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Written according to the New Text book (2011-2012) published by the Maharashtra State Board of Secondary and Higher

Secondary Education, Pune.

Std. X

Geometry
Mr. Biju Babu
(B.E Prod.)

Mr. Kannan G. Iyer


(B.Sc. Maths)

Mr. Pankaj Dubey


(B.E. Mech.)

Salient Features:
Written as per the new textbook. Exhaustive coverage of entire syllabus. Precise theory for every topic. Covers answers to all textual exercises and problem set. Includes additional problems for practice. Comprehensive solution to Question Bank. Constructions drawn with accurate measurements. Attractive layout of the content. Self evaluative in nature. Includes Board Question Paper of March 2013.

Tar et PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.


Mumbai, Maharashtra Tel: 022 6551 6551 Website : www.targetpublications.in email : mail@targetpublications.in

Std. X
Geometry

Target Publications Pvt Ltd.

Third Edition: March 2013

Price: ` 190/-

Printed at: Spark Offset Nerul Navi Mumabi

Published by

Target PUBLICATIONS PVT. LTD.


Shiv Mandir Sabhagriha, Mhatre Nagar, Near LIC Colony, Mithagar Road, Mulund (E), Mumbai - 400 081 Off.Tel: 022 6551 6551 email: mail@targetpublications.in

PREFACE
Geometry is the mathematics of properties, measurement and relationships of points, lines, angles, surfaces and solids. It is widely used in the fields of science, engineering, computers, architecture etc. It is a vast subject dealing with the study of properties, definitions, theorems, areas, perimeter, angles, triangles, mensuration, co-ordinates, constructions etc. The study of Geometry requires a deep and intrinsic understanding of concepts. Hence to ease this task we bring to you Std. X: Geometry a complete and thorough guide critically analysed and extensively drafted to boost the students confidence. The question answer format of this book helps the student to understand and grasp each and every concept thoroughly. The book is based on the new text book and covers the entire syllabus. It contains answers to textual exercises, problems sets and Question bank. It also includes additional questions for practice. All the diagrams are neat and have proper labelling. The book has a unique feature that all the constructions are as per the scale. Another feature of the book is its layout which is attractive and inspires the student to read. There is always room for improvement and hence we welcome all suggestions and regret any errors that may have occurred in the making of this book. A book affects eternity; one can never tell where its influence stops.

Best of luck to all the aspirants!


Yours faithfully Publisher

No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Similarity Circle

Topic Name

Page No.
1 65 122 182 224 272 320 364 367

Geometric Constructions Trigonometry Co-ordinate Geometry Mensuration Question Bank (Hot Problems) Board Paper March 2013 Marking Scheme


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

01

SIMILARITY

ConceptsofStd.IX
Similarity of triangles For a given one-to-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles if, i. their corresponding angles are congruent and ii. their corresponding sides are in proportion then the correspondence is known as similarity and the two triangles are said to be similar. In the figure, for correspondence ABC PQR. i. A P, B Q, C R AB 2 BC 4 2 AC 6 2 ii. = , = = , = = 3 QR 6 3 PR 9 3 PQ i.e.

2 B

6 4 CQ

9 R

AB BC AC = = PR PQ QR

Hence, ABC and PQR are similar triangles and are symbolically written as ABC PQR. Test of similarity of triangles

1.

SSS test of similarity: For a given one-to-one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles, the two triangles are similar, if the sides of one triangle are proportional to the corresponding sides of the other triangle.

A 1 B 2 3 C Q 2

P 6

In the figure, AB 1 BC 2 1 AC 3 1 = , = = , = = 2 QR 4 2 PR 6 2 PQ

AB BC AC = = PR PQ QR then ABC PQR ----- [By SSS test of similarity] P


AAA test of similarity [AA test]: A For a given one to one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles, the two triangles are similar if the angles of one triangle are congruent to the corresponding angles of the other triangle. In the figure, B C Q if A P, B Q, C R ----- [By AAA test of similarity] then ABC PQR Note: AAA test is verified same as AA test of similarity.

2.

Similarity

3.

Std. X: Geometry
SAS test of similarity: For a given one to one correspondence between the vertices of two triangles, the two triangles are similar if two sides of a triangle are proportional to the two corresponding sides of the other triangle and the corresponding included angles are also congruent. In the figure, AB 1 BC 2 1 = , = = PQ 3 QR 6 3

TARGET Publications

A 1 B 2 C Q 3

AB BC = and B Q PQ QR then ABC PQR ----- [By SAS test of similarity]

Converse of the test for similarity: i. Converse of SSS test: If two triangles are similar, then the corresponding sides are in proportion. If ABC PQR then, AB BC AC = = ----- [Corresponding sides of similar triangles] PQ QR PR

ii.

