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Assume5friendswenttoamovie.Ifthetotalmoneywiththefriendsisequalto1000thenwesaythataverage
moneywitheachpersonisRs.200/ButitisnotnecessarythateachpersonhasRs.200.
Somemayhavemoremoneythantheothers,butthetotalmoneyisequaltoRs.1000.
LetussayPersonEisrichandheboughtRs.500tothemovie.Sothemoneywiththeremainingfriendsisequal
toRs.500.IfEhasnotcometothemovie,theaveragemoneywiththeotherfriendscomesdowntoRs.125.That
means,PersonEhasmoremoneythanthecombinedaveragemoneyofallthefivefriendstogethersohe
contributestotheotherfriendsabovetheaveragerequired.
Thatmeans,hadpersonEboughtRs.125tothemovietheaveragestandsatRs.125buthehasRs.375morethan
theaveragerequiredtomaintainandthisextraamountisdistributedamongallthefriendsequally,sothtat
Averageormean:TheMean(Average)ofagroupofnumbersisthesumofthenumbersdividedbythenumberof
numbers:
AverageorMean=Sumoftheobservations/Numberofobservations
Iftheaverageofmquantitiesisxandtheaverageageofnotherquantitiesisythentheaverageofallof
themputtogetheris=

General

mx + ny
m+n

Iftheaverageageofmquantitiesisxandtheaverageageofnquantitiesoutofthem(mquantities)isy
thentheaverageoftherestofthequantitiesis=.

mx ny
mn

Iftheaverageofnnumbersisxandifkisaddedtoorsubtractedfromeachgivennumbertheaverageofn
numbersbecomes(x+k)or(xk)respectively.Intheotherwordsaveragevaluewillbeincreasedordecreasedby

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1k

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k.
Iftheaverageofnnumbersisxandifeachgivennumberismultipliedtoordividedbykthentheaverageof
nnumbersbecomeskxor

respectively.

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foundonthisserver.

Ifapersontravelsadistanceataspeedofxkm/hrandthesamedistanceataspeedofykm/hrthentheaverage
speedduringthewholejourneyisgivenby

2xy

km/hr.

x+y

IfapersoncoversAkmatxkm/hrandBkmatykm/hrandCkmatzkm/hr,thentheaveragespeedincovering
thewholedistanceis

A+B+C
A
x

B
y

km/hr.

C
z

Theaverageofn(wherenisanoddnumber)consecutivenumbersisalwaysthemiddlenumberE.g.1,3,5,7,9.
TheAverage=Middlenumber=5
Theaveragen(wherenisevennumber)consectuivenumbersistheaverageofthetwomiddlenumbers.
E.g.Averageof(2,4,6,8,10,12)=

6+8

=7

SolvedExamples
1.Theaverageofagesof10personsinaclubwas32.Whatshouldbetheageofthenewpersonjoininginthe
clubsoastoincreasetheaverageby4?
Totalageof10persons=10x32=320
Totalageof11persons=11x36=396(asthenewaverageis4morethanpersentaverage)
Sotheageofthepersonjoiningis=396320=76
Alternatemethod:
Iftheageofthenewpersonjoiningtheclubis32thenthereisnochangeintheaverage.Ifthenewaveragehas
tobe36,thepersonwhoisjoiningmustcontribute4yearstoall11persons.Thatishemusthaveanage44
yearsabove32.Sonewaverageis76
2.Theaverageweightoftheteacherandsixstudentsis12kgwhichisreducedby5kgiftheweightoftheteacher

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isexcluded.Howmuchdoestheteacherweigh?Totalageofthestudentsandteachertogether=7x12=84
Newaverageafterexcludingteacher=6x7=42
Teachersweight=7442=42
Alternatemethod:
Teacherhastakenhercontributionof5kgsfromeachofthestudents.Assheiscontributing30kgstoall
students,oncesheisexcludedthose30kgsremainswithheralongwithoriginalweight12kgs.Soherweightis30
+12=42kgs
3.Abatsmanhadacertainaverageofrunsfor16innings.Inthe17thinnings,hemadeascoreof87runsthereby
increasinghisaverageby3.Whatishisaverageafter17innings?
Assumehisinitialaverage=X
Histotalrunsafter16innings=16X
Afterscoring87runshisaveragegotincreasedby3toX+3
Sohistotalrunsafter17innings=17x(X+3)
Butitwasgiventhatthedifferenceinthetotalscoresafter16inningsand17innings=87
Therefore17 (x + 3) 16x = 87 X = 36
Hisnewaverage=36+3=39
Alternatemethod:
His87runsinthe17thinningscontributedtoalltheseventeeninningstoincreasetheaverageby3.Sohemust
havescored17x3=51runsextratomaintaintheaverage.Sohispreviousaveragewillbe8751=36.Present
average=39
4.Someconsecutivenaturalnumbers,startingwith1,arewrittenontheboard.Now,oneofthenumberswas
erasedandtheaverageoftheremainingnumbersis800/39.Findthenumberwhichwaserased.
n (n + 1)

