass transition temperatures can be measured. Lyutikova E A. US. Fisch M Witco Technical Center Glass transition temperatures of impact modified PVC with different amounts of lubricants were used to define two new parameters of lubrication: the saturation concentration and the efficiency constant. there is a lack of viable markets for these products and members of APR are disposing of them in landfills. USA Item 422 Reuse/Recycle 27.650267 Accession no. BAYSHORE VINYL USA Accession no. it is reported.650269 Item 420 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. 5. The use of lubricants at significantly lower concentration than the saturation concentration ensures their permanence in the polymer. chemical and mechanical effects. the release of various substances is possible during the production and service of PVC compositions. which present an absorption below 400 nm. There are no data on the qualitative composition of coatings formed on calendars during the production of PVC materials. I. An attempt is made to determine the chemical structure of coatings formed on calenders during the production of PVC film at the Urals Stroiplastpolimer Production Association. p.2.112-7 STUDY OF ADDITIVE COMPATIBILITY WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE). is asking the Vinyl Institute and its members for their support in re-establishing domestic markets for post-consumer PVC bottles. but believes higher quality post-consumer PVC will be needed for this market. RUSSIA Accession no. Analysis is made of specimens of coatings removed at different times from calenders during the manufacture of PVC film based on different feedstock batches.647875 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 137 . Undesirable migration processes can have a harmful effect on the human body. p. cause deterioration of the properties both of the compositions themselves and of the materials in contact with them.Universite Photochemical degradation of titanium dioxide pigmented PVC leads to a latent discolouration that is revealed only during a further period of storage of the aged material in the dark.T/68-72 ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITION OF COATINGS FORMED ON CALENDERS DURING PRODUCTION OF PVC FILM Lirova B I. and to establish the causes and mechanism of coating formation. which have a considerable adverse effect on the quality of the finished product. The use of lubricants at much higher concentrations ensures their release at the surface of the polymer.

RUMANIA Accession no. increase in the resistance to solvent action and increase in abrasion resistance. the most interesting seems to be the method of hydrolytic crosslinking of PVC compositions with grafted mercaptosilanes and aminosilanes by the method of nucleophilic substitution during processing.4-6 CINCINNATI’S DEVELOPMENTS IN PVC PIPE Counter-rotating twin screw extruders are used almost exclusively for the production of uPVC pipes. In PVC. and in the case of commercial types of PVC-S reaches 54-56%. whereas their crystallinity is only about 10%. profiles and sheet because they treat material more gently than single screws. crystallites are formed under conversion conditions of less than 2%. No. Coextrusion of foamed core pipes is also described. p. POLAND Accession no. small-angle x-ray scattering. as was also confirmed in polymer specimens after processing.22-9 Rumanian VINYL CHLORIDE ANTISTATIC PROPERTIES OPTIMISATION WITH ZEOLITES AND IRON OXIDE Diaconu I. wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXS). 1997. An attempt is made to determine the structural changes in PVC caused by processing. domain structure. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. These Accession no. In addition the effects of temperature and the rate of extrusion on the degree of gelling of the selected PVC composition are examined. p.T/92-8 ORGANOSILOXANES AS CROSSLINKING AGENTS FOR PLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS Pelka J. Parallel screw and conical twin screw extruders are compared. this ordering has a significant effect both on the processing and on the properties of the products.Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry. The level of syndiotacticity rises with fall in the temperature of polymerisation.2. Among more recent methods for crosslinking PVC. 1997.1.2. studies are continually being carried out on the development of effective methods of crosslinking PVC.647858 Item 426 Materiale Plastice 34.642968 Item 427 British Plastics and Rubber July/Aug. CINCINNATI MILACRON AUSTRIA GMBH AUSTRIA.Technical University The simultaneous influences of aluminium silicate and yellow iron oxide on the antistatic properties of PVCbased composites were analysed. Jassy.647859 Item 425 International Polymer Science and Technology 24.References and Abstracts Item 424 International Polymer Science and Technology 24. WESTERN EUROPE are present in structures of microdomains and between them. Dumitrescu S Jassy. Szablowska B Plasticised compositions of PVC fulfil many different kinds of requirements. EUROPEAN UNION. The crystallinity of PVC increases with increase in syndiotacticity. derivatives of dimercaptotriazines.1997. its halving time and surface electrical resistivity. p. reduction of deformation and improvement of the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures. but a restricting factor for many applications is their relatively low permissible long-term operating temperature.or aminoalkoxysilanes are presented.T/88-91 EFFECT OF PROCESSING CONDITIONS OF UNPLASTICISED PVC COMPOSITIONS ON POLYMER STRUCTURE Bortel K. 14 refs. EASTERN EUROPE. No. For this reason. since crosslinking polymers makes it possible to obtain materials with improved service properties. p. Daranga M. crosslinking processes using polymerisable plasticisers. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Szewczyk P PVC has a complex particle morphology and a low degree of crystallinity. This method makes it possible to obtain a satisfactory degree of crosslinking of the composition with simultaneous retention of satisfactory thermal stability. The presence of crystalline forms in PVC has been established by studies using e. Studies have been carried out on the chemical crosslinking of PVC with the use of peroxides. the subtle structure of PVC is altered to a more uniform. The presence of crystallites between the microdomains forming the domains may explain the relatively high durability of the domains during processing. These machines are intended to complement the company’s Titan conical screw range. 1997. depending on the formulation used. During processing under appropriately selected conditions. which is regarded as optimal from the point of view of the physical and mechanical properties of the products. UK. 16 refs.642797 138 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Cincinnati Milacron Austria introduced its Argos parallel twin screw extruders last year. Investigative studies of the hydrolytic crosslinking of plasticised PVC compositions grafted with the use of mercapto. EASTERN EUROPE.g. No. Despite the relatively low level of ordering of structure (crystallinity) of PVC. 14 refs. The most important benefits accruing from crosslinking are the increase in the long-term operating temperature. Antistatic properties were estimated in terms of electrostatic potential values. of some commercial importance. polyfunctional amines and. Two optimal antistatic composites were established using the second order programme method. IR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

University Product particle size distributions of impact ground thermoplastics (specifically PETP and PVC) are interpreted and models describing these distributions developed.p.639926 Item 431 Antec 97. The gradual increase in use of ADKs and other non-lead stabilisers in the USA and Japan demonstrates industry’s concern for the public demand in saving the environment without direct laws banning the use of lead.127-34 EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE DROP BEHAVIOUR DURING SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION Zerfa M. Conference proceedings. Balatinecz J J. 012 INFLUENCE OF PLASTICISER ON MELT FLOW AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC/NEWSPRINT-FIBRE COMPOSITES Matuana L M.References and Abstracts Item 428 Polymer Engineering and Science 37. Toronto. No. 3 refs. May 1997. However. Patel H M. The effect of change of stabiliser on particle size. Newly developed non-lead stabilisers (RUP-series) are shown to offer excellent heat stability. Kentucky.University In order to find the amount of plasticiser which ensured proper ion-selective electrode function and optimised mechanical properties.3580-5. EUROPEAN UNION. 5th July 1997. The formulation of PVC/newsprint-fibre composites are modified by incorporating various concentrations as a plasticiser. and thereby influences the processability of PVC/newsprint fibre composites. Results are relevant to the separation of thermoplastics. Toronto. as for example. The effects of the added small quantities of plasticiser on the rheological and mechanical properties of PVC/newsprintfibre composites. tensile strength at yield. No. No.State University. and morphology is discussed. elongation at break. In this region. 10 refs. puncture tests were used to evaluate the effects of changes in plasticiser levels and © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 139 . Brooks B W Loughborough. Mitsudera T Asahi Denka Kogyo KK (SPE) Risk reduction is a world wide problem and of course a concern to the field of PVC stabilisers. Volume III. Grulke E A Michigan. UK. tensile strength and modulus increase significantly. The presence of the antiplasticisation region is observed in PVC/newsprint fibre composites. Results from multiple and single particle breakage in a hammer mi1l are used. The values of the model coefficients are related to the brittle-ductile transition grinding conditions and breakage mechanisms.University The effects of some polymerisation conditions on PVC particles produced by suspension polymerisation were studied.27th April-2nd May 1997. Conference proceedings. 012 RECENTLY-DEVELOPED NON-LEAD PVC STABILISERS FOR WIRE AND CABLE Tsuboi T. Newsprint fibres are dispersed into the PVC matrix in a high shear turbine Accession no. electrical and mechanical properties compared with traditional wire and cable formulations.3496-502.University (SPE) A plasticiser plays an important role in the formulation of PVC and in determining its processability.639984 Item 430 Antec 97. p. JAPAN Accession no. USA mixer. 41 refs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. porosity.639912 Item 432 Polymer 38. p.641415 Item 429 Journal of Applied Polymer Science 65. is required when recycling consumer products such as bottles.27th April-2nd May 1997.5. The replacement of lead stabilisers in wire and cable applications is demonstrated. modulus. whereas the opposite trend is observed beyond this region.2633-42 EFFECTS OF PLASTICIZERS ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) MEMBRANES FOR ELECTRODES AND BIOSENSORS Gibbons W S.p. Blends are compression moulded and tested for the following properties: melt flow index. Analysis of data using SAS procedures of ANOVA are also conducted to discern the effects of concentration of plasticiser on these properties. The overall processability is shown with experimental and actual results. CANADA Accession no. The results indicate that the plasticiser has a significant effect on melt flow properties.1. Petty C A. elongation at break and the toughness of PVC/newsprintfibre composites are not affected by the presence of plasticiser whereas the impact strengths of the composites are strongly affected by the plasticiser. May 1997. toughness and notched izod impact strength. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.888-95 IMPACT GRINDING OF THERMOPLASTICS: A SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION MODEL Green J L. p. Volume III. Park C B Toronto.11. The different stages of vinyl chloride suspension polymerisation were investigated by using an on-line sample withdrawal technique during reaction. Kusy R P North Carolina.

