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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

FIELD REPORT ON
Salt Range

SUBMITTED TO: Mr. Haneef Mr. Naveed Anjum

SUBMITTED BY: Muhammad Waqas BS (Part-2)Geology Class No. 27

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF PESHAWAR (2008-09)
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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. .INTRODUCTION The name of Salt Range was first use by ELPHISTON in 1813. The name is derived from the fact that area contains huge reserve of the common table salt. The East-West trending fold belt compises the low rolling hills and valleys of the uplifted Kohat-Potwar Plateau, The Salt Range and its Westward extensions. It is 85 km wide and extends for about 200 km. It is a discrete structural zone bounded in the north by the north-dipping Main Boundary Thrust (Sarwar et al. 1979; Yeats et al. 1984; Coward et al. 1985). Southward the Salt Range Thrust, Kalabagh Fault and the Surghar Thrust from its southern boundary. West and eastward it is terminated by the N-S oriented KurramThrust and Jehlum Fault respectively (Kazmi and Raza 1982). The Salt range is mainly divided into two parts. The area to the east of the river Indus “Main Salt range” or “Cis-Indus Salt range” and the area to the west of river Indus is called “Trans-Indus Salt range”. The main Salt range is further divided into three parts:  Western Salt Range  Central Salt Range  Eastern Salt range. Eastern Salt range is about 16km and its height about the sea level is 760m. The western range is widens westward to the width of about 32km with highest attitude of 1422m at Sakesar. Similarly central Salt range is more wider than eastern and western Salt range. The rocks in the Salt ranges are generally folded and are typically marked by large and small scale faulting as well as local over-thrusting with movements towards south. A sedimentary sequence ranging from Pre-Cambrian to Recent is exposed in the Salt Range. It is also marked by several unconformities. The Salt Range is essentially a complex salt anticlinorium. The Eocambrian evaporites are exposed in some of the over-folded and faulted anticlines. Along its southern margin, the Salt Range Thrust has pushed the older rocks of the Salt Range over the less deformed Tertiary sequence of the south-lying Jehlum plain. Subsurface geophysical data shows that the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau are underlain by a decollement zone within Eocambrian evaporites. The Salt Range is thus the surface expression of the leading edge of a decollement thrust (Lillie et al. 1987). In our field visit, we have visited eastern and western Parts of Salt Range. In the Eastern Salt range, we studied the Khewra Gorge, while in the western Salt range we studied the Nammal Gorge and Zaluch Nala section. We have studied the stratigraphy and detailed lithology of the various formations exposed in the above said Gorges.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

STRATIGRAPHY OF THE REGION The Salt Range rocks stratigraphic unit range in the age from Pre-Cambrian to the Tertiary with the marked absence of Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous age throughout the region. Locally a given stratigraphic rock sequence pinches out laterally to the point of vanishing e.g Mesozoic sequence is well developed in the western salt range and TransIndus ranges but the Triassic and Jurassic and perhaps all the cretaceous formations are conspicuously absent in the most of the central and eastern Salt range. We have visited the following three Gorges in the Salt range during our field to that region:  Khewra Gorge (Eastern Salt range)  Nammal Gorge (Western Salt range)  Zaluch Nala (Western Salt range) The description and Stratigraphy of the above three Gorges are explained as:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. VARIUOS GROUPS OF FORMATIONS THAT WE HAVE STUDIED IN THE SALT RANGE. JEHLUM GROUP Age: Cambrian Formations: Baghanwala Fm. Jutana Fm. Kussak Fm. Khewra S.St. NILA WAHAN GROUP Age: Early Permain Formations: Sardhai Clays. Warcha S.St. DandotFm. Tobra Fm. MUSA KHEL GROUP Age: Triassic Formations: Kingriali Fm. Tredian Fm. Mianwali Fm.

ZALUCH GROUP Age: Late Permian Formations: Chiddru Fm. Wargal L.St. Amb Fm.

SUR GHAR GROUP Age: JurassicCretaceous Formations: Lumshiwal Fm. Chichali Fm. BAROUCH GROUP: Samana Suk Fm. Shinwari Fm. Datta Fm. CHERAT GROUP Age: Eocene Formations: Chorgali Fm. Sakesar Fm. Nammal Fm.

MAKARWAL GROUP Age: Paleocene Formations: Patala Fm. Lockhart Fm Hangu Fm RAWALPINDI GROUP Age: Miocene Formations: Kamlial Fm. Murree Fm.

SIWALIK GROUP Age: Miocene-Pliestocene Fomations: Soan Fm. Dhok Pattan Fm. Nagri Fm. Chinji Fm.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

KHEWRA GORGE
Khewra Gorge is present in the Eastern Salt Range. It is located about a distance of 1km from the Khewra town, After this town it is named as Khewra Gorge. “Khewra Gorge is known as the Museum of Geology.” In this Gorge we have studied, Salt range formation which is of Pre-Cambrian age, Jehlum group rocks which are of Cambrian age, it includes Khewra Sandstone, Kussak formation, Jutana formation and Baghanwala formation. Disconformity (major) between Baghanwala formation and Tobra formation is called Permo-Cambrian unconformity.