Converse of AAA test: If two triangles are similar, then the corresponding angles are congruent. If ABC PQR then A P, B Q, and C R ----- [Corresponding angles of similar triangles]

Propertiesofratiosofareasoftwotriangles
Property I The ratio of areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of the product of their base and corresponding height. Given: In ABC and PQR, seg AD seg BC, BDC, seg PS ray QR, SQR To prove that: Proof:

A(ABC) BC AD = A(PQR) QR PS

1 A(ABC) = BC AD 2 1 A(PQR) = QR PS 2 Dividing (i) by (ii), we get 1 BC AD A(ABC) = 2 1 A(PQR) QR PS 2 BC AD A(ABC) = QR PS A(PQR)

----- (i) [Area of a triangle = ----- (ii)

1 base height] 2

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

ForUnderstanding
When do you say the triangles have equal heights? We discuss this in three cases. Case I In the adjoining figure, segments AD and PS are the corresponding heights of ABC and PQR respectively. If AD = PS, then ABC and PQR are said to have equal height. Case II In the adjoining figure, ABC and XYZ have their one vertex on one of the parallel lines and the other two vertices lie on the other parallel line, hence the two triangles are said to lie between the same parallel lines and are said to have equal heights. Case III In the adjoining figure, ABC, ACD and ABD have a common vertex A and the opposite sides BC, CD and BD of the triangles lie on the same line, hence ABC, ACD and ABD are said to have equal heights and BC, CD and BD are their respective bases. Property II The ratio of areas of two triangles having equal height is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases. Example: ABC, ACD and ABD have a common vertex A and their opposite sides BC, CD, BD lie on the same line, hence they have equal heights. A(ABC) BC A(ABC) BC A(ACD) CD = , = , = A(ACD) CD A(ABD) BD A(ABD) BD Property III The ratio of areas of two triangles having equal base is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights. Example: ABC and DCB have a common base BC. A( ABC) AP = A(DCB) DQ Property IV Areas of two triangles having equal bases and equal heights are equal. Example: ABD and ACD have a common vertex A and their opposite sides BD and DC lie on the same line, hence the triangles have equal heights. Also their bases BD and DC are equal. A(ABD) = A(ACD) Similarity

D A

C S X Z

Q P

C A

C
3

Std. X: Geometry

TARGET Publications

Exercise1.1
1. In the adjoining figure, seg BE seg AB and seg BA seg AD. A ( ABE ) . If BE = 6 and AD = 9, find A(BAD)
BE AD

E 6

Solution: A ( ABE )

A = = =

A(BAD) A ( ABE ) A(BAD)

6 9
2 3

----- [Ratio of areas of two triangles having equal base is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights.]

A ( ABE ) A(BAD)

2.

In the adjoining figure, seg SP side YK and seg YT seg SK. If SP = 6, YK = 13, YT = 5 and TK = 12, then find A(SYK):A(YTK).

S 6 5

12

Solution: A(SYK) YK SP = A(YTK) TK YT

A(SYK) 13 6 = A(YTK) 12 5
A(SYK) 13 = A(YTK) 10

K 13 P Y ----- [Ratio of areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of the product of their bases and corresponding heights.]

T In the adjoining figure, RP:PK = 3:2, then find the values of: i. A(TRP):A(TPK) ii. A(TRK):A(TPK) iii. A(TRP):A(TRK) Solution: K R P RP:PK = 3:2 ----- [Given] Let the common multiple be x. RP = 3x, PK = 2x RK = RP + PK ----- [RPK] RK = 3x + 2x RK = 5x A(TRP) RP i. = ----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights A(TPK) PK is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.]
3.

4
A(TRP) 3x = A(TPK) 2x A(TRP) 3 = A(TPK) 2

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry
----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.]

ii.

A(TRK) RK = A(TPK) PK A(TRK) 5x = A(TPK) 2x


A(TRK) 5 = A(TPK) 2

iii.

A(TRP) RP = A(TRK) RK

----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.]

A(TRP) 3x = 5x A(TRK)
A(TRP) 3 = A(TRK) 5 The ratio of the areas of two triangles with the common base is 6:5. Height of the larger triangle is 9 cm. Then find the corresponding height of the smaller triangle.

4.

Solution:

Let A1 and A2 be the areas of larger triangle and smaller triangle respectively. A1 6 = A2 5
A1 h = 1 A2 h 2

----- [Given]

Let the corresponding heights be h1 and h2 respectively.


----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal base is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights.] ----- [ h1 = 9, given]

6 5 h2

= =

9 h2 5 9 6
15 2

h2 =

h2 = 7.5 cm
Height of smaller triangle is 7.5 cm. In the adjoining figure, seg PR seg BC, seg AS seg BC and seg QT seg BC. Find the following ratios: i. iii. A(ABC) A(PBC)
A(PRC) A(BQT)

5.

ii. iv.

A(ABS) A(ASC)
A(BPR) A(CQT)

P B

Q S T C
5

Similarity

Std. X: Geometry

TARGET Publications

Solution: A(ABC) AS i. = A(PBC) PR

----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal bases is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights.] ----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.] ----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of product of their bases and corresponding heights.] ----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles is equal to the ratio of product of their bases and corresponding heights.] D 12 E K H 20 G F

ii. iii. iv.

A( ABS) BS = SC A(ASC)
A(PRC) RC PR = A(BQT) BT QT

A(BPR) BR PR = A(CQT) CT QT

In the adjoining figure, seg DH seg EF and seg GK seg EF. If DH = 12 cm, GK = 20 cm and A(DEF) = 300 cm2, then find i. length of EF ii. A(GEF) iii. A( DFGE) Solution: 1 i. Area of triangle = base height 2 1 A(DEF) = EF DH 2 1 300 = EF 12 ----- [ A(DEF) = 300 cm2] 2 300 = EF 6 300 = EF 6 EF = 50 cm. 6.

ii.

