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vè;k; 1

'khr;q) dk nkSj

ifjp;

;g vè;k; iwjh iqLrd osQ fy, ,d iwoZihfBdk çLrqr djrk gSA 'khr;q¼ dh lekfIr dks ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr dh 'kq#vkr dh rjg ns[kk tkrk gSA ;gh ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr bl iqLrd dh fo"k;&oLr q g S blfy, ;g mfpr gh gS fd ge dgkuh dh 'kq#vkr 'khr;q¼ dh ppkZ ls djsaA bl vè;k; ls ;g lkiQ gksxk fd fdl rjg nks egk'kfDr;ksa la;qDr jkT; vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk opZLo 'khr;q¼ osQ osaQæ esa FkkA ;g vè;k; gesa fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa esa 'khr;q¼ dh lejLFkfy;ksa rd Hkh ys tk,xkA bl vè;k; esa xqVfujis{k vkanksyu ij bl n`f"V ls fopkj fd;k x;k gS fd fdl rjg blus nksuksa jk"Vªksa osQ ncncs dks pqukSrh nhA xqVfujis{k ns'kksa }kjk ^ubZ varjkZ"Vªh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk* LFkkfir djus osQ ç;kl dh ppkZ bl vè;k; esa ;g crkrs gq, dh xbZ gS fd fdl rjg bu ns'kksa u s xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dk s viu s vkfFkZd fodkl vkSj jktuhfrd Lora=krk dk lk/u cuk;kA vè;k; osQ var esa xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa Hkkjr dh Hkwfedk dk ewY;kadu fd;k x;k gS vkSj ;g ç'u iwNk x;k gS fd Hkkjr osQ fgrksa dh j{kk esa xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr fdl lhek rd liQy jghA

nwljs fo'o;q¼ osQ var osQ ifj.kkeLo:i nks egk'kfDr;ksa dk mn; gqvkA Åij osQ nks fp=k nwljs fo'o;q¼ esa la;qDr jkT; vejhdk vkSj lektoknh lksfo;r x.kjkT; dh fot; dks bafxr djrs gSaA

1- vejhdh lSfud 23 iQjojh] 1945 dks vkboks thek] tkiku dh yM+kbZ esa viuk >aMk iQgjkrs gq,A

2- lektoknh lksfo;r x.kjkT; osQ lSfud ebZ] 1945 esa jkbLVSax fcfYMax (cfyZu] teZuh) ij viuk >aMk iQgjkrs gq,A

fp=k 1 tks jkslsUFkky (n ,lksfl,V çSl) ls vkSj fp=k 2 ;soxsuh [kYnsbZ (rk'k) ls lkHkkj

2

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ge nqfu;k dh lSj dj jgs gSaA ,slh txgksa ij tkuk tgk¡ cM+h&cM+h

ge nqfu;k dh lSj dj jgs gSaA ,slh txgksa ij tkuk tgk¡ cM+h&cM+h ?kVuk,¡ gqb± gSa lpeqp cgqr e”ksnkj gSA

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ge nqfu;k dh lSj dj jgs gSaA ,slh txgksa ij tkuk tgk¡ cM+h&cM+h

;g uD'kk D;wck esa rSukr dh tk jgh ijek.kq felkby dh igq¡p dk nk;jk fn[kkrk gSA uD'ks osQ uhps è;ku ls nsf[k,A ;g uD'kk la;qDr jk"Vª vejhdk dh [kqfiQ;k ,tsalh lh-vkbZ-,- }kjk D;wck felkby ladV ij gqbZ xksiuh; cSBd esa ç;ksx fd;k x;k FkkA

lzksr% tkWu ,iQ- osQusMh çsflMsafl,y ykbczsjh ,aM E;wft;e

D;wck dk felkby ladV

1961 dh vçSy esa lksfo;r la?k osQ usrkvksa dks ;g fpark lrk jgh Fkh fd vejhdk lkE;okfn;ksa }kjk 'kkflr D;wck ij vkØe.k dj nsxk vkSj bl ns'k osQ jk"Vªifr fiQnsy dkL=kks dk r[+rkiyV gks tk,xkA D;wck vejhdk osQ rV ls yxk gqvk ,d NksVk&lk }hih; ns'k gSA D;wck dk tqM+ko lksfo;r la?k ls Fkk vkSj lksfo;r la?k mls owQVuf;d rFkk foÙkh; lgk;rk nsrk FkkA lksfo;r la?k osQ usrk uhfdrk [kqz'pso us D;wck dks :l osQ ^lSfud vM~Ms* osQ :i e a s cnyu s dk iSQlyk fd;kA 1962 esa [kqz'pso us D;wck esa ijek.kq felkbysa rSukr dj nhaA bu gfFk;kjksa dh rSukrh l s igyh ckj vejhdk utnhdh fu'kkus dh lhek e a s vk x;kA gfFk;kjk a s dh bl rSukrh osQ ckn lksfo;r la?k igy s dh rqyuk e as vc vejhdk osQ eq[; Hkw&Hkkx osQ yxHkx nksxqus fBdkuksa ;k 'kgjksa ij geyk cksy ldrk FkkA D;wck e a s lksfo;r la?k }kjk ijek.k q gfFk;kj rSukr djus dh Hkud vejhfd;ksa dks rhu gÝrs ckn yxhA vejhdh jk"Vªifr tkWu ,iQ oSQusMh vkSj muosQ lykgdkj ,slk oqQN Hkh djus ls fgpfdpk jgs Fks ftlls nksuksa ns'kksa osQ chp ijek.kq ;q¼ 'kq: gks tk,A ysfdu os bl ckr dks ysdj n`<+ Fks fd q'pso D;wck ls felkbyksa vkSj ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dks gVk ysaA oSQusMh us vkns'k fn;k fd vejhdh taxh csM+ksa dks vkxs djosQ D;wck dh rjiQ tkus okys lksfo;r ”kgktksa dks jksdk tk,A bl rjg vejhdk lksfo;r la?k dk s ekey s osQ çfr viuh xaHkhjrk dh psrkouh nsuk pkgrk FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa ;g yxk fd ;q¼ gksdj jgsxkA blh dks ^D;wck felkby ladV* osQ :i eas tkuk x;kA bl la?k"kZ dh vk'kadk us iwjh nqfu;k dks cspSu dj fn;kA ;g Vdjko

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

3

dksbZ vke ;q¼ ugha gksrkA varr% nksuksa i{kksa us ;q¼ Vkyus dk iSQlyk fd;k vkSj nqfu;k u s pSu dh lk¡l yhA lksfo;r la?k osQ ”kgktka s u s ;k rk s viuh xfr /heh dj yh ;k okilh dk #[k dj fy;kA ^D;wck felkby ladV* 'khr;q¼ dk pje fcanq FkkA 'khr;q¼ lksfo;r la?k vkSj vejhdk rFkk buosQ lkFkh ns'kksa osQ chp çfr}af}rk] ruko vkSj la?k"k Z dh ,d Ük`a[kyk osQ :i esa tkjh jgkA lkSHkkX; ls bu rukoksa vkSj la?k"kksZa us ;q¼ dk :i ugha fy;k ;kuh bu nk s ns'kk a s osQ chp dksb Z iw.kZO;kih jDrjaftr ;q¼ ugh a fNM+kA fofHkUu bykdk as e as ;q¼ gq,_ nksukas egk'kfDr;k¡ vkSj muosQ lkFkh ns'k bu ;q¼ksa esa layXu jgs_ os {ks=k&fo'ks"k osQ vius lkFkh ns'k osQ ennxkj cus ysfdu nqfu;k rhljs fo'o;q¼ ls cp xbZA 'khr;q¼ fliQZ tksj&vktekb'k] lSfud xBca/u vFkok 'kfDr&larqyu dk ekeyk Hkj ugh a Fkk cfYd blosQ lkFk&lkFk fopkj/kjk osQ Lrj ij Hkh ,d okLrfod la?k"kZ tkjh FkkA fopkj/kjk dh yM+kb Z bl ckr dk s ysdj Fkh fd iwjs fo'o esa jktuhfrd] vkfFkZd vkSj lkekftd thou dks lw=kc¼ djus dk lcls csgrj fl¼kar dkSu&lk gSA if'peh xBca/u dk vxqvk vejhdk Fkk vkSj ;g xqV mnkjoknh yksdra=k rFkk iw¡thokn dk gkeh FkkA iwohZ xBca/u dk vxqok lksfo;r la?k Fkk vkSj bl xqV dh çfrc¼rk lektokn rFkk lkE;okn osQ fy, FkhA vki bu fopkj/kjkvksa osQ ckjs esa d{kk X;kjg esa i<+ pqosQ gSaA