SALT RANGE FORMATION NOMENCLATURE: Wyyne (1878) named this formation as “Saline Series”, Gee (1945) called the same unit “Punjab Saline Series”. The Present Name “Salt Range Formation” has been given by Asrar Ullah(1967). TYPE LOCALITY: Khewra Gorge in eastern Salt Range. THICKNESS: The thickness of Salt Range Formation is more than 800m at type locality. LITHOLOGY: The lower part of the formation comprises beds of marl and gypsum with bitminous shales and dolomites. The base of the formation is not exposed. The middle part of the formation contains an alternation of gypsum, dolomite, shale, siltstone with oilshale layers, particularly in the western Salt Range. The top of the formation is formed by a gypsum layer containing high-grade oil-shale or a layer of highly altered volcanic rock known as Khewra Trap. The Salt Range has been divided into three mambers;  Billianwala Salt Marl Member: It is largely compsed of hematitic, dull red, gypsiferous marly beds with thick seams of salt. Its base is not exposed.  Bhandar Kas Gypsum Member: It is comprised of massive gypsum, dolomite and marl.It overlies the Billianwala member.  Sahiwal Marl Member: This member overlies the Bhandar Kas Member and is comprised of an upper bright marly unit and a lower unit containing dull red marls. CONTACTS:  Lower contact of the Salt range formation is not exposed.  Upper contact with the Khewra sandstone is conformable. AGE: The Salt Range has assigned the age of Late-Proterozoic. ENVIROMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition is restricted basin condition with high rate of evaporation and climate is hot and arid.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

Salt Range Formation
KHEWRA TRAP: The Salt Range contains thin flows of an ultrapotassic rock. Commonly known as Khewra Trap. It is purple, reddish brown, orange to buff, rarely dark green rock. It is frequently mottled very fine-grained, porphyritic and vesicular to amygdaloidal.The phenocrysts are euhedral to skeletal spinifex, and commonly grown radially. The Khewra Trap is so unique that Mosebach (1956) assigned it a new nameKhewrite.

KHEWRA SANDSTONE Khewra formation is the first member of the Jehlum group. Jehlum group represents the Cambrian strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Khewra group” by Noetling (1894), “Purple Sandstone Series” by Wynne (1878) is named as “Khewra Sandstone” by Fatmi (1973). Khewra Gorge is the type locality of the Khewra sandstone. LITHOLOGY: This formation mainly consists of sandstone. Sandstone is thin to thick bedded and the color is purple to brown or yellowish brown. Massive sandstone is also present which is of maroon color. The grain size of the sandstone is also varying in this formation. Few intercalations of brown shale are also present.The Sandstone is characteristically crossbedded. THICKNESS:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. The Khewra sandstone is widely distributed throughout the Salt range and Khisor range. The thickness of this formation 150m at the type locality in Eastern Salt Range and 80m in the Khisor Range. CONTACTS:  Lower contact is conformable with Salt Range Formation.  Upper contact with Kussak formation is gradational and conformable. AGE: Khewra sandstone hass assigned the early Cambrian age.

Ripple Marks in Khewra Sandstone

Ball and Pillow Structures in Khewra Sandstone

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. KUSSAK FORMATION It is the second member of the Jehlum group. HISTORY: Obolus beds of “Wynne” (1878), neobolus beds of “Wyyne” (1885), Kussak group of “Noetling” (1894) is now named as Kussak Formation by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: Kussak Fort (Eastern Salt Range). LITHOLOGY: Kussak formation consists of greenish to dark grey color shale, sandwiched between upper and lower grayish sandstone and siltstone member. Sandstone is micaceous, gray in color and fine to medium grained. This color is due to the presence of glauconitic and iron sulphide. Silt stone is mainly thin bedded while sandstone is medium bedded with few dolomite beds. According to Pascoe (1959), at the base of Kussak Formation there is a very regular and characteristic grit and conglumerate not more than a foot thick. The conglumerate consists of a matrix of well-rounded, medium to coarse sand grains of yellowish brown colour, in which are embedded rounded pebbles of white and yellowish quartzite, dark grey-green and black slate and dark quartzite. This conglumerate is almost parallel and represent a time gap, Para-conformity. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of Kussak formation is continental shallow marine environment. THICKNESS: Kussak formation is widely distribution the Salt range. It varies in thickness form 25ft to 71ft. CONTACT:  Lower contact with underlying Khewra Sandstone is conformable.  Upper contact with overlying Jutana Dolomite is conformable. FOSSILS: The fossils which are found in this formation are brachiopods, trilobites’ trails, Granulata, Redlichia etc. AGE: Middle Cambrian age. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENT: Marine depositional environment.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

Kussak Formation
JUTANA FORMATION It is the third member of the Jehlum group. HISTORY: The magnesian sandstone beds by “Fleming”, Jutana stage by “Noetling” (1894), is called as Jutana formation by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: Near Jutana Village, in Eastern Salt Range. LITHOLOGY: This formation mainly consists of yellowish white or cream colored, partly sandy dolomites and dolomitic sandstone with few shale intercalations. Dolomite is thin to thick bedded and in the upper part it is also massive and brecciated. Fractures are also present in the dolomite. THICKNESS: Its thickness is 75-90m in Eastern Salt Range and 45m in Khisor Range. CONTACTS:  Lower contact is conformable with underlying Kussak formation.  Upper contact is conformable with overlying Baghanwala formation. FOSSILS: The fossils which are found in this formation are brachiopods, Gastropods and trilobites. AGE: Early to Middle Cambrian age. BAGHANWALA FORMATION It is the fourth and last member of the Jehlum group. HISTORY:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. “Psuedomorph salt crystal zone” by Wynne (1878), “Baghanwala group” by Noetling (1894) is now called as Baghanwala formation by Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: Near Baghanwala village, in Eastern Salt Range. LITHOLOGY: The Baghanwala consists mainly of reddish-brown shales and platy to flaggy sandstone characterised by an abundance of Salt Pseudomorphs. Ripple marks and mud cracks are common.