Weknowthataverageofnconsecutivenumbesaverage=

2
n

(n + 1)
=
2

Ifthegivennissufficientlylarge,theaveragedoesnotchangemucheventhoughweexcludeoneortwonumbers
fromit.Sotheapproximatenumberofobservationsisalmostdoubletotheaverage(Remember:theaverageof
consecutivenumbersalmostliesinthemiddle)

Theapproximateaverageis800/39=Approx20.Sotheinitialnumbersmaybenearerto40.
Inthisquestionitisactually40asfromthedenominatorofthenewaverage800/39.Theinitialnumbersare40.

Sumof40consecutivenumbers=

40 (40 + 1)
= 820
2

Sumof39numbers=averagexnumberofobservations=

800

39

=800

39

Sothenumberexcluded=820800=20
5.TheaverageweightofthestudentsinfoursectionsA,B,CandDis55kg.Theaverageweightsofthestudents
A,B,CandDare45kg,40kg,75kgand85kgrespectively.IftheaverageweightofthestudentsofsectionAand
Dtogetheris65kgandthatofBandDtogether55kg,thenwhatistheratioofthenumberofstudentsinAandC?
Ifweobservecarefully,thetotalaverageofA,B,C,DisequaltoAverageofBandDtogether.Sotheaverageof
AandCmustbe55.
WeapplyalligationruletodetermineinwhatrationAandCmustbeclubbedtogethertogetanaverageof55.

Soratio=2:1
6.Theaverageageof40studentsinaclassis15years.Iftheageofteacherisalsoincluded,theaverage
becomes16years,findtheageoftheteacher.
Ifteacher'sageis15years,thereisnochangeintheaverage.Butteacherhascontributed1yeartoallthe
studentsalongwithmaintaininghisageat16.
Ageofteacher=Averageageofall+Totalincreaseinage
=16+(1x40)=56years
7.Averageageof9membersofaclubis29years.If2morepersonswiththeaverageageof40yearshave
becomethemembersoftheclub,findaverageageofallthe11members.

Averageageof9members=29yearsExcessageof2newmembers=(4029)x2=22years
Therefore,Increaseintheaverageageoninclusionof2newmembers=

22

=2years

11

Therefore,Averageageof11members=29+2=31years
8.Averageageof18menisdecreasedby1yearwhenonemanwhoseageis49yearsisreplacedbyanewman.
Findageofthenewman.
Ifthereplacedpersonsageissamewiththeexistingaverage,thereisnochangeintheaverage.Butby
replacementoveralldecreaseintheageis18x1=18years.Thisisthechangeboughtbythenewman.
Ageofnewman=AgeofmanreplacedTotaldecreaseinage
=49(1x18)=31years
9.Theaverageweightof12personsis50kg.Onreplacingamanwhoseweightis53kg.withanewman,new
averagebecomes49kg.Theweightofthenewmanis:
Ifthereplacedpersonsweightisthesameastheexistingaverage,thereisnochangeintheaverage.Butby
replacementoveralldecreaseintheageis12x1=12kg.Thisisthechangeboughtbythenewman.
Weightofnewman=WeightofmanreplacedTotaldecreaseinweight
=531x12=41kg.
10.Theaverageageof12meninagroupisincreasedby2yearswhentwomenwhoseagesare20yearsand22
years,arereplacedbynewmembers.Whatistheaverageageofthenewmenincluded?
Totalageoftwomenreplaced=20+22=42years
Totalincreaseinageonreplacement=2x12=24years
Totalagetwonewpersonsincluded=42+24=66years
Therefore,Averageageofnewpersons=

66

=33years

11.Averageageof7membersofafamilyis29years.Ifpresentageoftheyoungestmemberis5year,find
averageageoftheremainingmembersatthetimeofbirthoftheyoungestmember.
Averageage(present)of7members=29years
5yearsago,averageageof7memberswas295=24years.
Since,theyoungestmemberwasnotborn5yearsago.
Therefore,Averageageofremaining6membersisincreasedby

24

=4years.