'khr;q¼ D;k gS\

nwljs

fo'o;q¼ dk var ledkyhu

fo'o&jktuhfr dk ,d egÙoiw.k Z iM+ko gSA

lu~ 1945 esa fe=k&jk"Vªksa vkSj /qjh&jk"Vªksa osQ chp nwljs fo'o ;q¼ (1939&1945) dh lekfIr gks xbZA fe=k&jk"Vªksa dh vxqvkbZ vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k] fczVsu vkSj çQkal dj jgs FksA /qjh&jk"Vªksa dh vxqvkbZ teZuh] bVyh vkSj tkiku osQ gkFk e as FkhA bl ;q¼ e as fo'o osQ yxHkx lHkh rkdroj ns'k 'kkfey FksA ;g ;q¼ ;wjksi ls ckgj osQ bykosQ esa Hkh iSQyk vkSj bldk foLrkj nf{k.k&iwo Z ,f'k;k] phu] cekZ (vc E;kaekj) rFkk Hkkjr osQ iwoksZÙkj osQ oqQN fgLlksa rd FkkA bl ;q¼ esa cM+s iSekus ij tugkfu vkSj /ugkfu gqbZA 1914 ls 1918 osQ chp gq, igys fo'o;q¼ us fo'o dks ngyk fn;k Fkk] ysfdu nwljk fo'o;q¼ blls Hkh T;knk Hkkjh iM+kA nwlj s fo'o;q¼ dh lekfIr l s gh 'khr;q¼ dh 'kq#vkr gqbZA vxLr 1945 esa vejhdk u s tkiku osQ nk s 'kgj fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh ij ijek.kq ce fxjk;s vkSj tkiku dks ?kqVus Vsdus iM+sA blosQ ckn nwljs fo'o;q¼ dk var gqvkA ijek.kq ce fxjkus osQ vejhdh iSQly s osQ vkykspdk a s dk roZQ g S fd vejhdk bl ckr dk s tkurk Fkk fd tkiku vkReleiZ.k djus okyk gSA ,sls esa ce fxjkuk xSj&”k:jh FkkA bu vkykspdk a s dk ekuuk g S fd vejhdk dh bl dkjZokbZ dk y{; lksfo;r la?k dks ,f'k;k rFkk vU; txgksa ij lSU; vkSj jktuhfrd ykHk mBkus ls jksduk FkkA og lksfo;r la?k osQ lkeus ;g Hkh tkfgj djuk pkgrk Fkk fd vejhdk gh lcl s cM+h rkdr gSA vejhdk osQ leFkZdksa dk roZQ Fkk fd ;q¼ dks tYnh ls tYnh lekIr djus rFkk vejhdk vkSj lkFkh jk"Vªksa dh vkxs dh tugkfu dks jksdus osQ fy, ijek.kq ce fxjkuk ”k:jh FkkA fo'o;q¼ dh lekfIr osQ dkj.k oqQN Hkh gksa] ysfdu bldk ifj.kke

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj dksbZ vke ;q¼ ugha gksrkA varr% nksuksa i{kksa us ;q¼ Vkyus dk iSQlyk

cgqr ikl fiQj Hkh cgqr nwjA eSaus uD'ks esa ns[kk vkSj eq>s ;OkQhu ugha gqvk fd egk'kfDr osQ brus ikl gksus osQ ckn Hkh D;wck esa lkyksa&lky ls vejhdk fojks/h ljdkj dk;e gSA

4

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr ;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk

;gh gqvk fd oSf'od jktuhfr osQ eap ij nk s egk'kfDr;k as dk mn; gk s x;kA teZuh vkSj tkiku gkj pqosQ Fks vkSj ;wjksi rFkk 'ks"k fo'o foèoal dh ekj >sy jgs FksA vc vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k fo'o dh lcls cM+h 'kfDr FksA buosQ ikl bruh {kerk Fkh fd fo'o dh fdlh Hkh ?kVuk dks çHkkfor dj losaQA vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk egk'kfDr cuus dh gksM+ esa ,d&nwljs osQ eqdkcy s [kM+k gksuk 'khr;q¼ dk dkj.k cukA 'khr;q¼ 'kq: gksus osQ ihNs ;g le> Hkh dke dj jgh Fkh fd ijek.kq ce ls gksus okys foèoal dh ekj >syuk fdlh Hkh jk"Vª osQ cwrs dh ckr ughaA ;g ,d lh/k&lknk ysfdu vljnkj roZQ FkkA tc nksuk a s egk'kfDr;ka s osQ ikl bruh {kerk osQ ijek.kq gfFk;kj gksa fd os ,d&nwljs dks vlguh; {kfr igq¡pk losaQ rks ,sls esa nksuksa osQ chp jDrjaftr ;q¼ gksus dh laHkkouk de jg tkrh gSA mdlkos osQ ckotwn dksbZ Hkh i{k ;q¼ dk tksf[ke

;s rLohjsa ml foèoal dks fn[kkrh gSa tks vejhdk }kjk fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh ij fxjk;s x;s ijek.kq ceksa osQ dkj.k gqvkA bu ceksa dks ^fyfVy CokW;* vkSj ^iSQVeSu* osQ xqIruke fn, x,A egk'kfDr;ksa osQ ikl vkt ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dk tks ”k[khjk gS mldh rqyuk esa ;s ce cgqr NksVs FksA ;s ce Øe'k% 15 vkSj 21 fdyksVu {kerk osQ FksA bruh de {kerk osQ ijek.kq ceksa us Hkh vdYiuh; foèoal fd;kA 1950 osQ n'kd dh 'kq#vkr esa gh la;qDr jk"Vª vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k ,sls ijek.kq&ceksa dk ijh{k.k dj jgs Fks ftudh {kerk 10 ls 15 gtkj fdyksVu FkhA nwljs 'kCnksa essa ;s ce fgjksf'kek vkSj ukxklkdh ij fxjk;s x;s ijek.kq ceksa dh rqyuk esa gtkjksa xquk T;knk foèoald FksA 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku nksuksa gh egk'kfDr;ksa osQ ikl bl rjg osQ g”kkjksa gfFk;kj FksA tjk dYiuk dhft, fd ;s gfFk;kj nqfu;k Hkj esa D;k rckgh epk ldrs FksA

eksy ysuk ugha pkgsxk D;ksafd ;q¼ ls jktuhfrd iQk;nk pkgs fdlh dks Hkh gks] ysfdu bll s gksu s oky s foèoal dk s vkSfpR;iw.kZ ugha Bgjk;k tk ldrkA ijek.kq ;q¼ dh lwjr esa nksuksa i{kksa dks bruk uqdlku mBkuk iM+sxk fd muesa ls fotsrk dkSu gS & ;g r; djuk Hkh vlaHko gksxkA vxj dksbZ vius 'k=kq ij vkØe.k djosQ mlosQ ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa dks ukdke djus dh dksf'k'k djrk gS rc Hkh nwljs osQ ikl mls cckZn djus yk;d gfFk;kj cp tk,axsA bls ^vijks/* (jksd vkSj laarqyu) dk roZQ dgk x;kA nksuksa gh i{kkssa osQ ikl ,d&nwljs osQ eqdkcys vkSj ijLij uqdlku ig¡pku q s dh bruh {kerk gksrh g S fd dksb Z Hkh i{k ;q¼ dk [krjk ugha mBkuk pkgrkA bl rjg] egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp xgu çfr}fU}rk gksus osQ ckotwn 'khr;q¼ jDrjaftr ;q¼ dk :i ugha ys ldkA bldh rklhj BaMh jghA ikjLifjd ^vijks/* dh fLFkfr us ;q¼ rks ugh a gksu s fn;k] ysfdu ;g fLFkfr ikjLifjd çfr}fU}rk dks u jksd ldhA 'khr;q¼ dh çeq[k lSU; fo'ks"krkvksa ij è;ku nsaA blesa nks egk'kfDr;k¡ vkSj muosQ vius&vius xqV FksA bu ijLij çfr}a}h xqVksa e as 'kkfey ns'kk as l s vis{kk Fkh fd o s roZQlaxr vkSj ftEesnkjh Hkjk O;ogkj djsaxsA bu ns'kksa dk s ,d fo'ks"k vFk Z e a s roZQlaxr vkSj ftEesnkjh Hkjk cjrko djuk FkkA ijLij fojks/h xqVksa esa 'kkfey ns'kk as dk s le>uk Fkk fd vkilh ;q¼ esa tksf[ke gS D;ksafd laHko gS fd bldh otg ls nks egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp ;q¼ Bu tk,A tc nk s egk'kfDr;k a s vkSj mudh vxqvkbZ okys xqVksa osQ chp ^ikjLifjd vijks/* dk laca/ gks rks ;q¼ yM+uk nksuksa osQ fy, foèoald lkfcr gksxkA bl lanHk Z e a s ftEesnkjh