Salt Pseudomorphs in Baghanwala Formation
ENVIROMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is Non-marine, lagoonal and arid environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation in the type locality is 100-116m while in the Khewra gorge its thickness is 40m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact with Jutana formation is conformable  Upper contact with Tobra formation is Unconformable. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Middle Cambrian.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

Baghanwala Formation
DISCONFORMITY BETWEEN BAGHANWALA AND TOBRA FORMATIONS: (Permo-Cambrian Boundary) This boundary lies between Baghanwala formation of Cambrian age and overlying Tobra formation of Permian age, while whole remaining sequence of Ordovician, Silurian and Carboniferous ages are missing between the two formations indicating a large time gap as it is a major unconformity (Disconformity). At that time where there was a period of erosion and/or Non-deposition. It is also known as “Permo-Cambrian Unconformity”.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. NAMMAL GORGE Nammal Gorge is present in the western Salt range. It is located close to the Mianwali-Rawalpindi highway. There is a small town called Nammal nearby, so this gorge is called as Nammal Gorge. In this Gorge we studied:  ZALUCH GROUP rocks which are of Upper Permian age. It includes Amb formation, Wargal limestone, and Chiddru formation.  The Permo Triassic Boundary between Chidru formation and Mianwali formation.  MUSA KHEL GROUP rocks which are of Triassic age. It includes Mianwali formation, Tredian formation, and Kingriali formation.  SURGHAR group rocks which are of Jurrasic and Cretaceous age. It includes Datta formation, Shinawri formation, Samana Suk formation, Chichalli formation, Lumshiwal formation and Kawagarh formation.  K.T boundary or Cretaceous-Triassic boundary.  MAKARWAL GROUP rocks which are of Paleocene age. It includes Hangu formation, Lockhart formation and Patala formation.  CHERAT GROUP rocks which are of Eocene age. It includes Nammal formation, Sakesar formation and Chorgali formation. AMB FORMATION It is the first member of Zaluch Group. Zaluch group represents the Upper Permian strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Amb sandstone beds” by Waagen (1891), “Amb formation” by Teichert (1966) is now called as Amb formation by stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: This formation consists of thin to medium bedded sandstone and limestone. Thin beds of shale are also present. In some portion limestone and sandstone are mixed. When limestone is less then sandstone, then it is called as Limy sandstone. Limestone is light grey on fresh surface and grey to brown on weathered surface. Fractures are also present in limestone. Thin layers of organic shale are also present in this formation. ENVIROMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is Shallow marine to palludal. THICKNESS: This formation is well developed in the western Salt range and thin out east wards. Thickness of this formation is 80m in type locality and 47 m in Khisor range. CONTACTS:  Upper contact with Wargal limestone is conformable  lower contact with Sardhai formation is also conformable but not present in the Nammal gorge. FOSSILS: This formation is highly fossiliferrous. Amb Formation contains abundant floral remains, including Glossopteris and Gangamopteris and a rich fauna including

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. foraminifera, bryozoans, brachiopods, pelecypods, gastropods, cephlopods and ostrocods. The fusilinids Monodiexodina Kattaensis and Codonofusiella laxa are important. AGE: Due to presence of these fossils the age assigned to this formation is Upper Permian. WARGAL LIMESTONE It is the second member of the Zaluch group. HISTORY: “Wargal group” by Noetling (1901), “Middle Productus limestone” by Waagen (1879), is now called as Wargal limestone by stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: The Formation mainly consists of grey, medium or thick bedded to massive, partly sandy limestone and dolomite with few, thin intercalations of dark-grey to black shale. It is easily recognisable from a distance because of its cliff-forming massive limestone. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: The paleoenvironment is interpreted as generally shallow marine, with the exception of few strata which might have been deposited under deep water conditions. THICKNESS: This formation is well distributed in the Salt range and Khisor range. Its thickness in Zaluch Nala is 182m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact with Amb formation is sharp and conformable  Upper contact with Chiddru formation is also transitional and conformable. FOSSILS: This formation is highly fossiliferous. Various fossils found are Brachiopods, Gastropods, Ammonoids, trilobites etc. Index specie Productus (brachiopod) is also found abundantly in this formation. AGE: Due to presence of these fossils age assigned to this formation is Late Permian (Late Murgabian to Early Dzhulfian).

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

Fossil fragments in Wargal Limestone
CHIDDRU FORMAITON This formation is third member of Zaluch group. HISTORY: “Chiddru beds” by Waagen (1891), “Chiddru Group” by Dunbar (1932) is now called as Chiddru formation by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: It consists of dark-grey sandy shales at the base, overlain by calcareous sandstone and sandy limestone. The top of the formation is formed by a characteristic white sandstone layer as muchas 5m thick. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is shallow marine, littoral to palludal. THICKNESS: This formation is well distributed in the western Salt ranges and Trans Indus ranges. Its average thickness at the type locality is 64m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact of this formation with Wargal limestone is conformable and transitional.  Upper contact with Mianwali formation is disconformable. FOSSILS: The Chiddru Formation contains abundant brachiopods and gastropods, and subordinate microfossils. AGE: Due to the presence of these fossils age assigned to this formation is Late Permian. THE PERMO-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY (The passage of Marine Permian to Marine Triassic)

