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Facial Action Coding System


Facial Action Coding System
Facial Action Coding System (FACS) is a system to taxonomize human facial movements by their appearance on the face, based on a system originally developed by a Swedish anatomist named Carl-Herman Hjortsjö.[1] It was later adopted by Paul Ekman and Wallace V. Friesen, and published in 1978.[2] Ekman, Friesen, and Joseph C. Hager published a significant update to FACS in 2002.[3] Movements of individual facial muscles are encoded by FACS from slight different instant changes Muscles of head and neck. [] in facial appearance. It is a common standard to systematically categorize the physical expression of emotions, and it has proven useful to psychologists and to animators. Due to subjectivity and time consumption issues, FACS has been established as a computed automated system that detects faces in videos, extracts the geometrical features of the faces, and then produces temporal profiles of each facial movement.[]

Using FACS,[4] human coders can manually code nearly any anatomically possible facial expression, deconstructing it into the specific Action Units (AU) and their temporal segments that produced the expression. As AUs are independent of any interpretation, they can be used for any higher order decision making process including recognition of basic emotions, or pre-programmed commands for an ambient intelligent environment. The FACS Manual is over 500 pages in length and provides the AUs, as well as Ekman’s interpretation of their meaning. FACS defines AUs, which are a contraction or relaxation of one or more muscles. It also defines a number of Action Descriptors, which differ from AUs in that the authors of FACS have not specified the muscular basis for the action and have not distinguished specific behaviors as precisely as they have for the AUs. For example, FACS can be used to distinguish two types of smiles as follows:[] • Insincere and voluntary Pan-Am smile: contraction of zygomatic major alone • Sincere and involuntary Duchenne smile: contraction of zygomatic major and inferior part of orbicularis oculi. Although the labeling of expressions currently requires trained experts, researchers have had some success in using computers to automatically identify FACS codes, and thus quickly identify emotions.[5] Computer graphical face models, such as CANDIDE [6] or Artnatomy [7], allow expressions to be artificially posed by setting the desired action units. The use of FACS has been proposed for use in the analysis of depression,[] and the measurement of pain in patients unable to express themselves verbally.[] FACS is designed to be self-instructional. People can learn the technique from a number of sources including manuals and workshops,[8] and obtain certification through testing.[9] A variant of FACS has been developed to analyze facial expressions in chimpanzees.[] FACS can also be modified such that it can be used to compare facial repertoires across similar species, such as humans and chimpanzees. A study conducted by Vick and others (2006) suggests that FACS can be modified by taking differences in underlying morphology into account. Such considerations enable a comparison of the FACS

AU 1A is the weakest trace of AU 1 and AU 1E is the maximum intensity possible for the individual person). but does not actually provide any bio-mechanical information about the degree of muscle activation. to show that the facial expressions of both species result from extremely notable appearance changes. A cross-species analysis of facial expressions can help to answer the question of which emotions are uniquely human. Action Units (AUs) are the fundamental actions of individual muscles or groups of muscles. Intensity Scoring Intensities of FACS are annotated by appending letters A–E (for minimal-maximial intensity) to the Action Unit number (e. Though muscle activation is not part of FACS. • • • • • A Trace B Slight C Marked or Pronounced D Severe or Extreme E Maximum List of Action Units and Action Descriptors (with underlying facial muscles) Main Codes . Action Descriptors (ADs) are unitary movements that may involve the actions of several muscle groups (e. FACS suggests agreement from at least two independent certified FACS encoders. the main muscles involved in the facial expression have been added here for the benefit of the reader.g. Examples of these are: Emotion Action Units 2 Happiness 6+12 Sadness Surprise Fear Anger Disgust 1+4+15 1+2+5B+26 1+2+4+5+20+26 4+5+7+23 9+15+16 Contempt R12A+R14A Codes for Action Units For clarification. For most accurate annotation. FACS is an index of facial expressions.g.[10] EMFACS (Emotional Facial Action Coding System)[11] and FACSAID (Facial Action Coding System Affect Interpretation Dictionary)[12] consider only emotion-related facial actions. The muscular basis for these actions hasn’t been specified and specific behaviors haven’t been distinguished as precisely as for the AUs.Facial Action Coding System present in humans and chimpanzees.. a forward‐thrusting movement of the jaw).

Facial Action Coding System 3 AU Number 0 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 face FACS Name Muscular Basis Inner Brow Raiser Outer Brow Raiser Brow Lowerer Upper Lid Raiser Cheek Raiser Lid Tightener frontalis (pars medialis) frontalis (pars lateralis) depressor glabellae. depressor supercilii. corrugator supercilii levator palpebrae superioris. digastric orbicularis oris levator labii superioris alaeque nasi levator labii superioris. relaxed temporalis and internal pterygoid pterygoids. superior tarsal muscle orbicularis oculi (pars orbitalis) orbicularis oculi (pars palpebralis) Lips Toward Each Other orbicularis oris Nose Wrinkler Upper Lip Raiser Nasolabial Deepener Lip Corner Puller Sharp Lip Puller Dimpler Lip Corner Depressor Lower Lip Depressor Chin Raiser Lip Pucker Tongue Show Lip Stretcher Neck Tightener Lip Funneler Lip Tightener Lip Pressor Lips Part Jaw Drop Mouth Stretch Lip Suck Jaw Thrust Jaw Sideways Jaw Clencher [Lip] Bite [Cheek] Blow [Cheek] Puff [Cheek] Suck [Tongue] Bulge Lip Wipe Nostril Dilator nasalis (pars alaris) masseter risorius w/ platysma platysma orbicularis oris orbicularis oris orbicularis oris depressor labii inferioris. caput infraorbitalis zygomaticus minor zygomaticus major levator anguli oris (also known as caninus) buccinator depressor anguli oris (also known as triangularis) depressor labii inferioris mentalis incisivii labii superioris and incisivii labii inferioris . or relaxation of mentalis or orbicularis oris masseter.