Impact modifiers enhanced weld strength due to their well-known effects on PVC mechanical properties. No. 012 ENHANCED PROPERTIES OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC WITH POLYBUTENE Enlow W P. results showed that combinations of the zinc borate with either ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate showed improvements with regard to smoke reduction upon combustion. Holloway S Cincinnati Milacron Some of the basic factors involved in screw and pipe head design for chlorinated PVC extrusion are discussed. p.1. Volume II.Universidad The behaviour of PVC and PVC plastisols were studied during their thermal treatment using an in situ FTIR technique.References and Abstracts species on the mechanical properties of PVC membranes. p.1902-6. Seven different plasticisers were each tested at a minimum of eight levels of plasticisation. Differences in the behaviour of certain bands corresponding to the plasticiser and the resin as a consequence of the interactions among them are discussed. Shen K K US Borax Inc.28-32 SUCCESSFUL EXTRUSION OF SMALL DIAMETER CPVC PIPE Grohman M. April 1997. March 1997.33-40 EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE IN COMBINATION WITH AMMONIUM OCTAMOLYBDATE OR ZINC STANNATE ON SMOKE SUPPRESSION IN FLEXIBLE PVC 140 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . USA Accession no.634632 Item 437 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. No. The authors concluded that in electrodes and biosensors.1. No. 6 refs. 28 refs. stiffness and toughness increased as ionic resistivity increased. The effect of combinations of zinc borate with ammonium octamolybdate or zinc stannate on smoke suppression upon combustion of flexible PVC was studied. SPAIN.4. TGA analyses indicated that PVC samples made with the mixed plasticiser had final decomposition temps.638534 Item 433 Antec 97. USA Accession no. Strength. No indications of interactions to explain this effect were obtained by TGA of PVC containing these additives. USA Accession no. Polybutene added at levels up to 10% of the total impact modifier gives a significant increase in the Izod impact and increase in dynamic thermal stability by as much as 25%. p. March 1997. phr (per hundred resin) ratios should be reduced to a minimum of one.634633 Item 436 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3.1. profile processing conditions and welding parameters.453-62 IR SPECTRAL CHANGES IN PVC AND PLASTICISED PVC DURING GELATION AND FUSION Beltran M. Some examples of successful applications are described. 19 refs.637924 Item 435 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. 4 refs. 27th April-2nd May 1997. p. For both plasticiser systems. These studies were carried out using both a conventional dioctyl phthalate(DOP) plasticiser and a mixed plasticiser consisting of a 1:1 combination of DOP and an alkyl aryl phosphate ester. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Ductility decreased as ionic resistivity increased. It is shown that extrusion of small-diameter CPVC pipe requires specially-designed equipment and that use of a Y-block should be considered. Marcilla A Alicante. Garcia J C.21-7 INFLUENCE OF ACRYLIC IMPACT MODIFIERS ON THE WELD STRENGTH OF EXTRUDED RIGID PVC Weier J E Rohm & Haas Co. the contribution to improved Accession no. March 1997. p. The effects on oxygen index and on residual char after ten minutes at 560C were also evaluated. For modifiers having similar impact efficiency. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. which were slightly higher than those made with DOP as the plasticiser. 5 refs. No. Toronto. USA Ferm D J. Major determinants of weld strength were found to include the PVC formulation. The weld strength of a PVC window profile is a function of complex interactions among many contributing variables. (SPE) The addition of polybutene to impact modified PVC formulations reveals improved impact resistance and increased dynamic thermal stability in the PVC formulation.638310 Item 434 European Polymer Journal 33. Ludwig P GE Specialty Chemicals Inc. The molecular structures of the plasticisers influenced the mechanical properties. EUROPEAN UNION.

e.56-76 RECYCLING OF PVC SUPERMARKET TRAYS INTO RIGID FOAM EXTRUSIONS Thomas N L. elastic and dynamic properties of internally and externally plasticised PVC were studied and compared with those of unplasticised PVC. USA Accession no. The glass transition temperature for the plasticised samples was markedly lowered and this decrease was more important for the externally plasticised ones. or double compounds of lead oxide. but unique compounds of interesting structure. BASED ON SOME AROMATIC CONTENT ALCOHOLS. the Hildebrand solubility parameter. TURKEY Accession no.0% and 11. indicated that these salts were not complexes. foam structure and colour. Lead stabilisers probably functioned in these polymers by converting hydrogen chloride to water.1. 1997.g. Impact properties were better than those of the control made from virgin PVC: this is attributed to the high levels of impact modifier used in tray formulations. The positions of the loss peaks from dielectric alpha-relaxation measurements confirmed the higher efficiency of the external plasticisation. 6 refs. ENSAM The volumetric. as suggested in most textbooks. The extruded product had satisfactory foam density.University © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 141 . 1997. March 1997. tribasic lead maleate. The predictor of compatibility. IX. e. I. Verdu J San Sebastian.632126 Item 441 Polymer 38. interfering with acid catalysis of the elimination reaction.630833 Item 442 Materiale Plastice 33. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Silane application resulted in diminishing liquid water and water vapour sorption by about 24.4. 12 refs. No.253-9 Rumanian ESTER-TYPE PLASTICISERS FOR PVC. No. No. predicted the major Accession no. UK.7-11 STRUCTURE OF LEAD STABILIZERS. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. the shape of the dielectric alpharelaxation function was altered only for the internally plasticised samples.1. Krausnick D Hammond Group IR and NMR spectra of basic lead carboxylates used as heat stabilisers for halogenated polymers.References and Abstracts weld strength was maximised by optimisation of the PVC viscosity and blend morphology at the weld line. The results were discussed. tetrabasic lead fumarate. 1997. Balkose D Ege.Polytechnical University Results are presented of the calculations of the fundamental parameters used in defining essential plasticiser properties. BASIC LEAD CARBOXYLATES Grossman R F. Recycled PVC supermarket trays have been used successfully in production-scale trials to make the foamed layer in coextruded cladding. i. No. Inhibition of dioctyl phthalate migration from composites by silane application was also determined as 24% using UV measurements. Stabilisers studied included monobasic lead phthalate. dibasic lead phthalate and dibasic lead stearate.Universidad del Pais Vasco. EUROPEAN UNION.7. FRANCE.634628 Item 439 Progress in Rubber and Plastics Technology 13.223-37 INTERFACIAL ENHANCEMENT OF FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES BY SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Ulutan S. However. 47 refs. The plasticisation effect was linked with a decrease in the intensity of the beta-relaxation process but no important changes in the activation energy of this process were observed. Quirk J P. Bellenger V. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. 1996.(UK) Ltd. Cretney H European Vinyls Corp. Del Val J J. SPAIN. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS IN DEFINING THE ESSENTIAL PLASTICISER PROPERTIES Mirci L E Timisoara. HALSTAB USA Enhancement of a flexible PVC-silica composite interface was studied by the application of gammaaminopropyltrimethoxysilane on silane. 20 refs.634631 Item 438 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 3. No. p. respectively. p.6 phr and prepared by sol-gel technology were subjected to water and water vapour attacks similar to that in their daily use.634092 Item 440 Composite Interfaces 4. 1647-57 STUDY OF PLASTICISATION EFFECTS IN POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) Elicegui A. These trials demonstrated that PVC straight-on trays can be recycled into foamed extrusions for wood replacement products. PVC. p. 8 refs. Composites containing silica and silanised silica up to 25. EUROPEAN UNION.9%. p.4.

namely diesters and mixed esters. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Accession no. p. For PVC. Biological Processes.3.629134 Item 443 Journal of Fire Sciences 14. No.Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplic. No. p. The prevailing mechanisms for halogen and phosphorus flame retardancy are reviewed. plasticiser loading. this problem is even more pronounced than for other plastics.1996. Hospital Waste. EUROPEAN UNION. Oliverio S R F. Edelmann X (EMPA.References and Abstracts level of compatibility for both series involved. No.IV. 1st-3rd Sept. Methods of smoke suppression are presented as is the role of zinc borate. Most of the energy contained in the PVC can be recovered as electrical power and steam. No.REVIEW Green J FMC Corp.Recovery. Notwithstanding the large variations in stabiliser formulations and their differences in performance the results indicate that accurate outdoor lifetime predictions can be established from accelerated ageing data. UK. USA Accession no. Sept. Volume IV: Chemical Processes.615223 142 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Recycling. Linsky L A Teknor Apex Co. Exposure times were related to total global solar radiation from which a linear plot of natural versus artificial ageing was obtained.. 13 refs. and choice of antioxidant.Metropolitan University A number of stabilised formulations of plasticised PVC were photoaged both naturally (in Northern Mexico) and artificially using a fluorescent lighting unit. p.1996. Eduardo R V. with a very high yield.Testing & Res. 4 refs. Santiago S L. Geneva. Manchester. Intumescence in polyolefins is discussed. USA Item 445 Polymer Degradation and Stability 54. The variables of interest were resin molecular weight. Allen N S Mexico. The mode of decomposition of polycarbonate is shown and the effect of salts of organic acids in changing the mode of decomposition hence producing a more flame resistant polymer is shown. RUMANIA Accession no.) The recycling of plastic materials becomes more and more important. The ageing of the samples was characterised using tensile measurements and their mean times to failure correlated using a Weibull Probability plot via a JUSE-QCAS software package. Mention is made of how specific mechanical and thermal properties can be tailored via compounding and fabrication processes to serve specific purposes in medical applications. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Mat. Details are given of ways of improving the gamma irradiation stability of flexible PVC.51-8.614201 Item 447 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology a raw product for VCM manufacture.617495 Item 444 R’95 . Sept. Conference proceedings. A process is studied which is able to destroy the waste PVC. Re-Integration. A review is given of the fundamental chemistry and physical structure of PVC to provide an insight into property and performance versatility. stabiliser type. Nov/Dec.49-55 PREDICTION OF PHOTOAGEING STABILITY OF PLASTICISED PVC FILMS CONTAINING UV STABILISERS Guillermo Martinez J. The effects of boron compounds are discussed. 2 refs.3. 1995. 8(13) RECOVERY OF HYDROCHLORIC ACID FROM THERMAL PROCESSING OF WASTE PVC Schaub M Sulzer Chemtech AG Edited by: Barrage A. Inorganic metal hydrates used in large concentration cool by endothermically releasing a large concentration of water. SWITZERLAND. but unfortunately it is not possible to make materials from the same quality as that of the virgin material. molybdenum and tin compounds acting as Lewis acids in PVC. Convincing evidence is presented for bromine-phosphorus synergy in specific polymers. but which can recover the most important component of it . 12 refs. The criterion for improvement was colour change after irradiation. 1996. 31 refs. Halogens act in the vapour phase and phosphorus can act in either the vapour or condensed phase depending on the specific phosphorus compound and the chemical composition of the polymer. FLEXIBLE CLEAR PVC COMPOUNDS Luther D W.426-42 MECHANSIMS FOR FLAME RETARDANCY AND SMOKE SUPPRESSION . WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.chlorine .615214 Item 446 Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2.193-7 PVC IN MEDICAL DEVICE AND PACKAGING APPLICATIONS Hong K Z Baxter Healthcare Corp. p. EASTERN EUROPE.190-2 IMPROVING GAMMA RADIATION RESISTANCE: MEDICAL GRADE.6. p. MEXICO.1996. Halogen-antimony synergy is discussed.1. 25 refs.