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. The Permian rocks located in the Salt Range have richness of fauna and having relationship with the rocks of Triassic system, the strata near the Permo-Triassic boundary are marine and having conformable relationship but there is significant break in the fauna at the contact. Kummel and Teichert in 1966 referred to the body as Paraconformity showing subArial exposure at the end of the Permian time. In support to this view, they thoroughly studied the contact throughout the Salt range to find out the lithological and textural changes across the boundary. Their wotk is briefly summarized as under. The upper most lithological unit of Chiddru formation is sandstone bed called as white sandstone bed. The sandstone is fine to medium grained, thinly bedded with interbeds of shale while the upper contact with Kathwai member of Mianwali formation is dolomite. The Permo-Triassic boundary is marked by the following properties: There is abrupt change in the lithology at the boundary of the two system i.e. white sandstone of Upper Permian and dolomite at the base of Triassic. The upper most sandstone bed shows decrease in faunal contents which indicate change in depositional environment during the deposition of white sandstone bed. Kathwai member on the other hand also lack fossils, indicating shallow intertidal environment. The variation in thickness of white sandstone bed indicates time gap between Permian and Triassic rocks. MIANWALI FORMATION It is the first member of the Musa Khel group. Musa Khel group represents the Triassic strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Lower part of Mianwali series” by Gee (1959), “Top most limestone and dolomite beds” by Waagen (1879) was named as “Mianwali formation” by Kummel in (1969). LITHOLOGY: This formation is mainly composed of limestone, siltstone, dolomite, shale and sandstone. This formation is divided into three members:  Kathwai member: It is the lower most part of the Mianwali formation and mainly consist of crystalline dolomite and interbedding of Shale.  Mitti wala member: It is the middle part of the Mianwali formation and consists of green shale beds with sandstone and limestone interbedded.  Narmia member: It is the lower most member of the Mianwali formation and mainly consists of sandy dolomite, and dark gray to brown color limestone. Sandstone interbeds are also found in this part. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is open marine to deltaic environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation is 127m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact with Chidru formation is marked by Paraconformity  Upper contact with overlying Tredian formation is sharp, well defined and conformable.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. FOSSILS: The various fossils found in this formation are ceratites (cephalopod), brachiopods, and conodonts. AGE: Due to the presence of these fossils the age assigned to this formation is Lower Triassic. TREDIAN FORMATION It is the second member of the Musa Khel group. HISTORY: “Kingriali Sandstone” by Gee (1948), is called as “Tredian formation” by Kummel and Gee in 1966. LITHOLOGY: This Formation consists of a non-marine sequence of thin to thcik bedded, varigated, micaceous sandstone with ripple marks and slump structures, interbedded with shale in the lower part. The upper part of the Formation contains massive to thick-bedded sandstone, interbedded with thin dolomite beds in the upper part. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is shallow marine to deltaic. THICKNESS: The thickness of this formation in Zaluch Nala is 76m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact with Mianwali formation is sharp, well-defined and conformable.  Upper contact with Kingriali formation is also gradational and conformable. FOSSILS: This formation contains spores, pollens and wood fragments. AGE: Due to the presence of these fossils the age assigned to this formation is Middle Triassic.

Contact between Tredian and Kingrilai Formations

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. KINGRIALI FORMATION It is the third and last member of the Musa Khel group HISTORY: “Kingriali Dolomite” by Gee (1943) is named by Gee again in 1945 as “Kingriali formation”. LITHOLOGY: This Formation contains thin to thick-bedded or massive, grey dolomite and dolomitic limestone with dolomitic shale and marl. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is shallow marine environment. THICKNESS: The average thickness of this formation is 76-106m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact of this formation is with Tredian formation and is conformable.  Upper contact is with Datta formation of Jurassic age and the contact is Disconformable. FOSSILS: Fossils are rare though some brachiopods, bivalves and crinoids have been reported. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Late Triassic. DATTA FORMATION This formation is the first member of the Surghar Group. Surghar group represents the Jurassic and Cretaceous strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Variegated stages” by Gee (1945), “Lower part of Samana beds” by Davies (1930) is named as “Datta formation” by Danilchik in1961. LITHOLOGY: Variegated beds of sandstone, siltstone and shale of different colors are present in this formation. Sandstone is red to maroon, grey, green and white in color. Shale, siltstone and mudstone are irregularly distributed. In the upper part thick beds of maroon shale are also present. Sulpher is mostly present in this formation indicating swamp or deltaic environment. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is very shallow marine to deltaic and alluvial plains. THICKNESS: Thickness of formation at its type locality is 212m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation with overlying Shinawari formation is gradational and conformable.  Lower contact with underlying Kingriali formation is disconformable. FOSSILS: This formation is poorly fossiliferrous but some petrified wood is present there. AGE:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. Age assigned to this formation is Early Jurassic.

Datta Formation
SHINAWARI FORMATION This formation is the second member of the Sur Gher group.

HISTORY: “Lowest Samana Beds” by Davies (1930), “Lower part of Kyoto Limestone” by cutler (1933), is named as Shinawri formation by Fatmi in 1961. LITHOLOGY: This Formation consists mainly of thin-bedded grey limestone, nodular marl, shale and sandstone. Current beddings and ripple marks are present. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is shallow marine, deltaic, tidal flats and estuarine environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation at type locality is 400m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Samana Suk formation and is transitional and conformable .  Lower contact with underlying Datta formation is also Conformable. FOSSILS: Various fossils found in this formation are Ammonoites, Brachiopods and corals. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Early-Middle Jurassic.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. SAMANA SUK FORMATION This formation is third member of Sur Gher group. Few beds of this formation are present in Nammal gorge but it is undifferentiated from the Shinawri formation. HISTORY: “Bared limestone” by Gee, “Upper part of Kyoto limestone” by Cutler (1933) is named as Samana Suk formation by Davies in 1930. LITHOLOGY: Main lithology of this formation is medium to thick bedded limestone of gray to dark gray color. This limestone is oolitic with shale beds with subordinate marl and calcareous shale. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition this formation is shallow marine shelfal to supertidal environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation at type locality is 186m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact of this formation with underlying Shinawri formation is conformable  upper contact with overlying Chichali formation is disconformable. FOSSILS: Various fossils found in this formation are Brachiopods, bivalves, Gastropods and Crinoids. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Upper Jurassic. CHICHALI FORMATION This formation is the fourth member of the Sur Ghar group.