Therefore,5yearsago,averageageof6memberswas24+4=28years.

12.Averageweightof8personsis48kg.Ifonemanweighing34kg,isdied,whatisaaverageageofthe
remaining7persons.
Averageweightof8persons=48kg.
Therefore,Excessofaverageweightthantheweightofmandied
=48kg.34kg.=14kg.
Therefore,Increaseinweightoftheremaining7persons=

14

=2kg.

Therefore,Weightofremaining7persons=48+2=50kg.
13.Theaverageexpenditureofamanfor10daysisRs.45perday.Ifhisaverageexpenditureforthefirst3days
isRs.52perday,findhisaverageexpenditurefortheremaining7days.
Averageexpenditurefor10days=Rs.45
Averageexpenditureforfirst3days=Rs.52
Therefore,Excessexpenditureforfirst3days=3x(Rs.52Rs.45)=Rs.21
Therefore,Decreaseinaverageexpenditureforremaining7days=

21

=Rs.3

Therefore,Averageexpenditureforremaining7days=453=Rs.42
14.Theaverageweightofthestudentsofaclassis40kg.5newstudentswiththeaverageweightof46kg.having
joinedtheclass,theaverageweightoftheclassisincreasedby2kg.Findthenumberofstudentsintheclass
originally?
Totalincreaseinweightonincluding5morestudents
=5x(4640)=30kg.
But,increaseinaverageweight=2kg.
Therefore,Totalstudents(atpresent)=

30

=15students

Therefore,Students(originally)=155=10students
15.Averagetemperaturefrom9thto16thofamonthis30

temperatureon17th,iftemperatureon9this35

andthatfrom10thto17this31

Totaldaysineachcaseare8days
Differencebetweentemperatureon9thand17th=8x(31

C 30 C) = 8 C

Since,temperaturefor8daysincluding17thismorethanthatof8daysincluding9th.
Therefore,Temperatureon17thismorethanthetemperatureon9th.

.Whatisthe

Therefore,Temperatureon17th=Temperatureon9th+Differencebetweentemperatures
=35

C + 8 C = 43 C.

16.Theaverageof11observationsis72.Ifaverageoffirst6observationsis70andthatoflast6observationsis
71,thenthe6thobservationis:
6thobservation=72+6x(7072)+6x(7172)
=726x26x1=54
17.Averageexpenditureofapersonforthefirst3daysofaweekisRs.350andforthenext4daysisRs.420.
Averageexpenditureofthemanforthewholeweekis:
Assumedmean=Rs.350
Totalexcessthanassumedmean=4x(Rs.420Rs.350)=Rs.280
Therefore,Increaseinaverageexpenditure=Rs.

280

=Rs.40

Therefore,Averageexpenditurefor7days=Rs.350+Rs.40=Rs.390
18.11friendswenttoahotelanddecidedtopaythebillamountequally.But10ofthemcouldpayRs.60eachas
aresult11thhastopayRs.50extrathanhisshare.Findtheamountpaidbyhim.
Averageamountpaidby10persons=Rs.60
IncreaseinaverageduetoRs.50paidextrabythe11thmen=Rs.

50

=Rs.5

10

Therefore,Averageexpenditureof11friends=Rs.60+Rs.5=Rs.65
Therefore,Amountpaidbythe11thmen=Rs.65+Rs.50=Rs.115
19.Theaveragemarksobtainedbysomestudentsinanexaminationis54.If20%ofthestudentsgotamean
scoreof90marksandthe30%ofthestudentsgotameanscoreof20.Findtheaveragemarksoftheremaining
students.
Remainingstudents=100%20%30%=50%
Letremainingstudentsgotameanscoreofxmarks.
Then,20%of90+30%of20+50%ofx=54
Therefore,18+6+50%ofx=54
Therefore,50%ofx=54186=30
Therefore,x=30x2=60marks

MCQ's
1.TheaveragetemperatureofMonday,Tuesday,WednesdayandThursdaywas38 andthatofTuesday,

Wednesday,ThursdayandFridaywas40 .IfthetemperatureonMondaywas30 ,thetemperatureofFridaywas

:
a.40

b.39

c.38

d.30

CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
M+T+W+Th=(4 38) = 152
Mondaytemparatureis30.SoT+W+Th=(15230)=122
T+W+Th+F=(4 40) = 160
F=(160122)=38

