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Visvesvaraya Technological University Department of MBA Internal test 2 International Marketing Management Max: Marks: 100 Date: 28/06/2013

All Questions carries one mark. Answer any 100 Questions

1. The salient lesson for international marketers at the beginning of the 21st century is: A) Expect the unexpected. B) Beware of guests bringing gifts. C) There is no such thing as a free lunch. D) Dance with the one that brought you. E) When in Rome, do as the Romans do. 2. What is required for a firm to be successful in international marketing? A) Political connections B) Entrepreneurial salespeople C) A thorough and complete commitment D) Past success in domestic marketing E) Monopoly control 3. Which of the following would be considered to be an uncontrollable element in the foreign environment? A) channels of distribution B) research C) economic forces D) promotion E) product elements 4. Such elements as geography and infrastructure, structure of distribution, and cultural forces are part of which of the following international marketing task environments? A) foreign environment (uncontrollable) B) foreign environment (controllable) C) domestic environment (uncontrollable) D) domestic environment (controllable) E) domestic environment (marketing mix variables) 5. _____________ is generally a problem when managers from affluent countries work with managers and markets in less-affluent countries. A) Xenophobia B) Racism C) Cultural backlash D) Ethnocentrism E) Global redlining 6. To avoid errors in business decisions, it is necessary to conduct a ______________ that isolates the SRC influences and to maintain a vigilance regarding ethnocentrism. A) cross-cultural analysis B) global research effort C) search of the Internet D) purge E) parallel cultural simulation

7. Which of the following would be considered to be the key component in developing successful marketing strategies and avoiding major marketing blunders? A) a good product B) a good advertising campaign C) information D) distribution logistics E) cross-cultural pricing 8. Which of the following is NOT part of the standard steps in the research process? A) Determine the sources of information. B) Consider the costs and benefits of the research effort. C) Consult with customers regarding research design. D) Gather the relevant data. E) Analyze, interpret, and summarize the results. 9. In general, the _____________ of recorded secondary data increase as the level of economic development increases. A) amount B) availability and accuracy C) cost D) error factor E) all of the above 10. All of the following can be a problem of drawing a random sample in the international environment EXCEPT: A) no accurate maps of population centers. B) incomplete and out-of-date telephone directories. C) no other listings that can serve as sampling frames. D) no officially recognized census of population. E) lack of randomness in the population. 11. The _______________ is the most universal survey research problem in foreign countries. A) poverty level B) literacy level C) language barrier D) government's control E) cost of research 12. With respect to global marketing management, the catch phrase of the 1990s was: A) "standardization versus globalization." B) "globalization versus localization." C) " global integration versus local responsiveness." D) "communication versus Internet relationships." E) none of the above. 13. From the marketing perspective, __________ is always best. A) responsiveness B) fairness C) communication D) customization E) effort 14. All of the following are considered to be benefits of global marketing EXCEPT: A) transfer of experience and know-how across countries. B) global diversity of marketing talent.

C) gaining access to the toughest customers. D) financial benefits by spreading the corporate portfolio. E) All of the above are benefits. 15. ___________ is conducted at the highest levels of management and deals with products, capital, and research, and long- and short-term goals of the company. A) Organizational planning B) Global planning C) Tactical planning D) Strategic planning E) Functional planning 16. Which of the following market entry modes is primarily a partnership between two (or more) international companies where the result is a new legal entity? A) direct exporting B) indirect exporting C) licensing D) joint venturing E) direct investment F) direct investment 17. Quality can be defined on two dimensions. One of these dimensions is performance quality. What is the other dimension described in the text? A) stress tolerance B) market-perceived quality C) documented quality D) tested quality from testing agencies E) engineering quality 18. The bundle of satisfactions (utilities) that a consumer receives is a good definition for a(n): A) product. B) advertising. C) manufacturing. D) distribution. E) price. 19. The process by which a(n) ___________ spreads is called product diffusion. A) price B) communication C) advertisement D) innovation E) service 20. The goals of the diffusion researcher and the marketer are to shorten the time lag between: A) the time the product is invented and the time it can be produced. B) the introduction of the product and its widespread adoption. C) the time that the product is made and the time that it reaches the mass media. D) the time that the product is made and the time that it can be modified (adapted). E) none of the above 21. If a company wished to reduce the degree of economic and/or social risk associated with a product's use, they would attempt to increase the product's _______________.