HISTORY: Gee (1945) named it as “Belemnite beds”.The name has been since formalized as “Chichali Formation” by Danilchik (1961). TYPE LOCALITY: Near Chichali Pass in Surghar Range. LITHOLOGY: It is comprised of a lower sandy glauconitic, phosphatic shale member, a middle sandstone member and an upper glauconitic sandstone member. THICKNESS: Thickness varies from 12m to 17m . CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Lumshiwal formation and is conformable (gradational) .  Lower contact with underlying Samana Suk formation is Dis-Conformable. FOSSILS: Cephalopods such as Perisphinctes, Mayaites, Aspidoceras, Belemnopsis gerardi have been found in this formation. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. LUMSHIWAL FORMATION This formation is the fifth member of the Sur Ghar group.

HISTORY: Davies (1930) named this formation as “Main sandstone series”. Gee (1945) suggest the name “Lumshiwal sandstone”. The name has been since formalised as Lumshiwal Formation by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: It is mostly grey, thick bedded to massive, current-bedded, feldspathic and ferroginous sandstone, but contains silty, sandy glauconitic shale towards the base. Northward and eastward, the formation grades into a mostly marine sequence of sandstone, siltstone and shelly limestone. THICKNESS: Thickness ranges from 38m to 194m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Kawagarh formation and is disconformable .  Lower contact with underlying Chichali formation is gradational and Conformable. FOSSILS: Abundant moulds of barchiopods, bivalves, gastropods, ammonoids, belemnites and echiniods occur in this formation. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Middle Cretaceous. KAWAGARH FORMATION This formation is the sixth member of the Sur Ghar group.

HISTORY: Davies (1930) → Sublithographic Limestone Fatmi and Khan (1966) → Darsamand Limestone Khan and Ahmed (1966) → Durban Limestone Latif (1970) → Chanali Limestone Day → Kawagrah Marls Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan has given the name Kawagarh Formation. LITHOLOGY: The formation consists mainly of dark marl, calcareous shale and nodular, argillaceous limestone. THICKNESS: Its thickness ranges from 40m to 200m. CONTACTS:  Lower contact is disconformable with Lumshiwal Formation.  Upper contact is disconformable with Hangu Formation. FOSSILS: This formation contains Glabotruncana lapparenti, G. fornicata, G. concavta carinata, Heterohelix reussi, H. globulosa, Rugoglobigerina rugosa and Globorotalites multisepta.(Latif 1970a, 1970c) AGE:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. The age of the formation is Late Cretaceous.(Coniacian to Campanian) CORRELATION: It may be correlated with the Parh Limestone, Mughal Kot Formation and Pab Sandstone in the Suliman-Kirthar fold belt. K.T BOUNDARY (Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary) At the end of the Mesozoic era and before the beginning of the Cenozoic era, there was a major Disconformity in geologic history. If we study the rocks of the Paleocene age, we find a total displacement of almost all the life on earth. The dinosaurs, plants, invertebrates etc all are disappeared. This major Disconformity is seen all over the world. It is represented in Pakistan in the form of the laterite bed at the bottom of the Hangu formations as we go from Kawagarh formation within Hangu formation. In the lower Indus basin, it is represented between the Moro group and Ranikot group. Scientists all over the world have presented their ideas on this matter out of which three are well known.  Meteorite impact theory: According to this a meteorite stuck the earth near the Gulf of Mexico. As a result a huge cloud rose which block the sun rays from reaching the earth’s surface. As a result all living creatures died due to their dependence on sunlight as a primary source of energy.  Volcanic activity: According to this theory, during this period repeated volcanic activity cause the formation of the huge dust clouds. Eventually blocking sunlight and other sources, thus causing the death of the living creatures on the earth.  Change in the earth’s Magnetic field: According to this theory, the sudden reversal of the earth’s magnetism distributed the living systems, which could not adjust to the new magnetic field and thus resulted in the death of all the living organisms. HANGU FORMATION This formation is the first member of the Makarwal group. Makarwal group represents the Paleocene strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: The “Hangu Shale” and “Hangu Sandstone” by Davies (1930) have been formalized by the stratigraphic committee of Pakistan as Hangu formation. LITHOLOGY: This formation consists of dark grey, rarely variegated sandstone, shale, carbonaceous shale, and some nodular argillaceous limestone. The sandstone is white, light gray, and reddish brown, weathers dark rusty brown, fine to coarse grained and medium to thick bedded. THICKNESS: In the Salt range area this formation is 40 to 45m thick. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with Lockhart formation and this contact is transitional and conformable.  Lower contact of the formation is unconformable with Lumshiwal Formation.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. FOSSILS: The various fossils found in this formation are foraminifera with some corals, gastropods and bivalves. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Early Paleocene. LOCKHART FORMATION This formation is the second member of the Makarwal Group. HISTORY: Davis (1930) introduced the term Lockhart Limestone for a paleocene limestone unit in the kohat area. LITHOLOGY: Grey to dark gray, medium to thick massive bedded, brecciated limestone. The limestone displays very well developed nodularity. The nodularity may be caused by any of the following four reasons.  Organic activity  Differential compaction  Pressure solution  Stretching ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: The Lockhart Limestone is interpreted to have been deposited under stable, broad shelf/ramp setting. THICKNESS: In the Samana Range the formation is 60 meter thick. CONTACTS:  Upper contact with Patala formation is transitional and conformable.  lower contact is with Hangu formation and the contact is also conformable. FOSSILS: The limestone contains abundant foraminifers, corals, mollucs, Echinoids and algea. AGE: On the basis of these fossils the age of the formation is assigned as Middle Paleocene. PATALA FORMATION This formation is the third member of Makarwal group. HISTORY: Davies and Pinfold (1937) named it as Patala shale which later was renamed as the Patala Formation by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: It is comprised of shale and marl with subordinate limestone and sandstone interbeds. The shale is dark greenish grey, carbonaceous as well as calcareous, and friable with selenite crystals distributed throughout. The limestone is light to dark grey in color, medium bedded and nodular, whereas the sandstone is yellowish brown and is located in the upper part of the formation. In Salt Range, it contains coal seams. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. The environment of deposition is transitional marine environments. THICKNESS: Type locality is in Patala nala located in the salt range area, where the thickness of the formation is 90 meters. CONTACTS:  Upper contact with overlying Nammal formation is transitional and conformable.  Lower contact is with Lockhart formation and it is also transitional and conformable. FOSSILS: The formation is richly fossiliferrous and contains abundant foraminifera and mollusks. AGE: On the basis of the above mentioned fauna, the age assigned to this formation is Late Paleocene. NAMMAL FORMATION This formation is the first member of the Cherat group. Cherat group represents the Eocene strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Nammal limestone and shale” by Gee (1935), “Nammal Marl” by Danilchik and Shah (1967), is named as Nammal formation by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: Main lithology of this formation is shale, marl and limestone alterations. Shale is gray to green and fossiliferrous. Lime stone is gray to bluish, argillaceous and highly fossiliferrous. Marl is light gray to bluish gray and is also fossiliferrous. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is shallow marine to lagoonal environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation at its type locality is 100m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Sakessar formation and is transitional and conformable.  Lower contact of this formation is with underlying Patala formation and this contact is also conformable. FOSSILS: Various fossils found in this formation are Foraminifera and mollusks. AGE: Due to the presence of these fossils, age assigned to this formation is Early Eocene. SAKESAR FORMATION This formation is the second member of the Cherat Group. HISTORY: “Sakesar Limestone” by Gee in 1935 was accepted by the Stratigraphic committee

