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org
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and


Tempers

J. Gilbert Kaufman

ASM International®
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
www.asminternational.org
© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

Copyright © 2000
by
ASM International®
All rights reserved

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First printing, November 2000

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Kaufman, J. G. (John Gilbert), 1931-


Introducton to aluminum alloys and tempers / J. Gilbert Kaufman.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Aluminum alloys. 2. Metals—Heat treatment. I. Title.
TA480.A6 K36 2000 620.1’86—dc21 00-056544

ISBN 0-87170-689-X
SAN: 204-7586

ASM International®
Materials Park, OH 44073-0002
http://www.asminternational.org

Printed in the United States of America


© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
CHAPTER 1: Introduction: The Nature of the Problem . . . . . . . 1
The Keys to Understanding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Characteristics of Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Characteristics of Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Definitions for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Applications of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Microscopy of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
Units and Unit Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
CHAPTER 2: Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation
Systems of the Aluminum Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Cast Aluminum Alloys Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Designations for Experimental Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Aluminum Alloy Temper Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Basic Temper Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
CHAPTER 3: Understanding Wrought and Cast
Aluminum Alloys Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
The Wrought Alloy Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
How the System is Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Principal Alloying Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Understanding Wrought Alloy Strengthening
Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Understanding Wrought Alloy Advantages and
Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying
Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Understanding Wrought Alloy Variations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Links to Earlier Alloy Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Unified Numbering System (UNS) Alloy Designation
System for Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
The Cast Alloy Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

How the Current Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation


System is Applied . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Understanding Cast Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms . . . . . . . 33
Understanding Cast Alloy Advantages and Limitations . . . . . . 34
Examples of the Use of Variations in Cast Alloy
Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Alloys for Different Casting Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Other Characteristics Related to Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Evolution of the Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation
System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
UNS Alloy Designation System for Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 36

CHAPTER 4: Understanding the Aluminum Temper


Designation System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Tempers for Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Review of the Basic Tempers for Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . 57
Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Tempers Designating Residual Stress Relief of Heat
Treated Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Temper Designations Identifying Modifications in
Quenching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Designations Indicating Heat Treatment by User . . . . . . . . . . 68
Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work between
Quenching and Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work Following
Aging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Tempers Designating Special Corrosion-Resistant
Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Temper Designation for Special or Premium Properties . . . . . . 71
Tempers for Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Review of the Basic Tempers for Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Subdivisions of the Basic Temper Types for
Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Importance to Understanding Aluminum Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . 76

CHAPTER 5: Understanding Aluminum Fabricating


Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Ingot and Billet Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Strip and Slab Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Hot and Cold Rolling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Cast Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Permanent Mold Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Sand Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

Investment Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Die Casting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Combinations of Casting and Forging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
CHAPTER 6: Applications for Aluminum Alloys and
Tempers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Applications by Alloy Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Applications by Market Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Electrical Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Building and Construction Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Transportation Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Marine Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Rail Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Packaging Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Components . . . . . . . . . . . 118
Other Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
CHAPTER 7: Representative Micrographs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Welded Wrought Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Brazed Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Welded Cast Aluminum Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
Welded Wrought-To-Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Welded Aluminum To Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
Welded Aluminum to Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184
CHAPTER 8: Selected References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
Alloy Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Cast Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Wrought Alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

v
© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

ASM International
Technical Books
Committee (1999-2000)
Sunniva R. Collins (Chair) Gordon Lippa
Swagelok/Nupro Company North Star Casteel
Eugen Abramovici Jacques Masounave
Bombadier Aerospace (Canadair) Université du Québec
A.S Brar Charles A. Parker (Vice Chair)
Seagate Technology Inc. AlliedSignal Aircraft Landing
Ngai Mun Chow Systems
Det Norske Veritas Pte Ltd. K. Bhanu Sankara Rao
Seetharama C. Deevi Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic
Phillip Morris, USA Research
Bradley J. Diak Mel M. Schwartz
Queen’s University Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation
Dov B. Goldman (retired)
Precision World Products Peter F. Timmins
James F.R. Grochmal University College of the Fraser
Metallurgical Perspectives Valley
Nguyen P. Hung George F. Vander Voort
Nanyang Technological University Buehler Ltd.
Serope Kalpakjian
Illinois Institute of Technology

vi
© 2000 ASM International. All Rights Reserved. www.asminternational.org
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180)

Preface

The idea for this timely reference book was originally suggested by
Tom Croucher, a California-based consulting metallurgist. Dr. Croucher
and Harry Chandler of ASM International provided input for the first draft
version. I broadened it out substantially to cover the understanding of the
advantages and limitations of aluminum alloy/temper combinations in
terms of the relationship of their composition, process history, and
microstructure to service requirements.
I would like to acknowledge Dr. John A. S. Green and the Aluminum
Association, Inc. for making available critically important material for
inclusion in this book. Among the Aluminum Association publications
used as key references, notably on the alloy and temper designation
system and aluminum terminology, were the following:

O Aluminum Standards and Data


O Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Castings
O Aluminum: Technology, Applications, and Environment

More complete citations to these and other reference materials are given
in the Selected References, Chapter 8.
Among the ASM International books used as major sources, most
notably for micrographs, are the following:

O Heat Treater’s Guide: Practices and Procedures for Nonferrous Alloys


O ASM Specialty Handbook: Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

Finally, I want to acknowledge the publications of the American


Foundrymen’s Society, Inc. and the Diecasting Development Council,
whose publications Aluminum Casting Technology and Product Design
for Die Casting, respectively, provided excellent resources for casting
terminology and descriptions of casting procedures.

J. Gilbert Kaufman
Columbus, Ohio

vii
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p1-8 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p001 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 1
Introduction: The
Nature of the Problem

THE NEED FOR THIS BOOK stems directly from the increasing use
of aluminum and aluminum alloys in automobiles and a great variety of
other products that we encounter in everyday living. The excellent
combination of light weight, high strength, great corrosion resistance, and
reasonable cost has made aluminum and its alloys one of the most
commonly used metal groups. Whereas weight saving by substituting
light metals for heavy metals has been standard practice for generations
in critical aerospace structures, it has now reached top priority status in a
variety of other industries, including those manufacturing cars, trucks,
military vehicles, aviation ground support vehicles, munitions, building
and highway structures, and construction equipment.
The transition from heretofore more widely used iron and steel can be
especially difficult for those with little or no experience with aluminum
and aluminum alloys. Of necessity, they must become conversant with a
new alloy designation system and, perhaps even more importantly, with a
great number and variety of tempers, the designations for which provide
background on how the alloys have been produced to obtain the desired
properties and characteristics.
The positive news is twofold. First, contrary to the case for other
metals, there are widely accepted alloy and temper designation systems
for aluminum, created and maintained by the Aluminum Association, that
are used throughout the aluminum industry. Those systems are published
in the Aluminum Association publication Aluminum Standards and Data
(see Chapter 8, “Selected References”) and are recognized by the
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the American National
Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems for Aluminum (see
Chapter 8). The second item of positive news is that, with a little
concentration, the aluminum alloy and temper designation systems are
consistent, logical, and easily understood.
2 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

The Aluminum Association maintains the alloy and temper designations


systems and, in fact, is accredited by ANSI to carry out this role for the
United States. The procedures for registering alloys and tempers, and a
record of the alloys and tempers registered, are published in Alloy and
Temper Registration Records (see Chapter 8) and are available at minimal
cost for any producer or user to track. Further, standard aluminum
tempers that have been registered with the Aluminum Association and are
in widest use are described in Aluminum Standards and Data.
An additional complication to be dealt with is the fact that, typically,
each country around the world has its own designations system for
aluminum alloys and tempers. Fortunately, great progress is being made
in improving that situation, and the Aluminum Association’s alloy
designation system is now recognized by about 90% of the world’s
aluminum industry. The publication Recommendation: International Des-
ignation System for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys
(see Chapter 8) has been accepted almost universally, and progress is
slowly being made in broadening the agreement to cast alloys and certain
basic temper designations as well. Regrettably, however, experience
indicates that full acceptance of universal equivalents has not yet been
completed, and situations requiring producers and buyers to discuss
clarifications can still occur.

The Keys to Understanding

Thus, the principal keys to gaining a good introduction to aluminum


alloys and tempers are knowledge and understanding of the alloy and
temper designations systems themselves. The main mission of this book
is to build upon the information available in sources such as The
Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Registration Records and
Aluminum Standards and Data to shed more light and understanding on
the characteristics, production technology, and applications for the most
commonly used aluminum alloys and tempers.
To accomplish this, the basic aluminum alloy and temper designation
systems, as developed by the Aluminum Association and documented in
Aluminum Standards and Data and ANSI H35.1, are presented in Chapter
2. Chapter 3 explains the alloy designation system in greater detail with
examples, and Chapter 4 covers the temper designation system in a
similar manner. The processes used to produce aluminum alloy products
are described briefly in Chapter 5, and representative applications are
described in Chapter 6.
We want to emphasize that the real authority on aluminum alloys and
tempers is the Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product
Standards (TCPS), the group that, on behalf of the Aluminum Associa-
Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 3

tion, maintains the alloy and temper designation systems and registers
new alloys and tempers as they come along. At times, there is an
unfortunate tendency on the part of some producers and fabricators to
intentionally or unintentionally create their own designations for alumi-
num alloys and tempers and to do so in a style that misleadingly suggests
that the newly created designations have been recognized by the industry
as a whole through the registration process. This is unethical and
improper because it misleads producers and users alike as to the heritage
of the designation and dilutes the value of systems based on uniformity
and industry standards. The independent creation of either alloy or temper
designations without the complete registration process defined by the
Aluminum Association and ANSI H35.1 is to be avoided.
Any questions or decisions needed on existing or new registrations
should be directed to that group at the following address:

Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product Standards


The Aluminum Association, Inc.
900 Nineteenth Street, NW, Suite 300
Washington, DC 20006

We want to emphasize that the mission of this publication is to provide


a brief introduction to aluminum alloys, including their applications. For
more detail on the various aspects of this subject, readers are encouraged
to consult the selected references in Chapter 8, particularly the complete
treatise on the aluminum industry by D.G. Altenpohl, Aluminum: Tech-
nology, Applications, and Environment.

Characteristics of Wrought Aluminum Alloys

It is appropriate to briefly note at this stage some of the basic


characteristics of wrought aluminum alloys that make them desirable
candidates for a wide range of applications. Wrought alloys are addressed
first, then cast alloys.
Corrosion Resistance. As a result of a naturally occurring tenacious
surface oxide film, many aluminum alloys provide exceptional resistance
to corrosion in many atmospheric and chemical environments. Alloys of
the 1xxx, 3xxx, 5xxx, and 6xxx systems are especially favorable in this
respect and are even used in applications where they are in direct contact
with seawater and antiskid salts.
Thermal Conductivity. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are good
conductors of heat, and while they melt at lower temperatures than steels,
approximately 535 °C (1000 °F). They are slower than steel to reach very
high temperatures in fire exposure.
4 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Electrical Conductivity. Pure aluminum and some of its alloys have


exceptionally high electrical conductivity (i.e., very low electrical resis-
tivity), second only to copper among common metals as conductors.
Strength/Weight Ratio. The combination of relatively high strength
with low density means a high strength efficiency for aluminum alloys
and many opportunities for replacement of heavier metals with no loss
(and perhaps a gain) in load-carrying capacity. This characteristic,
combined with excellent corrosion resistance and recyclability, has led to
the broad use of aluminum in containers, aircraft, and automotive
applications.
Fracture Toughness and Energy Absorption Capacity. Many alu-
minum alloys are exceptionally tough and make excellent choices for
critical applications where resistance to brittle fracture and unstable crack
growth are imperatives. Alloys of the 5xxx series, for example, are prime
choices for liquefied natural gas tankage. In addition, special high-
toughness versions of aircraft alloys, such as 2124, 7050, and 7475,
replace the standard versions of these alloys for critical bulkhead
applications.
Cryogenic Toughness. Aluminum alloys, especially of the 3xxx,
5xxx, and 6xxx series, are ideal for very low temperature applications
because of the detailed documentation that their ductility and toughness,
as well as strength, are higher at subzero temperatures, even down to near
absolute zero, than at room temperature.
Workability. Aluminum alloys are readily workable by a great variety
of metalworking technologies and are especially amenable to extrusion
(the process of forcing heated metal through shaped dies to produce
specific shaped sections). This characteristic enables aluminum to be
produced in a remarkable variety of shapes in which the metal can be
placed in locations where it can most efficiently carry the applied loads.
Ease of Joining. Aluminum alloys can be joined by a very broad
variety of commercial methods, including welding, brazing, soldering,
riveting, bolting, and even nailing, in addition to an unlimited variety of
mechanical procedures. Welding, while considered difficult by those
familiar only with joining steel and who try to apply the same techniques
to aluminum, is particularly easy when performed by proven techniques
such as gas metal arc welding (GMAW or MIG) or gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW or TIG).
Recyclability. Aluminum and aluminum alloys are among the easiest
to recycle of any structural materials. They are recyclable in the truest
sense, unlike materials that are reused but in lower-quality products;
aluminum alloys may be recycled directly back into the same high-quality
products, such as rigid containers, sheet, and automotive components.
Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 5

Characteristics of Cast Aluminum Alloys

The desirable characteristics of wrought alloys also are generally


applicable to cast alloys, but in fact, the choice of one casting alloy over
another tends to be determined by the relative abilities of the alloy to meet
one or more of the following characteristics:

O Ease of casting
O Strength
O Quality of finish

Unfortunately, few alloys or alloy series possess all three characteristics,


but some generalizations may be made.
Ease of Casting. The high-silicon 3xx.x series are outstanding in this
respect because their relatively high silicon contents lend a characteristic
of good flow and mold-filling capability. As a result, the 3xx.x series are
the most widely used and especially chosen for large and very complex
castings.
Strength. The 2xx.x alloys typically provide the very highest strengths
but are more difficult to cast and lack good surface characteristics.
Therefore, their use usually is limited to situations where expert casting
techniques can be applied and where strength and toughness are at a
premium, such as in the aerospace industry.
Finish. The 5xx.x and 7xx.x series are noteworthy for the fine finish
they provide, but they are more difficult to cast than the 3xx.x series and
so usually are limited to those applications where that finish is paramount.
A good example is the use of 7xx.x alloys for bearings.

Definitions for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

A few of the most useful definitions for aluminum and aluminum alloys
and products applicable to the discussion in this book are listed in this
section. A more complete listing of applicable terminology is included in
the Appendix. The definitions included therein are taken primarily from
Aluminum Standards and Data, with some additions from Product Design
for Die Casting in Recyclable Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc, and ZA
Alloys and Aluminum Casting Technology (Chapter 8, “Selected Refer-
ences,” contains details).
Some widely used definitions include:

O Commercially pure aluminum: Commercially pure (CP) aluminum


contains a minimum of 99% “pure” metal. Various specialty grades of
6 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

higher purity exist for use in special applications, up to and including


the “six nines” aluminum (i.e., 99.9999% pure aluminum).
O Aluminum alloy: A substance having metallic properties and composed
of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal.
Most aluminum alloys contain 90 to 96% aluminum, with one or more
other elements added to provide a specific combination of properties
and characteristics. It is quite usual to have several minor alloying
elements in addition to one or two major alloying elements to impart
special fabrication or performance characteristics.
O Strain-hardenable aluminum alloy: This is the type of alloy for which
the major and minor alloying elements do not provide significant solid
solution and precipitation strengthening during any type of thermal
treatment and which, therefore, must be strengthened principally by
strain hardening (i.e., by cold rolling or drawing). These alloys are
referred to as strain hardenable.
O Heat treatable aluminum alloy: For this type of alloy, the major, and
perhaps some minor, alloying elements do provide significant solid
solution and precipitation strengthening during solution heat treatment
and subsequent aging. These alloys are referred to as heat treatable.
O Wrought aluminum alloy: This term is applied to alloys produced in
ingot or billet form and subsequently worked by any of a number of
processes such as rolling, extruding, forging, drawing, or other
metalworking process to produce semifinished products from which
end-use products are subsequently made.
O Cast aluminum alloy: This term is used in the context of this reference
to mean alloys that generally are used in parts cast to final or near-final
shape and to the ingot from which such castings are made. Generally
speaking, cast alloy compositions are not used for subsequent rolling,
extrusion, forging, or other metal shaping processes. Casting as
discussed herein does not generally apply to the production of ingots,
billets, or other stock primarily intended for subsequent metalworking.
O Specification Limits and Test Directions: Most aluminum alloy speci-
fications include tensile property limits, which individual lots are
expected to equal or exceed in 99% of the instances with 95%
confidence. Tensile test specimens used for such determinations have
prescribed specimen directions or orientations. The standard orienta-
tions most often referred to in material specifications and in testing
documents and reports in general are the following:
a. Longitudinal: The axis of the specimen is parallel to the longitu-
dinal axis of the product and to the direction of major grain flow
in the product.
b. Long transverse: The axis of the specimen is normal to the
longitudinal axis of the product and to the direction of major grain
flow in the product, and it is within the major plane of the product.
Introduction: The Nature of the Problem / 7

In relatively thin sections, this orientation may be referred to simply


as the transverse direction.
c. Short transverse: The axis of the specimen is normal to the major
plane of the product, and thus normal to both the longitudinal and
long transverse directions. This orientation is used only when
products are thick enough to permit the taking of practical
specimen sizes.
All tensile tests and, in fact, all mechanical tests, are made in accordance
with the appropriate ASTM standard test procedures as presented in the
Annual Book of ASTM Standards.

Applications of Aluminum Alloys

It is useful in gaining an improved understanding of the alloy and


temper designations for aluminum alloys to look at a variety of typical
applications for a variety of the alloys in various tempers. Accordingly,
the applications are reviewed in Chapter 6, both by alloy type and by
market area. This review provides additional insight into the advantages
and disadvantages of the various alloy groups and illustrates the applica-
tion of specific tempers for specific performance needs.
Many of the examples included herein are taken from D.G. Altenpohl’s
book, Aluminum: Technology, Applications and Environment, and readers
looking for additional details on the variety of applications of aluminum,
as well as a greater understanding of the aluminum industry in total, are
encouraged to consult that reference.

Microscopy of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

To further assist the reader in understanding the principles of the alloy


and temper designation systems and the consequences of applying the
production technology implied by the temper designations, a catalog of
micrographs is included in Chapter 7 of this book. While not exhaustively
representing all alloys and tempers referenced in the text, a good cross
section of the aluminum alloys and tempers discussed in this text is
included.

Units and Unit Conversion

The reader will note that the normal procedures for handling English/
engineering and metric units in ASM publications are not followed in this
book. Rather, in this book about aluminum alloys, tempers, products, and
applications, the standard procedures of the aluminum industry as
8 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

documented by the publications of the Aluminum Association have been


followed. These procedures are described briefly as follows.
For wrought aluminum alloy products, the U.S. aluminum industry
elected upon establishing metric standards for aluminum and aluminum
alloy products to develop property limits and product dimensions in
normal rounded values the way they would be found in a metric
environment, a practice known as “hard conversion.” This is in sharp
contrast to the much less useful procedure known as “soft conversion” of
using the odd numbers that result from direct calculation from the
English/engineering values.
As a result, when tables of properties for wrought alloys are presented
herein (e.g., Tables 2 and 2M in Chapter 4), two separate tables are
shown, one of English/engineering units, and one in metric/International
Standard units. These may not be readily converted back and forth since
each represents a separate but compatible set of standards.
The practice followed in this book is completely consistent with that
followed by the Aluminum Association, Inc., in publishing two complete
sets of the standards for wrought alloys for the industry, one in each units
system. For additional, more detailed information on industry practices,
the reader is referred to Aluminum Standards and Data and Aluminum
Standards and Data 1998 Metric SI.
For aluminum alloy castings, metric (SI) conversions used by the
aluminum industry are rounded soft (direct) conversions with rounding to
represent comparable rounding used in the English/engineering system.
Metric values are calculated using the exact conversion factors and then
rounded to the nearest five megapascals, (i.e., 5 MPa, which is similar to
rounding to the nearest thousand psi [ksi]) for strengths and nearest
gigapascals (i.e., 1 MPa ⫻ 106, or GPa) for moduli.
For both wrought and cast aluminum alloys, elongations are about
5 to 10% lower when determined in accordance with international
standard methods compatible with the metric system (i.e., using gage
lengths of 5D [five times the specimen diameter] rather than 4D as with
engineering methods). Accordingly, elongations are reported at about
10% lower in metric (SI) tables. Note that this is not the result of a
calculated conversion as for strength or modulus, but the result of a
difference in the standard tensile test procedure.
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p9-22 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p009 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 2
Aluminum Alloy and
Temper Designation
Systems of the
Aluminum Association

IT IS VERY USEFUL for secondary fabricators and users of aluminum


products and components to have a working knowledge of the Aluminum
Association alloy and temper designation systems. The alloy system
provides a standard form for alloy identification that enables the user to
understand a great deal about the chemical composition and characteris-
tics of the alloy. Similarly, the temper designation system permits an
understanding of the manner in which the product has been fabricated.
The alloy and temper designation systems for wrought aluminum that
are in use today were adopted by the aluminum industry around 1955, and
the current system for the cast aluminum system was developed some-
what later. The aluminum industry itself manages the creation and
continuing maintenance of these systems through its industry organiza-
tion, the Aluminum Association. This chapter describes the basic systems
as defined and maintained by that organization.
The alloy registration process is carefully controlled and its integrity
maintained by the Technical Committee on Product Standards of the
Aluminum Association. This committee is made up of industry standards
experts. Further, as noted earlier, the Aluminum Association designation
system is the basis of the ANSI Standards, incorporated in ANSI H35.1
and, for the wrought alloy system at least, forms the basis for the nearly
worldwide International Accord on Alloy Designations.
The Aluminum Association Alloy and Temper Designation Systems
covered in ANSI H35.1 and Aluminum Standards and Data are outlined
in this chapter. Additional information is provided in subsequent chapters
10 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

to assist in understanding and using the systems, as well as recognizing


the meanings of the designations themselves.

Wrought Aluminum Alloy Designation System

The Aluminum Association Wrought Alloy Designation System con-


sists of four numerical digits, sometimes including alphabetic prefixes or
suffixes, but normally just the four numbers:

O The first digit defines the major alloying class of the series starting with
that number.
O The second defines variations in the original basic alloy: that digit is
always a zero (0) for the original composition, a one (1) for the first
variation, a two (2) for the second variation, and so forth. Variations are
typically defined by differences in one or more alloying elements of
0.15 to 0.50% or more, depending on the level of the added element.
O The third and fourth digits designate the specific alloy within the series;
there is no special significance to the values of those digits, nor are they
necessarily used in sequence.

Table 1 shows the meaning of the first of the four digits in the alloy
designation system. The alloy family is identified by that number and the
associated main alloying ingredient(s), with three exceptions:

O Members of the 1000 series family are commercially pure aluminum or


special purity versions and as such do not typically have any alloying
elements intentionally added; however, they do contain minor impuri-
ties that are not removed unless the intended application requires it.
O The 8000 series family is an “other elements” series comprising alloys
with rather unusual major alloying elements such as iron and nickel.
O The 9000 series is unassigned.

Table 1 Main alloying elements in the


wrought alloy designation system
Alloy Main alloying element
1xxx Mostly pure aluminum; no major alloying additions
2xxx Copper
3xxx Manganese
4xxx Silicon
5xxx Magnesium
6xxx Magnesium and silicon
7xxx Zinc
8xxx Other elements (e.g., iron or tin)
9xxx Unassigned
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 11

The major benefit for understanding this designation system is that a great
deal will be known about the alloy just from knowledge of the series of
which it is a member, for example:

O 1xxx series alloys are pure aluminum and its variations; compositions
of 99.0% or more aluminum are by definition in this series. Within the
1xxx series, the last two of the four digits in the designation indicate the
minimum aluminum percentage. These digits are the same as the two
digits to the right of the decimal point in the minimum aluminum
percentage specified for the designation when expressed to the nearest
0.01%. As with the rest of the alloy series, the second digit indicates
modifications in impurity limits or intentionally added elements.
Compositions of the 1xxx series do not respond to any solution heat
treatment but may be strengthened modestly by strain hardening.
O 2xxx series alloys have copper as their main alloying element, and
because copper will go in significant amounts into solid solution in
aluminum, these alloys will respond to solution heat treatment and are
referred to as heat treatable.
O 3xxx series alloys are based on manganese and are strain hardenable.
These alloys do not respond to solution heat treatment.
O 4xxx series alloys are based on silicon; some alloys are heat treatable,
others are not, depending on the amount of silicon and the other
alloying constituents.
O 5xxx series alloys are based on magnesium. They are strain hardenable,
but not heat treatable.
O 6xxx series alloys have both magnesium and silicon as their main
alloying elements, which combine as magnesium silicide (Mg2Si)
following solid solution. Alloys in this series are heat treatable.
O 7xxx series alloys have zinc as their main alloying element, often with
significant amounts of copper and magnesium. They are heat treatable.
O 8xxx series contain one or more of several less frequently used major
alloying elements such as iron or tin. The characteristics of this series
depend on the major alloying element(s).

The compositions of a representative group of widely used commercial


aluminum alloys are given in Table 2, taken from Aluminum Standards
and Data (see Chapter 8, “Selected References”).

Cast Aluminum Alloys Designation System

The designation system for cast aluminum alloys is similar in some


respects to that for wrought alloys but has a few very important
differences as noted by the following description.
12 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 2 Nominal chemical composition of wrought aluminum alloys


Percent of alloying elements; aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder

Alloy Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium


1050 ... ... 99.50% min aluminum ... ... ...
1060 ... ... 99.60% min aluminum ... ... ...
1100 ... 0.12 99.0% min aluminum ... ... ...
1145 ... ... 99.45% min aluminum ... ... ...
1175 ... ... 99.75% min aluminum ... ... ...
1200 ... ... 99.00% min aluminum ... ... ...
1230 ... ... 99.30% min aluminum ... ... ...
1235 ... ... 99.35% min aluminum ... ... ...
1345 ... ... 99.45% min aluminum ... ... ...
1350(a) ... ... 99.50% min aluminum ... ... ...
2011(b) ... 5.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
2014 0.8 4.4 0.8 0.50 ... ... ... ...
2017 0.50 4.0 0.7 0.6 ... ... ... ...
2018 ... 4.0 ... 0.7 ... 2.0 ... ...
2024 ... 4.4 0.6 1.5 ... ... ... ...
2025 0.8 4.4 0.8 ... ... ... ... ...
2036 ... 2.6 0.25 0.45 ... ... ... ...
2117 ... 2.6 ... 0.35 ... ... ... ...
2124 ... 4.4 0.6 1.5 ... ... ... ...
2218 ... 4.0 ... 1.5 ... 2.0 ... ...
2219(c) ... 6.3 0.30 ... ... ... ... 0.06
2319(c) ... 6.3 0.30 ... ... ... ... 0.15
2618(d) 0.18 2.3 ... 1.6 ... 1.0 ... 0.07
3003 ... 0.12 1.2 ... ... ... ... ...
3004 ... ... 1.2 1.0 ... ... ... ...
3005 ... ... 1.2 0.40 ... ... ... ...
3105 ... ... 0.6 0.50 ... ... ... ...
4032 12.2 0.9 ... 1.0 ... 0.9 ... ...
4043 5.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
4045 10.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
4047 12.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
4145 10.0 4.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
4343 7.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
4643 4.1 ... ... 0.20 ... ... ... ...
5005 ... ... ... 0.8 ... ... ... ...
5050 ... ... ... 1.4 ... ... ... ...
5052 ... ... ... 2.5 0.25 ... ... ...
5056 ... ... 0.12 5.0 0.12 ... ... ...
5083 ... ... 0.7 4.4 0.15 ... ... ...
5086 ... ... 0.45 4.0 0.15 ... ...
5154 ... ... ... 3.5 0.25 ... ... ...
5183 ... ... 0.08 4.8 0.15 ... ... ...
5252 ... ... ... 2.5 ... ... ... ...
5254 ... ... ... 3.5 0.25 ... ... ...
5356 ... ... 0.12 5.0 0.12 ... ... 0.13
(continued)

Listed herein are designations and chemical composition limits for some wrought unalloyed aluminum and for wrought aluminum alloys registered with the Aluminum
Association. This does not include all alloys registered with the Aluminum Association. A complete list of registered designations is contained in the Registration Record
of International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys. These lists are maintained by the Technical
Committee on Product Standards of The Aluminum Association. (a) Formerly designated EC. (b) Lead and bismuth, 0.40 each. (c) Vanadium, 0.10; zirconium 0.18. (d) Iron,
1.1. (e) Lead and Bismuth, 0.55 each. (f) Zirconium, 0.14. (g) Zirconium, 0.12. (h) Zirconium, 0.18. (i) Iron, 0.7. (j) Boron, 0.02. (k) Iron, 0.35.
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 13

Table 2 (continued)
Percent of alloying elements; aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder

Alloy Silicon Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium


5454 ... ... 0.08 2.7 0.12 ... ... ...
5456 ... ... 0.08 5.1 0.12 ... ... ...
5457 ... ... 0.30 1.0 ... ... ... ...
5554 ... ... 0.08 2.7 0.12 ... ... 0.12
5556 ... ... 0.08 5.1 0.12 ... ... 0.12
5652 ... ... ... 2.5 0.25 ... ... ...
5654 ... ... ... 3.5 0.25 ... ... 0.10
5657 ... ... ... 0.8 ... ... ... ...
6003 0.7 ... ... 1.2 ... ... ... ...
6005 0.8 ... ... 0.50 ... ... ... ...
6053 0.7 ... ... 1.2 0.25 ... ... ...
6061 0.6 0.28 ... 1.0 0.20 ... ... ...
6063 0.40 ... ... 0.7 ... ... ... ...
6066 1.4 1.0 0.8 1.1 ... ... ... ...
6070 1.4 0.28 0.7 0.8 ... ... ... ...
6101 0.50 ... ... 0.6 ... ... ... ...
6105 0.8 ... ... 0.6 ... ... ... ...
6151 0.9 ... ... 0.6 0.25 ... ... ...
6162 0.6 ... ... 0.9 ... ... ... ...
6201 0.7 ... ... 0.8 ... ... ... ...
6253 0.7 ... ... 1.2 0.25 ... 2.0 ...
6262(e) 0.6 0.28 ... 1.0 0.09 ... ... ...
6351 1.0 ... 0.6 0.6 ... ... ... ...
6463 0.40 ... ... 0.7 ... ... ... ...
6951 0.35 0.28 ... 0.6 ... ... ... ...
7005(f) ... ... 0.45 1.4 0.13 ... 4.5 0.04
7008 ... ... ... 1.0 0.18 ... 5.0 ...
7049 ... 1.6 ... 2.4 0.16 ... 7.7 ...
7050(g) ... 2.3 ... 2.2 ... ... 6.2 ...
7072 ... ... ... ... ... ... 1.0 ...
7075 ... 1.6 ... 2.5 0.23 ... 5.6 ...
7108(h) ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... 5.0 ...
7175 ... 1.6 ... 2.5 0.23 ... 5.6 ...
7178 ... 2.0 ... 2.8 0.23 ... 6.8 ...
7475 ... 1.6 ... 2.2 0.22 ... 5.7 ...
8017(i) ... 0.15 ... 0.03 ... ... ... ...
8030(j) ... 0.22 ... ... ... ... ... ...
8176(i) 0.09 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
8177(k) ... ... ... 0.08 ... ... ... ...
Listed herein are designations and chemical composition limits for some wrought unalloyed aluminum and for wrought aluminum alloys registered with the Aluminum
Association. This does not include all alloys registered with the Aluminum Association. A complete list of registered designations is contained in the Registration Record
of International Alloy Designations and Chemical Composition Limits for Wrought Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Alloys. These lists are maintained by the Technical
Committee on Product Standards of The Aluminum Association. (a) Formerly designated EC. (b) Lead and bismuth, 0.40 each. (c) Vanadium, 0.10; zirconium 0.18. (d) Iron,
1.1. (e) Lead and Bismuth, 0.55 each. (f) Zirconium, 0.14. (g) Zirconium, 0.12. (h) Zirconium, 0.18. (i) Iron, 0.7. (j) Boron, 0.02. (k) Iron, 0.35.