M83 The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by a movement of the head. Eye Movement Codes AU Number 61 M61 62 M62 63 64 65 66 FACS Name Action Eyes Turn Left Eyes Left Eyes Turn Right Eyes Right Eyes Up Eyes Down Walleye Cross-eye The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by eye movement to the right. accompanied.Facial Action Coding System 4 nasalis (pars transversa) and depressor septi nasi Separate Strand of AU 4: depressor glabellae (aka procerus) Separate Strand of AU 4: depressor supercilii Relaxation of levator palpebrae superioris Separate Strand of AU 4: corrugator supercilli Relaxation of levator palpebrae superioris. accompanied. contraction of orbicularis oculi (pars palpebralis) orbicularis oculi 39 41 42 43 44 45 46 Nostril Compressor Glabella Lowerer Inner Eyebrow Lowerer Eyes Closed Eyebrow Gatherer Blink Wink Head Movement Codes AU Number 51 52 53 54 55 M55 56 M56 57 M57 58 M59 FACS Name Action Head Turn Left Head Turn Right Head Up Head Down Head Tilt Left Head Tilt Left Head Tilt Right Head Tilt Right Head Forward Head Thrust Forward Head Back Head Shake Up and Down Head Shake Side to Side Head Upward and to the Side The onset of 17+24 is immediately preceded. or followed by a side to side head shake. M60 The onset of 17+24 is immediately preceded. The onset of 17+24 is immediately preceded. The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by a head tilt to the left. or followed by a head thrust forward. accompanied. or followed by an up-down head shake (nod). upward and turned and/or tilted to either the left or right. The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by eye movement to the left. . The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by a head tilt to the right.

5. Head and/or Eyes Look at Other Person The onset of the symmetrical 14 or AUs 4. occurs while the eye position is fixed on the other person in the at Other Person conversation. 5. is immediately preceded or accompanied by a movement of the eyes or of the head and eyes to look at the other person in the conversation.Facial Action Coding System 5 M68 69 Upward Rolling of Eyes The onset of the symmetrical 14 is immediately preceded or accompanied by an upward rolling of the eyes. M69 Visibility Codes AU Number 70 71 72 73 74 FACS Name Brows and forehead not visible Eyes not visible Lower face not visible Entire face not visible Unscorable Gross Behavior Codes These codes are reserved for recording information about gross behaviors that may be relevant to the facial actions that are scored. Eyes Positioned to Look The 4. AU Number 40 50 80 81 82 84 85 91 92 97* 98* Sniff Speech Swallow Chewing Shoulder shrug Head shake back and forth Head nod up and down Flash Partial flash Shiver/Tremble Fast up-down look FACS Name . and 7. alone or in combination. or 7. alone or in combination.

cs. Rosenberg. California. Facial Action Coding System: The Manual on CD ROM. (http:/ / www.html) .com/dataface/facs/manual/TitlePage. • FACS Overview (http://face-and-emotion. face-and-emotion. [3] Paul Ekman. liu. • New Yorker article discussing FACS (http://www. In V. Palo Alto.htm) • Site at WPI ( Facial Action Coding System: A Technique for the Measurement of Facial Movement.Facial Action Coding System 6 References [2] P. ISBN 978-008-088-575-9x [5] Facial Action Coding html) Retrieved July 21. cs. Ramachandran (Ed. A Human 2002. face-and-emotion. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior ( se/ candide/ [7] http:/ / www. Wallace V. erikarosenberg. University of California. com/ dataface/ facs/ fft. EMFACS-7: Emotional Facial Action Coding System.. (1983). (2012). 1978. jsp [11] Friesen. Friesen. Ekman and W. Unpublished manual.cs.173-183). jsp Facial Action Coding System Affect Interpretation Dictionary (FACSAID) External links • Paul Ekman’s articles relating to FACS (http://www. net/ uk/ index.gladwell.jsp) (accessed 21/02/2011) • Sample of FACS Manual (http://face-and-emotion.D [9] http:/ / www. com/ FACS. and Joseph C. com/ dataface/ facsaid/ description.). 2007.htm) • Details from 1978 edition of FACS (http://www-2.chimpfacs. pp. edu/ ~matt/ courses/ cs563/ talks/ face_anim/ ekman. A. Friesen. W. S. isy. [4] Freitas-Magalhães. [12] http:/ / www. Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. 2. Microexpression and macroexpression. P. Ekman. Salt Lake City. Ph.html) (accessed 21/02/2011) • More information on the CHIMPFACS project (http://www. Hager. [6] http:/ / www. Consulting Psychologists Press. bk. html Example and web site of one teaching professional: Erika L. html [8] http:/ / www.

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