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: Bulk of lithology of this formation is limestone which is cream to light gray in color, nodular, and massive in the upper part and also highly fossiliferrous. Light gray colored Marl is also found in the top most part and having Chert nodules. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation in Salt range is from70-150m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact is with Chorgali formation and this contact is transitional and conformable.  Lower contact is with Nammal formation and it is also conformable. FOSSILS: Various fossils found in this formation are Foraminifera, Mollusks and Echinoids. AGE: Due to the presence of these fossils, the age assigned to this formation is Early Eocene. CHORGALI FORMATION This formation is the third member of the Cherat Group. HISTORY: Pascoe (1920) → Chorgali beds Stratigraphic committee of Pakistan has given the name Chorgali Formation. LITHOLOGY: In Salt Range, The formation is divisible into two parts.The lower part consists of shale and limestone, while the upper part is mainly limestone. The shlae of the lower part is greenish grey and calcareous, and the limestone is light grey and argillaceous. In its upper part, the limestone is white bor cream, porcellainous and well-bedded. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: The formation is interpreted to be deposited in an intertidal to supratidal environment during a regressive phase (Jurgan and Abbas, 1991). Gill (1953) suggests that it was deposited in an open-shelf/ramp setting. CONTACTS:  Lower contact is with Chorgali formation and this contact is transitional and conformable.  Upper contact is with Kamlial Formation and is unconformable. FOSSILS: The Chorgali Formation is richly fossiliferous and contains foraminifera, molluscs and ostrocods. (Latif 1970) AGE: The formation has assigned the age of Early Eocene. CORRELATION: The Formation correlates with the Lora formation (Latif, 1970) in Hazara area and Shekhan Formation in Kohat region.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. ZALUCH NALA : Zaluch Nala is located in the western Salt range. It is the type locality of the Zaluch group rocks. In this Nala we have studied:  Lei Conglomerate which are Quaternary deposits.  NEELA WAHAN group rocks which are of Lower Permian age. It includes Tobra formation, Dandot formation, Warcha Sand stone and Sardhai formation. LEI CONGLOMERATE Lei conglomerates are quaternary deposits. The name “Lei Conglomerates” was introduced by Gill in 1952 but it was earlier named as “Boulder Conglomerate” by Pilgrim in 1910. This conglomerate consists of poorly sorted pebbles and boulders of mostly Eocene rocks, with a small proportion of older sedimentary rocks, quartzites and igneous rocks. The conglomerate is intercalated with beds of soft sandstone and siltstone of pale brown to dark brown color. This conglomerate is different from the conglomerate of the Tobra formation in sense that there are no bedding planes in Lei Conglomerate but they are present in Tobra formation. Lei conglomerates are known as FANGLOMERATES because the environment of deposition of this formation is Fluvial. TOBRA FORMATION This formation is the first member of the Neela Wahan group. Neela Wahan group represent the Lower Permian strata of the Salt range. HISTORY: “Talchir boulder beds” by Gee and “Talchir stage” by Pascoe in 1959 was now named as Tobra formation by stratigraphic committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: Main lithology of this formation is conglomerate, sandstone and shale. Conglomerate of this formation is polymictic which means that clasts of this formation are derived from various sources. Pink colored Granite clasts are very common in these conglomerates which are the part of the “Nager Parker granite” in Sindh. Metamorphic slates are also present in this formation. Striations are also present in this formation which indicates Glacio-Fluvial environment of deposition of this formation. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITIION: Environment of deposition of this formation is Glacio-Fluvial and Fluvial environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation is 20m in type locality but 133m in the western Salt range. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with Dandot formation which is transitional and conformable.  Lower contact of this formation in Zaluch Nala is with Lei conglomerate which is an unconformable contact.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. FOSSILS: Various fossils reported from this formation are pollens, spores etc. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Lower Permian.