A) relative advantage B) compatibility C) complexity D) trialability E) observability 22. Which of the following elements of the product component model contains the product's design features and product platform? A) core component B) packaging component C) support services component D) communication component E) global component 23. All of the following are considered to be among the four unique distinguishable characteristics of services EXCEPT: A) intangibility. B) inseparability. C) heterogeneity. D) homogeneity. E) perishability. 24. The influence that the country of manufacture, assembly, or design has on a consumer's positive or negative perception of a product is called the: A) standardized goods effect. B) country-of-usage effect. C) country-of-origin effect. D) shoddy goods theory. E) xenophobia (fear of foreigners) syndrome 25. The services industry worldwide is a growing and dynamic market. The largest component of the INDIA international services sector is ___________. A) transportation B) financial services C) travel D) entertainment E) commercial, professional, and technical services 26. When demand is dependent on another source, it is called: A) segmented demand. B) kinked demand. C) inelastic demand. D) elastic demand. E) derived demand. 27. The majority of Central Africa would belong in which of the following stages of economic development? A) the traditional society B) preconditions for takeoff C) take-off D) drive to maturity E) the age of mass consumption 28. Which of the following, for all practical purposes, defines a product's quality? A) the manufacturer

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B) the wholesaler C) the retailer D) the publicist E) the buyer Which of the following were first to provide at least some rules for fair play governing trade in services? A) the United Nations B) the World Court C) the International Monetary Fund D) the European Union E) GATT and NAFTA Why is the marketing of industrial products and services a natural fit with relationship marketing? A) because of the low cost of relationship marketing B) because of the basic nature of industrial marketing's closeness to its customers C) because it is mandated by most governments that allow international marketing within their borders D) because it is the only way most industrial marketers know how to do business E) none of the above When importers buy products from distributors in one country and sell them in another to distributors who are not part of the manufacturer's regular distribution system, _______________ has occurred. A) indirect marketing B) parallel importing C) black marketing D) multi-channel exporting E) multi-channel importing Which of the following is another name for parallel importing? A) indirect marketing B) black marketing C) gray marketing D) simultaneous marketing E) preferred marketing Which of the following practices can encourage parallel importing? A) image advertising B) cooperative advertising C) comparative advertising D) exclusive distribution E) intensive distribution If a firm is only concerned with the marginal or incremental cost of producing goods to be sold in overseas markets, it is engaged in ____________ pricing. A) variable-cost B) full-cost C) breakeven D) multi-level E) predatory

35. Which of the following pricing strategies is known to stimulate market growth and capture market share by deliberately offering products at low prices? A) skimming pricing B) penetration pricing C) demand-based pricing D) predatory pricing E) competition-based pricing 36. When a domestic currency is weak which of the following export strategies is appropriate? A) Engage in generic branding. B) Use aggressive pricing to reduce excess inventory. C) Expand distribution network. D) Increase production and use marginal-cost pricing. E) Use cost-plus pricing approach. 37. __________ is a pricing tool that is often used when countries with a stronger economies trade with countries that face a shortage of hard currencies. A) Sprial pricing B) Partial-pricing C) No load dumping D) Countertrading E) Currency zone 38. Which of the following is one of the main causes of price escalation for imported products? A) long channels of distribution B) advertising costs C) productivity issues D) tariffs E) quality control F) . 39. Another name for intracompany pricing (prices for goods are transferred from a company's operations or sales units in one country to its units elsewhere) is: A) penetration pricing. B) skimming pricing. C) demand-based pricing. D) monopoly pricing. E) transfer pricing. 40. The marketing promotion element that has as its purpose the stimulation of consumer purchases and improvement of retailer or middleman effectiveness and cooperation, is: A) advertising. B) public relations. C) sales promotion. D) direct selling. E) personal selling. F) 41. In which of the following steps of the international communication process model would a message's effectiveness be checked? A) noise B) encoding C) a message channel D) decoding

