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BASIC

COMPLEMENTARY COURSE
FOR AIRFRAME AND POWER PLANT
ENGINEERS

ELECTRICAL
SYSTEMS

EGYPTAIR TRAINING CENTER


BASIC TECHNICAL TRAINING

EgyptAir Training Center - 2015

BASIC
COMPLEMENTARY COURSE
FOR AIRFRAME AND POWER PLANT
ENGINEERS

AVIONICS
SYSTEMS

EGYPTAIR TRAINING CENTER


BASIC TECHNICAL TRAINING

EgyptAir Training Center - 2015

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

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DIODES

Semi-conductor diodes embrace a very wide field of devices using varied modes
of operation. Before discussing these, it is necessary to briefly describe semiconductors themselves.
1.1 SEMI-CONDUCTORS
Germanium and silicon are the most common semi-conductor elements. Figure 1
shows an element in pure crystalline form. The circles represent atoms and the
dots valence electrons, electrons able to combine with those of another atom.

ELECTRON

HOLE

Silicon Structure
Figure 1

1.1.1 INTRINSIC SEMI-CONDUCTOR

Note that one of the atoms has lost an electron, leaving a 'hole' but the free
electron is still present inside the crystal lattice, so the crystal as a whole remains.
A crystal of pure semi-conductor material with no other atoms, such as in Figure
1, is called an intrinsic semi-conductor.
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Figure 2 shows current flow in an intrinsic semi-conductor. The electrons


(negative charge) are attracted to the positive terminal of the battery, while the
holes (positive charge) are attracted to the negative.
ELECTRONS

HOLES

SEMICONDUCTOR
MATERIAL

Intrinsic Semiconductor
Figure 2
1.1.2 EXTRINSIC SEMI-CONDUCTOR

Intrinsic semi-conductors are poor conductors. By adding an impurity to the


crystal, conductivity can be improved. Figure 3a shows an impurity having five
electrons added. The 'extra electron' is not needed for crystal bonding and so is
free to move about the lattice as a conduction electron.
Since it is not a part of the lattice, it does not leave a 'hole' when it moves; but a
'positive ion'. The more impurity atoms added, the more conductive the material.
The semi-conductor is now 'extrinsic' and of the 'N type'. Electrons are the
majority carriers, they are negative, and hence 'N' type.
Figure 3b shows a lattice with an element having only three valence electrons
added. This time there is a shortage of electrons and this produces 'holes' in the
material and negative ions. With fewer negative electrons, the majority carriers
are positive 'holes'. Now the material is described as 'P' type.
The impurity added to give more electrons to make N type material is known as a
donor impurity. The impurity added to give more holes to make P type material
is known as an acceptor impurity. The process of adding either type of impurity
is known as doping.

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DONOR
IMPURITY
ATOM
4

(a)

EXTRA
ELECTRON

ACCEPTOR
IMPURITY
ATOM

HOLE
4

(b)

Extrinsic Semiconductor
Figure 3

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1.2 THE HALL EFFECT


When experimenting in 1879 with current flowing in a strip of metal, E M Hall
discovered that some of the charge carriers were deflected to one of the faces of
the conductor when a strong magnetic field was applied. This gave rise to an emf
(the Hall voltage) between opposite faces of the conductor. The emf is only a few
microvolts in the case of a metal conductor, but is much larger when the current
flows in a semiconductor.
An experiment, making use of what is known as the Hall Effect, can be
conducted to demonstrate that the majority carriers in a bar of semiconductor
material are electrons in N type and holes in P type. Figure 4 shows the Hall
Effect
The Hall Effect
Figure 4

20V

+10V
+2 0V
0V

0V
P.D.

SEMICONDUCTOR
MAT ERIAL

CURRENT
FLOW

+10V

20V

+11V

+9V

+11V

POSITIVE CHARGE CARRIERS (HOLES)

+9V

+9V

NEGATIVE CHARGE CARRIERS (ELECTRONS)

+11V

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Consider the arrangement illustarted in figure 4a, this shows a bar of


semiconductor material, with a D.C. voltage of 20V applied. Conventional current
will flow as indicated by the arrow. A further two connections A & B are taken
from opposite faces of the bar at the mid-point along the axis. Thus under static
conditions, the voltgae at connect A and B will be +10V relative to the negative
terminal, and there is no voltage difference between them, i.e. no potential
difference.
No consider what happens when we place this bar in a transverse magnetic field
as in figure 4b. the charge carriers moving in the semiconductor are deflected by
the magnetic field in the direction given by Flemings Left-Hand rule. Thus,
whether the charge carriers are holes or electrons, they are deflected upwards in
figure 4b, towards connection A. This will result in a redistribution of charge
carriers between A & B, with the consentration towards A. If the charge carriers
are positive (holes), connection A becomes positive with respect to connection B
as shown in figure 4c. Conversely, if the charge carriers are negative (electrons),
connection A becomes negative with respect to B as shown in figure 4c.
The voltage difference between connection A & B is called the Hall Voltage and
has many pratical applications such as Contactless switches (proximity
detectors). It can also be used in a dc starter/generator system as a means of
measuring generator output current and providing an input signal to a Generator
Control Unit (GCU) which controls generator field current (voltage regulation)m
and protection. Figure 5 shows Hall Effect Sensors in a DC starter/generator
system as fitted to the ATR 42/72 aircraft.

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HALL EFFECT
SENSOR

GENERATOR
CONTROL UNIT

STARTER
GENERATOR

HALL EFFECT
SENSOR

CURRENT
MEASURING

TO
DISTRIBUTION

Hall Effect Sensors


Figure 5

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1.3 THE JUNCTION DIODE


So far N type and P-Type materials have been considered separately.
However, most semiconductor devices contain regions where P-type material is
joined to N-type material at one or more places. These places are called P-N
junctions and the behaviour of the devices depends upon the electrical behaviour
of the region around the junctions.
By doping a semi-conductor so that there is N type material at one end and P
type at the other, a Junction Diode is made. Refer Figure 6. In this arrangement,
the electrons in the N type are repelled by the like polarity of the negative ions in
the P type.
Similarly the positive holes in the P type are repelled by the positive ions in the N
Type. This leaves an area at the junction without any majority carriers and it is
called the depletion layer.

DEPLETION
LAYER
POSITIVE IONS

NEGATIVE IONS

N-TYPE

P-TYPE

ELECTRONS

HOLES

Junction Diode
Figure 6
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By connecting a battery across a junction diode, positive to N type, negative to P


type, (reverse biased), majority carriers cannot flow, hence there is no current
flow in the circuit.
If the battery is connected positive to P type, negative to N type, (forward biased)
majority carriers are allowed to flow and there is current flow in the circuit. This is
the characteristic of the diode. It will allow current flow in one direction only,
when forward biased, but not in the other direction when reverse biased. Figure
7 shows a junction diode reversed and forward biased.

Junction Diode Reversed/Forward Biased


Figure 7
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1.4 DIODE SYMBOL


Figure 8 demonstrates, using the circuit symbol for a diode, how the device is
placed in a circuit to allow or block current flow. Note that (conventional) current
flows in the direction of the arrow in the symbol.

+
ANODE

CATHODE

FORWARD
BIASED

REVERSED
BIASED

NO CURRENT

CURRENT FLOW

Diode Symbol
Figure 8

1.5 DIODE CHARACTERISTICS


With all diodes there are four parameters to be considered, these are:
1.

Maximum permissible forward current (mA).

2.

Maximum voltage drop (V) at nominal operating current (mA).

3.

Typical reverse current (A).

4.

Maximum permissible reverse voltage (V).

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Figure 9 shows the static characteristics of a silicon diode and figure 10 show s
the characteristics for a germanium diode.
Note: That the reverse current axes on both graphs are different.

mA
200
FORWARD
BIAS

150
100
50

VOLTS
-200V

-150

-100

-50V

0.25V

0.5V

0.75V

1V

-0.02
-0.04
REVERSED
BIAS

-0.06
-0.08
A

Silicon Diode Characteristics


Figure 9

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mA
200
FORWARD
BIAS

150
100
50

VOLTS
-200V

-150

-100

-50V

0.25V

0.5V

0.75V

1V

50
100
REVERSED
BIAS

150
200
A

Germanium Diode Characteristics


Figure 10

1.6 DIODES IN SERIES AND PARALLEL


Diodes may be connected in series or parallel. For carrying high voltage, a series
configuration would be used. If a high current carrying capability were required,
the diodes would be connected in parallel.

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1.7 RECTIFIER DIODES

Rectifier diodes are designed to convert A.C. to D.C. and to be able to achieve
this effectively and efficiently, they must have:
1.

Low resistance to current flow in the


forward direction.

2.

High resistance to current flow in the


opposite (reverse) direction.

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Because of the need for a very low reverse current and a high breakdown
voltage, almost all semiconductors rectifier diodes are silicon junction types; they
usually have a junction area that is large relative to their size to assist in the
dissipation of heat. An elementary rectifier circuit is where the diode is inserted in
series between the input and output, this is shown in figure 11.

A.C. INPUT

D.C. OUTPUT

+
0
-

+
INPUT

OUTPUT

Basic Rectifier Circuit


Figure 11
The diode effectively passes current only in the forward bias condition. As can be
seen from figure 10, when A.C. input is applied, pulses of unidirectional D.C.
voltages are developed across the output load resistance.
Note; The polarity of the output D.C. can be reversed by reversing the diode
connections.

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1.8 EXAMPLES OF RECTIFIER DIODES


Silicon rectifier diodes are available that are capable of supplying currents from
about 200mA to about 2000A at voltages up to 3000 or 4000 volts. A sample
cross-section of such diodes is illustrated in Figure 12. Compared with other
rectifying devices, silicon junction rectifiers are small and lightweight. They are
also impervious to shock and are capable of working at temperatures up to about
200C.

250mA @ 200V

1A @ 1000V

1000A @ 2500V

10A @ 400V
1A @ 1500V

Silicon Rectifier Diodes


Figure 12

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1.9 RECTIFIER DIODES


1.9.1 SELENIUM RECTIFIERS

The aluminium base serves as a surface for the dissipation of heat. The
rectifying junction covers one side of the base apart from a narrow strip at the
edges and an area around the fixing hole, which is sprayed with insulating
varnish. Figure 13 shows the construction of a selenium rectifier element.

Selenium Rectifier
Figure 13
The counter electrode is a thin layer of a low melting point alloy, sprayed over the
selenium coating and insulating varnish. The counter electrode is the cathode,
while the base is the anode.
These rectifiers may be stacked in series, suitable for high voltages, or in parallel,
suitable for high current. When stacking, pressure applied during assembly tends
to reduce the reverse resistance. This is overcome by application of varnish at
the mounting studs.
Reverse resistance is a limiting factor in rectifiers, as is temperature. The
maximum operating temperature of these rectifiers is in the order of 70C.

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1.9.2 SILICON RECTIFIERS

The silicon rectifier is a far smaller unit than the selenium rectifier. This type of
rectifier is used in the brushless ac generator. The silicon slice is extremely
small. On one face it has a fused aluminium alloy contact to which the anode and
lead are soldered. The other face is soldered to a base, usually copper. This is
the cathode and acts as a heat sink. The aluminium - silicon junction forms the
barrier layer. The whole is enclosed in a hermetically sealed case to protect it
from environmental conditions. These rectifiers operate at temperatures up to
150C. Figure 14 shows a Silicon Rectifier.

Silicon Rectifier
Figure 14

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Figure 15 shows the circuit for a Full-Wave bridge rectifier.

Full-Wave Bridge rectifier


Figure 15

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1.10 THE LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LED)


LEDs are made from a semi- conductor material, which emits light when current
flows through the junction. The most common colour emitted is red but green
and yellow are available at a lower intensity. Figure 24 shows the circuit symbol
for an LED and its operation.

CIRCUIT SYMBOL
EMITS LIGHT

EARTH

+5V

DIODE IS FORWARD BIASED

ON

EARTH

+5V

DIODE IS REVERSED BIASED

OFF

Light Emitting Diode (LED)


Figure 24
The voltage drop across a LED is around 2 volts. Above this voltage, the current
passing through it increases rapidly. For this reason a series resistor is used to
limit the current to around 10 ma to prevent burnout of the junction.
1.10.1 USE OF LEDS

LEDs can be used to replace filament lamps, with the advantage of less current
consumption, less heat and no filament to burn out. They are often found on
aircraft fault panels.

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1.11 THE PHOTO CONDUCTIVE DIODE


This device is a normal PN junction with a transparent case or window. All semiconductor diodes are subject to some movement of hole/electron pairs when the
junction is at room temperature and this gives rise to a small leakage current,
even with the diode reversed biased but the current is measured in
microamperes.
When light falls on the junction, its energy produces a much larger number of
hole/electron pairs and the leakage current is greatly increased. These devices
have a rapid response to light and are used in the encoding altimeter to encode
the grey code into binary code. Figure 25 shows the circuit symbol and
construction of a Photo Conductive Diode.

Photo Conductive Diode


Figure 25
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1.12 VARISTORS
The varistor is a semi-conductor device used for clipping 'noise spikes' off ac
voltage. Noise spikes are of very short duration and large amplitude. They may
pass through a power supply and appear on a dc regulated output voltage. Low
pass filters are often ineffective against noise spikes so the spikes are attenuated
before rectification of ac to dc.

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1.13 TESTING DIODES


Before testing a diode, the cathode must be identified and then an ohmmeter is
applied as in Figure 27. In one direction the ohmmeter reading should be low but
a very high resistance should be detected in the other direction.

LOW RESISTANCE

FLUKE 23

SERIES

MUL TIMET ER

000.23
0

OFF

10

20

O HM S

30

V
300 m V

P RE S S
RANGE

A UT ORANGE

10A

CATHODE
!
300
mA

10 00V
75 0V

COM

FUSED

SYMBOL

STRUCTURE

Testing Diodes
Figure 27

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TRANSISTORS

The transistor can be a high or low resistance device, hence the name, which
is derived from TRANSfer resISTOR.
It is used in many switching and amplifier circuits where its resistive properties
are controlled by small currents.
1.1 TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION
The properties of semi-conductor materials, P and N type, were discussed in
Module 4.1.1. A transistor is made up of these materials in the configurations
shown in Figure 1. The circuit symbols for these transistors are also shown.

COLLECTOR

N
BASE

P
N
EMITTER

CIRCUIT
SYMBOL

N OT
P OINTING
IN

THE NPN TRANSISTOR

COLLECTOR

P
BASE

CIRCUIT
SYMBOL

P
E

EMITTER

THE PNP TRANSISTOR

PNP & NPN Transistors


Figure 1
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As can be seen from figure 1, there are two possible types of physical
arrangement:
1. The N-P-N transistor, which consists of a thin region of P-type material,
sandwiched between two N-type regions.
2. The P-N-P transistor, which consists of a thin region of N-type material,
sandwiched between two P-type regions.
The centre region of the device is called the Base; one outer region is called
the Emitter, and the other the Collector. Although the emitter and collector
regions are the same type of extrinsic semiconductor (N-type in N-P-N and Ptype in P-N-P), they are constructed and doped differently and are not
interchangeable on a practical device.
The circuit symbol for both P-N-P and N-P-N are shows in figure 1. The only
difference between them is the direction of the arrowhead on the emitter lead.
For either type, the arrowhead indicates the direction of Conventional
current flow when the base/emitter junction is forward biased (i.e. base +ve
with respect to emitter for an N-P-N device, and base ve relative to emitter
for a P-N-P device).

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1.2 TRANSISTOR OPERATION


Figure 2 shows a NPN transistor and the corresponding diode circuit. It can
be seen from the diode circuit that to operate, the base/emitter must be
forward biased, whereas the base/collector is reversed biased.

N - TYPE

B
P - TYPE

N - TYPE

E
DIODE MODEL

NPN Transistor & Diode Circuit


Figure 2

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Figure 3 shows a simple transistor circuit using electron flow to explain the
operation.

IC HIGH
(99%)

C
IB LOW
(1%)

E
IE HIGH
(100%)

NPN Transistor Operation


Figure 3

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1.3 SWITCHING TRANSISTORS


When a transistor is to be used as a switching device, it operates either as an
open circuit (i.e. in the cut-off region) or as a short circuit (i.e. in the saturation
region). Figure 3 shows the solenoid switch and an alternative transistor
switch.
Switching Transistors
Figure 3

LAMP

SOLENOID ANALOGY

C
B

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For a common base circuit, such as in figure 3, the output voltage taken from
the collector is either equal to the supply voltage (saturated region), or zero
volts. (cut-off).

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1.4 TRANSISTOR CONFIGURATIONS


Before a transistor can be used, it must be connected into an input circuit (by
two wires) and an output circuit (two wires). However, because the transistor
has only three terminals, one of the terminals must be in both the input and
output circuits; this is then called The Common terminal. Three circuit
configurations are possible and are illustrated in figure 9.

C
E

B
OUTPUT
INPUT

INPUT

COMMON BASE

COMMON EMITTER

E
B
OUTPUT
C

INPUT

COMMON COLLECTOR

Transistor Configurations
Figure 9

Note that the word common refers to the transistor component connected to
both the INPUT and OUTPUT. In the common emitter configuration for
example, the emitter is connected to both the input and output.

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Table 1 shows the comparisons of the three transistor configurations

Common Emitter

Common
Base

Common Collector

Current Gain

20 -200

(0.95 0.995)

20 - 200

Voltage Gain

100 600

500 800

<1

Power Gain

Highest

Medium

Lowest

Input Impedance

500 - 2000

50 - 200

20k - 100k

Output Impedance

10 50 K

100 k - 1M

20 500

I/P O/P Phase

180

In Phase

In Phase

Typical Use

Normal Amp

Impedance matching
(low to high)

Impedance matching
(high to low)

Table 1

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INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

1.1 GENERAL
Integrated circuits, or ICs, have changed the entire electronics industry.
Before ICs were developed, all electronic circuits consisted of individual
(discrete), components that were wired together, often requiring a large
amount of physical space. Printed circuit Board (PCB) technology made it
possible to reduce the amount of space required. Electronic circuits can be
quite complex, requiring a large number of components, since discrete
components have a fixed size, there is a practical limitation on the amount of
size reduction that can be achieved.
The development of integrated circuit technology has made it possible to
fabricate large numbers of electronic components onto a single silicon chip.
As a result, the physical size of a circuit can be significantly reduced, making
it possible to design circuits and devices that would otherwise be impractical.
ICs are complete circuits containing many transistors, diodes, resistors and
capacitors as may be necessary for the circuit operation. They are
encapsulated in packages that are often no larger than a single discrete
transistor. The technology and materials used in the manufacture of ICs are
basically the same as those used in the manufacture of transistors and other
solid-state devices. In addition, ICs are manufactured for a wide variety of
applications and, as a result, are used throughout the electronics industry.
1.1.1 ADVANTAGES

The small size of the IC is its most apparent advantage. A typical IC can be
constructed on a piece of semiconductor material that is less than 4mm2.
Even when the IC is suitably packaged, it still occupies only a small amount of
space. The small size of the IC also produces other benefits such as they
consume less power than the equivalent conventional circuit. They generate
less heat and therefore generally do not require elaborate cooling or
ventilation systems.
ICs are also more reliable than conventional circuits. This greater reliability
result because every component within the IC is a solid-state device and is
permanently connected together with a thin layer of metal. They are not
soldered together like the components in a conventional circuit and a circuit
failure due to faulty connections is less likely to occur.

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1.1.2 DISADVANTAGES

It might appear that the IC has only advantages to offer and no real
disadvantages. Unfortunately, this is not the case, since ICs are an
extremely small device it cannot handle large currents or voltages. High
currents generate heat within the device and small components can be easily
damaged if the heat becomes excessive.
High voltages can break down the insulation between the components in the
IC because the components are very close together. This can result in shorts
between the adjacent components, which would make the IC completely
useless. Therefore, most ICs are low power devices, which have a low
operating current (milliamps) and low voltages (5 20V). Also, most ICs
have a power dissipation range of less than 1 watt.
At the present only four types of component are commonly constructed within
an IC. This makes only a narrow selection of components available, these
are:
1.

Diode.

2.

Transistor.

3.

Resistor.

4.

Capacitor.

Diodes and transistors are the easiest components to construct and are used
extensively to perform as many functions as possible within each IC.
Resistors and capacitors may also be formed, but it is much more difficult and
expensive to construct these components. The amount of space occupied by
a resistor increases with its value and in order to conserve space, it is
necessary to use resistors with values as low as possible.
Capacitors occupy even more space than resistors and the amount of space
required increases with the value of the capacitor.
Ics cannot be repaired because their internal components cannot be
seperated. When one internal component becomes defective, the whole IC
becomes defective and musty be replaced. This means that good
components are often thrown away with the defective ones. This
disadvantage is not as bad as it sounds, as the task of fault finding is
simplified because it is only necessary to trace the problem to a specific circuit
instead of an individual component. This greatly simplifies the task of
maintaining highly complex systems and reduces the demands on
maintenance personnel.

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1.2 IC CONSTRUCTION
There are basically four methods of construction used for ICs. These are:
1.

Monolithic.

2. Thin-Film.
3.

Thick Film.

4. Hybrid.
1.2.1 MONOLITHIC ICS

The monolithic IC is constructed in basically the same manner as a Bipolar


Transistor, although the overall process requires a few additional steps
because of the greater complexity of the IC. Its fabrication begins with a
circular semiconductor wafer (usually silicon). This wafer is usually very thin
(0.015mm 0.3mm) and either 2.5cm or 5cm in diameter. The
semiconductor serves as a base on which the tiny integrated circuits are
formed and is commonly referred to as a Substrate. Figure 1 shows the IC
construction.

TER
IAME
CM D
5
2 .5

NUMBER OF ICS FORMED


DEPENDS ON THE SIZE
OF THE WAFER
0.015 - 0.30mm

SILICON WAFER

ONCE THE ICS HAVE


BEEN FORMED, THE
WAFER IS SLICED INTO
INDIVIDUALCHIPS

ICS ARE FORMED


ON THE WAFER

IC Construction
Figure 1

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When all of the ICs have been simultaneously formed, the wafer is sliced into
many sections, which are commonly referred to as Chips or Dice. Each
chip represents one complete integrated circuit and contains all the
components and wiring associated with that circuit. Once the ICs have been
separated into individual chips, each IC must be mounted in a suitable
package and tested.
1.2.2 BIPOLAR IC CONSTRUCTION

As mentioned earlier, the components that are commonly used in ICs are
diodes, Transistors, resistors and capacitors. Diffusing impurities into
selected regions of a semiconductor wafer (substrate) can form these
components. This process produces PN junctions at specific locations and
the basic manner in which these four components are formed and the manner
in which they are interconnected are shown at Figure 2.

Basic Construction of Bipolar IC


Figure 2

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The circuit shown in figure 2 is a simple circuit consisting of a capacitor, a PN


junction diode, an NPN transistor and a resistor. Operating voltages and
currents can be applied to the circuit through terminals 1,2 and 3 as shown.
This circuit could be easily constructed using four discrete components,
however, it can also be produced as a monolithic IC.

1.2.3 MOS ICS

Not all ICs are constructed using bipolar components, ICs are often designed
to utilize either bipolar transistors or Field-Effect transistors (FETS). The
Field effect transistor is one in which the emitter-collector current is controlled
by voltage rather than by a current. Figure 3 shows the construction and
operation of a MOSFET.

MOSFET
Figure 3

The FET may be constructed of a channel of either N-type or P-type silicon


with a controlling gate sitting on top. One end of the channel is called the
source, and the other end is called the drain. An N-channel FET has a P-type
gate, so that when a positive voltage ios applied to the gate, the FET is
forward biased. There will be current flow between the source and the drain.
When a negative voltage is applied to the gate, the FET will be reversed
biased, and the flow between the source and the drain will be pinched off.

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The source and drain regions are diffused into the substrate. A thin layer of
silicon oxide is formed over the substarte and the appropriate windows are cut
into it so that metal electrodes ) terminals) can be formed at the proper
locations. Note that the gate terminal is separated from the substrate by an
extremely thin oxide layer, which is only 1 X 10-10 metres thick, but it
completely isolates the gate from the substrate.

1.2.4 THIN-FILM IC

Unlike the monolithic ICs, which are formed within a semiconductor material
(substrate), the thin-film circuit is formed on the surface of an insulating
substrate. In the thin-film circuit, components such as resistors and
capacitors are formed from extremely thin layers of metals and oxides, which
are deposited onto a glass or ceramic substrate. Interconnecting wires are
also deposited on the substrate as thin strips of metal. Components such as
diodes and transistors are formed as separate semiconductor devices and
then permanently attached to the substrate at the appropriate locations.
The substrate on which the thin-film circuit is formed is usually less than
2.5cm2. Depositing tantalum or nichrome as thin films or strips on the surface
of the substrate forms the resistors. These films are usually less than
0.00254cm thick. The thickness, length and width of each strip that is formed
on the substrate determine the value of each resistor. The interconnecting
conductors are extremely thin metal strips, which have been deposited on the
substrate. Low resistance metals, such as gold. platinum, or aluminium, are
generally used as conductors. The substrate is made from an insulating
material that will provide a rigid support for the components. Glass or ceramic
materials are often used as substrates. Figure 4 shows a portion of a thin-film
circuit.

THIN-FILM
RESISTORS
THIN-FILM
CONDUCTORS

INSULATING
SUBSTRATE

Thin-Film IC
Figure 4

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1.2.5 THICK-FILM ICS

Thick-film ICs components are formed on an insulating substrate by using a


Silk-screen process. In this process, a very fine wire screen is placed over
the substrate and a metalized-ink is forced through the screen using a
squeegee. Only certain portions of the wire screen are open (the remaining
portions are filled with a special emulsion), thus allowing the ink to penetrate
and coat the specific portions of the substrate. A pattern of interconnecting
conductors is formed on the substrate, which is then heated to over 6000C to
harden the painted surface and become low resistance conductors.
Resistors and capacitors are also silk-screened on top of the substrate by
forcing the appropriate materials (in paste form) through the appropriate
screen and then heating the substrate to a high temperature. This process is
repeated using various pastes until the circuit is formed. Components such
as diodes and transistors are formed as separate semiconductor devices and
then permanently attached to the substrate at the appropriate locations.
1.2.6 HYBRID ICS

Hybrid ICs are formed by utilizing various combinations of monolithic, thin-film


and thick film techniques and may in certain circumstances contain discrete
semiconductor components in chip form. Therefore many types of hybrid
circuit arrangements can be produced. A typical hybrid circuit might consist of
a thin-film circuit on which various monolithic ICs have been attached or it
could utilize monolithic ICs thick-film components and discrete diodes and
transistors that are all mounted on a single insulating substrate.
A portion of a hybrid IC is shown at figure 5. An insulated substrate is used to
support the circuit components as shown. The monolithic IC is mounted on
the substrate along with thich-film resistors and a small discrete capacitor. All
the components are interconnected with conductors that are formed on the
substrate using film techniques. The monolithic IC is connected to the
conductors with fine wires that are bonded in place. Thick-film resistors will
usually have notches cut into them to trim their values. The capacitor used in
these circuits can be formed either by using film techniques or miniature
devices can be installed between conductors as shown.

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Hybrid IC Construction
Figure 5

1.2.7 IC PACKAGES

Like transistors and other types of solid state components, ICs are mounted
in packages, which protect them from moisture, dust and other types of
contaminations. Many different types of IC packages are available and each
type has its own advantges and disadvantages. The most popular IC
package is the Dual In-Line (DIL) package. The packages also make it
easier to install the ICs in various types of equipment, since each package
contains leads which can be either plugged into matching sockets or plugged
into DIL mounting frames.

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Figure 6 shows typical DIL packages.

MONOLITHIC
ICs

INTERCONNECTING
CONDUCTORS

CONNECTING PINS

DIL Packages
Figure 6

The IC package shown in figure 6 contains three monolithic ICs, also a


network of conductors have been formed on the same base that supports the
chip. Various conductor pads on the chips are connected to these conductors
with fine gold wires that have been bonded in place. The conductors in turn
are connected to two rows of connecting pins along the edge of the package.
A lid or cover (not shown) is placed over the opening in the package and
soldered into place to provide an air tight (hermetically sealed) unit.
Integrated circuits may also be mounted in Metal cans that are similar to the
types used to house transistors. The metal can have 8 or more connecting
leads and can used to house either monolithic or hybrid type ICs. The
advantage of these packages is that they may be installed in a variety of
ways. Metal cans can be used over a wide temperature range (-55 +125C) and are therefore suitable for military and space applications. Figure
7 shows the DIL and metal can type of packages.

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TYPICAL MINIATURE
DUAL IN-LINE (DIL)
PACKAGES

TYPICAL METAL CAN


IC PACKAGES

DIL and Metal Can Packages


Figure 7

1.3 TYPES OF INTEGRATED CIRCUIT


Integrated circuits are placed into two general groups, these are:
1.

Digital ICs.

2.

Linear ICs.

1.4 DIGITAL ICS


Digital circuits use discrete values (0 or 1) to perform 3 general functions.
These are:
1.

AND Function.

2.

OR Function.

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3.

NOT Function.

Thgese three function are performed by logic circuits that are called the AND,
OR and NOT logic gates. These gates or circuit configurations can be
combined to make decision based on digital input information. In a digital
logic gate it is only possible to have an output of either a 0 or 1.

1.4.1 AND GATE

Figure 8 shows the AND gate truth table and logic circuit and a corresponding
circuit to carry out this function.

A
A.B
B
SYMBOL

A.B

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
TRUTH TABLE

AND Gate
Figure 8

The AND gate has an output of 1 only when all of its inputs are equal to 1.
This is similar to a multiplier function since the only possibilities in a digital
circuit are 0 X 1 = 0 and 1 X 1 = 1. The schematic circuit in figure 8 shows
two switches connected in series. Unless both switches are closed, there is
no current flow to the output.

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1.4.2 OR GATE

Figure 9 shows the OR gate truth table and logic circuit and a corresponding
circuit to carry out this function.
A
A+B
B
SYMBOL

A+B

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

TRUTH TABLE

OR Gate
Figure 9

1.4.3 NOT GATE

The NOT gate provides an output that is always the opposite the input. This
is called inversion or 180 phase shift. Thus, the NOT gate is commonly
referred to as an inverter. In the bipolar transistor, the common emitter
amplifier configuration was the only one capable of inverting the input so is
used to carry out the NOT function.

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Figure 10 shows the NOT gate truth table and logic circuit and a
corresponding circuit to carry out this function.

A
+VE

TRUTH TABLE

SYMBOL
OUTPUT

INPUT

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

NOT Gate
Figure 10

1.4.4 COMBINATION LOGIC CIRCUITS

The three basic logic circuits can be combined into a single decision making
circuit with more than 1 distinct outputs. Consider a circuit that compares two
inputs and calculates three outputs as shown below.

Output X1

Input A < Input B

Output X2

Input A > Input B

Output X3

Input A = Input B

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A combined logic circuit that would carry out the function is shown at Figure

X1

X2

X3

TRUTH TABLE

A
X1 (A<B)

B
X3 (A=B)

X2 (A>B)

11.
Combination Logic Circuit
Figure 11

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1.5 LINEAR (OR ANALOGUE) IC


Figure 12 shows the type of analogue signal handled by the Linear Integrated
Circuit.

TIME

Analogue Signal
Figure 1

1.6 THE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP AMP)


The integrated circuit operational amplifier is one of the most useful and
versatile electronic devices available today. The name operational amplifier
is not new; it refers to a type of amplifier originally used in analogue
computing to perform mathematical operations e.g. multiplication or division
by a constant. The modern integrated circuit device can be adapted (by
feedback) to perform most general-purpose amplifier duties, as well as its use
in mathematical operations.

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The Op Amp can consist of many stages of amplification to ensure high gain,
and will be arranged to have two input terminals, two power supply terminals
and an output terminal. In addition it will normally have terminals for setting
the output to zero when the input is zero.
The Op Amp consists of a transistor circuit of considerable complexity, which
has been found so useful that the whole circuit is manufactured on a single
piece of silicon, fitted with input and output leads, and covered in plastic. It is
the first Integrated Circuit, and can be treated just as if it were a new
component. Figure 2 shows a type 741 Op Amp and circuit.

POWER
SUPPLY
(+)

INVERTING
INPUT

7
8
VOLTAGE
OUTPUT

6
NON-INVERTING
INPUT

1
3
5

4
POWER
SUPPLY
()

NON-INVERTING
INPUT

INVERTING
INPUT

VOLTAGE

V+

GROUND

OUTPUT

Op Amp and Circuit


Figure 2

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In the Op Amp, two pins are marked supply + and supply - and are connected
to the amplifiers power supply. The device also has two inputs, the Inverting
input (V) identified by a negative symbol. A Non inverting input (VN)
identified by a positive sign and a single output (VO).
Note: The negative/Positive signs on the inputs does not mean that
negative/positive signals are applied, but identify the inverting and noninverting terminals.
The V, VN and VO are the values of the voltages applied to the inputs and
obtained form the output. These voltages are joined by the equation:

VO = AO (VN V)
Here we have a slight problem. Voltages are measured between one point in
a circuit and another. Usually one point is the negative or zero line. When
calculating VN & V it does not matter were the reference is as long as it is the
same for both voltages. When we obtain the output VO we need to know the
reference point used by the Op Amp. This is not the zero line but a voltage
halfway between the positive supply and the zero line.
The other unknown quantity in the equation is AO, the Open Loop Gain. This
gain is constant for each particular Op Amp and is the ratio between two
voltages. Open Loop gain in Op Amps is normally 105.

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The following example will make use of the equation. Figure 3 shows an Op
Amp with an open loop voltage gain of 400, connected between a 12V supply.

+12V

GAIN = 400
VOUT
5.88V
5.87V
ZERO LINE

Op Amp
Figure 3

V = 5.88V

VN = 5.87

AO = 400

Using the equation:

VO = AO(VN - V)
VO = 400(5.87 5.88)
= 400(-0.01)
= -4V
The voltage is relative to a point halfway between +12v and zero, that is 6V.
The output voltage is therefore 4V below 6V, i.e. 2V. What would the output
be if the input values were reversed?
Ans:.

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1.7 THE IDEAL OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER


Although the characteristics of an ideal operational amplifier are unattainable,
modern integrated circuit types can provide an extremely close approximation.
The ideal characteristics are:
*

A very large open loop gain, near infinite,

Output unaffected by signal frequency, no signal phase shift with


change in frequency,

A very large (infinite) input impedance so that the amplifier takes


negligible current,

A very small output impedance so that the output of the amplifier is


unaffected by loading,

Output voltage is zero for zero input voltage (offset zero applied).

Naturally, no practical operational amplifier will be this perfect, which means


of course that there will be small operational errors with such devices.
Therefore, the closer to the ideal properties the amplifier is made, the smaller
will be these errors.

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PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS

Aircraft electronic systems necessitate the interconnection of many


components; in the past this was done by soldered or crimped terminations.
With the development of circuit technology and micro miniaturisation, weight
saving and simplification of installation and maintenance became needful and
these needs were met by the development of the printed circuit board.
1.1 CONSTRUCTION
Printed circuit board is a laminated paper or fibreglass board coated on one
side with a thin layer of copper. The areas of copper, called 'lands', required
to connect the components are marked out by painting over the copper, and
the remaining copper is etched away by a solution of ferric chloride. Holes
are then drilled in the board for the component leads. The advantage is that
the copper strips can be any shape and few additional wires are required.
Industry can produce printed circuit boards in large numbers very cheaply so
they have become the standard circuit construction method. Figure 1 shows
the front face of a PCB, with Figure 2 showing the rear face.

BASE
BOARD

FRONT

Printed Circuit Board


Figure 1

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CIRCUIT MODULE
DESIGNATION
(E.G. SIGNAL
SELECTOR)

IC1

IC2

IC3

IC4

IC5

CIRCUIT
REFERENCE
C2

INTEGRATED
CIRCUIT CHIPS

IC6

REAR

FINGER OR
EDGE CONNECTOR

Printed Circuit Board


Figure 2

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1.2 MULTI-LAYER CIRCUITS


In order to save weight and space, and to provide for the interconnection of
integrated circuits (which are a feature of a large majority of electronic
equipment) the relevant circuits are assembled as a multi-layer moulded
package. This consists of three or more single and/or double-sided printed
boards and insulating layers of impreg material.
1.3 HANDLING PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS
Since various types of semi-conductor components are mounted on printed
circuit boards, care must always be taken in handling techniques.
General techniques are as follows: a)

Do not remove or replace units with electrical power applied.

b)

Do not touch the connectors, leads or edge connectors of circuit


boards unnecessarily.

c)

Use conductive packaging, shorting plugs, bands or wire when


provided or prescribed by the relevant aircraft Maintenance Manual.

d)

Pay strict attention to stores procedures to ensure that protective


packaging is not removed during any goods-inwards inspection.

Module 5 details procedures for handling Static Sensitive Devices.

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SERVOMECHANISMS

A servomechanism (servo) is a type of control system whose output is the


position of a shaft. They may be controlled remotely when used in
conjunction with synchro devices. Synchros themselves transmit position
information but cannot amplify torque to move heavy loads. Used with
servomechanisms, an output to control such a load can be obtained to give a
desired result in relation to an input.
1.1 OPEN LOOP SYSTEM
In this system, an input is applied and an output obtained. Figure 1 shows an
example; assume an aircraft rudder controlled by an open loop system.

DEMAND
INPUT
TRANSDUCER

DEMAND
SIGNAL
AMP

RESPONSE

LOAD

MOTOR

Open Loop System


Figure 1
The demand, made by the pilot on the rudder bar, is picked up by the
transducer which converts it to an electrical signal; i.e. the demand signal.
This signal is amplified and fed to the motor, which responds by moving the
load; i.e. the rudder. There is no positional feedback and the pilot does not
know if the rudder has adopted the position requested.

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1.2 CLOSED LOOP SYSTEM


In the closed loop system, the demand is made in the same way. In a basic
system, positional feedback would be given to the pilot who would make
adjustments accordingly but this is not practical with systems such as aircraft
flying controls. Figure 2 shows a closed loop automatic system.

ERROR
DETECTOR
INPUT
TRANSDUCER

AMP

SERVO
MOTOR

LOAD

ERROR
SIGNAL

POSITION
FEEDBACK

OUTPUT
POSITION
TRANSDUCER

Closed Loop System


Figure 2
An output position transducer has been added to the servomotor and this
feeds back any difference between input demand and output to an error
detector. The error detector outputs an error signal to the amplifier to make
any positional corrections necessary at the servo motor and thus the load (or
rudder) is positioned as demanded.
If for example the pilot wanted to move the rudder 5, a demand is made at
the rudder bar and this is converted to a voltage at the transducer, say +5
volts. The error detector immediately gives an output signal corresponding to
+5 volts input and this is amplified to drive the motor, moving the rudder. The
output position transducer converts the output position to an electrical signal,
which corresponds to the new position of the rudder. As this happens, this
signal, (feedback), is fed back to the error detector until the demanded
position is achieved and the input is negated. Now, there is no error signal
and no output. The feedback has reached -5 volts.

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1.3 FOLLOW UP
If in our example the rudder were to be displaced from its demanded position,
or from the optimum speed at which the demanded position may be achieved,
an error signal occurs. In the way described, there is a feedback signal and
the system returns to its demanded position or speed. This process is called
'follow up'.

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1.4 FEEDBACK
1.4.1 POSITIONAL FEEDBACK

Positional feedback is obtained from transducers positioned at the output. The


feedback element, or transducer, converts the output shaft angle into a signal
suitable for operating the error detector. In this case a voltage signal. The
simplest form of element is a R-pot, or a helical potentiometer similar to that
used as a control element. In practice, helical potentiometers are used since
they give 360 coverage, which a R-pot cannot provide. Figure 3 shows
positional feedback in a dc system.

CONTROL
ELEMENT

ERROR
DETECTOR

SERVO
MOTOR

LOAD

VELOCITY
FEEDBACK

POSITIONAL
FEEDBACK

TACHO
GEN

FEEDBACK
ELEMENT

Positional Feedback
Figure 3

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Figure 4 shows a R-Pot & Helical Potentiometer

Ei

PROPORTIONAL
TO

R-POT

Ei
PROPORTIONAL
TO

HELICAL POTENTIOMETER

R-Pot & Helical Potentiometer


Figure 4
In ac systems, other components are used to provide positional feedback.
Synchros are employed in some servomechanisms. These will be discussed
later.

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1.5 ROTARY VARIABLE DIFFERENTIAL TRANSDUCER (RVDT)


The RVDT is an inductance transmitter having a primary stator coil, an iron
rotor coil and two secondary stator coils. Figure 5 shows the operation of a
RVDT.

PRIMARY
COIL

L3

IRON CORE
CONNECTED TO
MECHANICAL
INPUT

L1

L2

2. ROTATED CLOCKWISE

1. ZERO POSITION

3. ROTATED COUNTER CLOCKWISE

RVDT Operation
Figure 5

The mechanical input changes the position of the iron core. The position of
the core changes the magnetic coupling between the primary and the
secondary stator coils. When the input rotates, one of the secondary coils
receives more magnetic flux and this induces a higher voltage in that coil.
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The other secondary coil receives less magnetic flux, so a lower voltage is
induced. The difference between voltages induced in the secondary stator
coils is proportional to the rotated angle. This is an AC Ratio Signal.
Figure 5.1:

The position of the iron core is zero. The magnetic field induced
by primary coil L3 is equally divided between L1 and L2.
Therefore the voltage R-T is zero.

Figure 5.2:

The iron core is turned clockwise. Now there is more coupling


between L3 and L2, and less coupling between L3 and L1. The
voltage between T and S increases and the voltage between R
and S decreases.

Figure 5.3:

The iron core turned counter-clockwise. Now there is more


coupling between L3 and L1, and less coupling between L3 and
L2. The voltage between T and S decreases, while the voltage
between R and S increases.

The difference between figure 5.2 and 5.3 is that the output-voltage between
R and T is of opposite phase. The output measured between R and T is an
AC RATIO signal.
The Linear Variable Differential Transducer (LVDT) is also an inductance
transmitter with similar components and similar in operation but of course, the
movement detected is linear and not rotary.

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1.6 CAPACITANCE TRANSMITTER


An example of a capacitance transmitter can be seen in a simple fuel gauging
system as in Figure 6.
TANK UNIT

EMPTY

IS

LOOP
A

IB

LOOP
B

REF C
FULL

2 - PHASE
MOTOR

DISCRIMINATION
STAGE
AMPLIFIER
STAGE

INDICATOR

REF
PHASE

AMPLIFIER UNIT

Capacitance Transmitter
Figure 6
This system depends upon the comparison of two capacitance values. One in
Loop A, which is the variable capacitance of a tank unit and the other in Loop
B, which is fixed. A current is developed in each loop; IS in loop A; IB in loop
B. The two loops form a bridge with resistor R across it. If the tank is full,
then current IS is the greater. With the tank empty, IS falls so that IB is the
greater.
Note: The currents act in opposite directions so that a potential is developed
across resistor R of a polarity dependent on the direction of current flow and
of a magnitude dependent on the size of the current. This signal is
transmitted to an amplifier, which powers a 2-phase motor to drive an
indicator and a balance potentiometer.

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When the balance potentiometer moves as a result of change in fuel level, it


adjusts IB, rebalancing the bridge formed by loop A and loop B. Now, no
current flows through resistor R, no signal is developed across R and the new
fuel level is displayed at the indicator.
1.7 SYNCHROS
1.7.1 INTRODUCTION

AC transmission systems are generally known as synchros because of their


synchronous action in reproducing the angular movement of a shaft. As
mentioned previously, they cannot transmit torque to any appreciable degree
but can be used in conjunction with servomechanisms.
1.8 TORQUE SYNCHRO
1.8.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

The principle of a synchro is that of the transformer, where the primary


winding is wound onto a rotor and is rotated with respect to a fixed stator
winding. The size and phase of the output voltage is dependent on the
direction and angular displacement between the primary and secondary
windings.
The torque synchro comprises two electrically similar units: the transmitter
(TX) and the receiver (TR) which are interconnected by transmission lines.
The TX and TR have very similar construction. Each has a rotor carrying a
single winding concentrically mounted in a stator of three windings, the axes
of which are 120 apart. It should be noted that the TX and TR torque
synchros are not identical. The difference is that the TR synchro has an
oscillation damper added, so that when its rotor rotates to a given position, it
does not oscillate as it comes to rest.
The rotors of both TX and TR synchros are energized from the ac supply and
produce an alternating flux which links with their corresponding stators S1, S2
and S3. This process is the normal transformer action, with the rotors
corresponding to the transformer primary winding and the stators to the
secondary windings.
Consider the case when the two rotors are not aligned. The three voltages
induced in each of the two sets of stator windings are different. Currents
therefore flow between the two stators and a torque is produced in each
synchro which is directed in such a way that the two rotors must align
themselves. Normally, the TX rotor position is controlled by the input shaft,
while the TR rotor is free to turn, so it is the one which aligns itself with the TX
rotor. In this way, any movement of the TX rotor due to movement of the input
shaft is repeated synchronously by movement of the receiver rotor.

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Torque synchros are used for the transmission of angular position information
and flight instrument systems is a typical application. Figure 9 shows a
Torque Synchro and circuit symbol.

S1

S3

INPUT
SHAFT

S1

S2

S3

OUTPUT
SHAFT

S2

CIRCUIT SYMBOL
STATOR
FIELD
S1

ROTOR
FIELD

R1

S2

R2
S3

CURRENT
FLOW

Torque Synchro
Figure 9

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Figure 10 shows the construction of a torque synchro.

SHAFT

BEARING

STATOR
WINDINGS
COILS

SHELL
CORE

SLIP
RINGS

LEADS TO
SLIP RINGS
STATOR
LEADS

LOWER END
CAP

ROTOR

STATOR

COMPLETE
ASEMBLY

Torque Synchro Construction


Figure 10

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1.9 CONTROL SYNCHRO


The basic control synchro system has two units; a synchro control transmitter
(CX) and a synchro control transformer (CT) connected as shown in Figure

S1

S1

CT

CX
A.C.
SUPPLY

S2

S3

S2

S3

A.C.
SUPPLY

INPUT
SHAFT

SERVO
MOTOR

11.
Control Synchro
Figure 11
1.9.1 PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

The CX synchro is similar to that used in the torque synchro system. The
control transformer has a stator, which in design and appearance resemble
the synchro units already discussed but with high impedance coils to limit the
alternating currents through the coils. Further differences in the CT are that
the rotor winding has its coils wound so that no torque is produced between it
and the stator magnetic fields and the rotor is not energized by the supply
voltage applied to the rotor of the control synchro.
The CT rotor acts as an inductive winding for determining the phase and
magnitude of error signal voltages. The signals, after amplification, are fed to
a two-phase motor, which is mechanically coupled to the CT rotor. A control
synchro system is at electrical zero when the rotor of the CT is at 90 with
respect to the CX rotor. This is the situation as shown in Figure 10 above.

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If the input shaft is rotated and the CX rotor is disturbed, voltages are induced
in the CX stator and currents flow down the transmission lines to the stator
windings S1, S2 and S3 of the CT. A magnetic flux is produced, depending on
the amount of displacement of the CX rotor and the orientation of its
displacement. This flux links with the rotor of CT, inducing a voltage into it,
again depending on the amount, or rate of displacement, and its orientation.
The voltage, or error voltage, representing the electrical difference between
the rotors of CX and CT, is then amplified and passed to the control phase of
a two-phase motor. The ac reference phase supply is fixed. The motor now
rotates.
Its direction depends on the phase of the error signal, as can be seen from
Figure 12.

APPLIED VOLTAGE

ANTI-CLOCKWISE ROTATION
VOLTAGE OUT-OF-PHASE

CLOCKWISE ROTATION
VOLTAGE IN-PHASE

Phase Error Signal


Figure 12
As it rotates, the motor drives the rotor of CT in such a direction as to reduce the error voltage to zero
and the new position is reached. By using the error signal amplified by a servo amplifier, a servomotor
can be driven to move a control surface as in Figure 11.