A(DEF) DH = A(GEF) GK

----- [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal bases is equal to the ratio of their corresponding heights.]

300 12 = A(GEF) 20 300 20 = 12 A(GEF) 300 20 = A(GEF) 12 300 20 A(GEF) = 12


A(GEF) = 500 cm2

iii.

A( DFGE) = A(DEF) + A(GEF) ----- [Area addition property] A( DFGE) = 300 + 500 = 800
A( DFGE) = 800 cm2

7.

In the adjoining figure, seg ST || side QR. Find the following ratios. i.
A(PST) A(QST)

P S Q T R
Similarity

ii.

A(PST) A(RST)

iii.

A(QST) A(RST)


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

Solution:

i. ii. iii.

A(PST) PS = A(QST) QS

[Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.]

A(PST) PT = A(RST) TR QST and RST lie between the same parallels ST and QR Their heights are equal. A(QST) = A(RST) ----- [Areas of two triangles having common base i.e. ST and equal heights are equal.] A(QST) =1 A(RST)

BasicProportionalityTheorem
If a line parallel to a side of a triangle intersects the other sides in two distinct points, then the line divides these sides in proportion. P Given: In PQR, line l || side QR. Line l intersects side PQ and side PR in points M and N N M l respectively such that PMQ and PNR. To Prove that:

PM PN = MQ NR

Construction: Draw seg QN and seg RM. Proof: In PMN and QMN, where PMQ A( PMN) PM = A(QMN) MQ

----- (i) [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.] ----- (ii) [Ratio of the areas of two triangles having equal heights is equal to the ratio of their corresponding bases.] ----- (iii) [Areas of two triangles having equal bases and equal heights are equal.] ----- (iv) [From (i), (ii) and (iii)] ----- [From (i), (ii) and (iv)]

In PMN and RMN, where PNR A(PMN) PN = NR A(RMN) A(QMN) = A(RMN)


A( PMN) A(PMN) = A(QMN) A(RMN) PM PN = MQ NR

ConverseofBasicProportionalityTheorem
If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then the line is parallel to the third side. [March 2013] P

Line l intersects the side PQ and side PR of PQR in PM PN . the points M and N respectively such that = MQ NR To Prove that: Line l || side QR.
Given:
Similarity

K M Q N
l

R
7

Std. X: Geometry

TARGET Publications

Proof: Let us consider that line l is not parallel to the side QR. Then, there must be another line passing through M which is parallel to the side QR Let line MK be that line. Line MK intersects the side PR at K, ----- [PKR] In PQR, line MK || side QR. PM PK = ----- (i) [By B.P.T.] KR MQ

But,

PM PN = NR MQ PK PN = KR NR PK + KR PN + NR = KR NR PR PR = KR NR KR = NR Points K and N are not different. Line MK and line MN coincide. line MN || side QR line l || side QR

----- (ii) [Given] ----- [From (i) and (ii)] ----- [By componendo] ----- [PKR, PNR]

ApplicationsofBasicProportionalityTheorem
i. Property of intercepts made by three parallel lines on a transversal: The ratio of the intercepts made on a transversal by three parallel lines is equal to the ratio of the corresponding intercepts made on any other transversal by the same three parallel lines.

Line l || line m || line n The transversals x and y intersect these parallel lines at points A, B, C and P, Q, R respectively. AB PQ = To Prove that: BC QR
Given: Construction: Draw seg AR to intersect line m at point H. Proof: In ACR, seg BH || side CR AB AH = BC HR In ARP, seg HQ || side AP PQ AH = QR HR

x l

A B C H

P Q R

m ----- (i) [By B.P.T.] n

----- (ii) [By B.P.T.] ----- [From (i) and (ii)]


Similarity

AB PQ = BC QR

Std. X: Geometry
AC2 = AD2 + DC2 AC2 = AD2 + (BD + BC)2 AC2 = AD2 + BD2 + 2BDBC + BC2 In ADB, ADB = 90 AB2 = AD2 + BD2 AC2 = AB2 + 2BDBC + BC2 AC2 = AB2 + BC2 + 2BDBC ----- [By Pythagoras theorem] ----- [DBC] ----- (i) ----- [Given] ----- (ii) [By Pythagoras theorem] ----- [From (i) and (ii)]

TARGET Publications

Appolloniustheorem
It is a theorem relating to the length of the median of a triangle to the length of the sides. Here, we shall prove this theorem for an acute angled triangle using application of Pythagoras theorem. A Given: In ABC, seg AD is the median. 2 2 2 2 To prove that: AB + AC = 2AD + 2CD Construction: Draw seg AE seg BC such that BED. Proof: In ABD, B E D ADB < 90 ----- [Given] 2 2 2 AB = AD + BD 2BDDE ----- (i) [By application of Pythagoras theorem] In ADC, ADC > 90 ----- [Given] 2 2 2 AC = AD + CD + 2CDDE ----- (ii) [By application of Pythagoras theorem] Adding (i) and (ii) AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 2BDDE + 2CDDE + BD2 + CD2 ----- (iii) But, BD = CD ----- (iv) [D is the midpoint of seg BC.] AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 2CDDE + 2CDDE + CD2 + CD2 ----- [From (iii) and (iv)] AB2 + AC2 = 2AD2 + 2CD2

Exercise1.7
1. In ABC, AP is a median. If AP = 7, AB2 + AC2 = 260, then find BC. Solution: In ABC, seg AP is the median ----- [Given] ----- [By Appollonius Principle] AB2 + AC2 = 2AP2 + 2PC2 260 = 2(7)2 + 2PC2 260 = 2 49 + 2PC2 260 = 98 + 2PC2 260 98 = 2PC2 162 = 2PC2 162 = PC2 2 81 = PC2 PC = 9 units ----- [Taking square roots]
38

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry
----- [P is the midpoint of seg BC.]