E) feedback 42. Which of the following is another name for parallel importing? A) indirect marketing B) black marketing C) gray marketing D) simultaneous marketing E) preferred marketing 43. Which of the following practices can encourage parallel importing? A) image advertising B) cooperative advertising C) comparative advertising D) exclusive distribution E) intensive distribution 44. If a firm is only concerned with the marginal or incremental cost of producing goods to be sold in overseas markets, it is engaged in ____________ pricing. A) variable-cost B) full-cost C) breakeven D) multi-level E) predatory 45. Which of the following pricing strategies is known to stimulate market growth and capture market share by deliberately offering products at low prices? A) skimming pricing B) penetration pricing C) demand-based pricing D) predatory pricing E) competition-based pricing 46. When there is a significant difference in price between the exporting country and the importing country, this is called: A) kinked demand. B) monopolistic pricing. C) price escalation. D) price de-escalation. E) price oligopoly. 47. When a domestic currency is weak which of the following export strategies is appropriate? A) Engage in generic branding. B) Use aggressive pricing to reduce excess inventory. C) Expand distribution network. D) Increase production and use marginal-cost pricing. E) Use cost-plus pricing approach. 48. __________ is a pricing tool that is often used when countries with a stronger economies trade with countries that face a shortage of hard currencies. A) Sprial pricing B) Partial-pricing C) No load dumping D) Countertrading E) Currency zone 49. Which of the following is one of the main causes of price escalation for imported products?

A) long channels of distribution B) advertising costs C) productivity issues D) tariffs E) quality control 50. If a marketer chooses to ship unassembled goods to a free trade zone in an importing country, the marketer can lower costs in all of the following ways EXCEPT: A) tariffs may be lower. B) labor costs may be lower. C) ocean transportation rates may be affected. D) because of possible local content (such as packaging) tariffs may be further reduced. E) all of the above are ways to lower costs. 51. Another name for intracompany pricing (prices for goods are transferred from a company's operations or sales units in one country to its units elsewhere) is: A) penetration pricing. B) skimming pricing. C) demand-based pricing. D) monopoly pricing. E) transfer pricing. 52. All of the following trends are MAJOR forces in influencing the future shape of international business EXCEPT the: A. growing acceptance of the free market system among developing countries. B. evolution of large emerging markets. C. rapid growth of regional free trade areas. D. recent resurgence of nationalism. 53. Multinational firms: expanded manufacturing employment much faster than their domestic rivals. B. grew sales twice as fast as INDIA domestic firms. C. earned significantly lower returns on assets than domestic firms. D. earned significantly lower returns on equity than domestic firms. 54. Which of the following is the MOST important factor in an international marketer's success? A. creation of a new marketing concept B. the ability to adapt to different marketing environments C. development of new marketing processes D. the evolution of unique marketing principles 55. The controllable elements of the marketer's task includes all of the following EXCEPT: A. promotion. B. product. C. competition. D. distribution. 56. All of the following are elements in the uncontrollable environment faced by the international marketer EXCEPT: A. competition. B. politics. A.

C. the level of technology. D. promotion. 57. Marketing relativism is a subtle, and unintended, result of: A. formal education. B. cross-cultural experience. C. cultural conditioning. D. international experience. 58. The international marketer's ability to assess foreign cultures in an objective, unbiased manner is often inhibited by unconscious reliance upon his or her: A. ethocentric education. B. self-reference criterion. C. repetitive action syndrome. D. cross-cultural criterion. 59. Which of the following is MOST important to the identification of future world markets? A. the self-reference criterion B. a knowledge of global economic, social, and political trends C. a knowledge of world culture and history D. objectivity and tolerance 60. In which of the following phases of international marketing involvement is characterized by the firm treating the entire world, including the home country, as a single market? A. international marketing B. global marketing C. ethnocentric marketing D. cross-cultural marketing 61. Global "homogenization" is PRIMARILY the result of: A. the influence of mass media and communications. B. the work of the United Nations. C. the fall of the Soviet Union. D. the emergence of the European Economic Community. 62. Global marketing has been made possible by: A. the dissolution of national borders. B. the emergence of similar segments having similar demands in an increasing number of different countries. C. the triumph of Indian culture and democracy the world over. D. the creation of a "new world order" by the United Nations. 63. The last half of the 20th century is unique as a result of: A. increasing economic interdependence among the nations of the world. B. increasing opportunities for international trade. C. increasing potential global demand. D. All of the above. 64. According to World Bank estimates for the year 2010, the world's largest economy will be in: A. China. B. Japan. C. the United States. D. the European Community.