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

5

dk eryc Fkk la;e l s dke ysuk vkSj rhljs fo'o;q¼ osQ tksf[ke ls cpukA 'khr;q¼ us lewph euq"; tkfr ij eaMjkrs [krjs dks tSls&rSls laHkky fy;kA

nks&/zqoh; fo'o dk vkjaHk

nksuksa egk'kfDr;k¡ fo'o osQ fofHkUu fgLlksa ij vius çHkko dk nk;jk c<+kus osQ fy, rqyh gqbZ FkhaA nqfu;k nks xqVksa osQ chp cgqr Li"V :i ls c¡V xbZ FkhA ,sls esa fdlh eqYd osQ fy, ,d jkLrk ;g Fkk fd og viuh lqj{kk osQ fy, fdlh ,d egk'kfDr osQ lkFk tqM+k jgs vkSj nwljh egk'kfDr rFkk mlosQ xqV osQ ns'kksa osQ çHkko ls cp losQA ijLij fojks/h xqVksa osQ vis{kkÑr NksVs ns'kksa us egk'kfDr;ksa osQ lkFk vius&vius

tqM+ko dk bLrseky futh fgr esa fd;kA bu ns'kksa dks LFkkuh; çfr}a}h ns'k osQ f[kykiQ lqj{kk dk ok;nk feyk] gfFk;kj vkSj vkfFkZd enn feyhA bu ns'kksa dh vius iM+kslh ns'kksa l s gksM + FkhA egk'kfDr;k a s osQ usr`Ro e a s xBca/u dh O;oLFkk l s iwjh nqfu;k osQ nk s [ksek as e as caV tkus dk [krjk iSnk gks x;kA ;g foHkktu lcl s igy s ;wjksi e as gqvkA if'peh ;wjksi osQ vf/drj ns'kksa us vejhdk dk i{k fy;k tcfd iwoh Z ;wjksi lksfo;r [kse s e a s 'kkfey gks x;k blhfy, ;s [kses if'peh vkSj iwohZ xBca/u Hkh dgykrs gSaA if'peh xBca/u u s Lo; a dk s ,d laxBu dk :i fn;kA vçSy 1949 e a s mÙkj vVykafVd laf/ laxBu (ukVks) dh LFkkiuk gqbZ ftlesa 12 ns'k 'kkfey FksA bl laxBu u s ?kks"k.kk dh

1- çR;sd çfrLi/h Z xqV l s de l s de rhu ns'kk as dh igpku djaAs 2- vè;k; pkj e as fn, x, ;wjksih; la?k osQ ekufp=k dk s ns[k as vkSj mu pkj ns'kk a s dks igpku s tk s igys ^okjlk laf/* osQ lnL; Fk s vkSj vc ;wjksih; la?k osQ lnL; gaAS 3- bl ekufp=k dh rqyuk ;wjksih; la?k osQ ekufp=k vFkok fo'o osQ ekufp=k l s djaAs bl rqyuk osQ ckn D;k vki rhu ,sls u; s ns'kk as dh igpku dj ldr s g a S tks 'khr;q¼ osQ ckn vfLrRo e a s vk,\

fiQuyaMS ukVks lnL; okjlk iSDV lnL; vU; dE;qfuLV ns'k vU; ns'k ukWoZs gsYkfladh vksLyks LVkWdgkse LohMu
fiQuyaMS
ukVks lnL;
okjlk iSDV lnL;
vU; dE;qfuLV ns'k
vU; ns'k
ukWoZs
gsYkfladh
vksLyks
LVkWdgkse
LohMu
mÙkjh
lkxj
vk;jySaM
MsuekoZQ
ekLdks
Mcfyu
dkWisugsxu
psdksLyksokfd;k
fczVsu
uhnjyaMS
lksfo;r
s
iksySaM
yanu
cfyZu
vVykafVd
la?k
gsx
okjlk
egklkxj
iwohZ
ckWu
czqlsYl csfYt;e
teZuh
yDlecxZZ
çkx
isfjl
if'peh
teZuh
Úkal
fo;uk
cuZ
fLoV~tjyaMS
vkfLVª;k
cqMkisLV
gaxjh
jksekfu;k
iqrZxky
cq[kkjsLV
;kYVk
csyxsMz
Lisu
dkyk lkxj
;qxksLykfo;k
fyLcu
bVyh
cqYxkfj;k
eSfMªM
jkse
lksfiQ;k
vYckfu;k
vadkjk
frjkuk
rqdhZ
xzhl

'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku ;wjksi nks çfr}a}h xBca/uksa esa c¡V

x;k FkkA ekufp=k esa bl rF; dks fn[kk;k x;k gSA

6

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

igyh nqfu;k nwljh nqfu;k rhljh nqfu;k
igyh nqfu;k
nwljh nqfu;k
rhljh nqfu;k
fuEufyf[kr rkfydk esa rhu&rhu ns'kksa osQ uke muosQ xqVksa dks è;ku esa j[kdj fy[ksa μ iwathoknh
fuEufyf[kr rkfydk
esa rhu&rhu ns'kksa osQ
uke muosQ xqVksa dks
è;ku esa j[kdj
fy[ksa μ
iwathoknh xqV
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
lkE;oknh xqV
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
x qVfuji s{k vkanksyu
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ
μμμμμμμμμμμμμ

fd mÙkjh vejhdk vFkok ;wjksi osQ bu ns'kksa esa ls fdlh ,d ij Hkh geyk gksrk gS rks mls ^laxBu* esa 'kkfey lHkh ns'k vius Åij geyk ekuaxs sA ^ukVks* e as 'kkfey gj ns'k ,d&nwljs dh enn djsxkA blh çdkj osQ iwohZ xBca/u dks ^okjlk laf/* osQ uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA bldh vxqvkbZ lksfo;r la?k us dhA bldh LFkkiuk lu~ 1955 esa gqbZ Fkh vkSj bldk eq[; dke Fkk ^ukVks* esa 'kkfey ns'kksa dk ;wjksi esa eqdkcyk djukA 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku varjkZ"Vªh; xBca/uksa dk fu/kZj.k egk'kfDr;ksa dh ”k:jrksa vkSj NksVs ns'kksa osQ ykHk&gkfu osQ xf.kr ls gksrk FkkA tSlkfd Åij crk;k x;k gS] egk'kfDr;ka s osQ chp rukruh dk eq[; v[kkM+k ;wjksi cukA oqQNsd ekeyksa esa ;g Hkh gqvk fd egk'kfDr;ksa us vius&vius xqV esa 'kkfey dju s osQ fy, oqQN ns'kk a s ij viuh rkdr dk bLrseky fd;kA iwohZ ;wjksi esa lksfo;r la?k dh n[kyankth bldk mnkgj.k gSA lksfo;r la?k u s iwoh Z ;wjksi e a s viu s çHkko dk bLrseky

fd;kA bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa esa lksfo;r la?k dh lsuk dh O;kid mifLFkfr us ;g lqfuf'pr dju s osQ fy, viuk çHkko tek;k fd ;wjksi dk iwjk iwohZ fgLlk lksfo;r la?k osQ ncncs esa jgsA iwohZ vkSj nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;k rFkk if'pe ,f'k;k esa vejhdk us xBca/u dk rjhdk viuk;kA bu xBca/uk a s dk s nf{k.k&iwoZ ,f'k;kb Z laf/ laxBu (SEATO) vkSj oaQæh; s laf/ laxBu (CENTO) dgk tkrk gSA blosQ ”kokc e as lksfo;r la?k rFkk lkE;oknh phu us bl {ks=k osQ ns'kksa elyu mÙkjh fo;ruke] mÙkjh dksfj;k vkSj bjkd osQ lkFk vius lEcU/ etcwr fd,A 'khr;q¼ osQ dkj.k fo'o osQ lkeus nks xqVk as osQ chp c¡V tku s dk [krjk iSnk gk s x;k FkkA ,slh fLFkfr esa vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu] elyu fczVsu vkSj çQkal osQ paxqy ls eqDr gq, uo Lora=k ns'kksa dks fpark gqbZ fd dgha os viuh bl vk”kknh dks ikus osQ lkFk [kks u cSBsaA xBca/u esa Hksn iSnk gq, vkSj cM+h tYnh muesa njkj iM+hA lkE;oknh phu dh

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

7

1950 osQ n'kd osQ mÙkjk¼Z esa lksfo;r la?k ls vucu gks xbZA lu~ 1969 esa bu nksuksa osQ chp ,d Hkw&Hkkx ij vkf/iR; dks ysdj NksVk&lk ;q¼ Hkh gqvkA bl nkSj dh ,d egÙoiw.kZ ?kVuk ^xqVfujis{k vkanksyu* dk fodkl gSA bl vkanksyu us uo&Lora=k jk"Vªksa dks nks&/zqoh; fo'o dh xqVckth ls vyx jgus dk ekSdk fn;kA vki ;g loky iwN ldrs gSa fd vkf[+kj egk'kfDr;k as dk s viuk xqV cuku s dh ”k:jr D;ksa iM+hA vkf[+kj vius ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa vkSj viuh LFkk;h lsuk osQ cwrs egk'kfDr;k¡ bruh rkdroj Fkha fd ,f'k;k rFkk vçQhdk vkSj ;gk¡ rd fd ;wjksi osQ vf/dka'k NksVs ns'kksa dh lk>h 'kfDr dk Hkh muls dksbZ eqdkcyk ugha FkkA ysfdu] gesa ;g le>u s dh ”k:jr g S fd NksV s ns'k fuEu dkj.kk a s l s egk'kfDr;k a s osQ cM s + dke osQ Fk s μ