The cast alloy designation system also has four digits, and the first digit
specifies the major alloying constituent(s) as shown in Table 3. However,
a decimal point is used between the third and fourth digits to make clear
that these are designations used to identify alloys in the form of castings
or foundry ingot.
14 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

As for the wrought alloy designation system, the various digits of the
cast alloy system convey information about the alloy:

O The first digit indicates the alloy group, as can be seen in Table 3. For
2xx.x through 8xx.x alloys, the alloy group is determined by the
alloying element present in the greatest mean percentage, except in
cases in which the composition being registered qualifies as a modifi-
cation of a previously registered alloy. Note that in Table 3, the 6xx.x
series is shown last and for cast alloys is designated as the unused
series.
O The second and third digits identify the specific aluminum alloy or, for
the aluminum 1xx.x series, indicate purity. If the greatest mean
percentage is common to more than one alloying element, the alloy
group is determined by the element that comes first in sequence. For
the 1xx.x group, the second two of the four digits in the designation
indicate the minimum aluminum percentage. These digits are the same
as the two digits to the right of the decimal point in the minimum
aluminum percentage when expressed to the nearest 0.01%.
O The fourth digit indicates the product form: xxx.0 indicates castings,
and xxx.1, for the most part, indicates ingot having limits for alloying
elements the same as or very similar to those for the alloy in the form
of castings. A fourth digit of xxx.2 may be used to indicate that the
ingot has composition limits that differ from but fall within the xxx.1
limits; this typically represents the use of tighter limits on certain
impurities to achieve specific properties in the finished cast product
produced from that ingot.

A letter before the numerical designation indicates a modification of the


original alloy or an impurity limit. These serial letters are assigned in
alphabetical sequence starting with A, but omitting I, O, Q, and X, with
X being reserved for experimental alloys. Note that explicit rules have
been established for determining whether a proposed composition is a
modification of an existing, or whether it is a new, alloy.
Table 4 presents the nominal compositions of a representative group of
commercial aluminum casting alloys.
Table 3 Cast alloy designation system
Alloy Main alloying element
1xx.x Pure aluminum, 99.00% max
2xx.x Copper
3xx.x Silicon, with added copper and/or magnesium
4xx.x Silicon
5xx.x Magnesium
7xx.x Zinc
8xx.x Tin
9xx.x Other elements
6xx.x Unused series
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 15

Table 4 Nominal chemical compositions of aluminum alloy castings


Percent of alloying elements; aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder

Alloy Silicon Iron Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium Notes
201.0 ... ... 4.6 0.35 0.35 ... ... ... 0.25 (a)
204.0 ... ... 4.6 ... 0.25 ... ... ... ...
A206.0 ... ... 4.6 0.35 0.25 ... ... ... 0.22
208.0 3.0 ... 4.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...
213.0 2.0 1.2 7.0 ... ... ... ... 2.5 ...
222.0 ... ... 10.0 ... 0.25 ... ... ... ...
224.0 ... ... 5.0 0.35 ... ... ... ... ... (b)
240.0 ... ... 8.0 0.5 6.0 ... 0.5 ... ...
242.0 ... ... 4.0 ... 1.5 ... 2.0 ... ...
A242.0 ... ... 4.1 ... 1.4 0.20 2.0 ... 0.14
295.0 1.1 ... 4.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
308.0 5.5 ... 4.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
319.0 6.0 ... 3.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
328.0 8.0 ... 1.5 0.40 0.40 ... ... ... ...
332.0 9.5 ... 3.0 ... 1.0 ... ... ... ...
333.0 9.0 ... 3.5 ... 0.28 ... ... ... ...
336.0 12.0 ... 1.0 ... 1.0 ... 2.5 ... ...
354.0 9.0 ... 1.8 ... 0.5 ... ... ... ...
355.0 5.0 ... 1.25 ... 0.5 ... ... ... ...
C355.0 5.0 ... 1.25 ... 0.5 ... ... ... ... (c)
356.0 7.0 ... ... ... 0.32 ... ... ... ...
A356.0 7.0 ... ... ... 0.35 ... ... ... ... (c)
357.0 7.0 ... ... ... 0.52 ... ... ... ...
A357.0 7.0 ... ... ... 0.55 ... ... ... 0.12 (c, d)
359.0 9.0 ... ... ... 0.6 ... ... ... ...
360.0 9.5 ... ... ... 0.5 ... ... ... ...
A360.0 9.5 ... ... ... 0.5 ... ... ... ... (c)
380.0 8.5 ... 3.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
A380.0 8.5 ... 3.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... (c)
383.0 10.5 ... 2.5 ... ... ... ... ... ...
384.0 11.2 ... 3.8 ... ... ... ... ... ...
B390.0 17.0 ... 4.5 ... 0.55 ... ... ... ...
413.0 12.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
A413.0 12.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
443.0 5.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
B443.0 5.2 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (c)
C443.0 5.2 (e)
A444.0 7.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...
512.0 1.8 ... ... ... 4.0 ... ... ... ...
513.0 ... ... ... ... 4.0 ... ... 1.8 ...
514.0 ... ... ... ... 4.0 ... ... ... ...
518.0 ... ... ... ... 8.0 ... ... ... ...
520.0 ... ... ... ... 10.0 ... ... ... ...
535.0 ... ... ... .18 6.8 ... ... ... 0.18
(f)
705.0 ... ... ... 0.5 1.6 0.30 ... 3.0 ...
707.0 ... ... ... 0.50 2.1 0.30 ... 4.2 ...
(continued)

Values are nominal (i.e., average of range of limits for elements for which a range is specified). (a) Also contains 0.7% silver. (b) Also contains 0.10% vanadium and 0.18%
zirconium. (c) For this alloy, impurity limits are significantly lower than for the similar alloy listed just above. (d) Also contains 0.055% beryllium. (e) May contain higher
iron (up to 2.0% total) than 443.0 and A443.0. (f) Also contains 0.005% beryllium and 0.005% boron. (g) Also contains 6.2% tin.
16 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 4 (continued)
Percent of alloying elements; aluminum and normal impurities constitute remainder

Alloy Silicon Iron Copper Manganese Magnesium Chromium Nickel Zinc Titanium Notes

710.0 ... ... 0.50 ... 0.7 ... ... 6.5 ...
711.0 ... 1.0 0.50 ... 0.35 ... ... 6.5 ...
712.0 ... ... ... ... 0.58 0.50 ... 6.0 0.20
713.0 ... ... 0.7 ... 0.35 ... ... 7.5 ...
771.0 ... ... ... ... 0.9 0.40 ... 7.0 0.15
850.0 ... ... 1.0 ... ... ... 1.0 ... ... (g)
851.0 2.5 ... 1.0 ... ... ... 0.50 ... ... (g)
852.0 ... ... 2.0 ... 0.75 ... 1.2 ... ... (g)

Values are nominal (i.e., average of range of limits for elements for which a range is specified). (a) Also contains 0.7% silver. (b) Also contains 0.10% vanadium and 0.18%
zirconium. (c) For this alloy, impurity limits are significantly lower than for the similar alloy listed just above. (d) Also contains 0.055% beryllium. (e) May contain higher
iron (up to 2.0% total) than 443.0 and A443.0. (f) Also contains 0.005% beryllium and 0.005% boron. (g) Also contains 6.2% tin.

Designations for Experimental Aluminum Alloys

Experimental alloys of either the wrought or cast aluminum series are


indicated with the addition of the prefix X. This prefix is dropped when
the alloy is no longer experimental. However, during development and
before an alloy is designated as experimental, a new composition may be
identified by a serial number assigned by the originating organization.
Use of the serial number is discontinued when the composition is
registered with the Aluminum Association and the ANSI H35.1 designa-
tion is assigned.

Aluminum Alloy Temper Designation System

Basic Temper Designations


The temper designation is always presented immediately following the
alloy designation with a hyphen between the designation and the temper
(e.g., 2014-T6).
The first character in the temper designation is a capital letter indicating
the general class of treatment. The designations are defined and described
as follows:

O F, as fabricated: Applies to wrought or cast products made by shaping


processes in which there is no special control over thermal conditions
or strain-hardening processes employed to achieve specific properties.
For wrought alloys there are no mechanical property limits associated
with this temper, although for cast alloys there generally are.
O O, annealed: Applies to wrought products that are annealed to obtain
the lower strength temper, usually to increase subsequent workability.
The O applies to cast products that are annealed to improve ductility
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 17

and dimensional stability and may be followed by a digit other than


zero.
O H, strain hardened: Applies to products that have their strength
increased by strain hardening. They may or may not have supplemen-
tary thermal treatments to produce some reduction in strength. The H
is always followed by two or more digits.
O W, solution heat treated: Applies only to alloys that age spontaneously
after solution heat treating. This designation is specific only when
digits are used in combination with W to indicate the period of natural
aging, for example, W 1⁄2 hr.
O T, thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F, O, or H:
Applies to products that are thermally treated, with or without
supplementary strain hardening, to produce stable tempers. The T is
always followed by one or more digits.

Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers


The temper designation system is based on sequences of basic treat-
ments used to produce different tempers and their variations. Subdivisions
of the basic tempers, discussed next, are indicated by one or more digits
(descriptor digits) following the letter.
Subdivisions of the Basic H Tempers. The first number(s) following
the letter designation indicates the specific combination of basic opera-
tions:

O H1, strain hardened only: Applies to products that have been strain
hardened to obtain a desired level of strength without a supplementary
thermal treatment. The number following H1 indicates degree of strain
hardening.
O H2, strain hardened and partially annealed: Applies to products that
have been strain hardened more than the desired final amount, and their
strength is reduced to the desired level by partial annealing. The
number added to H2 indicates the degree of strain hardening remaining
after partial annealing.
O H3, strain hardened and stabilized: Applies to products that have been
strain hardened and then stabilized either by a low temperature thermal
treatment, or as a result of heat introduced during fabrication of the
product. Stabilization usually improves ductility. The H3 temper is
used only for those alloys that will gradually age soften at room
temperature if they are not stabilized. The number added to H3
indicates the degree of strain hardening remaining after stabilization.
O H4, strain hardened and lacquered or painted: Applies to products that
are strain hardened and that have been subjected to heat during
subsequent painting or lacquering operations. The number added to H4
indicates the amount of strain hardening left after painting or lacquer-
ing.
18 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Adding Additional Digits: H Temper. A digit following H1, H2, H3,


or H4 indicates the degree of strain hardening as identified or indicated by
the minimum value for tensile strength:

O The hardest temper normally produced is indicated by adding the


numeral 8 (i.e., HX8).
O A degree of cold work equal to approximately one-half that for the
HX8 temper is indicated by the HX4 temper, and so on.
O For a degree of cold work halfway between the O temper and the HX4
temper, the HX2 temper is used.
O For a degree of cold work halfway between HX4 and HX8, the HX6
temper is used.
O The numbers 1, 3, 5, and 7, similarly, designate tempers intermediate
between those just listed.
O The numeral 9 is used to indicate tempers that exceed those of HX8 by
14 MPa (2 ksi) or more.

Table 5 indicates gains in the tensile strength of wrought alloys in the


annealed temper when they are treated to the HX8 temper.
Several three-digit H tempers also have been standardized. For all
strain-hardenable alloys, the following three-digit designations are rec-
ognized:

O HX11: Applies to products that incur sufficient strain hardening after


the final anneal such that they fail to qualify as annealed, but not so
much or so consistent an amount of strain that they qualify as HX1.
O H112: Applies to products that may acquire some temper from working
at an elevated temperature and for which there are mechanical property
limits.

Other recognized three-digit H tempers apply to types of sheet, as shown


in Table 6.

Table 5 Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers


Minimum tensile strength Increase in tensile strength
in annealed temper, ksi to HX8 temper, ksi
Up to 6 8
7–9 9
10–12 10
13–15 11
16–18 12
19–24 13
25–20 14
31–36 15
37–42 16
43 and over 17
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 19

Table 5M Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers


(metric)
Minimum tensile strength Increase in tensile strength
in annealed temper, mPa to HX8 temper, mPa
Up to 40 55
45–60 62
65–80 69
85–100 76
105–120 83
125–160 90
165–200 97
205–240 103
245–280 110
285–320 115
296 and over 120

Subdivisions of the Basic T Temper. The first number(s) following


the letter T designation indicates the specific combination of basic
operations:

O T1, cooled from elevated temperature shaping process and naturally


aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are
not cold worked after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping
process or (b) for which the effect of cold work in flattening or
straightening may not be recognized in mechanical property limits
O T2, cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, cold worked,
and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition: Applies to
products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength after cooling
from an elevated temperature shaping process or (b) for which the
effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is recognized in
mechanical property limits
O T3, solution heat treated, cold worked, and naturally aged to a
substantially stable condition: Applies to products (a) that are cold
worked to improve strength after solution heat treatment or (b) for
which the effect of cold work in flattening or straightening is
recognized in mechanical property limits
O T4, solution heat treated and naturally aged to a substantially stable
condition: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after
solution heat treatment or (b) for which the effect of cold work in
flattening or straightening may not be recognized in mechanical
property limits
O T5, cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, then
artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are not cold worked after
cooling from elevated temperature shaping process or (b) for which the
effect of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized
in mechanical property limits
O T6, solution treated, then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that
are not cold worked after solution treatment or (b) for which the effect
20 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

of cold work in flattening or straightening may not be recognized in


mechanical property limits
O T7, solution heat treated and overaged/stabilized: Applies to (a)
wrought products that are artificially aged after solution heat treating to
increase their strength beyond the maximum value achievable to
provide control of some significant property or characteristic or (b) cast
products that are artificially aged after solution treatment to provide
stability in dimensions and in strength
O T8, solution heat treated, cold worked, then artificially aged: Applies
to products (a) that are cold worked to improve strength or (b) for
which the effect of cold work in flattening and straightening is
recognized in mechanical property limits
O T9, solution heat treated, artificially aged, then cold worked: Applies
to products that are cold worked to improve strength
O T10, cooled from an elevated temperature shaping process, cold
worked, then artificially aged: Applies to products (a) that are cold
worked to improve strength or (b) for which the effect of cold work in
flattening or straightening is recognized in mechanical property limits

In all of the T-type temper definitions just described, solution heat


treatment is achieved by:

O Heating cast or wrought shaped products to a suitable temperature


O Holding them at that temperature long enough to allow constituents to
enter into solid solution
O Cooling them rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution to
take advantage of subsequent precipitation and the associated strength-
ening (i.e., precipitation hardening)

Adding Additional Digits: T Temper. Additional digits, the first of


which shall not be zero, may be added to designations T1 through T10 to
indicate a variation in treatment that significantly alters the product
characteristics that are or would be obtained using the basic treatment.
The specific additional digits shown in Table 7 have been assigned for
stress-relieved tempers of wrought products. The special T-temper desig-
Table 6 Tempers for aluminum pattern sheet
Pattern or embossed sheet Fabricated from
H114 O temper
H124, H224, H324 H11, H21, H31 temper, respectively
H134, H234, H334 H12, H22, H32 temper, respectively
H144, H244, H344 H13, H23, H33 temper, respectively
H154, H254, H354 H14, H24, H34 temper, respectively
H164, H264, H364 H15, H25, H35 temper, respectively
H174, H274, H374 H16, H26, H36 temper, respectively
H184, H284, H384 H17, H27, H37 temper, respectively
H194, H294, H394 H18, H28, H38 temper, respectively
H195, H295, H395 H19, H29, H39 temper, respectively
Aluminum Alloy and Temper Designation Systems of the Aluminum Association / 21

Table 7 Tempers for stress-relieved products


Temper Application

Stress relieved by stretching


TX51 Applies to plate and rolled or cold-finished rod or bar, die or ring forgings, and rolled rings when
stretched the indicated amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated
temperature shaping process. The products receive no further straightening after stretching.
Plate, 11⁄2–3% permanent set
Rolled or cold-finished rod and bar, 1–3% permanent set
Die or ring forgings and rolled rings, 1–5% permanent set
TX510 Applies to extruded rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube and to drawn tube when stretched the indicated
amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping
process. These products receive no further straightening after stretching.
Extruded rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube, 1–3% permanent set
Drawn tube, 1⁄2–3% permanent set
TX511 Applies to extruded rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube and to drawn tube when stretched the indicated
amounts after solution heat treatment or after cooling from an elevated temperature shaping
process. These products may receive minor straightening after stretching to comply with standard
tolerances.
Extruded rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube, 1–3% permanent set
Drawn tube, 1⁄2–3% permanent set

Stress relieved by compressing


TX52 Applies to products that are stress relieved by compressing after solution heat treatment or cooling from
an elevated temperature shaping process to produce a permanent set of 1–5%.

Stress relieved by combined stretching and compressing


TX54 Applies to die forgings that are stress relieved by restriking cold in the finish die.

Same digits (51, 52, 54) may be added to the designation W to indicate unstable solution heat treated and stress-relieved tempers.

nations listed in Table 8 have been assigned for wrought aluminum


products from which test materials are taken and heat treated to
demonstrate response to heat treatment of the product as a whole.
Assigned O-Temper Variations. The following temper designation
has been assigned for wrought products that are high-temperature
annealed to accentuate ultrasonic response and to provide dimensional
stability:

O O1, thermally treated at approximately the same time and temperature


required for solution heat treatment and slow cooled to room tempera-
ture: Applicable to products that are to be machined prior to solution
heat treatment by the user. Mechanical property limits are not appli-
cable.

Table 8 Tempers for testing response to heat treatment


Temper Description
T42 Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and naturally aged to a substantially stable condition
T62 Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and artificially aged
T7X2 Solution heat treated from annealed or F temper and artificially overaged to meet the mechanical
properties and corrosion resistance limits of the T7X temper

These temper designations have been assigned for wrought products test material heat-treated from annealed (O, O1, etc.) or F
temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment. Temper designations T42 and T62 also may be applied to wrought products heat
treated from any temper by the user when such heat treatment results in the mechanical properties applicable to these tempers.
22 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Note: As the O temper is not part of the strain-hardened (H) series,


variations of O temper shall not apply to products that are strain hardened
after annealing and in which the effect of strain hardening is recognized
in the mechanical properties or other characteristics.

Summary

This completes an overview of the Aluminum Association Alloy and


Temper Designation Systems in the terms described in Aluminum
Standards and Data and in ANSI H35.1. In the chapters that follow, we
will look at the systems in more detail, discuss the meanings of some of
the variations, and provide illustrations of the usage of the systems. With
this information, heat treaters, fabricators, and end users of aluminum
products should be able to better understand the designations and, hence,
the practices used in their particular situations.
For more detailed information on any of the discussion presented in this
chapter, the reader is referred directly to the master sources (publication
information can be found in Chapter 8, “Selected References”):

O Aluminum Standards and Data (English/engineering and metric edi-


tions)
O American National Standard Alloy and Temper Designation Systems
for Aluminum
O Standards for Aluminum Sand and Permanent Mold Casting
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p23-37 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p023 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 3
Understanding Wrought
and Cast Aluminum
Alloys Designations

THE WROUGHT ALLOY DESIGNATION SYSTEM consists of four


numerical digits, sometimes preceded by a capital letter as indicated in
Chapter 2. The first digit indicates the principal alloying elements, as
described in this chapter in the section “Principal Alloying Elements” and
Table 1; the second digit is the variation of that alloy; and the last two
digits represent the specific alloy designation.

The Wrought Alloy Series

How the System is Applied


The First Digit. Assignment of the first digit of the designation of a
new alloy is fairly straightforward; few judgment decisions are needed
unless there are equal amounts of two or more alloys. In the latter case,
specific guidance has been provided by the developers of the alloy
designation system that the choice of alloy series assigned shall be in the
order of copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), silicon (Si), magnesium (Mg),
magnesium silicide (Mg2Si), and zinc (Zn). Thus, if a new alloy has equal
amounts of manganese and zinc, it will be assigned to the 3xxx series. In
such cases, the 6xxx series requires the most judgment because alloys that
have more silicon than magnesium, but significant quantities of both, are
likely to be placed in the 6xxx series rather than the 4xxx series in
establishing properties and characteristics due to the predominance of the
magnesium and silicon combination. Thus, for example, alloys such as
6005, 6066, and 6351, all have significantly more silicon than magnesium
or other elements, but find themselves in the Mg2Si series.
24 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

The Second Digit. Assignment of the second digit of the alloy


designation is related to the variations in a specific alloy, in many cases,
tightening of controls on one or more impurities to achieve specific
properties. If the second digit is 0, it generally indicates that the aluminum
making up the bulk of the alloy is commercially pure aluminum having
naturally occurring impurity levels. When the second digit is an integer 1
to 9, it indicates that some special control has been placed on the impurity
levels of that variation, or that the range for one of the major alloy
elements has been shaded one way or the other to achieve certain
performance. However, the sequence has no significance in the compo-
sition variation; the digits are assigned sequentially as the situations
occur, and the sequence indicates chronology more than level of control.
An example of the application of these principles is the alloy set 7075,
7175, 7275, 7375, and 7475. The original alloy was 7075 with commer-
cial quality aluminum; when added fracture toughness was needed,
controls on various impurities, notably iron and silicon led to the other
variations, of which 7175 and 7475 remain active alloys known for their
superior toughness.
The Third and Fourth Digits. As noted earlier, the last two digits in
the 1xxx series indicate the purity level in terms of the first two digits after
the 99.XX% purity of the aluminum used in preparing that composition.
Thus, for example, the designation 1060 indicates 99.60% minimum
aluminum in that composition. In the remaining 2xxx to 8xxx series, the
last two digits have no special significance. They serve only to identify
the specific individual alloys and mean nothing in terms of the sequence
in which the alloys were developed or registered. Historically, for the
older alloys, those digits came from the earlier designations (e.g., 2024
was 24S before 1950). More recently, it has been the tradition that
developers of new alloys ask for specific designations, sometimes based
on proximity of application to other alloys of the same series or because
they judge them easy to remember or such. Alloy 2020, now inactive, is
an example of the latter. If the developer asks for a specific number when
filing for registration, the Aluminum Association Product Standards
Committee, which oversees the system, is likely to agree to the request
if no confusion would result. However, if no designation is requested,
the committee would likely take the lowest used number in the sequence
1 to 99.
The alloy designation system also calls for the use of capital letters in
front of the four-digit numerical:

O Experimental alloys—X: Early in the development of aluminum alloys,


when such development has moved beyond single-company in-house
trials, and the alloys are ready for customer trials and/or perhaps
multicompany production but are still not sufficiently well understood
or documented to become standard alloys, the alloys may be registered,
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 25

but an X is added to the designation. A historical example was the use


of X2020, when the first of the lithium-bearing alloys was put forth in
the 1960s. That designation was employed for about ten years before
the further use of the alloy was deemed inappropriate and its
application was discontinued. Another example is X7050, from which
the X was removed once the broad application of the alloy was
considered appropriate and the properties and standards were well
defined.
O Variations—A, B, etc.: Under certain situations when minor variations
in alloy compositions are introduced, such variation sometimes is
noted with the addition of a capital letter behind the original four-
number designation, rather than a change in the second digit. The only
current example of the application of this procedure in commercial
practice is 6005A—a modification of alloy 6005. In general, the
practice is to reflect such variations with the second digit as noted
earlier in this chapter.

Principal Alloying Elements


As indicated in Chapter 2 and in the previous discussion, the most
obvious characteristic of the alloy series defined by the designation is the
major alloying element or elements, as recapped in Table 1. This
breakdown leads to the ability to recognize a variety of things about the
alloys themselves because each of these elements carries certain charac-
teristics with it into the aluminum system as defined in subsequent
paragraphs. Remembering these associations will add immeasurably to
understanding the behavior and proper treatments to be given the alloys.

Understanding Wrought Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms


The first major piece of information conveyed by understanding the
alloy designation system is the manner in which the alloy can be most
effectively strengthened.
For example, pure aluminum (1xxx) and alloys containing principally
manganese (3xxx) or magnesium (5xxx) with only minor amounts of other
elements must be strengthened primarily by strain hardening because they
Table 1 Main alloying elements in the
wrought aluminum alloy designation system
Alloy Main alloying element
1xxx Mostly pure aluminum; no major alloying additions
2xxx Copper
3xxx Manganese
4xxx Silicon
5xxx Magnesium
6xxx Magnesium and silicon
7xxx Zinc
8xxx Other elements (e.g., iron and silicon)
9xxx Unassigned
26 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

do not respond to solution heat treatment. Pure aluminum has no


appreciable amounts of any elements that can go into solution to provide
solution strengthening or precipitation hardening. And elements such as
magnesium, silicon, and manganese, while they are soluble to some
degree in aluminum and provide modest solution strengthening, do not
provide for an appreciable amount of the more significant precipitation
hardening. Thus, for pure aluminum and the 3xxx and 5xxx alloys, cold
rolling, stretching, or drawing, or some combination of these, are the
principal means of strengthening.
On the other hand, elements such as copper (2xxx series), zinc (7xxx
series), and magnesium in combination with silicon as Mg2Si (6xxx
series) do go into solution to an appreciable degree and provide the
opportunity for appreciable precipitation hardening. Thus, solution heat
treatment (a high temperature holding to permit the elements to go into
solution), followed by a sufficiently rapid quench to keep the elements in
solution, and then either natural aging (i.e., at room temperature) or
artificial aging (holding in a furnace at a moderately elevated tempera-
ture) for precipitation hardening are most often used. The result is that
alloy series containing copper (2xxx), magnesium plus silicon (6xxx), or
zinc (7xxx) are the higher-strength series.
The 4xxx series is somewhat unique in that silicon alone does not
provide much heat treating advantage, so most alloys in this series are
considered non-heat-treatable. However, in some 4xxx alloys the silicon is
present with sufficient amounts of other elements such as magnesium that
heat treatment is effective; alloy 4032 is an example. The situation is
similar for the 8xxx series; some alloys such as 8017 and 8040 with only
small amounts of alloying element are non-heat-treatable, while those
such as 8090, with a significant amount of copper are.

Understanding Wrought Alloy Advantages and Limitations


In addition to being indicative of specific strengthening mechanisms,
the major alloying elements also indicate several things about basic
behavioral or performance characteristics of the alloys. It is helpful to a
secondary fabricator, heat treater, or user of the various alloys to be
knowledgeable about these as well. The following example characteristics
may be noted.
1xxx, Pure Aluminum. The compositions in this group have relatively
low strength, even when strain hardened; however, they have extremely
high ductility and formability and so may be readily worked or formed.
The 1xxx series aluminums also have exceptionally high electrical
conductivity and resistance to all types of corrosive environments and
may be readily joined by a number of commercial processes.
2xxx, Copper. As the principal alloying element in this series, copper
provides relatively high strength because it provides solution strengthen-
ing and the ability to precipitation harden. Many commercial aluminum
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 27

alloys contain copper as the principal alloying constituent in concentra-


tions from 1 to 10%. Because these alloys naturally age at room
temperature, it is advantageous to do any required working or forming of
the metal soon after quenching from solution heat treatment. If a delay is
needed, it may be desirable to cool them until the mechanical work can
be performed.
In the fully hardened (age-hardened) condition, the ductility of 2xxx
alloys is generally lower than for some other alloys (except in special
variations that are discussed later), and their resistance to atmospheric
corrosion is not as good as that of pure aluminum or most non-heat-
treatable alloys.
Unless given special treatments, 2xxx alloys in the T3 and T4 conditions
may be susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) when stressed in
the short-transverse direction (i.e., normal to the principal plane of grain
flow). Precipitation hardening improves resistance to SCC but reduces
ductility and toughness.
Most aluminum-copper alloys are not readily welded by commercial
processes, but a few alloys such as 2219 and 2195 have been developed
especially for applications requiring welding.
3xxx, Manganese. Manganese provides only modest strength increase
even when strain hardened but relatively high formability and ductility,
and very high resistance to corrosion in almost all environments. Alloys
of the 3xxx series are readily weldable and are among the best for brazing
and soldering applications.
Commercial aluminum-manganese alloys contain up to 1.2% manga-
nese, but it is appropriate to note that manganese is commonly employed
as a supplementary alloying constituent in alloys of the other series to
enhance strength.
4xxx, Silicon. There are two types of silicon-bearing aluminum alloys:
those with silicon alone, which are not very strong but provide excellent
flow and finishing characteristics, and those that also include copper
and/or magnesium as well as silicon and so gain strength by solution heat
treatment and aging.
The 4xxx alloys are not highly resistant to atmospheric corrosion and
tend to “gray” with time in humid environments. Interestingly, this
characteristic is used to advantage with finishing techniques such as
anodizing to obtain a variety of rich gray shades.
Because silicon adds to their “flow” characteristics during working,
some 4xxx alloys (e.g., 4032) are used for complex or finely detailed
forgings such as pistons. The 4xxx alloys are readily welded and, in fact,
include some of the mostly widely used weld filler alloys, another result
of their high fluidity.
5xxx, Magnesium. Magnesium additions to aluminum provide among
the highest strength non-heat-treatable alloys. These alloys also are
exceptionally tough, absorbing lots of energy during fracture, and so
28 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

can be used in critical applications where superior toughness is vital.