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1.10 DIFFERENTIAL SYNCHRO


There are two types of differential synchro system:
Torque.
Control.
In each, a special type of synchro is inserted between the synchros of the
basic torque or control systems. It is called a differential synchro and differs
from the basic synchros in that it has a three-phase stator and rotor. In a
torque differential system it is abbreviated to TDX and in a control differential
system, CDX. The inclusion of this synchro between a torque transmitter and
receiver or control transmitter and transformer permits an additional input to
be algebraically added to, or subtracted from, the system. The layout of a
differential synchro and its circuit symbol are shown at Figure 13.

STATOR
S1

S3

R1

R3

R2

ROTOR

CIRCUIT SYMBOL

R1

S2

R2
R3

S1
S2
S3

Differential Synchro
Figure 13

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Figure 14 shows the construction of a differential synchro

STATOR
CONNECTIONS

STATOR
WINDINGS
ROTOR
ASSEMBLY
STATOR
ASSEMBLY
ROTOR
COILS
SKEW CUT TO
ENABLE SMOOTHER
RUNNING

Differential Synchro Construction


Figure 14

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1.11 TORQUE DIFFERENTIAL SYNCHRO


Figure 15 shows a differential synchro system set up for the SUBTRACTION
of two inputs.

60
15
60

45

TX

45

TR
TDX

INPUT
SHAFT 60

INPUT
SHAFT 15

OUTPUT
SHAFT
1 2

Torque Differential Synchro


Figure 15
Note that the rotors of the normal transmitter TX and receiver TR are supplied
in parallel with the single-phase ac supply. The stator windings of the TX are
connected to the stator windings of the TDX and its three rotor windings are
connected to the three-stator windings of the TR. The rotor of the TDX is not
energized by the ac supply.
The circuit is such that one input shaft turns the TX rotor and the second input
shaft drives the TDX rotor. The TDX receives an electrical signal
corresponding to a particular angular position of the TX rotor, which it modifies
by an amount corresponding to the angular position of its own rotor. This
modified signal appears at the TDX output and is transmitted to the receiver,
where it produces an angular flux, which is the difference of the rotor angles
of the two transmitters TX and TDX.
If the TDX rotor is locked in one position, the TX/TR chain acts as a normal
torque synchro system with a transformer placed between TX and TR.

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1.12 CONTROL DIFFERENTIAL SYNCHRO


Figure 16 illustrates a control differential synchro system.

CX

CDX

CT

ERROR
SIGNAL

INPUT
SHAFT1

INPUT
SHAFT2

OUTPUT
SHAFT
1 2

Control Differential Synchro


Figure 16
As with the straight control synchro system, the ac supply is only applied to
the transmitter rotor. The transformer rotor produces an error signal, which
after amplification is applied to a motor, causing the CT rotor to move. Apart
from these differences the action of the control differential transmitter is the
same as for the torque differential synchro system.
Torque differential synchros have been used to combine a direction finding
loop reading and a compass reading, in navigation systems, to give a true
bearing.
Control differential synchros, combined with servomotors, are used for moving
much heavier loads such as radar scanners where the subtraction or addition
of two inputs may be necessary.

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1.13 RESOLVER SYNCHRO


This type of synchro is used to convert voltages, which represent the
CARTESIAN co-ordinates of a point, into POLAR co-ordinates and vice versa.
1.13.1 POLAR AND CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES
A vector, representing an alternating voltage, can be defined in terms of r and
the angle it makes with the X-axis: angle (). These are the polar co-ordinates of
the vector written as r/. Figure 17 shows the vector diagram for Polar and
Cartesian co-ordinates.

POLAR CO-ORDINATES = r/
CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES X = r COS
CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES Y = r SIN

Polar & Cartesian Co-ordinates


Figure 17

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1.13.2 RESOLVER SYNCHRO OPERATION

The resolver synchro consists of a stator and rotor, each having two windings
arranged in phase quadrature as shown in Figure 18.

S1

R1
R3
S3

S4

R4
R2
ROTOR

INPUT SHAFT

S2

STATOR

R1

S1

R2

S2

a
R3

R4

S3

S4

b
Resolver Synchro
Figure 18
Figure 16b represents the resolver differently for ease of explanation. The
resolver has two coils, R1 R2 and R3 R4 at right angles to each other and
attached to an input shaft. The stator consists of two coils S1 S2 and S3 S4,
also placed at right angles to each other.

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1.13.3 CONVERSION FROM POLAR TO CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES

For this purpose, one of the resolver coils is short-circuited, say R3 R4, and
the other, R1 R2, has an alternating voltage applied to it. The magnitude of
this voltage (r) and the angle () through which both rotor coils are turned,
represent the polar co-ordinates r/. Figure 19 shows a resolver synchro to
carry out this function.

MAX
VOLTS

R
ROTOR

FLUX

STATOR

R1

S1

R2

S2

R COS

R3

R4

S3

S4

90

NO
VOLTS

180

270

360

R SIN

Polar to Cartesian Co-ordinates


Figure 19
Consider firstly that the rotor shaft position is such that the R1 R2 coil magnetic
field links completely with the stator winding S1 S2, i.e. the coils are aligned.
The maximum voltage will therefore be induced in coil S1 S2. Since the stator
coil S3 S4 is at right angle to stator coil S1 S2, there will be no voltage
developed across it due to R1 R2 coil's magnetic field. When the shaft is
rotated at constant speed through 90, the rotor coil R1 R2 is now in phase
quadrature to stator S1 S2, which has zero volts induced in it. However, R1 R2
rotor coil is now aligned with stator coil S3 S4 and this now has maximum
voltage induced in it. As the shaft continues to rotate, a cosine voltage wave
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is developed across S1 S2 stator and a sine voltage wave across S3 S4 stator


coil.
r cos and r sin summed together result from the input voltage at R1 R2 and
rotor rotation r/. The result represents the cartesian co-ordinates.
1.13.4 CONVERSION FROM CARTESIAN TO POLAR CO-ORDINATES

In this arrangement, there are two voltage inputs and these represent the
cartesian co-ordinates. They are VX = r cos and VY = r sin (Refer Figure
15). VX is input to S1 S2; VY is input to S3 S4. The two together develop an
alternating magnetic flux representing the cartesian co-ordinates in the stator.
R1 R2 is connected to an amplifier, which drives the output load and the rotor
in such a direction as to null the rotor and stop the motor. R3 R4 has a voltage
induced in it dependent on the value of the alternating flux. Its value may be
calculated using Pythagoras' Theorum VY + VX . Figure 20 shows the
layout for performing the above.

R1
S1

S2
R2

SM

VX = r COS
S3

S4

VY = r SIN

R3

R4

TO LOAD

VY 2 + VX2
S4

S2

S3

R3

S1

R1

CIRCUIT SYMBOL
R4

R2

Cartesian to Polar Co-ordinates


Figure 20

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1.13.5 USE OF RESOLVER SYNCHROS

The ability to develop receiver signals at 90 is used, for example, in VOR


systems, ADF systems using a non-rotating loop, in autopilots and in flight
directors.
1.14 E AND I BAR TRANSMITTER
Figure 21a shows an E and I bar transmitter. These devices convert mechanical movements into
electrical signals (transducer) and are used in various systems as required. Figure 19a shows an E and
I bar as applied to a servo-altimeter.

A.C.
EXCITATION
SUPPLY

RESULTANT
WAVEFORM

E & I Bar Transmitter


Figure 21

The E-bar has a coil wound round the centre limb. This coil is supplied by an
ac excitation supply. A magnetic flux is set up within the E-bar and when the
I-bar is equidistant from the outer limbs of the E-bar, the waveforms
transmitted are equal and opposite (Figure 21b). No output results. If the IELECTRONIC FUNDAMENTALS

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bar is moved (in this case by capsules) one end of the I-bar is brought in
closer proximity to the opposite limb of the E-bar. The air gap here is
reduced, the magnetic field strengthens and the signal from the upper limb
coil is increased. (Figure 21b).
The opposite end of the I-Bar moves further away from its associated E-bar
limb, and the resultant signal is weaker. In the case of the servo-altimeter,
moving the E -bar back to the position nulls the signal so that no signal is
produced.

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ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

All instruments essential to the operation of an aircraft are located on panels,


the number of which vary in accordance with the number of instruments
required for the appropriate type of aircraft and its flight deck layout. The front
instrument panel, positioned in the normal line of sight of the pilots, contains
all instruments critical for the safe flight of the aircraft. This panel is normally
sloped forward 15 from the vertical to minimize parallax errors. Other panels
within the flight deck are typically positioned; Overhead, left and right side and
centrally between the pilots.
Figure 1 shows the layout of a Boeing 737 Flightdeck.

Boeing 737 Flight-deck


Figure 1

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

EIS
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1.1 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS


There are six flight instruments whose indications are so coordinated as to
create a Picture of an aircrafts flight condition and required control
movements. These instruments are:
1. Airspeed Indicator.
2. Altimeter.
3. Gyro Horizon Indicator.
4. Direction Indicator
5. Vertical Speed Indicator.
6. Turn & Bank Indicator.
The first real attempt at establishing a standard method of grouping was the
Blind Flying Panel or Basic Six. The Gyro Horizon Unit (HGU) occupies
the top centre position, and since it provides positive and direct indications of
the aircrafts attitude, it is utilized as the Master Instrument. As control of
airspeed and altitude is directly related to attitude, the Indicated Air-Speed
(IAS), Indicator, Altimeter and Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) flank the HGU.
Changes in direction are initiated by banking the aircraft, and the degree of
heading change is obtained from the Direction Indicator (DI). The DI
supports the interpretation of the roll attitude and is positioned directly below
the HGU. The Turn & Bank Indicator serves as a secondary reference
instrument for heading changes, so it also supports the interpretation of roll
attitude.
With the development and introduction of new types of aircraft with more
comprehensive display presentation, afforded by the indicators of flight
director systems, a review of the functions of certain instruments and their
relative positions within the group resulted in the adoption of the Basic T
arrangement as the current standard.

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There are now four key indicators:


1. Attitude Director Indicator.
2. Horizontal Situation Indicator.
3. Combined Speed indicator.
4. Altimeter.
Figure 2 shows the layout of the basic 6 and T instrument groupings.

AIRSPEED
INDICATOR

GYRO
HORIZON

ALTIMETER

DIRECTION
INDICATOR

VERTICAL
SPEED
INDICATOR

TURN & BANK


INDICATOR

BASIC 6 GROUPING

COMBINED
AIRSPEED
INDICATOR

RADIO
MAGNETIC
INDICATOR

ATTITUDE
DIRECTOR
INDICATOR

ALTIMETER

VERTICAL
SPEED
INDICATOR

HORIZONTAL
SITUATION
INDICATOR

BASIC T GROUPING

Basic Six and T Flight Instrument Grouping


Figure 2

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1.2 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS


Modern technology has enabled some significant changes in the layout of
flight instrumentation on most aircraft currently in service. The biggest
change has been the introduction of Electronic Instrument systems. These
systems have meant that many complex Electro-mechanical instruments have
now been replaced by TV type colour displays. These systems also allow the
exchange of images between display units in the case of display failures.
There are many different Electronic Instrument Systems, including:
1.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS).

2.

Engine Indicating & Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

3.

Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM).

Figure 3 shows a typical flight deck layout of an Airbus A320.

EFIS
PFD

EFIS
ND

ECAM
ENGINE
WARNINGS

EFIS
ND

EFIS
PFD

ECAM
SYSTEMS

Flight Deck Electronic Instrumentation Layout


Figure 3

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

EIS
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The Electronic Instrument System (EIS) also allows the flight crew to
configure the instrument layout by allowing manual transfer of the Primary
Flight Display (PFD) with the Navigation Display (ND) and the secondary
Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring (ECAM) display with the ND. Figure
4 shows the switching panel from Airbus A320.

AIR DATA

ATT HDG
NORM
CAPT
3

E/S DMC

NORM
F/O
3

CAPT
3

ECAM / ND XFR
NORM

NORM
F/O
3

CAPT
3

F/O
3

CAPT

F/O

A320 EIS Switching Panel


Figure 4

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

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As well as a manual transfer, the system will automatically transfer displays


when either the PFD or the primary ECAM display fails. The PFD is
automatically transferred onto the corresponding ND, with the ECAM
secondary display used for the primary ECAM display.
The system will also automatically transfer the primary ECAM information
onto the ND if a double failure of the ECAM display system occurs. Figure 5
shows a block schematic of the EIS for the Airbus 320.

DISPLAY
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
DMS No 1

DISPLAY
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
DMS No 3

DISPLAY
MANAGEMENT
SYSTEM
DMS No 2

Electronic Instrument System (EIS)


Figure 5

ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEM

EIS
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NUMBERING SYSTEMS

The majority of digital computers are wired to understand one particular code.
This code usually is not the English language or the decimal numbering system
but is instead the binary numbering system. A binary code capable of
representing letters of the alphabet, decimal numbers, punctuation marks and
special control symbols is used by most digital computers on the market today.
Before discussing the binary numbering system and its use in computers, a few
rules concerning all numbering systems will be presented.
There are three basic characteristics of any number system;
BASE (OR RADIX).
POSITION VALUE.
DIGIT VALUE.
The base of a numbering system is the total number of unique characters or
marks within that system. In the decimal system the base is 10 since there are
10 digits (or characters) which make up the system -0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.
Each position in a number has a value of BX where B is the base and X is some
exponent. For example, the decimal numbers 365 and 653 have two different
values even though they are composed of the same digits. The reason that the
numbers have different values is that digits of different values occupy positions of
different weights:
102 101 100
3 6 5
The first position 100 carries a weight of one. (Any number, except zero, when
raised to the zero power is equal to one).
The second position 101 carries a weight of 10 and the third position 102 carries a
weight of 100 etc. Note that each position is ten times greater than the preceding
position.
Each digit in a number has a value which exists between zero and the value of
the base minus one. For example in the decimal system, the digits range in value
from zero to nine. Nine is one less that the base of the system which is ten.

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES

NUMBERING SYSTEM
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1.1 GENERAL
In describing numbers, one takes into account the value of the various digits and
the weight of their respective positions.
102 101 100
3 6 5
is equivalent to:
3 x 102 + 6 x 101 + 5 x 100 =
3 x 100 + 6 x 10 + 5 x 1
300 +

60 +

=
= 365

Thus the decimal number 365 is read as three hundred sixty five.
Fractional numbers follow the same rules. For example take the decimal number
1402.35
103 102 101 100 10-1 10-2
1 4
0 2 3 5
1 x 103 + 4 x 102 + 0 x 101 + 2 x 100 + 3 x 10-1 + 5 x 10-2 =
1 x 1000 + 4 x 100 + 0 x 10 + 2 x 1 + 3 x 1/10 + 5 x 1/100 =
1000 + 400 + 2 + 3/10 + 5/100 or 1000 + 400 + 2 + 35/100
Note: There is an algebraic rule which states that a number raised to a negative
exponent is equivalent to one over that number raised to a positive
exponent.
10-2 = 1/102 or 1/100

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES

NUMBERING SYSTEM
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1.2 BINARY NUMBERING SYSTEM


The prefix 'BI indicates two of something such as bicycle, bifocal, bi-plane etc.
The binary numbering system is named after its base, which is two. Since the
base is two there are two digits in the system 0 and 1. Position values for a
binary number are 2X where x is some exponent and each position will be two
times greater in weight than that of the preceding position. Consider the binary
number 10110.
24 23 22 21 20
1 0 1 1 0
1 x 24 + 0 x 23 + 1 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 0 x 20 =
(1 x 16) + (0 x 8) + (1 x 4) + (1 x 2) + (0 x 1) =
16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 = 22
In describing a binary number in terms of decimal values for the positions, one
converts from binary to decimal. Thus a binary 10110 is equivalent to a decimal
22. Often the base of a numbering system is indicated by a subscript in
parenthesis.
10110(2) = 22(10)
Since the binary system uses only digits 0 and 1 all that one needs to do when
converting from binary to decimal is to add the weights of those positions which
contain ones. For example consider the number 1101001(2)
BIT POSITION
POSITION WEIGHT

26 25 24 23 22 21 20
64 32 16 8 4 2 1
1 1 0 1 0 0 1
64 + 32 + 8 + 1 = 105(10)

Therefore:

DIGITAL TECHNIQUES

1101001(2) = 105(10)

NUMBERING SYSTEM
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When one desires to convert from decimal to binary there are several methods
that may be employed. One method is to use a table. (See table 1).
1024
210

512 256
29
28

128
27

64
26

32
25

16
24

8
23

4
22

2
21

1
20

WEIGHT
BIT POS

Decimal to Binary Conversion


Table 1
Assume the following conversion was desired.
212(10) = ?(2)
The method of using the table is to find the largest number in the table, which
does not exceed the decimal number that is being converted. The number 128 is
the largest possible in this case hence a 'one' bit in the 27 position is required.
This immediately defines the size of the binary number as 8 positions (From 27 to
20). Subtracting 128 from 212 leaves a remainder of 84 to be represented by the
remaining binary positions. Since 84 is larger than 64 (which is the weight of the
26 position) a 'one' bit is required for the 26 position. Subtracting 64 from 84
leaves a remainder of 20.
A 'one' bit in the 25 position would be equivalent to 32, which is too large, thus
zero bit must be used for the 25 bit position. So far the binary result is as follows:
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
1 1 0
A 'one' bit in the 24 position represents a weight of 16. Sixteen from twenty
leaves a remainder of four. Four can be represented in its entirety by a 'one' bit
in the 22 position. Therefore the 23, 21 and 20 positions should hold zeros.
27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
A re-conversion to decimal would prove the answer's validity.
128 + 64 + 16 + 4 = 212
Therefore:

212(10) = 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0(2)

Another method of converting from decimal to binary is to divide the decimal


number by 2 (which is the base of the new number) a successive number of
times using the remainders as the digits of the new number. For example
consider the following:
28(10) = ?(2)
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0
2 1
2 3
2 7
2 14
2 28

R = 1 (MSD)
R=1
R=1
R=0
R = 0 (RIGHT MOST DIGIT OR LSD)

Division must continue until a zero quotient is obtained. The first remainder is the
rightmost digit or least significant digit (LSD) of the new number.
Therefore:

28(10) = 1 1 1 0 0(2)

A re-conversion to decimal serve as a check.


16 + 8 + 4 = 28

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1.2.1 BINARY FRACTIONS

Although many digital computers do not make use of binary fractions, conversion
techniques involving them are relatively simple. Some of these techniques will be
presented in order to complete the picture of conversion between the binary and
decimal systems.
The position notation method of converting from binary to decimal can include
fractions.
Example:

1001.101(2) = ?(10)
23 22 21 20 2-1 2-2 2-3
1 0 0 1. 1 0 1

1 x 23 + 0 x 22 + 0 x 21 + 1 x 20 + 1 x 2-1 + 0 x 2-2 + 1 x 2-3 =


1 x 8 + 0 x 4 + 0 x 2 + 1 x 1 + 1 x 1/2 + 0 x 1/4 + 1 x 1/8 =
8 + 1 + 1/2 + 1/8 or 8 + 1 + .5 + .125 = 9.625
thus: 1001.101(2) = 9.625(10)
NOTE: 2-1 = 1/21 = 1/2, 2-2 = 1/22 = 1/4, 2-3 = 1/23 = 1/8
An abbreviated table of decimal equivalents to binary fractions is shown in table
2:
Binary Fraction Conversion
2-1
0.5
-2
2
0.25
2-3
0.125
2-4
0.0625
2-5
0.03125
2-6
0.015625
Decimal to Binary Conversion
Table 2

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Just as positions to the left of the binary point were two times greater than that of
the preceding position, so the positions to the right of the binary point are two
times smaller.
Conversion from a decimal fraction to a binary fraction may be done in several
ways. One method is to use table 5.2.2.
Example:

.375(10) = ?(2)

Since .5 is greater than .375 a zero bit should be placed in the 2-1 position. A one
bit should exist in the 2-2 position, however, since .25 is less than .375.
Subtracting .25 from .375 leaves a remainder of .125, which can be fully
represented by a one bit in the 2-3 position. Final result is:
2-1 2-2 2-3
0 1 1
THUS: .375(10) = .011(2)
A second technique of converting decimal fractions to binary is to multiply the
decimal fraction by 2 and look for a carry beyond the decimal point. A carry will
indicate a one bit for the 2-1 position; no carry a zero bit. The next step is to
again multiply only the fraction portion by 2 and look for a carry. A carry means a
one bit for the 2-2 position and no carry indicates a zero bit. The process is
continued for as many positions as desired.
Example:

.375(10) = ?(2)
.375
x2
0.750
.750
x2
1.500
.500
x2
1.000

THUS:

2-1 position should hold a zero


2-2 position should hold a one
2-3 position should hold a one
.375(10) = .011(2)

If a whole number conversion is required in addition to the fraction conversion,


the whole number is converted by dividing by two while the fraction is converted
by multiplying by 2.

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Example:

18.205(10) = ?(2)
0
2 1
2 2
2 4
2 9
2 18

R=1
R=0
R=0
R=1
R=0

(2 )
(23)
(22)
(21)
(20)

.205
x2
.410
x2
820
x2
1.640
x2
1.280

2-1 is 0
2-2 is 0
2-3 is 1
2-4 is 1

Accuracy to four places gives the following result:


18.205(10) = 1 0 0 1 0. 0 0 1 1(2)
Re-conversion would show that the binary number was not carried out to enough
places beyond the binary point to create an exact equivalent. However the
number of places of accuracy is up to individual preference.
1.3 ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF THE BINARY SYSTEM
The binary numbering system is very applicable to computer hardware design.
Since there are only two binary digits 0 and 1 these bits (contraction of BINARY
DIGITS) can be represented by a switch being open or closed, a light being off or
on, a relay being de-energised or energised, a transistor not conducting or
conducting, no hole or a hole on paper tape, no magnetized spot or a magnetized
spot on magnetic tape or a core being magnetized in one direction or the other. It
would require very complicated and expensive circuits in the computer to handle
pure decimal numbers and letters of the alphabet whereas very simple circuits
handle binary numbers. The speed at which binary arithmetic operations can be
performed is also quite desirable in computer operation. Therefore, all incoming
data must be converted to a binary code before entering the computer's memory
and must be reconverted for outputs that humans recognise.
A big disadvantage of the binary numbering system is that it is awkward to use in
programming or in computer monitoring operations. Thus it is quite common to
use an abbreviated code when dealing with binary numbers. A good short hand
system for binary is the octal numbering system.

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1.4 OCTAL NUMBERING SYSTEM


The prefix 'OCT' implies eight of something such as octagon, octopus, etc. The
base of the octal system is eight since there are eight digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
Each position of an octal number carries a value of 8X where x is some exponent.
Consider the following octal number:
327(8)
Conversion to decimal would be as follows:
82 81 80
3 2 7
3 x 82 + 2 x 81 + 7 x 80 =
3 x 64 + 2 x 8 + 7 x 1 =
192 + 16 + 7

215(10)

One should note that there are no 8's or 9's in the octal system and that each
position of an octal number is 8 times greater in weight than the weight of the
preceding position.
In converting from decimal to octal one may use a table, such as Table 3, or one
may use the 'division by new base' technique.
32768
85

4096
84

512
83

64
82

8
81

1
80

WEIGHT
POS

Decimal to Octal Conversion


Table 3

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The later of the two techniques is easier to use.


Example:

169(10) = ?(8)

0
8 2
8 21
8 169

R = 2
R = 5
R = 1

Therefore:

169(10) = 251(8)

A re-conversion would check the result.


2 x 82 + 5 x 81 + 1 x 80 =
2 x 64 + 5 x 8 + 1 x 1 =
128 + 40 + 1
=

169(10)

1.4.1 OCTAL FRACTIONS

Just as in binary fractions many digital computers do not use octal fractions but
the rules of conversion will be presented.
The following abbreviated table of decimal equivalents for octal positions
simplifies conversion.

Example:

8-1 = 1/81

= 1/8

= .125

8-2 = 1/82

= 1/64

= .015625

8-3 = 1/83

= 1/152

= .001953125

8-4 = 1/84

= 1/4096

= .000244140625

37.25(8) = ?(10)
81 80 8-1 8-2
3 7.2 5
3 x 81 + 7 x 80 + 2 x 8-1 + 5 x 8-2 =
24 + 7 + .250 + .078125

Therefore: 37.25(8) = 31.328125(10) or 31.33(10) (rounded off)


Conversion from a decimal fraction to an octal fraction can also be done by the
'multiply by new base' technique as was done with binary fractions.
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Example:

88.49(10) = ?(8)
R = 1 (82)
R = 3 (81)
R = 0 (80)

0
8 1
8 11
8 88

.49
x8
3.92 8-1 is a 3
x8
7.36 8-2 is a 7

Thus:

88.49(10)

130.37(8)

Note that only the decimal fraction is multiplied by 8 each time. Also note that
rounding off was done.
1.5 OCTAL - BINARY CONVERSIONS
Since there are only 8 digits in the octal system, each octal digit can be
represented by some combination of three binary digits. In fact there are only 8
possible combinations for three binary digits.
Octal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Binary
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

Conversion between the octal and binary systems then is quite simple since a
direct substitution of 3 binary digits for each octal digit is all that is required.
Example:

Therefore:

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715(8) = ?(2)
7
1
5
111 001 101
715(8) = 111001101(2)

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When converting from binary to octal one marks off groups of three bits from right
to left.
Example:

11011100(2) = ?(8)
011
3

Therefore:

011
3

100
4

11011100(2) = 334(8)

Note that leading zeros are supplied to fill out 3 digits if necessary.
When dealing with fractions the only rule other than direct substitution is that
groups of three binary digits are marked off from left to right in the binary fraction.
Example:

1000111.0101101(2) = ?(8)
001 000
1
0

Therefore:

111. 010 110


7.
2
6

100
4

1000111.0101101(2) = 107.264(8)

Note that zeroes are added to the rightmost end of a fraction to fill out the number
to three digits.
Example:

137.05(8) = ?(2)
1
001

or

3
011

7
111

.
.

0
000

5
101

137.05(8) = 1011111.000101(2)

Note that leading zeros may be truncated.

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1.6 ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES OF THE OCTAL SYSTEM


Because the conversion between binary and octal is so simple the octal system is
often used as shorthand for binary. For example, a particular computer
instruction code might be as follows in binary:
0110001101110110
A programmer could write the operation in octal notation thereby reducing some
of the cumbersome notation.
061566
The input device or medium would convert the octal digits to binary prior to
entering the combination into the computer's memory.
Another problem in some computers is reading binary numbers on the console (a
monitoring device) or instructing someone to set up a binary code from the
console. Octal notation can alleviate the problem to a great extent. In fact, there
are a number of computers on the market today which require octal notation in
programming and/or console display.
Octal techniques in logic design likewise simplify and even save on the number of
required circuits as compared to straight binary decoding.
The big disadvantage of the octal system is the fact that humans still prefer
decimal notation in the end and thus the use of octal might require multiple
conversion facilities for data going into or coming out of the computer.
Memory dumps (print outs) often are available in a choice of codes, one of which
is usually octal.

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1.7 HEXADECIMAL
Just as octal is a shorthand for binary because three binary digits can be directly
substituted by one octal digit, another numbering system known as hexadecimal,
is also a shorthand for binary because of its base. The prefix hexa implies 6 of
something and since decimal represents 10, the word hexadecimal means 6 + 10
or 16. Thus the base of the hexadecimal system is 16. By definition of the word
'base' the total number of characters in the system must also be 16. These
characters include the ten decimal digits 0-9 and six letters of the alphabet A-F.
Table 4 shows decimal-hexadecimal conversions.
HEX

0
0

DECIMAL

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

6
6

7
7

8
8

9
9

A B C D E F
10 11 12 13 14 15

Hexadecimal-Decimal
Table 4
A hexadecimal number therefore is one whose position values are 16X. The
methods of conversion discussed previously still apply.

6AF(16) = ?(10)

6 x 162 + A x 161 + F x 160


6 x 256 + 10 x 16 + 15 x 1.
1536 +
160 +
15

=
=
= 1711(10)

Decimal-Hexadecimal Example 1:
108(10) = ?(16)
0
16 13
16 208

R = 13
R = 0

(equivalent to D)

Note: Each remainder must be represented by one hexadecimal digit.


Therefore:

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208(10) = D0(16)

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Decimal-Hexadecimal Example 2:
1834(10) = ?(16)
0
16 7
16 114
16 1834
16
23
16
74
64

R = 7
R = 2
R = 10

1834(10) = 72A(16)

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1.8 BINARY-HEXADECIMAL
Four binary digits can form sixteen combinations thereby providing an exact
equivalent to the hexadecimal system. This is shown in Table 5
BINARY
0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

HEXADECIMAL
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E
F

Binary Hexadecimal
Table 5
Therefore, direct substitution can take place between hexadecimal and binary.
For every 4 binary digits, one hexadecimal digit can be substituted or vice versa.
1001101(2) = ?(16)
0100
4

1101
D

1001101(2) = 4D(16)
CBF(16 = ?(2)

C
1100

B
1011

F
1111

CBF(16) = 110010111111(2)

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Fractions are handled in the same manner:


1101110.01111(2) = ?(16)
0110
6

1110. 0111 1000


E .

1101110.01111(2) = 6E. 78(16)

Therefore:

Note that zeros are added to fill out to multiples of 4 binary digits.
The ease with which a binary number can be expressed as a hexadecimal,
enables some computer systems to conveniently identify the contents of registers
or words in memory. Also it is desirable in business data processing operations
to work with decimal numbers. To do this requires a code known as BCD (Binary
Coded Decimal). The BCD code is encompassed by the hexadecimal numbering
system and thus one may use decimal notation if one desires to do so or
hexadecimal and assume that four binary digits represent one decimal or
hexadecimal digit.
1.9

BINARY CODED DECIMAL NOTATION

If the binary code is to be used in a computer that can handle commercial data
processing as well as communications or scientific processing, there has to be a
means of representing decimal numbers, letters of the alphabet, punctuation
marks and special symbols.
It is desirable that this special binary code is also easy to handle in terms of
decimal arithmetic. The BCD or binary coded decimal notation solves part of this
problem. Below is a chart of the BCD code as applied to decimal numbers.
Decimal

BCD

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001

Direct conversion of any BCD configuration gives the decimal equivalent. BCD
notation however does not make use of all 16 possible combinations for four
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binary digits and is therefore susceptible to wasting storage space. The decimal
number 15 for example in BCD code would be 0001 0101 while the pure binary
equivalent for 15 would be 1111. However, as was stated earlier, letters of the
alphabet as well as punctuation marks and special symbols are needed in some
form of a binary code. Therefore, a number of computer manufacturers use a
modified BCD code.
1.10 BINARY ARITHMETIC
One of the tasks a digital computer must be able to perform is to solve complex
problems. Some problems require more complex operations than the
fundamental operation of addition, subtraction, divide and multiplication.
Complex problem solving is achieved by writing it into the computers program
(software), however digital circuits (hardware) achieve the fundamental function.
1.11 BINARY ADDITION
In the decimal system, the sum of 11 + 3 is 14 and it is not until the sum of the
column is greater than 9 that there is a carry from one column of the addition to
the next.. Arithmetic operation are very simple in the binary system because as
the base of the system is 2, the carry occurs much earlier, so that a sum of two
digits resulting in 2 will involve a carry function. As a result there are only four
rules to consider when adding binary numbers, which are:
1. 0 + 0 = 0.
2. 0 + 1 = 1.
3. 1 + 1 = 0 carry 1.
4. 1 + 1 + carry 1 = 1 and carry 1.
Example 1
Addition of 10112 (decimal 11) and 00112 (decimal 3).
1011
0011
1110

When adding three or more rows of binary numbers, the addition of all the binary numbers in one column
could be carried out as in decimal addition, however, this becomes difficult in remembering how many
carries have been made. An easier way is to add two rows at a time, adding the result to the next row and
so on.
Example 2

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Addition of 1101 + 0111 + 1001 + 0101


a.

1101

0111
10100
b.

10100
01001
11101

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DATA CONVERSION

1.1 ANALOGUE COMPUTERS


Analogue computers operate by using voltages, currents, shaft angles etc to
represent physical quantities.
The basic concept of the analogue computer is as follows:
1.

Physical variables, usually voltages, are used to represent the


magnitudes of all the variables contained within the equation or
problem.

2.

Computer "building blocks", each performing a single mathematical


function, are interconnected in such a manner that the relationships
between the input and output variables correspond to the desired
mathematical relationship.

3.

The voltage solution exists at a specific point within the system and is
made available to the operator in some form.

Generally, there are two types of analogue circuit arrangements in use. The
first is a 'general purpose' computing arrangement consisting of a large
number of networks, which are capable of providing solutions to a range of
problems. The second type is a 'special purpose' arrangement, which is
capable of serving as a model for, or simulating, a specific condition.
Since the analogue computer operates by a process of measurement, it is
best suited to applications where continually varying quantities are to be dealt
with. Although computation involving measurement usually introduces errors,
it is possible to attain accuracy of better than 0.1%. This is adequate for
many applications and, since small analogue computers can deal with
relatively simple problems, this type of computer will be met in some
equipment carried in aircraft.
1.2 DIGITAL COMPUTERS
Digital computers are arithmetic machines: that is, they operate by a process
of counting numbers or digits (hence their name). The basic operation that a
digital computer can perform is addition.

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The digital computer is, therefore, used when the problem to be solved is of
an arithmetical nature and where an exact answer is required. Digital
processing errors are very low, with accuracy in the order of 0.001% being
possible, although a digital computer operating in a controlling role will have
inputs derived from some form of measurement with consequent errors. For
specific tasks, the programme of instructions, which supplies the computer
with the information on which it operates, can be built in to the machine; digital
computers of this type have many aircraft applications.
1.3 ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL SIGNALS
Analogue (continuous) information is made available in virtually all aircraft
equipment. Figure 1 shows the analogue signal created by a variable
resistor. In the circuit +0V is present at the output A when the potentiometer
is at position 1 and +5V when at position 2. These values would represent
either a 1 (+5V) or a 0 (+0V). However, it can be seen from the graph of the
analogue signal that it does produce distinct values of +5V and +0V as the
potentiometer moves from one end to the other.

+5V
POSITION
2

POSITION
1

+5V
O/P A
+0V
TIME

Analogue Signal Representation


Figure 1
A digital signal is one that contains two distinct values (1 and 0). Figure 2
shows a digital signal being produced by use of a switch. With the switch in
the open position, +0V will be present at point (logic 0). When the switch
closes, +5V will be present at point (logic 1). Digital signals are often
considered to be either ON or OFF (logic 1 or 0).
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+5V

O/P A
+5V
+0V
TIME

Digital Signal Representation


Figure 2
Signals in analogue form can be processed using operational amplifiers and
other devices in various configurations and ultimately converted to an
observable output by a suitable output device.
Systems, which are completely analogue, are limited in the accuracy that can
be achieved both physically and economically, they also suffer from error and
distortion for various reasons such as non-linearity, drift, crosstalk, noise etc.
Digital systems, especially since the advent of integrated circuits, offer
improvements over analogue systems in most respects, thus modern
processing systems employ fixed analogue and digital circuitry (hybrid
systems) in which, of course, conversion from one form to the other must take
place at certain points within the system.
Hybrid systems are more common than all digital systems presumably
because of the simplicity of analogue transducers, and the nature of the
information to be processed lends itself more readily to analogue
representation. For example it would be difficult to digitize an audio signal
without converting it from changing air pressure to an electrical analogue by
means of a microphone (transducer).
For further computing such an electrical analogue signal would be converted
into digital form.

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1.4 ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER


In an ADC a range of input values must correspond to a unique digital word.
The type of code used depends on the system but here only binary coding will
be considered.
Consider an analogue signal, which can take on any value between 0 and 7
volts. For any particular voltage there is a corresponding binary code word.
For example, using 3-bit words, the voltage analogue value between 4 and 5
volts would be represented in binary code by the word 100, which would
change to 101, when the analogue value passed through 5 volts.
Figure 3 shows digital representation of an analogue input signals.

ANALOGUE SIGNAL

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
0

0
0
1

0
1
0

0
1
1

1
0
0

1
0
1

1
1
0

1
1
1

3 BIT
WORD

DIGITAL SIGNAL

Digital Representation of Analogue Signals


Figure 3

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The levels at which the code changes are known as quantisation levels, and
the intervals between them as quantisation intervals. In the example given in
Figure 5.3.3, the quantisation levels are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 volts, and the
quantisation interval is 1 volt.
Using a 3-bit word gives 23 = 8 different quantisation levels. With a 4-bit word
we would have 24 = 16 quantisation levels with 0.5 volt quantisation intervals
giving improved resolution over the same range of input voltage.
Thus the more bits available the greater the resolution for a given range of
analogue signal input. It can be seen from the above that an ADC using an nbit word would have a resolution of one part in 2n.
1.5 ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERSION
In order to convert the analogue signal into a digital signal, an Operational
Amplifier is used as a comparator. Figure 4 shows an Op amp comparator.

+VE
VREF

VOUT

VIN

Comparator Circuit
Figure 4
The output of the comparator will be logic 0 when the reference voltage is
greater than the analogue input, changing to logic 1 when the analogue
voltage is greater than the reference voltage.

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Figure 5 shows the resultant digital waveforms from an analogue input signal
using an Op Amp comparator.

VREF
VIN

+VMAX
VOUT 0
-VMAX
WHEN VIN < VREF THEN VOUT = -V MAX
WHEN VIN > VREF THEN VOUT = +V MAX

Analogue/Digital waveforms
Figure 5
In the example in figure 3, the quantisation level was 0 7 with a quantisation
interval of 1 volt. To convert this range to digital a total of 7 comparator Op
Amps would be required. This however would give a word length of 7 bits.
We know to represent the range 0 7 with an interval of 1 volt will only
require a 3-bit word.

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To convert the seven bit word to a 3-bit word an encoder circuit is used. The
circuit contains a number of logic gates that will convert the 7-bit word down to
the required 3-bit notation. Figure 6 shows the layout of an encoder circuit.

A
B

LSB

E
F

Z
MSB

Encoder Circuit
Figure 6

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1.6 DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERSION (DAC)


Since many systems used on aircraft will require outputs in analogue form, it
will be necessary to be able to convert the digital information back into
analogue.
The input to the DAC is effectively a number, usually binary coded. This
number must be converted to a corresponding number of units of voltage (or
current) by the DAC.
The output of the DAC will thus be stepped as the digital input changes,
taking on a series of discrete values. The spacing between these values
(quantisation levels) will depend on the length of the input digital word and the
maximum range of the output voltage. For example, a DAC, which can
provide an output voltage of between 0 and 16 volts, will, with 4-bit word input,
have 1 volt between quantisation levels and is illustrated in Figure 8.

ANALOGUE O/P SIGNAL

16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1

0
0
1
0

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
0

0
1
0
1

0
1
1
0

0
1
1
1

1
0
0
0

1
0
0
1

1
0
1
0

1
0
1
1

1
1
0
0

1
1
0
1

1
1
1
0

1
1
1
1

DIGITAL I/P SIGNAL

DAC Output
Figure 8

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Similarly, an output voltage range of 0 to 10 volts with 10-bit word input will
give spacing between quantisation levels of approximately 0.01 volts. The
stepped nature of the output can of course be smoothed.
To change a digital word into an analogue signal we require a circuit capable
of carrying out this function. One method would be to apply the digital word to
a corresponding number of resistors (4-bit word 4 resistors), connected as a
potential divider. Figure 9 shows a circuit that would carry out the function of
Digital to Analogue conversion.

MSB

4
B
I
T

2R

V OUT

W
O
R
D

4R

LSB

8R

DAC Weighted Circuit


Figure 9

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Figure 10 shows a Digital to analogue converter.

V REF
S1

MSB

S2

2R
-

4 BIT
DIGITAL
INPUT

S3

S4

4R

ANALOGUE
OUTPUT
VOLTAGE

8R

LSB
0V

Digital Analogue Converter


Figure 10

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The availability of reliable digital semi-conductor technology has enabled the


inter-communication task between different equipment to be significantly
improved. Previously, large amounts of aircraft wiring were required to
connect each signal with all the other equipment. As systems became more
complex and more integrated so this problem was aggravated. Digital data
transmission techniques use links, which send streams of digital data between
equipment. These data links may only comprise two or four wires and
therefore the inter-connecting wiring is very much reduced. Recognition of
the advantages offered by digital data transmission has led to standardization
in both civil and military fields. The most widely used digital data transmission
standards are ARINC 429 for civil and MIL-STD-1553B for military systems.
1.1 AERONAUTICAL RADIO INCORPORATED (ARINC) 429
ARINC specification 429 is titled "MARK 33 Digital Information Transfer
System" (DITS). We refer to it as ARINC 429 bus, DITS bus, Mark 33 bus or
just bus.
1.1.1 OPERATION

An equipment transmits data, via a 429 transmitter, to other equipment. The


information flow is uni-directional. One 429 transmitter supplies the data to a
pair of wires that we call the bus. One or more ARINC 429 receivers can be
connected to the bus.
The ARINC 429 bus is a twisted and shielded pair of wires and the shield is
connected to ground. The data wires are white and blue. The ground
connection is a black wire. If the bus runs through a feed-through plug (for
instance on a bulkhead), then the shield is also connected to a black wire that
runs through the plug.

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Figure 1 shows ARINC bus interconnections.


DATA
INPUT

DATA
INPUT

ARINC 429 BUS


TWISTED AND SHIELDED WIRES

TX

ARINC 429
TRANSMITTER

RX

INFORMATION FLOW

ARINC 429
RECEIVER

RX

ARINC Bus Interconnection


Figure 1

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1.1.2 DATA BUS CABLE

Data bus cable typically consists of a twisted pair of wires surrounded by


electrical shielding and insulators. Digital systems operate on different
frequencies, voltages and current levels. It is extremely important to ensure
that the correct cable is used for the system installed. The cable should not
be pinched or bent during installation and data bus cable lengths may also be
critical. Refer to current manufacturers manuals for cable specifications.
Figure 2 shows an example of a data bus cable.

TINNED COPPER
CONDUCTORS

DATA BUS
CABLE B
DATA BUS
CABLE A

ETFE TEFZEL
INSULATION

ETFE TEFZEL
JACKET

TINNED COPPER
BRAID SHIELD

Data Bus (Twisted Pair) Cable


Figure 2

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1.2 THE ARINC 429 DATA BUS


Data words contain the information. An example is Indicated Airspeed (IAS).
Another example is Total Air Temperature (TAT). A 429 transmitter transmits
IAS, then pauses a moment, and then transmits TAT. 255 different data
words can be transmitted on one 429 bus. The information is transmitted at
high or low speed:

Low speed is 12 to 14.5 Kbytes/second.

High speed is 100 Kbytes/second.

Figure 3 shows the ARINC Dataword format.

PAUSE BETWEEN
DIFFERENT TYPES
OF DATA BEING
TRANSMITTED

DATA WORD 32 BITS

DATA WORD 32 BITS

DATA WORD 32 BITS

INDICATED AIR SPEED (IAS)


TRANSMITTED EITHER:
12 - 14 KBYTES/SEC - LOW SPEED
100 KBYTES/SEC - HIGH SPEED
TOTAL AIR TEMPERATURE (TAT)
TRANSMITTED EITHER:
12 - 14 KBYTES/SEC - LOW SPEED
100 KBYTES/SEC - HIGH SPEED

ARINC 429 Data Word Formats


Figure 3

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1.2.1 ARINC 429 SPECIFICATIONS

ARINC 429 sets specifications for the transfer of digital data between aircraft
electronic system components and is a One-way communication link
between a single transmitter and multiple receivers. ARINC 429 system
provides for the transmission of up to 32 bits of data. One of three languages
must be used to conform to the ARINC 429 standards:
1.

Binary.

2.

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD).

3.

Discrete.

ARINC 429 assigns the first 8 bits as the word label; bits 9 and 10 are the
Source-Destination Indicator (SDI), bits 11 through to 28 provide data
information; bits 29 through to 31 are the Sign-Status Matrix (SSM), and bit
32 is a Parity Bit.
There are 256 combinations of word label in the ARINC 429 code. Each word
is coded in an octal notation language and is written in reverse order. The
source-destination indicator serves as the address of the 32-bit word. That is,
the SDI identifies the source or destination of the word. All information sent to
a common serial bus is received by any receiver connected to that bus. Each
receiver accepts only that information labelled with its particular address; the
receiver ignores all other information.
The information data of an ARINC 429 coded transmission must be contained
within the bus numbered 11 through to 28. This data is the actual message
that is to be transmitted. For example, a Digital Air Data Computer (DADC)
may transmit the binary message 0110101001 for Indicated Airspeed.
Translated into decimal form, this means 425, or an airspeed of 425 knots.
The sign-status matrix provides information that might be common to several
peripherals (plus or minus, north or south, right or left etc). The parity bit of
ARINC 429 code is included to permit error checking by the ARINC receiver.
The receiver also performs a Reasonableness Check, which deletes any
unreasonable information. This ensures that if a momentary defect occurs in
the transmission system resulting in unreasonable data, the receiver will
ignore that signal and wait for the next transmission.
The parity bit will either be set to 1 or 0 depending on the parity used. The
parity used in ARINC 429 is Odd Parity. If there is an even number of 1 bits
in a transmitted word (bits 1 through 31), the parity bit must be 1 to ensure the
whole word contains an odd number of 1 bits in the word.
Figure 4 shows the layout of a 32-bit word.

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32 31 - 29

28 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11

10 / 9

8 ------ 1

DATAWORD LABEL
8 BITS - OCTAL 000 - 377

PARITY BIT
EITHER
ODD/EVEN

DATA FIELD 18 BITS


BINARY CODED DECIMAL
(BCD)
OR
BINARY FORMAT
(BNR)
OR
DISCRETE FORMAT

SOURCE DESTINATION
IDENTIFIER (SDI
0 0 - ALL SYSTEMS
0 1 - SYSTEM 1
1 0 - SYSTEM 2
1 1 - SYSTEM 3

SIGN & STATUS MATRIX (SMM)


MEANING RELATED TO
FORMAT

32 Dataword Format
Figure 4

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1.3 ARINC 429 WORD REPRESENTING AIRSPEED


Figure 5 represents an ARINC 429 code for a DADC word giving information
on the aircrafts indicated airspeed.

32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0 0 01100001

1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1

DATA FIELD
PARITY
WORD LABEL
SIGN STATUS
MATRIX

SOURCE DESTINATION
IDENTIFIER

ARINC 429 word 206 Indicated Airspeed


Figure 5
The word label for airspeed is 206 and it is transmitted using the octal notation
code, which is read in reverse to achieve the word label. E.g. word label 602
would be 011 000 01 (bits 1,6 and 7 set to logic 1), 206 in reverse. The SDI
label 00 indicates transmission of this data to all receivers connected to the
serial bus. The data segment is read left to right, 0110101001 representing
the sum of; 1 x 256 (28) + 1 x 128 (27) + 1 x 32 (25) + 1 x 8 (23) + 1 x 1 (20). In
decimal form this represents 425.
The SMM 011 represents a normal operation of a plus value data; that is,
airspeed data is a positive value. The parity bit is set to 1, which denotes an
even number of 1s in the transmitted word and no errors are present
according to the parity bit.