23rd-25th April 1996. These transitions show an Arrhenius dependence on temperature related to the beta motions of the PVC matrix. actual take-back quantities and the perspectives of the pipe recycling are discussed. the resultant costs. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. and the magnitude of the effect is shown to be a complex function of a number of inter-related variables. Emphasis is placed on the description of an effective collection system and the recycling process in terms of cleaning. 23rd-25th April 1996. Brighton.Sci. cooling/sizing conditions and relaxation kinetics of the unplasticised PVC compound.5213-8 PHASE TRANSFER CATALYSED SURFACE MODIFICATION OF PLASTICISED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) IN AQUEOUS MEDIA TO RETARD PLASTICISER MIGRATION Jayakrishnan A.for Med. 1996. Disson J P.611177 Item 450 PVC ’96.611174 Item 452 PVC ’96. 42C382 TEMPERATURE AND IMPACT RATE DEPENDENCE OF THE DUCTILE/BRITTLE TRANSITION OF IMPACT MODIFIED PVC Gervat L.611191 Item 449 PVC ’96. yet shrinkage is also influenced by output.361-8. Beyond its theoretical interest.University.(UK)Ltd. (Institute of Materials) Heat reversion effects are observed when extruded unplasticised PVC profiles are subjected to elevated temperatures. p.391-405. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Conference proceedings. UK. The azidated PVC surface was then irradiated by UV light to crosslink the surface. After surface modification. European Vinyls Corp. depending on the extent of azidation of the PVC surface and the irradiation dose. Results are presented from studies which have attempted to quantify reversion effects. 11 refs. 6 refs. 23rd-25th April 1996. Morel P Elf Atochem SA © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 143 .& Technology Plasticised PVC sheets were surface modified by nucleophilic substitution of chlorine by azide in aqueous media under phase transfer conditions. p. No. 42C382 RECYCLING OF PVC PIPES Sander M European Vinyls Corp. Conference proceedings. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. Stephenson R C Loughborough. Brighton. It was found that considerable reduction in the migration of the plasticiser di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate) could be achieved by this technique.University (Institute of Materials) British Standard BS7413:1991 specifies the test method for PVC-U profiles based on the 900 welded section. The stress calculations use a simple plane bending theory Accession no. An example is given of how the material prepared can be reused in new pipes.611175 Item 451 PVC ’96. Sunny M C Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. EUROPEAN UNION. FRANCE. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. and analyse their dependence on process conditions in commercial twin-screw extrusion systems. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. GERMANY. In addition. and attempts have been made to separate the respective contributions of these parameters.(Deutschland)GmbH (Institute of Materials) The capability of recycling PVC pipes and the high standards which have already been achieved are discussed using examples of recycling initiatives in different countries. 10 refs. there was around 30% reduction in the stress-strain properties of the PVC sheets but these values were still well above the minimum prescribed for PVC used in biomedical applications. p. Brighton. Conference proceedings. occurring in all three principal axes of the profile.417-24. It is a multi-axial parameter. Conference proceedings. Marvalin C. A model based on Eyring theory is proposed. Brighton. 19 refs. Elongational stress created by draw down effects is a primary determinant of the measured heat reversion. Many of these variables are interdependent.23. 42C382 FE ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN WELDED CORNERS OF PVC-U PROFILES Holownia B P Loughborough. the model predicts the impact performance of PVC at various temperature and impact modifier contents. 42C382 HEAT REVERSION EFFECTS IN EXTRUDED PVC-U PROFILES Haworth B. Allowing for die swell when dimensioning dies and calibrators offers a practical route to achieving higher line speeds without increasing reversion levels.References and Abstracts USA (Institute of Materials) The impact behaviour of pure and impact modified PVC is studied in terms of the ductile-brittle transition.614200 Item 448 Polymer 37. p. separation of foreign materials and grinding.379-90. Bianchi C. INDIA Accession no. 23rd-25th April 1996.

42C382 PUMPING AND MELTING MECHANISMS OF VARIOUS PVC COMPOUNDS IN SINGLESCREW EXTRUDERS Kim H T. high temperature rigid compounds follow the conventional pumping mechanism. Conference proceedings. 4 refs. The results show that for deep profiles the BS7413 formula underestimates the true corner stress in some profiles by nearly 30%. (Institute of Materials) In their early days. In solvent-free UV-curable systems. For rigid PVC and CPVC compounds. that is. UK. ITALY. The stabiliser chemistry is affected by the PVC process. Modern organotin mercaptide stabilisers are fine tuned for the particular process and end-use. 7 refs. 16 refs. ‘Z’ and ‘L’ shape profiles were investigated and the maximum stresses in the welded corner obtained by simple formula as used in BS7413 and by FE method were compared. 5 refs.175-83. 23rd-25th April 1996. polymeric polyester or polyether modified silicones will provide best results. 42C382 IMPROVEMENT OF WETTING OF ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE COATINGS ON PVC Hajas J BYK-Chemie GmbH (Institute of Materials) Various ways for a good substrate wetting with environmentally acceptable coatings on PVC are investigated. EUROPEAN UNION. Brighton.611153 144 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Lee S H Geon Co. the desired end product performance requirements and all of the other ingredients in the formulation. the performance of organotin mercaptide PVC heat stabilisers was predicated based on the amount of tin metal contained in the chosen stabiliser. A modification of the PVC formulation gives only a limited improvement of wettability. spread-coated flooring and the various plastisol product areas. EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.611172 Item 453 PVC ’96. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. Conference proceedings. mercaptide ligand chemistry and organic co-stabilisers. Brighton. Emphasis is placed on the European Market as it is here that the need for new Accession no. p. surface flow) are compared. Brighton. USA Accession no. 42C382 DEVELOPMENTS IN CALCIUM/ZINC STABILISER SYSTEMS FOR PLASTICISED PVC APPLICATIONS Minnis N Barlocher Italia SpA (Institute of Materials) Recent developments in calcium/zinc stabiliser systems used in plasticised PVC are discussed.259-68. These products follow the melting mechanism described by Menges. Conroy G M Morton International Inc. Most flexible and high shear. the efficiency of these products can no longer be equated to the tin metal content alone. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. p. The melting mechanism with these products is the one reported by Maddock and Tadmor. but some surface active compounds have been found highly active in the improvement of the substrate wetting. the pressure flow contributes significantly to the forward flow due to melt slippage at the barrel surface. Through the correct choices of organotin species. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.611161 Item 455 PVC ’96. EUROPEAN UNION.. the term plasticised PVC (PVC-P) represents calendered film.209-18. GERMANY. (Institute of Materials) The effects of pumping mechanisms of various PVC compounds on their melting behaviours in single-screw extruders are described. 23rd-25th April 1996. 23rd-25th April 1996.Morton Plastics Additives Div. In particular. 23rd-25th April 1996. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.References and Abstracts which is rather simplistic for deep sections such as PVCU window and door profiles. The best performance in waterborne coatings can be achieved by silicone surfactants.345-53. drag flow is the dominant driving force in conveying the melt with some pressure force acting to retard the forward flow. USA Accession no. p.611156 Item 456 PVC ’96. 42C382 ORGANOTIN PVC HEAT STABILISERS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHEMISTRY AND PERFORMANCE Mesch K A. A close correlation was found between the actual failure load and those predicted using FE analysis. WESTERN EUROPE calcium/zinc stabilisers has been necessary due to environmental demands and stricter legislation. p. calendered flooring. Conference proceedings. different sizes of ‘T’. Their properties and side effects (foam stabilisation.611170 Item 454 PVC ’96. Many important innovations in organotin stabiliser technology are highlighted. Several examples are shown to demonstrate the many performance benefits afforded by modem stabiliser products. Brighton. Conference proceedings. Here.

The contribution of the PVC grain morphology to the extrusion performances is studied.611148 Item 460 PVC ’96. The effects of calcium sulphonate gels in typical plastisol formulations are demonstrated.109-14. Brighton. Conference proceedings. USA Item 459 PVC ’96. the porosity and shape distributions are investigated respectively by mercury intrusion and image analysis. The effects of inorganic and organic surface treatments on TiO2 performance in plastisol wettability. Earlier experiments on single screw equipment and experience of PVC processors show that the specific chemical composition of the PE wax determines their performance with respect to lubrication and gelation. Grades used in plastics processing typically are produced at smaller particle size to optimise perceived blueness. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.611151 Item 458 PVC ’96. 42C382 TITANIUM DIOXIDE USE IN PVC PLASTISOLS Birmingham J N DuPont White Pigments & Mineral Products (Institute of Materials) Titanium dioxide pigments are used extensively in PVC applications to provide both brightness and high levels of opacity. 42C382 CORRELATION BETWEEN THE GELATION AND EXTRUSION PERFORMANCES AND THE MORPHOLOGY OF PVC VIRGIN POWDER Kaesmacher B Shell Research SA (Institute of Materials) The characterisation of PVC resin particles in terms of morphology is becoming more and more important for the optimisation of processing performance. 23rd-25th April 1996.GmbH (Institute of Materials) PVC plastisols should have shear thinning rheology behaviour for optimum performance. and are known to provide an overall external lubrication and an excellent metal release. EUROPEAN UNION. Additionally. These days. Additives based on calcium sulphonate gels have been developed which are shear thinning. GERMANY. Their sag control and thermal stability are demonstrated in a car underbody sealer and a textile coating. 3 refs.153-61. while exhibiting this behaviour. p. The possible complementary behaviour and synergistic effects between low density homopolymer PE. storage and optics retention are studied. The use of external lubricants can significantly influence the fusion characteristics of a PVC compound. High density oxidised PEs tend to provide a medium to strong fusion promotion depending upon the specific product properties. nearly pseudoplastic. BELGIUM. It is also indicated how calcium sulphonate gels are used in different plastisol formulations. 23rd-25th April 1996. In addition to the standard PVC powder properties. In addition their excellent anti-settling performance and viscosity stability are shown. The additives also offer advantages in ease of handling over other raw materials. 23rd-25th April 1996. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. New software is developed which can Accession no. dispersion. comparing them with standard formulations and those containing inexpensive fillers or fumed silica as rheology modifiers. p. Extrusion output and gelation speed are of primary importance for rigid extrusions like pipe and window profile production. Performance is found to be particularly sensitive to the amount and type of alumina treatment.References and Abstracts Item 457 PVC ’96. the type of PVC formulation and the specific processing equipment. Brighton. have certain drawbacks. Conference proceedings. PVC plastisols require attributes such as wettability. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. EUROPEAN UNION. high density oxidised PE and an acrylic processing aid in a lead stabilised PVC compound are examined. Conference proceedings. Homopolymers or non-oxidised PEs act as real external lubricants lowering the friction between PVC and the metal surface of the processing equipment. and the extrusion conditions rather critical for PVC resins. p. Low density oxidised PEs seem to be more neutral external lubricants with a rather small influence on gelation.115-31. p. machines become bigger and faster. 42C382 OPTIMISATION OF GELIFICATION AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC COMPOUNDS BY BALANCING EXTERNAL LUBRICANTS Van Soom K AlliedSignal Europe NV (Institute of Materials) LDPE and HDPE waxes have served as external lubricants for a number of plastics. This can result in an early external lubrication effect and therefore in a decrease of fusion speed and torque. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. Existing methods of rheology control. Brighton. liquid dispersibility and liquid storage stability which are more commonly associated with TiO2 grades used in paint applications. 42C382 UNIQUE RHEOLOGY CONTROL ADDITIVE FOR PVC PLASTISOLS Winzinger A Langer & Co. 23rd-25th April 1996. Differences in surface alumina content of amorphous versus pseudo-bohemite structure significantly affect properties such as wettability. and temperature stable.611150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 145 . Brighton. Conference proceedings.145-51.

