You are on page 1of 47

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, Technion

An Original Means to Troubleshoot High Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) on All Types of Jet Engines
by Israel Djian Israel Aircraft Industries

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, Technion


,
(:)

Those Who Tearfully Sow, Will Reap In Glad Song


(Psalms 126:5)

Ceux Qui Ont Sem Dans Les Larmes, Puissent-Ils Rcolter Dans La Joie
(Psaumes 126:5)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Agenda

Significance of EGT : Why EGT is so Important in the Gas Turbine Engine Industry EGT and Engine Maintenance Costs Analysis of the Mechanisms that Rule EGT IAI Original Approach to Troubleshoot EGT Problems (applicable to all Jet Engines) Summary

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT

Definition : EGT = Exhaust Gas Temperature What EGT is significant of ? EGT is a measure of the engines efficiency in producing its design level of thrust the more wear The higher EGT is and deterioration affects the engine

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT

At engine certification, any engine is allocated an EGT operating absolute limit or EGT Red Line

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT

Definition : EGT Margin = EGT Red Line EGT Gage

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT
What EGT is significant of ? (cont.)
The EGT Red Line is representative of Tt5 (Temperature @ High Pressure Turbine Inlet) and is designed to preserve the hot section (1st stage turbine blades) integrity Tt5 is not measurable in an industrial environment Engine Thrust is a Linear Function of Tt5

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT JT9D


EGT

15 C

109 C

T5 493 C 1343 C 843 C 566 C

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Significance of EGT Tt5

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Pratt & Whitney JT9D Engine

January 21, 1970 1st Flight of B747 with JT9D-3A (JFK-London) with PanAm ()"

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Toulouse, '

January 21, 1970... I was 7 Years Old !


UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Impact of EGT Margin on Jet Engine Maintenance Costs


After Shop Visit the EGT margin is positive (+ XX C ) As a normal process, the EGT margin slowly decreases with the engine operation, as normal wear and tear of the internal parts takes place At zero EGT margin, the engine must be removed for maintenance and refurbishment For JT9D-7Q, typically 20 C EGT margin allows 8,000 flight hours/maintenance cost $ 2.4 M approx. Therefore,each 1 C EGT Margin ~ 120 k$ Approx.
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Analysis of the Mechanisms that Rule EGT


As a normal process, as the engine deteriorates due to normal wear and tear, on Rotating Parts, Primarily, the engine Fuel Consumption (Wf) increases, then, Consequently, the EGT increases (and EGT margin accordingly decreases). However, there is No Max. Fuel Consumption Limitation IAW Aviation Regulations (FAA, DGAC) Goal : Establish a thermodynamic Relationship that connects EGT and the Fuel Consumption
4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

UNCLASSIFIED

Analysis of the Mechanisms that Rule EGT


Concept of EGT Distortion : due to the Inherent different means of measuring Wf versus EGT : Wf measurement is an easy and accurate Task The EGT probes sample the Gas Temperature at discrete locations only and do not perform a thorough integration of the actual Gas Temperature One may encounter engine with low Wf and high EGT or high Wf and low EGT

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Analysis of the Mechanisms that Rule EGT


Analysis :
If EGT/Wf follows the thermodynamic Relationship, then

The Rotating Modules are the Root Cause for high EGT If EGT/Wf does NOT follow the thermodynamic Relationship, then The Static Parts (Diffuser, Burner, NGVs) of the Hot Section are the Root Cause for high EGT
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

IAI Approach to Troubleshoot High EGT Engines

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Per-Module Hardware Review

1 % Loss HPT Efficiency = + 0.91 % Fuel Flow = X 1 % Loss HPT Efficiency = + 14.33 Deg F EGT = Y

EGT Wf
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Modular Influence Coefficients HPT Efficiency Graphic Representation


10 8

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

6 4 2 0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Modular Influence Coefficients


10

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

7.96 Deg C

8 6 4

-1

-0.8

-0.6

1 % Loss of HPT Efficiency


0 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10

0.4

0.6

0.8

0.91 %
1

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Modular Influence Coefficients


10 8

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

6 4 2 0 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -2 -4 -6 -8 -10 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Modular Influence Coefficients


80 70 60

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

50 40 30 20 10 0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -10 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 1 2 3 4 5 6