65. The balance-of-payments statement: A. employs single-entry accounting conventions. B. typically reflects the global financial dealings for a particular period, usually a year. C. can be, and often is, out of balance. D. is primarily a political, rather than economic, document. 66. All of the following items would appear on the positive side of a nation's balance-of-payments statement EXCEPT: A. spending by tourists overseas. B. export sales. C. dividends and/or interest from foreign investments. D. new foreign investments in the United States. 67. When the value of the INDIA Rupee declines relative to foreign currencies,: A. INDIA imports tend to increase. B. INDIA exports tend to increase. C. the demand for foreign-made goods is enhanced. D. the World Bank will automatically place tariffs on foreign goods to protect INDIA imports. 68. Ultimately, the costs of tariffs are borne by: A. the consumer. B. foreign export firms. C. the World Bank. D. foreign importing firms. 69. Japan has been particularly successful in its attempts to restrict imports through the adroit use of: A. standards. B. quotas. C. boycotts. D. embargoes. 70. For its 132 members, binding decisions regarding disputes under GATT and other trade agreements will be issued by the recently established: A. World Court. B. Import/Export Bank. C. World Trade Organization. D. United Nations Trade Council. 71. The practice of selling at a lower price in a foreign market than in other markets or selling below average total costs is defined by the WTO as: A. a boycott. B. dumping. C. predatory marketing. D. an illegal boycott. 72. In Japan, a web of interlocking, long-term relationships between a large manufacturer and its primary suppliers is called a: A. production matrix. B. manufacturing collective. C. production keiretsu. D. production web. 73. A nation's "program for survival" is BEST explained by its:

A. history. B. economic system. C. geography. D. culture. 74. The study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and resources is, by definition, the study of: A. geography. B. history. C. culture. D. topography. 75. All of the following nations are characterized by extremes in topographic and climatic variations which impact marketing efforts EXCEPT: A. Canada. B. Japan. C. Russia. D. India. 76. The impact of globalization upon traditional isolationist attitudes is exemplified by: A. the Eurotunnel. B. the Oresund Link. C. the Colonia Bridge. D. All of the above. 77. China's pursuit of economic progress will displace 1.3 million Chinese when the _______________ is completed. A. Chin-Wu Dam B. Three Gorges Dam C. Xi-Ming Dam D. Four Dragons 78. The global rush toward industrialization and economic growth has spawned: A. disrupted ecosystems. B. inadequate hazardous waste management. C. industrial pollution. D. All of the above. 79. The decade of the 1990s has been appropriately called the: A. Decade of globalization. B. Decade of the Environment. C. Decade of the Woman. D. Decade of Decadence. 80. The task of achieving economic development while ensuring the safety of the global environment is the challenge of: A. the Global Ecosystem Consortium. B. continuous development. C. sustainable development. D. constructive development. 81. Which of the following "resources" is inexhaustible? A. technology B. petroleum C. iron ore

D. natural gas 82. Which of the following countries is the largest single consumer of the world's aluminum output? A. France B. Germany C. Japan D. the United States 83. The key to understanding the culture of a country is found in the study of its: A. history. B. political structures. C. economic institutions. D. religious institutions. 84. By its very nature, history is: A. objective. B. subjective. C. altruistic. D. realistic. 85. In its broadest interpretation, the idea that Indians were a chosen people ordained by God to create a model society was at the root of the: A. Indian Manifesto. B. concept of Manifest Destiny. C. Monroe Doctrine. D. Constitution.

86. The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine basically held that: A. the Monroe Doctrine had gone "too far." B. whatever is good for the United States is justifiable. C. the business of business is business. D. government should not intervene in business. 87. One of the first Indian global marketing ventures involved the exportation of: A. automobiles. B. petroleum. C. soybeans. D. ice. 88. Which of the following is BEST described as the "human-made portion of the human environment"? A. topography B. climate C. geography D. culture 89. The marketer would be well-advised to approach the study of foreign marketing from the viewpoint of the: A. linguist. B. economist. C. psychiatrist. D. anthropologist. 90. Technology and economics are the prime components of: A. social institutions.

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material culture. aesthetics. social organization.