) Rapra Review Report No. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. temperature and corrosion resistance and low installation costs. Additional methods were developed for investigating different levels of structure.610625 Item 463 Chemical Engineering Progress 90. No.36-41 CONSIDER CPVC FOR PROCESS APPLICATIONS Accession no.. Blending and alloying is described. PVC/chloroprene rubber and PVC/epoxidised NR blends as examples. PVC/ polyolefin.343-51 ASSESSMENT OF FUSION IN PVC COMPOUNDS Gilbert M. UK. When compounded into plasticised PVC for cable sheathing.000 t/y pilot plant at Wilhelmshaven.UNIVERSITY A number of techniques for assessing PVC fusion are reviewed. EVC EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. using PVC/polyester. Rapra Technolgy Ltd. BELGIUM. NETHERLANDS. that meets a variety of process uses. Day J A.No. particularly pipes and fittings. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. EUROPEAN UNION. A statistical approach shows that morphology parameters contribute to the extrusion performance. 1994. Process technology is examined with reference to extrusion.1740.537711 Item 465 Plastics and Rubber Processing and Applications 3. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.p. no.1996.542367 Item 464 Shawbury.Specialty Chemicals Post-chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (cPVC) is a material which offers a combination of mechanical strength.23 ETHANE-TO-VCM PLANT DUE ONSTREAM LATE NEXT YEAR It is briefly reported that EVC is expected to bring its demonstration plant for its single-stage ethane to VCM process onstream in Q4 1997.Hemsley D A.611147 Item 461 European Chemical News 66. In rigid PVC. Optical methods are used for grains and primary particle fusion. USA Accession no. Edited by: Dolbey R (Rapra Technology Ltd. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no.6. p. 42C382 PVC COMPOUNDS. PVC/nitrile rubber.1994. The company is building a 1. UK. Knight M Goodrich B. EVC claims that the process can achieve over 90% conversion to VCM. Rapra Review Report vol. injection moulding. calendering and liquid PVC compositions. 4 refs. and has decided to develop the technology without seeking any partnerships.154. technical grade ethane and chlorine or hydrogen chloride.1996. EUROPEAN UNION. 1994. Ryan J L Hydro Polymers Ltd.47-8 WHY HOME GROWN CALCIUM CARBONATE BEATS THE NATURAL STUFF Cornwell D Zeneca Resins Ltd. EUROPEAN UNION. UK Accession no. The new process operates at a temperature of around 450-470C and uses low purity. 12ins. pp.1983. the Netherlands.F. PVC/ polycaprolactone. PVC/PU.610640 Item 462 British Plastics and Rubber Nov. EUROPEAN COMMUNITY. This comprehensive article describes cPVC’s key properties in detail and highlights the various industries and applications for the polymer. stearate coated PCC has been used in compounding as an alternative to conventional acrylic processing aids and as a means to reduce impact modifier levels. and the use of additives and compounding technology are reviewed. p. 23/11/94. the hydrophobic surface coating assists wetting and aids dispersion. fabrication and surface treatments. Dec.4.12. 11th-17th Nov.Miadonye A LOUGHBOROUGH. the PCC allows for formulations with minimal potential for acid gas release in combustion conditions.78 This comprehensive review of PVC starts with the early history of its discovery and an outline of the present day PVC industry.References and Abstracts measure automatically the size and the contour of particles present on a digitalised picture. Thermal analysis investigates molecular behaviour and is used to monitor compound processing temp. blow moulding. 14 refs. WESTERN EUROPE Brann S.075 micron.. When compounded into natural and synthetic elastomers. EUROPEAN UNION.245286 146 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . Manufacturing methods and types of resin are discussed. The primary particle size of Winnofil stearate coated precipitated calcium carbonate from Zeneca Resins is in the region of 0. p. No. WESTERN EUROPE Accession no. PROCESSING AND APPLICATIONS Leadbitter J.7.

100 247 BIOCIDE. 207 BATCH MIXING. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 BISPHENOL A. 131 426 ALUMINIUM TRIHYDRATE. 42 81 242 334 BIOCOMPATIBILITY. 103 ADIPATE ESTER. 1 37 58 205 273 BIODETERIORATION. 122 243 311 419 422 BRITTLE. 419 BUTT WELD. 226 ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDE. 4 6 186 188 211 214 249 277 405 441 450 ADHESION. 218 376 ANALYSIS. 192 372 AZODICARBONAMIDE. 3 77 79 179 226 290 335 364 437 ACTIVATION ENERGY. 464 BLOWING AGENT. 64 255 315 332 357 358 BIOACCUMULATION. 2 51 64 108 110 119 122 123 151 153 154 158 175 184 196 197 210 271 282 287 325 328 329 364 372 373 385 389 397 402 408 418 437 439 452 454 BULK POLYMERISATION. 14 BLAST FURNACE. 27 BUTYLTRIHEXYL CITRATE. 135 BLOCKING. 140 207 223 BARIUM FERRITE. 71 BIAXIAL ORIENTATION. 246 464 BLISTER PACKAGING. 448 AZOBISFORMAMIDE. 257 BALL. 1 37 41 58 178 316 368 BIOSTABILITY. 1 28 58 106 199 306 316 AESTHETIC. 53 319 409 AMINOTHIOPHENOL. 118 167 ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE. 1 58 199 273 316 BLOOD BAG. 8 81 400 ANTIFOULING AGENT. 123 171 184 282 AGRICULTURAL APPLICATION. 11 117 263 ACID SCAVENGER. 149 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY. 121 180 255 303 357 ANTIFOAMING AGENT. 122 408 BLISTERING. 242 464 BISETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 150 ANTIFOGGING. 13 102 153 179 345 445 ACETYL TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 178 AUTOMATION. 11 120 442 BUTYLLITHIUM. 127 ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY. 337 396 440 AMINOSILANE. 113 122 201 ALLOY. 38 182 273 368 AUTOCLAVE. 115 BLEACHING. 347 348 ALKYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 284 AMINOURACIL. 14 76 81 148 160 181 216 227 276 447 464 ANTISTATIC AGENT. 57 104 113 293 307 309 ABSORPTION. 86 100 244 247 252 370 BIOMATERIAL. 162 244 269 452 BOTTLE. 75 84 174 303 320 BARIUM COMPOUND. 8 116 179 207 218 229 396 399 ADHESION PROMOTION. 310 BARIUM. 16 265 AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE. 17 19 22 43 64 211 215 227 277 278 283 285 345 353 354 445 AGGLOMERATE. 98 ADSORPTION. 19 366 404 AGREEMENT. 4 387 388 ALLIANCE. 175 218 243 408 AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATION.Subject Index Subject Index A ABRASION RESISTANCE. 81 400 426 464 ARM REST. 302 382 BENZOATE. 70 BAN. 48 BLOOD. 1 58 B BAG. 129 283 ANTIOXIDANT. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 375 464 BLUSH RESISTANCE. 116 ATTENUATED TOTAL REFLECTION SPECTROSCOPY. 421 BLEND. 135 AMMONIUM MOLYBDATE. 236 ACQUISITION. 64 354 ALKYLTIN ALKYL MERCAPTOPROPIONATE. 10 118 245 283 386 390 ALUMINIUM OXIDE. 15 35 111 421 423 462 464 ACCELERATED TEST. 129 435 AMORPHOUS. 98 257 ANNEALING. 196 AGEING. 191 C CABLE. 244 399 456 ADHESIVE. 309 BUTYL BENZYL PHTHALATE. 50 59 179 218 343 ABS. 215 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY. 7 161 171 ACRYLIC POLYMER. 10 91 110 118 122 141 171 174 184 227 243 277 282 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 147 . 192 372 BENZENECARBOXYLIC ACID. 81 ANTIMONY OXIDE. 10 51 65 107 111 121 128 133 142 151 152 154 155 157 165 170 180 207 222 230 233 266 273 299 301 306 316 324 326 345 347 352 368 395 396 400 412 415 423 426 439 445 452 465 ANIMAL TESTING. 91 122 171 243 271 289 343 418 454 462 AZIDE. 12 103 238 283 405 428 BUILDING APPLICATION. 226 229 244 259 355 396 ADIPATE. 464 ALUMINIUM ACETYLACETONATE. 362 BARIUM STEARATE. 239 BONDING. 155 ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 98 351 BLOW MOULDING. 111 BUSINESS EQUIPMENT.

24 28 29 37 66 410 448 461 CAUSTIC SODA. 99 COLOUR STABILITY. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CAPACITY. 21 113 122 184 369 461 CAPILLARY RHEOMETRY. 11 122 380 CLOUD POINT. 98 411 CONTAMINATION. 458 CALENDERING. 46 62 227 239 285 406 409 CALCIUM SULFATE. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 CHINA CLAY. 50 65 94 121 180 CLEANING. 263 281 CLADDING. 67 218 248 371 CHALK. 159 174 223 282 291 320 331 454 CAESIUM. 218 427 CONSUMPTION. 35 36 461 COOLING. 34 152 171 215 243 301 CLEANING AGENT. 8 45 131 239 CLAY. 102 129 143 153 230 237 239 400 414 439 COLOUR CHANGE. 104 COLOUR. 21 27 38 67 218 241 243 260 265 273 277 299 306 323 382 386 396 407 440 448 CHEMICAL PLANT. 227 CALCIUM CHLORIDE. 9 15 23 41 72 110 161 173 180 184 312 325 339 372 374 400 402 419 446 460 464 COMPRESSION MOULDING. 220 344 400 COMBUSTION. 302 382 CELLULAR MATERIAL. 83 CALCIUM STEARATE. 84 394 CALCIUM CARBONATE. 105 213 CARBON BLACK. 89 98 267 393 CITRIC ACID. 40 89 91 99 110 123 184 282 367 369 418 427 464 CONTACT ANGLE. 3 60 CORNICE. 209 217 263 368 CATALYST. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 COATING. 170 218 250 251 315 325 374 408 COPPER. 31 35 49 50 51 53 54 55 65 69 80 96 102 112 113 116 125 126 156 166 180 192 196 197 201 203 208 232 243 261 309 362 380 383 416 426 430 440 442 464 COMPOSITION. 12 462 COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN. 352 353 CAST FILM. 6 154 170 299 338 CAPILLARY VISCOMETRY. 34 72 166 283 COMPOUNDING. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 67 127 152 160 183 212 231 265 277 373 395 407 409 412 434 CITRATE. 64 439 CLARITY. 112 241 399 COPPER OXIDE. 49 76 367 COMPRESSION SET. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 CEMENT KILN. 64 110 113 122 166 171 184 201 205 COMPATIBILISER. 98 100 228 257 CARPET. 55 192 CHEMICAL MODIFICATION. 169 CARBON DIOXIDE. 4 73 85 88 263 348 366 367 388 394 403 420 442 COMPOSITE. 73 COLOUR FASTNESS. 64 72 99 109 122 124 158 175 176 298 333 385 418 427 439 COINJECTION MOULDING. 149 CONE CALORIMETER. 8 132 408 417 423 454 CALORIMETER. 376 464 CHLORINATED PE. 39 298 COLOUR CONCENTRATE. 2 15 28 35 52 57 66 113 120 165 177 283 306 381 404 462 CALCIUM CARBOXYLATE. 167 184 187 CARCINOGEN. 184 187 208 217 302 382 CARBON MONOXIDE. 6 53 70 94 103 104 127 180 194 198 203 211 213 232 233 234 235 238 245 248 316 319 352 379 380 396 445 460 CHEMICAL BLOWING AGENT. 283 CHLORINATED. 66 160 253 371 405 CONTINUOUS MIXING. 306 CALCIUM COMPOUND. 73 320 321 352 385 COLOURIMETRY. 184 363 CLOTHING. 160 244 CLOSED LOOP. 2 8 59 108 179 185 215 253 257 329 343 408 423 456 462 COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION. 122 253 COST. 53 54 93 246 COMPATIBILITY. 436 463 CHLORINE. 128 170 254 CONDENSATION POLYMER. 37 102 182 199 244 273 396 CONTAINER. 400 CASTING. 237 CONDENSATION REACTION. 32 51 52 53 54 55 70 104 105 168 192 193 194 203 232 234 235 245 362 379 COMPOUND. 122 123 275 282 461 CHEMICAL REACTION. 218 427 COEXTRUSION. 31 115 122 184 302 382 418 CHEMICAL RESISTANCE. 13 65 78 297 306 373 387 CHROMATOGRAPHY. 115 297 CHAIN SCISSION. 120 165 CHAR. 3 5 60 78 121 129 167 386 CONICAL SCREW. 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 227 407 CALCIUM SILICATE. 283 CALCIUM SULFONATE. 172 CALCIUM. 63 318 COATED FABRIC. 3 54 113 133 232 287 338 CHLORINATED PVC. 15 21 106 167 187 265 283 435 462 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION. 197 CORRUGATED SHEET. 368 372 462 CHEMICAL RECYCLING. 64 COSMETICS. 230 308 347 COLOUR COMPOUND.Subject Index 283 326 330 336 341 369 390 418 431 462 CADMIUM. 21 34 45 46 52 84 89 92 113 145 146 157 173 176 195 148 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 8 80 211 236 298 387 431 COLOURANT. 408 CONVERSION. 243 363 CASE HISTORY. 59 64 179 283 320 462 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE. 60 65 435 CHARACTERISATION.