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1.4 THE ARINC 429 FORMAT


ARINC has a return to zero format. After a bit is transmitted, the voltage
returns to zero. If logic 1 is transmitted, line A has a voltage of +5 volts and
line B has a voltage of -5 volts with respect to ground. This means that the
voltage on line A is 10 volts higher than the voltage on line B. If logic 0 is
transmitted, line A has a voltage of -5 volts and line B has a voltage of +5
volts with respect to ground. This means that the voltage on line A is 10 volts
lower than the voltage on line B. Spikes caused by interference make the
voltage on both wires increase or decrease but have no effect on the voltage
of line A with respect to line B. Therefore interference has less effect on the
bus.
Figure 6 shows the ARINC 429 dataword format.
RETURN TO ZERO (RZ) FORMAT

HIGH +10v

LINE
A TO B

NULL

1
0

27

28

29

1
0

LOW -10v

LINE A
TO
GROUND

LINE B
TO
GROUND

+5v
0
-5v

+5v
0
-5v

30

31

ARINC 429 Dataword Format


Figure 6

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1.5 DATA TRANSMISSION


Most digital communication data is transmitted in a serial form, that is, only
one bit at a time. Transmission of data in serial form means each bit is
transmitted for only a very short time period. In most systems, the data
transmitted requires less than a milli-second. After one bit is sent, the next bit
follows; this process is repeated until all the desired bits have been
transmitted. This type of system is often referred to as Time Sharing,
because each transmitted signal shares the wires for a short time interval.
Parallel data transmission is a continuous-type of transmission requiring two
wires (or one wire and ground) for each bit to be sent. Parallel transmission is
so called because each circuit is wired in parallel with respect to the next
circuit.
With serial data, one pair of transmitting wires can be used to send enormous
amounts of serial data. If the data were sent using the parallel method, then
hundreds of wires would be required. Most computer systems use the parallel
method to transmit data within them, however if the data must be sent to
another system, serial data transmission is used.
An interpretation circuit is required to convert all parallel data to serial-type
data prior to transmission. The device for sending serial data is called a
Multiplexer (MUX), and the device for receiving serial data is called a
Demultiplexer (DEMUX). Figure 7 shows a data transfer system.

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PARALLEL
DATA

SERIAL DATA
TRANSMISSION
DATA TRANSFER 00110

DEMULTIPLEXER

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

MULTIPLEXER

0
1
1
0
0

PARALLEL
DATA

BIT NUMBER

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

TO CENTRAL
CONTROL UNIT

Data Transfer System


Figure 7

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The MUX circuit operation is shown in Figure 8.

A
B
OUTPUT

C
D

CONTROL
SIGNALS

Y
Multiplexer Circuit Operation
Figure 8

The X and Y inputs are the control inputs selecting the data to be multiplexed.
Table 1 shows the logic table for X and Y.
X
0
1
0
1

Y
0
0
1
1

Multiplexer Control logic table


Table 1

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Figure 9 shows the DEMUX logic circuit.

BIT 1

S2

BIT 2

S1

BIT 3

BIT 4

BIT 5

BIT 6

BIT 7

BIT 8

S0

DATA
INPUT

Demultiplexer Logic Circuit


Figure 9

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1.6 ARINC 573 FORMAT


The ARINC 573 format has been established for Digital Flight Data Recorder
(DFDR). It uses the Harvard bi-phase code, containing the bits in bit-cells.
Because each bit-cell is a phase transition, the ARINC 573 is self-clocking.
If the logic = 1, then the bit-cell will have a phase transition: for a logic 0, there
is no phase transition. If the DFDR gives no information, the ARINC 537
output is a symmetric square wave.
Figure 10 shows ARINC signal format.

4 SEC

4 SEC

FRAMES
4 SUBFRAMES
ONE
FRAME

SUBFRAME 1

SUBFRAME 2

SUBFRAME 3

SUBFRAME 4

64 WORDS
ONE
SUBFRAME

61

62

63

64

SYNC
WORD
12 BITS
ONE
WORD

10

11

12

+5v
ARINC 573
HARVARD
BI-PHASE CODE
DATA

0v
-5v

ARINC 537 Signal Format


Figure 10

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1.7 CONVERTERS
In analogue circuits we cannot use digital signals and in digital circuits we
cannot use analogue signals. For that reason there are analogue to digital
converters and digital to analogue converters. Also there are converters that
change analogue signals into other analogue signals, e.g. a pressure to
frequency converter, which is used in the air data computer.
1.7.1 EXAMPLES OF CONVERTERS

Figure 11 shows three different types of converters.

A
ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL CONVERTER

A
DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERTER

PRESSURE TO FREQUENCY CONVERTER

P
F

Converters
Figure 11

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1.8 THE ARINC 629 DATA BUS


The ARINC 629 is a new digital data bus format that offers more flexibility and
greater speed than the ARINC 429 system. ARINC 629 permits up to 120
devices to share a Bi-directional serial data bus, which can be up to 100M
long. The data bus can be either a twisted pair, or a fibre-optic cable.
ARINC 629 has two major improvements over the 429 system; firstly there is
a substantial weight savings. The ARINC 429 system requires a separate
wire pair for each data transmitter. With the increased number of digital
systems on modern aircraft, the ARINC 629 system will save hundreds of
pounds by using one data bus for all transmitters.
Secondly, the ARINC 629 bus operates at speeds up to 2 Mbits/sec; the
ARINC 429 is only cables of 100Kbits/sec.
Figure 21 shows simplified diagrams of ARINC 429 and 629 bus structures.

ARINC 429 STRUCTURE

ARINC 629 STRUCTURE

ARINC 429/629 Bus Structures


Figure 21

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The ARINC 629 system can be thought of as a party line for the various
electronic systems on the aircraft. Any particular unit can transmit on the bus
or listen for information. At any given time, only one user can transmit, and
one or more units can receive data. This Open Bus scenario poses some
interesting problems for the ARINC 629 system:
1.

How to ensure that no single transmitter dominates the


use of the bus.

2.

How to ensure that the higher-priority systems have a


chance to talk first.

3.

How to make the bus compatible with a variety of


systems.

The answer is found in a system called Periodic/Aperiodic Multi-transmitter


Bus. Figure 22 shows ARINC 629 bus structure.

TERMINAL
GAPS

SYNCHRONIZATION
GAP

TERMINAL
INTERVAL

PERIODIC INTERVAL
TERMINAL
GAPS

SYNCHRONIZATION
GAP

TERMINAL
INTERVAL

APERIODIC INTERVAL

ARINC 629 Bus Structure


Figure 22

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Each transmitter can use the bus, provided it meets a certain set of
conditions.
1.

Any transmitter can make only one transmission


per terminal interval.

2.

Each transmitter is inactive until the terminal gap


time for that transmitter has ended.

3.

Each transmitter can make only one transmission;


then it must wait until the synchronization gap has
occurred before it can make a second
transmission.

1.8.1 TERMINAL INTERVAL

The Terminal Interval (TI) is a time period common to all transmitters. The TI
begins immediately after any user starts a transmission. The TI inhibits
another transmission from the same user until after the TI time period.
1.8.2 PERIODIC & APERIODIC INTERVAL

A Periodic Interval occurs when all users complete their desired transmission
prior to the completion of the TI. If the TI is exceeded, an Aperiodic Interval
occurs when one or more users have transmitted a longer than average
message.
1.8.3 TERMINAL GAP

The Terminal Gap (TG) is a unique time period for each user. The TG time
determines the priority for user transmissions. Users with a high priority have a short
TG. Users with a lesser need to communicate (lower priority) have a longer TG. No
two terminals can ever have the same terminal gap. The TG priority is flexible and
can be determined through software changes in the receivers/transmitters.
1.8.4 SYNCHRONIZATION GAP
The Synchronization Gap (SG) is a time period common to all users. This gap is a reset signal for the
transmitters. Since the Synchronization gap is longer than the terminal gap, the SG will occur on the
bus only after each user has had a chance to transmit. If a user chooses not to transmit for a time equal
to, or longer than, the SG, the bus is open to all transmitters once again.

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1.9 MESSAGE FORMATS


The data is transmitted in groups called Messages. Messages are
comprised of Word Strings and up to 31 word strings can be in a message.
Word strings begin with a label, followed by up to 256 data words. Each label
and data word is 20 bits long (3 bits for synchronization, 16 data bits and 1
parity bit). Figure 23 shows the complete structure of the ARINC 629
message.

START

NEXT

NEXT

NEXT

TERMINAL INTERVAL

LABEL DATA WORD

DATA WORD DATA WORD

WORD STRINGS

HI - LO
SYNCH

20 BITS

20 BITS

LABEL

DATA

UPTO
256 DATA
WORDS

HI - LO
SYNCH

ARINC 629 Message Structure


Figure 23

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1.10 ARINC 629 DATA BUS COUPLING


Another unique feature of the ARINC 629 bus is the Inductive Coupling
technique used to connect the bus to receivers/transmitters. The bus wires
are fed through an inductive pick-up, which uses electromagnetic induction to
transfer current from the bus to the user, or from the user to the bus. This
system improves reliability, since no break in the bus wiring is required to/from
connections. Figure 24 shows an example of Inductive Coupling.

INDUCTIVE
PICK-UP
ARINC 629
DATA BUS

COUPLING
OUTPUT
DATA

ARINC 629 - Inductive Coupling Technique


Figure 24

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1.11 STUB CABLES


The stub cables are for bi-directional data movement between LRU and
current mode coupler. The stub cables also supply power from the LRUs to
the current couplers. The stub cable has four wires, two to transmit and two
to receive. These cables are in the normal aircraft wiring bundles.
Figure 25 shows the basic layout for connecting LRUs to the 629 data bus
using stub cables. The stub cable length is up to 50ft for TX/RX cable and
75ft for RX only cable.

ARINC 600
CONNECTOR

STANCHION
DISCONNECT

STUB CABLES
(TWO SHIELDED
TWISTED PAIRS)
1 PAIR RECEIVE
1 PAIR TRANSMIT

LRU TRAY

STUB CABLE
(FOUR CONDUCTORS
WITH OVERALL SHIELD)

ARINC 629 CURRENT


MODE COUPLER

ARINC 629 Connection


Figure 25

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Figure 26 shows ARINC 629 system layout.

OVERHEAD
PANEL
LRU NO 5

LRU NO 3

LRU NO 1

OPAS

LRU NO 2

LRU NO 4

LRU NO 6

ARINC 629 System Layout


Figure 26

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LOGIC CIRCUITS

The term logic in electronics refers to the representation and logical


manipulation of numbers usually in a code employing two symbols. i.e., bits.
An electronic logic circuit is one whose inputs and outputs can take only one
of two states. Where the output of such a circuit depends only on the present
state of the input to the circuit, it is called a COMBINATIONAL LOGIC
CIRCUIT.
Logic circuits may have many inputs and many outputs and be made up of a
large number of elements called LOGIC GATES.
Most modern electronic logic networks are constructed from two state
components in the form of integrated circuits fabricated in a single piece of
pure silicon and often referred to as a CHIP. They are available as transistortransistor logic (TTL) and complementary symmetry metal oxide
semiconductor (CMOS or COSMOS) which supersede earlier resistortransistor logic (RTL) and diode-transistor logic (DTL).
Logic circuits are most widely used in computers and calculators, but their use
also extends to a wide range of control and test equipment. Figure 1 shows
the logic convention.

POSITIVE LOGIC

: 0 - LOW VOLTAGE
: 1 - HIGH VOLTAGE

NEGATIVE LOGIC

: 0 - HIGH VOLTAGE
: 1 - LOW VOLTAGE

5V

0V
POSITIVE LOGIC

NEGATIVE LOGIC

Logic Conventions
Figure 1

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As the 'positive logic' representation is favoured by the majority of designers


and manufacturers, it is intended to adopt this representation throughout this
section. Positive logic refers to the use of a 1 to represent the true or more
positive level (e.g. +5v) and 0 to represent the fault, or less positive level (e.g.
0v).
1.1 GATES
The word GATE suggests some kind of forceful control, and LOGIC GATES
are the basic elements which actively route the flow of digital information
through the logic circuits.
In a logic circuit, groups of gates working together are able to send particular
bits of information to specified locations.
A logic gate is a device (usually electronic) that has a single output terminal
and a number of inputs, or control terminals. If voltage levels representing the
binary states of 1 or 0 are fed to the input terminals, the output terminal will
adopt a voltage level equivalent to 1 or 0, depending upon the particular
function of the gate. The basic logic gates provide the functions of AND and
OR, each being represented by a distinctive symbol. It is sometimes
convenient to show the circuit action of the gates by an equivalent contact
switching circuit, and these will occasionally be employed to assist in
describing the function of a logic gate element.

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1.2 BASIC 'AND' GATE


Figure 2 shows the symbol that represents 2 input AND gate together with its
truth table. This gate will only adopt a 1 state at its output terminal when both
the inputs A and B, are at the 1 state. This function can be represented by
two switches, A and B, connected in series such that the circuit is made only
when both switches are CLOSED. (i.e., both in the 1 state).

A
A.B
B
SYMBOL

A.B

Basic 'AND' Gate


Figure 2

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1.3 BASIC OR GATE


Figure 3 shows the symbol that represents a 2 input OR gate together with its
truth table. This gate will adopt a 1 state at its output terminal when either
input A or B or both are at the 1 state. This function can be represented by
two switches A and B connected in parallel. Because this gate also performs
the AND function (i.e. 1.1 = 1) it is often referred to as an INCLUSIVE OR
gate.

A+B

A+B
B
SYMBOL

Basic 'OR' Gate


Figure 3

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1.4 THE 'NAND' GATE


When constructing a NAND gate using transistors as the switching devices,
the output often represents the 'inversion' of the AND gate. Figure 4 shows
an example of a 2 input digital gate consisting of two NPN transistors, TR1
and TR2, which are assumed to be perfect switches. In a positive logic
system, when input A and input B are both at the 0 state (0v), both transistors
are biased OFF and the output will adopt the 1 state (+ 5v). If input A only is
now given the 1 state, transistor TR1 is biased ON but no collector current
can flow as TR2 is still OFF. Similarly, if input B only is given the 1 state then
transistor TR2 is biased ON but again no current can flow as TR1 is OFF.
Only when both input A and input B are at the 1 state together, with both
transistors ON, will current be allowed to flow taking the output to the 0 state.

+5V

A
A.B
B

A.B
A

SYMBOL

TR1

TR2

A.B

The 'NAND' Gate


Figure 4

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1.5 THE 'NOR' GATE


Figure 5 shows a further example of a 2 input digital gate, again consisting of
two NPN transistors, TR1 and TR2, in a different configuration. When input A
and input B are both at the 0 state (0v), both transistors are biased OFF and
the output will adopt the 1 state (+ 5v). If input A only is given the 1 state,
transistor TR1 will be biased ON and current will flow, making the output take
up the 0 state. Similarly, if input B only is given the 1 state, transistor TR2 will
be biased ON, taking the output to the 0 state. Finally if both input A and
input B are at the 1 state together, the output will again adopt the 0 state.

+5V

A+B
B
SYMBOL
A+B

TR1

TR2

A+B

The 'NOR' Gate


Figure 5

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1.6 'EXCLUSIVE OR' GATE


The basic OR gate illustrated previously in Figure 3 was seen to include the
AND operation in that its output will adopt the 1 state not only when either
input A or input B is at the 1 state but also when BOTH inputs are at 1. There
are many occasions in logic circuits when it is required to perform the OR
operation only when input A or input B are exclusively at the 1 state. In other
words, a gate is required whose output adopts the 1 state only when the two
input states are not identical, and such a device is known as the EXCLUSIVE
OR gate.
As an example, suppose the problem is to implement the following logical
statement:
"A room has two doors and a central light, and switches are to be fitted at
each door such that either switch will turn the light on and off".
By fitting double-pole changeover switches at each door, a switching circuit
could be wired to perform the required operation as shown in Figure 6. If
each switch position is designated 'down' for the 1 state and 'up' for the 0
state, then symbols can be allocated to each switch position as shown in the
diagram. If the lamp L is designated 1 for ON and 0 for OFF, then the truth
table will show the circuit conditions for the switching combinations.
As the EXCLUSIVE OR gate can occur frequently in a logic circuit, it has been
allocated its own special symbol, as shown in Figure 6, with an equivalent
circuit shown at Figure 7.
Also, in Boolean algebra expressions, a CIRCLE SUM symbol is often
employed to signify that a particular expression represents the EXCLUSIVE
OR operation.
i.e.: A B = AB + AB

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A
L
B
SYMBOL

UP

DOWN

UP

B
DOWN

EXCLUSIVE OR Represented by Switches


Figure 6

XOR Circuit
Figure 7

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1.7 THE INVERTER ('NOT' GATE)


Figure 8 shows the symbol for an inverter, where the output will produce the
complement of the input. This device is often employed when the
complement of a particular signal is required at some point in the logic circuit.

A
1
0

A
0
1

The Inverter
Figure 8

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1.8 INVERTING WITH LOGIC GATES


Either the NAND or the NOR gate can be connected to operate as a simple
inverter as illustrated in Figure 9. In diagram (a) a 2 input NAND gate is
shown with one input permanently held at the 1 state (+ 5v), and the resulting
output will be the inversion of the single input A. Diagram (b) shows a 2 input
NOR gate with one input permanently held at the 0 state (0v) again resulting
in an output which will be the inversion of the single input A. These
configurations can be particularly useful in logic circuits where the inversion of
a variable is required without the need for power amplification.

+5V

OV

(a)
NAND INVERTER

(b)
NOR INVERTER

Logic Gate Inverters


Figure 9

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1.9 MULTIPLE INPUT GATE SYMBOLS


Digital integrated circuits are manufactured with multiple inputs to a single
gate operation, and the approved symbols to be used to illustrate these types
are shown in Figure 10. Diagram (a) shows a multiple input NAND gate
symbol, whilst diagram (b) shows the symbol for a multiple input NOR gate.

A
A

B
C

(a)
NAND SYMBOL

(b)
NOR SYMBOL

Multiple Gate Symbols


Figure 10

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1.10 TIME DELAY ELEMENTS


Delay elements are used to 'delay' the travel of a pulse along a line for a short
period of time. This is occasionally necessary to ensure that one bit of
information does not arrive at some point in the circuit earlier than another.
Most delay times are relatively small and only amount to few milli-seconds.
Most delay elements have one input terminal and one output terminal, and if a
pulse is fed to the input a similar pulse will appear at the output after the
specified time period. Figure 12 shows two types of time delay elements.

5mS
(a) - SINGLE OUTPUT

2mS

5mS

5mS

3mS
(b) - MULTIPLE OUTPUT

Time Delay Elements


Figure 12
The symbols shown in Figure12 are those used to represent delay elements,
and twin vertical lines on the symbol indicate the input side. If the element
provides a single delay the duration is included on the symbol as shown in
symbol (a). If the delay is tapped to provide multiple outputs, the delay time
with respect to the input is included adjacent to the particular tapped output as
shown in symbol (b).

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1.11 ACTIVE STATE INDICATORS


Logic diagrams make extensive use of the 'active state indicator' which takes
the form of a small circle at the input or output terminals of a logic symbol. It
is used to indicate that the normal active state of the particular logic level has
been inverted at that point in the symbol. Throughout this section the 'positive
logic' convention has been adopted and the 1 state has been used to signify
the 'active' state with regard to the symbols and the truth tables. In this
instance therefore, the significance of an active state indicator attached to a
symbol can be defined as follows:
(1)

A small circle at the input to any element indicates that a 0 state will
now activate the element at that particular input only.

(2)

A small circle at the output of any element indicates that the output
terminal of that element will adopt the 0 state when activated.

A
A+B

AB
B

AB

A+B

Figure 13 shows examples of Active State Indicators


Active State Indicators
Figure 13

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1.12 THE 'INHIBIT' GATE


Occasionally it is required to 'hold' one input to an AND gate at a particular
logic level in order to disable the entire gate. One method of representing this
symbolically is shown in Figure 14, which illustrates a two input gate with an
'INHIBIT' input C carrying an indicator. In this case, with a 1 state at the
inhibit input C, the gate is disabled irrespective of the input conditions at A
and B. With a 0 state at the inhibit input C however, the gate is now 'enabled'
and the output will adopt the 1 state when both input A and input B are at the

A
B

ABC

ABC

1 state.

The 'INHIBIT' Gate


Figure 14

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1.13 AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS


Logic circuits have many uses within aircraft systems, form some simple
circuits controlling landing gear selection to complex circuits within systems
controlling navigation and system operation.
Figure 24 shows a simple logic circuit for an aircraft landing gear system.

+v
DOWN

RIGHT MAIN GEAR


DOWN SWITCH

+v
NOSE GEAR
DOWN SWITCH

+v
LEFT MAIN GEAR
DOWN SWITCH

WARNING
HORN

+v
THROTTLE
SWITCH

Landing Gear Logic Circuit


Figure 24

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1.13.1 CIRCUIT OPERATION

In order for the DOWN light to illuminate, all three landing gear legs must be
down and locked, for this function an AND gate is used. If all three gears
are not down and locked and the throttle is moved back to approach, then the
NOR gate will activate the horn to warn the crew that they have not selected
the gear DOWN, with the throttle at approach.
1.13.2 ENGINE STARTING LOGIC CIRCUIT OPERATION

The logic circuit at Figure 25 details the various means of starting an engine.

AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU)

AND

APU LOAD CONTROL VALVE

GROUND PNEUMATIC
CONNECTION 2
1-2 VALVE
ENG 1 AIR
PNEUMATIC OVERPRESSURE (ENG 1)

AND
AND

OR

OR

No 2 ENGINE

GROUND PNEUMATIC
CONNECTION 1
ENG 3 AIR
PNEUMATIC OVERPRESSURE (ENG 3)

AND

2-3 VALVE

Engine Starting Logic Circuit


Figure 25

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1.14 FOKKER 50 MINI AIDS


1.14.1 TAKE OFF REPORT

A take-off report is automatically generated under specific conditions. These


are:
GND/FLT switch is in the Flight condition (Logic 0).
IAS >60kts.
Propeller running with at least 675 RPM.
When these conditions are met, a time delay of 5 seconds ensures the aircraft
is airborne sufficiently to make a report with relevant Take-off information.
Figure 26 shows the layout of F50 Mini Aids take-off report.

IAS > 60 kts


(GND/FLT) FLT = 0

TAKE-OFF
REPORT

NON
VOLATILE
VOLITILE
MEMORY

5 SECS

PROP 1 > 675 RPM


PROP 2 > 675 RPM

F50 Mini Aids Take-off Report


Figure 26

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1.14.2 STABLE CRIUSE REPORTS

There are two stable cruise reports, Stable Cruise 1 and Stable Cruise 2.
The mini AIDS makes these reports under different conditions. The
conditions of stable cruise 2 are more critical than the conditions of stable
cruise 1. Both cruise reports require the need for the following conditions:
Altitude of at least 8,000 ft
IAS of at least 145 kts.
No change in the Air Conditioning system.
Both pressure regulating shut-off valves are open (or
bleed air valves closed).
In addition Stable cruise 1 requires the following conditions for automatic
report generation.
Air temperature may only vary within 2C.
Altitude may only vary within 300 ft.
IAS may only vary within 3 kts.
These variations may not exceed these limits for a time period of 64 seconds.
The more critical conditions for an automatic stable cruise 2 report generation
are:
Altitude may only vary within 100 ft.
IAS may only vary within 2 kts.
Both high and low-pressure turbines may not exceed a
variation in RPM of more than 0.5%.
Both torque forces of the engines may not exceed a variation
of 1%.
The mini AIDS also monitors the stable cruise 2 variation for a time period of
64 seconds.

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< 2 kts

ENGINE TORQUE < 1%

HIGH PRESS TURB < 0.5% RPM

AIRSPEED

< 100 ft

TIME
DELAY
3 SEC

LANDING
MODE

> 8 000 ft

TIME
DELAY
2X32SEC

PRESSURE REGULATION
SHUT OFF VALVES OPEN

NO CHANGE AIR COND

AIRSPEED 145 kts

ALTITUDE

TIME
DELAY
2X32SEC

TIME
DELAY
30 SEC

COLLECTED
INFORMATION

PWR
INTERRUPT

15 MIN
COUNTER
DELAY

COLLECTED
INFORMATION

ENABLE

STABLE
CRUISE
2

STABLE
CRUISE
1

ON GROUND MODE

STABLE
CRUISE
1

NON
VOLATILE
MEMORY

WRITE
INHIBIT
AFTER
REPORT
STOREAGE

STABLE
CRUISE
2

TIME
DELAY
X SEC

RESET
AFTER
LANDING

TIME
DELAY
X 1 SEC

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AIRSPEED < 3 kts

ALTITUDE < 300 ft

AIR TEMP < 2 C

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Figure 27 shows a block schematic diagram of the mini AIDS cruise reporting.

F50 Mini AIDS Block Schematic


Figure 27

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1.14.3 OPERATION

So that the aircraft first meets the conditions for stable cruise 1, the mini AIDS
collects the stable cruise1 report information but does not store it in the nonvolatile memory. A 15-minute counter starts to count at the moment the
aircraft meets the stable cruise 1 conditions.
When the aircraft meets the more critical condition of the stable cruise 2 within
the 15 minutes stable cruise 1 is counting, the mini AIDS stores the stable
cruise 2 information in the non-volatile memory. When the aircraft does not
meet the stable cruise 2 conditions within the 15 minutes, the mini AIDS finally
stores stable cruise 1 into the non-volatile memory.
If the aircraft does not fly for a total of 15 minutes in a stable cruise 1 condition
the mini AIDS stores the stable cruise 1 report in the landing phase 33
seconds after touchdown.
After storage of a report 1 or 2, further stable cruise reports are inhibited for
that flight. There is however an exception;
After a power interrupt, the mini AIDS stores the collected stable
cruise 1 report in the non volatile memory but does not inhibit a new
storage of a stable cruise 1 or 2.
To retrieve the data within the non-volatile memory, a data collector unit, or
Laptop computer downloads the data.

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BASIC COMPUTER STRUCTURE

A computer is an electronic device, which can accept and process data by


carrying out a set of stored instructions in sequence. This sequence of
mathematical and logic operations is known as a Program.
The computer is constructed from electronic circuits, which operate on an
ON/OFF principle. The data and instructions, used in the computer, must
therefore be in logical form.
The computer uses the digits "1" and "0" of the binary numbering system to
represent "OFF" and "ON". All data and program information must, therefore,
be converted into binary form, before being fed into the computer circuitry.
One of the most important characteristics of a computer is that it is a generalpurpose device, capable of being used in a number of different applications.
By changing the stored program, the same machine can be used to
implement totally different tasks.
In general, aircraft computers only have to perform one particular task so that
fixed programs can be used.
1.1 ANALOGUE COMPUTERS
A computer is basically a problem-solving device. In aircraft radio systems
the problem to be solved is concerned with navigation, in that given certain
information, such as range and bearing to a fixed known point, steering
commands need to be computed to fly the aircraft to the same, or some other
fixed point.
Since the input and output information is continuously changing during flight,
analogue computation provides an obvious means of solving the navigation
problems.

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A block schematic diagram of an analogue computer is shown in Figure 1.

ANALOGUE
COMPUTING
ELEMENTS

INPUT
DEVICES

OUTPUT
DEVICES

Analogue Computer Block Diagram


Figure 1
The input devices are radio sensors such as VOR, DME, Omega, ADF,
Doppler, Loran, Decca, ILS, and non-radio sensors such as the Air Data Unit
and Inertial Navigation System. The output of such sensors will be electrical
analogues of the quantities being monitored. The electrical signals contain
the necessary information needed to solve the navigation problem, the
solution being achieved by the computer.
The computer consists of a variety of analogue circuits such as summing
amplifiers, integrators, comparators, sine cosine resolvers, servo systems,
etc. The patching network determines the way, in which the analogue circuits
are interconnected, which will be such as to achieve the required outputs for
given inputs.
There is a disadvantage of analogue computers in that different patching is
needed for different applications. Thus aircraft analogue computers are
purpose built to solve one particular problem and as such usually form an
integral part of a particular equipment.
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This lack of flexibility, together with limited accuracy and susceptibility to noise
and drift, has led to the introduction of digital computers, made possible by
integrated circuits. Even so, the analogue computer, or rather analogue
computing circuits, are still extensively used because as stated above, the
sensors produce analogue signals.
1.2 ANALOGUE COMPUTER EXAMPLE
Consider an aircraft approaching a DME beacon. The distance to go is given
as an electrical analogue signal at the output of the aircraft's DME equipment.
By using an analogue computer, this signal can be used to provide an
indication to the pilot of his ground speed.
As the input signal represents distance, a sample of change in distance
divided by the lapsed time will provide ground speed. A suitable block
diagram to carry out this calculation is shown in Figure 2.

ANALOGUE
COMPUTING
DME O/P
DISTANCE
TO GO

DISTANCE

GROUND
SPEED
INDICATOR

TIME

TIMING

Computing Groundspeed from 'Distance to Go'


Figure 2

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1.3 DIGITAL COMPUTERS


In the digital computer there are basically two types of input, namely
Instructions, and Data from the various radio and non-radio sensors, which
will be referred to collectively as information. Information must of course, be
coded into a form, which the rest of the computer can understand, such as
digital form.
The essential components of a digital computer are shown in Figure 3.

CONTROL

ARITHMETIC

INPUT

OUTPUT

MEMORY

CENTRAL PROCESSOR UNIT (CPU)

Digital Computer Block Diagram


Figure 3

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Coded information is passed to the memory in which it is stored until needed


by the other units. The memory is divided into a large number of cells, each
of which can store a word representing a piece of information. Each cell has
a unique address, through which access to the information contained within
that cell can be obtained. There are usually two types of memory, long term
and temporary stores. The latter, often termed registers, will be used to hold
intermediate results in calculations and data, which is to be processed next in
the calculating sequence.
The arithmetic unit performs the actual arithmetic operations called for by
instructions. It can be compared with a calculator.
The results of the calculations must be displayed in a suitable form easily
interpreted by the pilot. This is the function of the output unit, which reads
from the store.
The control unit directs the overall functioning of the computer according to
the program of instructions in store. This program is known as software as
opposed to the actual circuitry, which is termed hardware. Although control is
drawn as a separate unit in the functional block diagram, the control
hardware, which comprises timing circuits and electronic switches, is spread
throughout the computer.
Information is read into the appropriate address of the store under the control
of the software. In aircraft navigation applications, incoming data from
sensors updates the contents of the store at a rate dependent upon the timing
of the computer control.
The control acts on instructions held in store in the appropriate sequence.
The basic task will be to transfer data from store to the arithmetic unit, to carry
out the necessary calculations using registers to store the intermediate
results, then writing the final result into the store.
The final control function will be to transfer data from store to the output as a
result of built in instructions, or on specific instructions from the pilot.
This process of input - store - calculate - store - output is carried out
sequentially in accordance with software requirements.

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1.4 BUSES
It can be seen from Figure 4 that there are three buses - the data bus, the
address bus, and the control bus. Each bus consists of a group of parallel
wires.
The data bus transfers data between memory, CPU and I/O units, under the
control of signals sent through the control bus. For example, if data is to be
transferred (sent) from the CPU to a memory location, the control unit within
the CPU places an output instruction on the CPU, and write instruction on the
memory unit. When the data arrives at the memory, it must be written into the
memory at a given address. The address is already present, having been
sent by the CPU along the address bus. Hence, data is stored at the memory
address given. Note that if the transfer had been from the CPU to an I/O
device, the address of the I/O device would have been given.
The address bus is one-way only. The control bus usually has one set of
wires for input sensing lines, and one set for output controls.
Data buses are usually bi-directional; that is, data is either transferred, or
fetched along the same set of wires. The control unit usually decides in which
direction data will travel. If there are several peripherals, and these all wish to
use the CPU at the same time, some method of priority must be established.
There are various ways of achieving this. One method uses the control unit to
select the lucky peripheral, whilst another method lets the peripherals
themselves automatically decide which peripheral takes control.

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ADDRESS

I/P

INPUT/OUTPUT
INPUT/OUTPUT
UNIT
UNIT

CLOCK
CLOCK

MEMORY

O/P

CONTROL
CONTROL &
&
ARITHMETIC
ARITHMETIC
UNIT
UNIT

CPU
CONTROL BUS

DATA BUS

Computer Buses
Figure 4

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1.5 INPUT/OUTPUT (I/O) UNIT


This unit provides the interface between the computer and the computer
peripherals. A computer peripheral is any unit, which is attached to, but is not
part of, the computer - e.g. visual display units, teleprinters, etc. A simple
computing system may have only one input and one output. In such cases,
an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) may suffice for the input, and a digitalto-analogue converter (DAC) for the output. Alternatively, complex-computing
systems can literally service thousands of peripherals.
Figure 5 illustrates a simple I/O unit. The I/O unit can be described as a fanout (and fan-in) device. The computer's 8-bit bi-directional data bus can be
connected to port 1, 2 or 3. The port chosen is dependent upon the address,
on the address bus. The system illustrated allows three peripherals to
communicate with the computer. Only one peripheral at a time can send data
to the computer, or receive data from the computer. However, this is not a
problem, because the computer works very much faster than the peripheral,
and hence, it appears that the computer services all three peripherals
PERIPHERAL 1

PERIPHERAL 2

PERIPHERAL 3

PORT 1

PORT 2

PORT 3

CONTROL BUS

INPUT/OUTPUT
UNIT

COMPUTER DATA BUS (8 BITS)

ADDRESS BUS

simultaneously.
Input/Output Unit
Figure 5

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Peripherals can have either serial or parallel outputs. Also, as stated


previously, peripherals work at a much slower speed than that of the
computer. The I/O system must, therefore, be capable of 'conditioning' the
data received from the peripherals to a form, which is readily digestible by the
computer, and vice versa.
1.6 MEMORY
The memory unit is used for the storage of binary coded information.
Information consists of instructions and data where:

Instructions are the coded pieces of information that direct the


activities of the CPU.

Data is the information that is processed by the CPU.

The memory hardware contains a large number of cells or locations. Each


location may store a single binary digit or a group of binary digits. The cells
are grouped so that a complete binary word is always accessed. Word length
varies typically from 4-bits up to 64-bits depending upon machine size. Each
location in the memory is identified by a unique address, which then allows
access to the word. Consequently, to obtain information from the memory,
the correct address must be placed onto the address bus.
There are fundamentally two types of memory - primary memory and
secondary memory. Primary memory is essential; no computer can operate
without this. Secondary memory is necessary to supplement, or back, the
primary memory on large computing systems; hence, it is often called backing
memory.
There are two types of semi-conductor primary memory: ROM (Read Only
Memory) and RAM (Random Access memory). Both types employ solid state
circuitry, and are packaged in IC form.

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Figure 6 shows how these primary memories are connected to a simple


computer bus.

DATA BUS
TO
INPUT/OUTPUT
DEVICE

TO
CPU

ROM

RAM

MEMORY ADDRESS REGISTER


& CHIP SELECT DECODER

TO
INPUT/OUTPUT
DEVICE

NOTE: CONTROL BUS


OMITTED FOR SIMPLICITY

FROM
CPU

ADDRESS BUS

ROM and RAM Connection to Buses


Figure 6
1.7 RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM)
The RAM-type memory will allow data to be written into it, as well as read
from it.
With very few exceptions, RAMS lose their contents when the power is
removed
and are thus known as Volatile memory devices. All computers use RAM to
store data and programs written into it either from keyboard, or external
sources
such as magnetic tape/disk devices.
RAMs are often described in terms of the number of bits, i.e. 1s and 0s, of
data
that they hold, or in terms of the number of data words, i.e. groups of bits,
they
can hold. Thus a 16384 bit ram can hold 16384 1s and 0s. This data could
be
arranged as 16384 1-bit words, 4096 4-bit words or 2084 8-bit words.
Semiconductor memories vary in size, e.g. 4K, 64K, 128K, etc. Hence we are
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using K defined as:


K =210 = 1024
Thus a 16K memory has a storage capacity of 16 X 1024 = 16384 words, a
128K
memory 0f 1310672 words and so on.
There are two main members of the RAM family:

Static RAM.

Dynamic RAM.

The essential difference between them is the way in which bits are stored in
the RAM chips. In a static RAM, the bits of data are written in the RAM just
once and then left until the data is either read or changed. In a dynamic RAM,
the bits of data are repeatedly rewritten in the RAM to ensure that the data is
not forgotten.
1.7.1 STATIC RAM

Flip-Flops are the basic memory cells in a static RAM. Each flip-flop is based
on either two bipolar transistors or two Metal Oxide Semiconductors FieldEffect Transistors (MOSFETS). As many of these memory cells are needed
as there are bits to be stored. Thus, in a 16K-bit static memory there are
16384 flip-flops, i.e. 32768 transistors. All these transistors are
accommodated on a single silicon chip approximately 4mm2. Figure 7 shows
a basic memory cell in a static RAM
+5V

TR1

TR2

CELL SELECT LINE

LOGIC 1
OUTPUT/INPUT

16K MEMORY
= 16,384 FLIP-FLOPS
= 32,768 TRANSISTORS

LOGIC 0
OUTPUT/INPUT

Static RAM Cell


Figure 7
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1.7.2 7489 TTL RAM DEVICE

16

15

14

13

12

D4

11

10

S4

S3
S2

7
SENSE
OUTPUT 2

D2

DATA
INPUT 2

S1

SENSE
OUTPUT 1

D1

DATA
INPUT 1

WE

WRITE

ME

MEM

ADDRESS
A

D3

SENSE
OUTPUT 3

DATA
INPUT 3

Vcc

SENSE
OUTPUT 4

DATA

ADDRESS
B,C & D

INPUT 4

The 7489 TTL Ram package has 64 memory cells, each cell is capable of
holding a single bit of data. The cells are organised into locations, and each
location is capable of holding a 4-bit word. Thus the 7489 is capable of
storing 4-sixteen 4-bit words, i.e. four memory cells are used at each location.
Figure 8 shows the memory organisation of the 7489 static RAM.

FOUR MEMORY CELLS

Vee
1
0
0
0

ENABLES

0
1
0
1

1
1
1
0

1
0
1
0

0
1
2
3
4

4 BIT
ADDRESS

5
6

1101

16 LOCATIONS
EACH HOLDING
FOUR BITS

7
8
9
10
11

READ/WRITE
SIGNALS

12

13
14
15

4 BIT
DATA IN

7489 RAM Device


Figure 8
Each location is identified by a unique 4-bit address so that data can only be
written or read from that location. The number of words stored in the memory
determines the length of the address word. I.E. 16 = 24.

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1.8 READ ONLY MEMORY (ROM)


The problem with RAM is that its memory is volatile, i.e. it loses all its data
when the power supply is removed. A non-volatile memory is a permanent
memory that never forgets its data. One type of non-volatile memory is the
Read Only Memory (ROM). A ROM has a pattern of 0s and 1s imprinted in its
memory by the manufacturer. It is not possible to write new data into a ROM,
which is why it is called a Read-Only Memory.
The organisation of data in a ROM is similar to that of a RAM. Thus a 256-bit
ROM might be organised as a 256 X 4-bit memory, and so on. The ROM may
be regarded as the Reference Library of a computer.
1.9 MAGNETIC CORE MEMORY
This type of memory is used extensively in airborne digital systems, although
integrated circuits are being developed with most modern aircraft systems.
This system works by a Ferro-magnetic material will become magnetized if
placed in the proximity to an electric current. Each bit in the magnetic core
memory is a ferrite ring in which a magnetic field can be induced by a current
flowing in a wire. Figure 9 shows typical ferrite ring for storing a single bit.

Ferrite Ring Memory


Figure 9

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Although the wire carrying the current is wound round the ring, the same
effect is obtained if the wire passes through the ring. This is a more
convenient way to set the magnetic state of each ring when a plane of cores
is built. The advantage of this type of memory is that when the power is
removed it holds its state, i.e. it is a non-volatile memory. A matrix of cores
containing 16 bits of information is shown in Figure 10.

Y1

Y2

Y3

Y4

CURRENT IS
INSUFFICIENT
TO MAGNETIZE
CORE WITH ONLY
ONE CURRENT

X1

X2

X3

X4
X1 & Y1 CURRENT
MAGNETIZES THE
CORE

16 Bit Ferrite Memory


Figure 10

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1.10 PROGRAMMABLE ROM (PROM)


The user can program a PROM after purchase. Each memory bit element in
the PROM contains a nichrome or silicon link that acts as a fuse. The user
can selectively 'but out' or 'blow' these fuses by applying pulses of current to
the appropriate pins of the IC. A memory element with a non-ruptured fuse
stores a 1 and a ruptured fuse stores a 0. The programming is irreversible, so
it must be right first time. Figure 11 shows the circuit for a PROM.

+5V

+5V

SENSE
(HIGH)

0
TR1

SENSE
(LOW)

FUSE
LINK

NO FUSE
LINK

ADDRESS
LINE

LOGIC
0

LOGIC
1

TR2
0V

PROM Circuit
Figure 11
PROMs are capable of high operating speeds, but consume a relatively large
amount of power. However, since they are non-volatile, they can be switched
off when not being accessed.

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1.11 ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ ONLY MEMORY


These memory devices can be programmed, erased and then reprogrammed
by the user as often as required. In some devices, the information can be
erased by flooding them with ultraviolet light, whilst in others, voltages are
applied to the appropriate pins of the device.
1.12 ELECTRICAL ALTERED READ ONLY MEMORY
This memory device combines the non-volatility of the ROM with the
electrically alterable characteristic of the RAM. It is, therefore, considered as
a non-volatile RAM.

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1.13 THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)


The CPU is the heart of any computing system. It executes the individual
machine instructions, which make up a program. The CPU is formed from the
following interconnected units:
1.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit).

2.

Registers.

3.

Control Unit.

These units are shown as part of a computer system in Figure 13.

CPU
ARITHMETIC
UNIT

C
O
M
P
U
T
E
R

CONTROL

INPUT
OUTPUT
UNIT

CLOCK

H
I
G
H
W
A
Y

MEMORY
(REGISTERS)

MEMORY

Central Processing Unit


Figure 13

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ALU. This is where the mathematics and logic functions are implemented.
It is not essential for the ALU to subtract, divide, or multiply, as these
functions are easily achieved by using addition in conjunction with 2's
complement arithmetic.
However, more powerful processors include sophisticated arithmetic
hardware capable of division, multiplication, fixed and floating point arithmetic
etc. Large processors also employ parallel operation for high speed.
Registers. These are temporary storage units within the CPU. Some
registers have dedicated uses, such as the program counter register and the
instruction register. Other registers may be used for storing either data or
program information. Figure 14 illustrates the principal registers within the
CPU.
PROGRAM
COUNTER
REGISTER

PORT 1
INPUT
OUTPUT
ADDRESS
DECODE

INSTRUCTION
DECODE
REGISTER

CONTROL
UNIT

ACCUMULATOR
REGISTER

PORT 3

I
N
T
E
R
N
A
L

H
I
G
H
W
A
Y

TIMING

PORT 2

MEMORY
ADDRESS
REGISTER

TEMPORARY REGISTER

MEMORY

STATUS FLAG
REGISTER

The CPUs Internal Registers


Figure 14

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Program counter register. The instructions that comprise a program are


stored in the computer's memory. Consequently, the computer must be able
to sequentially access each instruction. The address of the first instruction is
loaded into the program register, whereupon the instruction is fetched and
loaded into another register, appropriately called the instruction decode
register. Whilst the CPU is implementing the fetched instruction (e.g. Add,
Shift, etc), the program counter register is incremented by 1 to indicate the
address of the next instruction to be executed. This system, therefore,
provides sequential execution of a program, provided that the program is
written and stored sequentially in the memory.
The instruction decode register. As stated above, the program counter
register locates the address at which the next instruction is to be found. The
instruction itself is then transferred from memory into the instruction decode
register. As the name implies, this register also incorporates a decoder. the
output from the decoder places the necessary logic demands onto the ALU i.e. shift, add, etc.
The accumulator register. This register is really part of the ALU, and it is
the main register used for calculations. Consequently, it always stores one of
the operands, which is to be operated on by the ALU. The other operand may
be stored in any temporary register.
The status register. This register is a set of bistables which operate
independently of each other. The bistables independently monitor the
accumulator to detect such occurrences as a negative result of a calculation,
a zero result, an overflow, etc. When such an occurrence arises, the output of
the respective bistable is set (logic 1). It is then said to signal or flag the
event. It is this register that gives a computer its decision-making capability.
For example, if the result of a calculation in a navigational computer is zero,
the program could instruct the autopilot to hold its present course.
Alternatively, if the zero flag was not set, the computer would then decide to
take corrective action.
There are many other registers within a CPU, some of which are generalpurpose registers. These can be used to store operands or intermediate data
within the CPU, thus eliminating the need to pass intermediate results back
and forth between memory and accumulator.
The control unit. This unit is responsible for the overall action of the
computer. It coordinates the units, so that events take place in the correct
sequence and at the right time. Because it is responsible for timing
operations it includes a clock (normally crystal controlled), so that instructions
and data can be transferred between units under strict timing control
(synchronous operation). The crystal and the clock generator may either be
contained within the CPU, or supplied as separate components.
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1.14 THE MICROPROCESSOR


The three fundamental units, which comprise a CPU, have now been
discussed in general terms. So too has a microprocessor, because a
microprocessor can be defined as the central processing part of a computer
contained within an IC (Integrated Circuit). Figure 15 illustrates how a
microprocessor can be used as part of a microcomputer.
The microprocessor is small, lightweight, and relatively cheap when compared
to any CPU. But it is also relatively slow, capable of processing only
hundreds of instructions per second, compared to a large CPU which can
process thousands of instructions per second, or a very fast CPU which can
process millions of instructions per second (mips). However, many computing
applications can tolerate the relative speed disadvantage of the
microprocessor hence, its popularity. Microprocessors are typically available
in 4, 8 and 16-bit word lengths.

INPUT/
OUTPUT
PORTS

OUTPUT

INPUT

ROM

MICROPROCESSOR
(CPU)

COMPUTER HIGHWAY

RAM

Elementary Microcomputer
Figure 15

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The preceding paragraphs defined a microprocessor as a CPU within an IC.


This is true of all microprocessors; however, many go beyond this 'minimum'
definition. Microprocessors for machine control (lathes, robots, petrol pumps,
etc) often incorporate ADC and DAC on the same chip, plus a small amount
ROM and RAM.
Some microprocessors incorporate all the elements of a total computing
system: I/O, ROM, RAM and CPU. Manufacturers designate these as single
chip microcomputers. Obviously, their computing power is somewhat limited,
because there is a limited amount of space available in just one IC.
1.15 AIRBORNE DIGITAL COMPUTER OPERATION
1.15.1 FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (FMS)

A Flight Management System (FMS) is a computer-based flight control


system and is capable of four main functions:
1.

Automatic Flight Control.

2.

Performance Management.

3.

Navigation and Guidance.

4.

Status and Warning Displays.

The FMS utilizes two Flight Management Computers (FMC) for redundancy
purposes. During normal operation both computers crosstalk; that is, they
share and compare information through the data bus. Each computer is
capable of operating completely independently in the event of one failed unit.
The FMC receives input data from four sub-system computers:
1.

Flight Control Computer (FCC).

2.

Thrust Management Computer (TMC).

3.

Digital Air Data Computer (DADC).

4.

Engine Indicating & Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

The communication between these computers is typically ARINC 429 data


format. Other parallel and serial data inputs are received from flight deck
controls, navigation aids and various airframe and engine sensors.
Figure 16 shows a block schematic of the FMS.

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FMS
CDU 1

FMS
CDU 2
AFCAS
EICAS

FMC 1

FMC 2

TMS

EFIS

NAVIGATIONAL SYSTEMS

EFIS

Flight Management System (FMS)


Figure 16
The FMC contains a large nonvolatile memory that stores performance and
navigation data along with the necessary operating programs. Portions of the
nonvolatile memory are used to store information concerning:
a.

Airports.
c.

b.

Standard Flight Routes.

Nav Aid Data.

Since this information changes, the FMS incorporates a Data Loader. The
data loader is either a tape or disk drive that can be plugged into the FMC.
This data is updated every 28 days.

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Figure 17 shows the layout of FMC memory.

INITIAL AIRLINE
BASE & 28 DAY
UPDATES

REQUESTED
ROUTE
LATERAL
VERTICAL

NAV DATA
BASE
BUFFER

F
PER

MEMORY STORAGE
16 BIT WORDS

RAW DATA FOR


COMPUTATIONS

ROLL
CHANNEL

AILERON
CONTROL

PITCH
CHANNEL

ELEVATOR
CONTROL

MODE
TARGET
REQUESTS

THRUST
LEVER
CONTROL

A
DAT

OPERATION
PROGRAM

DISPLAYS

STORAGE

FMC

FMC Memory Locations.


Figure 17

Variable parameters for a specific flight are entered into the FMS by either
data loader, or Control Display Unit (CDU). This data will set the required
performance for least-cost or least-time en-route configuration.