  • (d) egÙoi w.k Z l alk/uk s a (t Sl s r sy vk Sj [kfut)]

([k) Hkw&{ks=k (rkfd ;gk¡ ls egk'kfDr;k¡ viu s gfFk;kjk as vkSj lsuk dk lapkyu dj losaQ)]

  • (x) lSfud fBdku s (tgk ¡ l s egk'kfDr;k¡

,d&nwlj s dh tklwlh dj loaQ)s vkSj (?k) vkfFkZd enn (ftlesa xBca/u esa 'kkfey cgqr ls NksVs&NksVs ns'k lSU;&[kpZ ogu djus esa ennxkj gks ldrs Fks)A ;s ,sls dkj.k Fks tks NksVs ns'kksa dks egk'kfDr;ksa osQ fy, ”k:jh cuk nsrss FksA fopkj/kjk osQ dkj.k Hkh ;s ns'k egÙoiw.kZ FksA xqVksa esa 'kkfey ns'kksa dh fu"Bk ls ;g laosQr feyrk Fkk fd egk'kfDr;k ¡ fopkjk a s dk ikjLifjd ;q¼ Hkh thr jgh gSaA xqV esa 'kkfey gks jgss ns'kksa osQ vk/kj ij os lksp

ldrh Fkh a fd mnkjoknh yksdra=k vkSj iathokn] w lektokn vkSj lkE;okn ls dgha csgrj gS vFkok lektokn vkSj lkE;okn] mnkjoknh yksdra=k vkSj iwathokn dh vis{kk csgrj gSA

'khr;q¼ osQ nk;js

'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku vusd ladV lkeus vk;sA D;wck osQ ftl felkby ladV ls geus bl vè;k; dh 'kq#vkr dh] og buesa ls ,d FkkA 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku [kwuh yM+kb;k¡ Hkh gqb±] ysfdu ;gk¡ è;ku nsus dh ckr ;g Hkh gS fd bu ladVksa vkSj yM+kb;ksa dh ifj.kfr rhljs fo'o;q¼ osQ :i esa ugha gqbZA nksuksa egk'kfDr;k¡ dksfj;k (1950&1953)] cfyZu (1958&1962)] dkaxks (1960 osQ n'kd dh 'kq#vkr) vkSj dbZ vU; txgksa ij lh/s&lh/s eqBHksM+ dh fLFkfr esa vk pqdh FkhaA ladV xgjkrk x;k D;ksafd nksuksa esa ls

dksbZ Hkh i{k ihNs gVus osQ fy, rS;kj ugha FkkA tc ge 'khr;q¼ osQ nk;jksa dh ckr djr s g aS rk s gekjk vk'k; ,sl s {ks=kk as l s gksrk gS tgk ¡ fojks/h [ksek as e as c¡V s ns'kk as osQ chp ladV osQ volj vk;s] ;q¼ gq, ;k buosQ gksus dh

laHkkouk cuh] ysfdu ckrsa ,d gn ls T;knk ugh a c<+haA dksfj;k] fo;ruke vkSj vI kQxkfuLrku + tSls oqQN {ks=kksa esa O;kid tugkfu gqbZ] ysfdu fo'o ijek.kq ;q¼ ls cpk jgk vkSj oSeuL; fo'oO;kih ugha gks ik;kA dbZ ckj ,sls volj vk, tc nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp jktuf;d laokn tkjh ugha jg ik;k vkSj blls nksuksa osQ chp X+kyriQgfe;k¡ c<+haA ,sls dbZ ekSosQ vk, tc 'khr;q¼ osQ la?k"kks± vkSj oqQN xgu ladVksa dks Vkyus esa nksuksa xqVksa ls ckgj osQ ns'kksa us dkjxj Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA bl lanHkZ esa xqVfujis{k ns'kksa dh Hkwfedk dk s ugh a Hkqyk;k tk ldrkA xqVfujis{k

 

fo'o osQ ekufp=k ij 'khr;q¼ osQ çeq[k ?kVukLFkyksa dks fpfÉr djsaA

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj 1950 osQ n'kd osQ mÙkjk¼Z esa lksfo;r la?k ls vucu gks xbZA lu~

mÙkjh vkSj nf{k.kh dksfj;k vHkh rd D;ksa foHkkftr gSa tcfd 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSj osQ ckdh foHkktu feV x, gSa\ D;k dksfj;k osQ yksx pkgrs gSa fd foHkktu cuk jgs\

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj 1950 osQ n'kd osQ mÙkjk¼Z esa lksfo;r la?k ls vucu gks xbZA lu~

8

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

'khr;q¼ dk ?kVukØe 1947 % lkE;okn dks jksdus osQ ckjs esa vejhdh jk"Vªifr Vª w eSu
'khr;q¼ dk ?kVukØe
1947
% lkE;okn dks jksdus osQ ckjs esa vejhdh jk"Vªifr
Vª w eSu dk fl¼karA
1947&52
%
ek'kZy Iyku μ if'peh ;wjksi osQ iqufuZekZ.k esa
vejhdk dh lgk;rkA
1948&49
% lksfo;r la?k }kjk cfyZu dh ?ksjkcanhA vejhdk vkSj
mlosQ lkFkh ns'kksa us if'peh cfyZu osQ ukxfjdksa dks
tks vkiwfrZ Hksth Fkh mls lksfo;r la?k us vius
foekuksa ls mBk fy;kA
1950&53
% dksfj;kbZ ;q¼ μ 38oha lekukarj js[kk osQ }kjk dksfj;k
dk foHkktuA
1954
% fo;rukfe;ksa osQ gkFkksa nk;u ch;u iwQ esa çQkal dh
gkj_ tsusok le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj_ 17oha lekukarj
js[kk }kjk fo;ruke dk foHkktu_ fl,Vks (SEATO)
dk xBuA
1954&75
% fo;ruke esa vejhdh gLr{ksiA
1955
% cxnkn le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj_ ckn esa bls lsUVks
(CENTO) osQ uke ls tkuk x;kA
1956
%
gaxjh esa lksfo;r la?k dk gLr{ksiA
1961
% D;wck esa vejhdk }kjk çk;ksftr ^cs vkWiQ fiXl*
vkØe.k
1961
% cfyZu&nhokj [kM+h dh xbZA
1962
% D;wck dk felkby ladVA
1965
% Mksfefudu fjifCyd esa vejhdh gLr{ksiA
1968
% psdksLyksokfd;k esa lksfo;r gLr{ksiA
1972
% vejhdh jk"Vªifr fuDlu dk phu nkSjkA
1978&89
% oaQcksfM;k esa fo;ruke dk gLr{ksiA
1979&89
% vI kQxkfuLrku
+
esa lksfo;r la?k dk gLr{ksi
1985
% xksckZPkso lksfo;r la?k osQ jk"Vªifr cus_ lq/kj dh
çfØ;k vkjaHk dhA
1989
% cfyZu&nhokj fxjh_ iwohZ ;wjksi dh ljdkjksa osQ fo#¼
yksxksa dk çn'kZuA
1990
% teZuh dk ,dhdj.kA
1991
% lksfo;r la?k dk fo?kVu_ 'khr;q¼ dh lekfIrA

vkanksyu osQ çeq[k usrkvk a s e a s ,d tokgjyky

usg: FksA usg: u s mÙkjh vkSj nf{k.kh dksfj;k

osQ chp eè;LFkrk esa egÙoiw.kZ Hkwfedk

fuHkkbZA dkaxks ladV esaa la;qDr jk"Vª la?k osQ

egklfpo us çeq[k eè;LFk dh Hkwfedk

fuHkkbZA varr% ;g ckr mHkjdj lkeu s vkrh

gS fd egk'kfDr;ksa us le> fy;k Fkk fd

;q¼ dks gj gkyr esa Vkyuk ”k:jh gSA blh

le> osQ dkj.k nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa us la;e

cjrk vkSj varjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa esa ftEesokjh