2.

BC = 2 PC BC = 2 9
BC = 18 units

In the adjoining figure, AB2 + AC2 = 122, BC = 10. Find the length of the median on side BC. Solution: seg AQ is the median on side BC. 1 BQ = BC ----- [Q is the midpoint of side BC.] 2 1 BQ = 10 2 BQ = 5 units In ABC, seg AQ is the median AB2 + AC2 = 2AQ2 + 2BQ2 ----- [By Appollonius theorem] 122 = 2AQ2 + 2(5)2 122 = 2AQ2 + 50 122 50 = 2AQ2 72 = 2AQ2 72 AQ2 = 2 2 AQ = 36 AQ = 6 units ----- [Taking square roots] 3. Length of the median on side BC = 6 units.

Adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 11 cm and 17 cm. If the length of one of its diagonals is 26 cm, find the length of the other diagonal. D 17 cm A Solution: Let ABCD be the parallelogram and its 11 cm diagonals AC and BD intersect each other at O. O

AB = 11 cm, AD = 17 cm, BD = 26cm


1 BO = BD 2 1 BO = 26 2 BO = 13cm In ABD, O is the midpoint of seg BD seg AO is the median AB2 + AD2 = 2AO2 + 2BO2 112 + 172 = 2AO2 + 2(13)2 121 + 289 = 2AO2 + 2 169 410 = 2(AO)2 + 338

C B ----- [Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.]

----- [Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.] ----- [By definition] ----- [By Appollonius theorem]

Similarity

39

Std. X: Geometry
410 338 = 2AO2 72 = 2AO2 72 = AO2 2 AO2 = 36 AO = 6 units 1 AO = AC 2 1 6 = AC 2 AC = 12 units
Length of the other diagonal = 12 units.

TARGET Publications

----- [Taking square roots] ----- [Diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other.]

4.

In the adjoining figure, LMN = 90 and LKN = 90, seg MK LN. Prove that R is the midpoint of seg MK. Proof: In LMN, L ----- [Given] mLMN = 90 seg MR hypotenuse LN ----- [Given] MR2 = LR RN ----- (i) [By property of geometric mean] In LKN, LKN = 90 ----- [Given] ----- [Given] seg KR hypotenuse LN 2 KR = LR RN ----- (ii) [By property of geometric mean] MR2 = KR2 ----- [From (i) and (ii)] MR = KR R is midpoint of seg MK. 5. seg AD is the median of ABC and AM BC. Prove that: i. ii. BC AC2 = AD2 + BC DM + 2 BC AB = AD BC DM + 2
2 2
2

M R

Proof: i. In ADC, ADC > 90 AC2 = AD2 + CD2 +2 CDDM 1 CD = BC 2

----- [Given] ----- (i) [By application of theorem of Pythagoras] ----- (ii) [D is the midpoint of seg BC.] ----- [From (i) and (ii)]


40

1 1 AC2 = AD2 + BC + 2 BC DM 2 2 BC AC = AD + + BCDM 2


2 2
2

BC AC = AD + BC DM + 2
2 2

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

ii.

In acute angled ABD, seg AM side BD AB2 = AD2 + BD2 2 BDDM 1 BD = BC 2


1 1 AB2 = AD2 + BC 2 BC DM 2 2 BC AB2 = AD2 + BCDM 2 BC AB = AD BCDM + 2
2 2
2
2 2

----- (i) [By application of theorem of Pythagoras] ----- (ii) [D is the midpoint of seg BC.] ----- [From (i) and (ii)]

6.

In the adjoining figure, PQR = 90, T is the mid point of side QR. Prove that: (PR)2 = 4(PT)2 3(PQ)2

Proof : In PQR, seg PT is the median PQ2 + PR2 = 2PT2 + 2QT2 PR2 = 2PT2 + 2QT2 PQ2 In PQT, PQT = 90 PT2 = PQ2 + QT2 QT2 = PT2 PQ2 PR2 = 2PT2 + 2[PT2 PQ2] PQ2 PR2 = 2PT2 + 2PT2 2PQ2 PQ2

----- [By definition] ----- [By Appollonius theorem] ----- (i) ----- [Given] ----- [By Pythagoras theorem] ----- (ii) ----- [From (i) and (ii)]

PR2 = 4PT2 3PQ2

ProblemSetI
1. In each of the following figures, you find two triangles. Indicate whether the triangles are similar. Give reasons in support of your answer. (i) (ii) (iii)

4.6 2.3 5 10
(iv)

5 3

5 3 2.5

60

60

(v)

(vi)