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1.15.2 FMS CONTROL/DISPLAY UNIT (CDU)

The CDU provides a means for the crew to communicate with the FMC. It
contains pushbutton key controllers and a display screen. The keys are of
two types: 1.

Alphanumeric keys, which can be used to enter departure


and destination points and also Waypoint if not already
stored on tape; they will also be used if the flight plan
needs to be changed during the flight.

2.

Dedicated keys, which are used for specific functions


usually connected with display. For example, by using
the appropriate key the pilot can call up flight plan,
Waypoint data, flight progress, present position, etc.

When, for example, a departure point is entered using alphanumeric keys, the
information is often held in a temporary register and displayed to the pilot; this
is known as a scratchpad display. Once the pilot has checked the information
is correct, he can enter the data into the computer store by pressing the
appropriate dedicated key typically labelled "Load" or "Enter".

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Figure 18 shows an FMS Control/Display Unit (CDU).

LINE
SELECT
KEYS
DISPLAY
SCREEN

ALPHANUMERIC
KEYPAD

FUNCTION
SELECT
KEYS
PPOS

NEXT
PHASE

DIR

FUEL

AIR
PORTS

HDG
SEL

DATA

FIX

PERF

START
ENG
OUT
SPEC
F-PLN

EXEC
MSG
CLEAR

DISPLAY
BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL

FMS CDU.
Figure 18
During a normal flight, the FMS sends navigation data to the EFIS, which can
then display a route map on the EHSI. If the flight plan is altered by the flight
crew en-route, then the EHSI map will change automatically.

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1.16 COMPUTER INPUT


Figure 19 shows input information for a typical airborne digital computer.
FROM CONTROL

SENSORS:

VOR/DME - OMEGA
DOPPLER - COMPASS
ETC

MAGNETIC CARD READER

FROM CONTROL

MAGNETIC TAPE
CASSETTE/CARTRIDGE

PUSH BUTTON
CONTROLLER
ALPHANUMERIC
DEDICATED

REGISTERS
SEQUENCING
&
ADDRESSING

TO
STORE

TO CONTROL

Computer Inputs
Figure 19
The sensors in Figure 19 develop analogue electrical signals representing: Bearing and distance to fixed point (VOR/DME).
Hyperbolic co-ordinates (Omega).
Ground speed and drift angle (Doppler).
Aircraft heading (Compass), etc.
These analogue signals must be converted into digital signals before being
fed to the computer memory. ADCs, which may be an integral part of the

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sensor equipment achieve this, or alternatively a converter unit may be


installed, which carries out all necessary analogue to digital conversion.
1.16.1 COMPUTER OUTPUT

Many different kinds of output device are used, including traditional devices
such as relative bearing indicators and steering indicators. With these,
suitably designed digital to analogue converters must be used. Similar
outputs could be fed to an autopilot.
Digital read out can be obtained by use of hybrid (digital and analogue) servo
systems, which position an output counter drum or alternatively by use of 7
segment indicators. A ROM, which has the wired in program to convert from
binary code to the appropriate drive, drives the segments, which may be light
emitting diodes (LED) or liquid crystals (LCD).
Cathode ray tubes (CRT) are being increasingly used as output devices both
for display of alphanumeric information and, less commonly, electronic maps.
CRTs are essentially analogue devices and as such require DACs, which will
provide the necessary fairly, complicated drives.
Moving map displays may also be used as a means of presenting navigation
information to the pilot. The map itself may be an actual chart fitted on rollers,
or alternatively projected film. Closed loop servos, which drive the map, are
fed from the computer via DACs.
1.17 COMPUTER TERMS
1.17.1 ACCESS TIME

The time interval required to communicate with the memory, or storage unit of
a digital computer, or the time interval between the instant at which the
arithmetic unit calls for information from the memory and the instant at which
this information is delivered.
1.17.2 ADDRESS

A name or number that designates the location of information in a storage or


memory device.

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1.17.3 COMPUTER LANGUAGE

A computer language system is made up of various sub routines that have


been evaluated and compiled into one routine that the computer can handle.
FORTRAN, COBOL and ALGOL are computer language systems of this type.
1.17.4 CORE MEMORY

A programmable, random access memory consisting of many ferromagnetic


cores arranged in matrices.
1.17.5 DATA PROCESSING

The handling, storage and analysis of information in a sequence of systematic


and logical operations by a computer.
1.17.6 DECODER

A circuit network in which a combination of inputs produces a single output.


1.17.7 FLOPPY DISC

A backing storage facility for microcomputer systems.


1.17.8 INSTRUCTION

A machine word or set of characters in machine language that directs a


computer to take a certain action. Part of the instruction specifies the
operation to be performed, and another part specifies the address.
1.17.9 LANGUAGE

A defined group of representative characters of symbols combined with


specific rules necessary for their interpretation. The rules enable the
translation of the characters into forms (such as digits) which are meaningful
to a machine.
1.17.10

MACHINE CODE

A program written in machine code consists of a list of instructions in binary


form to be loaded into the computer memory for the computer to obey directly.

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1.17.11

ENGINEERS

MAGNETIC CORE

A form of storage in which information is represented by the direction of


magnetization of a core. Advantage of this kind of memory store is it will
retain its contents even if electrical power is removed (Non-volatile).
1.17.12

PROGRAMME

A plan for the solution of a problem. A precise sequence of coded instructions


or a routine for solving a problem with a computer.
1.17.13

REAL TIME

The actual time during which a physical process takes place and a
computation related to it, resulting in its guidance: or, As it happens.
1.17.14

ROUTINE

A set of coded instructions that direct a computer to perform a certain task.


1.17.15

TIME SHARING

Using a device, such as a computer, to work on two or more tasks, alternating


the work from one task to the other. Thus the total operating time available is
divided amongst several tasks, using the full capacity of the device.
1.17.16

WORD (OR BYTE)

An ordered set of characters which has at least one meaning and is stored,
transferred, or operated upon by the computer circuits as a unit.

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FIBRE OPTICS

Light travels in straight lines, even though lenses and mirrors can deflect it,
light still travels in a straight line between optical devices. This is fine for most
purposes; cameras, binoculars, etc. wouldnt form images correctly if light
didnt travel in a straight line. However, there are times when we need to look
round corners, or probe inside places that are not in a straight line from our
eyes. That is why FIBRE OPTICS have been developed.
The working of optical fibres depend on the basic principle of optics and the
interaction of light with matter. From a physical standpoint, light can be seen
either as Electromagnetic Waves or as Photons. For optics, light should
be considered as rays travelling in straight lines between optical elements,
which can reflect or refract (bend) them.
Light is only a small part of the entire spectrum of electromagnetic radiation.
The fundamental nature of all electromagnetic radiation is the same: it can be
viewed as photons or waves travelling at the speed of light (300,000 km/s) or
180,000 miles/sec).
1.1 REFRACTIVE INDEX (N)
The most important optical measurement for any transparent material is its
refractive index (n). The refractive index is the ratio of the speed of light (c) in
a vacuum to the speed of light in the medium:
The speed of light in a material is always slower than in a vacuum, so the
refractive index is always greater than one in the optical part of the spectrum.
Although light travels in straight lines through optical materials, something
different happens at the surface. Light is bent as it passes through a surface
where the refractive index changes. The amount of bending depends on the
refractive indexes of the two materials and the angle at which the light strikes
the surface between them.
The angle of incidence and refraction are measured not from the plane of the
surfaces but from a line perpendicular to the surfaces. The relationship is
known as Snells Law, which is written; ni sin I = nr sin R, where ni and nr are
the refractive indexes of the initial medium and the medium into which the
light is refracted. I and R are the angles of incidence and refraction.

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Figure 1 shows an example of light going from air into glass.

ANGLE OF
INCIDENCE

LIGHT

AIR
NORMAL LINE
PERPENDICULAR
TO GLASS SURFACE

GLASS

R
ANGLE OF
REFRACTION

Snells Law on Refraction (Air into Glass)


Figure 1

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Snells law indicates that refraction cant take place when the angle of
incidence is too large. If the angle of incidence exceeds a critical angle,
where the sine of the angle of refraction would equal one, light cannot get out
of the medium. Instead the light undergoes total internal reflection and
bounces back into the medium.
Figure 2 illustrates the law that the angle of incidence equals the angle of
reflection. It is this phenomenon of total internal reflection that keeps light
confined within a fibre optic.

TOTAL
INTERNAL
REFLECTION

41.9
1

1 = 2

1.5 SIN 41.9


= 1.00174

Critical Angle
Figure 2

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1.2 LIGHT GUIDING


The two key elements of an optical fibre are its Core and Cladding. The
core is the inner part of the fibre, through which light is guided. The cladding
surrounds it completely. The refractive index of the core is higher than that of
the cladding, so light in the core that strikes the boundary with cladding at a
glancing angle is confined in the core by total internal reflection. Figure 3
shows the make up of a fibre optic.

CORE
LIGHT RAY

CLADDING
LIGHT RAY STRIKES THE CLADDING
AT AN ANGLE GREATER THAN THE
CRITICAL ANGLE, THEREFORE THE
LIGHT RAY IS REFLECTED RATHER
THAN BEING REFRACTED.

Fibre Optic (Core and Cladding)


Figure 3

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1.3 LIGHT COUPLING


Another way to look at light guiding in a fibre is to measure the fibres
acceptance angle. This angle is the angle within which the light should enter
the fibre optic to ensure it is guided through it. The acceptance angle is
normally measured as a numerical aperture (NA).
The numerical aperture and acceptance angle measurements are a critical
concern in practical fibre optics. Getting light into a fibre is known as
Coupling.
When fibre optics were first developed in the 1950s, no one believed that
much light could be coupled into a single fibre. Instead they grouped fibres
into bundles to collect a reasonable amount of light. Only when LASERS
made highly directional beams possible did researchers seriously begin to
consider using single optical fibres.
Figure 4 shows light coupling into a fibre optic and the construction of a fibre
optic cable.
ACCEPTANCE
ANGLE

FILLER
LIGHT MUST FALL
INSIDE THIS ANGLE

STRANDS
ARAMID YARN

TO BE GUIDED THROUGH
THE CORE

OPTICAL
FIBRES

OPTICAL
SEPARATOR

FIBRES

TAPE

ARAMID
YARN

OUTER
JACKET

SEPARATOR

FILLER
STRANDS

END

TAPE

VIEW

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE

Light Coupling (Critical Angle)


Figure 4

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1.4 ALIGNMENT
Coupling light between fibres requires careful alignment and tight tolerances.
The highest efficiency comes when the ends of the two fibres are permanently
joined. Temporary junctions between two fibre ends, made by connectors,
have a slightly higher loss but allow much greater flexibility in reconfiguring a
fibre optic network.
Figure 5 shows the problems associated with incorrect alignment.

LATERAL MISALIGNMENT

ANGULAR MISALIGNMENT

AXIAL MISALIGNMENT

POOR END FINISH

Fibre Optic Alignment


Figure 5

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1.5 FIBRE OPTIC CONNECTORS


Boeing uses three types of connectors: Type A Connector, Type B Connector
and Type C Connector.
1.5.1 TYPE A CONNECTOR

The type A connector has these technical qualities:

A threaded coupling mechanism.

A butt type connector with ceramic terminuses.

The transmission of a light beam from the end of one optical


fibre into the end of another optical fibre.

Figure 6 shows example of A type receptacle and plug connectors.

FIBRE OPTIC
CABLE
STRAIN RELIEF
BOOT
BACKSHELL

THREADED
COUPLING
JACK
SCREW

COUPLING
RING
CERAMIC
TERMINUS

FIBRE
OPTIC
ALIGNMENT
SLEEVES
PINS

ALIGNMENT
HOLE

RECEPTACLE

PLUG

Type A Connector
Figure 6

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1.5.2 TYPE B CONNECTOR

The type B connector has these technical qualities:

A threaded coupling mechanism.

An extended beam connector that contains a miniature lens


behind a protective window.

The transmission of a light beam by the miniature lens from


an optical fibre through the protective window to the opposite
miniature lens into the opposite fibre optic.

Figure 7 shows example of a B type receptacle and plug connectors.

FIBRE OPTIC
CABLE
STRAIN RELIEF
BOOT
BACKSHELL

THREADED
COUPLING
COUPLING
RING

ALIGNMENT
PINS

ALIGNMENT
HOLE

PROTECTIVE
WINDOW

RECEPTACLE

PLUG

Type B Connector
Figure 7

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1.5.3 TYPE C CONNECTOR

The type C connector has these technical qualities:

A push-pull coupling mechanism.

An extended beam connector that contains a miniature lens


behind a protective window.

The transmission of a light beam by the miniature lens from


an optical fibre through the protective window to the opposite
miniature lens into the opposite fibre optic.

Figure 8 shows example of a C type receptacle connector.

STRAIN RELIEF
BOOT
MOUNTING
FLANGE

FIBRE OPTIC
CABLE

BACKSHELL

PROTECTIVE
WINDOW

RECEPTACLE
CONNECTOR

Type C Connector
Figure 8

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Figure 9 shows how the light is transferred in the type B and C connectors
using miniature lenses and protective window.

Fibre Optic Connection


Figure 9
Coupling losses can cause substantial attenuation. Dead space at the
emitter/fibre and fibre/receiver junctions and (unless optically corrected) the
beam spreads of 7 associated with semi-conducting lasers, are the usual
sources of launching problems. To limit this light loss a ball lens is used.
These lenses (within the connector) focus the light into another fibre optic
cable or an optical receiver.
Mono-made fibres are particularly prone to launching losses because it is
difficult to produce an accurate square end. Jointing and cabling, in order to
produce longer lengths, are currently receiving development attention.

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Figure 10 shows example of type A, B and C connectors and


identification labels.

TYPE A PLUG
CONNECTOR
STRAIN
RELIEF

BACKSHELL

ASSEMBLY
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

MATE WITH
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

BOEING TYPE A PLUG CONNECTOR

TYPE B PLUG
CONNECTOR
STRAIN
RELIEF

BACKSHELL

ASSEMBLY
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

MATE WITH
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

BOEING TYPE B PLUG CONNECTOR

TYPE C PLUG
CONNECTOR

BACKSHELL
MOUNTING
FLANGE

STRAIN
RELIEF

ASSEMBLY
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

MATE WITH
IDENTIFICATION
SLEEVE

BOEING TYPE C PLUG CONNECTOR

Fibre Optic Connectors


Figure 10

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1.6 ADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTICS


Fibre-optic communications systems have a large bandwidth, e.g. 1 GHz.
The bandwidth is the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted.
It has the benefit of:

Immunity to electromagnetic interference in electrically noisy


situations.

High security against 'tapping'.

Much greater flexibility than the majority of waveguides.

Low weight when compared with copper - 60 per cent less.

Ability to resist vibration.

Glass fibres have no fire risk.

Inability to form unwanted earth loops.

Inability to short-circuit adjacent filaments when fractured.

High data capacity (>10Gbits/s with a single fibre).

1.7 DISADVANTAGES OF FIBRE OPTICS

Difficult to join.

No transfer of D.C. Power.

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1.8 SAFETY
When working on Fibre Optic connected equipment, care is required when
handling cables. If the equipment is energised, invisible light form the fibre
optic cable can be sufficient to cause damage to the eyes.
Before the face of the connector is examined either one of these conditions
must be satisfied:

The connectors are disconnected from equipment at both ends


of the cable.

The power to the equipment is set to OFF.

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1.9 BASIC OPERATION


1. The input is converted by the encoder to electrical signals, which represent
either the sound waves of the voice, or the scanning of visible media.
2. The emitter sends out probes of infra-red light corresponding to the
electrical values, in strength and duration.
3. The infra-red light is launched into the fibres, which conduct it to the
receiver.
4. The receiver re-converts the light to electrical values.
Figure 14 shows fibre optic connection.

BEND
RADIUS
>1.5"

FIBRE
OPTIC
CABLE

STRAIN
RELIEF
1" MIN
EQUIPMENT
TYPE B
PLUG

Fibre Optic Connection


Figure 5.10.14

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1.10 AIRCRAFT APPLICATIONS


1.10.1 OPTICAL DATA BUS

Data transmission systems generally utilise a twisted cable pair as a bus.


This has its limitations and fibre optics is under active development as the
next step for use in aircraft digital systems.
1.10.2 STANAG 3910 DATA BUS SYSTEM

This is the European standard data bus with a 20 Mbit/sec data rate and will
enter service with the new Eurofighter 2000. This advanced data bus system
provides an evolutionary increase in capability by using MIL STD 1553B as
the controlling protocol for high speed (20Mbit/sec), message transfer over a
fibre optic network. Figure 17 shows the architecture of the STANAG 3910
data bus system.

UPTO 31
SUB-SYSTEMS

BUS
CONTROLLER

SUB
SYSTEM
1

SUB
SYSTEM
2

SUB
SYSTEM
N

CONTROL &
LOW SPEED
DATA BUS
HIGH SPEED
DATA BUS

FIBRE OPTIC
STAR
COUPLER

STANAG 3910 Data Bus System


Figure 17

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The optical star coupler allows light signals from each fibre stub to be coupled
into the other fibre stubs and then to the other sub-systems. The data bus
also has the normal operation of the MIL STD 1553B data bus.
The USA is developing its own version of a fibre optic data bus system. This
is a High Speed Data Bus (HSDB), and uses Linear Token Passing as its
controlling protocol. It operates at 50 Mbits/sec and operates to connect up to
128 sub-systems. Figure 18 shows the architecture of the Linear Token
Passing High Speed Data Bus (LTPHSDB).

UPTO 128
SUB-SYSTEMS

SUB
SYSTEM
1

SUB
SYSTEM
2

SUB
SYSTEM
3

SUB
SYSTEM
N

FIBRE OPTIC
STAR
COUPLER

Linear Token Passing High Speed Data Bus


Figure 18

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1.10.3 FLY-BY-LIGHT FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM

Extensive tests have been carried out using the Fly-by-Light technology. It
has huge advantages over the current Fly-by-Wire systems. Fibre optic
cabling is unaffected by EMI and has a considerably faster data transfer rate
(20 Mbit/sec to 100 Mbit/sec). The systems are also lighter than conventional
screened cabled systems, since fibre optic cable is lighter than conventional
cable and offers great weight saving. Figure 19 shows the configuration of a
fly-by-light system

LRG

FIBRE OPTIC CABLE

MOTION
SENSORS

ELECTRICAL CABLE

FLIGHT
CONTROL
COMPUTER

ACTUATOR
CONTROL
ELECTRONICS

ACTUATOR
AIR
DATA
COMPUTER
CONTROL
SURFACE

Fly-By-Light System
Figure 19

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1.10.4 OPERATION

Fibre optic cable interconnects the units of the flight control system and
eliminates the possibility of propagating electrical faults between units. They
are bi-directional and can be used to convey the system status to the flight
crews control and display panel.
A further advantage of fibre optic data transmission is the ability to use
Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) whereby a single fibre can be used
to transmit several channels of information as coded light pulses of different
wavelengths (or colours) simultaneously. The individual data channels are
then recovered from the optically mixed data by passing the light signal
through wavelength selective optical filters, which are tuned to the respective
wavelengths. The WDM has a very high integrity, as the multiplexed
channels are effectively optically isolated.

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ELECTRONIC DISPLAYS

1.1 GENERAL
With the introduction of digital signal-processing technology, it has become
possible for drastic changes to both quantitative and qualitative data display
methods. This technology has enabled the simplification of many flight deckinstrument layouts, allowing the replacement of complex analogue
instruments with state of the art digital instrumentation. This "Glass Cockpit"
concept has allowed many instruments to be replaced by one TV type display
that can display a large and varied range of information as required.
There are three different methods for displaying digital data, these are:
1.

Light-Emitting Diodes (LED).

2.

Liquid Crystal Display (LCD).

3.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT).

1.2 DISPLAY CONFIGURATIONS


Displays of LED and LCD types are usually limited to the application in which
a single register of alphanumeric values is required, and are based on the
seven segment or the dot matrix configuration. CRT type displays have a
wider use and can display navigation, engine performance and system status
information. Table 1 shows the different applications for electronic displays.

Display Type
Light-Emitting Diode
Liquid Crystal Display

Cathode Ray Tube

Application
Digital counter displays of engine performance.
Monitoring indicators; Radio frequency selector
indicators; Distance Measuring indicators; Control
display units of Inertial Navigation Systems, etc.
Weather radar indicators; display of navigational
data; engine performance data; system status;

Electronic Display Applications


Table1

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Figure 1 shows a typical flight-deck instrument panel and the different types of
display used.

LED
DISPLAYS

CRT
DISPLAYS

LCD
DISPLAYS

BAe 146 Electronic Instrument Layout


Figure 1

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1.2.1 SEGMENT DISPLAYS

Seven-segment configuration will allow the display of decimal numbers 0-9; it


also has the capability to display certain alphabetic characters. To display all
alphabetic characters requires an increase in the number of segments from
seven to thirteen, and in some cases sixteen segments.
Figure 2 shows both seven and thirteen segment display configurations.

SEVEN-SEGMENT CONFIGURATION

THIRTEEN-SEGMENT CONFIGURATION

Seven and Thirteen Segment Display Formats


Figure 2

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In the dot matrix display the patterns generated for each individual character
is made up of a specific number of illuminated dots arranged in columns and
rows. Figure 3 shows the arrangement for a 4 X 7 configuration (4 columns
and 7 rows).

7
ROWS

4 COLUMNS

Dot Matrix Configuration


Figure 3

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1.3 LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE (LEDS)


One of the most common light sources used in electronics is the Light
Emitting Diode (LED). A LED is a two terminal semiconductor device
comprising a p-n junction, which conducts in one direction only. This
semiconductor material emits light when the p-n junction is forward biased
and a current is flowing through it. LEDs can be manufactured to emit visible
or invisible (infra-red) light.
Visible LEDs are often used as indicators in electronic equipment either
singly, for indicating power on for instance, or in arrays for alpha/numeric
displays.
LEDs are reliable and have a very long life if treated carefully. Light emission
in different colours of the spectrum can, when required, be obtained by
varying the proportions of the elements comprising the chip, and also by a
technique of "doping" with other elements, i.e. nitrogen. Current consumption
(typically about 5 20 mA) generally limits the usefulness of a LED to
equipment that is not battery powered.
1.3.1 OPERATION

The phenomenon which results in the emission of light from a LED is called
Electroluminescence, or Injection Luminescence, and is due to the
hole/electron recombinations that take place near a forward biased p-n
junction.
When electrons are injected into the n region of a p-n diode and are swept
through the region near the junction, they recombine with holes in the region.
This generates electromagnetic waves of a frequency determined by the
difference in the energy levels of the electron and the hole. In order for this
recombination to result in luminescence, there must be a net change in the
energy levels, and the proton generated must not be recaptured in the
material. Figure 4 shows the operation of a LED.

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BIAS
RECOMBINATIONS

p
JUNCTION

n
INJECTED
ELECTRONS

CONTACT

LED Operation
Figure 4

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Figure 5 shows the construction of a LED.

Light-Emitting Diode (LED)


Figure 5

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In a typical seven-segment display format it is usual to employ one LED per


segment and mount it within a reflective cavity with a plastic overlay and a
diffuser plate. The segments are formed as a sealed integrated circuit pack.
The connecting pins of the LEDs are soldered to an associated printed circuit
board. Depending on the application and the number of digits comprising the
appropriate quantitative display, they will use either independent digit packs,
or combined multiple digit packs may be used.
Figure 6 shows an LED single digit pack construction.

LED Digit Pack


Figure 6
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LEDs can also be used in a dot-matrix configuration. Each dot making up the
decimal numbers is an individual LED and can be arranged either in a 4 X 7
or 5 X 9 configuration. Figure 7 shows an Engine Speed Indicator, the dial
portion of the indicator is an analogue type, however it uses an LED dotmatrix configuration for the digital readout of engine speed.

DOT MATRIX
LED DISPLAY
ENGINE SPEED

20
0

40

ANALOGUE
ENGINE
SPEED
INDICATOR

60

N1
% RPM 80
100

Smith's

Engine Speed Indicator


Figure 7
The digital counter is of unique design in that its signal drive circuit causes an
apparent "rolling" effect of the digits which simulates the action of a
mechanical drum-type counter as it responds to the changes in engine speed.

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Figure 8 shows a Power Plant Instrument Group from a Boeing 737-400,


which has both LED and dot matrix, displays.

MAN SET

% RPM
12

72 65
8

12
2

10

10

4 X 7 MATRIX
DISPLAY

0
2
72 65 4
6

8
7

84

84 87

EGT
% RPM

LED
DISPLAY

100 4

100 4

N
2
X1000

6
5

27 1

PULL
TO
SET
N1

6
1

FF/FU

27 21
3

KGPH/KG

PUSH

FUEL
USED

RESET
FUEL
USED

PULL
TO
SET
N1

Boeing 737-400 Power Plant Instrument Group


Figure 8

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1.4 LIQUID CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD)


Liquid Crystal Displays (LCD) are not actually light sources - they generate no
light, merely filtering incident light, in a controlled manner. The LCDs seen in
watches, clocks and calculators etc, all work by the same principle.
Two transparent but conductive plates sandwich a layer of liquid crystals,
which normally all face in the same direction. See Figure 9. Incident light
passes through the liquid crystals of polarised particles fairly easily, and is
reflected back through the crystals so that an observer sees a light coloured
area.
However, a voltage applied across the plates causes the liquid crystals to
change direction in an attempt to repolarise themselves with the applied
voltage. As they turn, they interact with the current flowing between the plates
and a state of turbulence is created. The moving particles scatter the incident
light, randomly reflecting and refracting it. Little light is reflected back to the
observer, so the area between the transparent plates appears dark.
Selection of the areas, which are turned dark by using a number of plates and
different shaped plates, means that practically any shape of character may be
displayed.

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Figure 9 shows the operation of a LCD.

INCIDENT LIGHT

REFLECTED LIGHT

TRANSPARENT
CONDUCTIVE
PLATES

INCIDENT LIGHT
REFLECTED LIGHT

TRANSPARENT

OPAQUE

LED Operation
Figure 9

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Figure 10 shows the structure of a seven-segment LCD.

LIQUID CRYSTAL
LAYER
(TYPICAL SPACING = 10 MICRONS)

SEVEN SEGMENT
ELECTRODE

MIRROR IMAGE
(NOT SEGMENTED)

FRONT PLATE

BACK PLATE

SEGMENT
CONTACTS
COMMON
RETURN
CONTACT

Seven-Segment LCD
Figure 10
The space between the plates is filled with a liquid crystal compound, and the
complete assembly is hermetically sealed with a special thermoplastic
material to prevent contamination.
When a low-voltage, low-current signal is applied to the segments, the
polarisation of the compound is changed together with a change in its optical
appearance from transparent to reflective. The magnitude of the optical
change is basically a measure of the light reflected from, or transmitted
through, the segment area to the light reflected from the background area.
Thus, unlike a LED, it does not emit light, but merely acts on light passing
through it. Depending on the polarisation film orientation, and whether the
display is reflective or transmissive, the segment may appear dark on a light
background (such as in digital watches and pocket calculators) or light on a
dark background.
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Figure 11 shows a BCD to seven-segment decoder.

LOW VOLTAGE POWER


SUPPLY TO EACH
SEGMENT

2
4
8

0 BCD TO 7 0
SEGMENT 0
1 DECODER
1
0
0

BCD Seven-Segment decoder


Figure 11

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1.5 CATHODE RAY TUBE (CRT)


Displays of this type, which are based on the electron beam scanning
technique, have been used in aircraft for many years. They were first used to
display weather radar information and have continued to be an essential part
of the Avionics Fit in todays modern aircraft.
The CRT is a thermionic device, i.e. one in which electrons are liberated as a
result of heat energy. It consists of an evacuated glass envelope inside which
are positioned an Electron Gun, Beam-Focusing and Beam-Deflection
system. The inside surface of the screen is coated with a crystalline solid
material known as a phosphor.
Figure 12 shows a cross-section of a CRT.

GRAPHITE COATING
(COLLECTS SECONDARY ELECTRONS
TO PREVENT SCREEN BECOMING
NEGATIVELY CHARGED)

DEFLECTING
COILS
CATHODE

ANODE

HEATER

GRID

GLASS
ENVELOPE
PERMANENT
MAGNETS
(BEAM FOCUSING)

ELECTRON
BEAM

SCREEN

Cathode Ray Tube CRT Cross-Section


Figure 12

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1.5.1 ELECTRON GUN

The electron gun consists of the following:


1. Cathode: An indirectly heated cathode (negatively biased
w.r.t. the screen).
2. Grid:

A cylindrical grid surrounding the cathode.

3. Anode:

Two (sometimes three) anodes.

The cathode is a tube of metal closed at one end, with a coating of material
that will emit electrons when heated, covering the closed end. To operate the
cathode needs to be heated; this is achieved using a coil of insulated wire
connected to the cathode.
Because the screen of the CRT contains conducting material at a high voltage
(5 - 15kV), electrons will be attracted away from the cathode.
The free electrons have to pass through a pinhole in a metal plate (Control
Grid). Altering the voltage of the grid can control the movement of the
electrons through this hole. The voltage of the grid is always negative w.r.t.
Cathode.
The free electrons are then formed into a beam by the action of the first
anode. The anode is of a cylindrical shape and by adjusting the voltage on
the anode, the beam can be made to come to a small point at the screen end
of the CRT. The screen end of the CRT is coated with a material called a
Phosphor, which will glow when struck by electrons. The phosphor is usually
coated with a thin film of aluminum so that it can be connected to the final
accelerating (anode) voltage. The whole tube is formed as a vacuum.

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Figure 13 shows the typical voltages used in a small CRT.

CONNECTED TO
CONDUCTIVE COATING
ON GLASS

CATHODE
GRID

FIRST ANODE

SECOND ANODE

HEATER

0V

-50V

+300V

+5 kV

CRT Voltages
Figure 13

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This arrangement will produce a point of light at the centre of the screen, but
to make the CRT useful for displaying data, this beam of electrons must be
able to be moved around the screen. For this, two sets of metal plates are
used and if a voltage is passed through them, then the beam will deflect on
the screen. These plates are called Deflection Plates. These plates are
arranged at right angles to each other. The beam can be deflected if a
voltage is applied to these plates; this is called Electrostatic deflection.
Movement of the beam left/right is controlled by the X Plates, with the Y
Plates controlling movement up/down.
Figure 14 shows the arrangement for the deflection plates.

Y DEFLECTION
PLATES

ANODE

X DEFLECTION
PLATES

X and Y Deflection Plates


Figure 14

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The other method used for deflection is Electromagnetic. This method is used
for TV, computer monitors and most aircraft CRT displays. As an electron
moves, it constitutes an electric current, and so a magnetic field will exist
around it in the same way as a field around a current-carrying conductor.
In the same way that a conductor will experience a deflecting force when
placed in a permanent magnetic field, so an electron beam can be forced to
move when subjected to electromagnetic fields acting across the space within
the tube. Coils are therefore provided around the neck of the tube, and are
configured so that fields are produced horizontally (Y-axis field) and vertically
(X-axis field). The coils are connected to the signal sources whose variables
are to be displayed. The electron beam can be deflected to the left or right,
up or down or along a resultant direction depending on the polarities produced
by the coils, and on whether one alone is energised, or both are energised
simultaneously.
Figure 15 shows electromagnetic coil configuration and resultant deflections.
MAGNETIC FIELD

N
NECK OF
THE TUBE

ELECTRON BEAM
COMING OUT OF
THE PAPER

VERTICALLY DISPOSED MAGNETIC


COIL PRODUCES HORIZONTAL
DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM

HORIZONTALLY DISPOSED MAGNETIC


COIL PRODUCES VERTICAL
DEFLECTION OF THE BEAM

RESULTANT DEFLECTION
OF THE BEAM

Electromagnetic Deflection
Figure 15
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The most common form of deflection for CRT is a Linear Sweep. This means that the beam is taken
across the screen at a steady rate from one edge to the other, and is then returned very rapidly (an
action called Fly Back). To generate such a linear sweep in electrostatic deflection, a Saw-tooth
Waveform is used. . Figure 16 shows a Saw-tooth Waveform.

RAMP OR
SWEEP

CURRENT

FLYBACK

TIME

Saw-tooth Waveform
Figure 16
The sawtooth voltage waveform derived for the electrostatic time base is no
use for electromagnetic coil deflection because a voltage sawtooth will not
produce a linear rise of current through the deflection coils.
A practical deflection, or scan coil, will have resistance as well as inductance.
The voltage across the resistance of a coil R is proportional to the current
through it. A linear current ramp in a resistance can only be produced by a
steadily rising voltage.
Inductor voltage is proportional to the rate of change of current and since the
rate of change of current is constant, then the voltage across the inductor
must also be constant. A constant applied voltage, therefore, will produce a
linear current ramp in an inductor.
To provide for both resistance and inductance, the voltage applied to the scan
coils to produce a linear current ramp must be a constant value for the
inductance and a voltage ramp for the resistance, giving the distinctive
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Trapezoidal shape. Figure 17 shows the scan coil graphs for


electromagnetic deflection.

MAX
IDEAL
CURRENT

0
MAX

VOLTAGE
ACROSS R

0
MAX

VOLTAGE
ACROSS L

MAX
RESULTANT
TRAPEZOIDAL
VOLTAGE

Scan Coil Graphs


Figure 17

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SOFTWARE MANAGEMENT CONTROL

In the normal maintaining of aircraft, an assessment of system and function


criticality is made. With the increasing role of computers in today's aircraft,
responsible Design Organisations assign, to each software-based system or
equipment, software levels relating to the severity of the effect of possible
software errors within user systems or equipments.
Table 1 shows the relationship between function criticality category and
software level.
Effect on Aircraft

FAR 25.1309 &

No significant

Reduction of the aircraft capability or

and occupants of
failure conditions

JAR 25.1309

degradation of

of the crew ability to cope with

continued safe

definitions

aircraft capability

adverse operating conditions

flight and landing

or design error

or crew ability

Prevention of

of the aircraft
Large reduction

Slight reduction

in safety margins

Significant

of safety

reduction in

Physical distress

margins,

safety margins

or workload such

Slight increase in

Reduction in the

that the flight

ACJ No 1

workload, e.g.

ability of the flight

crew cannot be

Jar 25.1309

routine changes

crew such that

relied upon to

Loss of aircraft

definitions

in flight or plan or

they cannot be

perform their

and/or fatalities

Physical effects

relied upon to

tasks accurately

but no injury to

perform their

or completely, or

occupants

tasks accurately,

serious injury to

or injury to

or death of a
relatively small

occupants

proportion of the
occupants
ACJ No 1 to JAR 25.1309

Minor Effect

Major Effect

Hazardous Effect

Definition of Criticality Category


FAA Advisory Circular 25.1409-1

Catastrophic
Effect

Non-essential

Essential

Critical

Level 3

Level 2

Level 1

definition of Criticality Category


DO-178A/ED-12A
Software level*

Table 1
*

Using appropriate design and/or implementation techniques, it may be


possible to use a software level lower than the functional
categorisation. Refer to Section 5 of DO-178A/ED-12A, which provides
further guidance.

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1.1 CERTIFICATION OF SOFTWARE


For initial certification of a software-based system or equipment, the
responsible Design Organisation provides evidence to the CAA that the
software has been designed, tested and integrated with the hardware in a
manner which ensures compliance with the relevant requirements of BCAR.
The primary document for use by certifying authorities is the Software
Accomplishment Summary. Its content is listed below to demonstrate the
stringency of software control both during certification and continued use
when it may be subject to further development and modification. The
following is taken from AWN 45A. Related document references have been
left in but not clarified.
1.2 CONTENT OF SOFTWARE ACCOMPLISHMENT SUMMARY
As a minimum, information relevant to the particular software version should
be included in the summary under the following headings: (a)

i)

System and Equipment Description This section should


briefly describe the equipment functions and hardware including
safety features, which rely on hardware devices or system
architecture.

ii)

Organisation of Software This section should identify the


particular software version and briefly describe the software
functions and architecture with particular emphasis on the safety
and partitioning concepts used.

The size of the final software design should be stated, e.g. in terms of
memory bytes, number of modules. The language(s) used should also
be stated.
(b)

Criticality Categories and Software Levels This section should state


the software levels applicable to the various parts of the software. The
rationale for their choice should be stated, either directly, or by
reference to other documents.

(c)

Design Disciplines This section should briefly describe the design


procedures and associated disciplines, which were applied to ensure
the quality of the software. The Organisations which were involved in
the production and testing (including flight-testing) of the software
should be identified and their responsibilities stated.

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(d)

Development Phases The development phases of the project should


be summarised. This information could be included in sub-paragraph
(h) below.

(e)

Software Verification Plan This section should briefly summarise the


plan (Document No. 11 as defined in DO-178A/ED-12A) and the test
results.

(f)

Configuration Management The principles adopted for software


identification, modification, storage and release should be briefly
summarised.

(g)

Quality Assurance The procedures relating to quality assurance of


the software should be summarised including, where applicable, those
procedures which applied to liaison between the equipment
manufacturer and the aircraft, engine or propeller constructor, as
appropriate.

(h)

Certification Plan This section should provide a schedule detailing


major milestones achieved and their relationship to the various
software releases.

(j)

Organisation and Identification of Documents This section should


identify the documents, which satisfy, paragraph 8.1 of DO-178A/ED12A.

(k)

Software Status Any known errors, temporary patches, functional


limitations or similar shortcomings associated with the delivered
software should be declared and the proposed timescale for corrective
action stated.

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1.3 MODIFICATION OF SOFTWARE


In respect of systems and equipment with Level 1 or Level 2 software, a
modification, which affects software, shall not be embodied unless it has been
approved by the responsible Design Organisation.
Modifications to software will be subject to the same approval procedures as
are applied to hardware modifications. Modified software will need to be
identified and controlled in accordance with the procedures stated in the
software configuration management plan.
The CAA will require the design and investigation of modifications, including
those proposed by the aircraft operator, to involve the support service
provided by the responsible Design Organisation. The re-certification effort
will need to be related to the software levels.
Aircraft operators will need to ensure that their defect reporting procedures
will report software problems to the responsible Design Organisation.

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ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT

With the development of electronics and digital systems in aviation, aircraft


are becoming increasingly susceptible to High Intensity Radio Frequencies
(HIRF). Design philosophies in the area of aircraft bonding for protection
against HIRF employ methods which may not have been encountered
previously by maintenance personnel. Because of this, HIRF protection can
be unintentionally compromised during normal maintenance, repair and
modification. It is therefore critical that procedures contained in assembly and
repair manuals contain reliable procedures to detect any incorrect installation,
which could degrade the HIRF protection features.
1.1 PROTECTION AGAINST HIRF
There are three primary areas to be considered for aircraft operating in HIRF
environments.
Aircraft Structure - (aircraft skin and frame).
Electrical Wiring Installation Protection - (Solid or braided
shielding/connectors).
Equipment Protection - (LRU case, electronics input/output protection).

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Table 1 gives some indication as to the maintenance tasks which may be


applied to certain types of electro magnetic protection features:
PROTECTION
TYPE

CABLE
SHIELDING

Description

Over braid shield,


critical individual
cable shield
Metallic conduit,
braid

Raceway,
conduits

RF gaskets

Raceway,
conduits

Removable
panels

Corrosion,
damage

Corrosion,
damage

Corrosion,
damage,
deformation

Damage,
erosion

Visual
inspection,
bonding
measurement

Visual
inspection of
gaskets,
bonding leads
and straps

Visual
inspection,
measurement
of shielding
effectiveness

Examples

Degradation or
Failure Mode

Maintenance
Operations

Visual inspection,
measurement of
cable shielding
bonding

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURE SHIELDING

Shield for non


conductive
surfaces
Conductive
coating

CIRCUIT
PROTECTION
DEVICES

Structural bonding

Contact
bonds, rivet
joints
Corrosion,
damage

Visual
inspection,
bonding
measurement

Bonding lead
and straps,
pigtails
Corrosion,
damage,
security of
attachment
Visual
inspection for
corrosion
attachment
and condition,
bonding
measurement

HIRF protection
devices
Resistors, Zener
diodes, EMI filters,
filter pins.
Short circuit, open
circuit

Check at test/repair
facility in
accordance with
maintenance or
surveillance plan.

Applicable Maintenance Tasks for HIRF Protection Measures


Table 1
Note: Raceway conduits refers to separate conduits used to route individual
cables to the various areas of an aircraft system.
RF gaskets are gaskets having conductive properties to maintain the
bonding integrity of a system.
1.2 TESTING TECHNIQUES
Tests of HIRF protection carried out depend upon the criticality of the system
under test. Types of test are as follows.
1.3 VISUAL INSPECTION
The protection feature should be inspected for damage and corrosion.
Degradation may be found in this way but where integrity cannot be assured,
other tests may be carried out.
1.4 DC RESISTANCE
The milliohm meter is often used to measure the ground path resistance of
ground straps or bonding. This technique is limited to the indication of only
single path resistance values.

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1.5 LOW FREQUENCY LOOP IMPEDANCE


Low frequency loop impedance testing is a useful method complementary to
DC bonding testing. A visual inspection of cable bundle shields,
complemented by a low frequency loop impedance test, gives good
confidence in the integrity of the shielding provisions.
Low frequency loop impedance testing is a method developed to check that
adequate bonding exists between over braid (conduit) shields and structure.
To achieve the shielding performance required, it is often necessary that both
ends of a cable bundle shield be bonded to aircraft structure. In such cases, it
is hard to check bonding integrity by the standard DC bonding test method. If
the bond between shield and structure at one end is degraded while the other
one is still good, there is little chance to find this defect by performing DC
bonding measurements. The remaining bond still ensures a low resistance to
ground but the current loop through the shield is interrupted, causing
degradation of shielding performance. The fault can easily be detected by
performing a low frequency loop impedance test.
The test set-up requires simple test equipment, refer to Figure 1. A current of
about 1 kHz is fed into the conduit under test while measuring the voltage
necessary to drive that current. Other versions of the loop impedance test
arrangement use different frequencies (200 Hz is typical), and provide the
resistive and reactive parts of the loop impedance.

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CURRENT
MONITOR
(AC MILLI-VIOLTS)

VOLTAGE
GENERATOR

CLAMP-ON CURRENT
TRANSFORMER

V1

II

CLAMP-ON CURRENT
TRANSFORMER

FIXING HARDWARE
PROVIDING ELECTRICAL
BONDING

CONDUIT
LOOP UNDER TEST

STRUCTURE

ZCONDUIT + ZSTRUCTURE = V1/II

Loop Impedance Test


Figure 1
The test equipment consists of a generator operating at 1 kHz feeding an
injection probe and a current monitoring probe, connected to an AC
millivoltmeter. A voltmeter connected to the generator enables the voltage
necessary to drive the current to be measured. 1 kHz is a high enough
frequency to drive the injection and the monitoring probes and is also enough
to avoid specific RF effects, like non-uniform current distribution along the
loop under test.

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If, in practice, the current is set to 1A, the voltage figure, when expressed in
millivolts, gives the loop impedance in milliohms directly. The loop impedance
is normally in the range 1-100 milliohms. In this range, accurate results can
easily be achieved.
If too high loop impedance is found, the joint determining the problem has to
be identified. This can be performed by measuring the voltage drop across
each joint. The joint with the high voltage drop across it is the defective one,
refer to Figure 2.

VOLTAGE
GENERATOR
VOLTAGE
MONITOR

CLAMP-ON CURRENT
TRANSFORMER

V1

V2
FIXING NUT
BAD JOINT

FERRULE
BRACKET
CONDUIT

LOOP UNDER TEST

STRUCTURE

V2 = V1 ACROSS BAD JOINT

Identification of A Bad Joint


Figure 2

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As there is no need for a wide band swept RF generator, the test equipment
can be quite simple and easy to handle. Hand held battery powered test
equipment, especially designed for production monitoring and routine
maintenance, is available on the market.
1.6 ELECTRO MAGNETIC INTERFERENCE (EMI)
EMI is a subject closely allied to HIRF. Interference can occur in systems
from internal sources and external sources.
Its prevention and maintenance of measures taken is described under High
Intensity Radio Frequencies.
1.7 ELECTRO MAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY (EMC)
A further allied subject is EMC. If a new avionics system is introduced into an
aircraft, it must be operated at its full range of operating frequencies to ensure
no interference to other systems is caused. Similarly, other systems must be
operated across their full range to ensure no interference occurs to that
system introduced.
Full tests to be carried out are normally stipulated by the manufacturer or
design organisation.
1.8 LIGHTNING/LIGHTNING PROTECTION
Lightning protection is given by the primary and secondary conductors of an
aircraft's bonding system. The system is enhanced by the methods discussed
under HIRF.

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1.9 DEGAUSSING
If an aircraft is struck by lightning, structural damage can occur and parts of
the aircraft may remain magnetised. This magnetic force remaining is called
'Residual Magnetism', and since it could adversely effect some aircraft
systems, areas affected must be de-magnetised.
The process of de-magnetising is called 'degaussing'. Effected areas are
detected using a hand held compass, then an ac electromagnet is passed
over these areas to disperse the residual magnetism. A discrepancy between
an
Aircrafts main compass and standby compass of (typically) 8 indicates that
degaussing is necessary.

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ELECTRONIC/DIGITAL AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS

Electronic and digital processes are used in many of today's aircraft for a variety of purposes:
navigation, dissemination of information, flying and controlling the aircraft. It should be borne in mind
that as each manufacturer introduces such a system to the market the chances are that new names for it
are added to the dictionary of terms. For instance, an Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System
(EICAS) is much the same as a Multi-Function Display System (MFDS), the main difference being the
manufacturer.

This module will deal with the following Electronic/Digital Systems:

1.

Electronic Centralized Monitoring System (ECAM).

2.

Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS).

3.

Engine Indicating & Crew Alerting System (EICAS).

4.

Flight Data Recorder System (FDRS).

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1.1 ELECTRONIC CENTRALIZED AIRCRAFT MONITORING


1.1.1 INTRODUCTION

In the ECAM system (originally developed for Airbus aircraft), data relating to
the primary system is displayed in checklist, pictorial or abbreviated form on
two Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) units.
Figure 5 shows the ECAM system functional diagram.

WARN

WARN

CAUT

CAUT

ECAM
CONTROL PANEL

DMC 1

FWC 1

DMC 3

SDAC 1

A/C SYSTEM SENSORS


RED WARNINGS
SYSTEM PAGES
FLIGHT PHASE

DMC 2

SDAC 1

A/C SYSTEM SENSORS


AMBER WARNINGS
SYSTEM PAGES

FWC 2

NAV & AFS SENSORS

ECAM Functional Diagram


Figure 5

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1.2 ECAM SYSTEM COMPONENTS


1.2.1 FLIGHT WARNING COMPUTER (FWC)

The two FWCs acquire all data necessary for the generation of alert
messages associated with the relevant system failures:
Directly form the aircraft sensors or systems for warnings (mainly identified
by red colour).
Through the SDACs for cautions from the aircraft systems (mainly
identified by amber colour).
The FWCs generate alphanumeric codes corresponding to all texts/messages
to be displayed on the ECAM display units. These can be either be:
Procedures associated to failures.
Status functions (giving the operational status of the aircraft and
postponable procedures).
Memo function (giving a reminder of functions/systems, which are
temporarily used or items of normal checklist).
1.2.2 SYSTEM DATA ACQUISITION CONCENTRATORS (SDAC)

The two SDACs acquire from the aircraft systems malfunctions/failure data
corresponding to caution situations and send them to the FWCs for
generation of the corresponding alert and procedure messages. The two
SDACs acquire then send to the 3 DMCs all aircraft system signals necessary
for display of the system information and engine monitoring secondary
parameters through animated synoptic diagrams.
All signals (discrete, analog, digital) entering the SDACs are concentrated and
converted into digital format.
1.2.3 DISPLAY MANAGEMENT COMPUTERS (DMC)

The 3 DMCs are identical. Each integrates the EFIS/ECAM functions and is
able to drive either ECAM display units (engine/warning or system/status).
The DMCs acquire and process all the signals received from various aircraft
sensors and computers in order to generate proper codes of graphic
instructions corresponding to the images to be displayed.