11 231 391 DIETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 379 393 DIOCTYL PHTHALATE. 379 393 DIOCTYL ADIPATE. 19 26 63 186 394 DOMESTIC EQUIPMENT. 181 202 CROSSLINKING. 86 244 247 DEGRADATION. 248 249 DEGRADATION RESISTANCE. 86 260 DICHLORODIETHYLSILANE. 104 419 DEGRADABLE. 42 242 334 DIE. 64 109 124 142 155 170 175 176 201 206 233 356 380 408 DIE SWELL. 34 53 61 73 113 203 220 321 346 457 462 DISSOLUTION. 108 DIBUTYL PHTHALATE. 306 DOOR. 71 DIETHYLHEXYL ADIPATE. 4 85 393 441 DIETHYL SEBACATE. 115 272 282 297 341 DISCOLOURATION. 17 167 212 237 265 270 382 DEGRADATION RATE. 68 197 452 DRAIN PIPE. 379 393 432 DIOXIN. 171 216 299 DECHLORINATION. 66 106 DIBUTYL ADIPATE. 64 244 DEFECT. 160 253 262 462 DIALKYL PHTHALATE. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 33 128 170 175 176 218 254 313 318 324 326 328 332 338 362 375 376 436 459 DESORPTION. 408 CREEP. 56 419 DOMESTIC REFUSE. 138 183 195 264 449 DRUG PACKAGING. 11 117 DIISONONYL PHTHALATE. 99 463 DWELL TIME. 50 96 283 383 394 441 ELASTIC PROPERTIES. 120 188 266 379 393 DIOCTYL AZELATE.Subject Index 196 227 263 271 282 288 298 332 333 380 419 427 444 449 463 COSTABILISER. 67 95 118 202 208 224 226 231 235 241 268 277 285 319 337 353 373 409 410 424 448 CRYSTALLINE. 51 257 353 DAMPING. 24 215 230 358 CRADLE TO GRAVE. 61 113 226 250 251 315 381 451 DEFORMATION TEMPERATURE. 333 DRAWING. 122 DRY BLENDING. 33 95 DUCTILE-BRITTLE TRANSITION. 67 218 241 260 265 277 306 323 382 407 DEMAND. 13 17 19 22 27 28 29 41 43 45 47 48 61 62 64 65 67 94 101 102 134 175 182 187 190 211 212 213 220 227 237 240 249 252 265 270 277 278 279 283 285 286 302 308 345 352 353 354 370 373 382 384 406 421 445 DEGRADATION PRODUCT. 98 219 349 351 370 392 410 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT. 1 11 19 22 58 97 98 117 119 127 188 200 219 222 228 316 351 361 377 394 410 DI-2-ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 98 379 432 462 DURABILITY. 55 170 400 DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES. 46 47 130 137 220 308 406 407 414 COUNTER-ROTATING. 379 393 432 DIBUTYLTIN COMPOUND. 349 354 370 DIBENZODIOXIN. 237 270 DEHYDROCHLORINATION. 88 133 163 164 340 346 361 405 446 CUSTOM COMPOUNDING. 51 53 121 292 383 403 441 462 E E-MODULUS. 11 114 117 152 394 DIISOOCTYL PHTHALATE. 102 221 236 400 421 DISPERSION. 133 137 189 CRYSTALLINITY. 238 450 DUCTILE FAILURE. 66 DIBENZOFURAN. 379 393 DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIBENZOATE. 11 165 DIBUTYL SEBACATE. 7 8 92 110 123 171 195 DENSITY. 184 243 408 CYLINDER. 53 116 274 440 CRACKING. 303 DIMENSIONAL STABILITY. 37 D DAMAGE. 2 315 335 DIMETHYL SEBACATE. 21 27 DECKING. 419 CUTTING. 2 23 55 120 192 196 243 281 367 401 404 405 413 425 439 DESIGN. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 159 161 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 288 296 367 369 372 418 422 427 464 ELASTIC MODULUS. 464 DIRECTIVE. 170 206 299 451 DIE TEMPERATURE. 66 106 125 184 282 DIP MOULDING. 38 41 65 118 120 121 180 203 266 367 392 409 430 435 440 442 448 DIOCTYL SEBACATE. 4 85 107 127 133 155 164 172 188 214 235 324 354 409 465 DIFFUSION. 315 383 DRINKING WATER. 165 219 351 DIFFUSIVITY. 409 DICARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER. 64 427 COUPLING AGENT. 183 DIBUTYLTIN THIOGLYCOLATE ESTER. 170 176 189 218 374 427 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS. 230 CYTOTOXICITY. 85 121 348 388 420 DYNAMIC MECHANICAL THERMAL ANALYSIS. 50 96 383 441 ECONOMIC INFORMATION. 217 219 351 440 DIISODECYL PHTHALATE. 277 370 373 DETERGENT. 349 356 464 DRYING. 118 394 DIISOHEPTYL PHTHALATE. 184 CREDIT CARD. 27 60 214 237 270 281 372 435 DECOMPOSITION PRODUCT. 51 DECOMPOSITION. 43 106 302 DECORATIVE. 396 DICHLOROOCTYLISOTHIAZOLINONE. 2 234 DYNAMIC PROPERTIES. 428 DUCTILITY. 120 DIISONONYL ADIPATE. 132 170 230 DEFORMATION. 70 120 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 149 .

Subject Index 154 189 283 290 299 314 383 394 441 ELASTOMER. 229 256 295 301 353 404 405 428 445 FASTENING. 184 444 461 FEEDSTOCK RECYCLING. 400 ETHYL HEXYL ACRYLATE. 432 EPOXIDISED SOYBEAN OIL. 283 EMISSION. 36 50 180 203 EXPANSION. 100 160 253 ENERGY RECOVERY. 169 243 406 FOAM. 34 132 142 157 170 176 189 190 206 218 230 249 283 327 338 420 430 439 455 FLOW PROPERTIES. 16 54 56 57 172 232 245 283 303 430 EMBRITTLEMENT. 3 5 10 15 16 64 78 118 121 129 130 167 238 263 265 283 327 386 390 435 FLAT DIE. 91 110 174 243 277 283 326 330 336 369 390 431 ELECTRICAL APPLICATION. 10 257 464 ETHYLHEXYL PHTHALATE. 43 108 151 184 212 214 252 282 306 341 EMISSION CONTROL. 82 83 112 130 172 174 184 185 277 283 322 393 400 416 426 431 432 ELECTRON MICROGRAPH. 9 34 39 64 79 109 113 124 139 142 144 156 157 170 177 189 195 254 258 328 333 356 374 375 398 408 413 427 436 455 459 EXTRUSION. 23 55 72 192 195 280 281 339 346 359 372 150 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 34 400 F FABRIC. 175 380 408 FLEXIBLE. 441 EXTRACTION. 89 93 112 181 416 EPOXIDISED LINSEED OIL. 33 ETHYLHEXYL THIOGLYCOLATE. 271 297 EMULSION POLYMERISATION. 98 375 FAILURE. 2 9 10 16 23 35 36 50 52 53 54 55 57 65 66 70 83 93 94 96 102 112 116 118 120 125 130 134 156 165 177 180 184 196 197 208 215 232 234 245 261 283 294 295 339 362 366 375 381 383 384 386 390 404 416 430 462 464 FILLER CONTENT. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 380 396 FILLER. 32 283 445 EXTERNAL PLASTICISER. 2 49 52 57 92 102 104 113 197 201 238 283 379 408 432 FLOATATION. 115 201 307 FIBRE GLASS. 100 110 115 122 282 297 341 ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION. 226 ETHYLENE COPOLYMER. 40 98 114 160 253 262 272 EXPOSURE TIME. 248 265 394 448 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 197 FEEDING. 336 405 FLOOR. 33 313 318 324 328 338 362 459 EXPOSURE LEVEL. 17 117 198 355 365 367 389 EXTRUDATE. 2 52 57 104 113 238 FLEXURAL PROPERTIES. 43 59 119 151 272 282 322 341 369 389 418 454 FLOOR COVERING. 21 31 115 271 275 282 FENCE. 99 158 FIBRE. 10 91 118 130 185 271 283 419 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES. 266 464 ENDOCRINE. 8 49 215 266 340 355 408 FABRICATION. 30 336 ELONGATION. 12 42 78 80 83 86 90 98 100 103 130 135 137 157 166 171 184 215 231 242 253 255 263 267 295 353 367 380 382 412 424 435 440 FLEXURAL MODULUS. 14 33 38 42 56 59 67 108 113 122 131 132 163 172 176 194 222 223 229 231 244 274 284 307 326 337 368 374 384 391 400 408 410 421 423 434 445 454 FLAME RETARDANT. 55 192 FOAMING. 34 400 EXTRUSION MIXING. 62 90 100 115 147 174 205 247 252 271 282 ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION. 116 194 238 354 367 459 462 ELONGATION AT BREAK. 244 FLAMMABILITY. 43 115 184 306 444 ENVIRONMENT. 231 238 248 ETHYLENE-VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 213 408 EXTRUSION COMPOUNDING. 20 122 136 138 141 146 184 244 464 EPOXIDE RESIN. 55 101 120 192 208 FOAMING AGENT. 39 206 313 FLUID BED. 34 98 170 254 408 FEEDSTOCK. 233 439 EXTRUDER. 19 111 182 233 244 ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION. 98 146 253 282 341 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT. 400 ETHOXYLATED PHENOL. 2 441 EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN. 2 FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 122 408 FLOW. 5 10 16 29 60 78 118 129 130 167 265 283 327 386 390 435 443 464 FLAME TREATMENT. 130 180 266 267 ETHOXYLATED ESTER. 231 395 432 ESTER PLASTICISER. 2 113 283 366 404 FILM. 441 EXFOLIATION. 394 416 EXPANSION COEFFICIENT. 66 90 119 122 174 214 289 291 296 320 322 431 449 454 ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARD. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 ELECTRIC CABLE. 464 EXTRUSION COATING. 18 23 72 101 109 120 124 131 141 158 175 192 196 197 208 235 258 280 281 290 324 333 339 346 359 372 375 401 402 413 439 462 FOAM-CORE. 8 12 23 34 64 69 72 77 79 107 109 139 144 145 154 155 156 157 164 170 174 175 176 177 190 192 195 201 205 206 211 233 250 251 254 261 279 280 281 283 287 290 292 294 299 312 313 321 322 324 326 328 332 333 338 346 356 358 369 374 375 380 383 385 398 400 401 402 408 409 413 425 436 437 439 451 453 455 459 460 464 465 EXTRUSION BLOW MOULDING. 195 427 FOAMABILITY. 461 FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY.