Alloys of the 5xxx series are readily welded by commercial procedures.
Generally, the 5xxx alloys also have excellent resistance to atmospheric
and seawater corrosion to the point that they may be used in severe
marine environments (as described in more detail in Chapter 6). However,
alloys with more than 3% Mg are not recommended for service in which
significant exposure to high temperature may be encountered because
some sensitization to SCC may develop. For these types of applications,
alloys such as 5052, 5454, and 5754 containing less magnesium are
recommended.
6xxx, Magnesium Plus Silicon. With both magnesium and silicon
present, aluminum forms a quasi-binary section with the Mg2Si phase of
the magnesium-silicon system, which in turn provides excellent precipi-
tation-hardening capability. This results in modestly higher strengths than
possible with non-heat-treatable alloys, combined with generally excel-
lent corrosion resistance.
Alloys of the 6xxx type are among the easiest of aluminum alloys to
extrude, and are thus widely used for complex (e.g., multihollow or
finned) shapes produced in this manner. In addition, they are readily
joined by almost all commercial processes.
As with the 2xxx series, some natural aging begins immediately after
solution heat treatment, so forming operations should be scheduled soon
after the material is quenched.
7xxx, Zinc. Zinc-bearing aluminum alloys, especially when combined
with copper and magnesium, provide the highest strengths of any
commercial series.
As a group, these alloys possess relatively poorer atmospheric corrosion
resistance compared with other aluminum alloys and, except for the
special versions described later, are less tough and more susceptible to
stress-corrosion cracking under short-transverse stressing. Special treat-
ments have been developed to deal with these characteristics and are
especially important when the alloys would be subjected to high short-
transverse stresses in service (as described in the following paragraphs).
As with the 2xxx and 6xxx series, 7xxx alloys naturally age following
heat treatment, so scheduling of any intended forming operations is
essential.

Other Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying Element


As noted earlier, knowledge of the alloy designation system also
provides some information about the properties and characteristics of the
alloys. Two notable examples are density and modulus of elasticity:

O Density: The density of each aluminum alloy is influenced by the


density of each of the individual alloying elements, most especially by
the major alloying element indicated by the first number of the
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 29

designation. The degree of influence is directly related to the percent-


age of the alloying element present. For example, alloys with magne-
sium and lithium present are lighter than pure aluminum, while alloys
with copper, iron, and zinc are heavier. Those alloys with mostly
silicon or silicon combined with magnesium have densities about the
same as pure aluminum. In Section 2 of Aluminum Standards and
Data, Tables I and II provide both typical density values and
procedures for calculating densities. Practical estimates of the density
of an alloy also may be made by summing the percentages of each
element present multiplied by the respective density of that element
(representative values given in Table 2).
O Modulus of Elasticity: As in the case of density, the moduli of elasticity
of aluminum alloys, with a few exceptions, are influenced by the
modulus of elasticity of the alloying elements in direct relation to the
amount present. Thus, by summing the percentages of each element
present multiplied by the respective modulus, the modulus of the alloy
may be estimated. There are two important exceptions—magnesium
and lithium; both of these relatively low-modulus elements have the
effect of increasing the modulus of aluminum: magnesium by a small
amount and lithium by a large amount. Table 3 provides the moduli of
the major alloying elements for use in estimating the moduli of alloys
in which they are used. It must be emphasized that calculations made
on this basis are to be considered to be rough estimates, not suitable for
Table 2 Densities of aluminum and aluminum alloy-
ing elements
Density
Alloying element g/cm3 lb/in.3
Aluminum 2.699 0.0971
Silver 10.49 0.379
Gold 19.32 0.698
Beryllium 1.82 0.066
Bismuth 9.80 0.354
Cadmium 8.65 0.313
Cobalt 8.9 0.32
Chromium 7.19 0.260
Copper 8.96 0.324
Iron 7.87 0.284
Lithium 0.53 0.019
Magnesium 1.74 0.0628
Manganese 7.43 0.268
Molybdenum 13.55 0.490
Nickel 8.90 0.322
Lead 11.34 0.410
Silicon 2.33 0.084
Tin 7.30 0.264
Titanium 4.54 0.164
Zinc 7.13 0.258
Zirconium 6.5 0.23
30 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

design purposes. For design purposes, there is no substitute for precise


measurements of modulus in accordance with ASTM Method E 111.

Understanding Wrought Alloy Variations


Most wrought alloys start at the mill as cast ingot or billet. The ingot or
billet is hot worked into semifabricated wrought products by such
processes as hot rolling and extrusion, some of which are further finished
by cold rolling or drawing. Wrought alloys are available in a variety of
product forms, including sheet, plate, tube, pipe, structural shapes,
extrusions, rod, bar, wire, rivets, forging, forging stock, foil, and fin stock.
These processes and products are described further in Chapter 6.
As stated earlier, the second digit of an alloy designation defines
variations of the original alloy composition. Several examples may help
to illustrate this point.
Example 1. Alloys 2124, 2224, and 2324 are variations, actually
higher-purity variations, of alloy 2024. The original alloy has been and
continues to be useful for transportation applications, but research
metallurgists noted that controlling impurity elements such as iron and
silicon enhanced the toughness of the alloy, providing variations espe-
cially useful for critical aerospace applications where high fracture
toughness is vital. This procedure was adopted first to make 2124, a plate

Table 3 Elastic moduli of aluminum and aluminum


alloying elements
Elastic modulus

Alloying element GPa 106 psi


Aluminum 69 10.0
Silver 71 11.0
Gold 78 12.0
Beryllium 255 37.0
Bismuth 32 4.6
Cadmium 55 8.0
Cobalt 21 30.0
Chromium 248 36.0
Copper 128 16.0
Iron 208 28.5
Lithium 0.7(b) 0.1(b)
Magnesium 44(a) 6.5(a)
Manganese 159 23.0
Molybdenum 325 50.0
Nickel 207 30.0
Lead 261 2.6
Silicon 110 16.0
Tin 44 6.0
Titanium 120 16.8
Zinc 69(c) 10(c)
Zirconium 49.3 11.0
(a) Effect of magnesium is equivalent to approximately 75 GPa/11.0 ⫻ 106psi. (b) Effect
of lithium is equivalent to approximately 207 GPa/30.0 ⫻ 106psi. (c) The modulus of
elasticity of zinc is not well defined; these values are lower-limit estimates.
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 31

alloy with all the advantages of 2024 but substantially higher elongation
and toughness, especially in the short transverse direction. The process
was adopted subsequently to create 2324, an alloy for extrusions with
similar attributes. Some special processing also may be required for such
alloys.
Example 2. Alloys 7175 and 7475 are modifications of alloy 7075.
Both 7175 and 7475 alloys have the same major alloying elements as
7075 but, as in the case of the 2xxx alloys, scientists learned that control
of the impurities and the relationship of the levels of certain minor
elements added to the fracture toughness of alloys, making them
especially useful for critical aerospace applications. Alloy 7175 has found
most of its application in forgings, while 7475 is most often used in
applications requiring sheet and plate. Designations 7275 and 7375 were
assigned earlier but then discarded and are no longer in commercial use.

Links to Earlier Alloy Designations


For reference purposes, it is useful to note that prior to the development
of the current Aluminum Association Alloy Designation System, another
alloy designation system had been in place. Occasionally, a specification
or a component turns up where the older designation still is evident, and
it is useful to be able to bridge the gap.
The old system for wrought alloy designations consisted of a one or two
digit number followed by a capital S. A capital letter in front of the alloy
number was used to illustrate a variation of a basic composition. Because
it lacked sufficient rigor, flexibility, and consistency, this system was
abandoned in the 1950s and replaced by the current system.
When the four-digit system was installed, the letters were dropped, and
the two surviving numbers became a part of the new system. For example,
alloy 17S became alloy 2017, and similarly, alloy 24S became alloy 2024,
as illustrated in Table 4, which provides a reference conversion showing
both the current and original designations.

Unified Numbering System (UNS)


Alloy Designation System for Wrought Alloys
The UNS alloy designation system, while not used in most domestic or
international commerce, is sometimes cited for information purposes in
domestic or international standards, including ASTM material specifica-
tions.
For both wrought and cast aluminum alloys, the UNS designation is
based directly on the Aluminum Association alloy designation system.
For wrought alloys, the UNS number is the Aluminum Association
designation preceded by “A9.” Thus, for example, alloy 2024 becomes
A92024 in the UNS system; 7075 is A97075.
The Aluminum Association is the maintainer of the UNS designation
system for aluminum alloys.
32 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 4 Comparison of previous and cur-


rent aluminum alloy designation systems
Old designation Current designation
1S 1100
3S 3003
4S 3004
14S 2014
17S 2017
A17S 2117
24S 2024
25S 2025
26S 2026
32S 4032
50S 5050
B51S 6151
52S 5052
56S 5056
61S 6061
63S 6063
75S 7075
76S 7076

The Cast Alloy Series

The cast alloy designation series has a more complex and confusing
history than the wrought alloy series, and so, in addition to describing the
current alloy designations, some explanation will be given to the several
variations of designations still rather widely applied to cast aluminum
alloys. This is made more important because the most recent changes in
the cast alloy designation system have occurred much more recently than
those in the wrought alloy series, so there is a much higher probability
that there are many parts in service and specified in drawings identified
with earlier designations. There may be many individuals still unaware of
the most recent changes.
In the material that follows, the current system is discussed first,
followed by a look back at earlier designations systems.

How the Current Aluminum Cast


Alloy Designation System is Applied
The cast alloy designation has four numbers, with a decimal point
between the third and fourth numbers and a letter preceding the numbers
to indicate variations. The first three numbers indicate the alloy, and the
fourth indicates the product form.
The first digit identifies the family, based on the series listed in Table
5. For example, a 3xx.x designation represents the group of aluminum-
silicon alloys that contain magnesium or copper. As with wrought alloy
designations, when there are two major elements in equal percentage in
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 33

Table 5 Aluminum casting alloys


Series Alloying element(s)
1xx.x Unalloyed compositions
2xx.x Copper
3xx.x Silicon plus copper and/or magnesium
4xx.x Silicon
5xx.x Magnesium
6xx.x Not used
7xx.x Zinc
8xx.x Tin
9xx.x Other elements

the alloy, the alloy is designated in accordance with the sequence: copper,
silicon plus copper and/or magnesium, silicon, magnesium, or zinc.
The second and third digits identify a specific alloy of the family. For
all except the 1xx.x series, there is no special significance to those
numbers; they neither indicate a sequence of any type nor represent any
characteristic of the alloy. In some, though not all, instances, the numbers
may refer back to an earlier designation system. In the 1xx.x series, the
last two digits represent the percentage of aluminum present in terms of
the two digits to the right of the decimal point in that percentage; for
example, 160.0 represents a casting of 99.60% minimum aluminum,
relatively high purity.
The final digit following the decimal indicates the product
form⫺casting or ingot. If the designation applies to a finished casting, a
zero always is used (xxx.0); if it applies to the ingot from which the
casting was or will be produced, a 1 or 2 is used (xxx.1 or xxx.2). In the
latter case, the xxx.1 designation is the most common and refers to the
common commercial composition. The xxx.2 designation usually is
limited to those cases where a narrower composition range of one or more
of the elements—all within the composition limits for the xxx.1 ver-
sion—is used to achieve special properties.
As an example, alloy 356.0 represents a finished casting of the silicon
plus copper and/or magnesium series. The designation 356.1 normally
would represent the ingot from which the 356.0 casting was made.
Prefix letters such as A or B indicate variations in the composition of
casting alloys, but overall similarity. Continuing the example above, alloy
A356.0 indicates a variation of 356.0 alloy, but with tighter controls on
iron and other impurities. The ingot from which the A356.0 was made
may be designated A356.1 or 356.2, both indicating the tighter control at
the ingot stage.

Understanding Cast Alloy Strengthening Mechanisms


As with wrought alloys, we can note several major characteristics of
casting alloys by their alloy class, the first digit of the designation.
Response to heat treatment is one important characteristic:
34 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O 1xx.0: Unalloyed; non-heat-treatable


O 2xx.0: Copper; heat treatable
O 3xx.0: Silicon plus copper and/or magnesium; heat treatable
O 4xx.0: Silicon; heat treatable
O 5xx.0: Magnesium; non-heat-treatable
O 6xx.0: Unused series
O 7xx.0: Zinc; heat treatable
O 8xx.0: Tin; heat treatable
O 9xx.0: Other elements; limited use

Despite these descriptive categorizations, it is appropriate to note that


while casting alloys of the 3xx.0 and 4xx.0 groupings are listed as heat
treatable, it is not customary in the die-casting industry to use separate
solution heat treatment for these alloys. Some strength advantage is
gained by the rapid cooling from the casting process, but even this is not
usually a closely controlled procedure. On the other hand, sand and
permanent mold castings foundries typically take advantage of solution
heat treating capabilities.
The reader also will note that there is no discussion of strain hardening
as a strengthening mechanism for cast alloys. This is simply because the
vast majority of castings are produced to near-finished dimensions, and
neither the shapes nor the dimensional controls lend themselves to
stretching or compression cold work.

Understanding Cast Alloy Advantages and Limitations


Based upon the effects of the primary alloying elements, some
generalizations may be made about several characteristics of the major
classes of aluminum casting alloys. Among the most important such
characteristics are those related to castability and to end-product proper-
ties and characteristics, as illustrated in Table 6, with ratings from 1
(highest or best) to 5 (lowest or worst). Such ratings are generalizations,
and some individual alloys in the groups may exhibit somewhat different
behavior.

Table 6 Characteristic ratings for cast aluminum alloys


Class Fluidity Cracking Tightness Corrosion Finishing Joining
1xx.0 1 1 1
2xx.0 3 4 3 4 1–3 2–4
3xx.0 1–2 1–2 1–2 2–3 3–4 1–3
4xx.0 1 1 1 2–3 4–5 1
5xx.0 5 4 4–5 3 1–2 3
7xx.0 3 4 4 4 1–2 4
8xx.0 4 5 5 5 3 5
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 35

Examples of the Use of Variations in Cast Alloy Designations


In the cast alloy designations more so than in the wrought series, letter
prefixes are used to indicate variations. As noted earlier, an excellent
example is illustrated by A356.0 as a variation of 356.0. Both are readily
castable into complex shapes, but 356.0, because of the relatively greater
impurity levels tolerated by its specifications (e.g., 0.6% Fe max), may be
more variable in quality, including reduced ductility and toughness.
A356.0 is a variation of 356.0 where iron and other impurities are
controlled to lower levels (e.g., 0.20% Fe max) with the result that
appreciably higher strength, ductility, and toughness are reliably pro-
vided.
Another example is A357.0 as a low-impurity variation of 357.0, for
which the situation is quite parallel.

Alloys for Different Casting Processes


There are a variety of processes that can be employed to produce
aluminum cast parts, as described in Chapter 5. While many of the alloys
can be produced from a wide variety of these processes, commercial die
castings are generally limited to a relatively small number of composi-
tions, namely, 360.0, A360.0, 380.0, A380.0, 383.0, 384.0, A384.0,
B390.0, 413.0, C443.0, and 518.0.

Other Characteristics Related to Composition


As with wrought alloys, both density and elastic modulus are directly
related to composition, and the same procedures and rules apply.
Reference is thus made to an earlier section in this chapter, “Other
Characteristics Related to Principal Alloying Element,” and to Tables 2
and 3 for the procedures on how to estimate these properties from the
compositions.

Evolution of the Aluminum Cast Alloy Designation System


For reference purposes, when links to earlier alloy designation systems
are required, it is useful to note that there have been two gradual
transitions in casting alloy designations. Originally, casting alloys were
specified by a rather randomly applied two- or three-digit designation,
without consistent relationships to major alloying elements.
Around 1950, with the increased wrought alloy standardization, there
began the tendency to standardize casting alloys with three digits, often
with the aforementioned letter prefixes, but there were still few specific
rules or guidelines guiding alloy designation uniformity.
When the current system was adopted in about 1980, the change was
both to reform the series designations to make it more reliable and
consistent with regard to alloying constituents and to add the fourth digit,
which included the precursor casting ingot from which the castings are
36 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

made. Therefore, at that time, castings designated as 356 castings became


356.0, and A356 castings became A356.0; the ingot from which they were
made became 356.1, A356.1, or 356.2, respectively. For some other alloys
placed in the wrong series initially, the change was more drastic: alloy
108 became 208.0, alloy 43 became 443.0 (or B443.0), and B214 became
512.0.
A summary of some of the major changes over this period is shown in
Table 7. Included in this table are both the current and former designa-
tions used within the industry, as well as the former designations followed
by federal, ASTM, and SAE specifications.
Regrettably, unlike the case with wrought alloys, the current cast alloy
designations are not so widely accepted throughout the world, and in fact,
they are not universally accepted even in the United States. While the
American Foundrymen’s Society (AFS) and the Non-Ferrous Founders’
Society (NFFS) accept and use the Aluminum Association/ANSI cast
alloy designation system, even the 1996 publications of the Die Casting
Development Council still report cast alloy designations without the
decimal point and the fourth digit and, more surprisingly, refer to the alloy
designations used before the alloy series were rationalized by major
alloying element.

UNS Alloy Designation System for Cast Alloys


As noted earlier, the UNS alloy designation system for cast aluminum
alloys, as for wrought aluminum alloys, is based directly on the
Aluminum Association alloy designation system. For cast alloys, the
Aluminum Association alloy designation is preceded by “A” followed by
a “0” (zero) if there is no letter preceding the alloy designation, or by 1,
2, 3, and so on, representing the letter of the alphabet used. No period is
used, as in the Aluminum Association casting alloy designation. So, for
example, 356.0 becomes A03560, A356.0 becomes A13560, and B518.0
becomes A25180.
Understanding Wrought and Cast Aluminum Alloys Designations / 37

Table 7 Cross reference chart of aluminum casting alloy designations


AA/ANSI Former UNS Federal Old ASTM Old SAE
201.0 ... A02010 ... CQ51A 382
204.0 ... A02040 ... ... ...
208.0 108 A02080 108 CS43A ...
213.0 C113 A02130 C113 CS74A 33
222.0 122 A02220 122 CG100A 34
242.0 142 A02420 142 CN42A 39
295.0 195 A02950 195 C4A 38
296.0 B295 A02960 B295 ... 380
308.0 A108 A03080 A108 ... ...
319.0 319, Allcast A03190 319 SC64D 326
328.0 Red X-8 A03280 Red X-8 SC82A 327
332.0 F332.0 A03320 F132 SC103A 332
333.0 333 A03330 333 SC94A 331
336.0 A332.0 A03360 A132 SN122A 321
354.0 354 A03540 ... ... ...
355.0 355 A03550 355 SC51A 322
C355.0 C355 A33550 C355 SC51B 335
356.0 356 A03560 356 SG70A 323
A356.0 A356 A13560 A356 SG70B 336
357.0 357 A03570 357 ... ...
A357.0 A357 A13570 ... ... ...
359.0 359 A03590 ... ... ...
360.0 360 A03600 360 SG100B ...
A360 A360 A13600 A360 SG100A 309
380.0 380 A03800 380 SC84B 308
A380 A380 A13800 A380 SC84A 306
383.0 383 A03830 383 SC102 383
384.0 384 A0384 384 SC114A 303
B390.0 390 A23900 390 SC174B ...
413.0 13 A04130 13 S12B ...
A413.0 A13 A14130 A13 S12A 305
443.0 43 A04430 ... S5B 35
B443.0 43 A24430 43 S5A ...
C443.0 43 A34430 43 S5C 304
A444.0 ... A14440 ... ... ...
512.0 B514.0 A05120 B214 GS42A ...
513.0 A514.0 A05130 A214 GZ42A
514.0 214 A05140 214 G4A 320
518.0 218 A05180 218 G8A ...
520.0 220 A05200 220 G10A 324
535.0 Almag 35 A05350 Almag 35 GM70B ...
705.0 603, Ternalloy 5 A07050 Ternalloy 5 ZG32A 311
707.0 607, Ternalloy 7 A07070 Ternalloy 7 ZG42A 312
710.0 A712.0 A07100 A612 ZG61B 313
711.0 C721.0 A07110 ... ZC60A 314
712.0 D712.0 A07120 40E ZG61A 310
713.0 613, Tenzaloy A07130 Tenzaloy ZC81A 315
771.0 Precedent 71A A07710 Precedent 71A ... ...
850.0 750 A08500 750 ... ...
851.0 A850.0 A08510 A750 ... ...
852.0 B850.0 A08520 B750 ... ...
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p39-76 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p039 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 4
Understanding the
Aluminum Temper
Designation System

This chapter provides additional detail and illustrations for the use of
temper designations in the aluminum industry today for both wrought and
cast alloys. This discussion expands on the basic Aluminum Association
Temper Designation System as described in Chapter 2. All standard
tempers (i.e., those recognized by the industry because they have been
registered by the Aluminum Association Technical Committee on Product
Standards) are published either in Aluminum Standards and Data or in the
Alloy and Temper Registration Records together with the procedures for
registering alloys.

Tempers for Wrought Aluminum Alloys

As noted earlier, temper designations are alphanumeric designations


appended to the alloy designations that convey to the producer and user
alike information about the general manner in which the alloy has been
mechanically and/or thermally treated to achieve the properties desired.
Most tempers have specific mechanical properties associated with them,
and satisfactory achievement of the intended temper is generally indicated
by whether the specified properties have been achieved. The temper
designation does not indicate precise details of how the material has been
treated, such as specific amounts of reduction during cold rolling, or the
temperatures used in the thermal treatments.
Topics covered in this chapter include:

O Review of basic temper designations and their major variations


O Applications and variations of the O temper
40 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Applications and variations of the F temper


O Applications and variations of the W temper
O Applications and variations of the H tempers
O Applications and variations of the T tempers
a. Identifying cold work
b. Identifying stabilization treatments
c. Identifying partial annealing treatments
d. Identifying specific products (e.g., embossed sheet)
e. Applications and variations of the T tempers
f. Identifying stress relief (TX51, TX510, TX511; TX52)
g. Identifying modifications in quenching (T5 versus T6; T6 versus
T61)
h. Heat treatment by nonproducer (heat treater or fabricator) (TX2)
i. Applications of H or T Tempers for Specific Performance (corro-
sion resistance; identifying tempers for special or premium
properties; T736 and T74)
As background and useful reference material in understanding more about
aluminum alloy temper designations, the typical mechanical properties of
representative wrought and cast aluminum alloys are presented in Tables
1 and 2, respectively.
Table 1 Typical mechanical properties of wrought aluminum alloys(a)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear, Modulus,
In 2 in. In 4D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, modulus of
Strength, ksi 1⁄16 in. 1⁄2 in. Brinell shearing endurance elasticity(c),
thick diam No., 500 kg load, strength, limit(b), ksi
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball ksi ksi % 103
1060-O 10 4 43 … 19 7 3 10.0
1060-H12 12 11 16 … 23 8 4 10.0
1060-H14 14 13 12 … 26 9 5 10.0
1060-H16 16 15 8 … 30 10 6.5 10.0
1060-H18 19 18 6 … 35 11 6.5 10.0

1100-O 13 5 35 45 23 9 5 10.0
1100-H12 16 15 12 25 28 10 6 10.0
1100-H14 18 17 9 20 32 11 7 10.0
1100-H16 21 20 6 17 38 12 9 10.0
1100-H18 24 22 5 15 44 13 9 10.0

1350-O 12 4 … (d) … 8 … 10.0


1350-H12 14 12 … … … 9 … 10.0
1350-H14 16 14 … … … 10 … 10.0
1350-H16 18 16 … … … 11 … 10.0
1350-H19 27 24 … (e) … 15 7 10.0

2011-T3 55 43 … 15 95 32 18 10.2
2011-T8 59 45 … 12 100 35 18 10.2
(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension
modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (f) Tempers
T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. thick specimen.
(i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 41

Table 1 (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear, Modulus,
In 2 in. In 4D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, modulus of
Strength, ksi 1⁄16 in. 1⁄2 in. Brinell shearing endurance elasticity(c),
thick diam No., 500 kg load, strength, limit(b), ksi
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball ksi ksi % 103
2014-O 27 14 … 18 45 18 13 10.6
2014-T4, T451 62 42 … 20 105 38 20 10.6
2014-T6, T651 70 60 … 13 135 42 18 10.6
Alclad 2014-O 25 10 21 … … 18 … 10.5
Alclad 2014-T3 63 40 20 … … 37 … 10.5

Alclad 2014-T4, T451 61 37 22 … … 37 … 10.5


Alclad 2014-T6, T651 68 60 10 … … 41 … 10.5
2017-O 26 10 … 22 45 18 13 10.5
2017-T4, T451 62 40 … 22 105 38 18 10.5
2018-T61 61 46 … 12 120 39 17 10.8

2024-O 27 11 20 22 47 18 13 10.6
2024-T3 70 50 18 … 120 41 20 10.6
2024-T4, T351 68 47 20 19 120 41 20 10.6
2024-T361(f) 72 57 13 … 130 42 18 10.6
Alclad 2024-O 26 11 20 … … 18 … 10.6

Alclad 2024-T3 65 45 18 … … 40 … 10.6


Alclad 2024-T4, T351 64 42 19 … … 40 … 10.6
Alclad 2024-T361(f) 67 63 11 … … 41 … 10.6
Alclad 2024-T81, T851 65 60 6 … … 40 … 10.6
Alclad 2024-T861(f) 70 66 6 … … 42 … 10.6

2025-T6 58 37 … 19 110 35 18 10.4


2036-T4 49 28 24 … … … 18(g) 10.3
2117-T4 43 24 … 27 70 28 14 10.3
2124-T851 70 64 … 8 … … … 10.6
2218-T72 48 37 … 11 95 30 … 10.8

2219-O 25 11 18 … … … … 10.6
2219-T42 52 27 20 … … … … 10.6
2219-T31, T351 52 36 17 … … … … 10.6
2219-T37 57 46 11 … … … … 10.6
2219-T62 60 42 10 … … … 15 10.6

2219-T81, T851 66 51 10 … … … 15 10.6


2219-T87 69 57 10 … … … 15 10.6
2618-T61 64 54 … 10 115 38 18 10.8
3003-O 16 6 30 40 28 11 7 10.0
3003-H12 19 18 10 20 35 12 8 10.0

3003-H14 22 21 8 16 40 14 9 10.0
3003-H16 26 25 5 14 47 15 10 10.0
3003-H18 29 27 4 10 55 16 10 10.0
Alclad 3003-O 16 6 30 40 … 11 … 10.0
Alclad 3003-H12 19 18 10 20 … 12 … 10.0

Alclad 3003-H14 22 21 8 16 … 14 … 10.0


Alclad 3003-H16 26 25 5 14 … 15 … 10.0
Alclad 3003-H18 29 27 4 10 … 16 … 10.0
(continued)
Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension
modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (f) Tempers
T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. thick specimen.
(i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
42 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 1 (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear, Modulus,
In 2 in. In 4D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, modulus of
Strength, ksi 1⁄16 in. 1⁄2 in. Brinell shearing endurance elasticity(c),
thick diam No., 500 kg load, strength, limit(b), ksi
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball ksi ksi % 103
3004-O 26 10 20 25 45 16 14 10.0
3004-H32 31 25 10 17 52 17 15 10.0
3004-H34 35 29 9 12 63 18 15 10.0
3004-H36 38 33 5 9 70 20 16 10.0
3004-H38 41 36 5 6 77 21 16 10

Alclad 3004-O 26 10 20 25 … 16 … 10.0


Alclad 3004-H32 31 25 10 17 … 17 … 10.0
Alclad 3004-H34 35 29 9 12 … 18 … 10.0
Alclad 3004-H36 38 33 5 9 … 20 … 10.0
Alclad 3004-H38 41 36 5 6 … 21 … 10.0

3105-O 17 8 24 … … 12 … 10.0
3105-H12 22 19 7 … … 14 … 10.0
3105-H14 25 22 5 … … 15 … 10.0
3105-H16 28 25 4 … … 16 … 10.0
3105-H18 31 28 3 … … 17 … 10.0

3105-H25 26 23 8 … … 15 … 10.0
4032-T6 55 46 … 9 120 38 16 11.4
5005-O 18 6 25 … 28 11 … 10.0
5005-H12 20 19 10 … … 14 … 10.0
5005-H14 23 22 6 … … 14 … 10.0

5005-H16 26 25 5 … … 15 … 10.0
5005-H18 29 28 4 … … 16 … 10.0
5005-H32 20 17 11 … 36 14 … 10.0
5005-H34 23 20 8 … 41 14 … 10.0
5005-H36 26 24 6 … 46 15 … 10.0

5005-H38 29 27 5 … 51 16 … 10.0
5050-O 21 8 24 … 36 15 12 10.0
5050-H32 25 21 9 … 46 17 13 10.0
5050-H34 28 24 8 … 53 18 13 10.0
5050-H36 30 26 7 … 58 19 14 10.0

5050-H38 32 29 6 … 63 20 14 10.0
5052-O 28 13 25 30 47 18 16 10.2
5052-H32 33 28 12 18 60 20 17 10.2
5052-H34 38 31 10 14 68 21 18 10.2
5052-H36 40 35 8 10 73 23 19 10.2

5052-H38 42 37 7 8 77 24 20 10.2
5056-O 42 22 … 35 65 26 20 10.3
5056-H18 63 59 … 10 105 34 22 10.3
5056-H38 60 50 … 15 100 32 22 10.3
5083-O 42 21 … 22 … 25 … 10.3

5083-H321, H116 46 33 … 16 … … 23 10.3


(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension
modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (f) Tempers
T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. thick specimen.
(i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 43