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1.2.4 DISPLAY UNITS

These can be mounted either side-by-side or top/bottom. The left-hand/top


unit is dedicated to information on the status of the system; warnings and
corrective action in a sequenced checklist format, while the right-hand/bottom
unit is dedicated to associated information in pictorial or synoptic format.
Figure 6 shows the layout of ECAM displays.

350
300

400

8 4
MACH

60
1
0
9

80

250

120
IAS
KNOTS

240
220

200

140
180

LDG GEAR
GRVTY EXTN

RESET
OFF
DOWN

ECAM Display Layout


Figure 6

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1.2.5 ECAM DISPLAY MODES

There are four display modes, three of which are automatically selected and
referred to as phase-related, advisory (mode and status), and failure-related
modes. The fourth mode is manual and permits the selection of diagrams
related to any one of 12 of the aircrafts systems for routine checking, and the
selection of status messages, provided no warnings have been triggered for
display.
Selection of displays is by means of a system control panel. See Figure 14.
1.2.6 FLIGHT PHASE RELATED MODE

In normal operation the automatic flight phase-related mode is used, and the
displays will be appropriate to the current phase of aircraft operation, i.e. Preflight, Take-off, Climb, Cruise, Descent, Approach, and post landing. Figure 7
shows display modes. The upper display shows the display for pre-take off,
the lower is that displayed for the cruise.

ENGINE
10

8 7. 0

10

F.USED

6 5. 0

N1
%

1530

FOB : 14000KG

KG

1530

OIL
10

6 50

80
1500

EG T
C

10

4 80

FLAP

11.5

(N1)
0.9

VIB
1.2

(N2)
1.3

11.5

AIR
LDG ELEV AUTO

N2
%

80.2

FF
KG/H

1500

NO SMOKING:
SE AT BE LTS:
SP LRS:
FLAPS :

QTY

VIB
0.8

ON
ON
FULL
FULL

FULL

500FT

CAB V/S FT/MIN


CKPT 20

FWD 22

AFT 23

24

22

24

250
CAB ALT FT
4150

LDG INHIBIT
APU BLEED

ECAM UPPER DISPLAY

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

23 H 56

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

ECAM LOWER DISPLAY - CRUISE

ECAM Upper and Lower Display (Cruise Mode)


Figure 7

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1.2.7 ADVISORY MODE

This mode provides the flight crew with a summary of the aircrafts condition
following a failure and the possible downgrading of systems. Figure 8 shows
an advisory message following a Blue Hydraulic failure.

10

87.0

650

ADVISORY
MESSAGES

80
1500

65.0

N1
%

10

10

FOB : 14000KG
10

EGT
C

480

N2
%

80.2

FF
KG/H

1500

HYD B RSVR OVHT


B SYS LO PR

FAILURE
MESSAGES

FLAP

FULL

FLT CTL
SPOILERS SLOW

1 FUEL TANK PUMP LH

ECAM Advisory Mode


Figure 8

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ENGINEERS

1.2.8 ECAM FAILURE MODE

The failure-related mode takes precedence over the other modes. Failures
are classified in 3 levels
Level 3: Warning
This corresponds to an emergency configuration. This requires the flight crew
to carry out corrective action immediately. This warning has an associated
aural warning (fire bell type) and a visual warning (Master Warning), on the
glare shield panel.
Level 2: Caution
This corresponds to an abnormal configuration of the aircraft, where the flight
crew must be made aware of the caution immediately but does not require
immediate corrective action. This gives the flight crew the decision on
whether action should be carried out. These cautions are associated to an
aural caution (single chime) and a steady (Master Caution), on the glare
shield panel.
Level 1: Advisory
This gives the flight crew information on aircraft configuration that requires the
monitoring, mainly failures leading to a loss of redundancy or degradation of a
system, e.g. Loss of 1 FUEL TANK PUMP LH or RH but not both.
The advisory mode will not trigger any aural warning or attention getters but
a message appears on the primary ECAM display.

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Figures 9 13 show the 12-system and status pages available.

COND

TEMP C

CAB PRESS
AP
PSI

ALTN MODE
FAN

FAN

CKPT 20

FWD 22

24

22

LDG ELEV MAN 500FT


V/S FT/MIN

AFT 23

0 4.1

24
H

INLET

SAFETY

EXTRACT

PACK 1

23 H 56

SYST 2

VENT

HOT
AIR

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

10
0 4150

DN

MAN

SYST 1

1150
2

CAB ALT
FT

UP

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM PAGE

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

PACK 2

23 H 56

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

PRESSURIZATION SYSTEM PAGE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 9
Note; These pages are displayed:
Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.
Whenever called manually.

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ELEC

BAT 1
28V
150A

F/CTR

BAT 2
28V
150A

DC BAT

DC 1

GBY

DC 2
DC ESS

TR 1
28V
150A

AC 1
GEN 1
26%
116V
400HZ

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

ESS TR
28V
130A

EMERG GEN
116V
400HZ

23 H 56

SPD BRK

L
AIL
BG

R
AIL
GB

PITCH TRIM G Y
3.2 UP

AC 2

AC ESS

APU
26%
116V
400HZ

TR 2
28V
150A

EXT PWR
116V
400HZ

L
ELEV
BG

GEN 2
26%
116V
400HZ

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PAGE

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

RUD
GBY

23 H 56

R
ELEV
YB

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM PAGE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 10
Note; These pages are displayed:
Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.
Whenever called manually.

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FUEL KG

F.USED 1

1550

F.USED 2

APU

HYD

1550

FOB

3000

LEFT

10750

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

YE LLOW

5600

23 H 56

PSI

3000

PSI

3000

RIGHT

CTR

550

BLUE

GREE N

28750

10750

550

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

FUEL SYSTEM PAGE

23 H 56

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM PAGE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 11
Note; These pages are displayed:
Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.
Whenever called manually.

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BLEED

WHEEL

20 C

24 C
C

H
RAM AIR

50 C

170
1

C
REL

140

140

C
REL

LO

HI

AUTO BRK

23 H 56

LO

HI

140
1

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

H
230 C

LP
TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

LANDING GEAR/WHEEL/BRAKE SYSTEM PAGE

GND
APU
HP
HP

23 H 56

LP
G.W. 60300 KG
C.G. 28.1 %

AIR BLEED SYSTEM PAGE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 12
Note; These pages are displayed:
Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.
Whenever called manually.
The Gear/Wheel page is displayed at the related flight phase.

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APU

OXY 1850 PSI

DOOR
ARM

ARM

APU
26%
116 V
400 HZ

AVIONIC

CABIN
FWD COMPT

BLE ED
35 PSI

CARG O

ARM

EMER
EX IT

10

ARM

80

FLAP OPEN

CARG O
BULK
CABIN

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

ARM

ARM

23 H 56

N
%

580

TAT +19 C
SAT +17 C

C.G. 28.1 %

DOOR/OXY SYSTEM PAGE

EG T
C

23 H 56

C.G. 28.1 %

APU SYSTEM PAGE

ECAM System Displays


Figure 13
Note; These pages are displayed:
Automatically due to an advisory or failure related to the system.
Whenever called manually.
Related flight phase.

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1.2.9 CONTROL PANEL

The layout of the control panel is shown in Figure 14.

DISPLAY ON &
BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL

DISPLAY ON &
BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL

SGU SELECT
SWITCHES

LEFT DISPLAY

OFF

ECAM

SGU

FAULT

FAULT

OFF

OFF

RIGHT DISPLAY

BRT

OFF

BRT

MESSAGE
CLEARANCE
SWITCH
CLR

STS

RCL

STATUS
MESSAGE
SWITCH

RECALL
SWITCH

ENG

HYD

AC

DC

BLEED

COND

PRESS

FUEL

APU

F/CTL

DOOR

WHEEL

SYSTEM SYNOPTIC
DISPLAY SWITCHES

ECAM Control Panel


Figure 14

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ENGINEERS

1.2.10 ECAM CONTROL PANEL

SGU Selector Switches: Controls the respective symbol generator units.


Lights are off in normal operation of the system. The FAULT caption is
illuminated amber if the SGUs internal self-test circuit detects a failure.
Releasing the switch isolates the corresponding SGU and causes the
FAULT caption to extinguish, and the OFF caption to illuminate white.
System Synoptic Display Switches: Permit individual selection of
synoptic diagrams corresponding to each of the 12 systems, and illuminate
white when pressed. A display is automatically cancelled whenever a warning
or advisory occurs.
CLR Switch: Light illuminates white whenever a warning or status message
is displayed on the left-hand display unit. Press to clear messages.
STS Switch: Permits manual selection of an aircrafts status message if no
warning is displayed. Illuminates white when pressed also illuminates the
CLR switch. Status messages are suppressed if a warning occurs or if the
CLR switch is pressed.
RCL Switch: Enables previously cleared warning messages to be recalled
provided the failure conditions which initiated the warnings still exists.
Pressing this switch also illuminates the CLR switch. If a failure no longer
exists, the message NO WARNING PRESENT is displayed on the left-hand
display unit.

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PAGE
INTENTIONALLY
BLANK

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1.3 ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM (EFIS)


With the introduction of fully integrated, computer-based navigation system,
most electro/mechanical instrumentation has been replaced with TV type
colour displays. The EFIS system provides the crew with two displays:
1.

Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator (EADI).

2.

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI).

The EADI is often referred to as the Primary Flight Display (PFD) and the
EHSI as the Navigation Display (ND). The EADI and EHSI are arranged
either side by side, with the EADI positioned on the left, or vertically, with the
EADI on the top.
1.3.1 SYSTEM LAYOUT

As is the case with conventional flight director systems, a complete EFIS


installation consists of two systems. The Captains EFIS on the left and the
First Officers on the right.
The EFIS comprises the following units:
1.

Symbol Generator (SG).

2.

Display units X 2 (EADI & EHSI).

3.

Control Panel.

4.

Remote Light Sensor.

1.3.2 SYMBOL GENERATOR

These provide the analog, discrete and digital signal interfaces between the
aircrafts systems, the display units and the control panel. They provide
symbol generation, system monitoring, power control and the main control
functions of the EFIS overall.

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Figure 15 shows the interface between the modules within the SG.

WEATHER RADAR DATA

MAIN
PROM

WX
INPUT

MAIN
RAM

INPUT
1

INPUT
2

DISPLAY
DRIVER

DISPLAY
UNIT
DEFLECTION
SIGNALS

STROKE
POSITION
DATA

STROKE
GENERATOR

DISPLAY
SEQUENCER
IRS
ILS
DME
VOR

STROKE/VIDEO & PRIORITY DATA

DISPLAY COUNTER I/O BUS

DISPLAY
CONTROL

RASTER
GENERATOR

WX MEMORY
2 X 16K RAMS
DISPLAY SEQUENCER DATA BUS

FMC
RAD ALT
VOR
EFIS
CONTROL

TRANSFER BUS

MAIN

PROCESSOR

DISPLAY
UNIT
VIDEO

WX
RASTER

CHARACTER
DATA

DISPLAY
UNIT
RASTER/STROKE
SELECT

Symbol Generator Module Interface


Figure 15

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Table 1 gives details of the functions of the SG modules.


Module
Function
Input 1 & 2
Supply of data for use by the main computer.
Main Processor Carries the main control and data processing of the SG.
Main RAM
Address decoding, read/write memory and input/output
functions for the system.
Main PROM
Read-only memory for the system.
Display Control Master transfer bus interface.
WX Input
Time scheduling and interleaving for raster, refresh, input and
standby function of weather radar input data.
WX Memory
RAM selection for single input data, row and column shifters for
rotate/translate algorithm, and shift registers for video output.
Display
Loads data into registers on stroke and raster generator cards.
Sequencer
Stroke
Generates all single characters, special symbols, straight and
Generator
curved lines and arcs on display units.
Raster
Generates master timing signals for raster, stroke, EADI and
Generator
EHSI functions.
Display Driver Converts and multiplexes X and Y digital stroke and raster
inputs into analog for driver operation, and also monitors
deflection outputs for correct operation.
Symbol Generator Module Functions
Table 1
1.3.3 DISPLAY UNITS

Each display unit consists of the following modules:


1. Cathode Ray Tube.
2. Video Monitor Card.
3. Power Supply Unit.
4. Digital Line Receivers.
5. Analog Line Receivers.
6. Convergence Card.

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Figure 16 shows a block schematic of the display unit.

115V 4OOHz

LOW VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY

HIGH VOLTAGE
POWER SUPPLY

LIGHT SENSOR
DISPLAY UNIT BRIGHTNESS
RASTER BRIGHTNESS

RED
GREEN
BLUE
BEAM TEST
SYNCHRONIZING

DIGITAL LINE
RECEIVERS

VIDEO MONITOR
CARD

CRT

INTENSITY
RASTER/STROKE
DAY/NIGHT

X DEFLECTION
Y DEFLECTION

ANALOG LINE
RECEIVERS

DEFLECTION
CARD

CONVERGENCE
CARD

EFIS Display Unit Block Schematic


Figure 16

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1.3.4 LOW/HIGH POWER SUPPLIES

All a.c. and d.c. power requirements for the overall operation of the DU is
provided by a low power supply and a high power supply. They are supplied
by 115V 400Hz from the aircraft power supplies. Supplies are automatically
regulated and monitored for under/over voltage conditions.
1.3.5 DIGITAL LINE RECEIVERS

Receives digital signals from the SG (R,G,B control, test signal, raster and
stroke signals and beam intensity). It contains a Digital/Analog converter so
that it can provide analog signals to the Video Monitor card.
1.3.6 ANALOG LINE RECEIVERS

Receive analog inputs form the SG representing the required X and Y


deflections for display writing.
1.3.7 VIDEO MONITOR CARD

Contains a video control microprocessor, video amplifiers and monitoring logic


for the display unit. It calculates the gain factors for the three-video amplifiers
(R, G and B). It also performs input, sensor and display unit monitoring.
1.3.8 DEFLECTION CARD

Provides X and Y beam deflection signals for stroke and raster scanning.
1.3.9 CONVERGENCE CARD

Takes X and Y deflection signals and develops drive signals for the three
radial convergence coils (R, G and B) of the CRT. Voltage compensators
monitor the deflection signals in order to establish on which part of the CRT
screen the beams are located. Right or left for the X comparator: top or
bottom for the Y comparator.

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Figure 17 shows the EFIS units and signal interface in block schematic form.

Honeywell
GS

ATT 2
AOA
F

20

20

10

10

10

10

G
GS
TTG

WX

DIM

CRS

ET

DH

SC
CP

MAP

BOT

REV

TOP

S
CMD
M .99
200DH

HDG

TEST
RASTER DIM

AIR
DATA
COMP
NAV

FMS

INS 1

INS 2

ATT

HDG

140RA

Honeywell

VOR 2

CRS
+0

OFF

N
33

H 2.1 NM
3

30

BRG

BRG

NAV 1

345

ADF 1

OFF

DH

EFIS SG No 1

VOR 1
ADF 2

AUTO

20

VOR 1

ADF 1

E 1
2

INERTIAL
REF
SYSTEM

VLF

ADF 2
ADF 1

20

W
24

ARC

21

HDG

NAV AID
ILS/VOR

15

FULL

GSPD

013

130 KTS

EFIS SG No 3
RAD ALT
Honeywell
GS

ATT 2

WEATHER
RADAR

AOA
F

20

20

10

10

10

10

G
S
CMD
M .99
200DH

DME
FULL
ARC

DIM

CRS

FMS

GS
TTG

WX

ET

DH

MAP

BOT

SC
CP

REV

TOP

20

20
DH

140RA

HDG

TEST
RASTER DIM

EFIS SG No 2

AFCS

Honeywell
VLF

FMS

INS 1

INS 2

CRS

ATT

HDG

NAV 1

345
+0

AUTO

BRG

30
VOR 1

BRG
ADF 1

HDG

013

EFIS Block Schematic


Figure 17

EIS

H 2.1 NM
3

E 1
2

ADF 1
OFF

OFF

N
33

VOR 2

W
24

VOR 1
ADF 2

ADF 2
ADF 1

21

NAV

15

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1.3.10 CONTROL PANEL

Allows the crew to select the required display configuration and what
information is to be displayed. Both Captain and Co-Pilot have their own
display controllers. The controllers have two main functions:
Display Controller: Selects the display format for EHSI as FULL, ARC, WX
or MAP.
Source Select: Selects the system that will provide information required for
display. The source information will be VOR, ADF, INS, FMS, VHF and NAV.
EFIS Display Controller is shown at Figure 18, and the Source Controller is at
19.

FULL
ARC

GS
TTG

WX

DIM

MAP

ET

DH

BOT

SC
CP

REV

TOP

HDG

CRS
TEST

EFIS Display Controller


Figure 18

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NAV

VHF

FMS

INS 1

INS 2

HDG

ADF 2

VOR 1

ADF 1

ATT

VOR 2

ADF 2
ADF 1

AUTO
OFF

OFF

BRG

BRG

EFIS Source Controller


Figure 19

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1.3.11 ELECTRONIC ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (EADI)

The EADI displays traditional attitude information (Pitch & Roll) against a twocolour sphere representing the horizon (Ground/Sky) with an aircraft symbol
as a reference. Attitude information is normally supplied from an Attitude
Reference System (ARS).
The EADI will also display further flight information. Flight Director commands
right/left to capture the flight path to Waypoints: airports and NAVAIDS and
up/down to fly to set altitudes: information related to the aircrafts position
w.r.t. Localizer (LOC) and Glideslope (GS) beams transmitted by an ILS.
Auto Flight Control System (AFCS) deviations and Autothrottle mode,
selected airspeed (Indicated or Mach No) Groundspeed, Radio Altitude and
Decision Height information are also shown.
Figure 20 shows a typical EADI display

Honeywell

LOC

HDG

GS

ATT 2
20

20

S
M .99
200 DH

20

10

10

10

10
20

M
AP ENG

140 RA

Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) Display


Figure 20

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1.3.12 ELECTRONIC HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (EHSI)

The EHSI presents a selectable, dynamic colour display of flight progress with
plan view orientation. The EHSI has a number of different modes of
operation, these are selectable by the flight crew and the number will be
dependent on the system fitted.

Figure 21 shows an EHSI display.

Honeywell
NAV 1

CRS
315
+0

33

24

WPT

30

2.1 NM

21

VOR 1

ADF 1

12

15

S
HDG

350
GSPD
130 KTS

Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator (EHSI) Display


Figure 21

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1.3.13 PARTIAL COMPASS FORMAT

The partial compass mode displays a 90 ARC of compass coordinates. It


allows
other features, such as MAP and Weather Radar displays, to be selected.
Figure 22 shows a Partial EHSI display (Compass Mode).

Honeywell

DTRK

317

FMS1
30 NM

320
30

33

N
V
VOR 1

50
ADF 1

HDG

350

25
15

GSPD
130 KTS

EHSI Partial Compass Mode Display


Figure 22

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Figure 23 shows an EHSI partial format with Weather Radar information.

Honeywell

DTRK

317

FMS1
30 NM

320
30

33

N
V
VOR 1

50
ADF 1

HDG

350

GSPD

25

130 KTS

EHSI Weather Radar Display


Figure 23

1.3.14 MAP MODE

The MAP mode will allow the display of more navigational information in the
partial compass mode. Information on the location of Waypoints, airports,
NAVAIDs and the planned route can be overlaid.
Weather information can also be displayed in the MAP mode to give a very
comprehensive display.

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Figure 24 shows an EHSI MAP mode display.

Honeywell

DTRK

317

FMS1
30 NM

320
33

30
05

04

05

V
VOR 1

50

03

ADF 1

HDG

350

GSPD

25

130 KTS

EHSI MAP Mode Display.


Figure 24

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1.3.15 COMPOSITE DISPLAY

In the event of a display unit failure, the remaining unit can display a
Composite Display. This display is selected via the Display Controller and it
consists of elements from an EADI and EHSI display.
Figure 25 shows a typical composite display.

Honeywell

120 NM
HDG
ILS

CRS FR
ATT 2

20

20

010

10

10

10

000

S
M .99
200 DH

10

M
33

00

03
DH

140 RA

EFIS Composite Display


Figure 25

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1.3.16 TESTING

Test is controlled from the DH/TEST knob located on the EFIS control panel.
The test, if carried out using the First Officers control panel, will have the
following effect on the Captains EADI:

Runway symbol will fall.

Rad Alt digital display indicates 95 to 100 feet.

The First Officers EADI warning will be activated:

Amber dashes are displayed on the Rad Alt digital


display.

Amber dashes are displayed on the


selected DH digital display.

When the TEST button is pressed on the Captains EFIS control panel the
same test sequence takes place. The test altitude value remains displayed as
long as the TEST button is pressed. Releasing the knob causes actual
altitude to be displayed and digits of the DH display to show the selected
value at the end of the test.
The test sequence can be initiated during flight except during APP
(Approach).

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1.3.17 SYMBOL GENERATOR TEST

Some EFIS systems have the capability of carrying out a comprehensive


Symbol Generator BITE. As an example, the BAe 146 EFIS SG Self-test is
described.
Initiated by selecting SELF-TEST on the dimming panel and pressing the
verifying (DATA), button on the EFIS Control panel. Refer to Figure 26

RANGE

WPT

PLAN
OFF

ADF

10

320

BRG

FORMAT

160

80

20

ROSE

MAP

ARC

OFF
LNAV

VOR

N-AID

BACKSPACE

ARPT

GRP

CRS

V/L

DATA

FORWARD SPACE

VERIFY

EFIS CONTROL PANEL

BRT

EFIS
SELF-TEST
BUTTON

ND

WX

PFD
DH

TEST
COMPACT

WX OFF

DIMMING PANEL

BAe 146 EFIS Control & Dimming Panels


Figure 26

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The Display unit will now display the Maintenance Master Menu format as
shown in Figure 27. Using the backspace forward space controls on the
EFIS control panel, select SG SELF TEST.

FAULT REVIEW
FAULT ERASE
TEST PATTERN
SG SELF TEST
OPTIONS/CONFIG

Maintenance Master Menu Display


Figure 27

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The Symbol Generator Self-Test sequence is automatic and the process is as


shown in Figure 28.

FAULT REVIEW
FAULT ERASE
TEST PATTERN
SG SELF TEST
OPTIONS/CONFIG

SELF TEST
IN PROGRESS

PASS
FAIL

SYMBOL GENERATOR SELF TEST


AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION YY
DP SOFTWARE PART NUMBER:
XXXXXXXXX-XX
SMP SOFTWARE PART NUMBER
XXXXXXXX-XX
TEST
PASS

SYMBOL GENERATOR SELF TEST


AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATION YY
DP SOFTWARE PART NUMBER:
XXXXXXXXX-XX
SMP SOFTWARE PART NUMBER
XXXXXXXX-XX
TEST
FAIL

SELF TEST FAILURES

INTERFACE STATUS

FAILURE 1
FAILURE 2
FAILURE 3
FAILURE 4
FAILURE 5
FAILURE 6

STATUS 1
STATUS 2
STATUS 3
STATUS 4
STATUS 5
STATUS 6

SG Self-Test Process
Figure 28

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The test fail message will appear if any failures internal to EFIS are detected.
Depressing the Forward Space key after FAIL, on completion of the selftest, brings up a self-test failure page that lists the first test that failed.
Depressing the Forward Space key again brings up the Interface Status
page.
Depressing the Forward Space after PASS, on completion of the self-test,
brings up the Interface Status page. This page lists any interfaces that are
not valid.
After confirming the status of the Self-test Failures and Interface Status,
then the operator can reselect the Maintenance Format page to carry out
further testing.

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1.4 ENGINE INDICATION AND CREW ALERTING SYSTEM


1.4.1 INTRODUCTION

EICAS is a further system to indicate parameters associated with engine


performance and airframe control by means of CRT display units. This
particular variation first appeared on Boeing 757 and 767 aircraft.
1.4.2 SYSTEM LAYOUT

EICAS comprises two display units, a control panel and two computers, which
receive analogue and digital signals from engine and system sensors. Only
one computer is in control, the other being on standby in the event of failure
occurring. It may be selected automatically or manually. A functional diagram
of an EICAS layout is shown at Figure 29.

ENGINE
PRIMARY
DISPLAY
&
WARNINGS
CAUTIONS
ADVISORIES

EICAS COMPUTER No 2

ENGINE
&
AIRCRAFT
SYSTEM
INPUTS

CAUTION

COMPUTER

DISPLAY

ENGINE STATUS

CANCEL

ENGINE SECONDARY
DISPLAY
OR
STATUS DISPLAY
OR
MAINTENANCE DISPLAY

EICAS COMPUTER No 1

EVENT
RECORD

L AUTO R

BRT

EICAS MAINT

THRUST REF SET


DISPLAY SELECT

BRT
BAL

BOTH
L

MAX IND
RESET

RESET

ELEC

PERF

MSG

HYD

APU

CONF

ENG
EXCD

EPCS

ECS

MCDP

DISPLAY SELECT PANEL

EVENT
READ
AUTO

MAN

REC

ERASE

TEST

MAINTENANCE PANEL

EICAS Block Schematic


Figure 29

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1.4.3 DESCRIPTION

Referring to Figure 29, the upper DU displays warnings and cautions and the
engine primary parameters:

N1 Speed.

EGT.

If required, program pinning enables EPR to be displayed also.


Secondary engine parameters are displayed on the lower DU:

N2 Speed.

Fuel Flow.

Oil Quantity Pressure

Engine Temperature

Engine Vibration.

Other system status messages can also be presented on the lower DU for
example:

EIS

Flight Control Position.

Hydraulic system status.

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1.4.4 DISPLAYS

Figure 30 shows displays presented on the Primary and Secondary DUs.

CAUTION

TAT 15c
0.0

0.0
10

10

CANCEL RECALL

N1
0

EGT

V VV VV V V

50

50

OIL

PRESS

120

120

OIL

88.00
N2
86

TEMP

18

18

OIL

88

86

N3
4.4

4.4

QTY

N1

FAN

3.1

1.9

FF

VIB

EICAS Primary & Secondary Displays


Figure 30

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1.4.5 DISPLAY MODES

There are three modes of displaying information:

Operation Mode.

Status Mode.

Maintenance Mode.

1.4.6 OPERATION MODE

The Operational Mode is selected by the crew and displays engine operating
information and any alerts requiring action by the crew in flight. Normally only
the upper unit displays information. The lower unit remains blank and can be
selected to display secondary information as required.
1.4.7 STATUS MODE

When selected this mode displays data to determine the dispatch readiness of
an aircraft, and is closely associated with details contained in an aircrafts
Minimum Equipment List. Shown on the lower display unit is the position of
the flight control surfaces (Elevator, Ailerons and Rudder), in the form of
pointers registered against vertical and horizontal scales. Also displayed are
selected sub-system parameters, and equipment status messages.
Selection is normally done on the ground, either as part of the Pre-flight
checks of dispatch items, or prior to shut-down of electrical power to aid the
flight crew in making entries in the aircrafts technical log.

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Figure 31 shows a status mode display.

HYD QTY

L
0.99

C
R
1.00 0.98

HYD PRESS

2975

3010 3000

APU

EGT 440

OXY PRESS

RPM 103

OIL 0.75

0.0

FF

0.0

CABIN ALT AUTO 1


ELEV FEEL

1750

RUD

AIL ELEV AIL

AICAS Status Mode Display


Figure 31

1.4.8 MAINTENANCE MODE

Used by maintenance engineers with information in five different display


formats to aid troubleshooting and test verification of the major sub-systems.
These displays appear on the lower DU and are not available in flight.

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1.4.9 SELECTION PANEL

Control of EICAS functions and displays is via the EICAS Control Panel. This
can be used both in flight and on the ground. It is normally located on the
centre pedestal of an aircraft's flight deck, and its controls are as follows:

Engine Display Switch: This is of the momentary-push type for removing


or presenting the display of secondary information on the lower display
unit.

Status Display Switch: Also of the momentary-push type, this is used for
displaying the status mode information, referred to earlier, on the lower
display unit.

Event Record Switch: This is of the momentary-push type and is used in


the air or on the ground, to activate the recording of fault data relevant to
the environmental control system, electrical power, hydraulic system,
performance and APU. Normally, if any malfunction occurs in a system, it
is recorded automatically (called an 'auto event') and stored in a nonvolatile memory of the EICAS computer. The push switch enables the
flight crew to record a suspect malfunction for storage, and this is called a
'manual event'. The relevant data can only be retrieved from memory and
displayed when the aircraft is on the ground and by operating switches on
the maintenance control panel.

Computer Select Switch: In the 'AUTO' position it selects the left, or


primary, computer and automatically switches to the other computer in the
event of failure. The other positions are for the manual selection of left or
right computers.

Display Brightness Control: The inner knob controls the intensity of the
displays, and the outer knob controls brightness balance between
displays.

Thrust Reference Set Switch: Pulling and rotating the inner knob
positions the reference cursor on the thrust indicator display (either EPR or
NI) for the engine(s) selected by the outer knob.

Maximum Indicator Reset Switch: If any one of the measured


parameters, e.g. Oil Pressure, EGT, should exceed normal operating
limits, it will be automatically alerted on the display units. The purpose of
the reset switch is to clear the alerts from the display when the limit
exceedance no longer exists.

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Figure 32 shows an EICAS Control Panel

COMPUTER

DISPLAY

BRT

THRUST REF SET

BRT

ENGINE

STATUS

EVENT
RECORD

BAL

L AUTO R

L BOTH R

MAX IND
RESET

EICAS Control Panel


Figure 32

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1.4.10 ALERT MESSAGES

Up to eleven alert messages can be displayed on the upper display. They


appear in order of priority and in appropriate colour.
Level A

Red

Warnings.

Level B

Amber

Cautions.

Level C

Amber

Advisory.

Level A
These warnings require immediate action by the crew to correct the failure.
Master warning lights are also illuminated along with corresponding aural
alerts from the central warning system.
Level B
These cautions require immediate awareness of the crew and also may
require possible corrective action. Caution lights and aural tones, were
applicable, may accompany the caution.
Level C
These advisories require awareness of the crew. No other
warnings/cautions are given and no aural tones are associated with this level.
The messages appear on the top line at the left of the display screen. In
order to differentiate between a caution and an advisory, the advisory is
always indented one space to the right.

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Figure 33. shows EICAS alert messages Level A, B and C.

RED
WARNING

LEVEL A
WARNING

CAUTION

AMBER

CANCEL
RECALL

LEVEL B
CAUTION

LEVEL C
ADVISORY

TAT 15c
APU FIRE
R ENGINE FIRE
CABIN ALTITUDE
C SYS HYD PRESS
R ENG OVHT
AUTOPILOT
C HYD QTY
R YAW DAMPER
L UTIL BUS OFF

MASTER WARNING
& CAUTION LIGHTS

110.0

70.0
10

10
6

N1
999

775

EGT

VVVVVVV

A - WARNING (RED)
B - CAUTION (AMBER)
C - ADVISORY (AMBER)

EICAS Alert Messages


Figure 33
The master warning and caution lights are located adjacent to the display
units together with a Cancel and Recall switch (see Figure 29). Pushing
the Cancel switch removes only the caution and advisory messages,
warning messages cannot be cancelled. The Recall switch is used to recall
the previously cancelled caution and advisory messages for display. On the
display, the word RECALL appears on the bottom of the display.

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Messages are automatically removed from the display when the associated
condition no longer exists. If more than one message is being displayed, then
as a message is automatically removed, all messages below it will move up
one line. If a new fault appears, its associated message is inserted on the
appropriate line of the display. This will cause old messages to move down
one line.
If there are more messages than can be displayed at one time, the whole list
forms what is termed a Page, and the lower messages are removed and a
page number appears on the lower right-hand side of the list. Additional
pages are selected by pressing the Cancel switch on the Master
Warning/Caution panel.

1.4.11 FAILURE OF DU/DISPLAY SELECT PANEL

Should a DU fail, all messages, primary and secondary, appear on the


remaining DU. Secondary messages may be removed by pressing the
'ENGINE' switch on the display select panel. They may be re-established by
pressing the same switch. The format displaying all information is referred to
as 'Compact Format'. Should the display select panel fail, status information
cannot be displayed.

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1.4.12 MAINTENANCE FORMAT

Maintenance pages can be called forward on the ground using the


Maintenance Panel, refer to Figure 34.

PERFORMANCE AND
AUXILLIARY POWER
UNIT FORMATS
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL
SYSTEM AND MAINTENANCE
MESSAGE FORMATS

ELECTRICAL AND HYDRAULIC


SYSTEM FORMAT

EICAS MAINT
DISPLAY SELECT

ECS

ELEC

PERF

MSG

HYD

APU

CONF
MCDP

CONFIGURATION AND
MAINTENANCE
CONTROL/DISPLAY
PANEL

SELECTS DATA FROM


AUTO OR MANUAL EVENT
IN MEMORY

EVENT
READ
AUTO

MAN

REC

ERASE

ENG
EXCD

ENGINE
EXCEEDANCES

TEST

BITE TEST SWITCH


FOR SELF-TEST ROUTINE

ERASES STORED DATA


CURRENTLY DISPLAYED
RECORDS REAL-TIME
DATA CURRENTLY DISPLAYED
(IN MANUAL EVENT)

EICAS Maintenance Panel


Figure 34

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Maintenance pages appear on the lower DU and include system failures,


which have occurred in flight or during ground operations. While these pages
are selected, the upper DU displays a 'Compact Format' with the message
'PARKING BRAKE' in the top left of the screen.
A self-test of the whole system, which can only be activated when an aircraft
is on the ground and the parking brake set, is performed by means of the
TEST switch on the maintenance panel.
When the switch is momentarily pressed, a complete test routine of the
system, including interface and all signal-processing circuits and power
supplies, is automatically performed. For this purpose an initial test pattern is
displayed on both display units with a message in white to indicate the system
being tested, i.e. 'L or R EICAS' depending on the setting of the selector
switch on the display select panel. During the test, the master caution and
warning lights and aural devices are activated, and the standby engine
indicator is turned on if its display control switch is at 'AUTO'.
The message 'TEST IN PROGRESS' appears at the top left of display unit
screens and remains in view while testing is in progress. On satisfactory
completion of the test, the message 'TEST OK' will appear. If a computer or
display unit failure has occurred, the message 'TEST FAIL' will appear
followed by messages indicating which of the units has failed.
A test may be terminated by pressing the 'TEST' switch a second time or, if it
is safe to do so, by releasing an aircraft's parking brake. The display units
revert to their normal primary and secondary information displays.

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Figure 35 shows the display formats seen during the Maintenance format.

96.1

96.1

PARKING BRAKE

85.0

85.0
10

10
2

N1
450

450

INDICATED WHEN
EICAS IN
MAINTENANCE FORMAT

EGT

50 OIL PRESS
105
OIL TEMP
20
OIL QTY
1.9 N2 VIB

97.0
8.4

50
100
20
1.9

N2

97.0
8.4

FF

ELEC/HYD

LOAD
AC-V
FREQ
DC-A
DC-V

HYD QTY
HYD PRESS
HYD TEMP

STBY
BAT

APU
BAT

GND
PWR

0
0
10
28

0.78
120
402
140
28

0.85
125
398
150
27

0.00
0
0
0
28

0.00
0
0

0.82
3230
50

O/FULL
3210
47

0.72
2140
115

AUTO EVENT

AUTO EVENT
SYSTEM FAILURES
AUTOMATICALLY
RECORDED DURING
FLIGHT

R HYD QTY

Maintenance Mode Displays


Figure 35

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1.5 FLIGHT DATA RECORDER SYSTEM (FDRS)


The flight data recorder receives and stores selected aircraft parameters from
various aircraft systems and sensors in a crash-protected solid state memory.
The Digital Flight Data Acquisition Unit (DFDAU) of the Aircraft Information
Management System (AIMS) receives all the FDR data. The DFDAU then
processes the data and sends it to the FDR, where it is stored.
The FDRS operates during any engine start, while the engine is running,
during test, or when the aircraft is in the air. The FDR records the most recent
25 hours of flight. In addition to the data recording function, the FDR also has
monitor circuits, which send fault information back to the DFDAU.
Note: FDRS fitted to a Helicopter start recording only when the rotors turn (i.e.
take-off).
1.5.1 OPERATION

The AIMS receives power control data from several aircraft systems, power
goes to the FDR when the logic is valid. Power control data includes:

Engine Start.

Engine Running.

Air/Ground Logic.

Test.

1.5.2 ANALOGUE DATA

The DFDAU receives status and maintenance flag data from the FDR. The
DFDAUs receive key events from the VHF and HF LRUs and variable
analogue data from the TAT, AOA and engine RPM sensors.

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1.5.3 DIGITAL DATA

The ARINC 429/629 buses provide engine, airframe data and air/ground logic.
Engine data includes:
Engine parameters, normal and exceedances.
Commands.
Actual Thrust.
Airframe data includes:
Flight deck switch position
Flight control positions
Mode selections on control panels in the flight deck.
The DFDAU receives status from the engine and airframe sensors. The
DFDAU also receives data and status from the electrical power system.
The flight controls ARINC629 buses provide flight data and navigational data.
Flight data includes:
Flight control position.
Commands
Status.
Navigation data includes:
Pitch, Roll and Yaw attitude.
Acceleration data.
Status.

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ARINC 429 bus provides navigational (NAV) radio/NAV data and


communication (COMM) radio data.
Radio data includes:
Radio Frequencies.
Mode.
Parameters.
Status.
NAV data is the aircrafts present position (LAT/LONG) and sensor status.
COMM data is radio control panel frequencies and sensor status.
The left AIMS cabinet sends left/right DFDAU data on the ARINC 573 data
bus to the FDR. The DFDAU sends fault data, status and ground test results
to the Central Maintenance Computer. Figure 113 shows a FDR.

UNDERWATER
LOCATING
DEVICE

Flight Data Recorder


Figure 113

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Figure 114 shows FDR block schematic diagram.

FDR
ARINC 429

ANALOGUE

AIRCRAFT
SYSTEMS

ANALOGUE
DISCRETES

ARINC 573

ARINC 629

FAULT
MONITORING

DFDAU
AIMS

Flight Data Recorder Block Schematic


Figure 114

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The following is taken from ANO Section 1, order 53.


1.5.4 USE OF FLIGHT RECORDING SYSTEMS

1. On any flight on which a FDR, a cockpit voice recorder or a combined


cockpit voice recorder/flight data recorder is required to be carried in an
airplane, it shall always be in use from the beginning of the take-off run to
the end of the landing run.
2. On helicopters, it shall always be in use from the time the rotors first turn
for the purpose of taking off until the rotors are next stopped.

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INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (ATA 31)

Aircraft instruments can, on initial observation, appear a bewildering mass of dials


or 'TV ' type screens. The different types of instrumentation required fall into one
of the following types:
Pressure instruments
Gyroscopic instruments
Compasses
Mechanical indicators
Electronic instruments
1.1

PRESSURE INSTRUMENTS

1.1.1

Air Data Instruments

An Air Data system of an aircraft is one which the total pressure created by the
forward motion of an aircraft, and the static pressure of the atmosphere
surrounding it, are sensed and measured in terms of speed, altitude and rate of
change of altitude. The measurement and indication of these three parameters
may be achieved by connecting the appropriate sensors, either directly to
mechanical-type instruments, or to a remotely-located Air Data Computer (ADC),
which then transmits the data in electrical signal format to electro-mechanical or
servo-type instruments.
The basic Air Data Instruments display airspeed, altitude, Mach number and
vertical speed. All are calculated from air pressure received from a Pitot/Static
source.
1. Static air pressure, which is simply the outside air pressure at the instant of
measuring.
2. Pitot pressure is the dynamic pressure of the air due to the forward motion of
the aircraft and is measured using a tube, which faces the direction of travel.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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Figure 1 shows a Pressure head as fitted to aircraft to allow Pitot and Static
pressures to the relevant indicators.

PITOT LINE

STATIC LINE

HEATER
CONNECTION

FORWARD

PITOT PROBE

STATIC VENTS

Aircraft Pressure Head


Figure 1
Indicated Airspeed (IAS), Mach No, Barometric Height (Height above sea level),
and Vertical speed (Rate of climb/dive) are derived from the Pitot/Static inputs.
IAS = Pitot minus Static - (In knots).
Mach No = Pitot - Static divided by Static.
Baro Ht = Static - (In feet).
Vertical Speed = Change in Static pressure - (X 1000ft/min).

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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Figure 2 shows typical aircraft static vent:

FUSELAGE

STATIC
VENT

STATIC
PIPE

Aircraft Static Vent


Figure 2
1.1.2

Location Of Probes and Static Vents

The choice of probe/vent locations is largely dependent on the type of aircraft,


speed range and aerodynamic characteristics, and as result there is no common
standard for all aircraft. On larger aircraft it is normal to have standby probes and
static vents. These are always located one on each side of the fuselage and are
interconnected so as to balance out dynamic pressure effects resulting from any
Yawing or side-slip motion of the aircraft.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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Figure 3 shows the location of probes and vents on a Boeing 737.

Boeing 737 Air Data Probe and Vent Location


Figure 3
Pitot and static pressures are transmitted through seamless and corrosionresistant metal (light alloy) pipelines. Flexible pipelines are also used when
connections to components mounted on anti-vibration mountings is required. In
order for an Air Data System to operate effectively under all flight conditions,
provision must also be made for the elimination of water that may enter the
system as a result of condensation, rain, snow, etc. This will reduce the
probability of Slugs of water blocking the lines. This provision takes the form of
drain holes in the probes, drain taps and valves in the systems pipelines. The
drain holes within the probes are of diameter so as not to introduce errors into the
system.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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Methods of draining the pipelines varies between aircraft types and are designed
to have a capacity sufficient to allow for the accumulation of the maximum
amount of water that could enter the system between maintenance periods.
Figure 4 shows a typical water drain valve.

ORANGE
FLOAT
INDICATOR

TRANSPARENT
PLASTIC PIPE

DRAIN
VALVE

BAYONET
FITTING
CAP

(SELF SEALING)

Water Drain Valve


Figure 4
The three primary instruments in the Air Data System are:
Altimeter (Baro Ht).
Indicated Air Speed (IAS) Indicator.
Vertical Speed Indicator.
The IAS is often combined to display Mach No as well as indicated airspeed and
is referred to as the Combined Speed Indicator.
Figure 5 shows the connection and equations for the primary Air Data
instruments.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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Air Data Instrumentation


Figure 5

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
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1.2

ALTIMETER

This operates on the aneroid barometric principle, i.e. responds to changes in


atmospheric pressure, and is calibrated to indicate these changes in terms of
equivalent altitude values. Figure 6 shows a typical altimeter.

0
9
8

SBY

1013

X 100 ft
7

3 5 0 00

MB

Altimeter
Figure 6
The pressure sensing element consists of an aneroid capsule, which transmits
deflections in response to pressure changes. The capsule is contained within a
sealed container that is evacuated to the static pressure. A mechanical linkage
connects the capsule to a pointer, which indicates the aircrafts height above sea
level. There is a facility to set the correct pressure of the day in millibars so that
the instrument displays the correct height.

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Figure 7 shows the simplified operation of the altimeter.

Simplified Altimeter operation


Figure 7
1.3

Q CODE SETTINGS FOR ALTIMETERS

The setting of altimeters to the barometric pressures prevailing at various flight


levels and airports is part of the flight operating techniques. It is essential for
maintaining adequate separation between aircraft and for terrain clearance during
take-off and landing. In order to make the settings, flight crews are dependant on
observed meteorological data which is requested and transmitted from ATC and
form part of the ICAO Q code of communication. There are three code letter
groups commonly used in connection with altimeter setting procedures:
1. QNH.
2. QFE.
3. QNE.
QNH: Setting the barometric pressure to make the altimeter read airport
elevation above-sea level on landing and take-off. When used for landing and
take-off, the setting is generally known as Airport QNH. Any value set is only
valid in the immediate vicinity of the airport concerned.
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Since an altimeter with a QNH setting reads altitude above sea level, the setting
is also useful in determining terrain clearance when an aircraft is en-route. Fir
this purpose, the UK and surrounding seas are divided into fourteen Altimeter
Setting Regions, each transmitting an hourly Regional QNH forecast.
QFE: Setting the barometric pressure prevailing at an airport to make the
altimeter read zero on landing at, or taking off from, that airport. The zero reading
is regardless of the airports elevation above sea level.
QNE: Also known as the Standard Altimeter Setting (SAS). The barometric
pressure is set to 1013.25 mb and is used for flights above a prescribed
Transmission Height and has the advantage that with all aircraft using the same
airspace and flying on the same altimeter setting, the requisite separation
between aircraft can more readily be maintained. The transition altitude within
the UK airspace is usually 3000 - 6000'. Figure 8 shows QNH, QFE and QNE
definitions.

QNE
FLIGHT LEVEL

QNH
HEIGHT ABOVE
SEA LEVEL

QFE
HEIGHT ABOVE
AIRFIELD

STANDARD SETTING
1013.25 MILLIBARS
SEA LEVEL

QNH, QFE and QNE Definitions


Figure 8
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1.4

COMBINED SPEED INDICATOR

This indicator is one, which combines the functions of both a conventional


indicator and a Machmeter. Figure 9 shows a typical Combined Speed Indicator
(CSI).

Combined Speed Indicator


Figure 9
The internal mechanism consists of two elements (pointer and fixed scale for IAS
and a digital readout for Mach No). There is also a second pointer on the IAS
scale, this is known as the Velocity Maximum Operating (Vmo). It indicates the
aircrafts maximum safe operating speed over its operating altitude range.
To set the desired speed for operation, the flight crew uses the command bug.
This speed in turn is the datum speed for the Autothrottle or Fast/Slow speed
indicator. The external index bugs are used to set various reference speeds
(take-off, flap retract speeds etc.).

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Figure 10 shows a simplified IAS operation.

PITOT

STATIC

IAS Operation
Figure 10

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1.5

VERTICAL SPEED INDICATOR (VSI)

These indicators (also known as Rate-of Speed indicators) are very sensitive
differential pressure gauges, designed to indicate the rate of altitude change from
variations in static pressure alone. Figure 11 shows a VSI.

RATE OF
CLIMB SCALE
1,000 ft per sec

RATE OF
CLIMB/DIVE
POINTER

1000FT PER MIN

VSI

.5

UP

0DOWN

MAX INDICATED
6,000 ft per sec

VERTICAL
SPEED

.5

RATE OF
DIVE SCALE
1,000 ft per sec

Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)


Figure 11
Since the rate at which the static pressure changes is involved in determining
vertical speed, a time factor has to be incorporated as a pressure function. This
is accomplished by using a special air-metering unit in the sensing system. Its
purpose is to create a lag in static pressure across the system and so establish
the required pressure difference.

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Figure 12 shows a simplified VSI operation.

METERING
UNIT

STATIC
VENT

CLIMB

POINTER
AND
SCALE

DIVE

CAPSULE

MECHANICAL
LINKAGE

VSI Operation
Figure 12
1.6

AIR DATA SYSTEMS

The complexity of an Air Data System depends primarily upon the type and size
of the aircraft, the number of locations at which primary air data is to be
displayed, the type of instruments installed, and the number of other systems
requiring air data inputs.

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Figure 13 shows a typical air data system for a large aircraft.

PRESSURE HEADS

UPPER

LOWER

VS

PC

MS 1

A/S 1

ADC 1

PITOT

IAS

STATIC

F/O

FLT
REC

DIFF
PRESS

ALT

PITOT

VS

STATIC

MS 2

ALT

IAS

A/S 2

ADC 2

CAPT
UPPER

LOWER

PRESSURE HEADS

Air Data System


Figure 13

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1.7

GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS

A number of instruments depend on the use of gyroscopes for their correct


operation. It is useful to know the basic principles of how they work, before
describing, in some depth, what they do.
1.7.1

Gyroscopic Properties

As mechanical device a gyroscope may be defined as a system containing a


heavy metal wheel (rotor), universally mounted so that it has three degrees of
freedom:
Spinning freedom:

About an axis perpendicular through its center (axis of


spin XX).

Tilting Freedom:

About a horizontal axis at right angles to the spin axis


(axis of tilt YY).

Veering Freedom:

About a vertical axis perpendicular to both the other


two axes (axis of veer ZZ).