Hkjk cjrko fd;kA 'khr;q¼ ,d {ks=k l s nwljs

{ks=k dh rjiQ ljdrk x;k vkSj blesa la;e

dk roZQ gh dke dj jgk FkkA

gkyk¡fd 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku nksuksa gh

xBca/uksa osQ chp çfr}afnrk lekIr ugha gqbZ

FkhA blh dkj.k ,d&nwljs osQ çfr 'kadk dh

gkyr esa nksuksa xqVksa us Hkjiwj gfFk;kj tek

fd, vkSj yxkrkj ;q¼ osQ fy, rS;kjh djrs

jgsA gfFk;kjksa osQ cM+s ”k[khjs dks ;q¼ ls cps

jgus osQ fy, ”k:jh ekuk x;kA

nksuk as ns'k yxkrkj bl ckr dk s le> jgs

Fks fd la;e osQ ckotwn ;q¼ gks ldrk gSA

nksuk a s i{kk a s e a s l s dksb Z Hkh nwlj s osQ gfFk;kjk a s dh

la[;k dks ysdj X kyr + vuqeku yxk ldrk

FkkA nksuk as xqV ,d&nwlj s dh ea'kk dk s le>us

e a s Hkwy dj ldr s FksA blosQ vfrfjDr loky

;g Hkh Fkk fd dksb Z ijek.k q nq?kZVuk gk s xb Z rks

D;k gksxk\ vxj X kyrh + ls dksbZ ijek.kq

gfFk;kj py tk, ;k dksbZ lSfud 'kjkjru

;q¼ 'kq: djus osQ bjkns ls dksbZ gfFk;kj

pyk ns rks D;k gksxk\ vxj ijek.kq gfFk;kj

osQ dkj.k dksbZ nq?kZVuk gks tk, rks D;k

gksxk\ ,slh nq?kZVuk dk f'kdkj gq, ns'k osQ

usrkvksa dks oSQls irk pysxk fd ;g 'k=kq

dk "kM+;a=k ugha vFkok nwljh rjiQ ls dksbZ

felkby ugha nkxh xbZ gS] cfYd ;g egt

,d nq?kZVuk gS\

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

9

; s nksuk as dkVwuZ e'kgwj Hkkjrh; dkVwfuLV Z oqQ^h u s cuk, gaAS bueas 'khr;q¼
; s nksuk as dkVwuZ e'kgwj
Hkkjrh; dkVwfuLV Z oqQ^h
u s cuk, gaAS bueas
'khr;q¼ dk s ysdj Hkkjr
osQ u”kfj, dk s fpf=kr
fd;k x;k gSA igyk
dkVwuZ ml le; dk gS
tc lektoknh lksfo;r
x.kjkT; dk s va/sj s eas
j[kdj vejhdk u s phu
osQ lkFk xqipqi nksLrh
xkaBhA bl dkVZuw eas
fn[kk, x, fdjnkjk as osQ
ckj s e as vkSj tkudkjh
tqVkb,A nwlj s dkVZuw eas
fo;ruke e a s vejhdh
nqLlkgl dk s fpf=kr
fd;k x;k gSA
fo;ruke&;q¼ osQ ckjs
e as vkSj tkudkjh tqVk,¡A
jktuhfrd clar μ phu osQ gkFkksa esa vejhdk dk gkFk
,d u”kj b/j Hkh μ vejhdh jk"Vªifr tkWulu fo;ruke osQ elys ij cM+s d"V esa tku iM+rs gSaA
oqQ^h] ykWfiQax fon oqQ^h
oqQ^h] ykWfiQax fon oqQ^h

10

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid tkslsiQ czkW”k VhVks (1892&1980) ;qxksLykfo;k osQ 'kkld (1940&80)_ nwljs fo'o ;q¼ esa

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu

osQ laLFkkid

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid tkslsiQ czkW”k VhVks (1892&1980) ;qxksLykfo;k osQ 'kkld (1940&80)_ nwljs fo'o ;q¼ esa

tkslsiQ czkW”k VhVks

(1892&1980)

;qxksLykfo;k osQ 'kkld (1940&80)_ nwljs fo'o ;q¼ esa teZuh osQ f[kykiQ yM+s_ lkE;oknh_ lksfo;r la?k ls nwjh cuk, j[khA ;qxksLykfo;k esa ,drk dk;e dhA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid tkslsiQ czkW”k VhVks (1892&1980) ;qxksLykfo;k osQ 'kkld (1940&80)_ nwljs fo'o ;q¼ esa

tokgjyky usg:

(1889&1964)

Hkkjr osQ igys ç/kuea=kh (1947&64)_ ,f'k;kbZ ,drk] vukSifuos'khdj.k vkSj fujL=khdj.k osQ ç;kl fd, vkSj fo'o&'kkafr osQ fy, 'kkafriw.kZ lgvfLrRo dh odkyr dhA

bl dkj.k] le; jgrs vejhdk vkSj

lksfo;r la?k u s oqQNsd ijekf.od vkSj vU;

gfFk;kjk as dk s lhfer ;k lekIr dju s osQ fy,

vkil esa lg;ksx djus dk iSQlyk fd;kA

nksuks a egk'kfDr;ks a us iSQlyk fd;k fd

^vL=k&fu;a=k.k* }kjk gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ ij

yxke dlh tk ldrh gS vkSj mlesa LFkk;h

larqyu yk;k tk ldrk gSA ,sls ç;kl dh

'kq#vkr lu~ 1960 osQ n'kd osQ mÙkjk¼Z esa

gqbZ vkSj ,d n'kd osQ Hkhrj nksuksa i{kksa us

rhu vge le>kSrksa ij nLr[+kr fd,A

;s laf/;k¡ Fkha ijek.kq ijh{k.k çfrca/

laf/] ijek.kq vçlkj laf/ vkSj ijek.kq

ç{ksikL=k ifjlheu laf/ (,aVh cSysfLVd

felkby VªhVh)A blosQ ckn egk'kfDr;ksa us

^vL=k&ifjlheu* osQ fy, okrkZvksa osQ dbZ

nkSj fd, vkSj gfFk;kjksa ij vaoqQ'k j[kus osQ

fy, vussd laf/;k¡ dhaA

nks&/zqoh;rk dks pqukSrh μ xqVfujis{krk

ge ns[k pqosQ gSa fd fdl rjg 'khr;q¼ dh

o”kg ls fo'o nks çfr}a}h xqVksa esa c¡V jgk

FkkA blh lanHkZ esa xqVfujis{krk us ,f'k;k]

vçQhdk vkSj ykfruh vejhdk osQ uo&Lora=k

ns'kksa dks ,d rhljk fodYi fn;kA ;g

fodYi Fkk nksuksa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa ls

vyx jgus dkA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh tM + e a s ;qxksLykfo;k

osQ tkslsiQ czkW”k VhVks] Hkkjr osQ tokgjyky

usg: vkSj felz osQ xeky vCnqy ukflj dh

nksLrh FkhA bu rhuksa us lu~ 1956 esa ,d

liQy cSBd dhA baMksusf'k;k osQ lqd.kk ±s vkSj

?kkuk osQ oke s ,uØwek u s budk tksjnkj leFkZu

fd;kA ;s ik¡p usrk xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ

laLFkkid dgyk,A igyk xqVfujis{k lEesyu

lu~ 1961 esa csyxzsM esa gqvkA ;g lEesyu

de ls de rhu ckrksa dh ifj.kfr Fkk μ

  • (d) bu ik¡p ns'kksa osQ chp lg;ksx]

([k) 'khr;q¼ dk çlkj vkSj blosQ c<+rs

gq, nk;js] vkSj

  • (x) v arjk Z"V ªh; iQyd ij cg qr l s uo&Lora=k vçQhdh ns'kk a s dk ukVdh; mn;A 1960 rd la;qDr jk"Vªla?k esa 16 u;s vçQhdh ns'k crkSj lnL; 'kkfey gks pqosQ FksA

igy s xqVufujis{k&lEesyu e a s 25 lnL;&

ns'k 'kkfey gq,A le; xqtjus osQ lkFk

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh lnL; la[;k c<+rh

xbZA 2006 esa gokuk (D;wck) esa gq, 14osa

lEesyu e a s 116 lnL;&ns'k vkSj 15 i;Zos{kd

ns'k 'kkfey gq,A

tSls&tSls xqVfujis{k vkanksyu ,d

yksdfç; varjkZ"Vªh; vkanksyu osQ :i esa

c<+rk x;k oSls&oSl s ble a s fofHkUu jktuhfrd

ç.kkyh vkSj vyx&vyx fgrksa osQ ns'k

'kkfey gksrs x,A blls xqVfujis{k vkanksyu

osQ ewy Lo:i e as cnyko vk;kA blh dkj.k

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu dh lVhd ifjHkk"kk dj

ikuk oqQN eqf'dy gSA okLro e a s ;g vkanksyu

gS D;k\ njvly ;g vkanksyu D;k ugha

gS& ;g crkdj bldh ifjHkk"kk djuk T;knk

ljy gSA ;g egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa essa 'kkfey

u gksus dk vkanksyu gSA

egk'kfDr;ksa osQ xqVksa ls vyx jgus dh

bl uhfr dk eryc ;g ugha gS fd bl

vkanksyu ls tqM+s ns'k vius dks varjkZ"Vªh;