Table 1 (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear, Modulus,
In 2 in. In 4D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, modulus of
Strength, ksi 1⁄16 in. 1⁄2 in. Brinell shearing endurance elasticity(c),
thick diam No., 500 kg load, strength, limit(b), ksi
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball ksi ksi % 103
5086-O 38 17 22 … … 23 … 10.3
5086-H32, H116 42 30 12 … … … … 10.3.
5086-H34 47 37 10 … … 27 … 10.3
5086-H112 39 19 14 … … … … 10.3
5154-O 35 17 27 … 58 22 17 10.2

5154-H32 39 30 15 … 67 22 18 10.2
5154-H34 42 33 13 … 73 24 19 10.2
5154-H36 45 36 12 … 78 26 20 10.2
5154-H38 48 39 10 … 80 28 21 10.2
5154-H112 35 17 25 … 63 … 17 10.2

5252-H25 34 25 11 … 68 21 … 10.0
5252-H38, H28 41 35 5 … 75 23 … 10.0
5254-O 35 17 27 … 58 22 17 10.2
5254-H32 39 30 15 … 67 22 18 10.2
5254-H34 42 33 13 … 73 24 19 10.2

5254-H36 45 36 12 … 78 26 20 10.2
5254-H38 48 39 10 … 80 28 21 10.2
5254-H112 35 17 25 … 63 … 17 10.2
5454-O 36 17 22 … 62 23 … 10.2
5454-H32 40 30 10 … 73 24 … 10.2

5454-H34 44 35 10 … 81 26 … 10.2
5454-H111 38 26 14 … 70 23 … 10.2
5454-H112 36 18 18 … 62 23 … 10.2
5456-O 45 23 … 24 … … … 10.3
5456-H25 45 24 … 22 … … … 10.3

5456-H321, H116 51 37 … 16 90 30 … 10.3


5457-O 19 7 22 … 32 12 … 10.0
5457-H25 26 23 12 … 48 16 … 10.0
5457-H38, H28 30 27 6 … 55 18 … 10.0
5652-O 28 13 25 30 47 18 16 10.2

5652-H32 33 28 12 18 60 20 17 10.2
5652-H34 38 31 10 14 68 21 18 10.2
5652-H36 40 35 8 10 73 23 19 10.2
5652-H38 42 37 7 8 77 24 20 10.2
5657-H25 23 20 12 … 40 12 … 10.0

5657-H38, H28 28 24 7 … 50 15 … 10.0


6061-O 18 8 25 30 30 12 9 10.0
6061-T4, T451 35 21 22 25 65 24 14 10.0
6061-T6, T651 45 40 12 17 95 30 14 10.0
Alclad 6061-O 17 7 25 … … 11 … 10.0

Alclad 6061-T4, T451 33 19 22 … … 22 … 10.0


(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension
modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (f) Tempers
T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. thick specimen.
(i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
44 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 1 (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear, Modulus,
In 2 in. In 4D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, modulus of
Strength, ksi 1⁄16 in. 1⁄2 in. Brinell shearing endurance elasticity(c),
thick diam No., 500 kg load, strength, limit(b), ksi
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball ksi ksi % 103
Alclad 6061-T6, T651 42 37 12 … … 27 … 10.0
6063-O 13 7 … … 25 10 8 10.0
6063-T1 22 13 20 … 42 14 9 10.0
6063-T4 25 13 22 … … … … 10.0
6063-T5 27 21 12 … 60 17 10 10.0

6063-T6 35 31 12 … 73 22 10 10.0
6063-T83 37 35 9 … 82 22 … 10.0
6063-T831 30 27 10 … 70 18 … 10.0
6063-T832 42 39 12 … 95 27 … 10.0
6066-O 22 12 … 18 43 14 … 10.0

6066-T4, T451 52 30 … 18 90 29 … 10.0


6066-T6, T651 57 52 … 12 120 34 16 10.0
6070-T6 55 51 10 … … 34 14 10.0
6101-H111 14 11 … … … … … 10.0
6101-T6 32 28 15(h) … 71 20 … 10.0

6262-T9 58 55 … 10 120 35 13 10.0


6351-T4 36 22 20 … … … … 10.0
6351-T6 45 41 14 … 95 29 13 10.0
6463-T1 22 13 20 … 42 14 10 10.0
6463-T5 27 21 12 … 60 17 10 10.0

6463-T6 35 31 12 … 74 22 10 10.0
7049-T73 75 65 … 12 135 44 … 10.4
7049-T7352 75 63 … 11 135 43 … 10.4
7050-T73510, T73511 72 63 … 12 … … … 10.4
7050-T7451(i) 76 68 … 11 … 44 … 10.4

7050-T7651 80 71 … 11 … 47 … 10.4
7075-O 33 15 17 16 60 22 … 10.4
7075-T6, T651 83 73 11 11 150 48 23 10.4
Alclad 7075-O 32 14 17 … … 22 … 10.4
Alclad 7075-T6, T651 76 67 11 … … 46 … 10.4

7175-T74 76 66 … 11 135 42 23 10.4


7178-O 33 15 15 16 … … … 10.4
7178-T6, T651 88 78 10 11 … … … 10.4
7178-T76, T7651 83 73 … 11 … … … 10.3
Alclad 7178-O 32 14 16 … … … … 10.4

Alclad 7178-T6, T651 81 71 10 … … … … 10.4


7475-T61 82 71 11 … … … … 10.2
7475-T651 85 74 … 13 … … … 10.4
7475-T7351 72 61 … 13 … … … 10.4
7475-T761 75 65 12 … … … … 10.2

7475-T7651 77 67 … 12 … … … 10.4
Alclad 7475-T61 75 66 11 … … … … 10.2
Alclad 7475-T761 71 61 12 … … … … 10.2
8176-H24 17 14 15 … … 10 … 10.0
Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is about 2% greater than tension
modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 10 in. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 10 in. (f) Tempers
T361 and T861 were formerly designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 1⁄4 in. thick specimen.
(i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 45

Table 1M Typical mechanical properties of wrought aluminum alloys, (metric)(a)


Tension

Elongation, %
Shear,
In 50 mm In 5D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, Modulus,
Strength, MPa 1.60 mm 12.5 mm Brinell shearing endurance modulus of
thick diam No., 500 kgf load, strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball MPa MPa MPa % 103
1060-O 70 30 43 … 19 50 20 69
1060-H12 85 75 16 … 23 55 30 69
1060-H14 100 90 12 … 26 60 35 69
1060-H16 115 105 8 … 30 70 45 69
1060-H18 130 125 6 … 35 75 45 69

1100-O 90 35 35 42 23 60 35 69
1100-H12 110 105 12 22 28 70 40 69
1100-H14 125 115 9 18 32 75 50 69
1100-H16 145 140 6 15 38 85 60 69
1100-H18 165 150 5 13 44 90 60 69

1350-O 85 30 … (d) … 55 … 69
1350-H12 95 85 … … … 60 … 69
1350-H14 110 95 … … … 70 … 69
1350-H16 125 110 … … … 75 … 69
1350-H19 185 165 … (e) … 105 50 69

2011-T3 380 295 … 13 95 220 125 70


2011-T8 405 310 … 10 100 240 125 70
2014-O 185 95 … 16 45 125 90 73
2014-T4, T451 425 290 … 18 105 260 140 73
2014-T6, T651 485 415 … 11 135 290 125 73

Alclad 2014-O 170 70 21 … … 125 … 73


Alclad 2014-T3 435 275 20 … … 255 … 73
Alclad 2014-T4, T451 421 255 22 … … 255 … 73
Alclad 2014-T6, T651 470 415 10 … … 285 … 73
2017-O 180 70 … 20 45 125 90 73

2017-T4, T451 425 275 … 20 105 260 125 73


2018-T61 420 315 21 10 120 270 115 74
2024-O 185 75 20 20 47 125 90 73
2024-T3 485 345 18 … 120 285 140 73
2024-T4, T351 472 325 20 17 120 285 140 73

2024-T361(f) 495 395 13 … 130 290 125 73


Alclad 2024-O 180 75 20 … … 125 … 73
Alclad 2024-T3 450 310 18 … … 275 … 73
Alclad 2024-T4, T351 440 290 19 … … 275 … 73
Alclad 2024-T361(f) 460 365 11 … … 285 … 73

Alclad 2024-T81, T851 450 415 6 … … 275 … 73


Alclad 2024-T861(f) 485 455 6 … … 290 … 73
2025-T6 400 255 … 17 110 240 125 72
2036-T4 340 195 24 … … 205 125(g) 71
2117-T4 295 165 … 24 70 195 95 71

2124-T851 485 440 … 8 … … … 73


(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than
tension modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.
(f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 6.3 mm
thick specimen. (i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
46 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 1M (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear,
In 50 mm In 5D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, Modulus,
Strength, MPa 1.60 mm 12.5 mm Brinell shearing endurance modulus of
thick diam No., 500 kgf load, strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball MPa MPa MPa % 103
2218-T72 330 255 … 9 95 205 … 74
2219-O 170 75 18 … … … … 73
2219-T42 360 185 20 … … … … 73
2219-T31, T351 360 250 17 … … … … 73
2219-T37 395 215 11 … … … … 73

2219-T62 415 290 10 … … … 105 73


2219-T81, T851 455 350 10 … … … 105 73
2219-T87 475 395 10 … … … 105 73
2618-T61 440 370 … 10 115 260 90 73
3003-O 110 40 30 37 28 75 50 69

3003-H12 130 125 10 18 35 85 55 69


3003-H14 150 145 8 14 40 95 60 69
3003-H16 175 170 5 12 47 105 70 69
3003-H18 200 185 4 9 55 110 70 69
Alclad 3003-O 110 40 30 37 … 75 … 69

Alclad 3003-H12 130 125 10 18 … 85 … 69


Alclad 3003-H14 150 145 8 14 … 95 … 69
Alclad 3003-H16 175 170 5 12 … 105 … 69
Alclad 3003-H18 200 185 4 9 … 110 … 69
3004-O 180 70 20 22 45 110 95 69

3004-H32 215 170 10 15 52 115 105 69


3004-H34 240 200 9 10 63 125 105 69
3004-H36 260 230 5 8 70 140 110 69
3004-H38 285 250 5 5 77 145 110 69
Alclad 3004-O 180 70 20 22 … 110 … 69

Alclad 3004-H32 215 170 10 15 … 115 … 69


Alclad 3004-H34 240 200 9 10 … 125 … 69
Alclad 3004-H36 260 230 5 8 … 140 … 69
Alclad 3004-H38 285 250 5 5 … 145 … 69
3105-O 115 55 24 … … 85 … 69

3105-H12 150 130 7 … … 95 … 69


3105-H14 170 150 5 … … 105 … 69
3105-H16 195 170 4 … … 110 … 69
3105-H18 215 195 3 … … 115 … 69
3105-H25 180 160 8 … … 105 … 69

4032-T6 380 315 … 9 120 260 110 79


5005-O 125 40 25 … 28 75 … 69
5005-H12 140 130 10 … … 95 … 69
5005-H14 160 150 6 … … 95 … 69
5005-H16 180 170 5 … … 105 … 69

5005-H18 200 195 4 … … 110 … 69


(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than
tension modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.
(f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 6.3 mm
thick specimen. (i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 47

Table 1M (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear,
In 50 mm In 5D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, Modulus,
Strength, MPa 1.60 mm 12.5 mm Brinell shearing endurance modulus of
thick diam No., 500 kgf load, strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball MPa MPa MPa % 103
5005-H32 140 115 11 … 36 95 … 69
5005-H34 160 140 8 … 41 95 … 69
5005-H36 180 165 6 … 46 105 … 69
5005-H38 200 185 5 … 51 110 … 69
5050-O 145 55 24 … 36 105 85 69

5050-H32 170 145 9 … 46 115 90 69


5050-H34 190 165 8 … 53 125 90 69
5050-H36 205 180 7 … 58 130 95 69
5050-H38 220 200 6 … 63 140 95 69
5052-O 195 90 25 27 47 125 110 70

5052-H32 230 195 12 16 60 140 115 70


5052-H34 260 215 10 12 68 145 125 70
5052-H36 275 240 8 9 73 160 130 70
5052-H38 290 255 7 7 77 165 140 70
5056-O 290 150 … 32 65 180 140 71

5056-H18 435 405 … 9 105 235 150 71


5056-H38 415 345 … 13 100 220 150 71
5083-O 290 145 … 20 … 170 … 71
5083-H321, H116 315 230 … 14 … … 160 71
5086-O 260 115 22 … … 165 … 71

5086-H32, H116 290 205 12 … … … … 71


5086-H34 325 255 10 … … 185 … 71
5086-H112 270 130 14 … … … … 71
5154-O 240 115 27 … 58 150 115 70
5154-H32 270 205 15 … 67 150 125 70

5154-H34 290 230 13 … 73 165 130 70


5154-H36 310 250 12 … 78 180 140 70
5154-H38 330 270 10 … 80 195 145 70
5154-H112 240 115 25 … 63 … 115 70
5252-H25 235 170 11 … 68 145 … 69

5252-H38, H28 285 240 5 … 75 160 … 69


5254-O 240 115 27 … 58 150 115 70
5254-H32 270 205 15 … 67 150 125 70
5254-H34 290 230 13 … 73 165 130 70
5254-H36 310 250 12 … 78 180 140 70

5254-H38 330 270 10 … 80 195 145 70


5254-H112 240 115 25 … 63 … 115 70
5454-O 250 115 22 … 62 160 … 70
5454-H32 275 205 10 … 73 165 … 70
5454-H34 305 240 10 … 81 180 … 70

5454-H111 260 180 14 … 70 160 … 70


(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than
tension modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.
(f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 6.3 mm
thick specimen. (i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
48 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 1M (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear,
In 50 mm In 5D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, Modulus,
Strength, MPa 1.60 mm 12.5 mm Brinell shearing endurance modulus of
thick diam No., 500 kgf load, strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball MPa MPa MPa % 103
5454-H112 250 125 18 … 62 160 … 70
5456-O 310 160 … 22 … … … 71
5456-H25 310 165 … 20 … … … 71
5456-H321, H116 350 255 … 14 90 205 … 71
5457-O 130 50 22 … 32 85 … 69

5457-H25 180 160 12 … 48 110 … 69


5457-H38, H28 205 185 6 … 55 125 … 69
5652-O 195 90 25 27 47 125 110 70
5652-H32 230 195 12 16 60 140 115 70
5652-H34 260 215 10 12 68 145 125 70

5652-H36 275 240 8 9 73 160 130 70


5652-H38 290 255 7 7 77 165 140 70
5657-H25 160 140 12 … 40 95 … 69
5657-H38, H28 195 165 7 … 50 105 … 69
6061-O 125 55 25 27 30 85 60 69

6061-T4, T451 240 145 22 22 65 165 95 69


6061-T6, T651 310 275 12 15 95 205 95 69
Alclad 6061-O 115 50 25 … … 75 … 69
Alclad 6061-T4, T451 230 130 22 … … 150 … 69
Alclad 6061-T6, T651 290 255 12 … … 185 … 69

6063-O 90 50 … … 25 70 55 69
6063-T1 150 90 20 … 42 95 60 69
6063-T4 170 90 22 … … … … 69
6063-T5 185 145 12 … 60 115 70 69
6063-T6 240 215 12 … 73 150 70 69

6063-T83 255 240 9 … 82 150 … 69


6063-T831 205 185 10 … 70 125 … 69
6063-T832 295 270 12 … 95 185 … 69
6066-O 150 85 … 16 43 95 … 69
6066-T4, T451 360 205 … 16 90 200 … 69

6066-T6, T651 395 360 … 10 120 235 110 69


6070-T6 380 350 10 … … 235 95 69
6101-H111 95 75 … … … … … 69
6101-T6 220 195 15(h) … 71 140 … 69
6262-T9 400 380 … 9 120 240 90 69

6351-T4 250 150 20 … … … … 69


6351-T6 310 285 14 … 95 200 90 69
6463-T1 150 90 20 … 42 95 70 69
6463-T5 185 145 12 … 60 115 70 69
6463-T6 240 215 12 … 74 150 70 69
(continued)

Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than
tension modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.
(f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 6.3 mm
thick specimen. (i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 49

Table 1M (continued)
Tension

Elongation, %
Shear,
In 50 mm In 5D Hardness, ultimate Fatigue, Modulus,
Strength, MPa 1.60 mm 12.5 mm Brinell shearing endurance modulus of
thick diam No., 500 kgf load, strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Alloy and temper Ultimate Yield specimen specimen 10 mm ball MPa MPa MPa % 103
7049-T73 515 450 … 10 135 305 … 72
7049-T7352 515 435 … 9 135 295 … 72
7050-T73510, T73511 495 435 … 11 … … … 72
7050-T7451(i) 525 470 … 10 … 305 … 72
7050-T7651 550 490 … 10 … 325 … 72

7075-O 230 105 17 14 60 150 … 72


7075-T6, T651 570 505 11 9 150 330 160 72
Alclad 7075-O 220 95 17 … … 150 … 72
Alclad 7075-T6, T651 525 460 11 … … 315 … 72
7175-T74 525 455 … 10 135 290 160 72

7178-O 230 105 15 14 … … … 72


7178-T6, T651 605 540 10 9 … … … 72
7178-T76, T7651 570 505 … 9 … … … 71
Alclad 7178-O 220 95 16 … … … … 72
Alclad 7178-T6, T651 560 460 10 … … … … 72

7475-T61 565 490 11 … … … … 70


7475-T651 585 510 … 13 … … … 72
7475-T7351 495 420 … 13 … … … 72
7475-T761 515 450 12 … … … … 70
7475-T7651 530 460 … 12 … … … 72

Alclad 7475-T61 515 455 11 … … … … 70


Alclad 7475-T761 490 420 12 … … … … 70
8176-H24 160 95 15 … … 70 … 69
Note: Table values not intended for use in design. (a) The indicated typical mechanical properties for all except O temper material are higher than the specified minimum
properties. For O temper products, typical ultimate and yield values are slightly lower than specified (maximum) values. (b) Based on 500,000,000 cycles of completely
reversed stress using the R.R. Moore type of machine and specimen. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli. Compression modulus is approximately 2% greater than
tension modulus. (d) 1350-O wire will have an elongation of approximately 23% in 250 mm. (e) 1350-H19 wire will have an elongation of approximately 11⁄2% in 250 mm.
(f) Tempers T361 and T861 formerly were designated T36 and T86, respectively. (g) Based on 107 cycles using flexural type testing of sheet specimens. (h) Based on 6.3 mm
thick specimen. (i) T7451, although not previously registered, has appeared in literature and in some specifications as T73651.

Table 2 Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings

Tension
Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Hardness, ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), in 2 in. Brinell No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, ksi ksi or 4D, % 500kg/10mm ksi ksi 106 ksi
Sand 201.0-T6 65 55 8 130 … … …
201.0-T7 68 60 6 … … 14 …
201.0-T43 60 37 17 … … … …
204.0-T4 45 28 6 … … … …
A206.0-T4 51 36 7 … 40 … …

208.0-F 21 14 3 … 17 11 …
213.0-F 24 15 2 70 20 9 …
222.0-O 27 20 1 80 21 9.5
222.0-T61 41 40 <0.5 115 32 8.5 10.7
224.0-T72 55 40 10 123 35 9 10.5
(continued)

Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
50 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 2 (continued)

Tension
Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Hardness, ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), in 2 in. Brinell No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, ksi ksi or 4D, % 500kg/10mm ksi ksi 106 ksi
Sand 240.0-F 34 28 1 90 … … …
(continued) 242.0-F 31 20 1 … … … 10.3
242.0-O 27 18 1 70 21 8 10.3
242.0-T571 32 30 1 85 26 11 10.3
242.0-T61 32 20 … 90–120 … … 10.3

242.0-T77 30 23 2 75 24 10.5 10.3


A242.0-T75 31 … 2 … … … …
295.0-T4 32 16 9 80 26 7 10.0
295.0-T6 36 24 5 75 30 7.5 10.0
295.0-T62 41 32 2 90 33 8 10.0

295.0-T7 29 16 3 55–85 … … 10.0


319-F 27 18 2 70 22 10 10.7
319.0-T5 30 26 2 80 24 11 10.7
319.0-T6 36 24 2 80 29 11 10.7
328.0-F 25 14 1 45–75 … … …

328.0-T6 34 21 1 65–95 … … …
355.0-F 23 12 3 … … … 10.2
355.0-T51 28 23 2 65 22 8 10.2
355.0-T6 35 25 3 80 28 9 10.2
355.0-T61 35 35 1 90 31 9.5 10.2

355.0-T7 38 26 1 85 28 10 10.2
355.0-T71 35 29 2 75 26 10 10.2
C355.0-T6 39 29 5 85 … … …
356.0-F 24 18 6 … … … 10.5
356.0-T51 25 20 2 60 20 8 10.5

356.0-T6 33 24 4 70 26 8.5 10.5


356.0-T7 34 30 2 75 24 9 10.5
356.0-T71 28 21 4 60 20 8.5 10.5
A356.0-F 23 12 6 … … … 10.5
A356.0-T51 26 18 3 … … … 10.5

A356.0-T6 40 30 6 75 … … 10.5
A356.0-T71 30 20 3 … … … 10.5
357.0-F 25 13 5 … … … …
357.0-T51 26 17 3 … … … …
357.0-T6 50 42 2 … … … …

357.0-T7 40 34 3 60 … … …
A357.0-T6 46 36 3 85 40 12 …
359.0-T62 50 42 6 16 … … …
A390.0-F 26 26 <1.0 100 … … …
A390.0-T5 26 26 <1.0 100 … … …

A390.0-T6 40 40 <1.0 140 … 13 …


A390.0-T7 36 36 <1.0 115 … … …
443.0-F 19 8 8 40 14 8 10.3
B443.0-F 17 6 3 25–55 … … …
A444.0-F 21 9 9 30–60 … … …
(continued)

Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 51

Table 2 (continued)

Tension
Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Hardness, ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), in 2 in. Brinell No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, ksi ksi or 4D, % 500kg/10mm ksi ksi 106 ksi
Sand A444.0-T4 23 9 12 43 … … …
(continued) 511.0-F 21 12 3 50 17 8 …
512.0-F 20 13 2 50 17 9 …
514.0-F 25 12 9 50 20 7 …
520.0-T4 48 26 16 75 34 8 …

535.0-F 35 18 9 60–90 … … …
535.0-T5 35 18 9 60–90 … … …
A535.0-F 36 18 9 65 … … …
707.0-T5 33 22 2 70–100 … … …
707.0-T7 37 30 1 65–95 … … …

710.0-F 32 20 2 60–90 … … …
710.0-T5 32 20 2 60–90 … … …
712.0-F 34 25 4 60–90 … … …
712.0-T5 34 25 4 60–90 … … …
713.0-F 32 22 3 60–90 … … …

713.0-T5 32 22 3 60–90
771.0-T5 32 27 3 70–100 … … …
771.0-T52 36 30 2 70–100 … … …
771.0-T53 36 27 2 … … … …
771.0-T6 42 35 5 75–105 … … …

771.0-T71 48 45 2 105–135 … … …
850.0-T5 20 11 8 45 14 … 10.3
851.0-T5 20 11 5 45 14 … 10.3
852.0-T5 27 22 2 65 18 10 10.3

Permanent mold 201.0-T6 65 55 8 130 … … …


201.0-T7 68 60 6 … … 14 …
201.0-T43 60 37 17 … … … …
204.0-T4 48 29 8 … … … …
A206.0-T4 62 38 17 … 42 … …

A206.0-T7 63 50 12 … 37 … …
208.0-T6 35 22 2 75–105 … … …
208.0-T7 33 16 3 65–95 … … …
213.0-F 30 24 2 85 24 9.5 …
222.0-T551 37 35 <0.5 115 30 8.5 10.7

222.0-T52 35 31 1 100 25 … 10.7


238.0-F 30 24 2 100 24 … …
242.0-T61 47 42 1 110 35 10 10.3
A249.0-T63 69 60 6 … … … …
296.0-T7 39 20 5 80 30 9 10.1

308.0-F 28 16 2 70 22 13 …
319.0-F 34 19 3 85 24 … 10.7
319.0-T6 40 27 3 95 … … 10.7
324.0-F 30 16 4 70 … … …
324.0-T5 36 26 3 90 … … …

324.0-T62 45 39 3 105 … … …
(continued)

Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
52 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 2 (continued)

Tension
Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Hardness, ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), in 2 in. Brinell No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, ksi ksi or 4D, % 500kg/10mm ksi ksi 106 ksi
Permanent mold 332.0-T5 36 28 1 105 … … …
(continued) 328.0-T6 34 21 1 65–95 … … …
333.0-F 34 19 2 90 27 15 …
242.0-T571 40 34 1 105 30 10.5 10.3
333.0-T5 34 25 1 100 27 12 …

333.0-T6 42 30 2 105 33 15 …
333.0-T7 37 28 2 90 28 12 …
336.0-T551 36 28 1 105 28 14 …
336.0-T65 47 43 1 125 36 … …
354.0-T61 48 37 3 … … … …

354.0-T62 52 42 2 … … … …
355.0-F 27 15 4 … … … 10.2
355.0-T51 30 24 2 75 24 … 10.2
355.0-T6 42 27 4 90 34 10 10.2
355.0-T61 45 40 2 105 36 10 10.2

355.0-T7 40 30 2 85 30 10 10.2
355.0-T71 36 31 3 85 27 10 10.2
C355.0-T6 48 28 8 90 … … 10.2
C355.0-T61 46 34 6 100 … … 10.2
C355.0-T62 48 37 5 100 … … 10.2

356.0-F 26 18 5 … … … 10.5
356.0-T51 27 20 2 … … … 10.5
356.0-T6 38 27 5 80 30 13 10.5
356.0-T7 32 24 6 70 25 11 10.5
356.0-T71 25 … 3 60–90 … … 10.5

A356.0-F 27 13 8 … … … 10.5
A356.0-T51 29 20 5 … … … 10.5
A356.0-T6 41 30 12 80 … … 10.5
357.0-F 28 15 6 … … … …
357.0-T51 29 21 4 … … … …

357.0-T6 52 43 5 100 35 13 …
357.0-T7 38 30 5 70 … … …
A357.0-T6 52 42 5 100 35 15 …
359.0-T61 48 37 6 … … … …
359.0-T62 50 42 6 … … 16 …

A390.0-F 29 29 <1.0 110 … … …


A390.0-T5 29 29 <1.0 110 … … …
A390.0-T6 45 45 <1.0 145 … 17 …
A390.0-T7 38 38 <1.0 120 … 15 …
443.0-F 23 9 10 45 16 8 10.3

B443.0-F 21 6 6 30–60 … … …
A444.0-F 24 11 13 44 … … …
A444.0-T4 23 10 21 45 16 8 …
513.0-F 27 16 7 60 22 10 …
535.0-F 35 18 8 60–90 … … …

705.0-T5 37 17 10 55–75 … … …
(continued)
Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 53

Table 2 (continued)

Tension
Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Hardness, ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), in 2 in. Brinell No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, ksi ksi or 4D, % 500kg/10mm ksi ksi 106 ksi
Permanent mold 707.0-T7 45 35 3 80–110 … … …
(continued) 711.0-T1 28 18 7 55–85 … … …
713.0-T5 32 22 4 60–90
850.0-T5 23 11 12 45 15 9 10.3
851.0-T5 20 11 5 45 14 9 10.3

851.0-T6 18 … 8 … … … 10.3
852.0-T5 32 23 5 70 21 11 10.3

Die cast 360.0-F 44 25 3 75 28 20 10.3


A360.0-F 46 24 4 75 26 18 10.3
380.0-F 46 23 3 80 28 20 10.3
A380.0-F 47 23 4 80 27 20 10.3
383.0-F 45 22 4 75 … 21 10.3

384.0-F 48 24 3 85 29 20 …
390.0-F 40.5 35 <1 … … … …
B390.0-F 46 36 <1 120 … 20 11.8
392.0-F 42 39 <1 … … … …
413.0-F 43 21 3 80 25 19 10.3

A413.0-F 42 19 4 80 25 19 …
C443.0-F 33 14 9 65 29 17 10.3
518.0-F 45 28 5 80 29 20 …
Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater. Data taken from various industry handbooks.