2.AshopkeeperearnedRs.504in12days.HisaverageincomeforthefirstfourdayswasRs.40aday.His
averageincomefortheremainingdaysis:
a.Rs.40
b.Rs.42
c.Rs.43
d.Rs.45
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Lettheaverageforremaining8daysbeRs.xaday.Then,4 40 + 8 x = 504or8x=344orx=43
Requiredaverage=Rs.43
3.Amanwhosebowlingaverageis12.4takes5wicketsfor26runsandtherebydecreaseshisaverageby0.4.
Thenumberofwicketstakenbyhimbeforehislastmatchis:
a.85
b.78
c.72

d.64
CorrectOption:A
Explanation:
Letthenumberofwicketstakenbeforethelastmatch=x.
then

12.4x + 26

= 12 x = 85

x+5

4.TheaverageofweightofthreemenA,BandCis84kg.AnothermanDjoinsthegroupandtheaveragenow
becomes80kg.IfanothermanE,whoseweightis3kg.morethanthatofD,replacesA,thentheaverageweight
ofB,C,DandEbecomes79kg.TheweightofAis:
a.70kg
b.72kg
c.75kg
d.80kg
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
A+B+C=3 84 = 252
A+B+C+D=(4 80) = 320
D=(320252)=68andE=(68+3)=71
Now,B+C+D+E=(4 79) = 316
B+C+D=(31671)=245kg
So,A=(320245)=75kg
5.TheaverageageofA,B,C,Dfiveyearsagowas45years.ByincludingX,thepresentaverageageofallthefive
is49years.ThepresentageofXis:
a.64years
b.48years
c.45years
d.40years
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
As5yearsagoaverageis45,thepresentaverageis50.SosumoftheagesofA,B,C,Dis50x4=200
ButgiventhataverageofA,B,C,DandXis49.Sosumoftheirages=49x5=245

PresentageofX=245200=45years.
6.Theaverageageof24studentsinaclassis10.Iftheteacher'sageisincluding,theaverageincreasesbyone.
Theageoftheteacheris:
a.25years
b.30years
c.35years
d.40years
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Sumofthetenstudentsage=24x10
Sumofthetenstudentsincludingtheteacher=25x11
Ageoftheteacher=(25 11 24 10) =35years
7.Theaverageofmarksobtainedby120candidateswas35.Iftheaverageofmarksofpassedcandidateswas39
andthatoffailedcandidateswas15,thenumberofcandidateswhopassedtheexaminationis:
a.100
b.110
c.120
d.150
CorrectOption:A
Explanation:
Letthenumberofcandidaeswhopassed=x,Then,
39 x + 15 (120 x) = 120 35

24x=42001800or
x=(

2400

) = 100

24

8.TheaverageexpenditureofamanforthefirstfivemonthsisRs.120andforthenextsevenmonthsitisRs.130.
IfhesavesRs.290inthatyear,hismonthlyaverageincomeis:
a.Rs.140
b.Rs.150
c.Rs.160

d.Rs.170
CorrectOption:B
Explanation:
Totalincome=Rs.(120 5 + 130 7 + 290) =Rs.1800
Averagemonthlyincome
=Rs.(

1800

=Rs.150

12

9.Theaveragesalaryof20workersinanofficeisRs.1900permonth.Ifthemanager'ssalaryisadded,the
averagesalarybecomesRs.2000p.m.Whatisthemanager'sannualsalary?
a.Rs.24,000
b.Rs.25,200
c.Rs.45,600
d.Noneofthese
CorrectOption:D
Explanation:
Manager'ssalarypermonth
=(Rs.21 2000 20 1900) =Rs.4000
Manager'sAnnualsalary=Rs.(4000 12) =Rs.48000
10.Theaverageweightofaclassof40studentsis40kg.Iftheweightoftheteacherisincluded,theaverage
weightincreasesby500gms.Theweightoftheteacheris:
a.40.5kg
b.60kg
c.60.5kg
d.62kg
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Weightoftheteacher=(41 40.5 40 40)kg=60.5kg
11.Theaverageweightof8menisincreasedby2kgwhenoneofthemen,whoseweightis50kgisreplacedbya
newman.Theweightofthenewmanis:
a.52kg

b.58kg
c.66kg
d.68kg
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Weightincreased=(8 2) kg=16kg
Weightofnewman=(50+16)kg=66kg
12.Theaverageweightof8personsisincreasedby2.5kg,Whenoneofthemwhoseweightis56kgisreplaced
byanewman.Theweightofthenewmanis:
a.66kg
b.75kg
c.76kg
d.86kg
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Totalincrease=(8 2.5) kg=20kg.
Weightofnewman=(50+16)kg=66kg
13.Theaverageageofanadultclassis40years.12newstudentswithanaverageof32yearsjointheclass,
therebydecreasingtheaverageby4years.Theoriginalstrengthoftheclasswas:
a.10
b.11
c.12
d.15
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Letoriginalstrength=x,Then,
40x+12 32=(x+12) 36
or40x+384=36x+432or
4x=48orx=12