ekeyksa ls vyx&Fkyx j[krs gSa ;k rVLFkrk

dk ikyu djrs gSaA xqVfujis{krk dk eryc

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

11

i`Fkdrkokn ughaA i`Fkdrkokn dk vFkZ gksrk

gS vius dks varjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa ls dkVdj

j[kukA 1787 esa vejhdk esa Lora=krk dh

yM+kb Z gqb Z FkhA blosQ ckn l s igy s fo'o;q¼

dh 'kq#vkr rd vejhdk us vius dks

varjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa ls vyx j[kkA mlus

i`Fkdrkokn dh fons'k&uhfr viukbZ FkhA

blosQ foijhr xqVfujis{k ns'kksa us] ftlesa

Hkkjr Hkh 'kkfey gS] 'kkafr vkSj fLFkjrk cuk,

j[ku s osQ fy, çfr}a}h xqVk a s osQ chp eè;LFkrk

e as lfØ; Hkwfedk fuHkkbZA xqVfujis{k ns'kk as dh

rkdr dh tM+ mudh vkilh ,drk vkSj

egk'kfDr;k as }kjk vius&viu s [kse s e as 'kkfey

djus dh iqjtksj dksf'k'kksa osQ ckotwn ,sls

fdlh [kses esa 'kkfey u gksus osQ muosQ

ladYi esa gSA

xqVfujis{krk dk vFkZ rVLFkrk dk /eZ

fuHkkuk Hkh ugh a gSA rVLFkrk dk vFk Z gksrk gS

eq[;r% ;q¼ esa 'kkfey u gksus dh uhfr dk

ikyu djukA rVLFkrk dh uhfr dk ikyu

djus okys ns'k osQ fy, ;g ”k:jh ugha fd

og ;q¼ dks lekIr djus esa enn djsA ,sls

ns'k ;q¼ esa layXu ugha gksrs vkSj u gh ;q¼

osQ lgh&X kyr + gksus osQ ckjs esa mudk dksbZ

i{k gksrk gSA njvly db Z dkj.kk a s l s xqVfujis{k

ns'k] ftlesa Hkkjr Hkh 'kkfey gS] ;q¼ esa

'kkfey gq, gSaA bu ns'kksa us nwljs ns'kksa osQ

chp ;q¼ dks gksus ls Vkyus osQ fy, dke

fd;k gS vkSj gks jgs ;q¼ osQ var osQ fy,

ç;kl fd, gSaA

uo varjkZ"Vªh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk

xqVfujis{k ns'k 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku egt

eè;LFkrk djus okys ns'k Hkj ugha FksA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa 'kkfey vf/dka'k

ns'kksa dks ^vYi fodflr ns'k* dk ntkZ

feyk FkkA bu ns'kksa osQ lkeus eq[; pqukSrh

vkfFkZd :i ls vkSj T;knk fodkl djus

rFkk viuh turk dks X kjhch + ls mckju s dh

FkhA uo&Lora=k ns'kksa dh vk”kknh osQ fygk”k

ls Hkh vkfFkZd fodkl egÙoiw.kZ FkkA cX kSj +

fVdkÅ fodkl osQ dksbZ ns'k lgh ek;uksa esa

vk”kkn ugha jg ldrkA mls /uh ns'kksa ij

fuHkZj jguk iM+rkA blesa og mifuos'kd

ns'k Hkh gks ldrk Fkk ftlls jktuhfrd

vk”kknh gkfly dh xbZA

blh le> ls uo varjkZ"Vªh; vkfFkZd

O;oLFkk dh /kj.kk dk tUe gqvkA 1972 esa

la;qDr jk"Vª la?k osQ O;kikj vkSj fodkl ls

laacaf/r lEesyu (;wukbVsM us'kal dkWuçsaQl

vkWu VªsM ,aM MsoyiesaV& vadVkM) esa

^VqokM~lZ v U; w VsMª ikWfylh iQkWj MsoyieaV* s

'kh"kZd ls ,d fjiksVZ çLrqr dh xbZA bl

fjiksVZ esa oSf'od O;kikj&ç.kkyh esa lq/kj

dk çLrko fd;k x;k FkkA bl fjiksV Z e as dgk

x;k Fkk fd lq/kjksa ls μ

  • (d) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dks vius mu

çkÑfrd lalk/uksa ij fu;a=k.k çkIr

gksxk ftudk nksgu if'pe osQ

fodflr ns'k djrs gSa_

([k) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dh igq¡p

if'peh ns'kksa osQ ck”kkj rd gksxh_

o s viuk lkeku csp loaQxs s vkSj bl

rjg X kjhc + ns'kksa osQ fy, ;g O;kikj

iQk;nsean gksxk_

  • (x) if'peh ns'kksa ls eaxk;h tk jgh

çkS|ksfxdh dh ykxr de gksxh vkSj

(?k) vYi fodflr ns'kksa dh varjkZ"Vªh;

vkfFkZd laLFkkuksa esa Hkwfedk c<+sxhA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid xeky vCnqy ukflj (1918&70) lu~ 1970 rd felz osQ 'kkldA vjc jk"Vªokn]

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu

osQ laLFkkid

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid xeky vCnqy ukflj (1918&70) lu~ 1970 rd felz osQ 'kkldA vjc jk"Vªokn]

xeky vCnqy ukflj

(1918&70)

lu~ 1970 rd felz osQ 'kkldA vjc jk"Vªokn] lektokn vkSj lkezkT;okn&fojks/ osQ fy, çfrc¼A Lost ugj dk jk"Vªh;dj.k fd;kA bldh otg ls lu~ 1956 esa varjkZ"Vªh; la?k"kZ gqvkA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid xeky vCnqy ukflj (1918&70) lu~ 1970 rd felz osQ 'kkldA vjc jk"Vªokn]

lqd.kkZ s

(1901&1970)

baMksusf'k;k osQ igys jk"Vªifr (1945&65)_ Lora=krk laxzke dk usr`Ro_ lektokn vkSj lkezkT;okn&fojks/ osQ fy, çfrc¼_ ckaMqa x & lEesyu osQ vk;kstdA lSfud foæksg esa r[+rkiyV gqvkA

12

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

   
 
xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid okes ,uØwek (1909&1972) ?kkuk osQ igy s ç/kuea=kh (1952&66)_ vktknh dh yM+kbZ
 

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu

osQ laLFkkid

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid okes ,uØwek (1909&1972) ?kkuk osQ igy s ç/kuea=kh (1952&66)_ vktknh dh yM+kbZ

okes ,uØwek

(1909&1972)

?kkuk osQ igy s ç/kuea=kh (1952&66)_ vktknh dh yM+kbZ osQ vxqvk_ vçQhdh ,drk vkSj lektokn osQ i{k/jA uo&mifuos'kokn dk fojks/ fd;kA lSfud "kM~;a=k esa budk r[+rkiyV gqvkA

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ laLFkkid okes ,uØwek (1909&1972) ?kkuk osQ igy s ç/kuea=kh (1952&66)_ vktknh dh yM+kbZ

rks bldk eryc ;g fd uo varjkZ"Vªh; vkfFkZd O;oLFkk cl fopkj gh jgk& dHkh lkdkj ugha gqvk!

ik¡p ,sls ns'kksa osQ uke crk,¡ tks nwljs fo'o;q¼ dh lekfIr osQ ckn mifuos'kokn osQ paxqy

ik¡p ,sls ns'kksa osQ uke crk,¡ tks nwljs fo'o;q¼ dh lekfIr osQ ckn mifuos'kokn osQ paxqy ls eqDr gq,A

 
 

xqVfujis{krk dh çÑfr /hjs&/hjs cnyh

vkSj blesa vkfFkZd eqíkas dks vf/d egÙo

fn;k tkus yxkA csyxzsM esa gq, igys

lEesyu (1961) esa vkfFkZd eqís T;knk

egÙoiw.kZ ugha FksA lu~ 1970 osQ n'kd osQ

eè; rd vkfFkZd eqís çeq[k gks mBsA blosQ

ifj.kkeLo:i xqVfujis{k vkanksyu vkfFkZd

ncko&lewg cu x;kA lu~ 1980 osQ n'kd

osQ mÙkjk¼Z rd uo varjkZ"Vªh; vkfFkZd

O;oLFkk dks cuk;s&pyk;s j[kus osQ ç;kl

ean iM + x,A bldk eq[; dkj.k Fkk fodflr

ns'kk as }kjk fd;k tk jgk rst fojks/A fodflr

ns'k ,d lqj esa fojks/ dj jgs Fks tcfd

xqVfujis{k ns'kksa dks bl fojks/ osQ chp

viuh ,drk cuk, j[kus osQ fy, th&rksM+

esgur djuh iM+ jgh FkhA

Hkkjr vkSj 'khr;q¼

xqVfujis{k vkanksyu osQ usrk osQ :i e a s 'khr;q¼

osQ nkSj e as Hkkjr u s nk s Lrjk as ij viuh Hkwfedk

fuHkkbZA ,d Lrj ij Hkkjr us ltx vkSj

lpsr :i l s viu s dk s nksuk as egk'kfDr;k as dh

[ksescanh l s vyx j[kkA nwljs] Hkkjr u s mifuos'kka s

osQ pqaxy ls eqDr gq, uo&Lora=k ns'kksa osQ

egk'kfDr;ksa osQ [kses esa tkus dk iqjtksj

fojks/ fd;kA

Hkkjr dh uhfr u rk s udkjkRed Fkh vkSj

u gh fuf"Ø;rk dhA usg: us fo'o dks ;kn

fnyk;k fd xqVfujis{krk dksbZ ^iyk;u*

dh uhfr ugha gSA blosQ foijhr] Hkkjr

'khr;q¼dkyhu çfr}afnrk dh tdM+ <hyh

djus osQ fy, varjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa esa lfØ;