309 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 458 HEAT STABILISER. 7 8 110 195 385 H HARDNESS. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 HEAT DISTORTION TEMPERATURE. 122 311 GRANULATOR. 21 115 187 GASKET. 244 HOT TOOL WELD. 122 336 369 HOT MELT ADHESIVE. 31 49 104 201 309 GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE. 27 187 I IMMERSION. 14 138 159 263 300 320 FOOD PACKAGING. 125 FURNITURE. 15 48 49 76 146 184 187 214 236 277 282 293 306 341 371 406 407 438 444 HYDROCYCLONE. 222 329 FOOD-CONTACT APPLICATION. 205 HEAT AGEING. 306 HOUSEWARES. 98 253 257 282 HAZARDOUS WASTE. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 FRICTION COEFFICIENT. 64 HOSE. 202 235 268 285 319 424 GEL FRACTION. 171 FUNGICIDE. 14 33 127 138 160 272 300 351 367 391 395 400 411 418 FOOD SIMULANT. 42 370 FURAN. 2 4 85 103 164 255 268 348 354 357 360 367 403 405 420 434 441 446 GLOSS. 269 FROTH FLOTATION. 10 23 39 59 62 71 72 74 75 78 84 91 98 118 129 130 135 136 139 142 145 150 153 154 173 182 209 242 266 281 285 292 293 295 299 312 319 338 339 347 375 386 390 402 414 419 433 437 458 459 FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY. 67 88 409 GEL CONTENT. 148 276 HOLLOW ARTICLE. 50 81 82 G GAMMA-IRRADIATION. 6 70 71 79 107 134 170 186 198 211 241 261 280 283 328 349 394 434 460 GLASS BEAD. 335 FOIL. 110 282 HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 15 49 281 GAS PIPE. 99 HORMONE. 113 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY. 11 16 17 24 28 29 33 127 152 160 212 265 373 395 412 GAS EMISSION. 7 40 66 86 90 97 98 100 106 114 119 126 138 160 174 184 200 210 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 291 304 310 317 367 377 378 390 HEALTHCARE APPLICATION. 1 14 17 22 38 58 67 102 108 127 155 164 167 182 202 203 207 240 243 273 368 406 407 410 434 FRACTURE. 12 131 153 154 179 230 233 286 328 364 459 GLOVE. 61 185 382 HINDERED AMINE. 32 283 IMPACT MODIFIER. 283 HEAT DEGRADATION. 243 311 FUEL CELL. 122 FUSION. 15 462 GAS BARRIER. 162 195 212 214 239 301 416 459 HIGH TEMPERATURE. 91 395 GEL. 66 GAS EVOLUTION. 172 301 447 GAS ABSORPTION. 113 216 327 362 367 HAZARDOUS MATERIAL. 32 203 HYDROPHOBIC. 253 257 HORTICULTURE. 42 334 FUNGUS. 11 GRANULATION. 252 271 297 HAZE. 218 427 FRICTION WELD. 17 21 56 172 283 318 HYDROPHILIC. 32 42 273 283 311 462 HYDROTALCITE. 256 HOUSEHOLD WASTE. 269 329 381 404 405 428 FRACTURE MORPHOLOGY. 122 243 336 355 405 428 GROWTH RATE. 400 FOGGING RESISTANCE. 400 HEAD REST. 44 45 46 47 48 75 82 84 105 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 168 174 181 207 209 218 223 227 236 270 285 291 308 322 323 335 345 347 348 383 387 388 414 415 438 439 453 HEAT STABILITY. 104 352 419 464 HEAT RESISTANCE. 49 295 HYDROTHERMAL DEGRADATION. 405 HYDROLYSIS. 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 GRINDING. 127 351 FOOTWEAR. 2 16 23 51 52 53 57 74 77 82 96 104 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 151 . 67 407 409 434 GEL TEMPERATURE. 56 HYDROCHLORIC ACID. 80 179 HINDERED PHENOL. 8 70 105 129 130 135 140 153 168 181 203 221 235 249 268 322 431 HEAT TREATMENT. 215 HEALTH HAZARD. 122 380 408 FORMULATION. 24 28 29 406 434 HEAVY METAL.Subject Index 375 FOGGING. 243 369 GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 216 GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAPHY. 52 57 72 77 81 113 133 134 148 154 184 208 224 232 287 338 364 401 419 433 437 439 450 462 464 IMPACT PROPERTIES. 70 GELATION. 111 132 134 290 294 309 321 324 394 465 GASIFICATION. 12 61 111 121 211 215 246 261 269 284 286 299 404 405 413 429 437 FRAME. 96 116 366 GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC.

236 282 331 365 LEAD CARBOXYLATE. 39 72 74 127 132 134 139 171 193 207 239 244 292 303 313 338 350 360 375 403 420 447 459 464 M MACHINERY. 209 227 362 MELT FRACTURE. 98 100 253 LANDFILL. 39 113 MATERIAL REPLACEMENT. 40 46 LEATHER. 432 LITHIUM CARBONATE. 110 205 267 464 MARKET TREND. 115 297 LATEX. 224 405 J JOINT. 12 170 213 230 233 249 254 413 451 MELT VISCOSITY. 52 87 103 238 263 283 367 462 LOW VISCOSITY. 122 INTERACTION. 15 LONG-TERM. 254 427 464 MICRORAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 63 70 MELTING TEMPERATURE. 248 286 421 447 448 IZOD. 383 438 LEAD CHROMATE. 224 LEACHING. 54 234 362 MELT RHEOLOGY. 67 IRON OXIDE. 110 205 MASS POLYMERISATION. 132 420 INTERNAL MIXING. 70 393 MEMBRANE. 64 67 80 181 445 LIGHT STABILITY. 149 172 INJECTION MOULD. 234 362 MARKET SHARE. 225 230 INJECTION MOULDING.Subject Index 113 129 133 137 195 209 224 232 261 294 303 315 328 329 362 364 405 419 428 430 433 439 450 462 INCINERATION. 34 39 64 73 79 109 124 144 156 157 158 170 173 177 189 218 225 230 254 258 303 328 333 374 375 398 408 423 436 455 464 MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE. 98 166 INDUSTRIAL HAZARD. 16 17 160 167 207 373 MASTERBATCH. 45 179 181 LIGHT TRANSMISSION. 3 181 LOW TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES. 282 LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX. 121 134 180 420 464 MELT ELASTICITY. 40 68 110 171 195 296 367 418 427 MARKET SIZE. 62 152 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 64 186 LIME. 72 92 130 228 419 MATTRESS. 13 141 143 159 270 438 LEAD-FREE. 111 464 MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 190 248 MECHANICAL FASTENING. 320 LEAD COMPOUND. 438 LEAD PHTHALATE. 283 KILN. 10 16 63 106 127 165 339 407 INTERCALATION. 50 94 180 203 INTERNAL LUBRICANT. 209 227 362 MELTING POINT. 6 18 73 74 96 107 142 172 186 188 118 245 386 390 MAGNETIC FILLER. 395 LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS. 381 404 438 LEAD SUBSTITUTE. 365 438 LEAD MALEATE. 115 122 184 271 275 282 418 MEDICAL APPLICATION. 30 31 212 214 300 400 416 459 LOW FRICTION. 7 40 44 45 46 56 89 97 98 99 114 119 131 140 159 167 174 196 197 200 209 210 227 231 263 264 271 272 283 291 317 320 322 331 378 418 431 439 456 458 MATERIALS SELECTION. 441 IR SPECTROSCOPY. 10 15 16 78 118 129 265 283 LINSEED OIL. 177 239 364 MELT PROPERTIES. 172 217 274 305 354 379 393 432 METERING. 3 60 426 IRRADIATION. 132 346 359 MELT FLOW. 81 86 90 100 110 115 119 122 159 205 271 282 297 331 341 454 LID. 54 359 MELT TEMPERATURE. 122 184 306 INHIBITOR. 8 LUBRICANT. 8 49 79 113 143 178 209 218 230 249 263 314 322 353 369 376 419 453 464 INSULATION. 70 171 380 LEGISLATION. 118 201 283 INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT. 113 122 201 K K VALUE. 102 179 181 252 406 LOW DENSITY POLYETHYLENE. 283 INTERNAL PLASTICISER. 90 119 INDUSTRIAL WASTE. 6 54 189 MELT PROCESSING. 54 77 213 234 362 MELT STRENGTH. 115 125 138 252 271 275 282 296 331 LANGIVIN EQUATION. 8 201 LOW VOLATILITY. 10 L LABELLING. 218 LOW MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 22 45 64 179 181 286 421 445 LIGHT STABILISER. 295 365 438 LEAD STEARATE. 130 264 283 431 LEAD FUMARATE. 56 MECHANICAL DEGRADATION. 230 234 290 376 MELT VISCOSITY INDEX. 1 17 37 41 58 64 91 97 98 110 171 178 200 205 218 228 239 257 262 272 301 317 351 367 368 446 447 MELT. 66 106 115 146 184 214 271 275 282 297 306 341 418 444 INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. 54 154 213 218 230 233 283 313 359 362 430 MELT FLOW INDEX. 98 242 252 253 257 263 264 271 282 334 370 LEAD. 197 MECHANICAL RECYCLING. 136 186 266 439 KAOLIN. 115 125 138 210 331 LIGHT DEGRADATION. 1 14 17 22 58 67 102 108 127 164 165 167 172 182 199 202 203 207 220 240 243 248 319 368 384 403 406 407 410 412 421 423 434 438 439 440 IRON CHLORIDE. 309 JOINT VENTURE.