52

24

25 12 7 5 13

2.5

2.5 42 2.5

Similarity

41

Std. X: Geometry

TARGET Publications

Solution: i. The given two triangles are similar. Reason: A AB 4.6 2 = = ----- (i) P 2.3 1 PQ 4.6 2.3 8 4 BC 10 2 = = ----- (ii) 5 R Q QR 5 1 B 10 AC 8 2 = = ----- (iii) PR 4 1 In ABC and PQR, AB BC AC = = ----- [From (i), (ii) and (iii)] PQ QR PR ABC PQR ----- [By SSS test of similarity] Hence, the given two triangles are similar.

ii. The given two triangles are similar. Reason: 5 OA = ----- (i) OB 3 5 OD = ----- (ii) OC 3 In AOD and BOC, OA OD = ----- [From (i) and (ii)] OB OC AOD BOC ----- [Vertically opposite angles] AOD BOC ----- [By SAS test of similarity] Hence, the given two triangles are similar. iii. The given two triangles are similar. Reason: In APQ and ABC, APQ ABC ----- [Each is 60] PAQ BAC ----- [Common angle] APQ ABC ----- [By AA test of similarity] Hence, given two triangles are similar. iv. The given two triangles are not similar. A Reason: AB 24 2 = = ----- (i) PQ 12 1 24 BC 7 = ----- (ii) 5 QR AC 25 = ----- (iii) B PR 13 AB BC AC ----- [From (i), (ii) and (iii)] PR PQ QR ABC is not similar to PQR. Hence, the given two triangles are not similar.
42

A 5 O 3 C 3 B 5

A P
60 60

P 25 12 7 C Q 5 13 R

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

2.5 v. The given two triangles are similar. A D Reason: In ABD and CBD, 2.5 2.5 seg AB seg BC ----- [Each is 2.5 units] ----- [Each is 2.5 units] seg AD seg CD ----- [Common side] seg BD seg BD B C 2.5 ABD CBD ----- [By SSS test of congruency] ABD CBD ----- [Two congruent triangles are similar to each other] Hence, the given two triangles are similar. D vi. The given two triangles are not similar.
Reason: mADO = 52 mBCO = 42 ADO BCO Corresponding angles of ADO and BCO are not congruent. ADO is not similar to BCO. 2.
52

O
42

A triangle ABC with sides AB = 6 cm, BC = 12 cm and AC = 8 cm is enlarged to PQR such that its largest side is 18 cm. Find the ratio and hence, find the lengths of the remaining sides of PQR. Solution: P A
6cm 8cm 12cm

B
ABC PQR AB BC AC = = PR PQ QR 6 12 8 = = PR PQ 18 8 2 6 = = PR 3 PQ

18 cm

----- [A figure and its enlarged figure are similar] ----- [Corresponding sides of similar triangles]

----- (i)

Ratio of the sides is 2:3

6 2 = 3 PQ 3 6 PQ = 2
PQ = 9 cm
8 2 = PR 3 83 PR = 2

----- [From (i)]

----- [From (i)]

PR = 12 cm
43

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry


10.

In ABC and DEF, AB BC CA = = DE EF FD ABC DEF C F In ABC, A + B + C = 180 80 + 60 + C = 180 C = 180 140 C = 40 F = 40

----- [From (i), (ii) and (iii)] ----- [By SSS test of similarity] ----- (iv) [Corresponding angles of similar triangles] ----- [Sum of the measures of all angles of a triangle is 180.]

----- (v) ----- [From (iv) and (v)]

A vertical stick 12 m long casts a shadow 8 m long on the ground. At the same time a tower casts the shadow of length 40 m on the ground. Determine the height of the tower. Solution: P Let AB represent the vertical stick, AB = 12 m. A BC represents the shadow of the stick, BC = 8 m. PQ represents the height of the tower. 12 m QR represents the shadow of the tower. QR = 40 m Q B C 8m 40 m R ABC PQR


11.

AB BC AC = = PR PQ QR 12 8 = 40 PQ PQ = 12 5 = 60
Height of the tower = 60 m

----- [c.s.s.t.]

In each of the figure an altitude is drawn to the hypotenuse. The lengths of different segments are marked in each figure. Determine the value of x, y, z in each case. A Solution:

i.

In ABC, mABC = 90 seg BD hypotenuse AC

----- [Given] ----- [Given] ----- [By property of geometric mean] B ----- [Taking square roots]
x

4 D y
z

5 C

BD2 = AD DC y2 = 4 5
y =

45

y= 2 5

In ADB, mADB = 90 AB2 = AD2 + BD2 AB2 = 42 + y2

----- [Given] ----- [By Pythagoras theorem]


49

Similarity

Std. X: Geometry
x2 = 42 + (2 x2 =16 + 20 x2 = 36 x=6

TARGET Publications

5 )2

----- [Taking square roots]

ii.