Tobra Formation

DANDOT FORMATION This formation is the second member of the Neela Wahan group. HISTORY: “Olive Series”, “Eurydesma beds”, and Conularia beds” by Wynne (1878), “Speckled sandstone” by Waagen (1879) or “Dandot Group” by Noetling (1901). The name Dandot Formation has been since formalized by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. LITHOLOGY: In eastern Salt Range, the Dandot formation mainly consists of dark greenish-grey splintery shale and siltstone with intercalated sandstone, whereas in central Salt Range greenish-grey to balck, carbonaceous shlaes with sand flasers alternate with cross-bedded sandstones. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITIION: Environment of deposition of this formation is marine in eastern Salt Range and becomes shallower towards the west. THICKNESS:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. Thickness of this formation is 45m- 50m in the east (Makrach Nala) and decreases toward the central part of the Salt Range. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with Warchha formation which is conformable.  Lower contact of this formation is with Tobra Formation, which is a gradational contact. FOSSILS: The formation contains a rich fauna of brachiopods (Discina, Martiniopsis, Chonetes), bivalves (Eurydesma), gastropods, pteropods (Conularia), bryozoans and ostrocods, as well as spores. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Early Pemian. WARCHHA SANDSTONE This formation is the third member of the Neela Wahan group. The second member of this group i.e. Dandot formation is missing in the Zaluch Nala. HISTORY: “Warchha Group” by Noetling (1901) is named as Warchha Sandstone by Hussein Ahmed in 1967. LITHOLOGY: This formation is mostly consisting of Sandstone of red to maroon color which indicates oxidizing conditions. Sandstone is medium to coarse grained and mostly thick bedded and massive. Pebbles of granite and quartzite are also present. Carbonaceous shale and coal are also present. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is non-marine, sub aerial to paludal. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation at its type locality is 26-80m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Sardhai formation which is conformable.  Lower contact of this formation is with underlying Dandot formation which is also transitional and conformable. FOSSILS: Some plants remains are found in this formation. AGE: Age aasigned to this formation is Early Permian. SARDHAI FORMATION This formation is the fourth and last member of the Neela Wahan group.

HISTORY: “Upper part of the Warcha group” by Noetling (1901) is named as “Lavender Clays” or “Sardhai formation” by Gee and Pascoe in1959. LITHOLOGY: This formation mainly consists of bluish to greenish colored clay, minor gray sandstone and gypsum and calcareous beds in the upper part.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION: Environment of deposition of this formation is very shallow reducing marine to estuarine environment. THICKNESS: Thickness of this formation at its type locality is 42m and in western Salt range its thickness is 65m. CONTACTS:  Upper contact of this formation is with overlying Amb formation which is conformable contact.  Lower contact of this formation is with Warcha Sandstone which is also conformable. FOSSILS: Brachiopods are commonly found in this formation. AGE: Age assigned to this formation is Early Permian.

Sardhai Clays

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. We observe the following formations on the way from Choa Saidan Shah to Mianwali at different locations. RAWALPINDI GROUP: This group contains two formations. MURREE FORMATION: This is the first member of Rawalpindi group. HISTORY: “Mari group” by Wynne (1874), “Murree beds” by Lydekee (1876), “Murree Series” by Pilgrim (1910). Stratigrphic Committee of Pakistan has given the name Murree Formation. TYPE LOCALITY: North of Dhok Maiki (33˚ 25’N,72˚ 35’E) LITHOLGY: The Formation is composed of a monotonous sequence of dark red and purple clay and purple, grey and greenish grey sandstone with subordinate intraformational conglomerate. DISTRIBUTION/THICKNESS: The formation is widely distributed in Kohat-Potwar basin. It is 3,030m thick in the northern Potwar but thins out to only 9m at Banda Shah in Western Kohat. The formation ranges in thickness between 180-600m in the northern Salt Ranges. CONTACTS:  Lower unconformable contact with Chorgali Formation.  Upper conformable and transitional contact with Kamlial Formation. FOSSILS: The main body of the formation is poorly fossiliferous and only few plant remains, silicified wood, fish remains, frog and mammalian bones have been recorded. AGE: Early Miocene KAMLIAL FORMATION: This is the second member of the Rawalpindi group. HISTORY: “Kamlial beds” by Pinfold (1918), “Kamlial Satge” by Pascoe (1963). Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan has given the name Kamlial Formation. TYPE LOCALITY: A section southwest of Kamlial (33˚ 15’N,72˚ 50’E), Cambellpur Ditrict has been designated as the type section. LITHOLGY: The formation consists of purple-grey and dark brick-red sandstone which is medium to coarse grained and contains interbeds of hard purple shale and yellow and purple intraformational conglomerate. It is distinguished from the underlying Murree formation by its usually spheroidal weathering and heavy mineral content in which tourmaline dominates over epidote. DISTRIBUTION/THICKNESS: The formation is widely distributed in Kohat and Potwar areas. It is 90m thick at Kamlial, 580m at Khaur, 650m at Soan Gorge and 60m at Ling River near Rawalpindi.