408 PIPE. 2 52 61 95 96 101 113 236 283 311 327 355 366 381 394 404 405 428 429 460 462 PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION. 4 34 41 71 94 121 173 191 254 283 285 312 325 375 400 402 404 408 464 MODIFICATION. 14 98 152 183 217 274 PEROXIDE. 13 39 108 131 278 279 282 286 321 344 352 373 375 385 421 457 PIN EXTRUDER. 3 74 79 87 98 121 181 186 189 226 248 263 276 290 335 349 359 371 394 409 419 447 MOLYBDENUM OXIDE. 38 361 438 O OCTYL ISOTHIAZOLINONE. 24 25 26 31 61 115 212 243 PLASTISOL. 421 PHOTODEGRADATION. 49 69 71 76 205 285 367 409 MOULDING COMPOUND. 181 421 PHTHALATE. 38 243 396 419 448 MODIFIED. 101 327 PATENT. 2 50 52 70 120 215 245 283 MIXED WASTE. 104 MONTMORILLONITE. 56 87 88 MINERAL FILLER. 45 140 276 PHOTOBLEACHING. 13 22 67 102 108 179 277 279 286 352 373 384 421 PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 42 55 155 197 400 MOLECULAR STRUCTURE. 113 122 123 124 136 138 141 143 144 145 164 170 183 184 195 209 259 264 275 282 296 309 322 326 332 333 336 341 358 369 372 375 401 402 418 427 436 449 463 PIPE FITTING. 109 302 382 PERFUME. 115 122 123 146 282 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. 242 334 OIL RESISTANCE. 115 122 243 306 MIXER. 18 94 277 305 453 MIGRATION. 3 60 MONOSANDWICH. 108 170 218 441 PLASTICISED. 69 380 NOZZLE. 34 419 MOULDING FAULT. 123 141 143 230 309 322 449 453 463 PLANETARY EXTRUDER. 11 17 98 117 127 160 165 182 200 207 215 222 228 231 242 272 277 304 310 317 327 365 367 377 378 391 392 395 411 420 423 440 448 MIGRATION RESISTANCE. 90 98 PHTHALIC ACID. 13 67 76 108 187 277 382 421 OXYBISPHENOXYARSINE. 218 427 PARTICLE. 219 427 MUNICIPAL WASTE. 12 50 61 111 121 186 211 215 233 246 248 261 265 269 284 286 299 346 394 404 405 413 429 437 460 464 465 MOULDING. 36 145 150 303 MODIFIER. 10 65 102 N NANOCOMPOSITE. 1 4 62 64 98 108 128 163 180 205 211 213 274 276 277 307 311 361 387 388 393 409 410 421 424 425 432 439 441 464 465 MOLECULAR WEIGHT. 227 382 PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE. 311 369 461 PELLET. 7 40 63 89 100 110 117 215 247 252 253 257 262 263 267 272 282 304 310 317 370 378 PHTHALATE ESTER. 230 MULTILAYER. 36 50 93 203 MORPHOLOGY. 173 191 325 408 MIXING. 374 PLASMA TREATMENT. 8 15 18 33 34 38 42 98 122 167 218 219 255 283 303 316 334 337 351 357 383 392 393 395 424 445 448 454 PLASTICISER. 2 366 405 PARTICLE SIZE. 32 231 273 368 PLASTICISATION. 50 113 203 NATURAL FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC. 19 83 101 177 294 394 428 PASTE. 46 85 221 331 348 453 ORGANOTIN GROUP. 218 230 273 316 396 399 PHOTOOXIDATION. 122 PERMEABILITY. 36 50 65 93 94 121 180 203 NANOFILLER. 202 235 268 319 PHENOLIC ANTIOXIDANT. 122 282 PAINT. 253 343 PARALLEL SCREW. 64 163 164 195 255 315 332 340 357 358 383 OUTDOOR APPLICATION. 116 134 383 404 PARTICLE SHAPE. 8 19 70 71 120 131 152 188 198 202 235 327 349 389 394 434 454 457 458 462 PLATE-OUT. 12 18 46 63 70 87 89 196 327 338 412 419 446 PIGMENT. 81 287 401 419 433 450 458 MOISTURE. 1 7 11 17 19 22 40 43 44 50 56 58 63 65 71 81 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 97 100 103 108 110 111 114 117 119 120 125 126 127 128 130 148 152 165 180 182 184 186 188 189 193 194 198 199 200 202 203 205 209 215 222 223 228 231 238 240 242 247 253 257 260 262 263 266 267 271 272 273 275 277 282 283 303 305 310 316 317 318 327 342 349 350 351 353 354 355 361 367 370 377 378 379 383 389 391 392 393 394 395 409 410 412 430 432 434 435 441 442 447 448 464 PLASTICS WASTE. 45 132 153 155 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 153 . 462 OLIVE OIL. 89 110 115 122 127 219 231 262 271 300 301 391 400 408 411 419 439 PACKAGING WASTE. 174 OPTICAL PROPERTIES. 12 14 64 93 163 179 186 198 233 243 284 301 352 400 445 457 465 ORGANOTIN COMPOUND. 308 OXIDATION. 396 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.Subject Index MICROSCOPY. 148 PHOSPHITE. 42 242 334 P PACKAGING. 252 ORIENTATION. 242 298 OVEN AGEING. 392 OPACITY. 408 PLANETARY ROLLER EXTRUDER. 6 199 439 465 MICROSTRUCTURE.

318 366 POROSITY. 170 176 189 218 427 RESIDUAL STRESS. 135 181 335 POLYMERIC TOUGHENING AGENT. 59 PREHEATING. 341 463 POLYADIPIC ACID.Subject Index POLLUTION. 122 204 293 296 330 340 344 363 415 444 449 RECYCLABILITY. 64 69 218 PROCESSABILITY. 9 25 28 30 104 113 162 163 195 212 214 309 396 462 POLYSTYRENE. 95 111 122 170 186 289 439 460 464 POWDER COATING. 103 POLYAMIDE. 6 19 37 111 113 155 178 180 182 199 233 154 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 169 178 REVIEW. 64 201 240 ROTATIONAL CASTING. 280 318 429 460 POST-CONSUMER. 12 13 69 122 141 153 154 156 158 166 184 201 244 250 251 279 280 287 298 322 325 326 329 356 372 385 398 427 437 451 452 PROFITABILITY. 187 POLYETHYLENE. 12 32 170 218 244 399 RUBBER. 144 PROCESS CONTROL. 68 271 275 282 357 418 REGULATION. 149 POLYPROPYLENE. 79 335 POLYMERIC PROPERTY MODIFIER. 20 43 122 184 204 282 311 418 422 POT LIFE. 47 414 Q QUALITY. 21 24 28 29 115 167 187 212 214 241 293 PYRROLIDINE. 27 35 36 111 142 149 166 260 266 273 299 318 349 429 POLYMERISATION REACTOR. 8 POTABLE WATER. 3 34 39 46 72 122 129 133 135 136 137 143 184 190 208 218 255 258 265 268 281 302 319 338 339 356 359 360 373 384 402 413 420 437 439 RISK ASSESSMENT. 99 184 427 RECYCLING. 369 REINFORCED PLASTIC. 171 PROBLEM PREVENTION. 211 276 RESIDENCE TIME. 138 183 195 264 449 POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE. 98 99 110 184 267 282 367 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD. 6 19 34 51 53 54 69 70 71 73 87 101 103 105 107 132 134 142 153 154 170 186 191 198 213 218 226 230 234 266 276 283 285 287 290 292 321 322 327 338 342 362 367 394 398 420 437 441 455 458 462 464 465 RIGID. 95 437 POLYMERIC STABILISER. 136 195 PRETREATMENT. 7 40 98 100 114 160 247 257 378 ROLL. 25 30 31 115 204 237 307 311 340 355 371 405 428 POLYMERIC IMPACT MODIFIER. 31 49 51 53 69 104 112 116 125 126 166 169 192 201 232 261 309 362 380 383 416 430 440 442 464 REPROCESSING. 11 81 86 90 98 115 119 136 138 205 331 378 414 418 454 REINFORCED HOSE. 20 21 24 25 26 30 31 40 43 49 61 66 68 106 110 115 122 123 125 126 136 146 147 153 166 179 184 187 204 205 210 211 239 243 271 275 276 282 288 289 293 296 298 302 306 311 330 336 340 355 363 365 369 371 382 397 405 415 418 422 428 439 444 449 RECYCLING RATE. 117 377 SATURATED POLYESTER. 218 406 407 408 PRESSURE PIPE. 17 104 237 307 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN. 3 9 25 28 30 31 54 113 133 162 195 212 214 232 239 257 287 300 301 309 336 338 369 400 416 459 464 POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE. 100 214 POLLUTION CONTROL. 123 147 171 173 176 PROPYLENE GLYCOL ADIPATE. 172 POWDER. 39 72 79 127 192 195 209 221 227 290 324 335 338 339 346 359 459 462 464 PROFILE. 49 98 110 138 141 210 257 SALIVA. 263 ROTATIONAL MOULDING. 110 147 205 302 372 427 461 REACTIVE PLASTICISER. 408 ROOF. 188 198 PYROLYSIS. 187 POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN. 25 28 29 109 162 212 214 300 POLYURETHANE. 118 357 RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY. 39 54 70 79 93 104 198 209 227 239 263 283 380 419 430 431 463 PROCESSING. 149 306 RECIPROCATING SCREW. 123 170 171 218 324 412 417 422 R RADIATION CROSSLINKING. 88 223 355 371 464 SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 57 POLYMERISATION. 17 87 88 103 188 193 223 231 238 267 POLYMERIC PROCESSING AID. 353 376 PROBLEM SOLVING. 93 106 244 399 PRICE. 12 16 33 46 110 123 132 138 166 171 174 205 207 216 233 239 256 268 284 287 292 300 308 326 338 339 347 351 355 371 372 376 380 382 387 405 408 413 419 425 436 437 464 PROCESSING AID. 113 115 257 307 POLYCARBONATE. 71 ROUGHNESS. 19 31 95 110 166 171 225 248 309 357 386 408 433 462 464 S SAFETY. 110 153 184 298 RECYCLED CONTENT. 202 REACTOR. 30 84 100 115 205 243 416 439 464 465 RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES. 38 62 163 243 RAW MATERIAL. 376 RECLAIM. 115 201 215 244 464 POLYVINYL ALCOHOL. 57 133 148 POLYMERIC PLASTICISER.