In BDC, mBDC = 90 BC2 = BD2 + CD2 z2 = y2 + 52 z2 = (2 5 )2 + 52 z2 = 20 + 25 z2 = 45 z = 95 z= 3 5 In PSQ, m PSQ = 90 PQ2 = PS2 + QS2 62 = 42 + y2 36 = 16 + y2 y2 = 36 16 y2 = 20 y = 4 5
y= 2 5

----- [By Pythagoras theorem]

----- [Taking square roots]

----- [Given] ----- [By Pythagoras theorem]

P 4 6
y

S
x

Q ----- [Taking square roots]

In PSQ, m PSQ = 90 seg QS hypotenuse PR QS2 = PS SR y2 = 4 x

----- [Given] ----- [Given]

( 2 5 ) = 4x
2

20 = 4x 20 x= 4
x=5


50

In QSR, m QSR = 90 QR2 = QS2 + SR2 z2 = y2 + x2 z2 = (2 5 )2 + (5)2 z2 = 20 + 25 z2 = 45 z = 95 z=3 5

----- [Given] ----- [By Pythagoras theorem]

----- [Taking square roots]

Similarity

Std. X: Geometry
MR2 =

TARGET Publications


14.

128 2

MR2 = 64 ----- [Taking square roots] ----- [M is the midpoint of seg QR.]

MR = 8 units QR = 2MR QR = 2 8 = 16 units

QR = 16 units From the information given in the adjoining figure, Prove that: PM = PN = 3 a, where QR = a.

P a a S a R a N

Proof:

In PQR, QM = QR = a Q is midpoint of seg MR. seg PQ is the median PM + PR = 2PQ + 2QM PM + a


2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

----- [Given] ----- [By definition] ----- [By definition]

----- [By Appollonius theorem] PM2 = 4a2 a2 PM = 3 a

= 2a + 2a

PM + a = 4a2 PM2 = 3a2 Similarly, we can prove PN = 3a


3 a.

15.

PM = PN =

D and E are the points on sides AB and AC such that AB = 5.6, AD = 1.4, AC = 7.2 and AE = 1.8 Show that DE || BC. Proof:

B D A C

DB = AB AD DB = 5.6 1.4 DB = 4.2 units


AD 1.4 1 = = DB 4.2 3

----- [ADB]

1.8

E 7.2

----- (i) ----- [AEC]

EC = AC AE EC = 7.2 1.8 EC = 5.4 units


AE 1.8 1 = = EC 5.4 3

----- (ii)

In ABC, AD AE = DB EC
52

----- [From (i) and (ii)] ----- [By converse of B.P.T.]


Similarity

seg DE || seg BC

Std. X: Geometry
Let X be any point on side BC of ABC, XM and XN are drawn parallel to BA and CA. MN meets produced BC in T. Prove that TX2 = TBTC. N T ----- [Given] ----- (i) [By B.P.T.] A

TARGET Publications

18.

Proof: In TXM, seg BN || seg XM TB TN = NM BX In TMC, seg XN || seg CM TN TX = NM CX TB TX = CX BX BX CX = TB TX BX + TB CX + TX = TB TX TX TC = TB TX

----- [Given] ----- (ii) ----- [From (i) and (ii)] ----- [By invertendo] ----- [By componendo] ----- [TBX, TXC]

19.

TX2 = TBTC Two triangles, ABC and DBC, lie on the same side of the base BC. From a point P on BC, PQ || AB and PR || BD are drawn. They intersect AC at Q and DC at R. Prove that QR || AD. A Q B P R C D

Proof:

In ABC, seg PQ || side AB CP CQ = PB AQ In BCD, seg PR || side BD CP CR = PB RD In ACD, CQ CR = AQ RD


54

----- [Given] ----- (i) [By B.P.T.]

----- [Given] ----- (ii) [By B.P.T.]

----- [From (i) and (ii)] ----- [By converse of B.P.T.]


Similarity

seg QR || seg AD

Std. X: Geometry

TARGET Publications

The bisector of interior A of ABC meets BC in D. The bisector F A CD BD = . of exterior A meets BC produced in E. Prove that CE BE P Construction: Draw seg CP || seg AE meeting AB at P. Proof: D C B In ABC, Ray AD is bisector of BAC ----- [Given] AB BD = ----- (i) [By property of angle bisector of triangle] AC CD In ABE seg CP || seg AE ----- [Given] BC BP = ----- [B. P. T] CE AP BC + CE BP + AP = ----- [componendo] CE AP BE AB = ----- (ii) CE AP seg CP || seg AE, on transversal BF. FAE APC ----- (iii) [corresponding angles] seg CP || seg AE on transversal AC. CAE ACP ----- (iv) [alternate angles] Also, FAE CAE ----- (v) [seg AE bisects FAC] APC ACP ----- (vi) [From (iii), (iv) and (v)] In APC, APC ACP ----- [From (vi)] AP = AC ----- (vii) [By converse of isosecles triangle theorem] BE AB = ----- (viii) [from (ii) and (vii)] CE AC BD BE = ----- [from (i) and (viii) CD CE BD CD = ----- [alternendo] BE CE 22. 23. In the adjoining figure, ABCD is a square. The BCE on side BC and ACF on the diagonal AC are similar to each other. Then, show that A(BCE) =
Proof:
1 A(ACF). 2

F D C E A B 2 side of square]


56

ABCD is a square AC = 2 BC BCE ACF


A(BCE) A(ACF) A(BCE) A(ACF)

----- [Given] ----- (i) [ Diagonal of a square = ----- [Given]

= =

(BC) (AC) 2
(BC) 2 ( 2.BC) 2

----- (ii) [By theorem on areas of similar triangles] ----- [From (i) and (ii)]
Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

24.