91. Which of the following cultural elements are MOST closely associated with the task of "passing" culturally acceptable behaviors from one generation to the next? A. linguistics B. aesthetics C. material culture D. social institutions 92. The religious beliefs and superstitions of a culture are part of which of the following cultural elements? A. humans and the universe B. material culture C. aesthetics D. linguistics 93. With which of the following elements of culture must an advertising copywriter by MOST concerned? A. material culture B. linguistics C. social institutions D. economics and technology 94. With which of the following types of "meanings" must an advertising copywriter preparing messages for a foreign market be MOST concerned? A. object-tied meanings B. idiomatic meanings C. "dictionary" meanings D. personal meanings 95. The relationship that exists between the various elements which compose a nation's culture is BEST described as: A. hierarchical. B. isolated. C. synergistic. D. systematic. 96. To have maximum usefulness, factual knowledge about a country: A. should be accepted without question. B. should be interpreted according to one's own SRC. C. should be interpreted within the context of the culture. D. must be discounted as ethnocentric exaggeration. 97. Interpretative knowledge about a culture is MOST likely to be misunderstood when: A. the marketer has too few facts to analyze. B. the marketer has too many facts to analyze. C. the assistance of "locals" is sought. D. the marketer relies on his/her SRC. 98. Which of the following adjectives is MOST appropriate to apply to foreign cultures? A. correct B. inferior C. different

D. unintelligible 99. Mistakes in interpreting the cultural behaviors of foreigners are USUALLY the result of: A. conscious bias against the foreign culture. B. the unconscious reliance on an SRC based on one's "home" culture. C. efforts to deceive Indian managers. D. language difficulties. 100. By its nature, culture is: A. dynamic. B. isolationist. C. ethnocentric. D. static. 101. With regard to international marketing, the marketer is BEST described as a(n): A. businessperson. B. capitalist. C. interventionist. D. change agent. 102. Culture can be described as: A. a learned behavior. B. a distinguishing characteristic of human society. C. composed of a group of synergistic elements. D. All of the above are correct. 103. Which of the following is the MOST critical factor for success in international marketing? A. adaptation B. economic superiority C. a strong legal system. D. military strength. 104. The self-reference criterion is MOST significant in the area of: A. business law. B. constitutional law. C. business customs. D. international law. 105. Which of the following cultural behaviors is typically the MOST difficult to translate across cultures? A. humor B. trust C. friendship D. contract law 106. The majority of offensive behavior on the part of foreign businesspeople results from the violation of cultural: A. mandates and imperatives. B. imperatives and exclusives. C. adiaphora and imperatives. D. mandates and adiaphora. 107. In Middle Eastern countries, the top executive makes all decisions and prefers to deal ONLY with: A. female middle managers. B. other executives with decision making powers. C. decision teams composed of functional experts.

D. male middle managers. 108. Japanese firms tend to favor: A. highly centralized decision making by the top executive. B. group decision making at the top management level. C. highly decentralized decision making. D. function oriented decision making. 109. One's personal life and company life are perceived as being synonymous in: A. Japan. B. England. C. the United States. D. Latin America. 110. Communication mastery requires mastery of: A. language. B. customs. C. culture. D. All of the above. 111. Which of the following cultures is the MOST time conscious? A. Latin Indian B. Japanese C. Middle Eastern D. North Indian 112. M-Time is MOST consistent with a(n): A. low-context culture. B. high-context culture. C. older culture. D. emerging culture. 113. Differences in business customs and culture are MOST critical in: A. negotiations. B. social encounters. C. travel D. obtaining meals and lodging. 114. In which of the following cultures are female executives MOST common? A. Asian B. Indian C. Latin Indian D. Arab 115. Small payments that are merely intended to facilitate or expedite the normal, lawful performance of a duty regularly performed by a foreign official is BEST described as: A. extortion. B. an agent's fee. C. lubrication. D. subornation. 116. Ethical business conduct should normally exist: A. at a level well above the minimum required by law. B. at a level required by law. C. at a uniform level set by the United Nations. D. at a level somewhat below the legal minimum.