14.Theaverageof6observationsis12.Anewseventhobservationisincludedandthenewaverageisdecreased
by1.Theseventhobservationis:
a.1
b.3
c.5
d.6
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Seventhobservation=(7 116 12)=5
15.Outoffournumbers,theaverageoffirstthreeis15andthatofthelastthreeis16.Ifthelastnumberis19,the
firstis:
a.15
b.16
c.18
d.19
CorrectOption:B
Explanation:
Sumoffournumbers=(15 3+19)=64
Sumoflastthreenumbers=(16 3)=48
Firstnumber=(6448)=16
16.Theaverageof10numbersiscalculatedas15.Itisdiscoveredlateronthatwhilecalculatingtheaverageone
number,namely36waswronglyreadas26.Thecorrectaverageis:
a.12.4
b.14
c.16
d.18.6
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Sumofnumbers=(10 1526+36)=160
Correctaverage=

160
10

= 16

17.Theaverageof25resultsis18,thatoffirsttwelveis14andoflasttwelveis17.Thirteenthresultis:
a.28
b.72
c.78
d.85
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Thirteenthresult=(25 1812 14+12 17)=78
18.Amangoestoaplaceattherateof4kmph.Hecomesbackonabicycleat16kmph.Hisaveragespeedfor
theentirejourneyis:
a.5km/hr
b.6.4km/hr
c.8.5km/hr
d.10km/hr.
CorrectOption:B
Explanation:
Averagespeed=(

2xy
)

km/hr

x+y

=(

2 4 16

km/hr=6.4km/hr.

4 + 16

19.Theaveragetemperatureofthefirstthreedaysis27 Candthatofthenextthreedaysis29 C.Iftheaverage

ofthewholeweekis28.5 C,thetemperatureofthelastdayoftheweekis:

a.10.5

b.21

c.31.5

d.42

CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Lettheseventhdaytemperaturebex.Thentotaltemperatureforthewholeweekis
3 27 + 3 29 + 1 x = 7 28.5

x=31.5
20.Theaverageageof30studentsinaclassis12years.Theaverageageofagroupof5ofthestudentsis10
yearsandthatofanothergroupof5ofthemis14years.Theaverageoftheremainingstudentsis:
a.8years
b.10years
c.12years
d.14years
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Letitbex.Then:
5 10 + 5 14 + 20 x = 30 12

20x=360120or20x=240orx=12
21.Theaverageof8numbersis21.Ifeachofthenumberismultipliedby8,theaverageofthenewsetof
numbersis:
a.8
b.21
c.29
d.168
CorrectOption:D
Explanation:
Averageofnewnumbers=(21 8) = 168
22.Theaverageof50numbersid38.Iftwonumbers,namely45and55arediscarded,theaverageofthe
remainingnumbersis:
a.36.5
b.37.0
c.37.5
d.37.52
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:

Totalof50numbers=(50 38) = 1900


Totalof48numbers=(1900(45+55)]=1800
Requiredaverage=

1800
48

225

= 37.5

23.Theaverageheightof30girlsoutofaclassof40is160cm.andthatoftheremaininggirlsis156cm.The
averageheightofthewholeclassis:
a.158cms
b.158.5cms
c.159cms
d.159.5cms
CorrectOption:C
Explanation:
Averageheightofthewholeclass=(

36 160 + 10 156

) = 159

cms

40

24.Ifa,b,c,d,earefiveconsecutiveoddnumbers,theiraverageis:
a.5(a+4)
b.

abcde
5

c.5(a+b+c+d+e)
d.Noneofthese
CorrectOption:D
Explanation:
Ifthefirstnumberisa,thentheremainingnumbersaa+2,a+4,a+6,a+8
Average:=(

a + (a + 2) + (a + 4) + (a + 6) + (a + 8)
) = (a + 4)
5

25.Theaverageageofthreeboysis15years.Iftheiragesareintheratio3:5:7,theageoftheyoungestboyis:
a.9years
b.15years
c.18years
d.21years
CorrectOption:A
Explanation:

3x + 5x + 7x

= 15 15x = 15 3

orx=3

Ageofyoungest=3x=9years
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