A(BCE) BC 2 = 2BC2 A(ACF) A(BCE) 1 = 2 A(ACF) A(BCE) =


1 A(ACF) 2

S Two poles of height a meters and b metres are p meters apart. Prove that the height h drawn from the point of intersection N of the lines joining the top of each ab b pole to the foot of the opposite pole is metres. a+b Proof: R In PQR and NTR, PQR NTR ----- [Each is 90] PRQ NRT ----- [Common angle] PQR NTR ----- [By A.A. test of similarity] PQ QR = ----- [c.s.s.t.] NT TR a p = x h ph a= ----- (i) x In SRQ and NTQ, SRQ NTQ ----- [Each is 90] SQR NQT ----- [Common angle] SRQ ~ NTQ ----- [By AA test of similarity] SR QR = QT NT
b p = y h

P N h a T p

b=

ph y ph ph x y p2 h 2 xy
ph ph + x y

----- (ii)

Consider, ab = ab =

----- (iii)

Consider, a+b =

1 = ph + x
Similarity

1 y
57

Std. X: Geometry
a + b = ph

TARGET Publications

( y + x)
xy

----- (iv)

Dividing (iii) by (iv) p2 h 2 ab xy = ph ( x + y ) a+b xy p2 h 2 xy ab = a+b xy ph( x + y ) ph ab = a+b x+ y


ab ph = a+b p

----- [ x + y = p, RTQ]

h=

ab a+b

25.

In the adjoining figure, DEFG is a square and BAC = 90. Prove that: i. ii. iii. iv. AGF DBG AGF EFC DBG EFC DE2 = BDEC B ----- [Given] ----- [Opposite sides of a square] ----- (i) [BDEC] ----- [Each is 90] D G

A F

Proof:

DEFG is a square seg GF || seg DE seg GF || seg BC In AGF and DBG, GAF BDG AGF DBG

----- [Corresponding angles of parallel lines GF and BC] ----- (ii) [By AA test of similarity] ----- [Each is 90] ----- [Corresponding angles on parallel lines GF and BC] ----- (iii) [By AA test of similarity] ----- [From (ii) and (iii)] ----- [c.s.s.t.] ----- (iv) ----- (v) [Sides of a square] ----- [From (iv) and (v)]

ii

AGF DBG In AGF and EFC, GAF FEC AFG ECF

iii.

Since AGF EFC AGF EFC DBG EFC BD DG = FE EC

DG FE = BD EC But, DG = EF = DE
58

DE DE = DB EC DE = DBEC
2

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

OneMarkQuestions
1. In ABC and XYZ , AB BC AC = = , YZ ZX XY

then state by which correspondence are ABC and XYZ similar.


Solution:

ABC XYZ by ABC YZX. 2. In the figure, RP : PK = 3:2. Find


Solution:

A ( TRP ) . A ( TPK )

A ( TRP ) 3 = A ( TPK ) 2

----- [Triangles with equal heights]

3.

Write the statement of Basic Proportionality Theorem.

Solution:

If a line parallel to a side of a triangle intersects the other sides in two distrinct points, then the line divides those sides in proportion.

4.

What is the ratio among the length of the sides of any triangle of angles 30 60 90?

Solution:

The ratio is 1: 3 :2.

5.

What is the ratio among the length of the sides of any triangle of angles 45 45 90?

Solution:

The ratio is 1:1: 2 .

6.

State the test by which the given triangles are similar.


A C

B
Solution:

ABC EDC by SAS test.


Similarity

E
59

Std. X: Geometry
In the adjoining figure, find A ( PQR ) . A ( RSQ )
T

TARGET Publications

7.

Solution: A ( PQR ) PQ = ST A ( RSQ )

R ----- [Triangles with common base]

8. Draw a pair of triangles which are equal in areas. Solution: A


A(ABD) = A(ADC) C

9. State the relation between diagonal of a square and its side. Solution:
Diagonal of a square =

2 side.

10.

Adjacent sides of parallelogram are 11 cm and 17 cm respectively. If length of one diagonal is 26 cm, then using which theorem/property can we find the length of the other diagonal? Solution: We can find the length of the other diagonal by using Appollonius Theorem. 11. In the adjoining figure, using given information, find BC.
Solution:

A
60

24
30

3 BC = AC 2 3 24 = 2

----- [side opposite to 60]

BC = 12 3 units Find the value of MN, so that A(ABC) = A(LMN). A P M N


8 cm

12.

4 cm

B
Solution: MN = 10 cm 60

D
5 cm

Similarity


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry

AdditionalProblemsforPractice
BasedonExercise1.1
1. In the adjoining figure, QR = 12 and SR = 4. Find values of A ( PSR ) A ( PQS) i. ii. A ( PQR ) A ( PQR ) P

iii.

A ( PSR )

A ( PQS)

S 12

2.

The ratio of the areas of two triangles with the equal heights is 3 : 4. Base of the smaller triangle is 15 cm. Find the corresponding base of the larger triangle. In the adjoining figure, seg AE seg BC and seg DF seg BC. Find A ( ABC ) A ( DBF ) ii. i. A ( DBC ) A ( DFC ) A D

3.

iii.