:i l s gLr{ksi dju s osQ i{k e as FkkA Hkkjr us

nksuksa xqVksa osQ chp ekStwn erHksnksa dks de

dju s dh dksf'k'k dh vkSj bl rjg mlu s bu

erHksnksa dks iw.kZO;kih ;q¼ dk :i ysus ls

jksdkA Hkkjr osQ jktuf;dksa vkSj usrkvksa dk

mi;ksx vDlj 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSj osQ çfr}af};kas

osQ chp laokn dk;e djus rFkk eè;LFkrk

djus osQ fy, gqvk_ felky osQ rkSj ij

1950 osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh lkyk a s e a s s dksfj;kbZ

;q¼ osQ nkSjkuA

;gk¡ ;g ;kn j[kuk Hkh ”k:jh gS fd

Hkkjr us xqVfujis{k vkanksyu esa 'kkfey vU;

lnL;ksa dks Hkh ,sls dkeksa esa layXu j[kkA

'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku Hkkjr u s yxkrkj mu {ks=kh;

vkSj varjkZ"Vªh; laxBuksa dks lfØ; cuk;s

j[kus dh dksf'k'k dh tks vejhdk vFkok

lksfo;r la?k osQ [kses ls ugha tqM+s FksA usg:

u s ^Lora=k vkSj ijLij lg;ksxh jk"Vªk as osQ ,d

lPps jk"VªoqQy* osQ Åij xgjk fo'okl

trk;k tks 'khr;q¼ dks [kRe djus esa u

lgh] ij mldh tdM+ <hyh djus esas gh

ldkjkRed Hkwfedk fuHkk;sA

oqQN yksxksa us ekuk fd xqVfujis{krk

varjkZ"Vªh;rk dk ,d mnkj vkn'kZ gS ysfdu

;g vkn'kZ Hkkjr osQ okLrfod fgrksa ls esy

ugh a [kkrkA ;g ckr Bhd ugh a gSA xqVfujis{krk

dh uhfr u s de l s de nk s rjg l s Hkkjr dk

çR;{k :i ls fgrlk/u fd;k μ

  • igyh ckr rks ;g fd xqVfujis{krk osQ dkj.k Hkkjr ,sls varjkZ"Vªh; I kSQlys + vkSj i{k ys ldk ftlls mldk fgr l/rk gksrk gks u fd egk'kfDr;ksa vkSj muosQ [kses osQ ns'kksa dkA

  • nwljs] Hkkjr ges'kk bl fLFkfr e as jgk fd ,d egk'kfDr mlosQ f[kykiQ tk, rks og nwljh egk'kfDr osQ djhc vkus dh dksf'k'k djsA vxj Hkkjr dk s eglwl gks fd egk'kfDr;k a s e a s l s dksb Z mldh vuns[kh dj jgk gS ;k vuqfpr ncko Mky jgk gS rks og nwljh egk'kfDr dh rjiQ

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

13

viuk #[k dj ldrk FkkA nksuksa xqVksa esa

l s dksb Z Hkh Hkkjr dk s ysdj u rk s csfI kQØ +

gks ldrk Fkk vkSj u gh /kSal tek

ldrk FkkA

Hkkjr dh xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr dh dbZ

dkj.kksa ls vkykspuk dh xbZA ge ;gk¡ ,slh

nks vkykspukvksa dh ppkZ djsaxs μ

  • vkykspdksa dk ,d roZQ ;g gS fd Hkkjr dh xqVfujis{krk ^fl¼karfoghu* gSA dgk tkrk g S fd Hkkjr viu s jk"Vªh; fgrksa dks lk/us osQ uke ij vDlj egÙoiw.kZ varjkZ"Vªh; ekeyksa ij dksbZ lqfuf'pr i{k ysus ls cprk jgkA

  • vkykspdksas dk nwljk roZQ gS fd Hkkjr osQ O;ogkj e a s fLFkjrk ugh a jgh vkSj dbZ ckj Hkkjr dh fLFkfr fojks/kHkklh jghA egk'kfDr;k as osQ [ksek as e as 'kkfey gksu s ij nwljs ns'kksa dh vkykspuk djus okys Hkkjr us Lo;a lu~ 1971 osQ vxLr esa lksfo;r la?k osQ lkFk vkilh fe=krk dh laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A fons'kh i;Zos{kdka s u s bl s Hkkjr dk lksfo;r [kse s e a s 'kkfey gksuk ekukA Hkkjr dh ljdkj dk n`f"Vdks.k ;g Fkk fd ckaXykns'k&ladV osQ le; mls jktuf;d vkSj lSfud lgk;rk dh ”k:jr Fkh vkSj ;g laf/ mls la;qDr jkT; vejhdk lfgr vU; ns'kk a s l s vPNs laca/ cukus ls ugha jksdrhA xqVfujis{krk dh uhfr 'khr;q¼ osQ lanHkZ

esa iuih FkhA nwljs vè;k; esa ge i<+saxs fd

lu~ 1990 osQ n'kd osQ 'kq#vkrh o"kks± essa

'khr;q¼ dk var vkSj lksfo;r la?k dk

fo?kVu gqvkA blosQ lkFk gh ,d varjkZ"Vªh;

vkanksyu vkSj Hkkjr dh fons'k uhfr dh

ewy Hkkouk osQ :i esa xqVfujis{krk dh

çklafxdrk rFkk çHkkodkfjrk esa FkksM+h deh

vk;hA cgjgky] xqVfujis{krk esa oqQN vk/kjHk wr e wY; vk Sj fopkj 'kkfey g S aA
vk;hA cgjgky] xqVfujis{krk esa oqQN
vk/kjHk wr e wY; vk Sj fopkj 'kkfey g S aA
x qVfuji s{krk bl ckr dh igpku ij fVdh
gS fd mifuos'k dh fLFkfr ls vk”kkn gq,
ns'kksa osQ chp ,sfrgkfld tqM+ko gSa vkSj
;fn ;s ns'k lkFk vk tk;sa rks ,d l'kDr
pj.k
d{kk dks cjkcj la[;k okys rhu lewgksa esa ck¡VsA çR;sd lewg
nqfu;k osQ bu rhu [kseksa esa ls fdlh ,d dh uqekbanxh
djsxk& iw¡thoknh nqfu;k] lkE;oknh nqfu;k ;k rhljh nqfu;kA
vè;kid ,sls nks laosnu'khy eqíksa dks pqusaxs tks 'khr;q¼ osQ
nkSjku fo'o 'kkafr vkSj lqj{kk dks [+krjk mRiUu dj pqosQ gksa
(dksfj;k vkSj fo;ruke ladV vPNs mnkgj.k gks ldrs gSa)A
çR;sd lewg dks lacaf/r eqís ij ^?kVuk&pØ* cukus dks
dgsaA mudks vius lewg osQ n`f"Vdks.k ls ,d çLrqfr djuh
gksxhA bl çLrqfr esa ?kVuk dk dkyØe] mlosQ dkj.k vkSj
leL;k osQ lek/ku osQ fy, mudk dk;ZØe 'kkfey gksxkA
çR;sd lewg dks d{kk osQ lkeus ^?kVuk&pØ* çLrqr djus
dks dgsaA
vè;kidksa osQ fy,
Nk=kksa dks è;ku fnyk,¡ fd fdl çdkj bu ladVksa us lacaf/r ns'kksa
vkSj 'ks"k fo'o dks çHkkfor fd;kA bu ns'kksa dh orZeku fLFkfr ls
Hkh tksM+dj ppkZ djsaA
bu {ks=kksa esa 'kkafr LFkkfir djus esa la;qDr jk"Vª vkSj rhljh nqfu;k osQ
usrkvksa dh Hkwfedk dks js[kkafdr djsa (dksfj;k vkSj fo;ruke ladV esa
Hkkjr dh Hkwfedk dks lanHkZ osQ fy, fy;k tk ldrk gS)A
^'khr;q¼ osQ ckn okys nkSj esa ge bl çdkj osQ ladVksa dks oSQls Vky
ldrs gSa* bl fo"k; ij okn&fookn 'kq: djsaA