Table 2M Typical mechanical properties of aluminum alloy castings (metric)

Tension
Hardness, Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Brinell ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), In 5D, No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, MPa MPa % 500kg/10mm MPa MPa 106 MPa
Sand 201.0-T6 450 380 8 130 … … …
201.0-T7 470 415 6 … … 95 …
201.0-T43 415 255 17 … … … …
204.0-T4 310 195 6 … … … …
A206.0-T4 350 250 7 … 275 … …

208.0-F 145 655 3 … 115 75 …


213.0-F 165 105 2 70 140 60 …
222.0-O 185 140 1 80 145 65
222.0-T61 285 275 <0.5 115 220 60 74
224.0-T72 380 275 10 123 240 60 73

240.0-F 235 195 1 90 … … …


242.0-F 145 140 1 … … … 71
242.0-O 185 125 1 70 145 55 71
242.0-T571 220 205 1 85 180 75 71
242.0-T61 220 140 … 90–120 … … 71

242.0-T77 205 160 2 75 165 70 71


A242.0-T75 215 … 2 … … … …
(continued)
Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
54 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 2M (continued)

Tension
Hardness, Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Brinell ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), In 5D, No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, MPa MPa % 500kg/10mm MPa MPa 106 MPa
Sand 295.0-T4 220 110 9 80 180 50 69
(continued) 295.0-T6 250 165 5 75 205 50 69
295.0-T62 285 220 2 90 230 55 69
295.0-T7 200 110 3 55–85 … … 69
319-F 185 125 2 70 150 70 74

319.0-T5 205 180 2 80 165 75 74


319.0-T6 250 165 2 80 200 75 74
328.0-F 170 95 1 45–75 … … …
328.0-T6 235 145 1 65–95 … … …
355.0-F 160 85 3 … … … 70

355.0-T51 195 160 2 65 150 55 70


355.0-T6 240 170 3 80 195 60 70
355.0-T61 240 240 1 90 215 65 70
355.0-T7 260 180 1 85 195 70 70
355.0-T71 240 200 2 75 180 70 70

C355.0-T6 270 200 5 85 … … …


356.0-F 165 125 6 … … … 73
356.0-T51 170 140 2 60 140 55 73
356.0-T6 230 135 4 70 180 60 73
356.0-T7 235 205 2 75 165 60 73

356.0-T71 195 145 4 60 140 60 73


A356.0-F 160 85 6 … … … 73
A356.0-T51 180 125 3 … … … 73
A356.0-T6 275 205 6 75 … … 73
A356.0-T71 205 140 3 … … … 73

357.0-F 170 90 5 … … … …
357.0-T51 180 115 3 … … … …
357.0-T6 345 295 2 … … … …
357.0-T7 275 235 3 60 … … …
A357.0-T6 315 250 3 85 275 85 …

359.0-T62 345 290 6 16 … … …


A390.0-F 180 180 <1.0 100 … … …
A390.0-T5 180 180 <1.0 100 … … …
A390.0-T6 275 275 <1.0 140 … 90 …
A390.0-T7 250 250 <1.0 115 … … …

443.0-F 130 55 8 40 95 55 71
B443.0-F 115 40 3 25–55 … … …
A444.0-F 145 60 9 30–60 … … …
A444.0-T4 23 60 12 43 … … …
511.0-F 145 85 3 50 115 55 …

512.0-F 140 90 2 50 115 60 …


514.0-F 170 85 9 50 140 50 …
520.0-T4 330 180 16 75 235 55 …
535.0-F 240 125 9 60–90 … … …
535.0-T5 240 125 9 60–90 … … …

A535.0-F 250 125 9 65 … … …


(continued)
Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 55

Table 2M (continued)

Tension
Hardness, Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Brinell ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), In 5D, No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, MPa MPa % 500kg/10mm MPa MPa 106 MPa
Sand 707.0-T5 230 150 2 70–100 … … …
(continued) 707.0-T7 255 205 1 65–95 … … …
710.0-F 220 140 2 60–90 … … …
710.0-T5 220 140 2 60–90 … … …
712.0-F 235 170 4 60–90 … … …

712.0-T5 235 170 4 60–90 … … …


713.0-F 220 150 3 60–90 … … …
713.0-T5 220 150 3 60–90
771.0-T5 220 185 3 70–100 … … …
771.0-T52 250 205 2 70–100 … … …

771.0-T53 250 185 2 … … … …


771.0-T6 290 240 5 75–105 … … …
771.0-T71 330 310 2 105–135 … … …
850.0-T5 140 75 8 45 95 … 71
851.0-T5 140 75 5 45 95 … 71
852.0-T5 185 150 2 65 125 60 71

Permanent mold 201.0-T6 450 380 8 130 … … …


201.0-T7 470 415 6 … … 95 …
201.0-T43 415 255 17 … … … …
204.0-T4 330 200 8 … … … …
A206.0-T4 430 260 17 … 290 … …

A206.0-T7 435 345 12 … 255 … …


208.0-T6 240 150 2 75–105 … … …
208.0-T7 230 110 3 65–95 … … …
213.0-F 205 165 2 85 165 65 …
222.0-T551 255 240 <0.5 115 205 60 74

222.0-T52 240 215 1 100 170 … 74


238.0-F 205 165 2 100 165 … …
242.0-T571 275 235 1 105 205 70 74
242.0-T61 325 290 1 110 450 70 74
A249.0-T63 475 415 6 … … … …

296.0-T7 270 140 5 80 205 60 70


308.0-F 195 110 2 70 150 90 …
319.0-F 235 130 3 85 165 … 74
319.0-T6 275 185 3 95 … … 74
324.0-F 205 110 4 70 … … …

324.0-T5 250 180 3 90 … … …


324.0-T62 310 270 3 105 … … …
332.0-T5 250 195 1 105 … … …
328.0-T6 235 145 1 65–95 … … …
333.0-F 235 130 2 90 185 105 …

333.0-T5 235 170 1 100 185 85 …


333.0-T6 290 205 2 105 230 105 …
333.0-T7 255 195 2 90 195 85 …
336.0-T551 250 193 1 105 193 95 …
(continued)

Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
56 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Table 2M (continued)

Tension
Hardness, Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Brinell ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), In 5D, No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, MPa MPa % 500kg/10mm MPa MPa 106 MPa
Permanent mold 336.0-T65 325 295 1 125 250 … …
(continued) 354.0-T61 330 255 3 … … … …
354.0-T62 360 290 2 … … … …
355.0-F 185 105 4 … … … 70
355.0-T51 205 165 2 75 165 … 70

355.0-T6 290 185 4 90 235 70 70


355.0-T61 310 275 2 105 250 70 70
355.0-T7 275 205 2 85 205 70 70
355.0-T71 250 215 3 85 185 70 70
C355.0-T6 330 195 8 90 … … 70

C355.0-T61 315 235 6 100 … … 70


C355.0-T62 330 255 5 100 … … 70
356.0-F 180 125 5 … … … 73
356.0-T51 185 140 2 … … … 73
356.0-T6 260 185 5 80 205 90 73

356.0-T7 220 165 6 70 170 75 73


356.0-T71 170 … 3 60–90 … … 73
A356.0-F 165 90 8 … … … 73
A356.0-T51 200 140 5 … … … 73
A356.0-T6 285 205 12 80 … … 73

357.0-F 195 105 6 … … … …


357.0-T51 200 145 4 … … … …
357.0-T6 360 295 5 100 240 90 …
357.0-T7 260 205 5 70 … … …
A357.0-T6 360 290 5 100 240 105 …

359.0-T61 330 255 6 … … … …


359.0-T62 345 290 6 … … 110 …
A390.0-F 200 200 <1.0 110 … … …
A390.0-T5 200 200 <1.0 110 … … …
A390.0-T6 310 310 <1.0 145 … 115 …

A390.0-T7 260 260 <1.0 120 … 105 …


443.0-F 160 60 10 45 110 55 71
B443.0-F 145 40 6 30–60 … … …
A444.0-F 165 75 13 44 … … …
A444.0-T4 160 70 21 45 110 55 …

513.0-F 185 110 7 60 150 70 …


535.0-F 240 125 8 60–90 … … …
705.0-T5 255 115 10 55–75 … … …
707.0-T7 310 240 3 80–110 … … …
711.0-T1 195 125 7 55–85 … … …

713.0-T5 220 150 4 60–90


850.0-T5 160 75 12 45 105 60 71
851.0-T5 140 75 5 45 95 60 71
851.0-T6 125 … 8 … … … 71
852.0-T5 220 160 5 70 145 75 71
(continued)

Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. Data taken from various industry handbooks.
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 57

Table 2M (continued)

Tension
Hardness, Shear, Fatigue, Modulus
Yield Elongation Brinell ultimate endurance of
Alloy Ultimate strength(a), In 5D, No., strength, limit(b), elasticity(c),
Type of casting and temper strength, MPa MPa % 500kg/10mm MPa MPa 106 MPa
Die cast 360.0-F 305 170 3 75 195 140 71
A360.0-F 315 165 4 75 180 124 71
380.0-F 315 160 3 80 195 140 71
A380.0-F 325 160 4 80 185 140 71
383.0-F 310 150 4 75 … 145 71

384.0-F 330 165 3 85 200 140 …


390.0-F 280 240 <1 … … … …
B390.0-F 315 250 <1 120 … 140 81
392.0-F 290 270 <1 … … … …
413.0-F 295 145 3 80 170 130 71

A413.0-F 290 130 4 80 170 130 …


C443.0-F 230 95 9 65 200 115 71
518.0-F 310 193 5 80 200 140 …
Values are representative of separately cast test bars, not of specimens taken from commercial castings. (a) For tensile yield strengths, offset ⫽ 0.2%. (b) Based on 500,000,000
cycles of completely reversed stress using R.R. Moore type of machines and specimens. (c) Average of tension and compression moduli; compressive modulus is nominally
approximately 2% greater than the tension modulus. Data taken from various industry handbooks.

Review of the Basic Tempers for Wrought Alloys

The temper designation always is presented immediately following the


alloy designation (Chapter 3), with a hyphen between the two (e.g.,
2014-T6). Generally, the temper designation consists of a capital letter
indicating the major class of fabrication treatment(s) used, plus one or
more numbers providing more specific information about how the
processing was carried out. These designations are not intended to
provide the exact practices (times, temperatures, reductions), but rather
the general combinations of practices followed.
As review, recall that the first character in the temper designation (a
capital letter, F, O, H, W, or T) indicates the general class of treatment.
Information on each of these classes of designation and a few examples
of each are provided by the following descriptions:

O F, as fabricated: This designation is used for wrought or cast products


made by some shaping process such as rolling, extrusion, forging,
drawing, or casting where there is no special control over the thermal
conditions during working or the strain-hardening processes to achieve
specific properties. There are no specified limits on mechanical
properties of any wrought F temper product. Except in the case of cast
parts, which may be in the final configuration, most F temper products
are “semifinished” products that will be used in some subsequent
shaping, finishing, or thermal process to achieve other finished forms
or tempers. For example, 2014-F designates an as-fabricated product
form of alloy 2014; it may represent any production process or product
58 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

form and may be used for products that have been rolled, extruded,
forged, or any combination of those processes.
O O, annealed: This designation is used for wrought or cast products
made by some shaping process such as rolling, extrusion, forging,
drawing, or casting, and which product at some point in the process has
been annealed (i.e., given a high-temperature recrystallization treat-
ment, sufficient to remove the effects of any prior working or thermal
treatments and usually resulting in complete recrystallization of the
material). Annealing treatments are used to achieve the lowest-strength
condition for the particular alloy involved. The primary reason for
using such a treatment on wrought alloys generally is to maximize
subsequent workability or increase toughness and ductility to a
maximum. For example:
a. 2014-O designates any product form of 2014 whose most recent
treatment has been holding at a high temperature (⬃410 °C, or
⬃770 °F) for 2 to 3 h, slow cooling to ⬃260 °C (⬃500 °F) and then
cooling at an uncontrolled rate to room temperature. For this alloy,
the treatment would normally be given to increase ease of subse-
quent working while completely removing any effects of prior
treatments.
b. 5083-O designates any product form of 5083 whose most recent
treatment has been heating up to a high temperature (⬃345 °C,
⬃650 °F) and then cooled at an uncontrolled rate to room
temperature. For this alloy, the treatment would normally be given
to increase toughness and ductility for its use in critical structural
applications such as liquefied natural gas tanks.

O H, strain hardened: This designation is used for non-heat-treatable


wrought alloys that have had their strength increased by strain
hardening (e.g., rolling, drawing) usually at room temperature. This
designation may, but does not necessarily, also apply to products that
have been given supplementary thermal treatments to achieve some
stabilization in strength level, since a number of aluminum alloys will
gradually soften slightly with time after cold working. The H is always
followed by two or more digits, the purpose of which is to indicate the
approximate amount of cold work and the nature of any thermal
treatments that followed. The variety of subsequent designations
available is discussed later, so the examples focus more on the H
designation itself at this point. For example:
a. 1350-H12 indicates that sheet, plate, rod, or wire of alloy 1350 has
been cold worked to increase its strength. The H12 combination
indicates approximately 20 to 25% cold reduction without any
subsequent thermal treatments (other variations are discussed later).
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 59

b. 5005-H18 indicates that sheet (the only product available in that


temper) of alloy 5005 has been cold rolled to increase its strength.
The H18 combination indicates a large amount of cold work,
normally around 75 to 80% without any subsequent thermal
treatment.
O W, solution heat treated: This designation is rather limited in its use
and applies only to alloys that age naturally and spontaneously after
solution heat treating (holding at high temperature followed by
quenching or relatively rapid cooling to room temperature). Digits may
be added to characterize more specifically the elapsed time since the
cooling took place; this is not necessary and is of limited value since
the time may continue to increase, but it is often helpful in whatever
subsequent treatments are to be applied to know that elapsed time and
the effects of the elapsed time on response to subsequent working or
thermal exposure. As with the F temper, there are no published
standard property limits for wrought alloys associated with the W
temper, and it is rarely a “finished” temper (i.e., sold in that temper; it
is always an “in-process” temper, to be followed by subsequent
mechanical or thermal treatments). For example:
a. 6061-W indicates a semifinished product of 6061 that has been
heat treated and quenched by standard procedures but not yet
given any subsequent mechanical or thermal treatment. Alloy
6061 naturally ages following a quench from a heat treatment, and
so the yield strength, in particular, of this material gradually
increases with time until some treatment that will stabilize its
properties is given, such as artificial aging for precipitation
hardening.
b. 6061-W1⁄2hr. indicates the same material as in the preceding
example, except that a time (1⁄2 h after quenching) has been added
to define the time lapse and perhaps permit some estimate of the
effect on strength (assuming that aging rate data are accessible).
O T, thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than F, O, or H:
The T designation is the most widely used for heat treated alloys, and
applies to any product form of any heat treatable alloy that has been
given a solution heat treatment followed by a suitable quench and
either natural (i.e., in air) or artificial (i.e., in a furnace) aging. The T
always is followed by one or more digits that define in general terms
the subsequent treatments; these will be discussed in more detail later,
and so the following examples focus on the T designation. For
example:
a. 2024-T4 indicates a 2024 product that has been solution heat
treated, quenched, and naturally aged by standard commercial pro-
cesses to a stable condition. Since this alloy achieves a com-
mercially useful level of strength coupled with a high toughness in
the T4 condition, this may well be the final temper designation.
60 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

b. 2014-T4 indicates an alloy 2014 product that has been solution


heat treated and naturally aged to a stable condition preparatory to
artificially aging it for precipitation hardening to the T6 temper.
Alloy 2014 does not have a useful combination of strength,
toughness, and corrosion resistance in the T4 condition, so it is
almost always subsequently given a precipitation hardening
treatment.

Subdivisions of the Basic Tempers


As just indicated, most of the basic temper designations listed previ-
ously are used with additional numerical digits to define the practices
more completely. It is useful to review these additional digits and the
resulting complete designations in considerable detail to obtain the best
understanding of their meanings.
The H and T are the most frequently used tempers and are, therefore,
discussed sequentially. The F, O, and W designations are generally used
alone and provide the complete description, and thus there is little to say
about them except for one minor variation of the O temper that is covered
later.
Subdivisions of the H Temper for Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys. The
H temper indicates that the alloy involved has been cold worked by strain
hardening. The H always is followed by at least two numbers:

O The first number after the H tells whether the strain-hardened alloy has
been thermally treated and, if so, by what procedure.
O The second number indicates approximately how much the alloy was
strain hardened (i.e., the approximate percentage of cold reduction).
O Any subsequent numbers define special practices, variations of the
normal indicated by the first two numbers.

The first number, indicating variations in thermal treatments following


cold work, may be one of four possibilities:

O H1 indicates that processing was limited to strain hardening; there was


no subsequent thermal treatment.
O H2 indicates strain hardening followed by a partial high-temperature
recrystallization thermal treatment (i.e., a partial anneal) to take the
properties back to some stable level less than those achieved by the
cold working. When this temper is used, the alloy has intentionally
been strain hardened more than the desired amount and then partially
annealed back to achieve a specific level of strength.
O H3 indicates strain hardening followed by a thermal stabilization
treatment (i.e., holding at a modestly elevated temperature to permit
the properties to stabilize and avoid time-dependent age softening, to
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 61

which certain alloys, especially of the 5xxx series, are prone). This also
may be accomplished by the heat applied during a subsequent forming.
O H4 indicates strain hardening followed by some thermal operation such
as paint curing or lacquering in which the heat applied during this
processing effectively reduces the degree of hardening remaining in the
alloy and provides some stabilization to the final properties. It is useful
to note that there are no unique property limits associated with H4X
tempers; rather, the property limits associated with the comparable
H2X or H3X tempers are used.

As noted earlier, these H1, H2, H3, and H4 designations always are
followed by a second number that indicates the approximate amount of
cold work.
Examples of the application of these designations include:

O 3003-H12: Strain hardened approximately 25%; no other treatment


(i.e., meets properties for H12 temper)
O 3005-H26: Strain hardened and partial annealed to effective strain
hardening of about 75% (i.e., meets properties for H26 temper)
O 5052-H32: Strain hardened and stabilized to effective strain hardening
of about 25% (i.e., meets properties for H32 temper)
O 5052-H42: Strain hardened and given some finishing treatment that
provides effective strain hardening of approximately 25% (i.e., meets
properties for H42/H22 temper)

As indicated by these examples, the digit following H1, H2, H3, or H4,
indicates the effective degree of strain hardening remaining in the metal
following the sequence of operations indicated by the first digit. In other
words:

O H1X temper: The X represents the actual amount of strain hardening


given the alloy; no thermal treatment has been given to reduce the
effective work remaining in the metal.
O H2X temper: The X represents the effective cold work remaining after
the metal has been cold worked beyond the final level desired, and
partial annealed back.
O H3X and H4X tempers: The X indicates the effective cold work
remaining in the metal following cold working and the intermediate
temperature stabilization treatment or the thermal exposure involved in
the subsequent forming, painting, or lacquering processes.

The second numerical digits have both a technical definition according


to the Aluminum Association and a “schematic,” or approximate, defini-
tion as used in the trade. According to the Aluminum Association rules,
the second digit is defined based upon the minimum value of the ultimate
62 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

tensile strength of the material. In other words, the level of strength


achieved is compared with the standard limits published for the various
alloys, and the level most nearly met is used as the appropriate temper.
Therefore, the hardest temper normally produced is indicated by adding
the numeral 8 (i.e., HX8), and the standard increase in strength from the
annealed (no cold work) to the HX8 temper is judged by the values in
Table 3.
Tempers between O and HX8 are defined as follows:

O A degree of cold work equal to approximately one-half that for the


HX8 temper is indicated by the HX4 temper and would be indicated by
an increase in tensile strength of one-half the value in the second
column of Table 3 for the appropriate level in the annealed temper. As
an example, the minimum tensile strength of 1100-O sheet and plate is
11 ksi, so the tensile strength limit for 1100-H14 is 11 ksi plus 1⁄2 ⫻ 10
(from Table 3) or 16 ksi. In the corresponding metric example, the
minimum tensile strength of 1100-O sheet and plate is 75 MPa, so the
tensile strength of 1100-H14 is 75 plus 1⁄2 ⫻ 75 (from Table 3M) or
112.5 MPa, rounded to 110 MPa. It is appropriate to note that the rules
in Tables 3 and 3M were not used in the early days of the aluminum
Table 3 Range of values per HX8 temper
Minimum tensile strength Increase in tensile strength
in annealed temper, ksi to HX8 temper, ksi
Up to 6 8
7 to 9 9
10 to 12 10
13 to 15 11
16 to 18 12
19 to 24 13
25 to 30 14
31 to 36 15
37 to 42 16
43 and over 17

Table 3M Tensile strengths of HX8 tempers


(metric)
Minimum tensile strength Increase in tensile strength
in annealed temper, MPa to HX8 temper, MPa
Up to 40 55
45–60 62
65–80 69
85–100 76
105–120 83
125–160 90
165–200 97
205–240 103
245–280 110
285–320 115
296 and over 120
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 63

industry, and so there are exceptions among long-established property


values.
O A degree of cold work halfway between the O temper and the HX4
temper is indicated by the HX2 temper; a degree of cold work halfway
between HX4 and HX8 is the HX6 temper. Following the example
given for 1100, the respective tensile strength limits would be 14 ksi
for H12 and 19 ksi for H16, respectively (the 0.5 ksi increments being
rounded up). As a metric example for 1100, the respective tensile
strength limit would be 130 MPa for H16, midway between the H14
and H18 values.
O The numbers 1, 3, 5, and 7 similarly designate tempers intermediate
between those just listed. In practice, these designations are seldom
used; when they are, as in the case of 5657-H25, it is usually for some
special product to indicate a specific treatment given to enhance some
specific property (brightness, in the example given). The odd-num-
bered tempers also are used for pattern sheet temper designations, as
described later.
O The numeral 9 is used to indicate tempers with properties exceeding
those of HX8 by 14 MPa (2 ksi) or more. This temper is achieved by
cold rolling sheet to very small thicknesses, usually only a few
thousandths of an inch. This designation also is used only for special
products; the most important example is 3004-H19 sheet for can stock
(i.e., starting stock for the production of aluminum cans).

Some additional examples of two-digit H tempers that illustrate use of


the first and second digits include the following:

O 3003-H14: The “1” indicates that the material has been strain hardened
and given no subsequent processing; the “4” indicates that the amount
of strain hardening was about 50% of the level for the H18, or
“full-hard” temper.
O 5657-H26: The “2” indicates that the alloy has been strain hardened a
relatively large amount and then partially annealed back to the desired
level of effective cold work; the “6” indicates that the effective final
level of cold work was about 80% of that of the full-hard H18 temper.
O 5086-H32: The “3” indicates that the alloy has been strain hardened
and stabilized; the “2” indicates that the degree of strain hardening was
about 25% of the level for the H38 temper. Applications include sheet,
plate, and drawn tube.

Three-digit H Tempers. The final group of subdivisions of the H tempers


that needs to be recognized involves the use of a third numeric digit for
the H tempers. A third digit, such as HXX1, indicates a variation in a
two-digit temper. Differences may be in such things as the degree of
64 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

control of mechanical properties or a special finish; in such instances,


however, the differences are not usually very great.
An excellent example of the use of a third digit of an H temper
designation is the series used for embossed sheet (i.e., sheet that, after
other processing, has been finish rolled, with rolls having specific patterns
on the surface to impart the reverse of that pattern onto the surface of the
sheet). Such products also are known as pattern sheet and have the
specific set of temper designations listed in Table 4 associated with them.
These designations follow the same rules just described but have the
number 4 added to the standard designation describing its processing up
to the final pattern rolling operation.
Another example of a three-digit H temper indicating treatment to
impart special properties is the H116 temper (e.g., 5086-H116), which has
been given a unique combination of cold work and thermal treatment to
make it especially resistant to the corrosive effects of water and
high-humidity environments and to minimize the possible effects of
stress-corrosion sensitization from high-temperature exposure.
Two other examples of a three-digit H temper cover the special cases of
products having an uncontrolled amount of cold work but still being
required to meet minimum specifications (i.e., the H111 and H112
tempers):

O Alloy 5086-H111: This temper recognizes that the alloy underwent


some amount of cold strain hardening after annealing but not enough
for it to qualify as an H11 or H12 temper. The H111 temper is usually
applied to extruded shapes that must be straightened after annealing to
meet straightness tolerances, but for which the amount of strain is not
controlled beyond a very modest amount. There are mechanical
property limits indicative of the modest cold work.
O Alloy 5086-H112: In this instance, the product has been hot worked
enough that it has acquired some added strength that is reflected in the
mechanical property limits. The product has not been subsequently
cold worked or annealed but retains the effective strain hardening
imparted by the hot work. Applications of this alloy include sheet and
plate, extruded tube, and extruded rod, wire, bar, and shapes.
Table 4 Three-digit temper designations for aluminum pattern sheet
Pattern or embossed sheet Fabricated from
H114 O temper
H124, H224, H324 H11, H21, H31 temper, respectively
H134, H234, H334 H12, H22, H32 temper, respectively
H144, H244, H344 H13, H23, H33 temper, respectively
H154, H254, H354 H14, H24, H34 temper, respectively
H164, H264, H364 H15, H25, H35 temper, respectively
H174, H274, H374 H16, H26, H36 temper, respectively
H184, H284, H384 H17, H27, H37 temper, respectively
H194, H294, H394 H18, H28, H38 temper, respectively
H195, H295, H395 H19, H29, H39 temper, respectively
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 65

Subdivisions of the T Temper for Heat Treatable Alloys. The T


tempers for heat treatable alloys may have from one to five digits
following the T, and there are many more possible combinations than for
the H tempers. The first digit after the T always indicates the basic type
of treatment, and the second to fifth, if they are used, indicate whether the
product was stress relieved and, if so, how it was stress relieved, and
whether any other special treatments were given.
The first digit after the T may be any of the following:

O T1: Indicates that the alloy has been cooled directly from some
high-temperature hot-working process such as rolling or extrusion and
then naturally aged to a stable condition. As a result, it has received an
“effective heat treatment,” but it has not received any other processing
such as cold work that is recognized by special mechanical property
limits. This temper is not widely used because, among other things, the
corrosion resistance of the material may not be as good as with other
combinations of treatments.
O T2: Indicates that the alloy has been cooled from some high-
temperature hot-working process such as rolling or extrusion and then
cold worked before being naturally aged to a stable condition. Here
again, the alloy has received an “effective heat treatment” as a result of
the high-temperature treatment, but in this case, it has been cold
worked sufficiently to increase its strength. This temper, as the T1, is
not widely used because of limitations in certain characteristics
compared with those given other combinations of treatments described
as follows:
O T3: Indicates the alloy has been given a solution heat treatment
following hot working, quenching, cold working, and being naturally
aged to a stable condition. This temper, like T4, T6, T7, and T8,
indicates the use of a specific solution heat treatment (i.e., holding in
a furnace at a sufficiently high temperature for the important alloying
elements to go into solution, where they are retained upon quenching
and provide a source of precipitation-hardening constituents). The
amount of cold work is controlled to provide specific amounts of strain
hardening with a commensurate increase in strength. This is a widely
used temper type for 2xxx series alloys such as 2024, which naturally
age efficiently following cold work.
O T4: Indicates the alloy has been given a solution heat treatment and,
without any cold work, naturally aged to a stable condition. This
temper also is rather widely used for the 2xxx alloys.
O T5: Indicates the alloy has been cooled from a high-temperature
shaping process, usually extrusion, and then, without any intermediate
cold work, is artificially aged. The artificial aging consists of holding
at a sufficiently high temperature and sufficiently long time (e.g., 8 h at
175 °C, or 350 °F, or 24 h at 120 °C, or 250 °F) to permit precipitation
66 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

hardening to take place. If there is any straightening or flattening to


meet dimensional tolerances, it is not sufficient to be recognized with
higher mechanical property limits.
O T6: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated and, without any
significant cold working, artificially aged to achieve precipitation
hardening. If there is any straightening or flattening to meet dimen-
sional tolerances, it is not sufficient to be recognized with higher
mechanical property limits.
O T7: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated and, without any
significant cold working, aged in a furnace to an overaged (i.e., past
peak strength) condition (also sometimes referred to as stabilized).
This treatment generally is used for the 7xxx series alloys (e.g.,
7075-T73 or T76) to improve their resistance to either stress-corrosion
cracking (SCC) (T73) or to exfoliation corrosion (T76) attack; the T73
is the more severely overaged condition (see the subsequent section
“Tempers Designating Special Corrosion-Resistant Tempers”).
O T8: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated, cold worked for
strain hardening, and then artificially aged to achieve precipitation
hardening. The material also may have been cold worked primarily to
meet dimensional or stress relief requirements, but if the T8 temper is
used, the amount of cold work is sufficient to be recognized by higher
mechanical property limits. This temper primarily is used for the 2xxx
alloys (e.g., 2024-T81 sheet).
O T9: Indicates the alloy has been solution heat treated, artificially aged
to achieve precipitation hardening, and then cold worked to improve its
strength. This temper is not widely used but is applied to the 2xxx series
in some cases.
O T10: Indicates the alloy has been cooled from a high-temperature
shaping process such as extrusion, cold worked, and then artificially
aged for precipitation hardening. This temper rarely is used because
there are no current commercial applications for it.

In all of the T-type tempers just described, solution heat treatment is


achieved by heating semifinished or finished products to a suitable
temperature, holding them at that temperature long enough to allow
constituents to go into solution, and cooling them rapidly enough to hold
the constituents in solution so that they may be the basis of precipitation
hardening upon natural (i.e., room temperature) or artificial (i.e., in a
furnace) aging.
Adding Additional Digits to the T1 to T10 Tempers. Additional
digits, the first of which shall not be zero, may be added to designations
T1 to T10 to indicate a variation in treatment that significantly alters the
product characteristics that are or would be obtained using the basic
treatment. There is no standard listing of all such possible variations, so
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 67

the best way to illustrate and understand this usage better is to examine
the major examples, as in the following sections that cover:

O Stress relief
O Heat treatment by user
O Variations in heat treatment procedures
O Variations in quenching procedures
O Addition of cold work before or after aging
O Special practices for unique properties
Tempers Designating Residual
Stress Relief of Heat Treated Products
Two major classes of mechanical cold work are widely used by the
aluminum industry to reduce the level of internal residual stresses in
aluminum semifinished products resulting from prior heat treatment:

O Stress relief by stretching, usually in the range of 1 or 11⁄2 to 3%,


applied to rolled plate and rod, to extruded shapes, and occasionally to
die or ring forgings; this treatment is designated by:
a. TX51 for plate, rolled or cold-finished rod, and die or ring
forgings
b. TX510 or TX511 for all extruded shapes, where the extra digit 0
indicates stretching only, and the extra digit 1 indicates stretching
combined with additional straightening such as twisting

O Stress relief by 1 to 5% compressive cold work, usually applied to hand


forgings and die forgings. This treatment is indicated by the TX52
temper designation.

Sometimes these two methods of stress relief are used in combination


(i.e., both stretching and compressing), indicated by the use of the TX54
temper designation.
In all of these cases, the cold work for stress relief is carried out following
quenching from the solution heat treatment and before artificial aging.
While these temper designations for stress-relieved products have their
widest use for heat treated products with T-type tempers, it should be
noted that all of these designations may be applied to the W-type tempers
as well.
To illustrate the use of these designations for stress-relieved tempers,
consider the following examples:

O Alloy 7075-T651 plate: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat


treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has been stress
relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 2%: T651
O Alloy 7075-T6510 extruded tube: Basic temper is T6, indicating
solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has
68 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 3%,
without any additional twisting or mechanical straightening: T6510
O Alloy 7075-T6511 extruded tube: Basic temper is T6, indicating
solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has
been stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by stretching 1⁄2 to 3%
and twisting for straightness: T6511
O Alloy 2014-T652 hand forging: Basic temper is T6; product has been
stress relieved: T65; stress relief provided by compression 1 to 5%
O Alloy 7050-T654 die forging: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution
heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging; product has been stress
relieved: T65; stress relief has been provided by a combination of
stretching and restriking in cold dies: T654

Temper Designations Identifying Modifications in Quenching


Another means of minimizing residual stresses besides cold work
following quenching is to quench the product in boiling water or oil
following holding in a furnace for heat treatment, in contrast to the
cold-water quench known to impart much of the residual stress. A special
temper designation is used to designate such treatment⫺the addition of
the digit 1.
Thus, for some wrought alloys in T4 (solution heat treated and naturally
aged), T6 (solution heat treated and artificially aged), and T7 (solution
heat treated and overaged/stabilized) conditions, a descriptive digit 1 is
added to the regular temper designation to indicate a change from the
normal quenching procedure. By itself, the “1” indicates a boiling water
quench. A second digit may be used to indicate some specialized variation
of that quench, for example:

O Alloy 2014-T61 forging: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating solution


heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was quenched
in boiling water following the solution heat treatment to minimize
residual stresses: T61.
O Alloy 2014-T611 forging: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating
solution treat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was
quenched in a special way following the solution heat treatment to
minimize residual stresses: T61. Quench medium was adjusted to give
property level between T6 and T61 tempers: T611.
O Alloy 2014-T6151 plate: Basic temper is T6 temper, indicating solution
treat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. Material was quenched
in boiling water following the solution heat treatment: T61. Plate was
subsequently stretched 1⁄2 to 3% for additional stress relief: T6151.