111 289 SMOKE. 137 SODIUM AZIDE. 122 408 SOLUBILITY. 70 380 SYNTHETIC RUBBER. 217 368 SOLVENT RESISTANCE. 3 5 78 129 245 283 390 435 SMOKE SUPPRESSION. 196 197 329 T TALC. 64 195 413 455 SLUSH MOULDING. 2 82 383 TEAR STRENGTH. 309 STABILISATION. 121 238 245 SMOKE SUPPRESSANT. 54 170 176 189 190 230 266 SHEET. 37 41 98 178 205 301 446 STIFFNESS. 54 61 170 176 189 190 213 230 259 266 SHEAR RATE. 15 57 167 220 265 SYNERGISTIC. 73 101 105 142 154 170 189 213 218 230 283 SHEAR STRESS. 35 36 111 142 149 260 299 318 349 429 464 SUSTAINABILITY. 10 233 273 316 396 SURFACE DEFECT. 92 102 201 283 379 432 STRENGTH. 265 283 SMOKE EMISSION. 302 382 SODIUM MONTMORILLONITE. 102 332 379 432 463 STRESS. 329 SCREW. 171 462 SYNTHETIC WOOD. 14 SURFACE ANALYSIS. 94 147 152 184 226 231 253 260 262 283 284 370 394 465 SOLVENT CASTING. 50 81 82 101 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 203 209 214 218 223 227 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 439 445 457 458 STACK MOULD. 60 238 245 283 SMOKE PROPAGATION. 34 170 218 254 376 436 SCREW DESIGN. 135 353 STANDARD. 218 374 SCREW PLASTICISATION. 33 126 264 313 341 352 363 452 STATISTICS.Subject Index 244 248 265 306 381 394 399 404 405 410 429 448 SCISSION. 352 445 SOLE. 2 17 63 64 127 170 198 218 230 250 251 254 283 284 303 337 353 367 372 383 393 394 400 405 408 448 461 TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE. 136 140 145 168 237 239 270 406 407 445 STABILISER. 67 218 248 371 SCRAP. 101 107 186 194 239 247 277 283 340 349 350 389 442 SOLUTION. 207 SEPARATION. 193 207 303 403 STERILISATION. 122 306 SCRAP CAR. 179 283 SOYABEAN OIL. 59 179 SCRATCHING. 34 109 158 218 254 280 375 376 398 SCREW DIAMETER. 45 46 113 221 227 265 462 SYNTHESIS. 230 250 251 TENSILE PROPERTIES. 48 63 94 231 248 260 302 382 SOLVENT. 32 58 64 122 124 141 176 258 303 380 408 410 448 SHEETING. 1 12 32 37 54 58 65 73 178 199 230 233 248 273 396 413 420 426 SURFACE TREATMENT. 225 STAIN RESISTANCE. 3 10 60 238 245 265 443 SODIUM ALUMINIUM SILICATE. 218 SCREW SPEED. 155 177 440 SILICATE. 377 TELEPHONE CABLE. 9 170 218 413 427 SEAL. 284 SODIUM BICARBONATE. 132 218 283 SHEAR PROPERTIES. 10 32 37 38 41 106 113 116 149 176 199 207 231 273 274 278 283 284 301 329 340 368 396 399 408 410 440 448 456 457 SURGICAL TUBING. 211 366 448 STRETCH FILM. 34 218 374 427 SCREW LENGTH. 103 SOFTENING TEMPERATURE. 94 121 SOFTENING. 171 395 462 SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROSCOPY. 116 169 170 178 218 230 366 381 404 452 STRESS-STRAIN PROPERTIES. 7 8 40 68 89 91 92 99 110 122 123 125 126 166 171 184 195 205 267 282 316 367 369 418 427 464 STEARIC ACID. 43 64 418 SEWER PIPE. 2 154 209 226 250 314 340 357 SIDING. 35 111 227 273 342 SYNTHETIC LEATHER. 72 326 375 389 427 SHRINKAGE. 12 49 50 53 57 70 77 80 83 94 96 102 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 155 . 170 230 SURFACE FINISH. 192 282 306 SODIUM HYDROXIDE. 72 77 158 175 184 197 312 364 385 397 SILICA. 2 82 184 SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER. 26 30 147 204 274 311 330 336 340 355 405 428 SERVICE LIFE. 107 172 185 186 202 248 340 355 465 SYNERGISM. 4 8 13 40 41 43 44 45 46 47 48 64 66 68 72 75 76 80 81 82 84 85 99 105 110 125 126 127 128 130 135 136 138 139 140 141 143 148 151 153 159 166 168 174 181 183 184 207 209 211 218 220 221 223 227 236 237 239 242 264 270 271 275 276 282 285 291 292 295 303 307 308 318 320 322 323 331 334 335 345 347 348 353 365 375 381 383 387 388 394 406 407 409 414 415 423 429 431 438 439 445 453 454 459 464 STABILITY. 10 16 17 38 65 67 102 127 155 160 163 167 182 199 207 211 220 240 243 273 353 368 373 396 406 415 SPIGOT. 55 85 215 219 233 249 250 251 361 TEMPERATURE GRADIENT. 136 170 195 333 SHEAR. 336 TEMPERATURE. 32 99 170 230 233 244 364 459 SURFACE PROPERTIES. 8 12 462 TEETHING RING. 273 SUSPENSION POLYMERISATION. 243 SCRAP POLYMER. 99 147 204 276 336 344 369 SCRATCH RESISTANCE. 185 268 SOFTNESS. 167 238 245 283 SMOKE DENSITY. 194 SPECTROSCOPY. 389 STAINING. 125 166 SWELLING. 98 SOLAR RADIATION.

67 102 284 303 373 407 426 TIME DEPENDENCE. 66 86 90 98 100 106 119 184 205 247 252 253 257 262 263 304 367 377 TOYS. 218 VIBRATION WELDING. 300 411 THERMOGRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 289 454 VENEER. 64 230 298 374 384 408 432 THIN FILM. 218 224 381 404 VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND. 19 94 111 113 121 180 182 233 244 383 TRANSPARENCY. 18 59 81 93 112 125 126 166 182 217 243 246 259 289 309 358 416 THICKNESS. 306 WASTE DISPOSAL. 105 168 203 235 237 249 270 342 THERMAL SHRINKAGE. 374 V VEHICLE. 75 108 151 VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT. 3 17 22 45 46 47 48 50 62 65 75 76 84 94 105 118 167 170 175 214 218 220 221 230 237 249 260 265 270 277 283 291 323 337 345 347 348 371 407 438 444 THERMAL EXPANSION. 280 TIME. 253 TESTING. 8 87 88 151 194 367 389 W WALL COVERING. 237 270 THERMAL PROPERTIES. 250 THERMAL STABILITY. 298 THERMAL DEGRADATION.Subject Index 104 113 133 162 181 185 194 211 216 232 238 245 255 268 269 281 283 290 303 307 315 319 327 354 366 367 381 383 404 405 409 430 440 445 462 465 TERATOGEN. 16 67 406 407 440 UV STABILISER. 306 THERMOOXIDATIVE DEGRADATION. 394 416 THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS. 12 142 368 THERMAL INSTABILITY. 42 62 98 177 184 186 209 227 242 257 265 272 303 304 310 316 353 360 372 378 386 391 445 465 THERMAL AGEING. 282 VEHICLE TRIM. 123 306 WATER ABSORPTION. 98 TUBING. 46 85 127 138 141 159 221 252 270 331 348 383 453 TIN THIOGLYCOLATE. 113 257 273 316 410 TUMOUR. 170 183 195 309 U UNPLASTICISED. 280 332 379 432 TOXICITY. 13 66 106 108 131 278 279 373 384 421 457 TOOLING. 31 204 THERMOFORMING. 68 122 123 271 369 418 WASTE DERIVED FUEL. 383 TITANIUM DIOXIDE. 7 40 114 117 138 228 247 253 257 262 263 272 282 304 310 377 378 TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. 9 64 113 139 142 144 170 195 328 356 375 408 427 459 TWO-ROLL. 50 81 82 103 105 168 174 175 176 188 202 203 209 214 218 223 227 229 235 237 239 249 255 260 263 265 283 285 292 308 319 337 348 367 388 409 424 433 439 458 THERMAL TREATMENT. 64 298 UV SPECTROSCOPY. 89 91 TRIMELLITATE ESTER. 93 179 284 TREND. 102 279 286 307 UV IRRADIATION. 90 TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDER. 184 282 460 VISCOELASTIC. 38 163 165 172 182 243 319 384 403 412 421 438 439 VINYL ACETATE COPOLYMER. 64 95 122 243 306 WASTE. 64 80 81 128 179 227 307 445 UV STABILITY. 38 107 216 244 299 329 332 411 425 451 452 UV DEGRADATION. 67 108 384 421 THIN-WALLED. 70 154 189 299 314 383 394 VISCOSITY. 1 58 118 316 TRIMELLITATE. 180 219 396 TIN COMPOUND. 6 19 51 53 69 70 71 87 101 103 105 132 142 170 186 198 218 226 230 234 283 342 367 398 420 437 458 VISCOSITY MODIFIER. 353 376 TUBE. 22 286 156 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited . 256 VIBRATIONAL SPECTROSCOPY. 396 VENTILATOR. 227 283 305 380 440 WATER PIPE. 27 35 125 126 226 461 464 VINYL CHLORIDE COPOLYMER. 184 243 WASTE SORTING. 61 115 122 125 126 271 275 282 296 330 341 363 397 463 WASTE SEPARATION. 4 16 60 103 104 118 121 164 168 170 172 180 218 230 237 241 268 315 352 383 393 394 405 420 435 446 THERMAL RESISTANCE. 248 VIRGIN POLYMER. 231 VINYL CHLORIDE. 27 60 270 281 THERMAL DEFORMATION. 27 75 76 94 118 121 167 172 188 214 222 241 265 337 406 407 435 THERMOLYSIS. 157 158 TOUGHNESS. 117 367 TRIETHYLHEXYL TRIMELLITATE. 408 TWO-STAGE EXTRUSION. 27 75 76 172 188 214 222 241 265 THERMAL HISTORY. 458 464 VOID. 18 51 170 300 427 WASHING. 122 131 151 WALL THICKNESS. 20 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 61 115 122 123 146 152 172 205 212 243 282 302 306 380 WASTE COLLECTION. 98 TROUBLESHOOTING. 77 157 174 291 296 TRIBUTYL CITRATE. 211 215 THERMAL DECOMPOSITION. 13 181 277 302 THERMOSET. 49 67 108 373 448 UV RESISTANCE. 66 123 125 146 212 293 296 306 341 422 444 449 WASTE MANAGEMENT. 8 84 151 VOLATILITY. 123 243 311 336 369 WASTE TREATMENT.

45 47 130 139 140 141 145 153 159 207 ZINC HYDROXYSTANNATE. 116 366 381 404 YOUNG’S MODULUS. 13 46 64 99 102 153 179 197 240 278 286 298 329 344 353 364 445 WEATHERABILITY. 162 256 269 309 416 437 452 WETTABILITY. 100 WATERBED. 94 121 133 172 180 255 383 441 Y YELLOWING. 56 WAX. 32 37 456 457 WETTING. 17 76 118 167 231 302 367 399 407 WEIGHT REDUCTION. 185 WIRE INSULATION. 153 154 158 184 210 244 282 328 341 372 452 WINDOW FRAME. 137 295 426 ZINC. 307 400 YIELD STRESS. 53 54 55 69 WOOD REPLACEMENT. 47 49 62 207 239 285 406 407 ZINC SULFIDE. 156 232 396 WOOD FIBRE-REINFORCED PLASTIC.Subject Index 449 WATER POLLUTION. 80 88 320 344 385 WEIGHT LOSS. 83 WOOD. 50 59 179 218 343 WEATHER RESISTANCE. 131 WINDOW. 99 289 427 WELDING. 118 WOLLASTONITE. 144 177 WEAR RESISTANCE. 48 X X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY. 47 62 ZINC COMPOUND. 53 54 55 196 197 210 306 329 396 WOOD FIBRE. 3 132 244 321 459 WEAR. 243 311 462 WHITE PIGMENT. 16 118 129 130 265 435 ZINC CHLORIDE. 10 129 386 ZINC STANNATE. 51 53 54 55 69 192 232 396 WOOD FLOUR. 99 439 Z ZEOLITE. 75 84 174 303 320 331 394 454 ZINC BORATE. 167 ZIP DEPOLYMERISATION. 10 65 102 273 316 396 399 X-RAY SCATTERING. 435 ZINC STEARATE. 23 53 54 55 102 196 197 208 WOOD POWDER. 68 99 110 113 122 261 275 287 325 329 364 418 437 WIRE COATING. 50 96 283 383 394 441 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited 157 .

Subject Index 158 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .






Company Index 164 © Copyright 2004 Rapra Technology Limited .

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