The three degrees of freedom are obtained by mounting the rotor in two
concentrically pivoted rings, called inner and outer rings. The whole assembly is
known as the gimbal system of a free or space gyroscope. The gimbal system is
mounted in a frame so that in its normal operating position, all the axes are
mutually at right angles to one another and intersect at the center of gravity of the
rotor.
The system will not exhibit gyroscopic properties unless the rotor is spinning.
When the rotor is spinning at high speed the device becomes a true gyroscope
possessing two important fundamental properties:

1.7.2

Gyroscopic Inertia (Rigidity).

Precession.

Rigitity

The property, which resists any, force tending to change the plane of rotor
rotation. It is dependent on:

SYSTEMS

1.

The mass of the rotor.

2.

The speed of rotation.

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1.7.3

Precession

The angular change in direction of the plane of rotation under the influence of an
applied force. The change in direction takes place, not in line with the force, but
always at a point 90 away in the direction of rotation. The rate of precession
also depends on:
1. The strength and direction of the applied force.
2. The angular velocity of the rotor.
Figure 14 shows a gyroscope.

Z
FRAME

ROTOR
OUTER
RING

X
Y

INNER
RING

Gyroscope.
Figure 14

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Figure 15 shows the characteristics of gyro rigidity.

B
C

Gyro Rigidity
Figure 15
Gyro A has its spin axes parallel with the Earth's spin axes, located at the North
Pole. It could hold this position indefinitely.
Gyro B has its spin axes parallel to the Earth's spin axes, but located at the
Equator. As the Earth rotates, it would appear to continually point North.
Gyro C is also situated at the Equator. As the Earth rotates, it appears to rotate
about its axes, however it is the Earth that is rotating and not the gyro.

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This rigidity can be used in a number of gyro instruments including the directional
gyro.
If an external force is applied to a spinning gyro, its effect will be felt at 900 from
the point of application, in the direction of gyro rotation. This is known as
precession. It can be seen in Figure 16, that if a force is applied to the bottom of
the rotating wheel, it will rotate about its horizontal axis.
This property is not wanted in some instruments, such as directional gyros. The
use of precession is used in turn indicators, which will be covered later.

DIRECTION
OF
ROTATION

PRECESSION RATE
= APPLIED FORCE
90 IN THE
DIRECTION OF SPIN

SPIN AXIS
90
APPLIED
FORCE

DIRECTION
OF
PRECESSION

Gyro Precession
Figure 16

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1.7.4

Vertical Gyro

Figure 17 shows the effects on a free gyro in an aircraft circling the earth. As can
be seen, it would only be perpendicular to the earth's surface at two points.

Behaviour of a Vertical Gyro


Figure 17

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In order for the gyro to be used to indicate the aircraft's attitude, it has to be
corrected to continually be aligned to the vertical. These corrections are very
slow and gentle, since the amount of correction needed, for example, in a tenminute period is small. Figure 18 shows a vertical gyro corrected to the local
vertical.

Corrected Vertical Gyro


Figure 18

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Instruments that use either the rigidity or the precession of gyros are:
Gyro Horizon Unit.
Attitude Director Indicator.
Standby Horizon Unit.
Direction Indicator.
Turn and Slip Indicator.
Turn Co-ordinator.
1.8

GYRO HORIZON UNIT

The Gyro Horizon Unit gives a representation of the aircrafts pitch and roll
attitudes relative to its vertical axis. For this it uses a displacement gyroscope
whose spin axis is vertical. Figure 19 shows a displacement gyro and the two
axis of displacement.

ROLL

PITCH

Displacement Gyro
Figure 19

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Indications of attitude are presented by the relative positions of two elements, one
symbolizing the aircraft itself, the other in the form of a bar stabilized by the
gyroscope and symbolizing the natural horizon. Figure 20 shows a typical Gyro
Horizon Unit.

AIRCRAFT
SYMBOL

3
ROLL
SCALE

SPERRY

HORIZON
BAR

ROLL
POINTER\

Gyro Horizon Unit


Figure 20
The gimbal system is so arranged so that the inner ring forms the rotor casing
and is pivoted parallel to an aircrafts lateral axis (YY1); the outer ring is pivoted at
the front and rear ends of the instrument case, parallel to the longitudinal axis
(ZZ1). The element symbolizing the aircraft may either be rigidly fixed to the
case, or it may be externally adjustable for setting a particular pitch trim
reference.

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Figure 21 shows the construction of the Gyro Horizon unit.

X
OUTER
RING

ROTOR

Z1

SYMBOLIC
AIRCRAFT

BALANCE
WEIGHT

PIVOT
POINT

Z
Y1
ROLL
POINTER
& SCALE

X1

HORIZON
BAR

Construction of a Gyro Horizon Unit


Figure 21
In operation the gimbal system is stabilized so that in level flight the three axes
are mutually at right angles. When there is a change in the aircrafts attitude,
example climbing, the instrument case and outer ring will move about the YY1 of
the stabilized inner ring.

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The horizon bar is pivoted at the side and to the rear of the outer ring and
engages an actuating pin fixed to the inner ring, thus forming a magnifying lever
system. The pin passes through a curved slit in the outer ring. In a climb attitude
the pivot carries the rear end of the bar upwards so that it pivots about the
stabilized actuating pin. The front end of the bar is therefore moved downwards
through a greater angle than that of the outer ring, and since the movement is
relative to the symbolic aircraft element, the bar will indicate a climb attitude.
Figure 22 shows climb attitude operation.

HORIZON BAR

Climb Attitude operation.


Figure 22

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Changes in the lateral attitude of an aircraft, i.e. rolling, displaces the instrument
case about the axis (ZZ1), and the whole stabilized gimbal system. Hence, lateral
attitude changes are indicated by movement of the symbolic aircraft element
relative to the horizon bar, and also by relative movement between the roll angle
scale and pointer. Figure 23 shows roll attitude operation.

BANK TO
PORT
DATUM
X

Roll attitude operation


Figure 23
Freedom of gimbal system movement is 360 for roll axis and 85 for the and
pitch axis. The pitch scale is restricted by means of a resilient stop. This will
prevent gimbal lock.

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1.9

ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR

This unit performs the same functions as a Gyro Horizon unit; i.e. it establishes a
stabilized reference about the pitch and roll axes of an aircraft. Instead, however,
of providing attitude displays by direct means, it is designed to be operated via a
synchro system, which produces and transmits attitude-related signals to the
indicator. The synchro system includes a attitude reference source and a
computer linked into the aircrafts navigational system to produce flight director
signals for the flight crew to follow to ensure the aircraft follows the required
course. Figure 24 shows a typical Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)

FD
2

GSL

TT

RW

TEST

Attitude Director Indicator (ADI)


Figure 24

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1.10

STANDBY HORIZON UNIT

Most aircraft currently in service use Flight Director systems, or more


sophisticated electronic flight instrument systems, all of which comprise indicators
displaying not only attitude data, but navigational data as well. In such aircraft,
the role of the conventional gyro horizon is mainly used as a standby instrument
located on the center instrument panel. It is used as a reference in the event of a
failure that might occur in the attitude display systems.
Figure 25 shows a Standby Horizon Unit (SHU).

ROLL
SCALE
AIRCRAFT
SYMBOL

20

20

20

20

POWER
OFF
FLAG

PITCH
SCALE
C

PITCH ERECTION/
TRIM KNOB

Standby Horizon Unit


Figure 25
The gyro is powered by 115V; three phase ac supplied from a static inverter,
which in turn is supplied by 28V from the battery busbar. In place of the
stabilized horizon bar a stabilized attitude sphere is used as the reference. The
upper element is coloured blue to display climb attitudes, and black/brown for
descending attitudes.

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A pitch trim adjustment and fast erection facility is provided, both being controlled
by a knob on the lower right-hand corner of the indictor. When the knob is
rotated the aircraft symbol can be positioned through !5, thereby establishing a
variable pitch trim reference. Pulling the knob out and holding it actuates the fasterection circuit.
1.11

DIRECTION INDICATORS

This indicator was the first gyroscopic instrument to be introduced as a Heading


Indicator and although for most aircraft currently in service it has been
superseded by remote-indicating compass systems (see later). The instrument
uses a horizontal axis gyroscope and, being non-magnetic, is used in conjunction
with a magnetic compass.
In its basic form, the outer ring of the gyro carries a circular card, graduated in
degrees, and referenced against a lubber line fixed to the gyro frame. When the
rotor is spinning, the gimbal system and card are stabilized so that, by turning the
frame, the number of degrees through which it is turning may be read on the
card. Figure 26 shows a Directional Indicator.

HEADING
SCALE

LUBBER
LINE

180

170

CAGING/SETTING
KNOB

Directional Indicator
Figure 26

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In the directional gyro, the rotor is enclosed in a case, or shroud, and supported
in an inner gimbal which is mounted in an outer gimbal, the bearings of which are
located top and bottom on the indicator case. The front of the case contains a
cut-out through which the card is visible, and also a lubber line reference.
The caging/setting knob is provided at the front of the case to set the indicator
onto the correct heading (magnetic). When the setting the heading, the inner
gimbal has to be caged to prevent it from precessing as the outer gimbal is
rotated. Figure 27 shows the construction of a directional gyro.

VERTICAL GIMBAL
RING

ROTOR
ASSEMBLY

INNER
GIMBAL
RING

COMPASS
CARD

SYNCHRONISER
RING
CAGING/
SETTING
KNOB

Directional Gyro
Figure 27

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1.12

TURN & SLIP INDICATOR

This indicator contains two independent mechanisms:


1. A gyroscopically controlled pointer mechanism for the detection and
indication of the rate at which an aircraft turns.
2. A mechanism for the detection and indication of slip/slide.
A gimbal ring and magnifying system, which moves the pointer in the correct
sense over a scale calibrated in what is termed Standard Rates, actuate the
rate of turn pointer. Although they are not always marked on a scale, they are
classified as follows:
Rate 1 - Turn Rate 180 per minute.
Rate 2 - Turn Rate 360 per minute.
Rate 3 - Turn Rate 540 per minute.
Rate 4 - Turn Rate 720 per minute.
Figure 28 shows a typical Turn & Slip indicator.

RATE OF TURN
INDICATOR

2 MIN
SLIP/SLIDE
INDICATOR

RATE OF
TURN
2 MIN - 360

Turn & Slip Indicator


Figure 28

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For the detection of rates of turn, a rate gyroscope is used and is arranged in the
manner shown in figure 29.

INPUT
AXIS

FWD
Y1

F
Y

X1

Rate Gyro Turn Indicator


Figure 29
It differs in two respects from the displacement gyro as it only has one gimbal ring
and a calibrated spring restraining in the longitudinal axis YY1. When the
indicator is in its normal operating position the rotor spin axis, due to the spring
restraint, will always be horizontal and the turn pointer at the zero datum. With
the rotor spinning, its rigidity will further ensure that the zero position is
maintained.

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When the aircraft turns to the left about the vertical input axis the rigidity of the
rotor will resist the turning movement, which it detects as an equivalent force
being applied to its rim at point F. The gimbal ring and rotor will therefore be
tilted about the longitudinal axis as a result of precession at point P.
As the gimbal ring tilts, it stretches the calibrated spring until the force it exerts
prevents further deflection of the gimbal ring. Since precession of a rate gyro is
equal to its angular momentum and the rate of turn, then the spring force is a
measure of the rate of turn.
Actual movement of the gimbal ring from its zero position can, therefore, be taken
as the required measure of turn rate.
1.12.1

Bank Indication

In addition to the primary indication of turn rate, it is also necessary to have an


indication that an aircraft is correctly banked for the particular turn. A secondary
indicating mechanism is therefore provided, which, depends for its operation on
the effect of gravitational and centrifugal forces. A method commonly used for
bank indication is one utilizing a ball in a curved liquid-filled glass tube as shown
in Figure 26.
In the normal level flight the ball is held at the center of the tube by the force of
gravity. Let us assume the aircraft turns left at a certain airspeed and bank angle.
The indicator case and the tube move with the aircraft and centrifugal force (CF)
in addition to that of gravity acts upon the ball and tends to displace it outwards
from the center of the tube. However, when the turn is executed at the correct
bank angle and matched with airspeed, then there is a balanced condition
between the two forces and so the resultant force (R) hold the ball in the center of
the tube.
If the airspeed were to be increased during the turn, then the bank angle and
centrifugal force would also be increased. As long as the bank angle is correct
for the appropriate conditions, the new resultant force will still hold the ball
central.
If the bank angle for a particular rate of turn is not correct (under-banked/overbanked), then the aircraft will tend to either skid or slip. In the skid condition the
centrifugal force will be the greatest, whereas in the slip condition the force of
gravity is greatest.

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Figure 30 shows bank indication for various aircraft bank conditions.

Bnk Indications
Figure 30

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1.13

TURN CO-ORDINATOR

The final instrument in this group is the turn co-ordinator. Basically, its
mechanism is changed slightly from the turn and slip indicator, so that it senses
rotation about the longitudinal axis, (bank) as well as the vertical axis, (turn). This
gives a more accurate indication to the pilot, of the turning of the aircraft.
Figure 31 shows a Turn co-ordinator indicator.

AIRCRAFT
SYMBOL

TURN COORDINATION

RATE OF
TURN

R
2 MIN
NO PITCH
INFORMATION

TURN
COORDINATOR

Turn co-ordinator Indicator


Figure 31

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1.14

HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR

This indicator derives its name from the fact that its display presents a pictorial
plan of the aircrafts situation in the horizontal plane in the form of its heading,
VOR/LOC deviation and other data relating to navigation.
Figure 32 shows a typical HSI.

Horizontal Situation Indicator


Figure 32

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The aircraft symbol is fixed at the center of the instrument and displays the
heading of the aircraft in relation to a rotating compass card and the VOR/LOC
deviation bar (lateral bar). The selector knobs at the bottom corners of the
instrument permit the setting of desired magnetic heading and VOR course.

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1.14.1

Compass Systems

The compass has, since the earliest times, given information to travellers with
regards to the direction to go. Mounting a compass on a moving object, whether it
was a vehicle, a ship or an aircraft poses certain problems. This includes how to
mount the compass without the, motion (maybe violent), upsetting the device.
Another problem that besets compasses is the fact that they usually point to
magnetic north, which slowly moves, and not true north, the difference between
the two is something like 1,300-miles/2,000 km. This is of little concern if we are
moving slowly, on a boat, in the vicinity of the equator, but vital in an aircraft flying
what is known as a 'Trans-polar route' from say, New York to Tokyo. The effect
this has on navigational charts is referred to as 'variation'.
Figure 33 shows the difference between True North and Magnetic North.

GEOGRAPHICAL
NORTH POLE
MAGNETIC
NORTH POLE

11 W
VARIATION
17.5 E
VARIATION

0 E
VARIATION

True North & Magnetic North


Figure 33

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1.15

DIRECT READING COMPASS

Direct-reading compasses have the following common principal features:


1. Magnet system housed in a bowl.
2. Liquid damping and liquid expansion compensation.
Figure 34 shows a direct reading compass used as a standby compass in most
aircraft.

Standby Compass
Figure 34

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The magnet system comprises an annular cobalt-steel magnet to which is


attached a light-alloy card. The card is graduated in increments of 10, and
referenced against a lubber line fixed to the interior of the bowl. The system is
pendulously suspended by an iridium-tipped pivot resting in a sapphire cup
supported in a holder or stem.
The bowl is of a plastic (diakon) and so moulded that it has a magnifying effect on
the card and its graduations. It is filled with a silicone fluid to prevent the card
oscillating or overshooting after changes of heading. The fluid also provides the
system with a certain buoyancy, thereby reducing the weight on the pivot and so
diminishing the effects of friction and wear.
Changes in the volume of the fluid due to temperature changes, and their
resulting effects on damping efficiency, are compensated by a bellows type of
expansion device secured to the rear of the bowl.
Compensation of the effects of deviation due to longitudinal and lateral
components of aircraft magnetism is provided by permanent magnet coefficient
B and C corrector assemblies secured to the compass mounting plate. A
small lamp is also provided for illuminating the card.
Figure 35 shows a complete standby compass indicator.

CO-EFFICIENT B
ADJUSTMENT

CO-EFFICIENT C
ADJUSTMENT

21

15 12

CO-EFFICIENT A
ADJUSTMENT

LUBBER
LINE

ELECTRICAL
CONNECTION
FOR LIGHTING

Standby Compass
Figure 35

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1.16

REMOTE READING COMPASS

A remote reading compass, is basically one in which an element detects an


aircrafts heading with respect to the horizontal component of the earths
magnetic field in terms of flux and induced changes in voltage. It then transmits
these changes via a synchronous/servo system to a heading indicator. There are
two types of remote reading compass systems:
1. The detector element monitors a directional gyro unit linked with a
heading indicator.
2. The detector element operates in conjunction with the platform of an
inertial navigation system (INS).
1.16.1

Detector Unit (Flux Valve)

The detector unit detects the effect of the earths magnetic field as an
electromagnetically induced voltage and controls the heading indicator by means
of a variable secondary output voltage signal. The construction of the element
takes the form of a three-spoked wheel, slit through the rim between the spokes
so that they, and their section of rim, act as three individual flux collectors. Figure
36 shows the construction of a flux valve.

LAMINATED
COLLECTOR
HORNS

AC POWER

EXCITER
COIL

B
C

SECONDARY
PICK-OFF
COILS

Flux Valve Construction


Figure 36

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 40 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

The paths taken by the earths magnetic field through the spokes for different
headings is shown at Figure 37.

PATH OF
EARTHS
FIELD

C
A

B
A

Earths Flux path


Figure 37
The detector unit on its own is not very accurate by virtue of its limited pendulous
suspension arrangement. Errors will occur as a result of its tilting under the
influence of acceleration forces, e.g. during speed changes on a constant
heading and during turns. It is necessary to incorporate within the system a
means of monitoring the detectors output. The horizontal directional gyro is used
to give the system short-term accuracy with the detector unit providing long-term
accuracy.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 41 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 38 shows the arrangement of a remote reading gyro compass system.

115v 400 Hz

E
12

21
VOR

S
15

A
D
F

_+

W 3
0
24

N
33

A
D
F

VOR

SLAVED

DG

VOR/ADF

SYNC

Gyro Magnetic Compass System


Figure 38

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 42 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 39 shows a schematic of a Gyro Magnetic Compass system.

CT
N

26V AC
400 Hz

TG

CX
CT
M
GYRO

DETECTOR
UNIT

Gyro Magnetic Compass System Schematic


Figure 39

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 43 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.17

ANGLE OF ATTACK (AOA)

Apart from the main flight instruments, one item of information that the pilot needs
to know at various stages of flight is the angle of attack. Earlier aircraft had a
range of devices that gave the pilot indication of an approaching stall, which was
an essential indicator but knowing the angle of attack has become an essential
part of flying modern, larger aircraft.
The simplest forms of angle of attack indicators are the AOA probe and the stall
vane. The probe contains slots on the leading edge of the probe itself and,
depending on the angle of attack; the air flowing through the different slots move
a 'paddle' which indicates the AOA electrically in the cockpit.
The stall vane is rather like a small weather vane mounted on the side of the
aircraft. The vane follows the airflow, much like the weather vane, but indicating,
not pitch angle, but the angle of the airflow relative to the aircraft centerline. i.e.
the angle of attack. Figure 40 shows a vane type Angle of Attack transducer.

ANGLE
OF
ATTACK
AIRCRAFT
LONGITUDINAL
AXIS

VANE ARM
ANGLE OF ATTACK
TRANSDUCER

FLIGHT PATH

AIRFLOW

Angle of Attack Transducer


Figure 40

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 44 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.18

STALL WARNING INDICATION

To maintain lift at low airspeed, the angle of attack is increased. When this angle
is above a critical angle, the aircraft wings will not produce enough lift to support
the aircraft, which will begin to stall. Before this situation occurs, the aircraft will
shake heavily, this being a natural alert to the pilot.
If, however, the aircraft is configured for an approach (Wheels & Flaps down), the
airspeed difference between the natural warning and the actual stall is very small,
so an alert must be generated before the stall occurs.
Modern performance aircraft use the output from an Angle of Attack probe,
connected to a Stall Warning system. The stall warning system also has other
sensor inputs (Flap, Slat positions). Once the critical angle prior to actual stall is
reached, the stall warning system initiates a "Audio warning" and operates a
"Stick Shaker", which actually shakes the control column. Figure 41 shows
simple stall warning system.

28V DC
SUPPLY

ANGLE
OF
ATTACK

>17.5

M
STICK
SHAKER

Stall Warning System


Figure 41

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 45 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.19

OTHER SYSTEM INDICATIONS

There are endless different instrument displays, which show the pilot's or flight
engineer, the condition of the aircraft's many systems, the range of instruments
depending on the size of the aircraft. On earlier airliners there could have been
dozens of instruments on the panels to pass on information regarding, for
example, oil temperature & pressure, cabin altitude, hydraulic oil quantity,
electrical power being used, etc.
1.20

POWERPLANT INSTRUMENTATION

Information required by the flight crew to enable them to monitor the engines
include:
1. Fuel Contents.
2. Fuel Flow.
3. Engine RPM.
4. Engine Temperature.
5. Engine pressure.
1.21

FUEL CONTENTS GAUGE

Most modern aircraft have a number of fuel tanks within the wing structure and
each individual tank's contents must be known. There are two main methods of
indicating fuel contents:
Resistance Gauges.
Capacitance Quantity Indicators.
1.21.1

Resistance Gauges

This type of gauge tends to found on smaller aircraft. It has a float in the fuel tank
that is connected to a variable resistor. As the fuel level changes, the float will
move, thus changing the resistance, which in turn will alter the current flow
through a DC circuit, which in turn will operate a meter indicating fuel contents.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 46 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 53 shows a simplified resistance gauge.

INDICATOR

N
S

TANK
RESISTOR

+ DC
POWER

FUEL TANK

Resistance Gauge
Figure 53
1.21.2

Capacitance Quantity Indicators

This has the advantage over other quantity systems in that it can give accurate
readings in very large or unusually shaped tanks. The probes within the fuel tank
are actually capacitors. The two plates of the capacitor will be separated by fuel
on the lower end and air on the upper end. Since fuel and air have different
dielectric constant values, the amount of capacitance will change as the fuel level
rises and falls. The probes will then send signals to the flight deck gauges to
indicate fuel contents. This system usually includes a totalizer, which will give a
reading of the total fuel on board. Some fuel systems will also include indications
of fuel used since take-off.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 47 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 54 shows a circuit of a capacitance quantity system.

TANK UNIT

EMPTY

IS

LOOP
A

IB

LOOP
B

REF C
FULL

2 - PHASE
MOTOR

DISCRIMINATION
STAGE

AMPLIFIER
STAGE
INDICATOR

REF
PHASE

AMPLIFIER UNIT

Capacitance Quantity Indicating System


Figure 54

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 48 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.22

FUEL FLOW INDICATOR

As the name suggests, these indicators show the amount of fuel flowing into the
engines. Fuel flow information can be represented as either LBS/HR, Gallons/HR
or PSI. Some indicators will show both PSI and either LBS/HR or Gallons/HR.
Figure 55 shows a fuel flow indicator.

PSI SCALE
2.5 PSI

LBS/HR
SCALE

FUEL
FLOW
LBS/HR

195 PSI T.O.


170

50
45
55
65

75

100
80

95

LEFT ENGINE
FUEL FLOW

150

RIGHT ENGINE
FUEL FLOW

Fuel Flow Indicator


Figure 55

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 49 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.23

FUEL PRESSURE INDICATOR

Some engines have a fuel pressure gauge that displays the pressure of the fuel
supplied to the fuel control unit. Most display the pressure in pounds per square
inch (psi) and provide indications to the pilot that the engine is receiving the fuel
required for a given power setting. Figure 56 shows a fuel pressure gauge.

10 PSI

30

POINTER
FUEL
PRESS

50

125 PSI
100

80

PSI
SCALE

Fuel Pressure Gauge


Figure 56
There are two types of pressure gauge:
Bourbon Tube type.
Pressure Capsule type.

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 50 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.23.1

Bourbon Tube Fuel Pressure Indicator

Is made with a metal tube that is formed in a circular shape with a flattened crosssection. One end is open while the other is sealed. The open end of the bourbon
tube is connected to a capillary tube containing pressurized fuel. As the
pressurized fuel enters the bourbon tube, the tube tends to straighten. Through a
series of gears, this movement is used to move the indicating pointer on the
instrument face. Figure 57 shows a Bourbon type fuel pressure gauge and its
operation.

POINTER
STAFF

BOURBON
TUBE

ANCHOR
POINT
GEARING

Bourbon Tube Fuel Pressure Gauge


Figure 57

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 51 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.23.2

Capsule Fuel Pressure Indicator

This type of indicator utilizes a pressure capsule or diaphragm. Like the


bourbon tube, a diaphragm type pressure indictor is attached to a capillary tube,
which attaches to the fuel system and carries pressurized fuel to the diaphragm.
As the diaphragm becomes pressurized it expands, causing an indicator pointer
to rotate. Figure 58 shows a pressure capsule type fuel pressure indicator.

DIAPHRAGM

Pressure Capsule Fuel Pressure Gauge


Figure 58

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 52 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.24

ENGINE RPM INDICATORS

These instruments indicate the rotational speed of the engine. Low Pressure
Compressor (N1), Intermediate Pressure Compressor (N2) and High Pressure
Compressor (N3). Figure 59 a RPM gauge for N1 measurement.

N1 RPM Gauge
Figure 59

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 53 of 59

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TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

ENGINEERS

The indicator use electromagnetic sensors (which contains a coil of wire that
generates a magnetic field) to measure the RPM of the respective compressor
blades. The sensor is mounted in the shroud around the fan so, when each fan
blade passes the sensor, the magnetic field is interrupted. The frequency at
which the fan blades cut across the field is measured by an electronic circuit and
then transmitted to a RPM gauge in the cockpit. Figure 60 shows the operation
of a N1 & N2 gauges.

N1 & N2 Pressure Gauges Operation


Figure 60

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 54 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.25

ENGINE TEMPERATURE GAUGES

Because turbine engines can be severely damaged by high temperature in the


turbine sections, a means of measuring the temperature is required. Because of
the high temperatures involved, this is carried out using thermocouples.
There are a number of different terms and abbreviations used for the gas
temperature in turbine engines, these are:
Turbine Inlet Temperature (TIT).
Inter Turbine Temperature (ITT).
Turbine Outlet Temperature (TOT).
Engine Gas Temperature (EGT).
Measured Gas Temperature (MGT).
Jet Pipe Temperature (JPT).
Figure 61 shows a typical EGT indicator

POINTER

TEMERATURE
SCALE

5
3

EGT
C X 100

OVER-TEMP
LIMIT POINTER

1
9

7 6 5
OVER-TEMPERATURE
WARNING LIGHT

DIGITAL
READ-OUT

EGT Indicator
Figure 61

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 55 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Each type of EGT system consists of several thermocouples spaced at intervals


around the circumference of the engine exhaust section casing. The EGT
indicator in the cockpit displays the average temperature measured by the
individual thermocouples. Figure 62 shows EGT indicator operation.

EGT Indicator Operation


Figure 62

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 56 of 59

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.26

ENGINE PRESSURE INDICATORS

Engine pressure indicators provide indications of the thrust being produced by a


turbojet or turbofan engine. Figure 63 shows an EPR indicator.

EPR Indication System


Figure 63

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 57 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

The EPR is the ratio of turbine discharge pressure to compressor inlet pressure.
Pressure measurements are recorded by total pressure pickups, or EPR probes,
installed in the engine inlet Pt2 section and at the exhaust Pt7 section. Once
collected, the data is sent to a differential pressure transducer, which drives a
cockpit EPR gauge. Figure 64 shows the operation of an EPR indicator.

EPR Indicator Operation


Figure 64

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 58 of 59

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 65 shows the engine instrument grouping for a twin engine aircraft.

0.8

EPR

EPR

1.0
1.2 1.0 0.8

1.0

1.0 1.2

1 5 0 1.4

1.4

1.6

1.6

40 20
60
N1
80 % RPM 0

20 40 60
N1
0 % RPM 80

5
EGT 3
7 C X 100

5
EGT
C X 100 7

7 6 5

FF

FF
X 1000

6 5 8

EGT

7 6 5

5 4 3

3 4 5
2

%RPM

9 2

9 2

EGT

EPR

100

100

EPR
1 5 0

1 5 0

%RPM

150

FF
X 1000

8 5 6

2
1

Power plant instrument grouping


Figure 65

SYSTEMS

INSTRUMENTS
PAGE 59 of 59

FF

A319/A320/A321
TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE
22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

This document must be used for training purpose only

Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference.

It will not be updated.

All rights reserved.


No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form,
by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,
without the prior written permission of Airbus Industrie.

A319/A320/A321 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL


_
GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM


UFD0100

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

UFD0100

AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM GENERAL


System Design Philosophy (1) ..................... 1
** System Presentation (1) ....................... 5
** System Control and Indicating (1) ............ 9
Basic Operational Principles (1) ................ 23

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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM


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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

22 - AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM


22-00-00 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM DESIGN
PHILOSOPHY

TMUFMGS01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General Concept
Navigation
Flight Plan
Operation
AFS/Fly by Wire
System Design

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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


GENERAL CONCEPT

OPERATION

The Auto Flight System (AFS) calculates orders to


automatically control the flight controls and the
engines.
The Auto Flight System computes orders and sends them
to the Electrical Flight Control System (EFCS) and to
the Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) to
control flying surfaces and engines.
When the AFS is not active, the above mentioned
components are controled by the same systems but orders
are generated by specific devices (i.e. side sticks
and thrust levers).

There are several ways to use the Auto Flight System.


The normal and recommended way to use the Auto Flight
System is to use it to follow the flight plan
automatically.
Knowing the position of the aircraft and the desired
flight plan (chosen by the pilot), the system is able
to compute the orders sent to the surfaces and engines
so that the aircraft follows the flight plan.
The pilot has an important monitoring role.
NOTE: During Auto Flight System operation, side sticks
and thrust levers do not move automatically.

NAVIGATION
AFS/FLY BY WIRE
A fundamental function of the Auto Flight System is
to calculate the position of the aircraft.
When computing the aircraft position, the system uses
several aircraft sensors giving useful information for
this purpose.

If the pilot moves the side stick when the Auto Flight
System is active, it disengages the autopilot.
Back to manual flight, when the side stick is released,
the Electrical Flight Control System maintains the
actual aircraft attitude.

FLIGHT PLAN

TMUFMGS01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

SYSTEM DESIGN
The system has several flight plans in its memory.
These are predetermined by the airline.
A flight plan describes a complete flight from
departure to arrival, it includes vertical information
and all intermediate waypoints.
It can be displayed on the instruments (CRTs).

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To meet the necessary reliability, the AutoFlight


System is built around four computers:
Two interchangeable Flight Management and Guidance
Computers (FMGCs) and two interchangeable Flight
Augmentation Computers (FACs).
It is a FAIL OPERATIVE system.
Each Flight Management and Guidance Computer and each
Flight Augmentation Computer has a command part and a
monitor part to be FAIL PASSIVE.

22-00-00

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


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22-00-00 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUFGCA01 LEVEL 1

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CONTENTS:
General
Controls
FMGCs
FACs
Other Systems
Self Examination

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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

GENERAL

FMGCs

The Auto Flight System (AFS) provides the pilots with


functions reducing their workload and improving the
safety and the regularity of the flight.
The Auto Flight System is designed around:
- 2 Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGCs),
- 2 Flight Augmentation Computers (FACs),
- 2 Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs),
- 1 Flight Control Unit (FCU).

There are two interchangeable FMGCs.


Each FMGC is made of two parts: the Flight Management
part called FM part and the Flight Guidance part called
FG part.
The Flight Management part provides functions related
to flight plan definition, revision and monitoring.
The Flight Guidance part provides functions related
to the aircraft control.

CONTROLS

FACs

The FCU and the MCDUs enable the pilots to control the
functions of the FMGCs.
The FAC engagement pushbuttons and the rudder trim
control panel are connected to the FACs.
The MCDUs are used for long-term control of the
aircraft and provide the interface between the crew
and the FMGC allowing the management of the flight.
The FCU is used for short term control of the aircraft
and provides the interface required for transmission
of engine data from the FMGC to the Full Authority
Digital Engine Control (FADEC).

The basic functions of the FACs are the rudder control


and the flight envelope protection.
NOTE: The FAC includes an interface between the Auto
Flight System and the Centralized Fault Display
System (CFDS) called Fault Isolation and
Detection System (FIDS).
This function is activated only in position 1
(FAC 1).
OTHER SYSTEMS
The Auto Flight System is connected to the majority
of the aircraft systems.
Examples of Auto Flight System data exchanges:
- Reception of the aircraft altitude and attitude from
the Air Data and Inertial Reference System (ADIRS).
- Transmission of autopilot orders to the Elevator and
Aileron Computers (ELACs).

TMUFGCA01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM PRESENTATION

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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

SELF EXAMINATION
What are the basic functions of the FACs?
A - Management functions and flight envelope
protection.
B - Rudder control and flight envelope
protection.
C - Guidance functions and rudder control.
the
The
The
The

FMGC functions controlled from?


MCDUs and rudder trim control panel.
FCU and rudder trim control panel.
FCU and MCDUs.

TMUFGCA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Where are
A B C -

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22-00-00 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND
INDICATING

TMUFGCH01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
FCU
MCDUs
NDs
PFDs
Thrust Levers
Side Sticks
Rudder Pedals
Resets
RMPs
EWD/SD
Attention Getters

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


FCU

MCDUs

The Flight Control Unit (FCU) is installed on the


glareshield. The FCU front face includes an Auto Flight
System (AFS) control panel between two Electronic
Flight Instrument System (EFIS) control panels.
The AFS control panel allows and displays the
engagement of autopilots (APs) and autothrust (A/THR),
and the selection of guidance modes and flight
parameters.

Two Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs) are


located on the center pedestal.
The MCDU is the primary entry/display interface between
the pilot and the FM part of the FMGC.
MCDU allows system control parameters and flight plans
to be inserted, and is used for subsequent
modifications and revisions.
The MCDU displays information regarding flight
progress and aircraft performances for monitoring and
review by the flight crew.

NOTE: The EXPEDite pushbutton can be optionally


removed from the AFS control panel.

TMUFGCH01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The two EFIS control panels control and display, for


each EFIS side (Capt and F/O), the Primary Flight
Display and Navigation Display functions (respectively
baro and Flight Director (FD) conditions, and
Navigation Display modes).

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - FCU & MCDUs


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22 AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM

NDs

PFDs

The two Navigation Displays (NDs) are located on the


main instrument panel.
The Navigation Display is built from:
- flight plan data,
- data selected via the FCU,
- aircraft present position,
- wind speed/direction,
- ground speed/track.

The two Primary Flight Displays (PFDs) are located on


the main instrument panel.
The Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) is the top part of
the Primary Flight Display (PFD).
Each PFD displays:
- AP/FD/A/THR engagement status on the FMA,
- AP/FD and A/THR armed/engaged modes on the FMA,
- FD orders,
- FAC characteristic speeds on the speed
scale.

TMUFGCH01-T02 LEVEL 1

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - NDs & PFDs


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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


THRUST LEVERS
The thrust levers are located on the center pedestal.
The thrust levers allow the Take-Off/Go-Around (TO/GA)
modes and the autothrust to be engaged.
Two autothrust instinctive disconnect pushbuttons
located on the thrust levers allow the autothrust
function to be disengaged.
SIDE STICKS
The Capt and F/O side sticks are respectively located
on the Capt lateral panel and F/O lateral panel.
The autopilot is disengaged when the take over priority
pushbutton on the side stick is pressed or when a force
above a certain threshold is applied on the side stick.
RUDDER PEDALS

TMUFGCH01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The rudder pedals are fitted in the Capt and F/O


positions.
Rudder pedals override disconnects the autopilot.

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - THRUST LEVERS, SIDE STICKS & RUDDER PEDALS
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RESETS

TMUFGCH01-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The FMGC, FAC, FCU and MCDU resets are possible in the
cockpit.
Depending on the computer (1 or 2), the circuit
breakers are located either on the overhead circuit
breakers panel 49VU or on the rear circuit breakers
panel 121VU.

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


RMPs
The Radio Management Panels (RMPs) are located on the
center pedestal near Multipurpose Control and Display
Units 1 and 2.
The RMPS are used for navaid standby selection.
EWD/SD

TMUFGCH01-T05 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Engine/Warning Display (EWD) and the System Display


(SD) are located on the main instrument panel.
The EWD displays AFS warning messages.
The SD displays AFS information such as inoperative
systems on the STATUS page or landing capabilities
availability.

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - RMPs & EWD/SD


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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


ATTENTION GETTERS

TMUFGCH01-T06 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The attention getters are located on the glareshield


panel on the Capt and F/O sides.
The MASTER CAUTION and/or the MASTER WARNING are
activated when an AFS disconnection occurs.
The AUTOLAND warning is activated when a problem occurs
during final approach in automatic landing.

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AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - ATTENTION GETTERS


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UFD0100

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22 - AUTO FLIGHT SYSTEM


22-00-00 BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES

TMUFGCQ01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Data Base Loading
Power-up Test FD Engagement
MCDU Initialization
A/THR Engagement
AP Engagement
Self Examination

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BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES


GENERAL

POWER-UP TEST FD ENGAGEMENT

This sequence describes the operational use of the


Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGCs) in a
normal operation with a total availability of the
concerned functions.
The short-term pilot orders are entered through the
Flight Control Unit (FCU). The long-term pilot orders
are entered through the Multipurpose Control and
Display Unit (MCDU).
Four key-words for the control principle and both types
of guidance are to be kept in mind in order to avoid
handling errors.
Aircraft control is AUTOMATIC (Autopilot or
autothrust), or MANUAL (Pilot action on side sticks
or on thrust levers). Aircraft guidance is MANAGED
(Targets are provided by the FMGC), or SELECTED
(Guidance targets are selected by the pilot through
the FCU).

As soon as electrical power is available, the Flight


Director (FD) is automatically engaged provided that
the power-up test is successful.
No guidance symbols are displayed as long as no AP/FD
mode is active.

DATA BASE LOADING

TMUFGCQ01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The data base must be loaded and updated to keep the


system operational.

MCDU INITIALIZATION
First, MCDU STATUS page is displayed. Then, the pilot
uses the MCDU for flight preparation, which includes:
- choice of the data base,
- flight plan initialization,
- radio nav entries and checks,
- performance data entry (V1, VR, V2 and FLEX
TEMP).
V2, at least, must be inserted in the MCDU before
take-off.
Entry of the flight plan (lateral and vertical) and
V2 into the MCDU is taken into account by the Flight
Management (FM) part and confirmed by the lighting of
the associated lights on the FCU.

NOTE: Only the navigation data base is periodically


updated.

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BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES


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BASIC OPERATIONAL PRINCIPLES


A/THR ENGAGEMENT

AP ENGAGEMENT

Autothrust (A/THR) engagement occurs when the pilot


moves the thrust levers to the TO/GA or FLX/MCT gate.
Then:
. the FMGC automatically engages:
- the take-off modes for yaw and longitudinal
guidance (RunWaY (RWY) and Speed Reference
System (SRS)),
- the autothrust function (but it is not active).
. the FD symbols appear on the PFD (Green FD yaw bar
and pitch bar).
For take-off, the thrust levers are set to the TO/GA
gate or the FLEX/MCT gate if a flexible temperature
has been entered on the MCDU.
At the thrust reduction altitude, the FM part warns
the pilot to set the thrust levers to CLB gate.

Either autopilot (AP) can only be engaged 5 seconds


after lift off. Only one autopilot can be engaged at
a time, the last in, being the last engaged.
After the normal climb, cruise and descent phases,
selection of LAND mode (Autoland) allows both APs to
be engaged together.
After touchdown, during ROLL OUT mode, APs remain
engaged to control the aircraft on the runway
centerline.
Then the pilot disengages the APs at low speed, taxies
and stops the aircraft.

TMUFGCQ01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE: The thrust levers normally will not leave this


position until an audio message "RETARD"
requests to the pilot to set the thrust levers
to IDLE gate before touchdown.

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UFD0100

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SELF EXAMINATION
When is
A
B
C

FD engaged?
- As soon as at least one AP is engaged.
- As soon as A/THR is engaged.
- At the end of a successful power-up test.

TMUFGCQ01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Concerning AP engagement, which of the following is


true?
A - Both APs can be engaged whatever the
flight phase.
B - During the approach phase, it is
recommended to engage the second AP.
C - Both APs can never be engaged at the
same time (Last in, last engaged).

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

This document must be used for training purpose only

Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference.

It will not be updated.

All rights reserved.


No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form,
by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,
without the prior written permission of Airbus Industrie.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS
UFD0100

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

GENERAL
** General System Presentation (1)............... 1
** System Control and Indicating (1) ............ 5
SPEECH COMMUNICATION
Speech Communication Presentation (1) .......... 13
Radio Management Panel Presentation (1) ........ 17
Audio System Presentation (1) ................... 23
** Audio Control Panel Presentation (1) ........ 27
VHF System Presentation (1) ..................... 33
SELCAL System Presentation (1) .................. 39
** Ground Crew Call SYS Pres./Operation (1) .... 43
Static Discharging (1) .......................... 47
SATCOM
MCS SATCOM Presentation (1) ..................... 55
COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM
** CVR System Presentation (1) .................. 59
CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM ( CIDS
)
** CIDS Design Philosophy (1) ................... 65
** Forward Attendant Panel Presentation (1) .... 69
** AFT Attendant Panel Presentation (1) ........ 73
** PTP Presentation (1) ......................... 77

UFD0100

PAX ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM


** Passenger Entertainment SYS Pres. (1) ....... 81

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23 COMMUNICATIONS
UFD0100

TABLE OF CONTENTS

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UFD0100

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23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-00-00 GENERAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUCOG101 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
VHF
HF (Option)
SELCAL (SELective CALling)
CIDS
Passenger Address
Interphone
Cockpit Voice Recorder

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GENERAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION


VHF

INTERPHONE

The Very High Frequency (VHF) system serves for short


range voice communications.

The purpose of the SELCAL system is to give visual and


aural indications to the crew, concerning calls
received from ground stations through VHF and HF
systems.

There are 3 interphone systems on the aircraft:


the flight interphone, the cabin interphone and the
service interphone.
- The
flight
interphone
system
allows
communication between the flight crew members,
and between the flight crew and the ground
mechanic at the external power receptacle or
in the avionics bay.
- The
cabin
interphone
system
allows
communication between the cockpit and the cabin
attendant stations, and between the cabin
attendant stations.
- The service interphone system enables
communication between the different service
interphone jacks, the cockpit and the cabin
attendant stations.

CIDS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER

The Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS) is


designed to interface flight crew, cabin attendants,
passengers, ground service and various cabin systems
dedicated to cabin attendant or passenger use.
The CIDS is used to control, test and monitor various
cabin systems dedicated to cabin attendant or passenger
use.

The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) records in-flight and


on-ground crew conversations and radio communications.

HF (Option)
The High Frequency (HF) system serves for all
long-distance voice communications between different
aircraft (in flight or on the ground), or between the
aircraft and one or several ground stations.

TMUCOG101-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

SELCAL (SELective CALling)

PASSENGER ADDRESS
The Passenger Address (PA) allows voice announcements
to be broadcast to all passengers, from the cockpit
and cabin attendant stations through the CIDS.

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GENERAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION


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23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-00-00 SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING

TMUCOG202 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Cockpit
Cabin
Avionics Bay
Nose Landing Gear

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SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


COCKPIT

TMUCOG202-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

In the cockpit, we find:


- 3 Audio Control Panels (ACPs) for the selection
of communication systems (in transmission and
reception) and for the control of the received
audio signal levels,
- 3 Radio Management Panels (RMPs) for the
selection of radio communication and navigation
frequencies,
- 1 AUDIO SWITCHING selector for the
reconfiguration of channels, in case of ACP
failure,
- 1 CALLS panel for flight crew-to-ground
mechanic or flight crew-to-cabin attendant
calls,
- and various items of acoustic equipment.
The acoustic equipment comprises:
2 loudspeakers with volume control (1),
2 radio PTT switches (on the side sticks),
2 hand microphones (2),
headsets (3),
boomsets (3),
oxygen mask microphones (3).
Facilities are provided in the cockpit for
headsets and boomsets.

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SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - COCKPIT


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SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


CABIN
Panels are installed in the cabin, for the control and
monitoring of the various cabin systems:
- The Forward Attendant Panel (FAP) is located
in the forward entrance area of the aircraft.
The cabin attendants can control the different
cabin systems from here.
- 3 Additional Attendant Panels (AAPs) can be
installed near the doors and are dedicated to
cabin zones.
1 AAP is basically installed near the aft
passenger crew door.
Note: The F.A.P. and the A.A.P. are customized per
airline request.

- The Programming and Test Panel (PTP) is

TMUCOG202-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

located at the forward attendant station,


behind a hinged access door next to the FAP.
The PTP enables to test and re-program the
Cabin Intercommunication Data System.

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SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - CABIN


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING


AVIONICS BAY
In the avionics bay, the SELCAL code panel is installed
for coding the SELCAL code assigned to the aircraft.
NOSE LANDING GEAR

TMUCOG202-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

On the external power control panel, some features are


dedicated to ground mechanic-to-flight crew or flight
crew-to-ground mechanic calls.

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SYSTEM CONTROL AND INDICATING - AVIONICS BAY & NOSE LANDING GEAR
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UFD0100

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23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-51-00 SPEECH COMMUNICATION PRESENTATION

TMUCOMA02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
COM/NAV Systems
RMP
ACP
AMU
SELCAL
Static Discharging
Self Examination

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SPEECH COMMUNICATION PRESENTATION


SYSTEMS

AUDIO MANAGEMENT UNIT

Communication and navigation systems are connected to


the AMU for analog inputs and to the RMP for frequency
selection.

The audio management unit (AMU) ensures the interface


between the user (jack panel and ACP) and the various
radio communication and radio navigation systems.
The Audio Management Unit is equipped with a TEST
circuit (BITE) which enables connection to the CFDIU.
The AMU ensures the following functions:
- Transmission
- Reception
- SELCAL and display of ground crew and Cabin
Attendant calls
- Flight interphone
- Emergency function for the Captain and First
Officer stations.

RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL


The radio management panels (RMP) centralize radio
communication frequency control.
RMP 1 and RMP 2 can also serve as backups for the
flight management and guidance computers (FMGC) for
radio navigation frequency control (VOR, DME, ILS,
ADF).
The aircraft is equipped with three RMPs which are
identical and interchangeable.
The 3rd RMP is optional.

TMUCOMA02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

AUDIO CONTROL PANEL


The ACPs supplies the means:
- to use the various radio communication and
radio navigation facilities installed on the
aircraft for transmission and reception of the
audio signals.
- to display the various calls (SELCAL, ground
crew call and calls from the Cabin Attendants).
The ACPs serve only for control and indication.

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SELCAL
The selective calling system provides visual and aural
indication of calls received from ground stations.
STATIC DISCHARGING
The purpose of the static discharges is to discharge
static electricity and to prevent interference of
communication systems.

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SPEECH COMMUNICATION PRESENTATION


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION
What is the purpose of the RMPs?
A - To enable the received audio signals to
be selected.
B - To enable the received audio signals and
the frequencies to be selected.
C - To enable the frequencies of all the
radio communication systems to be
selected.

TMUCOMA02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

What is the purpose of the AMU?


A - To centralize all the audio signals and
the frequencies of the communication
systems.
B - To act as an interface between the users
and the various radio communication and
radio navigation systems.
C - To receive audio signals only.

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23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-13-00 RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL
PRESENTATION

TMUCOMB03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Radio Management Panel (RMP) Description
Windows
Transfer P/B
Communication Keys
SEL Indicator
Dual Selector Knob
Navigation Keys
ON/OFF Switch
Self Examination

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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL PRESENTATION


RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP) DESCRIPTION

COMMUNICATION KEYS

The RMPs are used for the selection of radio


communication frequencies. They are also used for the
standby selection of radio navigation frequencies in
back-up mode.
3 RMPs are used for frequency selection, each one can
control any VHF (HF) frequency.
Note: the third RMP is optional.
The 3 RMPs permanently dialog so that each RMP is
informed of the last selection made on any of the other
RMPs. If two RMPs fail, the remaining RMP controls all
the VHF transceivers.
The transmission of data to the communication and
navigation systems and the dialog between the RMPs are
performed through ARINC 429 buses.