A ( AEC ) A ( DBF )

E A

BasedonExercise1.2
4. In the adjoining figure, seg EF | | side AC, AB = 18, AE = 10, BF = 4. Find BC. In the adjoining figure, seg DE | | side AC and seg DC | | side AP. BE BC = Prove that EC CP In the adjoining figure, PM = 10, MR = 8, QN = 5, NR = 4. State with reason whether line MN is parallel to side PQ or not ? In the adjoining figure, Ray AD is the angle bisector of BAC of ABC. From the given information find value of x. P E B F A D B 10 M Q 5 B 10 15 A 8. 18 D 8 N 4 R P C

5.

6.

7.

x
C

Bisectors of B and C in ABC meet each other at P. Line AP cuts the side BC at Q. AP AB + AC . = Then prove that PQ BC
61

Similarity

Std. X: Geometry
L Q M P

TARGET Publications

BasedonExercise1.3
9. In the adjoining figure, MPL NQL, MP = 21, ML = 35, NQ = 18, QL = 24. Find PL and NL. In the adjoining figure, PQR and RST are similar under PQR STR, PQ = 12, PR = 15, QR 3 = . TR 2 Find ST and SR.

10.

R S

11.

In the map of a triangular field, sides are shown by 8 cm, 7 cm and 6 cm. If the largest side of the triangular field is 400 m, find the remaining sides of the field. EFG RST and EF = 8, FG = 10, EG = 6, RS = 4. Find ST and RT. In ABCD, side BC | | side AD. Diagonals AC and BD intersect each other at P. P B C A D

12. 13.

[Oct 09]

1 1 If AP = AC, then prove that DP = BP. 3 2

BasedonExercise1.4
14. If PQR PMN and 9A(PQR) = 16A(PMN), then find
QR . MN

15. 16. 17. 18.

LMN RST and A(LMN) = 100 sq. cm, A(RST) = 144 sq. cm, LM = 5 cm. Find RS. ABC and DEF are equilateral triangles. A(ABC):A(DEF) = 1:2 and AB = 4 cm. Find DE. If the areas of two similar triangles are equal, then prove that they are congruent. In the adjoining figure, seg DE | | side AB, DC = 2BD, A(CDE) = 20 cm2. Find A( ABDE). B A E

C
Similarity

62


TARGET Publications

Std. X : Geometry
P

BasedonExercise1.5
19. In the adjoining figure, PQR = 90, seg QS side PR. Find values of x, y and z. 8 S 10 R

y
Q

x z
B

20.

In the adjoining figure, ABC = ADC = 90, seg BD seg AC. Prove that: E is the midpoint of seg BD.

E D

21.

In the adjoining figure, PRQ = 90, seg RS seg PQ. PS PR 2 Prove that : = 2 QS QR

P P 30 Q

S 48 S

22.

In the adjoining figure, PQR = 90, PSR = 90. Find: i. PR and ii. RS In the adjoining figure, ABCD is a trapezium, seg AB || seg DC, seg DE side AB, seg CF side AB. Find: i. DE and CF ii.

40 7

23.

D 10 A BF iii. AB. 6 E

C 17 F B

24.

Starting from Anils house, Peter first goes 50m to south, then 75m to west, then 62 m to North and finally 40 m to east and reaches Salims house. Then find the distance between Anils house and Salims house.

BasedonExercise1.6
25. In the adjoining figure, S = 90, T = x, R = (x + 30), RT = 16. Find: i. RS ii. R
x+30

16

ST S

T
63

Similarity

Std. X: Geometry
DEF is an equilateral triangle. seg DP side EF, and EPF. Prove that : DP2 = 3 EP2

TARGET Publications

26.

[Sept 08]

P
9

F
Q

27.

In the adjoining figure, PQRV is a trapezium, seg PQ || seg VR. SR = 6, PQ= 9, Find VR.

[March 2013]

P 60

45 6 R

28.

In the adjoining figure, PQR is an equilateral triangle, seg PM side QR. Prove that: PQ2 = 4QM2 Q

BasedonExercise1.7
29. 30. 31. In PQR, seg PM is a median. PM = 9 and PQ2 + PR2 = 290. Find QR. Adjacent sides of a parallelogram are 11 cm and 17 cm. Its one diagonal is 26 cm. Find its other diagonal. In ABC, ABC = 90, AB = 12, BC = 16 and seg BP is a median. Find BP. 14. 15. ii.
4 3 6 cm

Answerstoadditional problemsforpractice
1. i. iii. 2. 3. 20 cm

1 3 2 1

2 3

16. 18. 19. 22. 23.

4 2 cm 25 cm2

4. 7. 9. 10. 11. 12.


64

AE BF ii. DF FC EC AE iii. BF DF 9 units 12 units PL = 28 units and NL = 30 units ST = 8 units and SR = 10 units Remaining sides of field are 350 m and 300 m resp. ST = 5 units and RT = 3 units
i.

24. 25. 27. 29. 30. 31.

x=4 i. ii. i. ii. iii. 37 m


i.

5 units, y = 12units and z = 6 5 units 50 units 14 units DE = 8 units and CF = 8 units BF = 15 units AB = 28 units
8 units ii. 8 3 units

(15 + 6 3 ) units 16 units 12 cm 10 units

Similarity