14

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr
ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

lhfer ijek.k q ijh{k.k lhfer ijek.kq ijh{k.k laf/ (,yVhchVh) ok;qeaMy] ckgjh varfj{k rFkk ikuh osQ vanj
lhfer ijek.k q ijh{k.k
lhfer ijek.kq ijh{k.k laf/ (,yVhchVh)
ok;qeaMy] ckgjh varfj{k rFkk ikuh osQ vanj ijek.kq gfFk;kjksa osQ ijh{k.k ij çfrca/ yxkus okyh bl laf/ ij vejhdk]
fczVsu rFkk lksfo;r la?k us ekLdks esa 5 vxLr 1963 dks gLrk{kj fd,A ;g laf/ 10 vDrwcj 1963 ls çHkkoh gks xbZA
ijek.kq vçlkj laf/ (,uihVh)
;g laf/ osQoy ijek.k q 'kfDr&laiUu ns'kk as dk s ,Veh gfFk;kj j[ku s dh vuqefr nsrh g S vkSj ckdh ns'kk as dk s ,sl s gfFk;kj gkfly
djus ls jksdrh gSA ijek.kq vçlkj laf/ osQ mís';ksa dks è;ku esa j[krs gq, mu ns'kksa dks ijek.kq&'kfDr ls laiUu ns'k ekuk
x;k ftUgkaus s 1 tuojh 1967 l s igy s fdlh ijek.k q gfFk;kj vFkok vU; foLiQksVd ijek.k q lkefxz;k as dk fuekZ.k vkSj foLiQksV
fd;k gksA bl ifjHkk"kk osQ varxZr ik¡p ns'kk as & vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k (ckn e as :l)] fczVsu] çQkal vkSj phu dk s ijek.kq&'kfDr
ls laiUu ekuk x;kA bl laf/ ij ,d tqykbZ 1968 dks okWf'kaXVu] yanu vkSj ekLdks esa gLrk{kj gq, vkSj ;g laf/ 5 ekpZ
1970 ls çHkkoh gqbZA bl laf/ dks 1995 esa vfu;rdky osQ fy, c<+k fn;k x;kA
lkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ&I (LVªsVftd vkElZ fyfeVs'ku VkWDl & lkYV&I)
lkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ dk igyk pj.k lu~ 1969 osQ uoEcj esa vkjaHk gqvkA lksfo;r la?k osQ usrk fy;ksusM czs>uso
vkSj vejhdk osQ jk"Vªifr fjpMZ fuDlu us ekLdks esa 26 ebZ 1972 dks fuEufyf[kr le>kSrs ij nLr[+kr fd, μ
(d) ijek.kq felkby ifjlheu laf/ (,ch,e VªhVh)A
([k) lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd gfFk;kjksa osQ ifjlheu osQ ckjs esa varfje le>kSrkA
;s 3 vDrwcj 1972 ls çHkkoh gq,A
Lkkefjd vL=k ifjlheu okrkZ&II (LVªsVftd vkElZ fyfeVs'ku VkWDl&lkYV&II)
okrk Z dk nwljk pj.k lu ~ 1972 osQ uoEcj eghu s e a s 'kq: gqvkA vejhdh jk"Vªifr fteh dkVZj vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ usrk fy;ksusM
cz>u s so u s fo;uk e as 18 twu 1972 dk s lkefjd :i l s ?kkrd gfFk;kjk as osQ ifjlheu l s lacaf/r laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
Lkkefjd vL=k U;wuhdj.k laf/&I (LVªsVftd vkElZ fjMD'ku laf/&LVkVZ&I)
vejhdh jk"Vªifr tkWtZ cq'k (lhfu;j) vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ jk"Vªifr xksckZpso us 31 tqykbZ 1991 dks lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd
gfFk;kjksa osQ ifjlheu vkSj mudh la[;k esa deh ykus ls lacaf/r laf/ ij gLrk{kj fd,A
Lkkefjd vL=k U;wuhdj.k laf/& II (LVªsVftd vkElZ fjMD'ku laf/&LVkVZ&II)
lkefjd :i ls ?kkrd gfFk;kjksa oQks lhfer djus vkSj mudh la[;k esa deh djus ls lacaf/r bl laf/ ij :lh jk"Vªifr
cksfjl ;sYrflu vkSj vejhdh jk"Vªifr tktZ cq'k (lhfu;j) us ekLdks esa 3 tuojh 1993 dks gLrk{kj fd,A

'khr;q¼ dk nkSj

15

rkdr cu ldrs gSaA xqVfujis{krk dk vk'k;

osQ fy, ,d oSdfYid fo'o&O;oLFkk

 

gS fd xjhc vkSj fo'o osQ cgqr NksVs

cuku s vkSj varjkZ"Vªh; O;oLFkk dk s yksdra=k/ehZ

ns'kksa dks Hkh fdlh egk'kfDr dk fiNyXxw

cukus osQ ladYi ij Hkh fVdk gSA vius

cuus dh ”k:jr ugha gSA ;s ns'k viuh

vki esa ;s fopkj cqfu;knh egÙo osQ gSa

Lora=k fons'k uhfr viuk ldrs gSaA ;g

vkSj 'khr;q¼ dh lekfIr osQ ckn Hkh

vkanksyu ekStwnk vlekurkvksa ls fuiVus

çklafxd gSaA

1- 'khr;q¼ osQ ckjs esa fuEufyf[kr esa ls dkSu&lk dFku X+kyr gS\

   

(d)

;g la;qDr jkT; vejhdk] lksfo;r la?k vkSj muosQ lkFkh ns'kk as osQ chp dh ,d

 

çfrLi/k Z Fkh\

([k) ;g egk'kfDr;ksa osQ chp fopkj/kjkvksa dks ysdj ,d ;q¼ FkkA

(x)

'khr;q¼ us gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ 'kq:

dhA

(?k)

vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k lh/s ;q¼ esa 'kkfey FksA

2- fuEu esa ls dkSu&lk dFku xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu osQ mís';ksa ij çdk'k ugha Mkyrk\

(d)

mifuos'kokn ls eqDr gq, ns'kksa dks

Lora=k uhfr viukus esa leFkZ cukukA

([k) fdlh Hkh lSU; laxBu esa 'kkfey gksus ls badkj djukA

(x)

oSf'od ekeyksa esa rVLFkrk dh uhfr viukukA

(?k) oSf'od vkfFkZd vlekurk dh lekfIr ij è;ku osaQfær djukA

3- uhps egk'kfDr;ksa }kjk cuk, lSU; laxBuksa dh fo'ks"krk crkus okys oqQN dFku fn, x, gSaA çR;sd

dFku osQ lkeus lgh ;k X+kyr dk fpÉ yxk,¡A

(d)

xBca/u osQ lnL; ns'kksa dks vius Hkw&{ks=k esa egk'kfDr;ksa osQ lSU; vM~Ms osQ fy, LFkku nsuk

 

”k:jh FkkA

 

([k) lnL; ns'kksa dks fopkj/kjk vkSj j.kuhfr nksuks Lrjksa ij egk'kfDr dk leFkZu djuk FkkA

(x)

tc dksbZ jk"Vª fdlh ,d lnL;&ns'k ij vkØe.k djrk Fkk rks bls lHkh lnL; ns'kksa ij

 

vkØe.k le>k tkrk FkkA

 

(?k) egk'kfDr;k¡ lHkh lnL; ns'kksa dks vius ijek.kq gfFk;kj fodflr djus esa enn

 

djrh FkhaA

 

4- uhps oqQN ns'kksa dh ,d lwph nh xbZ gSA çR;sd osQ lkeus fy[kas fd og 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku fdl xqV

 

ls tqM+k Fkk\

(d)

iksySaM

([k)

çQkal

(x)

tkiku

(?k) ukbthfj;k

(M)

mÙkjh dksfj;k

(p)

Jhyadk

16

ledkyhu fo'o jktuhfr

     
 

5- 'khr;q¼ ls gfFk;kjksa dh gksM+ vkSj gfFk;kjksa ij fu;a=k.k μ ;s nksuksa gh çfØ;k,¡ iSnk gqb±A bu nksuksa

 

çfØ;kvksa osQ D;k dkj.k Fks\

6- egk'kfDr;k¡ NksVs ns'kksa osQ lkFk lSU; xBca/u D;ksa

j[krh Fkha\ rhu dkj.k crkb,\

7- dHkh&dHkh dgk tkrk gS fd 'khr;q¼ lh/s rkSj ij

'kfDr osQ fy, la?k"kZ Fkk vkSj bldk fopkj/kjk

ls dksbZ laca/ ugha FkkA D;k vki bl dFku ls lger gSa\ vius mÙkj osQ leFkZu esa ,d

mnkgj.k nsaA

8- 'khr;q¼ osQ nkSjku Hkkjr dh vejhdk vkSj lksfo;r la?k osQ çfr fons'k uhfr D;k Fkh\ D;k vki ekurs

gSa fd bl uhfr us Hkkjr osQ fgrksa dks vkxs c<+k;k\

9- xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu dk s rhljh nqfu;k osQ ns'kk as u s rhlj s fodYi osQ :i e as le>kA tc 'khr;q¼ vius

f'k[kj ij Fkk rc bl fodYi us rhljh nqfu;k osQ

ns'kksa osQ fodkl esa oSQls enn igq¡pkbZ\

10- ^xqV&fujis{k vkanksyu vc vçklafxd gks x;k gS*A

vki bl dFku osQ ckjs esa D;k lksprs gSaA vius

mÙkj osQ leFkZu esa roZQ çLrqr djsaA