117. The powers exercised by a state in relation to other countries and the supreme powers exercised over its citizens is described by the term: a. sovereignty. b. independence. c. isolation. d. democracy. 118. The acceptance of the terms of the NAFTA agreement: a. was enforced upon signatory nations by the United States. b. represented a voluntary abridgement of the sovereign rights of signatory states. c. was forced upon Japan and Germany following World War II. d. signifies the weakness of signatory states. 119. The intense pride the people hold for their country is best described as: a. sovereignty. b. nationalism. c. isolationism. d. colonialism. 120. Feelings of economic nationalism may be expressed in: a. tariffs. b. import restrictions. c. exhortations to buy only domestic products. d. All of the above. 121. Which of the following represents the MOST severe form of political risk? a. import restrictions b. price controls c. exchange controls d. forced equity transfers 122. The seizing of a company's assets without payment is called: a. domestication. b. expropriation. c. confiscation. d. nationalism. 123. Which of the following describes the act of a foreign government seizing the assets of a multinational corporation with only a partial reimbursement of their value? a. confiscation b. nationalism c. domestication d. expropriation 124. The transfer of foreign investments to national control and ownership through a series of government decrees is called: a. expropriation. b. nationalism. c. domestication. d. confiscation. 125. The ultimate goal of domestication is to: a. sell off foreign-owned assets at a profit. b. punish foreign firms for violation of domestic laws. c. to share more ownership and management with nationals. d. pirate foreign technology.

126. The shortage of funds available for foreign trade is at the root of: a. expropriation. b. exchange controls. c. confiscation. d. domestication. 127. Some nations require any product sold within the country to contain domestic components under: a. tax controls. b. local-content laws. c. price controls. d. import restrictions. 128. Host governments may enforce local-content requirements by enforcing: a. tax controls. b. price controls. c. import restrictions. d. nationalistic labor programs. 129. One nation may "punish" another by stopping all trade with it by imposing: a. price controls. b. local-content laws. c. import restrictions. d. boycotts. 130. Good corporate citizenship requires that Indian firms do all of the following EXCEPT: a. act as a "good guest" in the host company. b. share the benefits of the enterprise with the host country. c. attempt to Indianize the host company. d. provide cultural training for its executives. 131. An MNC may reduce its financial and political risk in a host country by sharing those risks with a domestic company through the use of: a. import controls. b. a joint venture. c. local-content laws. d. loss insurance. 132. Which of the following eliminates almost all forms of political risk? a. licensing b. joint ventures c. expanding the investment base d. domestic control of marketing and distribution 133. Which of the following INDIA government agencies is MOST directly charged with assisting Indian firms overseas? a. the United Nations b. the Agriculture Department c. the Department of the Treasury d. the Department of Commerce 134. All of the following serve as a basic foundation of the world's legal system EXCEPT: a. Islamic law. b. the Judeo-Christian ethic. c. socialist law.

d. common law. 135. England, the United States, and Canada operate under: a. . the common law. b. Islamic law. c. socialist law. d. civil law. 136. The basis for common law is: a. tradition. b. past practices. c. legal precedents. d. All of the above. 137. Which of the following is considered to be the MOST "inclusive" of the major forms of law? a. code law. b. Islamic law. c. common law. d. civil law. 138. The MOST striking difference between common law and code law systems is found in those laws which govern: a. contract rights and duties. b. intellectual property rights. c. the payment of interest. d. the sale of land. 139. Under code law, the ownership of intellectual property is established by: a. title. b. possession. c. use. d. registration. 140. The World Court handles legal disputes: a. between governments. b. between a company and a government. c. between two companies. d. between private citizens and a company. 141. A nonbinding agreement between parties to resolve disputes by asking a third party to mediate differences is the basis of: a. litigation. b. adjudication. c. conciliation. d. arbitration. 142. Which of the following is the LEAST preferred means of settling an international commercial dispute? a. arbitration b. conciliation c. negotiation d. litigation 143. Even if a firm "wins" an international lawsuit, many experts believe that it still lost because of the: a. costs incurred. b. frustrating delays involved.