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. CONTACTS:  Lower conformable and transitional contact with Murree Formation.  Upper conformable contact with Chinji formation. FOSSILS: A number of fossil mammals have been recorded from the formation. AGE: Middle-Late Miocene SIWALIK GROUP: This group contains four members. HISTORY: Chinji zone by Pilgrim (1913), Lewis called it Chinji formation and the name is accepted by Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: South of chinji village (32˚ 41’N, 72˚ 22’E) LITHOLOGY: The formation consists of red clay with subordinate ash grey or brownish grey sandstone. The sandstone is fine to medium grained, occasionally gritty, cross-bedded and soft. Scattered pebbles of Quartzite and thin lenses of intraformational conglomerate are found at different horizons throughout the formation. DISTRIBUTION/THICKNESS: The formation is widely distributed in the Kohat-Potwar province. It is 750m thick in the type area and more than 1,800m in the shinghar range. CONTACTS:  Lower sharp conformable contact with Kamlial Formation  Upper conformable contact with Nagri formation. FOSSILS: The formation has yielded abundant vertebrate fossils e.g. crocodiles, lizards, aquatic birds. AGE: Late Miocene NAGRI FORMATION: HISTORY: Nagri zone by Pilgrim (1913), Lower Manchhar of Blanford. “Nagri formation” of Lewis (1937) has been accepted as such by the Stratigrphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: The village of Nagri (32˚ 45’N, 72˚ 14’E) at Campbellpur District LITHOLOGY: The formation consists of sandstone with subordinate clay and conglomerate. The sandstone is greenish grey, medium to coarse grained, cross-bedded and massive. The clay is sandy or silt, chocolate brown or reddish grey and pale orange. DSTRIBUTION/THICKNESS: The formation is widely distributed in the Indus basin. Thickness ranges from 300m to as much 2,000m. CONTACTS: CHINJI FORMATION:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.  Lower conformable with Chinji Formation.  Upper transitional contact with Dhok Phattan. FOSSILS: The formation has yielded fairly rich assemblage of vertebrate remains. AGE: Early Pliocene DHOK PHATTAN FORMATION: HISTORY: The name “Dhok Phattan” was introduced by Pilgrim (1913) in a biostratigaphic sense for the upper subdivision of the “Middle Siwalik”. Cotter (1913) redefined the unit as “Dhok Phattan Formation” which was adopted as such by the Startigraphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: Village Dhok Phattan (33˚ 07’N, 72˚ 14’E), Campbellpur District LITHOLOGY: The formation is typically represented by monotonous cyclic alternations of sandstone and clay beds. The sandstone is commonly grey, light grey, greenish grey or buff coloured, thick bedded, calcareous, moderately cemented, soft and cross-bedded. The clay is orange, brown, dull red or chocolate coloured, calcareous and sandy. Minor intercalations of yellowish brown siltstone are common. DISTRIBUTION/THICKNESS: The formation is widely distributed in the Indus basin. It has maximum thickness of 1,820m at Southeast of the Khair-e-Murat Range in the Potwar Area. CONTACTS:  Lower transitional contact with Nagri Formation.  Upper disconformable contact with Soan Formation. FOSSILS: A very rich vertebrate fauna has been recorded from the Dhok Phattan formation. The fauna is remarkable for its rich Hipparion assemblage and numerous artiodactyls. AGE: Middle Pliocene SOAN FORMATION: HISTORY: In the northwest Punjab the Upper Siwalik of Meddlicott (1864), which was later divided biostratigraphically into the Tatrot and Pinjor zones or stages by Pilgrim (1913) has been formally named “Soan formation” by the Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. TYPE LOCALITY: The section along the road from Gali Jagir to Sihal near Mujahad village north of the Soan River (32˚ 22’N, 72˚ 47’E), Campbellpur District, has been designated as type locality. LITHOLOGY: The formation consists essentially of compact, massive conglomerate with subordinate interbeds of varicoloured sandstone, siltstone and clay. Commonly, sandstone and claystone are intercalated. The claystone is orange, brown or pale pinkish and soft. The sandstone is grey, greenish grey, coarse grained and soft. DISTRIBUTION/THICKNESS:

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP. The formation has widespread distribution in the Indus Basin. Its thickness varies from 120m to 450m in the Kohat-Potwar province. CONTACTS:  Lower disconformable contact with Dhok Phattan formation.  Upper unconformable (angular) contact with Lei-conglomerate. FOSSILS: The formation is poorly fossiliferous. AGE: Late Pliocene to Early Pliestocene CALCAREOUS TUFA: Tufa is a soft, friable and porous calcite rock. It is a calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) deposit that forms by chemical/biological precipitation from bodies of water with a high dissolved calcium content. Tufa deposition occurs in seven known ways:  Mechanical precipitation by wave action against the shore. This form of tufa can be useful for identifying the shoreline of extinct lakes.  Precipitation from supersaturated hot spring water entering cooler lake water.  Precipitation in lake bottom sediments which are fed by hot springs from below.  Precipitation from calcium-bearing spring water flowing into an alkaline lake.  Precipitation throughout a lake as the lake water evaporates, leaving the lake supersaturated in calcium.  Through the agency of algae. Microbial influence is often vital to tufa precipitation and may be involved in the other methods listed.  Precipitation from cold water springs. Choa Saidan Shah tufa deposits are precipitated from cold spring water. FOSSILS: It contains leaves, root casts etc. AGE: Pliestocene Choa Saidan Shah contains this type of spring deposits (calcareous tufa).

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

Calcareous tufa (Choa Saidan Shah)

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Muhammad Waqas Mansoori Department Of Geology, UOP.

REFRENCES:
 Kazmi and Abbasi, 2008. Stratigraphy and Historical Geology of Pakistan  Ibrahim Shah, 1977. Stratigraphy of Pakistan

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