There are 6 pushbutton keys for the radio communication


systems. 3 of them are used for VHF, the 3 others for
HF.
The AM key controls the selection of the AM mode for
HF transceivers provided that HF1 or HF2 is selected.
When a key is pressed, the relevant active and the
standby frequencies are automatically displayed in the
dedicated windows.

There are 2 display windows:


- The active window displays the operational
frequency
- The standby/course window displays the standby
frequency or the course in back-up navigation
mode.
The windows are liquid crystal displays with a high
contrast.

Although one RMP can control frequencies of any


transceiver, each RMP has dedicated systems.
The normal configuration is:
- RMP1 allocated with VHF1, VHF3 and HF1, if
installed,
- RMP2 allocated with VHF2 and HF2, if installed.
If the optional RMP3 is installed, it will be allocated
with VHF3 and HF systems which are no longer dedicated
to RMP1 or RMP2.
The SEL indicator light will come on white on the RMPs
involved, when an RMP takes control of a non dedicated
system frequency selection.
For example, if VHF2 is selected on RMP1, the SEL
indicator lights come on on RMP1 and RMP2.

TRANSFER P/B

DUAL SELECTOR KNOB

When the transfer key is pressed, the standby frequency


becomes the operational frequency, and the operational
frequency becomes the standby frequency.

The dual selector knob is used for the selection of


the frequency/course displayed in the standby/course
window.

TMUCOMB03-T01 LEVEL 1

WINDOWS

UFD0100

SEL INDICATOR

EFFECTIVITY
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UFD0100

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL PRESENTATION


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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL PRESENTATION


NAVIGATION KEYS
The NAVigation guarded pushbutton key allows the radio
navigation systems to be selected, in back-up mode
only, when the Flight Management and Guidance Computers
(FMGCs) have failed. In radio navigation back-up mode,
only RMP1 and RMP2 can perform navigation
frequency/course selection using the dual selector
knob.
ON/OFF SWITCH

TMUCOMB03-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The latching ON/OFF switch allows the crew to set the


RMP on or off.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOMB03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

What happens if RMP2 fails?


A - The communication systems are inoperative
B - VHF2 frequencies cannot be controlled.
C - All communication frequencies can be
controlled.

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TMUCOMB03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-51-00 AUDIO SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUCOMH02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Transmission
Reception
Flight Interphone
Selective Calling (SELCAL)
Calls
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL

INTERPHONE

The AMU centralizes the Audio Signals used by the crew.


The crew controls and operates these functions
independently with the Audio Control Panels.
The audio management system provides:
- radio communication and navigation for crew
utilization
- flight interphone system
- selective calling system (SELCAL)
- visual indication of ground crew and cabin
attendant calls.
Each cockpit occupant Audio Equipment includes:
- oxygen mask,
- headset,
- boomset,
- handmicrophone,
except for the 4th occupant which is only equipped
with a jack box.

The flight interphone function allows interpone links


between the various crew stations in the cockpit and
with the groud crew through the jack at the external
power receptacle panel (108 VU) and the avionics
compartment jack panel (63 VU).
SELCAL
The Selective Calling system enables reception with
aural and visual indication of calls from ground
stations equipped with a coding device
NOTE:

The SELCAL decoding unit is located inside the


AMU.

CALLS
Cabin attendant and mechanic calls are indicated on
the Audio Control Panels.

TRANSMISSION

TMUCOMH02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

In transmission mode, the AMU collects microphone


inputs of the various crew stations and directs them
to the communication transceivers.
RECEPTION
In reception mode, the AMU collects the audio outputs
of the communication transceivers and navigation
receivers and directs them to the various crew
stations.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO SYSTEM PRESENTATION


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOMH02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

What is the function of the AMU?


A - It monitors the radio frequency
selection.
B - It integrates all the crew communication
functions.
C - It monitors the NAV frequency selection.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-51-00 AUDIO CONTROL PANEL PRESENTATION

TMUCOMI01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Transmission Keys
Reception Knob
Interphone/Radio Selector Switch
Voice Filter
Reset
Passenger Address
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO CONTROL PANEL PRESENTATION


GENERAL

RECEPTION KNOB

3 Audio Control Panels (ACPs) are provided in the


cockpit for the Captain, the First Officer and the
third occupant.
Each ACP allows:
- the use of various radio communication and
radio navigation facilities installed in the
aircraft for transmission and reception of the
audio signals,
- the display of various calls received through
the SELCAL system, from ground mechanics and
from cabin attendants,
- the use of flight, cabin and service interphone
systems.

Fifteen pushbutton knobs are used to select reception


and to adjust the volume of received signals.
When the reception channel is selected, the pushbutton
knob pops out and comes on white.

TMUCOMI01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

TRANSMISSION KEYS
Eight rectangular electronic keys are used for the
selection of the transmission channel and for the
display of various calls received through SELCAL
system, from ground mechanics and from cabin
attendants.
MECH light on the INTerphone key flashes amber to
indicate a ground mechanic call.
ATT light on the CABin key flashes amber to indicate
a cabin attendant call.
NOTE: Only one transmission channel can be selected
at a time.

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INTERPHONE/RADIO SELECTOR SWITCH


The INTerphone/RADio selector switch permits the
utilization of the interphone or the radio, when the
boomsets or oxygen masks are used by the crew.
The INT position allows direct flight interphone
transmission:
- whatever the transmission key selected and
provided no Push-To-Talk switch is activated,
- when no transmission key is selected.
The neutral position allows reception only.
The RAD position is used as a Push-To-Talk switch when
a transmission key is selected.
VOICE FILTER
A voice filter can be used on the ADF and VOR channels.
When used, the identification signals transmitted by
the navaids are greatly attenuated (32 dB) so as to
hear only voice signals.
ON comes on green when the voice filter is in service
(ON VOICE key pressed in).

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GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO CONTROL PANEL PRESENTATION


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

AUDIO CONTROL PANEL PRESENTATION


RESET
The RESET key is used to cancel all the lighted calls.
NOTE: MECH and ATT lights go off automatically after
60 seconds if the call is not cancelled by the
RESET key.
PASSENGER ADDRESS

TMUCOMI01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

A key enables the selection of the Passenger Address


transmission.
This key must be pressed in during the whole
transmission.
An AMU pin program can inhibit the unstable operation
of the PA key.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION
What happens in case of a SELCAL call on VHF2?
A - CALL light flashes amber on the VHF2 key.
B - The three green bars on the VHF2 key
come on.
C - CALL light comes on white on the VHF2
key.
On the ACP, is it possible to transmit
simultaneously on Passenger Address and VHF
channels?
A - Yes.
B - No.

TMUCOMI01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

What is the function of the RESET key?


A - The RESET key is used to restart the
system.
B - The RESET key is used to cancel the
previous selections.
C - The RESET key is used to cancel all the
lighted calls.

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TMUCOMI01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-12-00 VHF SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUCOMF02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Purpose
Principle
Components

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

VHF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PURPOSE
The VHF system allows short distance voice
communications between different aircraft (in flight
or on ground) or between the aircraft and a ground
station.
The VHF is used for short range voice communications.

TMUCOMF02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

PRINCIPLE
For voice communications, the crew uses acoustic
equipment.
- side-stick radio selectors,
- loudspeakers,
- oxygen-masks,
- boomsets,
- headsets,
- hand-microphones.
The Audio Management Unit (AMU) acts as an interface
between the crew and the VHF system.
The Audio Control Panels (ACPs) allow selection of the
VHF1,VHF2, or VHF3 transceiver in transmission or
reception mode and for the control of the received
audio signal.
The Radio Management Panels (RMPs) serve to select the
VHF frequencies.
The VHF transceiver, tuned on the frequency selected
by one of the 3 Radio Management Panels (RMPs),
transforms the audio signals into VHF signals (in
transmission mode) or VHF signals into audio signals
(in reception mode).

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

VHF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

VHF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS
Lets see the main components of the VHF system.
The VHF system comprises:
- 3 VHF transceivers (1),
- 3 blade antennae,
associated with control systems:
- 3 RMPs (2),
- 3 ACPs (2),
- 1 AMU (1).

TMUCOMF02-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE : RMP 3 is optional.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

VHF SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS


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TMUCOMF02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-51-00 SELCAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUCOML01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
SELCAL Philosophy
SELCAL Operation
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELCAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION


SELCAL PHILOSOPHY
The selective calling system provides visual and aural
indication of calls received from ground stations
equipped with a coding device.
The ground station tone generator provides the assigned
aircraft code which modulates a VHF (or an HF)
transmitter.
In order to receive the SELCAL CALL, the same frequency
as on the ground must be activated in the aircraft.
SELCAL: SELective CALling system
This function is integrated in the AMU. The A/C code
can be set on the SELCAL code panel fitted in the
avionics bay.

TMUCOML01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

SELCAL OPERATION
When a selcal call is received, the CALL light flashes
amber on the corresponding transmission key and a
buzzer sound is heard.
The buzzer signal is generated by the Flight Warning
Computer (FWC).
CALL flashes amber on all the ACPs when a selcal call
is received.
The CALL indication can be manually cleared by pressing
the RESET key on any ACP or it can be automatically
cleared upon transmission on the called channel.

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UFD0100

GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELCAL SYSTEM PRESENTATION


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOML01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

How is the SELCAL CALL light reset?


A - By pressing the transmission key on the
ACP.
B - By pressing the CLR pushbutton.
C - By pressing the RESET key on any ACP.

EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-42-00 GROUND CREW CALL SYSTEM
PRESENTATION AND OPERATION

TMUCOMO02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Ground Mechanic to Flight Crew Call
Flight Crew to Ground Mechanic Call
Self Examination

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23-42-00

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

GROUND CREW CALL SYSTEM PRESENTATION AND OPERATION


The ground crew call system enables flight crew to
ground mechanic or ground mechanic to flight crew
calls.
GROUND MECHANIC TO FLIGHT CREW CALL
When the COCKPIT CALL pushbutton is pressed in on
panel 108VU, the MECH light flashes amber on all
ACPs and a buzzer is heard.
An action on the RESET key of any ACP will make all
the MECH lights go off.
NOTE: MECH lights go off automatically after 60 seconds
if the call is not cancelled by the RESET key.
FLIGHT CREW TO GROUND MECHANIC CALL

TMUCOMO02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The horn sounds in the nosewheel well as long as the


MECH pushbutton is pressed in on the cockpit CALLS
panel, and the COCKPIT CALL blue light on panel 108VU
stays on.
The RESET pushbutton on panel 108VU makes the COCKPIT
CALL blue light go off.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

GROUND CREW CALL SYSTEM PRESENTATION AND OPERATION


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOMO02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

How is a ground mechanic to flight crew call


indicated in the cockpit?
A - An ECAM message is displayed and a
buzzer sounds.
B - The MECH light flashes on the captain
ACP and a buzzer sounds.
C - The MECH light flashes on all ACPs and a
buzzer sounds.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-71-00 COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM
PRESENTATION

TMUCOMY01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Components
Recorder Panel
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL
The Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) records the last 30
minutes of crew conversations and communications.
It records automatically in flight and on ground when
at least one engine is running and for 5 minutes after
the last engine is shut down.
The CVR can also operate in manual mode on the ground.

TMUCOMY01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

COMPONENTS
The components of the Cockpit Voice Recorder system
are:
- The Cockpit Voice Recorder, located in the aft
section of the aircraft.
- The CVR microphone, used for recording the
direct conversations between crew members in
the cockpit and all aural warnings.
It is located at the bottom of the overhead
panel.
- The recorder (RCDR) panel, providing CVR
controls for manual operation, test and erasure
of the recording.
It is located on panel 21VU on the overhead
panel.
- The CVR HEADSET jack mounted on the cockpit
maintenance panel 50VU.

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UFD0100

GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


RECORDER PANEL
GROUND CONTROL
The CVR is automatically energized in flight and on
ground when at least one engine is running and for 5
minutes after the last engine is shut down.
For manual control, on the ground, the CVR has to be
energized by pressing the ground control (GND CTL)
pushbutton on the recorder (RCDR) panel.
CVR TEST
When the CVR TEST pushbutton is pressed, either on
ground or in flight, a test tone is generated 4 times
for approximately 0.8 seconds.
A headset connected to the CVR HEADSET jack mounted
on the cockpit maintenance panel enables monitoring.

TMUCOMY01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CVR ERASE
The CVR ERASE pushbutton is used for manual erasure
of the recording, only on ground with parking brake
applied.
It must be pressed for at least 2 seconds.
For complete manual erasure of the recording, the CVR
has to be energized.

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GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

COCKPIT VOICE RECORDER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOMY01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

What is the purpose of the CVR ?


A - To record radio communications during
take off and landing.
B - To record crew conversations as soon as
an incident occurs.
C - To record crew conversations and
communications.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-51-00 FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM
OPERATION

TMUCOMN01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

CONTENTS
INT Selection
RAD Selection
INT Key and Knob
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM OPERATION


INT SELECTION

INT KEY and KNOB

The INT position of the INT/RAD selector switch enables


permanent use of the flight interphone without any
further action and whatever the radio key selected
(Here VHF 1).
This is a stable position.

The flight interphone can also be used like a VHF


transceiver. Selection of the INT transmission key
lights the green bars, indicating that the flight
interphone is ready to operate.
Pressing and releasing the INT reception knob enables
adjustment of the interphone level. If done, the knob
comes on white.
Placing and holding the INT/RAD switch in RAD position
enables the operator to talk through the flight
interphone system.

NOTE : The radio function has priority over the flight


interphone function.
So, even with the INT/RAD switch in INT
position, the flight interphone is momentarily
cut during a radio emission ( Radio key selected
and hand microphone or side-stick Push To Talk
actuated).
RAD SELECTION

TMUCOMN01-T01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

The RAD position of the INT/RAD selector switch puts


the preselected channel in
emission (Here VHF 1).
This is an unstable position.
This position acts like the selection of the hand
microphone pushbutton or like the Push To Talk
pushbutton of the side-stick.

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UFD4200

MECHANICS / ELECTRICS & AVIONICS COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM OPERATION


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

FLIGHT INTERPHONE SYSTEM OPERATION


SELF EXAMINATION

TMUCOMN01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

Which action must be performed to talk through the


flight interphone system ?
A - Pressing the INT transmission key and
with the INT/RAD selector switch to
neutral position.
B - Either setting the INT/RAD selector to
INT, or pressing the INT transmission
key and setting the INT/RAD selector
switch to RAD.
C - Pressing any radio transmission key and
INT transmission key together.

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A319/A320/A321
TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL
GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE
34 NAVIGATION

This document must be used for training purpose only

Under no circumstances should this document be used as a reference.

It will not be updated.

All rights reserved.


No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form,
by photostat, microfilm, retrieval system, or any other means,
without the prior written permission of Airbus Industrie.

A319/A320/A321 TECHNICAL TRAINING MANUAL


_
GENERAL FAMILIARIZATION COURSE

34 NAVIGATION

34 NAVIGATION
UFD0100

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

NAVIGATION GENERAL
System Presentation (1) .......................... 1
** Radio Navigation Control Presentation (1) .... 5
** System Controls Presentation (1) ............. 9
Standby Instrument Presentation (1) ............ 19
Radio Management Panel (RMP) Presentation (1) .. 31
DDRMI Presentation (1) .......................... 35
ADIRS
ADIRS Principle (1) .............................. 41
ADIRS Presentation (1) .......................... 55
** Air Data Probes Presentation (1) ............ 61
MULTI MODE RECEIVER (MMR) SYSTEM
MMR System Description (1) ...................... 65
RADIO ALTIMETER (RA) SYSTEM
Radio Altimeter System Presentation (1) ........ 81
TRAFFIC COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (TCAS)
TCAS Presentation (1)............................ 89
ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM
(EGPWS)
** EGPWS Presentation (1) ....................... 97
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) SYSTEM
DME System Presentation (1) .................... 105
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (ATC) SYSTEM
ATC System Presentation (1) .................... 113

UFD0100

AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF) SYSTEM


ADF System Presentation (1) .................... 119
VOR/MARKERS SYSTEM
VOR/MKR System Presentation (1) ................ 129

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34 NAVIGATION
UFD0100

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUNA2001 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
ADIRS
Landing and Taxiing Aids Systems
Independent Position Determining Systems
Dependent Position Determining Systems

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SYSTEM PRESENTATION
GENERAL

LANDING AND TAXIING AIDS

The aircraft navigation systems provide the crew with


the data required for flight within the most
appropriate safety requirements.
This data is divided into four groups:
- AIR DATA/INERTIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM (ADIRS),
- LANDING AND TAXIING AIDS,
- INDEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING,
- DEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING.

The Head-Up Display (HUD) is used as a piloting aids


system for roll out, take-off and landing (optional).
The Instrument Landing System (ILS), is use to obtain
the optimum aircraft position during an approach and
landing phase.
The Marker (MKR) system is used to indicate the
distance to the runway threshold during an ILS descent.
The aircraft is equipped with:
- 1 HUD (optional),
- 2 ILS,
- 1 MARKER (Included in the VOR receiver).
Frequency Control is achieved either automatically or
manually (through the MCDU) by the Flight Management
and Guidance Computers (FMGCs) or manually through the
Radio Management Panels (RMPs).

TMUNA2001-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

ADIRS
The ADIRS is an integrated Air Data System and an
Inertial Reference System. One part called Air Data
Reference mainly computes speed and altitude
information from air parameters. The other part called
Inertial Reference mainly computes heading, attitude
and position from gyros and accelerometers.
The ADIRS is composed of three Air Data/Inertial
Reference Units (ADIRUs).
Besides the ADIRUs, there are still standby
instruments:
- Altimeter and Airspeed indicators directly
supplied by pressure lines,
- Standby Compass,
- Standby Horizon.

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SYSTEM PRESENTATION
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SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUNA2001-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

INDEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING SYSTEMS


This part of the navigation systems, called independent
system, provides information regarding the safety of
the aircraft without taking reference from any ground
station.
The Weather Radar / Predictive Windshear (WR/PWS)
system detects the position and intensity of
precipitations which are shown on the Navigation
Displays (NDs).
The windshear capability serves to detect any sudden
change of wind speed and/or direction (Optional).
The Radio Altimeter (RA) system gives the aircraft
height above the ground, independently of the
atmospheric pressure.
The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) detects
the aircraft in the immediate vicinity.
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
warns the flight crew about the aircraft behaviour in
dangerous configuration when approaching the ground.
This part of the Navigation system includes:
- 1 Weather Radar / Predictive Windshear (WR/PWS)
(the second is optional),
- 2 Radio Altimeter (RA),
- 1 Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS),
- 1 Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System
(EGPWS).
DEPENDENT POSITION DETERMINING SYSTEMS

The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) system gives


the aircraft slant distance to a ground station.
The Air Traffic Control system (ATC) enables a ground
operator to identify and track the aircraft without
having to communicate with the flight crew.
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system is a radio
compass system providing the azimuth of a Non
Directional Beacon (NDB) with respect to the aircraft
center line.
The VHF Omni Range (VOR) system gives the bearing of
a ground VOR Station with respect to the magnetic North
and the aircraft angular deviation related to a
preselected course.
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is based on the
measurement of the transmission time of signals
broadcast by satellites.
This part of the Navigation includes:
- 2 DME,
- 2 ATC,
- 1 ADF (the second is optional),
- 2 VOR,
- 2 GPS.
NOTE 1: The VOR or DME frequency control is achieved
either automatically or manually (through the
MCDU) by the FMGCs or manually though the RMPs.
NOTE 2: Although the Marker Beacon belongs to the
Landing Aids System, it is physically
integrated into the VOR receiver.

This part of the navigation system, called dependent


system, provides various means of navigation through
data exchange with ground installations or satellites.

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL
PRESENTATION

TMUNAV701 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Automatic Tuning
Manual Tuning
Back-Up Tuning
Self Examination

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RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL PRESENTATION


AUTOMATIC TUNING
The Automatic Tuning permits the control of VOR / DME,
ILS and ADF by the Flight Management and Guidance
System.
In this case the RMP is transparent to its associated
FMGC.
In normal operation FMGC1 tunes receivers 1, FMGC2
tunes receivers 2.
In case of failure of FMGC 1 or 2, the remaining FMGC
controls all receivers.
MANUAL TUNING
The manual tuning permits the pilot to select, through
the Multipurpose Control Display Unit, a specific
frequency for display on the EFIS.
NOTE: To return to the autotuning mode, the manual
tuning has to be cleared.

TMUNAV701-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

BACK-UP TUNING
Radio Management Panels 1 and 2 located on the pedestal
provide back-up for Radio Navigation tuning.
We are in the case of both FMGCs inoperative or
emergency electrical supply.
The ILS course and frequency are the only Radio
Navigation data exchanged.
The selected values on RMP 1 and RMP 2 are identical
for ILS 1 and ILS 2.

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RADIO NAVIGATION CONTROL PRESENTATION


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SELF EXAMINATION
Can VOR 2 frequency be changed through RMP 1?
A - Yes.
B - No.

TMUNAV701 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

In back-up mode, an ILS can be tuned through:


A - RMP 1 or 2.
B - RMP 1 only.
C - The onside RMP only.

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34-00-00 SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION

TMUNA2101 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Multipurpose Control Display Unit (MCDU)
ADIRS Control Display Unit (ADIRS CDU)
Radio Management Panel (RMP)
Audio Control Panel (ACP)

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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION


MULTIPURPOSE CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (MCDU)

TMUNA2101-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Multipurpose Control and Display Unit (MCDU) allows


the crew:
- To display the Radio Navigation frequencies
(automatically or manually tuned) on a specific
page called RAD/NAV.
- To align the Inertial Reference systems from
a specific page called INIT via the FMGC.
- To initiate tests for all navigation
systems and for troubleshooting via the
CFDIU.

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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION


ADIRS CONTROL DISPLAY UNIT (ADIRS CDU)
The ADIRS Control and Display Unit allows the following
functions:
- To switch on the ADR and IR by setting a single
control to NAV.
- To disconnect the ADR output bus by a specific
pushbutton.
- To check the ADIRU operation
- To align the IR instead of using the MCDU.

TMUNA2101-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE: when set to ATT, the systems are still energized


but the IR is in downgraded operation mode.

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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - ADIRS CDU


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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION


RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP)

TMUNA2101-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The main function of the Radio Management Panels (RMP)


is to control all communication frequencies. However
they are also used for standby selection of
Radio/NAV frequencies.
The standby operation is used in case of dual FMGC
failure, provided the NAV pushbutton switch has been
pressed.

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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - RMP


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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION


AUDIO CONTROL PANEL (ACP)
The Audio Control Panels (ACP) enable to control the
reception of all audio signals identifying the various
beacons and stations.

TMUNA2101-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE: DME identification signals can be selected by


using the knob of the colocated VOR or ILS.

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SYSTEM CONTROLS PRESENTATION - ACP


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UFD0100

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-20-00 STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION

TMUNAVE03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Standby Compass
Standby Horizon
Standby Altimeter
Standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
Metric Altimeter (Option)

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION


STANDBY COMPASS

TMUNAVE03-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The standby compass is located on the top windshield


center post.
It is stowed in normal configuration.
A correction card is glued to the side of the compass
assembly.
Non-magnetic lamp:
- A non-magnetic lamp assembly lights the compass card.
It is controlled by a STBY COMPASS switch located on
the INT LT panel on the overhead panel.
Graduated compass:
- The graduated compass card is attached to a magnetic
element. It is free to rotate inside the compass bowl
and is immersed in a damping liquid.
Lubber line:
- A lubber line indicates the magnetic heading.
Compensation holes:
- Two holes marked NS and EW, allow compensation by
positioning two small magnetic bars called
compensators.

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - COMPASS


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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION


STANDBY HORIZON

TMUNAVE03-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Standby horizon is located on the center instrument


panel and comprises the following elements:
Roll pointer:
- The roll information is given by a pointer which
moves in front of a graduated roll scale.
Roll scale:
- The roll scale is graduated in 10 degree increments
between -30 and +30 degrees and 15 degree increments
up to 60 degrees.
Flag:
- The flag comes into view if a failure is detected
in the electrical power supply or if the gyro rotor
speed drops below 18000 RPM.
Pitch drum:
- The pitch drum is divided into two zones separated
by the reference horizon.
The pitch indications are displayed between -80 and
+80 degrees.
Aircraft symbol:
- The aircraft symbol is fixed.
Resetting knob:
- Fast resetting can be performed by pulling the caging
knob (Also used for shipping to protect the gyro).

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - HORIZON


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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION

TMUNAVE03-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

STANDBY ALTIMETER
The Standby Altimeter is located on the center
instrument panel and comprises the following elements:
Adjustable bugs:
- Four manually adjustable bugs are provided for
reference altitude setting.
Altitude counter:
- A display counter made up of two drums displays the
tens of thousands, and the thousands of feet.
When the altitude is below 10000 feet, the left drum
displays black and white stripes.
In case of negative altitude the left drum displays
orange and white stripes.
Altitude pointer:
- The pointer indicates the hundreds of feet with 20
feet increments.
To prevent the pointer from sticking, an internal
vibrator is installed.
It is only supplied in flight.
Altitude dial:
- The altitude dial is calibrated from O to 1000 feet
with 20 feet graduations.
Baro correction counter:
- The baro correction is displayed on a counter
graduated in hecto Pascals.
Adjustment baro setting knob:
- The knob enables adjustment of the baro setting in
the range of 750 to 1050 hecto Pascals.

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - ALTIMETER


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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION


STANDBY AIRSPEED INDICATOR (ASI)

TMUNAVE03-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI) is located on the


center instrument panel and comprises the following
elements:
Ajustable bugs:
- Four manually adjustable bugs are provided for
reference speed setting.
Speed pointer:
- The pointer moves on a graduated dial.
Speed dial:
- The dial is made of two linear scales: one from 60kt
to 250kt with 5kt increments, the other from 250 to
450kt with 1Okt increments.

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - AIRSPEED INDICATOR


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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION


METRIC ALTIMETER (OPTION)

TMUNAVE03-T05 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Metric Altimeter is located on the center


instrument panel and comprises the following elements:
A display counter, made up of two drums displays the
tens of thousands and the thousands of meters.
Altitude counter:
- When the altitude is below 10,000 meters, the left
drum displays black and white stripes.
In case of negative altitude the left drum displays
orange and white stripes.
Altitude pointer:
- The pointer indicates the hundreds of meters with
50 meter increments.
Altitude dial:
- The altitude dial is calibrated from O to 1000 meters
with 50 meter graduations.
Baro correction counter:
- The baro correction is displayed on a the lower
counter and is graduated in hecto Pascals.
Adjustment baro setting knob:
- The knob enables adjustment of the baro setting in
the range of 870 to 1050 hecto Pascals.

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STANDBY INSTRUMENT PRESENTATION - METRIC ALTIMETER (OPTION)


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UFD0100

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34 NAVIGATION

NAVIGATION

34-00-00 RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP)


PRESENTATION

TMUNA2201 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Standby Navigation Keys
Rotating Knob
Standby/Course (STBY/CRS) Window
Active Window

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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP) PRESENTATION


GENERAL
The radio Nav frequency selection can only be performed
when the guarded NAV key LED is on, after a dual FMGS
loss
The ON/OFF switch controls the power supply of the
RMP.
STANDBY NAVIGATION KEYS
As long as the NAV key is the only STBY NAV key selected,
the windows still display communication frequencies.
Then, pressing the VOR, ILS or ADF key changes the
displays to the last RMP memorized values (frequency
and course).
At any time, communication frequencies are still
selectable, simply by pressing the corresponding key.
Beat Frequency Oscillator (BFO) is set on or off by
pressing the key.
NOTE: The Microwave Landing System (MLS) key is a
provision.

The desired frequency or course is set in the STBY/CRS


window. Frequency becomes active by pressing the
transfer key.
STANDBY/COURSE (STBY/CRS) WINDOW
The STANDBY/COURSE window displays a standby frequency
or a course.
Both can be changed by rotating the knob, but only the
standby frequency can be made active by pressing the
transfer key.
If a course is displayed, the associated frequency is
displayed in the ACTIVE window.
NOTE: If a course is displayed on the STBY/CRS window,
pressing the transfer key will display the ACTIVE
frequency in both windows.
ACTIVE WINDOW
The active window shows the frequency in use of the
system identified by the green LED on the selected
key.

TMUNA2201-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

ROTATING KNOB
Two concentric knobs allow preselection of frequency
for radio communication and standby navigation systems
and selection of the required course for VORs and ILSs:
- the outer knob controls the most significant
digits,
- the inner knob controls the least significant
digits.

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RADIO MANAGEMENT PANEL (RMP) PRESENTATION


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TMUNA2201 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-00-00 DDRMI PRESENTATION

TMUNAVF02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Normal Operation
Failure and Non Computed Data (NCD)
Self Examination

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DDRMI PRESENTATION
GENERAL
The Digital Distance and Radio Magnetic Indicator
(DDRMI) is located on the center instrument panel.
Its a combined VOR/ADF/DME RMI.
Note: Some DDRMIs
capability.

are

not

equipped

with

the

ADF

NORMAL OPERATION

TMUNAVF02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The DME 1 Distance is displayed in the left hand window.


The DME 2 Distance is displayed in the right hand
window.
A single pointer indicates the VOR 1 or ADF 1 bearing.
A double pointer indicates the VOR 2 or ADF 2 bearing.
The selection of VOR or ADF is provided for each pointer
by a selector switch.

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UFD0100

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DDRMI PRESENTATION - NORMAL OPERATION


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DDRMI PRESENTATION
FAILURE AND NON COMPUTED DATA (NCD)

TMUNAVF02-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

When a failure is detected by the DME or RMI monitoring


circuits, the corresponding DME display window is
blanked.
In case of Non Computed Data (NCD), for example:
- out-of-range station, the window shows white
horizontal dashed lines.
Heading information normally comes from ADIRU 1.
If it fails, the heading is provided by ADIRU 3 after
pilot switching.
In case of VOR or ADF 1 or 2 receiver failure, a red
flag comes into view and the corresponding pointer is
set to the 3 oclock position.
In case of Non Computed Data (NCD), no failure flag
appears, but the corresponding pointer is set to the
3 oclock position.

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DDRMI PRESENTATION - FAILURE AND NON COMPUTED DATA (NCD)


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SELF EXAMINATION
the DDRMI receive information ?
2.
3.
3.

TMUNAVF02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

From which ADIRU can


A - ADIRU 1 or
B - ADIRU 2 or
C - ADIRU 1 or

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS PRINCIPLE

TMUADI001 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
ADM Functional Description
ADM Inputs
ADM Output
ADR Computation
IR Strapdown
Ring Laser Gyro
Accelerometer
IR Computation

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
GENERAL

TMUADI001-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Air Data/Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU) comprises


an Air Data Reference Unit and an Inertial Reference
Unit, both included in a single unit.
Data from external sensors (Angle of Attack, Total Air
Temperature, Air Data Module) are used by the ADIRU.
The ADIRUs are interfaced with the ADIRS Display
Control Unit (CDU) for control and status annunciation.

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - GENERAL


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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ADM FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION
A microcomputer processes an ARINC signal according
to the discrete inputs and to the digitized pressure.
ADM INPUTS
The ADM Inputs are one pressure input and several
discrete inputs.
The ADMs are identical.
The discrete inputs determine the ADM location and the
type of pressure data (Pitot or Static) provided to
the ADR.
ADM OUTPUT

TMUADI001-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The ADM output is an ARINC bus which provides digital


pressure information, type of pressure, ADM
identification and BITE status to the ADIRU.

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - ADM


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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ADR COMPUTATION

TMUADI001-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The ADR processes sensor and ADM inputs in order to


provide air data to users.

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - ADR


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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
IR STRAPDOWN

TMUADI001-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

In a strapdown Inertial Reference System the gyros and


the accelerometers are solidly attached to the aircraft
structure.
The strapdown laser gyro provides directly
accelerations and angular speeds.

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - IR
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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
RING LASER GYRO
The three ring laser gyros, one for each rotation axis,
provide inertial rotation data and are composed of two
opposite laser beams in a ring.
At rest, the two beams arrive at the sensor with the
same frequency.
An aircraft rotation creates a difference of
frequencies between the two beams.
The frequency difference is measured by optical means
providing a digital output which, after computation,
will provide rotation information.
Stimulated

Emission

of

TMUADI001-T05 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE: Light Amplification


Radiation (LASER)

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - GYRO


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ADIRS PRINCIPLE
ACCELEROMETER
Three accelerometers, one for each axis, provide linear
accelerations.
The acceleration signal is sent to a processor which
uses this signal to compute the velocity and the
position.
IR COMPUTATION

TMUADI001-T06 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Each ADIRU computes the laser gyro and the


accelerometer outputs to provide Inertial Reference
data to users.

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UFD0100

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ADIRS PRINCIPLE - ACCELEROMETER


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TMUADI001 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-10-00 ADIRS PRESENTATION

TMUADIA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
MCDU
ADIRS CDU
Probes
FCU
GPS
DMC
DMC/PFD & ND
ADIRS Switching
Users
Self Examination

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ADIRS PRESENTATION
GENERAL

FCU

The Air Data Inertial Reference System (ADIRS) is


composed of three Air Data Inertial Reference Units
(ADIRU), each having their own set of probes and
sensors and a common Control Display Unit (CDU).

The ADIRUs receive, from the Flight Control Unit (FCU),


the Baro correction set by the crew.

MCDU

The Global Positioning System (GPS) provides data to


the ADIRS, mainly A/C position and speed. The ADIRS
processes the GPS data and provides pure GPS data,
pure IR data and hybrid GPS/ADIRS data to users.

The Multipurpose Control and Display Units (MCDUs) are


normally used to align the Inertial References, to
initiate the ADIRU tests and to display ADIRU
information.
ADIRS CDU
The ADIRS Control Display Unit is used as a back-up
for Inertial Reference alignment. It is also used for
mode selection, information display and status
indication.

GPS

DMC
The Display Management Computers (DMCs) 1 and 2 receive
their data from their related ADIRU and from ADIRU 3.
The Display Management Computer 3 (DMC3) receives
information from all three ADIRUs, to operate as a
back-up in case of DMC1 or 2 failure.
DMC/PFD & ND

TMUADIA01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

PROBES
The Air Data input parameters, such as total and static
pressures, Angle Of Attack (AOA) and Total Air
Temperature (TAT) are sent, from the related probes
and sensors, to the three ADIRUs.

ADIRU 1 and 2 display information via DMC 1 and 2, on


the corresponding Primary Flight Display (PFD) and
Navigation Display (ND).
ADIRU 3 operates as a back-up in case of ADIRU 1 or 2
failure.

NOTE : static and total pressure are sent to the ADIRUs


via the ADMs.

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ADIRS PRESENTATION
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ADIRS PRESENTATION
ADIRS SWITCHING
Basically, ADIRU 1 is associated to the captain
instruments, ADIRU 2 to the first officer instruments
and ADIRU 3 is in standby.
In case of failure of the Air Data Reference (ADR) or
Inertial Reference (IR) function of ADIRU 1 or 2, the
affected instruments and displays may be manually
switched independently to ADIRU 3 by means of selector
switches.
USERS

TMUADIA01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The ADIRUs are directly connected to other user system.

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SELF EXAMINATION

TMUADIA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Which ADIRU does not supply DMC 1?


A - ADIRU 1.
B - ADIRU 2.
C - ADIRU 3.

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TMUADIA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-13-00 AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION

TMUADIB01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Pitot Probes
Static Ports
AOA Sensors
TAT Sensors
Water Drain
Self Examination

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AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION


PITOT PROBES

TAT SENSORS

The total pressure is sent from the Pitot Probes to


the Air Data Modules which convert it into ARINC words
used by the Air Data Inertial Reference Units.
Three pitot probes provide total pressure to three Air
Data Modules (ADM) which convert this pressure into
digital format (ARINC 429).
ARINC words are then sent to the corresponding Air
Data Inertial Reference Unit (ADIRU). The standby pitot
probe supplies the standby Airspeed Indicator (ASI)
and ADR3 through its related ADM.

The three ADIRUs receive Total Air Temperature


information from two Total Air Temperature sensors.

STATIC PORTS

NOTE: that ADIRU3 receives the Total Air Temperature


(TAT) from the TAT 1 sensor which is composed
of two elements.
WATER DRAIN
The probes are installed in such a way that their
pressure lines do not require a water drain, except
for that of the standby static ports.

Each Air Data Module transforms the static pressure


coming from the static ports into ARINC words.
Six static ports provide static pressure to five ADMs
which convert this pressure into digital format (ARINC
429).
The standby static ports provide an average pressure
directly to the standby instruments, and to ADR3
through a single ADM.

TMUADIB01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

AOA SENSORS
Each ADIRU receives angle of attack information from
its corresponding Angle Of Attack (AOA) sensors.
The Angle Of Attack sensors are also called Alpha
probes.

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AIR DATA PROBES PRESENTATION


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SELF EXAMINATION
How do pitot and static probes supply the ADIRUs?
A - Using ADMs which convert pressure into
digital format.
B - Directly with total and static pressures.
C - Directly with digital format.
Where does ADIRU3 receive TAT information from?
A - Captain TAT sensor.
B - First-Officer TAT sensor.
C - Standby TAT sensor.

TMUADIB01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Which pressure line(s) need(s) to be drained?


A - All pitot lines.
B - All static lines.
C - Only the standby static line.

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34 - NAVIGATION
34-36-00 MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUMMRA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
ILS Principle
GPS Principle
Components
ILS Indicating
GPS Indicating
Self Examination

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL
The Multi Mode Receiver (MMR) system is a Navigation
Sensor with 2 internal receivers.
MMR = ILS + GPS
ILS PRINCIPLE

TMUMMRA01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The function of the Instrument Landing System (ILS)


is to provide the crew and airborne system users with
signals transmitted by a ground station.
A descent axis is determined by the intersection of a
Localizer beam (LOC) and a Glide Slope beam (G/S)
created by this ground station at known frequencies.
The ILS allows measurement and display of angular
deviations and receives the Morse audio signal which
identifies the ILS ground station.
ILS operational frequency range:
- LOC: between 108.1 and 111.95 MHz,
- G/S: between 329.15 and 335 MHz.

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - ILS PRINCIPLE


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GPS PRINCIPLE

TMUMMRA01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The NAVigation System Time And Ranging Global


Positioning System ( NAV.S.T.A.R. GPS ) is a worldwide
navigation radio aid which uses satellite signals to
provide accurate navigation information.
The architecture of the system is composed of 3 parts
called segments:
- Spatial Segment
- Control Segment
- User Segment
SPATIAL SEGMENT
The spatial segment is composed of a constellation of
24 satellites.
These satellites are arranged in six separate orbital
planes of four satellites each on a circular orbit and
have the following characteristics:
- 55 inclination to the Equator,
- an altitude of approx 20200 km with an orbital
period of 12 sideral hours.
These satellites give:
- the satellite position (Ephemeris of the
constellation),
- the constellation data (Almanach).
- the atmospheric corrections.

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - GPS PRINCIPLE - SPATIAL SEGMENT


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GPS PRINCIPLE (Continued)

TMUMMRA01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTROL SEGMENT
The control segment is composed of four monitor
stations and one master control station which track
the satellites, compute the ephemeris, clock
corrections and control the navigation parameters and
transmit them to the GPS users.
The four monitor stations are located at:
- KWAJALEIN
- HAWAII
- ASCENCION ISLAND
- DIEGO GARCIA
The master control station is located at:
- COLORADO SPRINGS.

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - GPS PRINCIPLE - CONTROL SEGMENT


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GPS PRINCIPLE (Continued)
USER SEGMENT
The principle of GPS position computation is based on
the measurement of transmission time of the GPS signals
broadcast by at least 4 satellites.
This segment is constitued by the GPS receiver and
defined as follows:
- signal acquisition,
- distance calculation,
- navigation computation (Satellite choice,
positioning, propagation corrections),
- detection and isolation of failed satellites
(GPS PRIMARY).

TMUMMRA01-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

NOTE: When GPS mode is active, no VOR/DME/ADF data is


used for navigation.

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - GPS PRINCIPLE - USER SEGMENT


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS

TMUMMRA01-T05 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The components are two ILS antennas, 2 GPS antennas


and two MMR units.
The MMR system is also connected to:
- Primary Flight Display (PFD) and Navigation
Display (ND) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
control unit for display control.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC)
for ILS auto-tuning and GPS position.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
ILS manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for ILS back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for ILS audio
signal.
- Air Data and Inertial Reference Unit for
GPIR data.

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UFD0100

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - COMPONENTS


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


ILS INDICATING

TMUMMRA01-T06 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The ILS data appears on the PFD as soon as the ILS


pushbutton switch on the EFIS control panel has been
pressed in and on the ND when ROSE/ILS mode has been
selected.
ILS information is displayed in magenta.
The ILS1 information is displayed on PFD1 and ND2.
The ILS2 information is displayed on PFD2 and ND1.

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - ILS INDICATING


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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GPS INDICATING

TMUMMRA01-T07 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The GPS data is displayed on the MCDUs and on the NDs.


- GPS data on MCDU (GPS MONITOR page):
* GPS position (Lat, Long)
* True Track
* GPS altitude
* Figure of Merit
* Ground Speed
* Number of satellites tracked
* Mode.
- GPS message on ND:
* Availability of the GPS Primary navigation function.

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UFD0100

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MMR SYSTEM PRESENTATION - GPS INDICATING


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SELF EXAMINATION
The satellite orbital planes have an inclination of:
A - 60.
B - 55 to the Equator.
C - 45 to the Equator.

TMUMMRA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The control segment is composed of:


A - 3 monitor stations.
B - 5 monitor stations.
C - 4 monitor stations and one master
control station.

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34-42-00 RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM
PRESENTATION

TMURADG01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating

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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PRINCIPLE

TMURADG01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Radio Altimeter (RA) System determines the height


of the aircraft above the terrain during initial climb,
approach and landing phases.
The RA can therefore operate over non-flat ground
surface.
The principle of the radio altimeter is to transmit a
frequency modulated signal, from the aircraft to the
ground, and to receive the ground reflected signal
after a certain delay.
The time between the transmission and the reception
of the RA signal is proportional to the A/C height.

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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS

TMURADG01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The components are two transceivers, two fans, two


transmission antennae and two reception antennae.
The RA system is also connected to the DMCs for display
on the Primary Flight Displays (PFDs).

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RADIO ALTIMETER SYSTEM PRESENTATION


INDICATING

TMURADG01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The aircraft height data is displayed on the Primary


Flight Displays for heights less than or equal to 2500
ft.
The altitude is also shown by means of:
- A ground line rising on to the pitch down area
(Below 300 ft).
- A red ribbon next to the altitude scale
(Below 500 ft).

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UFD0100

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34-43-00 TCAS PRESENTATION

TMUTCAB05 LEVEL 3

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating
Self Examination

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TCAS PRESENTATION
PRINCIPLE

TMUTCAB05-T01 LEVEL 3

UFD0100

The Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a


system whose function is to detect and display aircraft
in the immediate vicinity and to provide the flight
crew with indications to avoid these intruders.
The TCAS indications for flight plan modifications are
in the vertical plane only.
The TCAS detects the air traffic control system or
TCAS equipped aircraft and maintains surveillance
within a range determined by its sensivity.
To evaluate threat potential of other aircraft the
system divides the space around aircraft into 4
volumes.
- OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME.
The OTHER TRAFFIC VOLUME is the first volume providing
the presence and the progress of on intruder.
(No collision threat).
- PROXIMATE TRAFFIC VOLUME.
The proximate traffic volume is defined by a given
volume around the TCAS equipped aircraft.
(No collision threat, but in vicinity).

- TRAFFIC ADVISORY VOLUME (TA).


When the intruder is relatively near but does not
represent an immediate threat, the TCAS provides an
aural and visual information known as Traffic Advisory
(TA).
The TCAS aural messages can be inhibited depending on
higher priority aural messages.
- RESOLUTION ADVISORY VOLUME (RA).
When the intruder represents a collision threat, the
TCAS triggers an aural and visual alarm known as
Resolution Advisory (RA), which informs the crew about
avoidance maneuvers.

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TCAS PRESENTATION
COMPONENTS

TMUTCAB05-T02 LEVEL 3

UFD0100

The TCAS components are two antennae, one TCAS computer


and one TCAS/ATC control panel.
Note: The TCAS/ATC control panels shown here after are
given as examples. They may differ according to
the aircraft configuration.

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TCAS PRESENTATION
INDICATING

TMUTCAB05-T03 LEVEL 3

UFD0100

The TCAS indications appear on the PFD and the ND.


The visual resolution and traffic advisory indications
are associated with aural indications such as "TRAFFIC,
TRAFFIC", "CLIMB, CLIMB"...
The TCAS displays only the most threatening intruders.

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SELF EXAMINATION

TMUTCAB05 LEVEL 3

UFD0100

Which aircraft are detected by the TCAS ?


A - All.
B - Only ATC Mode S equipped A/C.
C - ATC equipped A/C.

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34-48-00 ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY
WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUEGPA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
General
Principle
Components
Indicating

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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL
The Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning System (EGPWS)
is built over the current GPWS.
- EGPWS = GPWS + "ENHANCED" functions.
PRINCIPLE

TMUEGPA01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The purpose of the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning


System (EGPWS) is to help prevent accidents caused by
Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT).
When boundaries of any alerting envelope are exceeded;
aural alert messages, visual annunciations and
displays are generated.
The basic GPWS modes generate aural and visual warnings
corresponding to an aircraft behaviour when the alert
envelope is penetrated.
The "ENHANCED" features complete the basic GPWS modes:
- Terrain Clearance Floor (TCF): Increase the
terrain clearance envelope around the airport
runway.
- Terrain Awareness alerting and Display (TAD):
Incorporation of a terrain database to predict
conflict between flight path and terrain and
to display the conflicting terrain.

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ENHANCED GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS

TMUEGPA01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The system comprises an EGPWC, a control panel, two


warning lights and two TERRAIN ON ND mode pushbutton
switches.
The EGPWS is connected to various navigation systems
(WR, RA, ADIRS, ILS...).
It processes the navigation data and generates alarms.

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INDICATING

TMUEGPA01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The basic GPWS modes generate visual warnings through


associated lights and synthetic warnings through the
loudspeakers.
The "ENHANCED" GPWS functions allow the terrain hazards
to be displayed on the Navigation Display (ND).

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TMUEGPA01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34-51-00 DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUDMEH01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating

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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PRINCIPLE

TMUDMEH01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) provides


digital readout of the aircraft slant range distance
from a selected ground station.
The system generates interrogation pulses from an
onboard interrogator and sends them to a selected
ground station.
After a 50 micro seconds delay, the ground station
replies.
The interrogator determines the distance in Nautical
Miles (NM) between the station and the aircraft.
The interrogator detects the Morse audio signal which
identifies the ground station.

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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS

TMUDMEH01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The components are two antennae and two interrogators.


The DME system is also connected to:
- Primary Flight Displays (PFD), Navigation
Displays (ND) and Digital Distance Radio
Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
control unit for display control.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC)
for tuning (manual and auto).
- Captain and F/O Radio Management Panels (RMP)
for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACPs) for DME audio
signal.

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DME SYSTEM PRESENTATION


INDICATING

TMUDMEH01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The DME distance is shown on the Primary Flight Display


(PFD) (if ILS/DME) and on the Navigation Display (ND)
(if VOR/DME).
The DME distance is also shown on the two windows of
the Digital Distance Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI).

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UFD0100

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34-52-00 ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUATCF08 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Principle
Components

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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PRINCIPLE

TMUATCF08-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponder is an


integral part of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon
System (ATCRBS).
The transponder is interrogated by radar pulses
received from the ground station.
It automatically replies by a series of pulses.
These reply pulses are coded to supply identification
(Mode A) and automatic altitude reporting (Mode C) of
the aircraft on the ground controllers radar scope.
These replies enable the controller to distinguish the
aircraft and to maintain effective ground surveillance
of the air traffic.
The ATC transponder also responds to interrogations
from aircraft equipped with a Traffic Collision
Avoidance System (TCAS) (Mode S).