c. extended aggravation. d. combined impact of all of the considerations above. 144. Which of the following "costs" of litigation is MOST likely to be overlooked? a. damage to the firm's image or public relations efforts. b. difficulty in collecting any judgement c. fear of unfair treatment in foreign courts d. the high cost of litigation 145. Within the European union, a patent holder forfeits protection if the patent is not used for: a. five years. b. ten years. c. one year. d. three years. 146. The KEY component in developing successful marketing strategies is: A. information. B. advertising. C. packaging. D. a low price. 147. All of the following are basic limitations faced by all market researchers EXCEPT: a. time. b. cost. c. government prohibitions. d. the current state of the art. 148. After the research problem has been defined, the researcher should next: a. prepare the final report. b. immediately begin the collection of primary data. c. analyze, interpret, and present results. d. identify and evaluate sources of secondary data. 149. Data relevant to a marketing research problem that has been collected, analyzed, and made available by a source or agency other than the researching firm is called: a. primary data. b. secondary data. c. public data. d. prototypical data. 150. Assuming that secondary data is available in a foreign country, a researcher must be concerned with: a. the validity of secondary data. b. the reliability of secondary data. c. the comparability of secondary data. d. ALL of the above are critical factors. 151. The tendency of many foreign nations to collect socioeconomic data on an infrequent and unpredictable schedule creates problems relevant to the: a. currency of secondary data. b. validity of secondary data. c. reliability of secondary data. d. cost of secondary data. 152. Checking the consistency of one set of secondary data against other data of known accuracy is an effective and often used way of judging: a. availability of secondary data.

b. validity of secondary data. c. comparability of secondary data. d. accessibility of secondary data. 153. In general, the availability and accuracy of recorded secondary data: a. increase as the level of economic development increases. b. decrease as the level of economic development increases. c. increase as the level of economic development decreases. d. exhibit no relationship with the level of economic development. 154. Data which is collected for the first time by a decision maker interested in a specific problem is called: a. secondary data. b. specified data. c. primary data. d. published data. 155. The use of structured, closed-ended questions is the "hallmark" of: a. primary research. b. secondary research. c. qualitative research. d. quantitative research. 156. Open-ended, in-depth questions which elicit unstructured responses which reflect the respondent's thoughts and feelings on a subject are at the core of: a. primary research. b. quantitative research. c. secondary research. d. qualitative research. 157. Which of the following types of research is MOST likely to be used to assist in the problemdefinition stage of the marketing research process? a. quantitative research b. survey research c. qualitative research d. statistical research 158. The GREATEST problem of sampling stems from: a. the difficulty of adequate translation. b. the use of different statistical techniques in various countries. c. the lack of adequate demographic data and sampling lists. d. the lack of trained interviewers. 159. The most universal survey sampling problem in foreign countries stems from: a. different legal systems. b. the language barrier. c. the use of different statistical concept. d. universal bans against door-to-door interviewing. 160. An increase in national production that results in an increase in the average per capita gross domestic product (GDP) is at the core of the concept of: a. market planning. b. environmental dynamics. c. economic development. d. market growth. 161. Besides a simple increase in per capita GDP, economic development usually implies:

a. a higher degree of wealth concentration. b. a widespread distribution of the increased income. c. an increase in the "have-not" class. d. political upheaval. 162. According to Walt Rostow, all of the following stages are associated with underdeveloped countries except: a. the traditional society. b. the preconditions for take-off. c. the take-off. d. the drive to maturity. 163. In which of the following stages of economic development can an economy demonstrate the technological and entrepreneurial skills to produce, of not everything, anything it chooses to produce? a. take-off societies b. mass-consumption societies c. societies driving to maturity d. traditional societies 164. The social overhead capital of a nation defines its: a. environmental status. b. infrastructure. c. gross domestic product. d. cultural heritage. 165. From the standpoint of the international marketer, a foreign nation's infrastructure is best described as: a. an elemental factor. b. an uncontrollable factor. c. a congruent factor. d. a controllable factor. 166. The most effective arbitrator between a nation's productive capacity and consumer demand is: a. marketing. b. government. c. culture. d. its economy. 167. Demand "creation" first becomes significant during which of the following stages in the evolution of the marketing process? a. commercial transaction b. mass production c. mass distribution d. small-scale manufacturing 168. Middlemen exercised channel control during which of the following stages in the evolution of the marketing process? a. agricultural b. mass production c. commercial transaction d. small-scale manufacturing 169. Which of the following nations enjoys the highest GDP per capita? a. America b. Japan