Designations Indicating Heat Treatment by User


Most temper designations are applied by the producer of the semifin-
ished or finished products, and so the producer is in a position to ensure
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 69

that the specifications for strength and dimensional tolerances are met
when parts are purchased by a customer who then performs some other
shaping or machining procedure before the part is heat treated. However,
the original producer no longer has any control over the degree to which
the required final specifications are met. Therefore, special temper
designations have been developed to cover the condition when the final
heat treatment and meeting of property specifications is the responsibility
of the customer rather than the original producer. These are the TX2
tempers.
It is important to note that the TX2 temper is the proper one to use any
time a customer or vendor rather than the original producer heat treats a
product. An independent heat treater, regardless of how reliable, cannot be
assumed to apply one of the standard tempers described heretofore to a
product in the same manner and with the same reliability as the original
producer. It is important, therefore, to make clear that the responsibility
for meeting mechanical properties rests with the customer rather than the
producer.
The TX2 descriptor is applied to wrought products heat treated from
any temper by the user of the product or the vendor (e.g., an aircraft
company or its heat treating service) rather than the original material
producer (e.g., an aluminum company). The TX2 designation is used in
combination with tempers such as T4, T6, T73, or T76, indicative of other
aspects of the processing (e.g., T42, T62, T732, or T762). In practice, the
TX2 temper is used most often for wrought products that have been heat
treated from the O or F temper to demonstrate response to heat treatment.
Aluminum producer mills are almost always starting with freshly
produced F temper materials and are accustomed to paying close attention
to the consistency in processing operations needed to ensure meeting
materials specifications. These procedures provide the mill with a
consistent statistical base of operations and good knowledge of allowable
variations in aging times and temperatures for the semifinished parts.
There are times when the mechanical property limits for the standard
temper and the TX2 version of that temper (e.g., T6 and T62) differ. This
is because of the difference in controls of processing variables in the
producer’s operations compared with those in customers’ and their
vendors’ plants, and because customers and their vendors may not be able
to do standard stress relief treatments such as those done by producers.
On the other hand, structural engineers, such as those in the aerospace
industry, may use tensile strength and yield strength values based on their
extensive statistical analyses of finished parts, which become the basis of
their design values. These values may differ from producer-developed
specification limits.
Differences in producer and user testing requirements also must be
taken into account. The producer guarantees tensile, yield, and elongation
properties of each heat or lot of material to be delivered by the producer.
70 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Each heat or lot is tensile tested to be sure that property requirements are
met. Questionable material is either reprocessed or rejected. By compari-
son, the end-user heat treater of the material may or may not be asked by
the customer to tensile test each lot. Typically, the heat treater relies solely
on the results of hardness and conductivity tests to determine whether
heat treatment is done correctly. There is an assumption made by the
customer that the material would pass tensile test minimums if tested. For
example, for 7075-T62 die forging, the basic temper is T6, indicating
solution heat treatment, quenching, and artificial aging. The added digit 2
in T62 indicates that the heat treatment and aging were carried out by
other than the original producer of the forging (i.e., by the user or a
contractor of the user).

Tempers Identifying Additional Cold


Work between Quenching and Aging
To obtain particularly high strengths in aluminum alloy sheet in the heat
treated condition, alloys (notably 2024) sometimes are given additional
cold work between solution heat treatment and artificial aging beyond that
which might be used simply for straightening or stress relief. These are
indicated by variations of the usual tempers for sheet that is simply
straightened or flattened after heat treatment, such as the T3 and T81
tempers of 2024. With the additional cold work, the temper designations
are T361 and T861, respectively:

O 2024-T361 sheet: Basic temper is T3, indicating solution heat treat-


ment followed by cold work. The amount of cold work is significantly
beyond that for straightening or flattening (T3 temper): T361.
O 2024-T861 sheet: Basic temper is T8, indicating solution heat treat-
ment, cold work, and artificial aging. The amount of cold work is
significantly beyond that for straightening or flattening (T81 temper):
T861.

Tempers Identifying Additional Cold Work Following Aging


Another means sometimes used to gain added strength in aluminum
alloy products is the addition of stretching or drawing following the heat
treatment and artificial aging. This is indicated by the use of the T9
temper. It is used only for a few standard products such as screw machine
stock and wire. The T9 may be followed by other numbers indicating
special modifications of the treatment:

O 6262-T9 rod: Basic temper is T9, indicating solution heat treatment,


quenching, and artificial aging followed by cold work.
O 6061-T94 wire: Basic temper is T9, indicating solution heat treatment,
quenching, and artificial aging followed by cold work. Modification
given to ensure meeting requirements for product: T94
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 71

Tempers Designating Special Corrosion Resistant Tempers


To increase the corrosion resistance of certain high-strength heat
treatable alloys of the 7xxx series in particular, they are given an
overaging or stabilization treatment following solution heat treatment and
quenching, rather than being aged to peak strength as indicated by the T6
temper. Such treatments are designated by the use of the T7-type temper,
and the digit following the T7 indicates something about the extent of the
treatment and of the resultant level of corrosion resistance.
There are two basic variations of corrosion-resistance enhancement
used for such alloys:

O Enhanced stress-corrosion resistance, T73 temper: Indicating aging


sufficient to increase stress-corrosion resistance to a relatively high
level, well above that of the T6-type temper but at approximately a
15% sacrifice in tensile yield strength.
O Enhanced exfoliation corrosion resistance, T76 temper: Indicating
aging sufficient to improve resistance to exfoliation corrosion over that
of the T6-type temper, but strengths about 5 to 10% less than those of
the T6 temper. Note that this T76 temper has strengths superior to those
available with the T73 temper, but it provides less resistance to SCC
than the T73 temper.

The stress-corrosion enhancements may be used in combination with


the special tempers for residual stress relief, as illustrated by the following
examples:

O T7651 plate: Basic temper is T7, indicating solution heat treatment,


quenching, and an artificial aging treatment beyond peak strength
aimed at enhancing corrosion resistance in some manner. Degree of
overaging is for enhanced exfoliation corrosion resistance: T76. Plate
was subsequently stress relieved by stretching 1⁄2 to 3%: T7651.
O T73510 extruded shape: Basic temper is T7, indicating solution heat
treatment, quenching, and an artificial aging treatment beyond peak
strength aimed at enhancing corrosion resistance in some manner.
Degree of overaging is for enhanced stress corrosion resistance: T73.
Plate was subsequently stress relieved by stretching 1⁄2 to 3% without
further straightening or twisting: T73510.

Temper Designation for Special or Premium Properties


There are times when applications with special needs, typically in the
aerospace industry, require special performance capabilities of aluminum
alloys. These capabilities are accomplished by the use of special process-
ing (sometimes combined with tighter composition control). When
special processing is used, and it is to be used in a fairly broad
72 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

commercial manner, a special temper designation usually is developed.


Several of these designations are noted subsequently.
Several years ago, special processes were developed to provide 7175
forging (7175 being a special version of 7075 with tighter impurity limits
control) with a superior combination of high strength, high fracture
toughness, and good corrosion resistance. The temper designation devel-
oped for 7175 forgings produced by this special processing was T736
(T73652 if stress relieved by compressive cold work). Broader use of this
approach for 7175 as well as 7050 and potentially other high toughness,
high corrosion-resistant alloys led to the redefinition and simplification of
T736 to T74.
As is often the case with such special processing, the specific combi-
nations of thermal and mechanical treatments used to achieve the
properties required are not specifically spelled out in the literature, and in
fact, individual producers may have their own proprietary processes to
accomplish the needs. In such cases, the mechanical property limits for
the special products are detailed so that the desired performance must be
met; however, it is accomplished by individual producers. Examples of
such products and special processes are as follows:

O 7175-T74 die forging: Basic temper is T7, indicating solution heat


treatment, quenching, and aging to achieve special properties (e.g.,
aging beyond peak strength). Special treatment used to enhance
combination of strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance, with
specification limits on fracture toughness as well as strength: T74
O 7175-T7454 die forging: Basic temper is T7, indicating solution heat
treatment, quenching, and aging to achieve special properties (e.g.,
aging beyond peak strength). Special treatment used to enhance
combination of strength, toughness, and corrosion resistance, with
specification limits on fracture toughness as well as strength: T74.
Stress relieved by a combination of stretching and compressive cold
work: T7454

Another means sometimes used to indicate special treatments by the


temper designation is the use of an extra “6” added to T6 temper:

O 7175-T66: Basic temper is T6, indicating solution heat treatment,


quenching, and artificial aging. Special undefined treatment to achieve
maximum strength: T66

The development of special temper designations to cover unique cases


is under the auspices of the Product Standards Committee of the
Aluminum Association, and proposals for such unique tempers arise with
some regularity. It is always possible, therefore, that new temper
designations are being developed and registered by the Aluminum
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 73

Association, and anyone interested in remaining abreast of such devel-


opments should purchase the Registration Records Series Tempers for
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy Products in addition to Aluminum
Standards and Data.
It is strongly emphasized once again that it is incorrect and unethical for
anyone⫺producer, heat treater, or customer/user⫺to make up a temper
designation in a format that implies or might be misconstrued to mean
that the alloy has been registered by the Aluminum Association and
recognized by others in the industry. Such practices dilute the value and
reliability of the entire temper designation standards recognized by the
industry, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the
International Accord (see Chapter 8, “Selected References”) community.

Tempers for Cast Aluminum Alloys

The temper designation system for cast aluminum alloys is basically the
same as that for wrought aluminum alloys, but in practice, there are some
significant differences in usage. The following discussion focuses on
those differences while noting the similarities.
The descriptive sources for the aluminum alloy designation system,
such as Aluminum Standards and Data, focus more strongly on wrought
alloys than on the cast alloys, and this discussion, therefore, also includes
guidance from the American Foundrymen’s Society book, Aluminum
Casting Technology.

Review of the Basic Tempers for Cast Alloys


For practical considerations, a review of the basic temper designations
can be restricted to the three types of tempers in commercial usage for
castings: F, O, and T, described as follows:

O F, as fabricated: This designation is used for cast products made by any


casting process (e.g., sand casting, permanent mold casting, die
casting, etc.) and refers to the condition of the casting as it comes from
the molds without any further thermal or mechanical treatment. Unlike
the case with wrought alloys, the F temper is a very common finish or
final temper for castings, especially die castings. In addition, unlike
wrought alloys, there are likely to be published typical mechanical
properties and, in some cases, even minimum mechanical property
limits published for the F temper. For example, 360.0-F designates a
360.0 casting as it has come straight from the mold and cooled to room
temperature. In this alloy, this is likely to be the temper supplied to the
purchaser.
O O, annealed: This designation is used for cast alloys that are annealed
(i.e., given a high-temperature stabilization or recrystallization treat-
74 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

ment, sufficient to remove the effects of the thermal cycles it experi-


enced during the casting and cooling processes, thermal treatments,
and to result in a softening of the material and the minimum practical
level of mechanical strength. For castings, the treatment may be used
both to improve ductility and increase dimensional stability, but it is
not a very common finish temper for castings as it is for wrought
non-heat-treatable aluminum alloys. For example, 222.0-O designates
a 222.0 casting whose most recent treatment has been holding at a high
temperature (⬃415 °C, or ⬃775 °F) for 5 h, slow furnace cooling by
a carefully defined program, intended for dimensional stability.
O T, thermally treated to produce stable tempers other than O or F: The
T designation applies to any cast alloy that has been given a solution
heat treatment followed by a suitable quench and either natural (i.e., in
air) or artificial (i.e., in a furnace) aging. The T is always followed by
one or more digits that define in general terms the subsequent
treatments, which are discussed in more detail subsequently. For
example: 356.0-T6 designates a 356.0 casting that has been heat
treated, quenched, and artificially aged.

Subdivisions of the Basic Temper Types for Cast Alloys


For cast alloys, there are no standard variations and, therefore, no
additional digits on the designations for the F and O tempers; the
following discussion, therefore, focuses only on the T tempers.
For the T type of temper for aluminum castings, there are four
commercially used subdivisions: T4, T5, T6, and T7. These subdivisions
have generally the same meaning as for wrought alloys, but the usage
varies slightly:

O T4 indicates the casting has been given a solution heat treatment and,
without any cold work, naturally aged (i.e., at room temperature) to a
stable condition. For most casting alloys this is an unstable temper,
comparable to W for wrought alloys, and so most cast alloys are
subsequently aged. Example: 295.0-T4
O T5 indicates the casting has been cooled from the casting process and
then artificially aged (i.e., in a furnace). The artificial aging consists of
holding at a sufficiently high temperature and sufficiently long time
(e.g., 8 h at 175 °C, or 350 °F, or 24 h at 120 °C, or 250 °F) to permit
precipitation hardening to take place. This process stabilizes the
castings dimensionally, improves machinability, relieves residual
stresses, and increases strengths somewhat. Example: 319.0-T5
O T6 indicates the casting has been solution heat treated and artificially
aged to achieve maximum precipitation hardening. It results in
relatively high strengths with adequate ductility and stabilizes proper-
ties and dimensions. Example: 295.0-T6
Understanding the Aluminum Temper Designation System / 75

O T7 indicates the casting has been solution heat treated and artificially
aged to an overaged (i.e., past peak strength) condition. This treatment
is used to provide a better combination of high strength and high
ductility and stabilization of properties and dimensions. Example:
356.0-T7

Additional digits are used sometimes with these T5, T6, and T7 tempers,
but the variations are not as well defined for castings as for wrought
products; they do denote variations from the standard practices of either
casting or heat treating the part. For different alloys, the same temper
designation may not always mean the same variation in casting or heat
treating practice:

O For T5: The T51, T52, T53, T533, T551, and T571 tempers are
recognized variations, intended to either increase dimensional stability
or increase strength. For example, for 242.0-T571, the basic temper,
T5, indicates that the casting has been cooled from the casting process
and then artificially aged (i.e., in a furnace). A special chill was added
as the casting cooled to ensure higher strengths.
O For T6: The T61, T62, and T65 variations exist and deal with
variations in quench media and/or artificial aging conditions, once
again to increase dimensional stability or improve certain properties.
For example, for A356.0-T61, the basic temper, T6, indicates that the
casting has been solution heat treated, quenched, and artificially aged
following casting. The aging practice has been modified from the
peak-strength treatment (which would have been indicated by T6) to
ensure optimal performance.
O For T7: The T71, T75, and T77 tempers are recognized, also primarily
to increase dimensional stability or improve certain properties. For
example, for 355.0-T71, the basic temper, T7, indicates that the casting
has been heat treated and artificially aged to an overaged (i.e., past
peak strength) solution condition. The artificial aging practice has been
modified to further enhance the corrosion resistance and ductility.

Unfortunately, there is no clear resource to document the exact nature and


degree of consistency of these variations in temper for cast aluminum
alloys, as only a few of the tempers for casting have been recently enough
registered to appear in Aluminum Association publications such as the
Registration Record Series Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum Alloy
Products. Many of the tempers go back many years and have not been
through a rigorous rationalization process.
76 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Importance to Understanding Aluminum Tempers

One of the main points of the preceding discussion is to demonstrate


that what may seem like a complex or confusing set of coded numbers in
a temper designation can actually be recognized and understood by
looking at the individual letters and numbers and recognizing the function
and meaning of each segment.
End users and their heat treaters and fabricators should understand these
in considerable detail so that in their own subsequent processes they do
not destroy some key capability provided by the producer’s treatment.
The heat treater, for example, is advised to constantly refer to specifica-
tions, drawings, and controlling documents, to ensure that the end
customer’s requirements are being followed explicitly. If this is not done,
end-user fabricators or heat treaters may face the prospect of salvaging
parts rejected by the customer.
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p87-118 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p087 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 6
Applications for
Aluminum Alloys and
Tempers

THERE ARE AT LEAST two approaches to overviewing important


applications of aluminum alloys: by alloy class, as initiated in Chapter 3
and carried out in greater detail subsequently, and by type of application.
Both approaches are considered in this chapter⫺a review first by alloy
class and then by application.
Readers are referred to Aluminum: Technology, Applications and
Environment (see Chapter 8) for more detailed information on many of
the applications mentioned in this chapter.
All photographs are courtesy of the Aluminum Association unless
otherwise indicated, many from the reference noted in the previous
paragraph.

Applications by Alloy Class

Wrought Alloys
1xxx, Pure Aluminum. The major characteristics of the 1xxx series
are:

O Strain hardenable
O Exceptionally high formability, corrosion resistance, and electrical
conductivity
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 70 to 185 MPa (10–27 ksi)
O Readily joined by welding, brazing, and soldering

The 1xxx series represents the commercially pure (CP) aluminum, ranging
from the baseline 1100 (99.00% min Al) to relatively purer 1050/1350
88 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

(99.50% min Al) and 1175 (99.75 % min Al). The 1xxx series of alloys are
strain hardenable but would not be used where strength is a prime
consideration.
The primary uses of the 1xxx series would be applications in which the
combination of extremely high corrosion resistance and formability are
required (e.g., foil and strip for packaging, chemical equipment, tank car
or truck bodies, spun hollowware, and elaborate sheet metal work).
Electrical applications are one major use of the 1xxx series, primarily
1350, which has relatively tight controls on those impurities that might
lower electrical conductivity. As a result, an electrical conductivity of
62% of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) is guaranteed
for this material, which, combined with the natural light weight of
aluminum, means a significant weight and, therefore, cost advantage over
copper in electrical applications.
Specific illustrations provided include an aluminum electrical bus bar
installation (Fig. 1), food packaging trays of pure aluminum (Fig. 2),
decorated foil pouches for food and drink (Fig. 3), aluminum foil of CP
aluminum and pet food decorated wrap (Fig. 4), and a bright-polished
telescopic mirror of a high-purity aluminum (Fig. 5).

Fig. 1 Aluminum electrical bus bar installation Fig. 2 Food packaging trays of pure aluminum
with 1350 bus bar (1100)
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 89

2xxx, Aluminum-Copper Alloys. The major characteristics of the


2xxx series are:

O Heat treatable
O High strength, at room and elevated temperatures
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 190 to 430 MPa (27–62 ksi)
O Usually joined mechanically, but some alloys are weldable

The 2xxx series of alloys are heat treatable and possess in individual
alloys good combinations of high strength (especially at elevated tem-
peratures), toughness, and, in specific cases, weldability. They are not as
resistant to atmospheric corrosion as several other series and so usually
are painted or clad for added protection.

Fig. 3 Decorated foil pouches for food and drink (1060 or 1100)

(a) (b)

Fig. 4 (a) Reynolds Wrap (Reynolds Metals Co., Richmond, VA) aluminum foil of commercially pure aluminum (1100
or similar) and (b) Reynolds pet food decorated wrap
90 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Primary Uses. The higher-strength 2xxx alloys are widely used for
aircraft (2024) and truck body (2014) applications, where they generally
are used in bolted or riveted construction. Specific members of the series
(e.g., 2219 and 2048) are readily joined by gas metal arc welding
(GMAW) or gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and so are used for
aerospace applications where that method is the preferred joining method.
Alloy 2195 is a new lithium-bearing aluminum alloy providing very
high modulus of elasticity along with higher strength and comparable
weldability to 2219 for space applications.
For applications requiring very high strength plus high fracture tough-
ness, there are high-toughness versions of several of the alloys (e.g., 2124,
2324, and 2419) that have tighter control on the impurities that may
diminish resistance to unstable fracture, all developed specifically for the
aircraft industry.
Alloys 2011, 2017, and 2117 are widely used for fasteners and
screw-machine stock.
Illustrations of applications for the 2xxx series alloys include aircraft
internal and external structures (Fig. 6), structural beams of heavy dump
and tank trucks and trailer trucks (Fig. 7), the fuel tanks and booster
rockets of the Space Shuttle (Fig. 8), and internal railroad car structural
members (Fig. 9).
3xxx, Aluminum-Manganese Alloys. The major characteristics of the
3xxx series are:

O High formability and corrosion resistance with medium strength


O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 110 to 285 MPa (16–41 ksi)
O Readily joined by all commercial procedures

Fig. 5 Bright-polished telescopic mirror of a high-purity aluminum


Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 91

Fig. 6 Aircraft internal structure includes extrusions and plate of 2xxx alloys
such as 2024, 2124, and 2618. External sheet skin may be alclad 2024
or 2618; the higher-purity cladding provides corrosion protection to the alumi-
num-copper alloys that otherwise will darken with age.

Fig. 7 Heavy dump and tank trucks and trailer trucks may employ 2xxx
extrusions for their structural members.
92 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

(a)

(b)

Fig. 8 (a) The booster rockets and (b) fuel tanks of the Space Shuttle are 2xxx
alloys, originally 2219 and 2419; now sometimes aluminum-lithium
“Weldalite” alloy 2195
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 93

The 3xxx series of alloys are strain hardenable, have excellent corrosion
resistance, and are readily welded, brazed, and soldered.
Primary Uses. Alloy 3003 is widely used in cooking utensils and
chemical equipment because of its superiority in handling many foods
and chemicals, and in builders’ hardware because of its superior corrosion
resistance. Alloy 3105 is a principal for roofing and siding.
Because of the ease and flexibility of joining, 3003 and other members
of the 3xxx series are widely used in sheet and tubular form for heat
exchangers in vehicles and power plants.
Alloy 3004 and its modification 3104 are the principals for the bodies
of drawn and ironed can bodies for beverage cans for beer and soft drinks.
As a result, they are among the most used individual alloys in the
aluminum system, in excess of 1.6 billion kg (3.5 billion lb) per year.
Typical applications of the 3xxx alloy series include automotive radiator
heat exchangers (Fig. 10) and tubing in commercial power plant heat
exchangers (Fig. 11). In addition, the bodies of beverage cans (Fig. 12)
are alloys 3004 or 3104, making it the largest volume alloy combination
in the industry.
4xxx, Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. The major characteristics of the
4xxx series are:

O Heat treatable
O Good flow characteristics, medium strength
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 175 to 380 MPa (25–55 ksi)
O Easily joined, especially by brazing and soldering

Primary Uses. There are two major uses of the 4xxx series, both
generated by the excellent flow characteristics provided by relatively high

Fig. 9 Internal railroad car structural members are sometimes 2xxx alloys
(also sometimes 6xxx alloys).
94 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 10 Automotive radiator heat exchangers are of alloys such as 3002.

Fig. 11 Alloy 3003 tubing in commercial power plant heat exchanger

silicon contents. The first is for forgings: the workhorse alloy is 4032, a
medium high-strength, heat treatable alloy used principally in applica-
tions such as forged aircraft pistons. The second major application is a
weld filler alloy; here the workhorse is 4043, used for GMAW and GTAW
6xxx alloys for structural and automotive applications.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 95

Fig. 12 The bodies of beverage cans are alloys 3004 or 3104, making it the
largest volume alloy combination in the industry.

Fig. 13 Refrigerator coolant circulation system in brazed unit of high-silicon


brazing alloy sheet

As noted, the same characteristic—good flow provided by the high


silicon content—leads to both types of application. In the case of forgings,
this good flow ensures the complete and precise filling of complex dies;
in the case of welding, it ensures complete filling of grooves in the
members to be joined. For the same reason, other variations of the 4xxx
alloys are used for the cladding on brazing sheet, the component that
flows to complete the bond.
Figure 13 illustrates a refrigerator coolant circulation system in a brazed
unit of a high-silicon brazing alloy sheet. Alloy 4043 is one of the most
widely used weld wires used in applications such as the automated
welding of an auto body structure illustrated in Fig. 14.
5xxx, Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys. The major characteristics of
the 6xxx series are:
96 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Strain hardenable
O Excellent corrosion resistance, toughness, weldability; moderate
strength
O Building and construction, automotive, cryogenic, and marine appli-
cations
O Representative alloys: 5052, 5083, and 5754
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 125 to 350 MPa (18–51 ksi)

Aluminum-magnesium alloys of the 5xxx series are strain hardenable and


have moderately high strength, excellent corrosion resistance even in salt
water, and very high toughness even at cryogenic temperatures to near
absolute zero. They are readily welded by a variety of techniques, even at
thicknesses up to 20 cm (8 in.).
Primary Use. As a result, 5xxx alloys find wide application in building
and construction; highway structures, including bridges, storage tanks,
and pressure vessels; cryogenic tankage and systems for temperatures as
low as –270 °C (⫺455 °F) or near absolute zero, and marine applications.
Alloys 5052, 5086, and 5083 are the workhorses from the structural
standpoint, with increasingly higher strength associated with the increas-
ingly higher magnesium content. Specialty alloys in the group include
5182, the beverage can end alloy and, thus, among the largest in tonnage;
5754 for automotive body panel and frame applications; and 5252, 5457,
and 5657 for bright trim applications, including automotive trim.
Care must be taken to avoid use of 5xxx alloys with more than 3% Mg
content in applications where they receive continuous exposure to
temperatures above 100 °C (212 °F). Such alloys may become sensitized
and susceptible to SCC. For this reason, alloys such as 5454 and 5754 are
recommended for applications where high temperature exposure is likely.

Fig. 14 Alloy 4043 is one of the most widely used weld wires used in
applications such as this automated welding of an auto body
structure.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 97

High-speed, single-hull ships such as the Destriero, shown in Fig. 15,


employ 5083-H113/H321machined plate for hulls, hull stiffeners, deck-
ing, and superstructure. Figure 16 shows the internal hull stiffener
structure of a high-speed yacht. Single- or multiple-hull high-speed ferries
employ several aluminum-magnesium alloys, 5083, 5383, and 5454, as
sheet and plate (Fig. 17) (along with 6xxx extruded shapes, described
next) with all-welded construction. Other applications for the broadly
used 5xxx series of alloys can be seen in Fig. 18 to 26.
6xxx, Aluminum-Magnesium-Silicon Alloys. The major characteris-
tics of the 6xxx series are:

O Heat treatable
O High corrosion resistance, excellent extrudibility; moderate strength

Fig. 15 High-speed, single-hull ships such as the Destriero, employ 5083-


H113/H321 machined plate for hulls, hull stiffeners, decking, and
superstructure.

Fig. 16 The internal hull stiffener structure of a high-speed yacht (see Fig. 15)
98 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 125 to 400 MPa (18–58 ksi)
O Readily welded by GMAW and GTAW methods

The 6xxx alloys are heat treatable and have moderately high strength
coupled with excellent corrosion resistance. A unique feature is their great
extrudability, making it possible to produce in single shapes relatively
complex architectural forms, as well as to design shapes that put the
majority of the metal where it will most efficiently carry the highest
tensile and compressive stresses. This feature is a particularly important
advantage for architectural and structural members where stiffness-
criticality is important.
Primary Use. Alloy 6063 is perhaps the most widely used because of its
extrudability; it is not only the first choice for many architectural and
structural members, but it has been the choice for the Audi automotive
space frame members. A good example of its structural use was the
all-aluminum bridge structure in Foresmo, Norway (Fig. 26); it was
prefabricated in a shop and erected on the site in only a few days.

Fig. 17 Single- or multiple-hull high-speed ferries employ several alumi-


num-magnesium alloys⫺5083, 5383, and 5454⫺as sheet and plate
(along with 6xxx extruded shapes) with all-welded construction.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 99

Higher-strength alloy 6061 extrusions and plate find broad use in welded
structural members such as truck and marine frames, railroad cars, and
pipelines.
Among specialty alloys in the series: 6066-T6, with high strength for
forgings; 6070 for the highest strength available in 6xxx extrusions; and
6101and 6201 for high-strength electrical bus and electrical conductor
wire, respectively.

Fig. 18 Alloy 5083 was the workhorse for the 32 m (125 ft) diam spheres for
shipboard transport of liquefied natural gas; the all-welded construc-
tion was 200 mm (8 in.) thick at the horizontal diam.

Fig. 19 The superstructure of many ocean liners, ferries, and most naval
ships is of welded 5xxx alloy construction, providing lightweight
and excellent corrosion resistance.
100 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Figure 27 shows that the power of extruded aluminum-magnesium-


silicon alloys is the “put-the-metal-where-you need-it” flexibility these
alloys and the extrusion process provide.
Some of the other most important applications for aluminum-magne-
sium-silicon are in the structural members of wide-span roof structures
for arenas and gymnasiums shown in Fig. 28; geodesic domes, such as the
one made originally to house the Spruce Goose, the famous Hughes
wooden flying boat, in Long Beach, CA, the largest geodesic dome ever
constructed, at 250 m (1000 ft) across, 100 m (400 ft) high (Fig. 29); an
integrally stiffened bridge deck shape, used to produce replacement
bridge decks, readily put in the roadway in hours (Fig. 30, 31); and a
magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) train in development in Europe and Japan

Fig. 20 Rugged coal cars are provided by welded 5454 alloy plate construc-
tion.

Fig. 21 The demands of the superstructures of offshore oil rigs in high


humidity and water exposure are met with 5454, 5086, and 5083
aluminum-magnesium alloy welded construction.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 101

(Fig. 32). In addition, aluminum light poles are widely used around the
world for their corrosion resistance and crash protection systems provid-
ing safety for auto drivers and passengers, as shown in Fig. 33.
Representative important applications of the 6xxx alloy series in automo-
bile structures are shown in Fig. 34 to 36.

Fig. 22 Automotive structures are likely to employ increasing amounts of 5754-O formed sheet for parts such as
internal door stiffeners or the entire body-in-white.