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Modular Influence Coefficients


80 70 60

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

50 40 30 20 10 0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -10 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 1 2 3 4 5 6

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

For JT9D
Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

Modular Influence Coefficients


80 70

11 Deg C EGT for 1 % Wf Slope


50 40 30 20 10 0 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -10 0 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 1 2 3 4 5 6

60

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

EGT
Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

Relationship Between EGT and Wf

After a Few k-Flight Hours


80 60 40 20

EGT
-6 -4 -2

0 0 -20 2 4 6

After Shop Visit


-40 -60

Wf Fuel

-80

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Impact ofFew EGT Margin After a Relationship Between EGT and Wf EGT on Jet Engine Maintenance Costs EGT k-Flight Hours Distortio
80

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

Actual EGT
-6 -4 -2

60

40

20

Theoretical EGT After Shop Visit


-20 -40 -60

Wf Fuel

-80

Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

EGT andImprovement Wf JT9DRelationship EGT Between Margin


80

60

Delta EGT Relative to Baseline (Deg C)

Rotating Modules Good Efficiency Adverse EGT Profile


-6 -4 -2

40

20

Rotating Modules Poor Efficiency Adverse EGT Profile r oo file P le s T P r o u od EG M ing Good t a t Ro ncy ic ie f f E
4

0 0 2 6

od ile -20 o s G Prof e l u od EGT M -40 ng Good i t ta Ro ncy -60 ic ie f f Rotating Modules E Good Efficiency -80 Delta Fuel Flow Relative to Baseline (%) Very Good EGT Profile
UNCLASSIFIED

Rotating Modules Poor Efficiency Good EGT Profile

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Summary The Two Key-Questions Any Performance Engineer Has to ask Himself for a Test Cell Rejected Engine for Low EGT Margin Engine : Is the Engine Fuel Flow High ?
Wf

Is the Ratio EGT/Fuel Flow Respected ?


EGT/Wf
4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

UNCLASSIFIED

Summary
EGT Baseline Test Cell Engine EGT

Influence Coefficients Table Theoretical EGT/ Wf Ratio Is the Ratio EGT/ Wf of the Engine Acceptable ?

Engine EPR or N1

EGT Wf

Obtain From OEM


Wf Baseline

Test Cell Engine WF

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Summary Yes

Is the Engine Fuel Consumption Wf Acceptable ?

Do Not Address the Rotating Modules

No
Address the Rotating Modules Wf
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Summary
Is the Ratio EGT/ Wf of the Engine Acceptable ?

Yes

Do Not Address the Burner, Fuel Nozzles, EGT Probesetc...

No
Address the Burner, Fuel Nozzles, EGT Probesetc...
EGT/Wf
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

(Almost) Last Slide

Good Luck to You All !

!
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Last Slide

Song of the Steps (Degrees)

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Last Slide

!
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
On a Jet Engine, there are Two Types of Rotating Devices : Compressors Turbines

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
Compressors : compress the air Co mp re s r o se s s e r p u r C om

UNCLASSIFIED

Compr essore

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
What about the Turbines : ? Why the Term Turbine does not denote its function (i.e. Gas Expansion in order to Convert its Potential Energy into Mechanical Energy ) ?

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
T

Turb ine

a n i b r u T
T
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz

?
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
Why the Term Turbine does not Refer to its Function ?

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
Turbine comes from Latin : Turba = Wheel
st Thermodynamic Machines Only The 1st Rotating Hardware was Exclusively Gas (Steam) Expansion Related : THE Wheel or THE Turbine.

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
By Extension, the Expansion Hardware of a Jet Engine was also Called Turbine. But, there was a need to call the OTHER Rotating Hardware that was Compressing the Air.

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
So, in fact, if Compressors are a Second Type of Wheels, they are.

.Turbines ?!?!

UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz

Yes !!!
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa

Smart Quiz
So : Turbine A for the Compression, Turbine B for the Expansion ? Doesnt sound good !...Confusing The 1st Historically Rotating Hardware (i.e. the Expansion one) Kept the Term of The Wheel = Turbine The 2nd One got a Different Name that alludes to its Function : Compressor
UNCLASSIFIED

4th Annual Jet Engine Symposium, October 28, 2004 Technion, Haifa