c. Germany d. France 170. Which of the following nations accounted for the largest percentage of both imports and exports in Latin America? a. America b. Japan c. Britain d. France 171. The fastest growing market in the world is found in: a. Europe. b. Asia. c. Latin America. d. Canada. 172. In large measure, the economic future of China is tied to the manner in which it treats: a. Japan b. Taiwan c. Hong Kong d. Taipai 173. The primary reason for the formation of multinational market regions is: A. political. B. social. C. cultural. D. economic. 174. A successful economic union requires favorable: a. economic factors. b. political/cultural factors. c. geographic factors. d. All of the above. 175. Which of the following is the most fully integrated form of regional cooperation? a. a political union b. a common market c. a customs union d. a free-trade area 176. Which of the following is the newest multinational market group to appear in the European region? a. the European Union b. the European Community c. the European Free Trade Area d. the Commonwealth of Independent States 177. The final step in the European Community's march to union was ratification of the: a. Maastricht Treaty. b. European Treaty. c. Unification Treaty. d. Harmonization Treaty. 178. Prior to NAFTA, the world's largest bilateral trade existed between: a. China and Russia. b. the United States and Mexico.

c. Great Britain and France. d. the United States and Canada. 179. The NAFTA agreement established the first set of comprehensive principles governing: a. customs administration. b. non-tariff barriers. c. services trade. d. investment. 180. Which of the following areas has been the least aggressive in the formation of successful multinational market groups? a. North Africa b. Baltic States c. South Africa d. Middle East 181. All of the following are characteristics of the global approach to international marketing except: a. an emphasis upon the heterogeneity of markets. b. the world is viewed as the market. c. homogeneous markets are sought across country sets. d. marketing mix standardization is sought whenever possible. 182. All of the following factors impede global standardization except: a. government and trade restrictions. b. differences in the availability of media. c. improved global communication. d. cultural differences. 183. Which of the following relates to the specific actions and allocation of resources used to implement the firm's general, long-range goals in specific markets? a. corporate plans b. strategic plans c. global plans d. tactical plans 184. The first step in international marketing is always: a. adapting the marketing mix to target markets. b. developing the marketing plan. c. evaluation of potential markets. d. implementation and control. 185. If foreign market opportunities do not match company objectives, it may be necessary to: a. change the objectives. b. alter the scale of international plans. c. abandon international plans. d. Any of the above. 186. During which of the following stages of the marketing planning process are budgets and sales and profit expectations developed? a. preliminary analysis and screening b. adapting the marketing mix to target markets c. developing the marketing plan d. implementation and control 187. Which of the following MAY be the least profitable, although low risk, means of entering foreign markets? a. direct investment

b. joint ventures c. licensing d. direct exporting 188. Which of the following methods of market entry seeks to minimize political and cultural risks by creating a legal partnership with a foreign firm? a. joint ventures b. direct export c. licensing d. internet marketing. 189. A business relationship established by two or more companies to cooperate out of mutual need and to share risk in achieving a common objective is called a: a. mutual venture. b. strategic offset. c. strategic international alliance. d. business partnership. 190. Which of the following is MOST critical to success in international marketing? A. standardized products B. differentiated products C. global brands D. quality products 191. Firms which tend to emphasize cultural sensitivity are MOST likely to advocate: a. standardized products. b. differentiated products. c. global brands. d. global marketing programs. 192. The most valuable resource a company has is: a. a successful product. b. a successful brand. c. "cutting-edge" technology. d. flexibility of supply. 193. The positive or negative attitude engendered by the country of origin is affected by: a. the country. b. the type of product. c. the image of the company and its brands. d. ALL of the above. 194. Wal-Mart's promise to feature Indian-made products is an appeal to: a. ethnocentrism. b. stereotyping. c. Japan-"bashing." d. a desire for low-price/low-quality products. 195. A product is BEST conceived as: a. a tangible entity. b. a bundle of satisfactions. c. an intangible entity. d. a revenue producer. 196. The final judge of whether a product is "new" is the: a. manufacturer. b. engineer.

c. inventor. d. consumer. 197. The diffusion of an innovation requires: a. an innovation. b. communication through appropriate channels over time. c. members of a social system. d. all of the above. 198. The rate of diffusion of an innovation is affected by the: a. degree of perceived newness. b. perceived attributes of the innovation. c. method used to communicate the innovation. d. all of the above. 199. The perceived marginal value of a new product as compared to an existing product is described by the term: a. relative advantage. b. complexity. c. compatibility. d. observability. 200. The rate of diffusion of an innovation is POSITIVELY related to all of the following product characteristics EXCEPT: a. compatibility. b. observability. c. complexity. d. trialability.