Fig. 23 Aluminum cans have ends of alloy 5182, making that one of the
largest volume alloys in production.
102 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

7xxx, Aluminum-Zinc Alloys. The major characteristics of the 7xxx


series are:

O Heat treatable
O Very high strength; special high-toughness versions
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 220 to 610 MPa (32–88 ksi)
O Mechanically joined

Fig. 24 5xxx alloys are commonly used as external facing sheets of com-
posite aluminum-plastic structural panels, as in this Alusuisse Alu-
coban example.

Fig. 25 Sheet of 5xxx alloys often forms the surface of geodesic dome
structures, as in this example of a water treatment plant.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 103

The 7xxx alloys are heat treatable and, among the aluminum-zinc-
magnesium-copper versions in particular, provide the highest strengths of
all aluminum alloys. These alloys are not considered weldable by
commercial processes and are regularly used with riveted construction.
Primary Use. The widest application of the 7xxx alloys historically has
been in the aircraft industry, where fracture-critical design concepts have

Fig. 26 The Foresmo Bridge in northern Norway is an excellent example of


the use of aluminum-magnesium alloys for built-up girders systems;
this photograph illustrates a major advantage of replacement aluminum
bridges⫺the ability to prefabricate the spans and move them in place quickly,
minimizing the disruption to traffic.

Fig. 27 The power of extruded aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys is the


“put-in-the metal-where-you-need-it” flexibility these alloys and the
extrusion process provide.
104 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 28 The structural members of wide-span roof structures for arenas and
gymnasiums are usually 6063 or 6061 extruded tube or beams,
covered with 5xxx alloy sheet.

provided the impetus for the high-toughness alloy development. There are
several alloys in the series that are produced especially for their high
toughness, notably 7150, 7175, and 7475; for these alloys, controlled
impurity levels, particularly of iron and silicon, maximize the combina-
tion of strength and fracture toughness.
The atmospheric corrosion resistance of the 7xxx alloys is not as high
as that of the 5xxx and 6xxx alloys, thus, in such service, they usually are
coated or, for sheet and plate, used in an alclad version. Also, special
tempers have been developed to improve their resistance to exfoliation
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 105

Fig. 29 This geodesic dome in Long Beach, CA, made originally to house
the “Spruce Goose,” is the largest geodesic dome ever con-
structed⫺250 m (1000 ft) across, 100 m (400 ft) high.

Fig. 30 Integrally stiffened bridge deck shape, which is usually produced in


6063

and SCC, the T76 and T73 types, respectively. These tempers are
especially recommended in situations where there may be high short
transverse (through the thickness) stresses present during exposure to
atmospheric or more severe environments.
Applications of 7xxx alloys include critical aircraft wing structures of
integrally stiffened aluminum extrusions (Fig. 37), long-length drill pipe
(Fig. 38), and the premium forged aircraft part of alloy 7175-T736 (T74)
shown in Fig. 39.
8xxx, Alloys with Aluminum Plus Other Elements (Not Covered by
Other Series). The major characteristics of the 8xxx series are:
106 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Heat treatable
O High conductivity, strength, and hardness
O Typical ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 240 (17–35 ksi)
The 8xxx series is used for those alloys with lesser-used alloying elements
such as iron, nickel, and lithium. Each is used for the particular
characteristics it provides the alloys.

Fig. 31 Replacement bridge decks, usually produced in 6063, are readily


put into the roadway in hours.

Fig. 32 Experimental magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev) train in development in


Europe and Japan, employ bodies with 6061 and 6063 structural
members.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 107

Primary Use. Iron and nickel provide strength with little loss in
electrical conductivity and so are used in a series of alloys represented by
8017 for conductors.
Lithium in alloy 8090 provides exceptionally high strength and modu-
lus, and so this alloy is used for aerospace applications in which increases
in stiffness combined with high strength reduces component weight. A
forged helicopter component of aluminum-lithium alloy 8090-T852 can
be seen in Fig. 40.

Fig. 33 Aluminum light poles are widely used around the world for their
corrosion resistance, and their breakaway-base crash protection
systems that provide safety for car drivers and passengers.

(a) (b)

Fig. 34 Extruded aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys make up (a) a complete Verlicchi Nino & Fugli motorcycle
chassis and (b) the entire body frame of the Audi A-8.
108 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Cast Alloys
In comparison with wrought alloys, casting alloys contain larger
proportions of alloying elements such as silicon and copper, which results
in a largely heterogeneous cast structure (i.e., one having a substantial
volume of second phases). This second phase material warrants careful
study, since any coarse, sharp, and brittle constituent can create harmful
internal notches and nucleate cracks when the component is later put
under load. The fatigue properties are very sensitive to large heterogene-
ities. As is shown later, good metallurgical and foundry practices can
largely prevent such defects.
The elongation and strength, especially in fatigue, of most cast products
are relatively lower than those of wrought products. This is because
current casting practice is as yet unable to reliably prevent casting defects.
In recent years, however, innovations in casting processes such as squeeze

Fig. 35 Welded 6063 extrusions combined with 5083 tube and 357 casting
make up the axle body assembly for the BMW Model 5.

Fig. 36 The General Motors Aurora, like many other production automo-
biles, has aluminum closure panels of alloy 6111-T4.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 109

casting have brought about some significant improvements in the consis-


tency and level of properties of castings, and these should be taken into
account in selecting casting processes for critical applications.
2xx.x, Aluminum-Copper Alloys. The major characteristics of the
2xx.x series are:

O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings


O High strength at room and elevated temperatures; some high-toughness
alloys

Fig. 37 Critical aircraft wing structures are often of 7xxx alloy sheet or
integrally stiffened extrusion construction; alloy 7075-T73 or high-
toughness alloys such as 7050 or 7475 are among the principal choices.

Fig. 38 Long-length drill pipe often is made of 7xxx (as well as 2xxx)
aluminum alloy extruded tube.
110 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 130 to 450 MPa (20–65


ksi)

Primary Use. The strongest of the common casting alloys is heat treated
201.0, which has found important application in the aerospace industry.
The castability of the alloy is somewhat limited by a tendency to
microporosity and hot tearing so that it is best suited to investment
casting. Its high toughness makes it particularly suitable for highly
stressed components in machine tool construction, in electrical engineer-
ing (pressurized switchgear castings), and in aircraft construction.

Fig. 39 An example of a premium forged aircraft part of alloy 7175-T736


(T74)

Fig. 40 A forged helicopter component of aluminum-lithium alloy 8090-


T852
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 111

Besides the standard aluminum casting alloys, there are special alloys
for particular components, for instance, for engine piston heads, integral
engine blocks, or bearings. For these applications, the chosen alloy needs
good wear resistance and a low friction coefficient, as well as adequate
strength at elevated service temperatures. A good example is the alloy
203.0, which to date is the aluminum casting alloy with the highest
strength at approximately 200 °C (400 °F). An example of an application
for 2xx.x alloys is an aircraft component that is made in alloys of
high-strength alloy 201.0-T6 (Fig. 41).
3xx.x, Aluminum-Silicon Plus Copper or Magnesium Alloys. The
major characteristics of the 3xx.x series are:

O Heat treatable sand, permanent mold, and die castings


O Excellent fluidity, high-strength, and some high-toughness alloys
O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 130 to 275 MPa (20–40
ksi)
O Readily welded

The 3xx.x series of castings is one of the most widely used because of the
flexibility provided by the high silicon content and its contribution to
fluidity, plus their response to heat treatment, which provides a variety of
high-strength options. In addition, the 3xx.x series may be cast by a
variety of techniques ranging from relatively simple sand or die casting to
very intricate permanent mold, investment castings, and the newer
thixocasting and squeeze casting technologies.
Primary Use. Among the workhorse alloys are 319.0 and 356.0/A356.0
for sand and permanent mold casting; 360.0, 380.0/A380.0, and 390.0 for
die casting; and 357.0/A357.0 for many types of casting, including,
especially, the relatively newly commercialized squeeze/forge cast tech-
nologies. Alloy 332.0 also is one of the most frequently used aluminum

Fig. 41 Aircraft components are made from high-strength cast aluminum


alloys, such as alloy 201.0.
112 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 42 Thixoformed A356.0-T6 inner turbo frame for the Airbus family of
aircraft

casting alloys because it can be made almost exclusively from recycled


scrap.
Among the illustrative applications are the thixoformed A356.0-T6
inner turbo frame for the Airbus family of aircraft (Fig. 42); the gearbox
casing for a passenger car in alloy pressure die cast 380.0 shown in Fig.
43; rear axle housing (Fig. 44); complex 3xx.x castings made by the
investment casting processes, providing the ability to obtain exceptionally
intricate detail and fine quality (Fig. 45); and A356.0 cast wheels, which
are widely used in the U.S. automotive industry (Fig. 46).
4xx.x, Aluminum-Silicon Alloys. The major characteristics of the
4xx.x series are:

O Non-heat-treatable sand, permanent mold, and die castings


O Excellent fluidity, good for intricate castings
O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 175 MPa (17–25
ksi)

Alloy B413.0 is notable for its very good castability and excellent
weldability, which are due to its eutectic composition and low melting
point of 700 °C (1292 °F). It combines moderate strength with high
elongation before rupture and good corrosion resistance. The alloy is
particularly suitable for intricate, thin-walled, leak-proof, fatigue-resistant
castings.
Primary Use. These alloys have found applications in relatively
complex cast parts for typewriter and computer housings and dental
equipment, and also for fairly critical components in marine and
architectural applications.
5xx.x, Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys. The major characteristics of
the 5xx.x series are:
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 113

Fig. 43 Gearbox casting for a passenger car, in alloy pressure die cast 380.0

Fig. 44 Rear axle housing of 380.0 sand casting

O Non-heat-treatable sand, permanent mold, and die castings


O Tougher to cast; provides good finishing characteristics
O Excellent corrosion resistance, machinability, and surface appearance
O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 120 to 175 MPa (17–25
ksi)

The common feature of this group of alloys is good resistance to


corrosion.
Primary Use. Alloys 512.0 and 514.0 have medium strength and good
elongation and are suitable for components exposed to seawater or to
114 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

other similar corrosive environments. These alloys often are used for door
and window fittings, which can be decoratively anodized to give a
metallic finish or provide a wide range of colors. Their castability is
inferior to that of the aluminum-silicon alloys because of its magnesium

Fig. 45 Complex 3xx.x castings made by the investment casting processes,


providing the ability to obtain exceptionally intricate detail and fine
quality

Fig. 46 A356.0 cast wheels are widely used in the U.S. automotive industry.
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 115

content and, consequently, long freezing range. For this reason, it tends to
be replaced by 355.0, which has long been used for similar applications.
For die castings where decorative anodizing is particularly important,
alloy 520.0 is quite suitable.
7xx.x, Aluminum-Zinc Alloys. The major characteristics of the 7xx.x
series are:

O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings (harder to cast)


O Excellent machinability and appearance
O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 210 to 380 MPa (30–55
ksi)

Primary Use. Because of the increased difficulty in casting 7xx.x alloys,


they tend to be used only where the excellent finishing characteristics and
machinability are important. Representative applications include furni-
ture, garden tools, office machines, and farming and mining equipment.
8xx.x, Aluminum-Tin Alloys. The major characteristics of the 8xx.x
series are:

O Heat treatable sand and permanent mold castings (harder to cast)


O Excellent machinability
O Bearings and bushings of all types
O Approximate ultimate tensile strength range: 105 to 210 MPa (15–30
ksi)

Primary Use. As with the 7xx.x alloys, 8xx.x alloys are relatively hard
to cast and tend to be used only where their combination of superior
surface finish and relative hardness are important. The prime example is
for parts requiring extensive machining and for bushings and bearings.

Applications by Market Area

In the paragraphs that follow, a review is provided of the alloys often


selected for products in a number of the major markets in which
aluminum is used.

Electrical Markets

The major products for which aluminum is used in electrical applica-


tions are electric cable and bus conductors, where the high electrical
conductivity (60% IACS) makes aluminum a cost-effective replacement
for copper products:
116 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Electrical conductor wire: 1350 where no special strength require-


ments exist; 6201 where a combination of high strength and high
conductivity are needed
O Bus conductor: 6101
O Electrical cable towers: 6061 or 6063 extruded shapes

Building and Construction Markets


Building and construction encompasses those markets in which archi-
tectural and/or structural requirements come together. Such applications
include residential housing, commercial storefronts and structures, con-
ference centers and areas (i.e., long roof bay requirements), highway
bridges and roadside structures, and a variety of holding tanks and
chemical structures (also considered under “Chemical and Petroleum
Markets”). Among the choices are:

O Bridges and other highway structures: 6061 and 6063 extrusions (Fig.
30); 5083, 5086, and 5454 plate (Fig. 26, 30, 31, 33)
O Storefronts, curtain wall: 6063 extrusions
O Building sheet, siding: 3005, 3105, and 5005 sheet
O Arena and convention center roofs: 6061 extrusions with 5xxx alloy
sheet panels (Fig. 29)
O Residential housing structures: 6063 extrusions
O Architectural trim: 5257, 5657, 6463
O Composite wall panels: 5xxx alloy sheet plus expanded polymers (Fig.
24)

Transportation Applications
The transportation market has several major subsections, as discussed
subsequently.
Automobile, Van, Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV), Bus, and Truck
Applications. Automotive structures require a combination of aluminum
castings, sheet, and extrusions to cover all good opportunities to increase
gasoline mileage and reduce pollutants. Among examples are the follow-
ing:

O Frame: 5182 or 5754 sheet (Fig. 14, 22) or, for space frame designs,
6063 or 6061 extrusions (Fig. 34a and b)
O External body sheet panels where dent resistance is important: 2008,
6111 (Fig. 36)
O Inner body panels: 5083, 5754
O Bumpers: 7029, 7129
O Air conditioner tubes, heat exchangers: 3003 (Fig. 10, 14)
O Auto trim: 5257, 5657, 5757
O Door beams, seat tracks, racks, rails, and so on: 6061, 6063
O Hood, deck lids: 2036, 6016, 6111 (Fig. 36)
Applications for Aluminum Alloys and Tempers / 117

O Truck beams: 2014, 6070 (Fig. 7)


O Truck trailer bodies: 5456 (Fig. 7)
O Wheels: A356.0 (Fig. 46) or formed 5xxx sheet
O Housings, gear boxes: 357.0, A357.0 (Fig. 43, 44)

Aircraft and Aerospace Applications. Aircraft and aerospace appli-


cations require high strength combined with, depending on the specific
component, high fracture toughness, high corrosion resistance, and/or
high modulus (sometimes all three). The result has been a great number
of alloys and tempers developed specifically for this market, as illustrated
by the examples below:

O Space mirror: High-purity aluminum (Fig. 5)


O Wing and fuselage skin: 2024, alclad 2024, 7050 and 7475 sheet and
plate or extrusions (Fig. 6)
O Wing structures: 2024, 2124, 2314, 7050 stiffened extrusions (Fig. 37)
O Bulkhead: 2197, 7049, 7050, 7175
O Rocket tankage: 2195, 2219, 2419 (Fig. 8a, b)
O Engine components: 2618
O Propellers: 2025
O Rivets: 2117, 6053
O If high modulus is critical: Lithium-bearing alloys 2090, 2091, 2195,
8090
O If high fracture toughness is critical: 2124, 2224, 2324, 7050, 7175,
7475
O For maximum fracture toughness: 7475
O If stress-corrosion resistance is important: 7X50 or 7X75 in the
T73-type temper
O If resistance to exfoliation attack is vital: 7xxx alloys in the T76-type
temper
O For welded construction, as for shuttle tanks: 2219, 2195, 5456

Marine Transportation
Many aluminum alloys readily withstand the corrosive attack of marine
salt water and so find applications in boats, ships, offshore stations, and
other components that are immersed in saltwater:

O Hull material: 5083, 5383, 6061, 6063 (Fig. 15–17)


O Superstructure: 5083, 5456 (Fig. 15)
O Structural beams: 6061, 6063 (Fig. 16, 17)
O Offshore stations, tanks: 5083, 5456 (Fig. 21)

Rail Transportation
Much as for automobile and truck bodies, aluminum lends itself to
railcar structural and exterior panel applications:
118 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

O Beams: 2014, 6061, 6070 (Fig. 9)


O Exterior panels: 5456, 6111 (Fig. 9, 32)
O Tank cars: 5083, 5454
O Coal cars: 5083, 5454 (Fig. 20)
O Cars for hot cargo: 5454 (Fig. 20)

Packaging Applications
Packaging applications require either great ductility and corrosion
resistance for foil and wrapping applications or great strength and
workability for rigid container sheet applications (i.e., cans). Alloy
choices include:

O Aluminum foil for foods: 1175 (Fig. 2–4)


O Rigid container (can) bodies: 3004 (Fig. 12)
O Rigid container (can) ends: 5182 (Fig. 23)

Petroleum and Chemical Industry Components


The excellent combination of high strength combined with superior
corrosion resistance plus weldability makes a number of aluminum alloys
ideal for chemical industry applications, even some involving very
corrosive fluids:

O Chemical piping: 1060, 5254, 6063


O Pressure vessels (ASME Code): 5083, 5086, 6061, 6063
O Pipelines: 6061, 6063, 6070
O Cryogenic tankage: 5052, 5083, 5454, 6061, 6063 (Fig. 18)
O Containers for hydrogen peroxide: 5254, 5652

Other Markets
While not major markets in themselves, a variety of specialty products
find great advantage in aluminum alloys:

O Screw machine products: 2011, 6262


O Appliances: 5005, 5052
O Tread plate: 6061
O Weld wire: 4043 (for welding 6xxx alloys), 5356, 5183, 5556 (for
welding 5xxx alloys) (Fig. 14)
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p119-184 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p119 www.asminternational.org

CHAPTER 7
Representative
Micrographs

A COMPILATION OF MICROGRAPHS illustrating the microstruc-


ture of a wide range of aluminum alloys and tempers is a valuable
additional resource in understanding aluminum alloys and tempers.
Therefore, micrographs of a number of representative alloys and tempers
are shown in the following pages.
The reader should recognize that even within a single cross section of
a piece of plate, forging, extrusion, or casting, a considerable range of
microstructural features may be evident. Among different samples of a
single alloy, temper, and product, an even wider range of variations in
microstructure will be evident. Thus, it should be clear that the micro-
structures presented here are to be considered representative of the
respective alloy, temper, and product but that not all other lots or even all
other locations within these particular lots will look exactly like the
examples provided. Micrographs were taken mostly from Metallography
and Microstructures, Volume 9 of the ASM Handbook, ASM Interna-
tional, 1985, pages 360 to 387. A few were taken from D.G. Altenpohl’s
book Aluminum: Technology, Applications and Environment (see Chapter
8), courtesy of the Aluminum Association, Inc.
120 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Wrought Aluminum Alloys

(a)

(b)

Fig. 1 99.99% high-purity aluminum as-cast. Transmission electron micro-


graphs show subgrain structure in 99.99% 0.1 mm (0.004 in.) thick: (a)
hard rolled; (b) after recovery, 2 h at 150 °C (302 °F). 350⫻

Fig. 2 99.5% aluminum as-cast. Structure of 99.5% aluminum, DC case with


grain refiner. Grain size is smaller than 0.5 mm (0.02 in.); cell size is
from 50 to approximately 300 μm. The residual melt has solidified mainly in the
cell boundaries.
Representative Micrographs / 121

(a)

(b) (c)

Fig. 3 99.5% aluminum as-cast. (a) Coarse cell structure due to the solidification rate. Continuous
case 99.5% aluminum. Average cell size: 90 μm. (b) Fine cell structure. Normal
solidification rate. Average cell size: 60 μm. (c) Adjacent coarse and fine cells in direct chill (DC) cast
99.5% aluminum. The coarse cells solidified relatively slowly and belong to a “floating crystal.”

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Fig. 4 Alloy 1100, various amounts of cold work. Recrystallized grain size as a function of cold
work. The following percentage numbers indicate the degree of cold work before
annealing: (a) 0%. (b) 2%. (c) 4%. (d) 6%. (e) 8%. (f) 10%.
122 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

(a)

Fig. 5 Alloy 1100 as-cast. (a) Cross sections through


cast, commercial purity aluminum ingots (DC
cast in rolling ingot shape). The grain structure has been
revealed through etching. Columnar crystals (grains) can be
seen in the outer zones, especially in the upper ingot. The
columnar grains grow in a direction opposite to the removal
of heat. (b) Composition of the cast structure near the ingot
surface. R, narrow exterior band of fine crystals, due to rapid
cooling of the surface of the casting; St, zone of columnar
grains, with axes parallel to the heat flow; K, grain zone
without directional cooling⫺ “equiaxed grain structure”

(b)
Representative Micrographs / 123

Fig. 6 Alloy 1100-O sheet, cold rolled and an-


nealed. Recrystallized, equiaxed grains, and
Fig. 7 Alloy 1100-H18 sheet, cold rolled. Note
metal flow around insoluble particles of
insoluble particles of FeAl3 (black). Size and distribution FeAl3 (black). Particles are remnants of scriptlike con-
of FeAl3 in the worked structure were unaffected by stituents in the ingot that have been fragmented by
annealing. See Fig. 7. 0.5% HF. 500⫻ working. See Fig. 6. 0.5% HF. 500⫻

Fig. 8 Alloy 2014-T4 closed-die forging, solution Fig. 9 Alloy 2014-T6 closed-die forging, solution
heat treated at 500 °C (935 °F) for 2 h and heat treated, then aged at 170 °C (340 °F) for
quenched in water at 60 to 70 °C (140 to 160 °F). 10 h. Longitudinal section. Fragmented grain structure
Longitudinal section. Structure contains particles of contains particles of CuAl2 (white, outlined) and in-
CuAl2 (white, outlined) and insoluble (Fe,Mn)3SiAl12 soluble (Fe,Mn)2SiAl12 (dark), but very fine particles of
(dark). Keller’s reagent. 100⫻ CuAl2 have precipitated in the matrix. Keller’s reagent.
100⫻
124 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 10 Alloy 2014-T6 closed-die forging, over- Fig. 11 Alloy 2014-T61 closed-die forging. Blister
on surface is associated with hydrogen po-
aged. Solution heat treatment was suffi- rosity. As-polished. 50⫻
cient, but specimen was overaged. Fragmented grain
structure contains particles of CuAl2 (white, outlined)
and insoluble (Fe,Mn)2SiAl12 (dark), but more CuAl2 has
precipitated. Note lack of grain contrast. Keller’s re-
agent. 100⫻

Fig. 12 Alloy 2024-O plate, 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick, Fig. 13 Alloy 2024-O sheet. Structure consists of
light gray particles of insoluble (Cu,Fe,
hot rolled and annealed. Longitudinal sec-
tion. Elongated recrystallized grains and unrecrystallized Mn)Al6 and fine particles of CuMgAl2 that precipitated
stringers resulting from polygonization that occurred during annealing. 25% HNO3. 500⫻
during the hot water working. KMnO4, Na2CO3. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 125

Fig. 14 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet, solution heat treated


at 495 °C (920 °F) and quenched in cold
Fig. 15 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet, solution heat treated
at 495 °C (920 °F) and quenched in boiling
water. Longitudinal section. Dark particles are CuMgAl2, water. The lower quenching rate resulted in precipita-
Cu2MnAl20, and Cu2FeAl7. See also Fig. 15. Keller’s tion of CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries. Keller’s reagent.
reagent. 500⫻ 500⫻

Fig. 16 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet, solution heat treated Fig. 17 Alloy 2024-T3 sheet, solution heat treated
at 495 °C (920 °F) and cooled in still air.
at 495 °C (920 °F) and cooled in an air
blast. The lower cooling rate resulted in increased The slow cooling resulted in intragranular and grain-
precipitation of CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries. Keller’s boundary precipitation of CuMgAl2. Keller’s reagent.
reagent. 500⫻ 500⫻
126 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 18 Alloy 2024-T3 alclad, sheet clad with alloy


1230 (5% per side), solution heat treated.
Normal amount of copper and magnesium diffusion
Fig. 19 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet, 6.4 mm (0.24 in.)
thick (reduced from 406 mm, or 16 in.,
from base metal into cladding (top). Keller’s reagent. thick ingot), stretched 2%. Longitudinal section. Note
100⫻ absence of strain lines in structure. See also Fig. 20 and
21. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 20 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet, 6.4 mm (0.24 in.)


thick (reduced from 406 mm, or 16 in.,
Fig. 21 Alloy 2024-T6 sheet, 6.4 mm (0.24 in.)
thick (reduced from 406 mm, or 16 in.,
thick ingot), stretched 6%. Longitudinal section. Some thick ingot), stretched 20%. Longitudinal section. Many
faint strain lines have formed. See also Fig. 21. Keller’s strain lines have formed. See also Fig. 20. Keller’s
reagent. 100⫻ reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 127

Fig. 22 thick,
Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.)
cold rolled, solution heat treated,
Fig. 23 thick,Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.)
cold rolled, solution heat treated,
stretched, and artificially aged. Section was taken in the stretched, and artificially aged. Longitudinal section
rolling plane (long transverse) from an area near the showing the edge view of an area near the surface of the
surface showing elongated grains. Keller’s reagent. plate. Grains are flattened and elongated in the direction
200⫻ of rolling. See also Fig. 24. 200⫻

Fig. 24 Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.)


thick, cold rolled, solution heat treated,
stretched, and artificially aged. A short transverse section
showing the end view of an area near the surface of the
plate. Grains are flattened but are not as elongated as
grains in Fig. 23. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻
Fig. 25 Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.)
thick, cold rolled, solution heat treated,
stretched, and artificially aged. Section was taken in the
rolling plane (long transverse) from the center of the
plate thickness, which received less cold working than
the surface. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻
128 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 26 Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.) thick, Fig. 27 Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 150 mm (6 in.) thick,
cold rolled, solution heat treated, stretched, cold rolled, solution heat treated, stretched,
and artificially aged. Specimen was taken from the center of and artificially aged. A short transverse section showing the
the plate thickness. There is less flattening and elongation of end view of an area from the center of the plate thickness.
the grains. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻ Less cold working resulted in less deformation. Keller’s
reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 28 Alloy 2024-T851 plate, 100 mm (4 in.) thick, Fig. 29 Alloy 2025-T6 closed-die forging, solution
hot rolled, solution heat treated, stretched, and heat treated and artificially aged. Longitudinal
artificially aged. Fragmented grain structure, one small section. Complete recrystallization resulted from high re-
recrystallized grain. High rolling temperature limited strain sidual strain in the forging before solution treatment. See
and recrystallization. 10% H3PO4. 500⫻ also Fig. 30. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 30 Alloy 2025-T6 closed-die forging, solution


heat treated and artificially aged. Longitudinal
section. Worked structure is only partly recrystallized. In-
complete recrystallization occurred because forging had
lower residual strain before solution heat treatment than in
Fig. 29. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 129

(a) (b)

Fig. 31 Alloy 2090, plate and sheet. Crystallized microstructures. (a) 45 mm


(1.75 in.) thick 2090 plate. (b) 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) thick 2090 sheet.