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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE


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ATC SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS

TMUATCF08-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The components are two transponders, four antennae,


and one ATC/TCAS control panel.
Note: The TCAS/ATC control panels shown here after are
given as examples. They may differ according to
the aircraft configuration.

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TMUATCF08 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34-53-00 ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUADFF01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
Principle
Components
Indicating

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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PRINCIPLE

TMUADFF01-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) is a radio


navigation aid.
The ADF system provides:
- An identification of the relative bearing to
a selected ground station called Non
Directional Beacon (NDB).
- Aural identification of the ground station.
The relative bearing is the angle between the aircraft
heading and the aircraft/ground station axis.

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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION - PRINCIPLE


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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUADFF01-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The combination of signals, received from two loop


antennae and from one omni-directional sense antenna,
provides bearing information.
The ground stations operate in a frequency range of
190 to 1750 Khz.
An additional Morse signal is provided to identify the
selected ground station.

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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


COMPONENTS
The Automatic Direction Finder system is composed of
two receivers and two antennae.
The ADF system is also connected to:
- Navigation Displays (ND) and Digital Distance
Radio Magnetic Indicator (DDRMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
panels for control display.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computer (FMGC)
for auto-tuning.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for ADF audio
signal.

TMUADFF01-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Note: ADF 2 system is optional.

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ADF SYSTEM PRESENTATION


INDICATING
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) system
information can be displayed on the Navigation Displays
(ND) system and on the Digital Distance Radio Magnetic
Indicator (DDRMI).
On the NDs, depending on the position of the ADF
selector switch on the EFIS control panel:
- ADF 1 is represented by a single pointer
- ADF 2 is represented by a double pointer.
On the DDRMI, depending on the position of the ADF
selector switch:
- ADF 1 is represented by a single pointer
- ADF 2 is represented by a double pointer.
are

not

equipped

with

the

ADF

TMUADFF01-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

Note: Some DDRMIs


capability.

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TMUADFF01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

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34-55-00 VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION

TMUVORG02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

CONTENTS:
VOR Principle
MKR Principle
Components
VOR Indicating
MKR Indicating

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VOR/MARKER SYSTEMS PRESENTATION


VOR PRINCIPLE

TMUVORG02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The Very high frequency Omni-directional Range(VOR)


system is a medium-range radio navigation aid.
The VOR system receives, decodes and processes bearing
information from the omni-directional ground station
(working frequency range: 108 to 117.95 Mhz)
The ground VOR station generates a reference phase
signal and a variable phase signal.
The phase difference between these signals, called
bearing, is function of the aircraft position with
respect to the ground station.
The bearing is the angle between the Magnetic North
and the ground station/aircraft axis.
Furthermore, the VOR station provides a Morse
identification which identifies the station.

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MRK PRINCIPLE

TMUVORG02-T02 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The MARKER (MKR) system is a radio navigation aid which


indicates the distance between the aircraft and the
runway threshold.
The MARKER (MKR) system is normally used together with
the ILS system during an ILS approach.

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COMPONENTS

TMUVORG02-T03 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The VOR and MKR systems are composed of two receivers,


one marker antenna and one dual VOR antenna.
The VOR/MKR system is also connected to:
- Navigation Displays (ND), Primary Flight
Displays (PFD) and VOR/ADF/DME Radio Magnetic
Indicator (VOR/ADF/DME RMI) for display.
- Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS)
panels for control display.
- Flight Management and Guidance Computers (FMGC)
for auto-tuning.
- Multipurpose Control Display Units (MCDU) for
manual tuning.
- Captain and First Officer Radio Management
Panels (RMP) for back-up tuning.
- Audio Control Panels (ACP) for VOR/MKR
audio signal.

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VOR INDICATING

TMUVORG02-T04 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

The indicators show that the aircraft is flying from


the ground station and is on the right,crossing and
then on the left hand side of the course selected by
the pilot.

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MKR INDICATING

TMUVORG02-T05 LEVEL 1

UFD0100

When the aircraft overflies the Marker, the type of


Marker is display on the PFDs in different colors, and
is indicated by an aural identification.

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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

ON BOARD MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

On board maintenance systems enable the engineer to confirm faults and in


some cases go straight to the defective item, thus saving time and money in
the maintenance of aircraft. There are many different on board maintenance
systems in use on modern aircraft, ranging from a simple magnetic indicator
on an LRU, to complex systems that allow engineers to connect laptop
computers to down load system parameters and fault data.
1.1 MULTI FUNCTION COMPUTER SYSTEM (MFC)
In flight monitoring and ground test capabilities are provided by the MFC
system (as fitted to the ATR 72). It consists of two independent computers
MFC1 and MFC2. The use of these two computers has meant the removal of
a total of 9 redundant LRUs.
Each computer includes two independent modules, Module A & B. Each
Module receives signals from all the various systems and system controls.
They also include a self-test capability so that each module can be tested to
ensure it is operating correctly.
1.1.1 FUNCTION

After processing the input information, the unit will output to the various
systems to:
1. Monitor, control and authorize operation of the aircraft systems.
2. Manage system failures and flight envelope anomalies and command
triggering of associated warning in the "Crew Alerting System" (CAS).
3. Provide readout of BITE memory via a maintenance panel on the flight
deck, giving information of any system failures.

SYSTEMS

ON BOARD MAINTENANCEPAGE
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Figure 1 shows a simplified block diagram of the MFC system.

FAULT
ACTIVATE

FAULT
ACTIVATE

MFC 1

MFC 1A
STATUS

MFC 1B
STATUS

INPUTS

INPUTS

MFC 1A

MFC 1B

OUTPUTS

PRIMARY
SECONDARY

OUTPUTS

ELECTICAL
POWER

ELECTICAL
POWER

PRIMARY
SECONDARY

MFC Block Schematic Diagram


Figure 1

SYSTEMS

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1.1.2 MAINTENANCE PANEL

The ATR 72 maintenance panel (located right-hand console), enables the


operator to identify faults on the system using a rotary switch and a failure
display. The control panel (located on the overhead panel) allows the
switching on and fault monitoring of the MFC system. Figure 2 shows the
MFC Maintenance and control panels.

MFC
1A

1B

2A

2B

FAULT

FAULT

FAULT

FAULT

OFF

OFF

OFF

OFF

MFC CONTROL PANEL (OVERHEAD)


BITE ADV DISPLAY

F F

MFC

DATA
BUS

F F

BITE
LOADED

NORM
FLT
WOW & L/G

ERS
MFC

DOORS

BOOTS

PTA/ERS
MISC

MAG
IND
TEST

NAV
1

BRK
FLT
CTL

MFC MAINTENANCE PANEL (OVERHEAD)

MFC Maintenance & Control Panels


Figure 2

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The Maintenance panel has the following functions:


Bite Loaded Indicator - Indicates when a fault has been recorded by the
maintenance system.
System Selector Switch - Normally placed in the NORM FLT position.

During

Bite Advisory Display - Indicates, through illuminated lights, the code of the
failure recorded. Combination of illumination of these lights enables up to 14
failures per system to be coded.

PTA/ERS push-button - PTA function (push to advance) enables recorded


failures on selected system to be run. At the end of the selected system test
FFFF is displayed. It also acts as an "Erase" function; this will clear current faults from the syste
Test push-button - Used to check operation of the "BITE LOADED" magnetic indicator.
Data Bus connector - Enables the connection of the Maintenance Test Set
system to be connected. This enables the down load of all faults onto a
Notebook type computer.

SYSTEMS

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The failure codes are all listed in the aircraft maintenance manual. Table 1
shows an example of the code/failure relationship.

SYSTEM: WOW/L/G
CODE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
A
B
C
D
E

2
F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F
F

1
F
F
F

F
F

F
F

F
F
F
F
F
F

DEFINITION
Right Main Gear Prime DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Nose Gear Prime DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Left Main Gear Prime DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Right Main Gear Sec DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Nose Gear Sec DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Left Main Gear Sec DnLk Prox Switch Fail
Left Main Gear WOW 1 Prox Switch Fail
Nose Gear WOW 1 Prox Switch Fail
Right Main Gear WOW 1 Prox Switch Fail
Left Main Gear WOW 2 Prox Switch Fail
Nose Gear WOW 2 Prox Switch Fail
Right Main Gear WOW 2 Prox Switch Fail

F
F
F

End of list for selected system

Failure Codes - De-icing Boots System


Table 1

SYSTEMS

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1.1.3 BUILT-IN TEST EQUIPMENT (BITE)

Large aircraft often incorporate "built-in Test Equipment" (BITE) systems to


monitor and detect faults in a variety of aircraft systems. Before BITE
systems, faults finding often required the connection of special Test
Equipment then lengthy tests to establish where the fault lay. Then the
rectification by replacing the required Line Replacement Unit (LRU) followed
by a functional test to confirm the system serviceability, and finally, the
removal of the test equipment. The use of BITE systems reduces the timespent fault finding and thus eliminates the need for specialist test equipment.
The BITE continuously tests the various systems and stores all fault
information to be recalled later, either by the flight crew or a maintenance
team. Once the appropriate repair has been made, the BITE system can then
be used to reset the system for operation. Most BITE systems are capable of
isolating system faults with at least 95% probability of success on the first
attempt.
The introduction of digital systems on the aircraft has made BITE systems
possible. Discrete digital signals are used as the code language for BITE
systems. The BITE system interprets the various combinations of digital
signals to determine a system's status. If an incorrect input value is detected,
the BITE system records the fault and displays the information upon request.
This information may be by illuminating a number of Light Emitting Diodes
(LED's), or, as with modern systems, a display on a CRT or TV display.
A complex BITE system is capable of testing thousands of input parameters
from several different systems. Most BITE systems perform two types of test
programs:
Operational Test
Maintenance test
Normal operational checks start with initialization upon switch on of system
power supplies.

SYSTEMS

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Figure 3 shows the BITE flow sequence.

POWER
POWER
UP
UP
RESET
RESET

PROTECTION
PROTECTION

INITIALIZE
INITIALIZE

CONTROL
CONTROL

INPUT
INPUT

OUTPUT
OUTPUT

OPERATIONAL
OPERATIONAL
BITE
BITE

BITE Flow Diagram


Figure 3

SYSTEMS

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The operational BITE program is designed to check:


Input signals.
Protection circuitry.
Control circuitry.
Output signals.
Operational BITE circuitry.
During normal system operation, the BITE monitors a "Watchdog" signal
initiated by the BITE program. This watchdog routine detects any hardware
failure or excessive signal distortion, which may create an operational fault. If
the BITE program detects either of these conditions, it automatically provides
isolation of the necessary component, initiates warnings and records the fault
in a Non-volatile memory.
The maintenance program of the BITE is entered into only when the aircraft is
on the ground and the "Maintenance Test" routine is requested.
On aircraft fitted with Flight Management System FMS, a more complex BITE
system is provided. In the Boeing 737, the FMS BITE provides fast and
accurate diagnosis of the main FMS components.

SYSTEMS

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Figure 4 shows the Boeing 737 FMS Bite System.

Boeing FMS BITE System


Figure 4

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1.1.4 OPERATION

Self-contained In-flight monitoring and ground test capabilities are provided


for the main FMS components. Each major FMS component contains
comprehensive tests for itself, its sensor inputs, and other interfaces. In-flight
data is automatically stored for analysis on the ground through the BITE
system.
BITE is controlled via the FMS Control Display Unit, CDU. The FMS display
will display (in plain English), system status for all systems under test. The
operator simply selects from a menu of test options and inputs interactive
responses via the CDU. BITE runs the test and provides corrective action
diagnostics. The system is designed for line maintenance fault isolation to a
single line replacement unit (LRU), within minutes. The BITE system will also
carry out system verification; to check interfaces after corrective maintenance
action.

SYSTEMS

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1.2 DATA LOADING


Navigation information required by the aircraft systems is loaded using "Data
Loaders". These loaders are capable of downloading thousands of bytes of
information into the required system in a matter of seconds. The validity of
the current data loaded into an aircraft can be checked using the FMS CDU,
which will show the current version, loaded into it. Figure 5 shows a Data
Loader as fitted to the Boeing 737

DISK STORAGE

429 BUS
INTERFACE

DISK STORAGE

POWER
PROG

CHNG

COMP

RDY

XFER

R/W

FAIL

SPARE
FUSE

PROG
CHNG
COMP
RDY
XFER
R/W
FAIL

DATA TRANSFER IN PROGRESS


DATA CHANGE IS REQUIRED
DATA TRANSFER IS COMPLETE
UNIT READY FOR OPERATION
DATA TRANSFER FAILURE
UNABLE TO ACCESS DISK DATA
SYSTEM TEST FAILURE

LINE
FUSE
ON/OFF

Boeing 737 Data Loader


Figure 5

SYSTEMS

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1.2.1 NAVIGATION DATA BASE

The Navigation database (NDB) contains data that describes the environment
in which the aircraft operates. The type of information loaded includes:

Approaches.

Country Name.

Waypoints.

Airports.

Runways.

Marker Beacons.

Holding Patterns.

This information is used by the Flight Management Computer (FMC), to


create flight plans that define the aircraft route from origin to destination.
The source data and the NDB are updated on a 28-day cycle that it
corresponds to the normal revision cycle for navigation charts. Each update
disk contains the data for the current cycle and the next one. This
arrangement provides the user with greater flexibility since it is not necessary
to load a new disk on a specific day. Each PCMCIA card contains 8
megabytes of storage.

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1.3 CENTRAL MAINTENANCE COMPUTING SYSTEM (CMCS)


The CMCS supports both line and extended maintenance functions through
menu selections on the Maintenance Access Terminal (MAT) or Portable
Maintenance Access Terminal (PMAT). Other menu selections support
special maintenance functions, on-line help and report production. Figure 9
shows the location of the MAT.

MAT KEYBOARD

MAT KEYBOARD
SLOT

MAINTENANCE ACCESS
TERMINAL (MAT)
FLIGHT COMPARTMENT
REAR RIGHT SIDEWALL

Maintenance Access Terminal (MAT)


Figure 9

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The CMCS is used for:


Monitoring the aeroplanes systems for faults.
Processing fault information.
Supplying maintenance messages.
Monitoring flight deck effects (FDE).
Maintenance messages give the engineers detailed fault information to help in
troubleshooting. The Aeroplane Condition Monitoring System (ACMS)
monitors for any system faults, if a fault is detected, a maintenance message
is sent to the CMCS. The CMCS processes the data and shows a
maintenance message so the maintenance crew can examine it and find a
corrective action.
1.3.1 FLIGHT DECK EFFECT (FDE)

FDE inform the flight and ground crews of the conditions relating to the safe
operation of the aircraft. The ground crew must find the cause of an FDE to
find the corrective action. The FDE data is used along with the aircrafts
maintenance manuals to isolate the fault.
The ACMS monitor conditions related to the loss of a system or function. If a
condition exists that requires repair or deferral, the ACMS sends FDE data to
the AIMS Primary Display System (PDS). The PDS will show the FDE on the
MAT and PMAT.
1.3.2 MAINTENANCE ACCESS TERMINAL (MAT)

The MAT has a display screen and controls for selecting and viewing fault
data. A keyboard is also provided (stored when not in use) which allows
certain entries and controls displayed data. The MAT also has a cursor
control device, which has a power supply module that receives 115V ac via
the MAINT ACCESS TERMINAL circuit breaker located on the overhead
panel. This PSM then distributes power for the remainder of the MAT. The
cursor control device contains the following controls:
Track Ball.
Selection Keys.
Brightness Control.
SYSTEMS

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Figure 10 shows the MAT and cursor control device.

MAT DUAL
DISK DRIVE

MAT DISPLAY

MAT CURSOR
CONTROL DEVICE

SELECTION KEYS (3)


TRACK BALL

POWER SUPPLY
MODULE

BRIGHTNESS
CONTROL

CURSOR CONTROL
DEVICE

MAT & Cursor Control Device


Figure 10

SYSTEMS

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TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 11 shows the MAT display showing FDE data.

LINE
MAINTENACE

EXTENDED
MAINTENANCE

OTHER
FUNCTIONS

HELP

N77701
TBC1234 KBFI/KMWH
LEG STATRT WAS 1753Z 07 JUL 00
THIS DATA IS FROM LEFT CMCF

INBOUND FLIGHT DECK EFFECTS


Select text of Maintenance Message, then select the
MAINTENANCE MESSAGE DATA button to get more
data.

MAINTENANCE
MESSAGE DATA

Flight Deck Effects recorded during the present leg

FDE: F/D ZONE TEMP CTRL

STATUS

Fault Code : 216 011 00

FDE: CAPT RA FLAG

Maintenance Message: 34-42011


Approach

NOT ACTIVE
1948z 07JUL00

PFD FLAG

Fault Code : 343 311 31

REPORT

ACTIVE
1948z 07JUL00

ACTIVE
1941z 07JUL00

Radio Altimeter Transceiver (left) has an internal fault.

GO BACK

ERASE
FAULT

MAT Displayed Data


Figure 11

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1.4 PORTABLE MAINTENANCE ACCESS DEVICE (PMAT)


The PMAT is stored within the electronics bay and has the same functions as
the MAT. There is a PMAT terminal receptacle located on the MAT position.
There are also four other PMAT receptacles located throughout the aircraft.
These are located:
Electronics Bay.
Nose Gear.
Right Main Gear Bay.
Stabilizer Bay.

Figure 12 shows a PMAT and receptacle.

PMAT

SELECTION
SWITCHES

POWER
SWITCH

CURSOR
CONTROL

PMAT RECEPTACLE

LCD
DISPLAY

KEYBOARD
DISK
DRIVE

Portable Maintenance Access terminal (PMAT)


Figure 12
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1.5 AEROPLANE CONDITION MONITORING SYSTEM (ACMS)


The ACMS (Boeing 777) collects monitors and records data from the aircrafts
system. The data collected by the system is used to produce reports. These
reports are used to:
Analyze aeroplane performance.
Analyze trends.
Report significant events.
Troubleshoot faults.
Figure 13 shows the layout of the Boeing 777 ACMS.

AIRPLANE CONDITION
MONITORING SYSTEM
(ACMS)

ACMS REPORTS
ACMS REPORTS
ACMS
XXXX REPORTS
XX X XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX
XXXX XX X XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX XXXX XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX
XXXX XX
XX X XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX XXXX XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX
X X XXXXXXXXXXXXX
XX XXXX XX XXXXXXX
XXXXX
XXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXX
XX X XXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
X XXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX XXXX
XXXX XXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXX
XXXX XXX XX XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX
XXXX
XXXXXXX
XXX XX XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXX
XX XXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX X X X X
XXXXXXX
XXXXXXX X X X X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXX X X X
XXXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX
XXXXXX
XXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX

ACMF

XXXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX

PDF
CMCF

QAR

AIMS
FMCF

DCMF

TMCF

FDCF

TA
DA

DFDAF

Boeing 777 ACMS


Figure 13
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The ACMS receives data from the Aeroplane Conditioning Monitoring


Function (ACMF) which is located in the left-hand AIMS cabinet. The ACMS
is accessed through formats on the Maintenance Access Terminal (MAT),
Portable Maintenance Access Terminal (PMAT) or the side displays on the
flight deck. The ACMS can if required be programmed by the user airline to
carry out custom features. Figure 14 shows the general arrangement of
ACMS.

RH
DISPLAY
LH
DISPLAY

QAR
FLIGHT COMPARTMENT
PRINTER

MAT

PMAT

A
I
R
C
R
A
F
T

FLIGHT CONTROL
ARINC 629 BUS (3)

SDU

VHF
TX/RX

SYSTEMS
ARINC 629 BUS (4)
ARINC 429
ANALOG
DISCRETES

LEFT HAND AIMS CABINET

ACMS (Boeing 777)


Figure 14

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1.5.1 AIRPLANE CONDITION MONITORING FUNCTION (ACMF)

The ACMF is a combination of standard and custom software. The custom


software is set to the following functions:
Report Format.
Report Content.
Triggers.
Triggers are logic equations that detect conditions and cause data to be
recorded, e.g. engine exceedances. The ACMF sends data to the following
units:
Quick Access Recorder (QAR).
Maintenance Access Terminal (MAT).
Portable Maintenance Access Terminal (PMAT).
MAT or PMAT disk drives (to record data onto diskette).
Flight deck Side Displays (SD).
Data Communication Management Function (DCMF).
Note: The DCMF is used to send data to the airline base while the aircraft is
airborne via either the VHF communication or Satellite communication
system.
The ACMS collects data to record and sends reports to many output devices.
The MAT and PMATs allows the user to see the ACMS data and control the
function of the ACMS. Aircraft systems send data into the AIMS cabinet
input/output modules on:
Flight Control ARINC 629 Buses.
System ARINC 629 Buses.
ARINC 429 Buses.
Analog Inputs.
Discrete Inputs.
SYSTEMS

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1.5.2 QUICK ACCESS RECORDER (QAR)

The QAR records data sent from the ACMF onto a 3.5 inch 128 MB optical
disk and holds 41 hours of data. A spare disk is located within the unit should
the active disk become full. Figure 15 shows a QAR and optical disk.

PRESS
SPARE DISK
OPTICAL QAR

POWER ON

DISPLAY
DISPLAY

PENNY
&
GILES

FAIL

LOW CAPACITY

MAINTENANCE

EJECT

OPTICAL DISK CARTRIDGE

MADE IN
U.K.

QUICK ACCESS RECORDER

Quick Access Recorder (QAR)


Figure 15
The optical disk has a magnetic surface with an infrared laser optically
tracking the disk. Data from the ACMF (Core Processing Module, CPM) is
received by the QARs CPU. The CPU does a self-test to check the validity of
the data and then sends control information to the memory device.

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The QRA memory device contains two memories:


1. Flash memory (non-volatile).
2. Formatter memory.
The flash memory holds configuration data, system data and identification
files and sends this data to the formatter. The formatter arranges the received
data, then sends it to the cartridge drive circuits.
The cartridge drive circuits control the position of the laser tracking recording
head. They also write data on and read data from the optical disk. The front
keyboard is used to read information from the optical disk and to run
functional tests. The CPU also sends data to the 16 bit LCD displays. These
displays show:
Stored data.
QAR menus.
Test results.
Messages.
The QAR sends data and status to the CPM/COMM in the left AIMS cabinet.
The ACMF monitors the data and status.
1.6 AEROPLANE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (AIMS)
The AIMS collects and calculates large quantities of data and manages this
data for several integrated aircraft systems. The AIMS has software functions
that do all the calculations for each aircraft system. The AIMS has two
cabinets, which do the calculations for these systems. Each cabinet contains:
Cabinet Chassis.
Four input/output Modules (IOM).
Four Core Processor Modules (CPM).
The IOM and CPM are in the cabinet chassis, which has a backplane data
bus and a backplane power bus to distribute data and power to the IOMs and
CPMs.

SYSTEMS

ON BOARD MAINTENANCEPAGE
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The IOMs transfer data between the software functions in the AIMS CPMs
and external sources. The CPMs supply the software/hardware to do the
calculations. There are four types of CPMs:
1. CPM/COMM Core Processor Module/Communication.
2. CPM/ACMF - Core Processor Module/Aircraft Condition Monitoring
Function.
3. CPM/B - Core Processor Module/Basic.
4. CPM/GG - Core Processor Module/Graphics Generator.
Figure 16 shows the AIMS system (Boeing777).

AIRCRAFT CONDITION
MONITORING SYSTEM
(ACMS)

FLIGHT DATA
RECORDER SYSTEM
(FDRS)

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT
COMPUTING SYSTEM
(FMCS)

PRIMARY DISPLAY
SYSTEM
(PDS)

CENTRAL MAINTENCE
COMPUTING SYSTEM
(CMCS)

AIMS LEFT-HAND CABINET


AIMS RIGHT-HAND CABINET

THRUST MANAGEMENT
COMPUTING SYSTEM
(TMCS)

DATA COMMUNICATION
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM
(DCMS)

AIMS System
Figure 16

SYSTEMS

ON BOARD MAINTENANCEPAGE
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1.6.1 FLIGHT COMPARTMENT PRINTING SYSTEM

The flight compartment printer supplies high-speed hard copies of text for the
following systems:
Primary Display System (PDS).
Aeroplane Condition Monitoring System (ACMS).
Central Maintenance Computing System (CMCS).
The flight compartment printer receives data from the print driver partition of
the Data Communication Management Function (DCMF). The DCMF is
located within the AIMS. The DCMF prioritises data sent to the printer in the
following order:
Flight Deck Communication Function (FDCF) of the DCMS.
Central Maintenance Computing Function (CMCF) of the
CMCF.
Aeroplane Condition Monitoring Function (ACMF) of the
ACMS.
Multi Function Display (MFD).
The printer can print at 300 dots per inch (DPI). It uses a roll of paper, which
is 125 feet long and is A4 European Air standard paper. The printer contains
all mechanical components and electronics necessary for printer operation.
The mechanical components include:
Printer head.
Rollers to move paper.
Motor and drive system.
The electronic components include:
Power supply module.
Processor board.
Controller board.
SYSTEMS

ON BOARD MAINTENANCEPAGE
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Interconnection board

SYSTEMS

ON BOARD MAINTENANCEPAGE
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Figure 17 shows the flight compartment printer.

FAIL

PAPER

CUT

SLEW

RESET

TEST

TOP VIEW

SIDE VIEW

Flight Compartment Printer


Figure 17
Controller Board Receives brightness controls from dimmer controls that
drive the lights on the front panel.
Processing Board Processes all inputs for the left AIMS cabinet and
changes the data signals to control the thermal printer.
Interconnection Board Controls the flow of data between the processor
board and the controller board and the mechanical devices that print three
paper.

SYSTEMS

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-73-00 CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA
SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

TMUCI2A02 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

CONTENTS:
General
Principle
Passengers Functions
Crew Functions
Cabin Systems Functions
Monitoring And Test Functions
Aircraft Systems Functions
Cockpit Controls And Indicating

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TMUCI2A02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


GENERAL

PASSENGER FUNCTIONS

Changing market demands require flexibility in


customized cabin layouts and optional cabin systems.
With the Cabin Intercommunication Data System (CIDS),
the operator is able to change the cabin layout without
hardware
changes
(e.g.
cabin
loudspeakers,
PAX-equipment ...).
This can be simply done by entering, on board, new
cabin parameters in the software.
The CIDS is a microprocessor based system. It monitors,
tests, operates and provides control and monitoring
of the cabin functions.

PRINCIPLE

CABIN SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS

To manage various functions, the CIDS has a central


unit, the CIDS DIRECTOR. It is linked to the Forward
Attendant Panel (FAP) for control and monitoring of
the cabin functions.
The Director then communicates, through a bus system,
with Decoder Encoder Units (DEUs). The DEUs send (and
receive) information to (and from) the cabin, passenger
and crew systems.
The Director has interfaces to other aircraft systems.
Through a Programming and Test Panel (PTP) the CIDS
can be programmed to customer demand.
The PTP is also used to test the entire CIDS.

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general cabin illumination control,


passenger address,
passenger call,
passenger lighted signs,
passenger reading light switching.

CREW FUNCTIONS
- cabin and flight crew interphone,
- service interphone,
- emergency evacuation signalling.

boarding music,
pre-recorded announcement,
lavatory smoke warning,
temperature regulated drain mast system,
emergency lighting.

MONITORING AND TEST FUNCTIONS


-

system programming and test,


work light test,
escape slide bottle pressure monitoring,
reading lights test,
extended emergency lighting test.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM DESIGN PHILOSOPHY


AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FUNCTIONS
- interface with aircraft systems:
e.g. FWC, LGCIU, PRAM, SFCC, etc...
COCKPIT CONTROLS AND INDICATING
call panel,
evac panel,
NS/FSB panel,
PA handset,
service interphone.

TMUCI2A02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATION
23-73-00 CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA
SYSTEM PRESENTATION

TMUCI2B02 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

CONTENTS:
General
Directors
Type A Decoder Encoder Units
Type B Decoder Encoder Units
Forward Attendant Panel
Programming and Test Panel

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL

TYPE A DECODER ENCODER UNITS

The CIDS consists of the following components:


- the Directors including ON Board Replaceable
Memories (OBRM),
- the Programming and Test Panel (PTP) including
Cabin Assignment Module (CAM),
- the Forward Attendant Panel (FAP),
- the Additional Attendant Panels,
- the Type A Decoder Encoder Units (DEUs A),
- the Type B Decoder Encoder Units (DEUs B),
- Cockpit equipment,
- Cabin equipment.

The type A DEUs provide the interface between the


directors and the passenger related systems.

TMUCI2B02-T01 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

DIRECTORS
For redundancy, two directors are installed.
In normal operation of the CIDS, director 2 is in hot
stand-by.
Both directors receive the same inputs and perform the
same computations. The outputs of the director in hot
stand-by are disabled.
The directors are connected through two CIDS busses
to the type A and type B DEUs to carry the various
data to the cabin equipment.
The FAP, PTP and other systems are connected directly
to the directors basically for control, indication and
test of the CIDS functions.

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TYPE B DECODER ENCODER UNITS


The type B DEUs provide the interface between the
directors and the attendant and cabin related systems.
FORWARD ATTENDANT PANEL
The Forward Attendant Panel (FAP) is installed at the
forward attendant station.
From the FAP, the various cabin systems can be
controlled and monitored.
PROGRAMMING AND TEST PANEL
The Programming and Test Panel (PTP) is installed at
the forward attendant station next to the FAP.
The PTP contains the Cabin Assignment Module (CAM)
which is used to store all information for the actual
cabin layout.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CABIN INTERCOMMUNICATION DATA SYSTEM PRESENTATION


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TMUCI2B02 LEVEL 1

UFD4200

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-73-00 CIDS - DIRECTOR/DEU ARCHITECTURE

TMUCI2C03 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

CONTENTS:
DEU A
DEU B
Self Examination

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CIDS - DIRECTOR/DEU ARCHITECTURE


DEU A
Twenty six type A Decoder Encoder Units (DEUs) are
installed above the windows in the cabin ceiling and
close to the center ceiling for the DEUs in the entrance
area.
The type A DEUs are connected to the directors via a
top-line data bus (i.e. : two wire twisted and shielded
cable).
A broken wire in one top-line bus will only affect the
type A DEUs behind the crack on this bus.
The type A DEUs of the other top-line bus will work
without disturbance.

TMUCI2C03-T01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

PASSENGER SIGNS
The passenger signs include NO SMOKING or the optional
NO ELECTRONIC DEVICE lights, FASTEN SEAT BELT lights,
NON SMOKER ZONE lights and RETURN TO SEAT lights in
the lavatories.
Furthermore, for the PAX call system, the seat row
lights are connected to the type A DEUs.

LOUDSPEAKERS
The loudspeakers are installed in the Passenger Service
Unit (PSU), in each lavatory and close to the attendant
station.
They are all identical and are used for:
- Passenger address announcements,
- Call chimes (optional).
PASSENGER CALL
Pushbuttons are fitted in the PSU above each seat row
and in the lavatories.
READING/LIGHT POWER UNIT
One R/L power unit for three reading lights
installed in each Passenger Service Unit (PSU).

is

CABIN LIGHTS
The cabin lights include:
- Entrance area lights,
- Lavatory lights,
- Attendant lights,
- Reading lights,
- Cabin fluorescent strip lights.

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MECHANICS / ELECTRICS & AVIONICS COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

CIDS - DIRECTOR/DEU ARCHITECTURE


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

CIDS - DIRECTOR/DEU ARCHITECTURE


DEU B
Basically 4 type B DEUs (max. 6 - Optional) are
installed near the exit doors in the center ceiling.
They are connected to the directors via a middle line
data bus.
There are two supplementary DEU B mounts installed as
a provision.
The fig. on the next page shows a typical Type B DEU
interface. It may vary with different locations and
with specific airline requirements.
SLIDE PRESSURE SYSTEM (Optional)
The directors receive signals from the bottle pressure
sensors via type B DEUs.
If the pressure is low, the CIDS CAUTION light on the
FAP comes on.

EPSUs
The Emergency Power Supply Units (EPSUs) are connected
to type B DEUs for the emergency lighting system test.
DRAIN MAST
The directors receive signals from the drain mast
control unit via type B DEUs.
If the drain mast heater or the control unit fails the
CIDS CAUTION light on the FAP comes on.
ATTND AND PANEL
One Attendant Indication Panel is installed near each
attendant seat for message purposes.
AREA CALL PANEL
One basic and one optional ACP can be connected to
each DEU B.

TMUCI2C03-T02 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

DOOR PRESSURE SYSTEM (Optional)


The directors receive signals from the bottle pressure
sensors via type B DEUs.
If the pressure is low, the CIDS CAUTION light on the
FAP comes ON.
CREW INTERPHONE SYSTEM
The crew interphone system enables communication
between cockpit crew and cabin attendants and between
each attendant station.
NOTE: From each attendant station it is possible to
communicate with personnel at the service
interphone connections.

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MECHANICS / ELECTRICS & AVIONICS COURSE

23 COMMUNICATIONS

CIDS - DIRECTOR/SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE


EFFECTIVITY
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23 COMMUNICATIONS

SELF EXAMINATION
A break
A
B
C

in one top line data bus:


- Disables all DEUs.
- Affects only type B DEUs.
- Only affects the type A DEUs behind the
crack on this bus.
Panel (ACP) is connected to:
directors directly.
type A DEUs.
type B DEUs.

TMUCI2C03 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

The Area Call


A - The
B - The
C - The

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

23 - COMMUNICATIONS
23-30-00 PASSENGER ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM
PRESENTATION

TMU23EA01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

CONTENTS:
General
PES
PES Video
PRAM

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

PASSENGER ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM PRESENTATION


GENERAL
The passenger address and entertainment
comprises the following basic functions:

system

- Passenger Entertainment System (PES),


- Passenger Entertainment System Video

(PES
video),
- Pre-Recorded Announcements and boarding Music
system (PRAM).
The PES comprises the PES music, the passenger address
and the passenger service.
PES
The PES transmits pre-recorded music programs,
passenger address information, video and video sounds
to the passengers.
The audio signals can be heard through headphones
connected to the Passenger Control Units (PCU).

TMU23EA01-T01 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

The PCU allows several music channels and video audio


channels to be selected and the volume to be adjusted.
The PCU also allows the reading lights and passenger
calls to be remotely controlled through the Passenger
Service System (PSS).
All pre-recorded announcements (video and sound) and
the passenger address messages, heard in the headphones
through the PCU, have priority over the music and video
sound entertainment channels.

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The anouncements and passenger address messages are


also broadcast through the passenger address
loudspeakers, via the CIDS.
The PES audio reproducers supply music channels to the
Main Multiplexer and boarding music channels to the
CIDS director.
The CIDS broadcasts the boarding music through the
passenger address loudspeakers.
Boarding Music (BGM) channel and volume control is
performed on the Forward Attendant Panel (FAP).
The Main Multiplexer is connected to the CFDIU to
ensure the passenger entertainment BITE function.
PES VIDEO
The PES video shows pre-recorded video movies and video
announcements through different display units in the
passenger compartment.
The video sound is transmitted to the Main Multiplexer
and to the CIDS.
Therefore video sounds can be heard from the headset
through the PCU or from the cabin passenger address
loudspeakers.
The in-seat video display units are supplied through
the Main Multiplexer.

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23 COMMUNICATIONS

PASSENGER ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM PRESENTATION - SCHEMATIC


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23 COMMUNICATIONS

PASSENGER ENTERTAINMENT SYSTEM PRESENTATION


PRAM
The PRAM is an audio tape reproducer which contains
pre-recorded announcements and boarding music supplied
to the CIDS director.
The announcements are also sent to the Main
Multiplexer.

TMU23EA01-T02 LEVEL 3

UFD4200

The PRAM is controlled from the FAP.

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1.1 ARINC COMMUNICATION, ADDRESSING & REPORTING SYSTEM


The ACARS is a digital data link for either ground-air or air-ground connections.
The system reduces the flight crews workload because it transmits routine
reports automatically and simplifies other reporting.
The ACARS network is made up of three sections:
Airborne System.
Ground Network.
Airline Operations Centre.
The airborne system has an ACARS Management Computer (MU) which
manages the incoming and outgoing messages, and a Multi-Purpose Interactive
Display Unit (MPIDU) which is used by the flight crew to interface with the
ACARS system. A printer can also be installed to allow incoming messages to be
printed for future reference.
ACARS operates using the VHF 3 communications system on a frequency of
131.55 MHz. Since ACARS only operates on one frequency, all transmitted
messages must be as short as possible. To achieve a short message, a special
code block using a maximum of 220 characters is transmitted in a digital format.
If longer messages are required, more than one block will be transmitted. Each
ACARS message takes approximately 1 second of airtime to be sent. Sending
and receiving data over the ACARS network reduces the number of voice
contacts required on any one flight, thereby reducing communication workload.
ACARS operates in two modes:
Demand Mode.
Polled Mode.

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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ENGINEERS

1.1.1 DEMAND MODE

The demand mode allows the flight crew of airborne equipment to initiate
communications. To transmit a message, the MU determines if the ACARS
channel is free from other communications from other ACARS, if it is clear, the
message is sent. If the ACARS VHF channel is busy, then the MU waits until the
frequency is available. The ground station sends a reply to the message
transmitted from the aircraft. If an error reply or no reply is received, the MU
continues to transmit the message at the next opportunity. After six attempts
(and failures), the airborne equipment notifies the flight crew.
1.1.2 POLLED MODE

In the polled mode, the ACARS only operates when interrogated by the ground
facility. The ground facility routinely uplinks questions to the aircraft equipment
and when a channel is free the MU responds with a transmitted message. The
MU organises and formats flight data prior to transmission and upon request, the
flight information is transmitted to the ground facility.
The ground station receives and relays messages or reports to the ARINC
ACARS Control Centre. The control centre sorts the messages and sends them
to the operator's control centre (several airlines participate in the ACARS
network).
The ACARS also reduces the congestion of the VHF communication channels
because transmissions of ACARS take fractions of a second while the same
report/message in aural form may have taken in excess of ten seconds.

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

ACARS may be connected to other airplane systems such as the Digital Flight
Data Acquisition Unit (DFDAU). The DFDAU collects data from many of the
aircrafts systems such as Air Data Computer, Navigation and Engine monitoring
systems, and in turn makes this data available to ACARS.
More recent ACARS installations have been connected to the Flight
Management Computer (FMC), permitting flight plan updates, predicated wind
data, take-off data and position reports to be sent over the ACARS network.
The ACARS in use vary greatly from one airline to another and are tailored to
meet each airlines operational needs. When satellite communication systems
are adopted, ACARS will take on a truly global aspect. Figure 1 shows an
ACARS network.

A/C SYSTEMS

AIRLINE
COMPUTER
SYSTEM

MAINTENANCE
OPERATIONS

ACARS

VHF 3

TRANSMISSION
NETWORK

FLIGHT
OPERATIONS

PASSENGER
SERVICES
VHF
TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER

ACARS Network
Figure 1

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.1.3 DESCRIPTION

The ACARS is operational as soon as the electrical power is supplied and does
not have an ON/OFF switch.
The ACARS has the following components:
1.

AC
ARS Management Unit (MU).

2.

Mu
lti-Purpose Interactive Display
Unit (MPIDU).

3.

Ide
nt plug.

4.

Pr
ogram pins.

5.

Th
ermal Printer.

1.1.4 MANAGEMENT UNIT (MU)

The Management Unit (MU) converts the data from and to the VHF-COMM.
Requests from ground-stations for communication or reports go from the MU to
the MIDU or Flight Data Acquisition Unit (FDAU). Most of the reports are
generated in the FDAU. The MU itself makes the report. The unit uses
information from the FWS for this message (parking brake and ground/flight for
example). The interface wiring between MU and FDAU/MIDU is ARINC 429.
The MU codes the messages for VHF-COMM. The messages contain the
aircraft's registration and the airline code. This information comes from the ident
plug. The MU also decodes the messages from the VHF-COMM. When there is
a message for the crew, the MIDU shows a message annunciation, while the MU
also makes a discrete for the Flight Warning System (FWS) to make an alert.
The VHF-COMM can be used for data transmissions for the ACARS or normal
communication. You can select the voice or data mode on the MIDU.
1.1.5 MULTI-PURPOSE INTERACTIVE DISPLAY UNIT (MPIDU)

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

ENGINEERS

Displays messages, reports and communication requests to the crew. It


incorporates touch-screen control in lieu of external pushbuttons and knobs. The
touch-screen control is made possible by the use of infrared sensors along the
sides of the display. Control inputs are made from menus displayed on the
MIDU.

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 2 show the display layout of the MIDU.

IN
Collins
D
A
T
A

DFDAU FAIL

SEND

NUMERIC ENTRY 13 : 02 : 58
FLT : 0123
0008

L
I
N
K

0
CLR

RET

DEL

Multipurpose Interactive Display Unit (MIDU)


Figure 2

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
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ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

1.1.6 ACARS PRINTER

A thermal printer is provided for the printing of ACARS messages. Operation of


the printer is optional as all printed information can be viewed on the MIDU.
Weather report information is sent directly to the printer from the ACARS groundstation.
The printer uses rolls of 4.25 thermal paper. A red stripe appears along the
edge of the paper when the supply is low.
Figure 3 shows the ACARS Printer.

SELF
TEST

PPR
ADV

PWR
ON

ALERT
RESET

PTR
BUSY

PUSHBUTTON
CONTROLS

DOOR LOCKING
SCREW
PAPER LOADING
DOOR

PAPER CUTTING
EDGE

ACARS Thermal Printer


Figure 3

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
PAGE 7 of 9

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

ENGINEERS

1.1.7 PRINTER OPERATION

The printer is normally located aft of the centre pedestal and has a Self Test
feature for pre-flight operational testing.

SELF TEST PUSH BUTTON: Pushing the Self Test pushbutton activates a
printer self test which prints the following:
THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPED
OVER THE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 LAZY DOGS

PPR ADV PUSHBUTTON: Used to advance the paper.

DOOR LOCKING SCREW: Secures the paper loading door shut.

PWR ON LIGHT: Illuminates when power is applied to the printer.

ALERT RESET: Resets the printer if an alert is detected.

PTR BUSY LIGHT: Illuminates amber when the printer is printing. Remains
ON until paper advance is complete.

PAPER LOADING DOOR: Printer paper roll is replaced via opening this door.

PAPER CUTTING EDGE: Allows for smooth paper cutting when a printed
message is removed from the printer.

ACARS communications are accomplished via the ARINC network and the VHF
3 transceiver. VHF 3 is dedicated to this purpose and is automatically controlled
by the ACARS frequency of 131.55 MHz and is tuned remotely by the ground
stations if frequency change is necessary.

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
PAGE 8 of 9

BASIC COMPLEMENTARY COURSE FOR AF & PP


ENGINEERS

TECHNICAL TRAINING DEPARTMENT

Figure 4 shows a block schematic of the ACARS.

VHF 3
ANTENNA

Collins
IN

DFDAU FAIL

SEND

NUMERIC ENTRY 13 : 02 : 58
D
A
T
A

FLT : 0123
0008

L
I
N
K

0
CLR

RET

DEL

MULTIPURPOSE INTERACTIVE
DISPLAY UNIT

MANAGEMENT
UNIT

VHF 3
TX/RX

FLIGHT DATA
ACQUISTION UNIT
THERMAL PRINTER

AIRCRAFT
SYSTEMS

ACARS Schematic Diagram


Figure 4

SYSTEMS

INFORMATION SYSTEM
PAGE 9 of 9

777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAG - INTRODUCTION
General

DHCP - dynamic host configuration protocol


DNS - domain name server
* DSPL - display
* DU - display unit
* ECMF - eplane communications management function
* EFB - electronic flight bag
* EFIS - electronic flight instrument system
* EICAS - engine indicating and crew alert system
* EPT - electronic-enabled portable terminal
* EU - electronic unit
* FAA - federal aviation administration
* FAR - federal aviation regulation
* FDEVSS - flight deck entry video surveillance system
* FIND - find identification of network devices
* FTP - file transfer protocol (application)
* FTS - file transfer service (application)
* GPS - global positioning system
* ICAO - international civil aviation organization
* IO - input output
* HST - high speed transciever
* JAA - joint airworthiness authorities
* LAN - local area network
* LRU - line replaceable unit
* LSAP - loadable software airplane parts
* LSK - line select key
EGP 101-999
* MAU - microwave antenna unit
EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026
* MMR - multi-mode receiver
* NIC - network interface card
* NOTAM - notice to airmen (FAA)
* NTP - network time protocol
*
*

The Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) lets the flight crew access to the
electronic flight operation data, general purpose computing and
communications.
Abbreviations and Acronyms
AC - advisory circular (FAA)
ACARS - aircraft communication addressing and reporting
system
* ADC - application dispatch controller
* AIMS - airplane information management system
* API - application program interface
* APU - auxiliary power unit
* ARINC - aeronautical radio, incorporated
* BCA - Boeing commercial airplanes
* BEGGS - Boeing e-plane ground support system
* BIT - Built-in test
* BITE - built-in test equipment
* CAM - CAT application module (e-Plane)
* CAT - common administrative tool (e-Plane)
* CCA - circuit card assembly
* CCD - cursor control device
* CDROM - compact disk read only memory
* CIU - camera interface unit
* CMS - cabin management system
* CPU - central processing unit
* CRC - cyclic redundancy check
* CSS - cabin surveillance system
* DDM - distributed data management
* DFDAU - digital flight data acquisition unit
* DFIM - DDM flight-bag interface module (application)
*

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EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026

D633W101-EGP
BOEING PROPRIETARY - Copyright # - Unpublished Work - See title page for details.

Page 5
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777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAG - INTRODUCTION
OAS - operationally approved software (FAA)
OS - operating system
* PDL - portable data loader
* PMAT - portable maintenance access terminal
* PPPoE - point to point protocol over Ethernet
* PWR - power
EGP 101-999
* SAR - staging area reporting (application)
EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026
* SATCOM - satellite communication
* SMF - security management function
* TPA - taxi position awareness
* TSO - technical service order
EGP 101-999
* TWLU - terminal wireless LAN unit
EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026
* VDC - volts direct current
* VPN - virtual private network
* WPM - windows print manager
* XFR - transfer
*
*

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EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026

D633W101-EGP
BOEING PROPRIETARY - Copyright # - Unpublished Work - See title page for details.

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777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAG - INTRODUCTION

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ELECTRONIC FLIGHT BAG - INTRODUCTION

46-11-00

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EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026

D633W101-EGP
BOEING PROPRIETARY - Copyright # - Unpublished Work - See title page for details.

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Jan 05/2010

777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


EFB - GENERAL DESCRIPTION
General
The electronic flight bag (EFB) has two display units (DU) and
two supporting electronics units (EU). The captains EFB system
is independent from the first officers EFB system. Each EFB
system consists of a DU and an EU.
Description
The EFB provides the flight crew with a paperless flight deck
environment and enhance the quality of information available to
the crew.
The flight crew interacts with the EFB via the display unit (DU)
either by pushing the buttons on the DU bezel, or by using a
touch-screen that is a feature of certain applications (example:
electronic logbook).
In addition, the flight crew can also make use of the cursor
control device (CCD) and the portable keyboard (optional).
The electronic Unit (EU) has these functions:
Process aircraft interface signals
Program memory (hard-disk drive)
* Ethernet communications network
* Video input processing
* Convert the digital video output signal to the DU
* Supply 28V DC power to the onside DU
*
*

46-11-00

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EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026

D633W101-EGP
BOEING PROPRIETARY - Copyright # - Unpublished Work - See title page for details.

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Jan 05/2010

777 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE MANUAL


EFB - GENERAL DESCRIPTION

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EFB - GENERAL DESCRIPTION

46-11-00

EFFECTIVITY
EGP 101-999; EGP 001-005 POST SB 777-46-0026

D633W101-EGP
BOEING PROPRIETARY - Copyright # - Unpublished Work - See title page for details.

Page 9
Jan 05/2010