Fig. 32 Alloy 2117-T4 rivet, cold upset, solution


heat treated at 500 °C (935 °F) for 35 min, Fig. 33 Alloy 2218-T61 closed-die forging, solu-
quenched in water at 25 °C (75 °F) max. The small tion heat treated and artificially aged. Fine,
recrystallized grains are in the rivet head, and the large recrystallized structure. The dark particles of insoluble
grains are in the shank. Keller’s reagent. 60⫻ FeNiAl9 phase show banding, which resulted from the
working during forging. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
130 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 34 Alloy 2219-T6 closed-die forging solution Fig. 35 Alloy 2219-T6 closed-die forging solution
heat treated and artificially aged. Longitu- heat treated and artificially aged. Longitu-
dinal section. Worked structure contains some recrystal- dinal section shows no recrystallization of the worked
lized grains. See Fig. 35 for a totally unrecrystallized structure. Note the large amount of slip (light parallel
structure. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻ lines) that has occurred on two sets of slip planes.
Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 36 Alloy 2618-T4 closed-die forging, solution Fig. 37 Alloy 2618-T4 forging, solution heat
heat treated at 530 °C (985 °F) for 2 h, treated at 530 °C (985 °F) for 2 h and
quenched in boiling water. Small particles of CuMgAl2 cooled in still air. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipi-
precipitated at grain boundaries; larger particles are tated at grain boundaries; larger particles are insoluble
insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. 0.5% HF. 500⫻ FeNiAl9 phase. Slower cooling resulted in an increase of
CuMgAl2 at grain boundaries and within grains. 0.5%
HF. 500⫻

Fig. 38 Alloy 2618-T61 forging, solution heat Fig. 39 Alloy 2618-T61 forging, solution heat
treated, quenched in boiling water, aged at treated, cooled in still air, aged at 200 °C
200 °C (390 °F) for 20 h, stabilized at 230 °C (450 °F) for (390 °F) for 20 h, stabilized at 230 °C (450 °F) for 7 h.
7 h. Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain Small particles of CuMgAl2 precipitated at grain bound-
boundaries; larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase. aries; larger particles are insoluble FeNiAl9 phase.
CuMgAl2 also has precipitated in grains. 0.5% HF. 500⫻ CuMgAl2 also has precipitated in grains. Note increase
in precipitation and alloy depletion near light grain
boundaries. 0.5% HF. 500⫻
Representative Micrographs / 131

(a) (b)

(c)

Fig. 40 Alloy 3003 as-cast. (a) Structure of a DC cast rolling ingot. Angular precipitates of the aluminum-
manganese-iron phase in the cast grains and at the grain boundaries. 860⫻. (b) Structure of a DC cast
rolling ingot heat-treated 72 h at 600 °C (1112 °F) then quenched. Through diffusion processes the precipitates have
grown and rounded off (spheroidized). 800⫻. (c) Structure of a DC cast rolling ingot heat-treated 6 h at 600 °C (1112
°F), then furnace cooled for 15 h to 450 °C (842 °F). A fine AlMnFe precipitate originated from the supersaturated
solid solution due to the slow cooling. At the same time, the precipitates from the cast structure spheroidized, less
than in (b) due to the shorter heat treatment. 860⫻

Fig. 41 Alloy 3003-F hot rolled. Longitudinal section Fig. 42 Alloy 3003-O sheet, annealed. Longitudinal
section shows recrystallized grains. Grain
shows stringer of oxide from an inclusion in the
cast ingot and particles of phases that contain manganese, elongation indicates rolling direction, but not the crystallo-
both primary (large, angular) and eutectic (small). As- graphic orientation within each grain. Polarized light. Bark-
polished. 500⫻ er’s reagent. 100⫻
132 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 43 Alloy 3003-O sheet, annealed. Higher magni-


fication of the longitudinal section shows re-
crystallized grains. Grain elongation indicates rolling direc-
tion, but not the crystallographic orientation within each
grain. Dispersion of insoluble particles of (Fe,Mn)Al6 (large)
and aluminum-manganese-silicon (both large and small)
was not changed by annealing. 0.5% HF. 750⫻

Fig. 44 Alloy 5083 plate, cold rolled. The coarse, gray Fig. 45 Alloy 5083-H112 plate, cold rolled. Longitudi-
nal section shows particles of primary MnAl6
areas are particles of insoluble (Fe,Mn)3Al12;
adjacent black areas are voids caused by breakup of the (gray, outlined). Small, dark areas may be particles of
brittle (Fe,Mn)3Al12 particles during cold rolling. Separate insoluble phases, such as phases that contain magnesium
black areas may be insoluble particles of Mg2Si. As-pol- (for example, Mg2Si) or that contain manganese. Keller’s
ished. 500⫻ reagent. 50⫻
Representative Micrographs / 133

Fig. 46 Alloy 5083, plate. Development of microstructures during hot


rolling at 315 °C (600 °F)
134 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 47 Alloy 5086-H34 plate, 13 mm (0.5 in.)


thick, cold rolled and stabilized at 120 to
175 °C (250 to 350 °F) to prevent age softening. Fig. 48 Alloy 5454, hot-rolled slab, longitudinal
section. Oxide stringer from an inclusion in
Undesirable continuous network of Mg2Al3 particles the cast ingot. The structure also shows some particles of
precipitated at grain boundaries; large particles are (Fe,Mn)Al6 (light gray). As-polished. 500⫻
insoluble phases. See also Fig. 50. 25% HNO3. 250⫻

Fig. 49 Alloy 5456 plate, hot rolled. Longitudinal


section. Polarized light. Partial recrystalli-
Fig. 50 Alloy 5456 plate, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) thick,
cold rolled and stress relieved below the
zation occurred immediately after hot rolling from re- solvus at 245 °F (475 °F) . Particles are (Fe,Mn)Al6 (gray),
sidual heat. This type of recrystallization is frequently Mg2Si (black), and Mg2Al3 (fine precipitate). In contrast
referred to as “dynamic recrystallization.” Barker’s re- to Fig. 47, there is no continuous network of precipitate
agent. 100⫻ at grain boundaries. 25% HNO3. 500⫻
Representative Micrographs / 135

Fig. 51 hot Alloy 5456-O plate, 13 mm (0.5 in.) thick,


rolled and annealed above the solvus.
Rapid cooling resulted in retention of Mg2Al3 in solid Fig. 52 Alloy 5457-F extrusion. A transverse sec-
tion, photographed with polarized light.
solution. The light, outlined particles are insoluble
(Fe,Mn)Al6; the dark particles are insoluble Mg2Si. 25% Surface grains (top) show random reflection, indicating
HNO3. 500⫻ random crystallographic orientation; interior grains
show uniform reflection, indicating a high degree of
preferred orientation. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 53 Alloy 5457-F plate, 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) thick, Fig. 54 Alloy 5457-O plate, 10 mm (0.4 in.) thick,
hot rolled. Fine particles of Mg2Si precipi- longitudinal section. Annealed at 345 °C
tated during the rolling. If carried through to final sheet, (650 °F). Polarized light. The grains are equiaxed. See
this amount of precipitate would cause an objectionable also Fig. 55–57. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻
milky appearance in a subsequently applied anodic
coating. 0.5% HF. 500⫻
Fig. 55 Alloy 5457-O plate, originally 10 mm (0.4 in.) Fig. 56 Alloy 5457-O plate, originally 10 mm (0.4 in.)
thick, annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). Effect of thick, annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). Effect of
cold rolling. Polarized light. See Fig. 56 for annealed cold rolling. Polarized light. See Fig. 54 for annealed
structure. 10% reduction. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻ structure. 40% reduction. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 57 Alloy 5457-O plate, originally 10 mm (0.4 in.)


thick, annealed at 345 °C (650 °F). Effect of
cold rolling. Polarized light. See Fig. 54 for annealed
structure. 80% reduction. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 58 Alloy 5657 ingot. Dendritic segregation (cor-


ing) of titanium. Black spots are etch pits.
Anodized coating from Barker’s reagent was stripped with
10% H3PO4 at 80 °C (180 °F). 200⫻

Fig. 59 Alloy 5657-F sheet, cold rolled (85% reduc- Fig. 60 Alloy 5657-F sheet, cold rolled (85% reduc-
tion). Longitudinal section. Polarized light. tion). Stress relieved at 300 °C (575 °F) for 1 h.
Grains are greatly elongated and contribute to high strength, Polarized light. Structure shows onset of recrystallization,
but ductility is lower than for specimen in Fig. 61. Barker’s which improves formability. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻
reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 137

Fig. 61 Alloy 5657-F sheet, cold rolled (85% re-


duction). Annealed at 315 °C (600 °F) for 1
Fig. 62 segregation
Alloy 5657 sheet. Banding from dendritic
(coring) of titanium in the ingot
h. Polarized light. Recrystallized grains and bands of (see Fig. 58). Anodized coating from Barker’s reagent
unrecrystallized grains. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻ was stripped with 10% H3PO4 at 80 °C (180 °F). 200⫻

Fig. 63 Alloy 6061-F plate, 38 mm (1.5 in.) thick, Fig. 64 Alloy 6061-F plate, 38 mm (1.5 in.) thick,
as hot rolled (91% reduction). Longitudinal
as hot rolled (91% reduction). Longitudinal
section from center of plate thickness. Particles are section from near plate surface. Particles of Fe3SiAl12
Fe3SiAl12 (gray, scriptlike) and Mg2Si (black) See also and Mg2Si are more broken up and uniformly distributed
Fig. 64 and 65. 0.5% HF. 250⫻ than in Fig. 63 (midthickness). See also Fig. 65. 0.5% HF.
250⫻
138 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 65 Alloy 6061-F 6.4 mm (0.25 in.) sheet, hot


rolled (reduced 98%); midthickness longitudi-
nal section Fe3SiAl12 particles more broken and dispersed
than in Fig. 64. Most Mg2Si will dissolve during solution
treating. 0.5% HF. 250⫻

Fig. 66 Alloy 6063-T5 extrusion. Transverse section.


Grains at surface of extrusion have recrystal-
lized because of more working and heating. Grains in the
interior of the extrusion are unrecrystallized. Tucker’s re-
agent. Actual size

Fig. 67 Alloy 6063 as-cast. Cross section. Annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and
slow cooled. Precipitation of fine Mg2Si particles within the grains
and coarser Mg2Si phases along the grain boundaries. H2SO4 ⫹ HF. 200⫻
Representative Micrographs / 139

Fig. 68 Alloy 6063 extrusion. Longitudinal section. Cooled with agitated air.
Metastable, oversaturated mixed crystal and primary phases aligned
along the direction of the deformation. H2SO4 ⫹ HF. 200⫻

Fig. 69 Alloy 6063 extrusion, artificially aged, air cooled. Cross section
showing coherent fine precipitates and primary phases in the grains
and coarser precipitates on the grain boundaries. H2SO4 ⫹ HF. 200⫻
140 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 70 Alloy 6063, continuous casting. Cross section. Alloy segregation


(coring) with areas of leftover molten material at the grain bound-
aries. Barker’s reagent. 50⫻

Fig. 71 Alloy 6063-T4, annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and water quenched.
Cross section showing substantial removal of segregation and
absorption of the cast phases. Barker’s reagent. 50⫻
Representative Micrographs / 141

Fig. 72 Alloy 6063-T6, annealed at 580 °C (1076 °F) and air cooled. Cross
section showing precipitation of fine Mg2Si particles within the
grains and cast phases along the grain boundaries. H2SO4 ⫹ HF. 200⫻

Fig. 73 Alloy 6151-T6 closed-die forging showing Fig. 74 Alloy 6351-T6 extruded tube, 1.5 mm (0.06
large particles of Mg2Si (rounded) and in.) wall. Longitudinal section. Polarized
(Fe,Mn)3SiAl12 (angular or scriptlike) and a fine, banded light. Coarse, recrystallized grains at top are near sur-
dispersion of extremely small particles of a chromium face; polygonized subgrains are in unrecrystallized in-
intermetallic phase. Keller’s reagent. 250⫻ terior. Barker’s reagent. 100⫻
142 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 76 Alloy 7039 ingot 305 mm (12 in.) thick.


Fig. 75 Alloy 7039 ingot 305 mm (12 in.) thick. Dendritic cells are more evident than in
Polarized light. Structure shows equiaxed Fig. 75 because of the higher magnification and the
grains with interdendritic areas of Mg2Si and Fe3-SiAl12. etchant used. Dendritic cells also show precipitate
See also Fig. 76. Barker’s reagent. 50⫻ formed during homogenization. 10% H3PO4. 100⫻

Fig. 77 Alloy 7039-F plate, 150 mm (6 in.) thick, as


hot rolled (50% reduction). Polarized light.
Fig. 78 Alloy 7039-F plate, 50 mm (2 in.) thick, as
hot rolled (83% reduction). Polarized light.
Grains are elongated and thinned by working. See also Grains are greatly elongated and thinned. See also Fig.
Fig. 78. Barker’s reagent. 50⫻ 79. Barker’s reagent. 50⫻
Representative Micrographs / 143

Fig. 79 Alloy 7039-F plate, 150 mm (6 in.) thick, as


hot rolled (50% reduction). Dendritic cells
Fig. 80 Alloy 7039-F plate, 50 mm (2 in.) thick, as
hot rolled (83% reduction). Dendritic cells
are elongated and thinned by working. See also Fig. 77. are elongated and thinned by working. See also Fig. 78.
10% H3PO4. 100⫻ 10% H3PO4. 100⫻

Fig. 81 Alloy 7075-O sheet, annealed. The fine Fig. 82 Alloy 7075-O sheet, annealed, cooled
particles of MgZn2 (dark) were precipitated more slowly from annealing temperature
at lower temperatures during heating to or cooling from than specimen in Fig. 81. The fine particles of MgZn2
the annealing temperature. The insoluble particles of (dark) were precipitated at lower temperatures during
FeAl3 (light gray, outlined) were not affected by the heating to or cooling from the annealing temperature.
annealing treatment. See also Fig. 82. 25% HNO3. The soluble particles of FeAl3 (light gray) were not
500⫻ affected by the annealing treatment. Platelets of MgZn2
precipitated at grain boundaries during slow cooling.
25% HNO3. 500⫻
144 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 83 Alloy 7075-T6 sheet clad with 0.07 mm


(0.0027 in.) of alloy 7072 for 1.6 mm
(0.064 in.) total thickness. Particles in cladding (top) are
Fe3SiAl12; those in core are Cr2Mg3Al18 and (Fe,Mn)Al6.
Keller’s reagent. 350⫻

Fig. 84 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Parting-plane frac-


ture in a forging that contained a bushing in
a machined hole. Fracture was caused by excessive
assembly stress. See also Fig. 87 and 88. Keller’s reagent.
1.5⫻

Fig. 85 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Detail of parting- Fig. 86 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Fracture surface of
plane fracture in Fig. 84. The fracture parting-plane fracture in Fig. 84 (machined
started at the machined hole and progressed parallel to hole at bottom). Woody, brittle fracture pattern is typical
the flaw lines of the forging. See also Fig. 88. Keller’s of parting-plane fracture in this alloy. Not polished, not
reagent. 8⫻ etched. 4⫻
Representative Micrographs / 145

Fig. 87 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Fold, or lap, at a machined fillet in a forging.


Defect was continuous before machining. See also Fig. 88 for details
of a small area of the portion of the defect at lower right. Keller’s reagent. 8⫻

Fig. 88 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Enlarged view of an area of the fold, or lap,
at lower right in Fig. 87. Defect contains nonmetallic particles,
oxides, and voids, which prevented it from welding, or healing, during forging.
Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 89 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Surface appearance of a lap (at trough,


center). Forging flow lines bend in the vicinity of the lap, indicating
that the defect occurred during forging. See also Fig. 90. Not polished, not
etched. 10⫻
146 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 90 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Section through the forging lap shown in surface view in
Fig. 89. The trough at the surface is at the left. The grains near the lap are deformed,
which indicates that the defect occurred during forging. Keller’s reagent. 500⫻

Fig. 91 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Band of shrinkage cavities and internal cracks. The cracks
developed from the cavities, which were produced during solidification of the
ingot and which remained during forging because of inadequate cropping. See Fig. 93 and 94
for higher magnification view of this defect. Keller’s reagent. 9⫻

Fig. 92 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Fractured lug. Arrows illustrate sites at machined hole
where stress-corrosion cracks originated because of stress acting across the short
transverse grain direction. See also Fig. 94. Keller’s reagent. 2.75⫻
Representative Micrographs / 147

Fig. 93 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Area of the forging in Fig. 91 that contains
rows of unhealed shrinkage cavities (black) shown at higher mag-
nification. No cracks have developed from the cavities in this particular area. See
Fig. 95 for view of cracked area. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 94 fractured
Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Higher magnification view of area of the
lug in Fig. 92 that contains intergranular cracks caused by
stress corrosion, which resulted when assembly of a pin in the machined hole
produced excessive residual hoop stress in the lug. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 95 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Area of the forging in Fig. 91 that contains
intergranular and connecting transgranular cracks shown at a higher
magnification. The cracks developed from shrinkage cavities. See also Fig. 93.
Keller’s reagent. 200⫻
148 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 96 Alloy 7075-T6 forging. Brittle surfaces in a tension-test specimen


machined from an alloy 7075-T6 forging that contained a defect of
the type shown in Fig. 91 (shrinkage cavities and internal cracks). Not polished,
not etched. 3⫻

Fig. 97 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Fracture in an extrusion, showing segre-


gation of chromium particles (light gray, fractured). Segregation
originated in the ingot and persisted through to the final product. Keller’s reagent.
200⫻
Representative Micrographs / 149

Fig. 98 dross Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Fracture showing a spongy inclusion of


(center) and some segregation of chromium particles (left) at
fracture surface, both of which originated in the ingot. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 99 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Pitting-type corrosion (dark area) in the


surface of an aircraft wing plank machined from an extrusion.
Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 100 Alloy 7075-T6 plate. Intergranular corrosion. Grain boundaries


were attacked, causing the grains to separate. Keller’s reagent.
200⫻
150 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 101 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Exfoliation-type corrosion. Rapid attack


was parallel to the surface of the extrusion and along the grain
boundaries or along striations within elongated grains. See also Fig. 102. Keller’s
reagent. 20⫻

Fig. 102 Alloy 7075-T6 extrusion. Higher magnification view of Fig. 101
(rotated 90°), showing how the corrosion product caused the
uncorroded, recrystallized skin of the extrusion to split away, resulting in a leafing
action. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻
Representative Micrographs / 151

Fig. 103 Alloy 7075-T6 alclad sheet. Typical duc-


tile fracture, showing the deformed grains
Fig. 104 Alloy 7075-T6 alclad sheet. Brittle frac-
ture in overheated alclad sheet, caused
and necking at the fracture. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻ by solid-solution melting at the grain boundaries.
Keller’s reagent. 200⫻

Fig. 106 Alloy 7075-T6 sheet. Surface fretting


(dark gray) on 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) thick
sheet that was fayed to a 4130 steel strap in a fatigue test.
Fig. 105 Alloy 7075-T6 extruded bar. Typical
Fretting corrosion product is Al2O3. Keller’s reagent.
branched intergranular stress corrosion
cracks. Transverse section. Keller’s reagent. 200⫻ 1050⫻
(a) (b)

Fig. 107 Alloy 7075-T652 forging, showing the effect of saturation peening. (a) Longitudinal section. (b)
Transverse section. The forging was peened with S230 cast steel shot to an Almen-gage intensity
of 0.006 to 0.008 A. The surface of the sheet (at top) shows deformation and roughening. Keller’s reagent. 150⫻

Fig. 108 Alloy 7075-T7352 forging, solution heat Fig. 109 Alloy 7075-T7352 forging, solution heat
treated, cold reduced, and artificially aged. treated, cold reduced, and artificially aged.
Particles are insoluble (Fe,Mn)Al6 (dark gray). Some unre- Eutectic melting temperature was exceeded during solution
solved Mg2Si may be present. This is a normal structure. See heat treatment. Fusion voids (black areas) and agglomera-
also Fig. 109. Keller’s reagent. 250⫻ tion of insoluble phases (dark gray). Keller’s reagent. 250⫻

Fig. 110 Alloy 7178-T76 sheet, 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) Fig. 111 Alloy 7178-T76 sheet, 3.1 mm (0.125 in.)
thick, exposed in a test chamber containing a thick, clad with 0.127 mm (0.005 in.) of alloy
fog of 5% NaCl for two weeks. Note exfoliation of the sheet. 7072 (3.2 mm, or 0.125 in., total thickness). Sacrificial
See also Fig. 111. Keller’s reagent. 75⫻ corrosion of cladding prevented exfoliation of sheet during
testing. Keller’s reagent. 75⫻
Representative Micrographs / 153

Welded Wrought Aluminum Alloys

Fig. 112 Pressure weld (cold) in alloy 2014-T6 bar.


The flow lines of the joint show the Fig. 113 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with
movement of metal toward the edge of the bar during alloy 1230. Core of alclad sheet used in
weld upsetting. 0.5% HF. 150⫻ resistance spot weld shown in Fig. 114. The dark
particles are CuMgAl2, Cu2MnAl20, and Cu2FeAl7; light
particles, CuAl2. See also Fig. 115–118. Keller’s reagent.
500⫻

Fig. 114 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. Resistance spot
weld. Oval nugget has zone of columnar grains, surrounding
equiaxed grains. See also Fig. 115–118. Tucker’s reagent. 10⫻
154 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 115 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy 1230. Inner zone of
nugget of the resistance spot weld shown in Fig. 114. The structure
consists of small equiaxed grains. This inner zone is surrounded by an outer zone
that consists of columnar grains. See also Fig. 116. Keller’s reagent. 500⫻

Fig. 116 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with alloy Fig. 117 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with
1230. Outer zone of nugget of the weld alloy 1230. Transition zone of the weld in
shown in Fig. 114. Columnar grains are normal to the edge Fig. 114 showing eutectic segregation⫺depletion (light
of the nugget. See also Fig. 115, which shows inner zone of band) at edge of nugget and concentration (dark band) in
nugget. Keller’s reagent. 550⫻ the base metal. Keller’s reagent. 550⫻

Fig. 118 Weld in alloy 2024-T4 sheet clad with Fig. 119 Parent metal alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Struc-
alloy 1230. Outer zone of nugget (at ture of 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) thick sheet
interface) of resistance spot weld made in alclad sheets. used for the weld shown in Fig. 120 and 121. Longitu-
Unfused cladding (right) projects into the weld nugget. dinal section. Elongated grains of solid solution with
See also Fig. 114. Keller’s reagent. 550⫻ particles of CuAl2 (light) and (Fe,Mn)3SiAl12 (dark)
Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 155

Fig. 120 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt joint.
Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. See also Fig. 122. Keller’s reagent. 10⫻

Fig. 121 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Electron beam weld in a butt joint.
Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. See also Fig. 123. Keller’s reagent. 10⫻
156 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 122 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Gas tungsten arc weld in a butt
joint. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. Edge of the fusion zone of the gas
tungsten arc weld shown in Fig. 120. The base metal is on the left. See also Fig.
123. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 123 Weld in alloy 2219-T37 sheet. Alloy ER 2319 filler metal. Edge of
the fusion zone of the electron beam weld shown in Fig. 121. The
base metal is on the left. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 157

Fig. 124 Parent metal alloy 5052-O sheet, 10 mm


(0.40 in.) thick, used for weld shown in
Fig. 125–127. Structure shows particles of CrAl7 (coarse Fig. 125 Welded alloy 5052-O sheet, 10 mm (0.40
in.) thick. Weld bead (See also Fig. 126) is
black). Rounded, outlined areas are pits, where etchant
removed Mg2Si. Keller’s reagent. 500⫻ to the right. Structure equiaxed dendrites of aluminum
with much Mg2Al3 precipitate near dendrite boundaries
forming the dark band in Fig. 127. Keller’s reagent.
500⫻

Fig. 126 Welded alloy 5052-O sheet, 10 mm (0.40 Fig. 127 Weld in alloy 5052-O sheet, 10 mm (0.40
in.) thick. Bead of weld shown in Fig. in.) thick. Gas tungsten arc fillet weld.
127. Filler metal was alloy ER 5356. The structure Filler metal was alloy ER 5356. See also Fig. 124–126.
consists of equiaxed dendrites of aluminum with a fine Tucker’s reagent. 15⫻
precipitate of Mg2Al3 (dark) in the dendrites and at
dendrite boundaries. Keller’s reagent. 500⫻
158 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 128 Weld in alloy 5456-H321 plate, 25 mm (1 in.) thick. Electron beam weld in a butt joint. No filler
metal was used. See Fig. 129 for details of the edge of the fusion zone. Keller’s reagent. 10⫻

Fig. 129 Weld in alloy 5456-H321 plate, 25 mm (1 in.) thick. Edge of fusion
zone (base metal is at bottom) of the electron beam weld in Fig.
128. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 130 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet, 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) thick. Gas
tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. Alternating current and ER 4043
filler metal were used. Note the extent of the heat-affected zone. See also Fig. 131
and 138. Keller’s reagent. 5.5⫻
Representative Micrographs / 159

Fig. 131 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. Structure of


1.6 mm (0.063 in.) thick sheet used in
making the weld shown in Fig. 130. The microstructure
is the same as Fig. 136 but contains more Mg2Si. See Fig.
138 for structure of edge of fusion zone. Keller’s reagent.
100⫻
Fig. 132 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet. Electron
beam weld in a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) thick
sheet. No filler metal was used. See Fig. 133 and 134 for
details of the edge of the fusion zone. Keller’s reagent.
10⫻

Fig. 134 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet, 3.2 mm


(0.125 in.) thick, shown at a higher mag-
Fig. 133 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 sheet, 3.2 mm
nification than Fig. 133. Particles of Mg2Si (black) and
(0.125 in.) thick. Edge of the fusion zone
(base metal is at left) of the electron beam weld in Fig. Fe3SiAl12 (gray) in base metal (left) and interdendritic
132. Note abrupt change from structure of base metal to Al-Mg2Si eutectic in weld metal. Keller’s reagent. 500⫻
that of weld bead. See also Fig. 134. Keller’s reagent.
100⫻
Fig. 135 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 plate, 6.4 mm (0.250 in.) thick. Gas
tungsten arc weld in a butt joint. Alternating current and ER 4043
filler metal were used. See also Fig. 136 and 137 for other views of the weld.
Keller’s reagent. 5.5⫻

Fig. 136 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 plate. Structure of Fig. 137 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. Edge of
6.4 mm (0.250 in.) thick plate used in fusion zone of a weld made in 6.4 mm
making the weld shown in Fig. 135. Elongated grains of (0.250 in.) thick plate, using alternating current. Inter-
aluminum solid solution contain particles of Mg2Si dendritic network of aluminum-silicon eutectic (dark) in
(black). See also Fig. 131. Keller’s reagent 100⫻ weld beam (right), dark band of Al-Mg2Si eutectic in the
heat-affected zone. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 138 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. Edge of Fig. 139 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. Edge of
fusion zone of a weld made in 1.6 mm fusion zone of a weld made in 6.4 mm
(0.063 in.) thick plate, using alternating current. The (0.250 in.) thick sheet, using straight-polarity direct
base metal is located on the left, and weld bead is current. Dark band of Al-Mg2Si eutectic in heat-affected
located on the right. The structure is the same as that in zone, next to weld beam (right), is narrower and more
Fig. 137, but some porosity (large, black areas) is pronounced than in Fig. 137 (weld made with alternat-
evident. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻ ing current). Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 161

Fig. 140 Welded alloy 6061-T6 plate. Edge of fusion zone of a weld made
in 1.6 mm (0.063 in.) thick plate using straight-polarity direct
current. The microstructure is the same as for the 6.4 mm (0.250 in) thick plate
in Fig. 139, but the amount of interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic in the
weld bead is greater. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 141 Parent metal alloy 6061-T6 extruded Fig. 142 Weld in alloy 6061-T6 extruded tube.
Gas tungsten arc fillet weld joining a
tube. Structure of the extruded tube (ex-
trusion direction vertical) used for the weld shown in 6061-T6 tube (upper left) and an A356-T6 investment
Fig. 142. Black dots are Mg2Si particles. Keller’s reagent. casting; ER 4043 filler metal. Keller’s reagent. 15⫻
50⫻
Fig. 143 Weld in alloy 7039-T63 plate, 25 mm (1 in.) thick. Electron beam weld in a butt joint of alloy.
No filler metal was used. See Fig. 144 for details of the edge of the fusion zone. Keller’s reagent.
10⫻

Fig. 144 Weld in alloy 7039-T63 plate, 25 mm (1 in.) thick. Edge of fusion zone (base metal is at bottom)
of the electron beam weld in Fig. 143. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Brazed Joints

Fig. 145 Brazed joint in alloy 6063-O sheet, made Fig. 146 Brazed joint in alloy 6063-O sheet.
with 4047 (BAIS-4) filler metal. See Fig. Smaller fillet of brazed joint shown in Fig.
146 for details of structure of the smaller fillet. As- 145. Structure consists of dendrites of aluminum solid
polished. 5⫻ solution (light gray) and aluminum-silicon eutectic ma-
trix (dark). As-polished. 50⫻
Representative Micrographs / 163

Fig. 147 Brazed joint in alloy 7004-O sheet. Brazed joint between alloy
7004-O sheets, made with alloy 4245 filler metal. See Fig. 148 for
details of the microstructure of the larger fillet. As-polished. 5⫻

Fig. 148 Brazed joint in alloy 7006-O sheet. Fig. 149 Brazed joint in alloy 3003 brazing sheets
Larger fillet of brazed joint shown in Fig. (clad on both sides with alloy 4343 filler
147. Structure consists of dendrites of aluminum solid metal). Brazed joint in 12-O brazing sheets. Fillets show
solution (light), matrix of aluminum-silicon eutectic dendrites of solid solution (light) in aluminum-silicon
(mottled), and particles of primary silicon (dark). As- eutectic matrix. 0.5% HF. 30⫻
polished. 50⫻
164 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Cast Aluminum Alloys

Fig. 150 Alloy 201.0-F, as premium quality cast. Fig. 151 Alloy 201.0-T7, premium quality cast,
Structure consists of an interdendritic net- solution heat treated and stabilized.
work of undissolved eutectic CuAl2 (gray, outlined); Structure is a fine precipitate of CuAl2 in grains and at
some shrinkage cavities (black). See Fig. 151 and 152 for grain boundaries; no undissolved eutectic CuAl2; some
the effect of solution heat treatment and stabilization. shrinkage cavities (black). See Fig. 152 for structure at
0.5% HF. 100⫻ higher magnification. 0.5% HF. 100⫻

Fig. 153 Alloy 222.0-T61, sand cast, solution heat


treated, and artificially aged. The struc-
Fig. 152 Alloy 201.0-T7, premium quality cast, ture consists of an interdendritic network of rounded
solution heat treated, and stabilized. CuAl2 containing blades of Cu2FeAl7 and some
Higher magnification view of Fig. 151 showing pattern Fe3SiAl12 (dark-gray script). 0.5% HF. 250⫻
of CuAl2 precipitate that resulted from segregation of
copper (coring). Note that the presence of silver in the
alloy has resulted in some agglomeration of the precipi-
tate. See also Fig. 156. 0.5% HF. 500⫻
Representative Micrographs / 165

Fig. 154 Alloy 224.0-F, as premium quality cast.


The structure consists of an interdentritic
Fig. 155 Alloy 224.0-T7, as premium quality cast,
solution heat treated, and stabilized.
network of undissolved eutectic CuAl2 (gray, outlined). Structure: fine CuAl2 precipitate; almost all of the eutec-
See Fig. 155 and 156 for the effect of heat treatment on tic CuAl2 present in Fig. 154 has been dissolved. See
the structure. 0.5% HF. 100⫻ also higher magnification view in Fig. 156. 0.5% HF.
100⫻

Fig. 157 Alloy 238.0-F, as permanent mold cast.


The structure consists of an interdendritic
network of rounded CuAl2 (light gray) containing blades
Fig. 156 Alloy 224.0-T7, premium quality cast, of Cu2FeAl7 (medium gray) and some particles of silicon
solution heat treated, and stabilized. En- (dark gray). 0.5% HF. 500⫻
larged view of structure in Fig. 155 showing a fairly even
pattern of very fine particles of CuAl2 precipitates in the
aluminum grains and slightly larger particles of the
precipitate at grain boundaries. 0.5% HF. 500⫻
166 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 158 Alloy 240.0-F, as investment cast. The


microstructure contains large shrinkage
voids (black), an interdendritic network of Al-Cu-Mg Fig. 159 Alloy 308.0-F, as permanent mold cast.
eutectic (mottled), and some interdendritic particles of Structure consists of an interdendritic net-
CuMgAl2 (gray). As-polished. 50⫻ work of silicon particles (dark gray, angular) and
rounded particles of CuAl2 (light gray) that contain
blades of Fe2Si2Al9. 0.5% HF. 250⫻

Fig. 160 Alloy 319.0-F, as permanent mold cast. Fig. 161 Alloy 319.0-T6, permanent solid cast,
Dendrites of aluminum solid solution solution heat treated, and artificially
show segregation (coring). Other constituents are inter- aged. Segregation in dendrites of solid solution was
dendritic network of silicon (dark gray) rounded CuAl2 eliminated by diffusion, and CuAl2 was dissolved during
and (Fe,Mn)3SiAl12 script. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻ solution heat treating. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 167

Fig. 162 Alloy 356.0-F as investment cast with Fig. 163 Alloy 356.0-T51, sand cast, artificially
sodium-modified ingot. Al2O3 inclusions. aged. The angular, dark-gray constituent
Light-gray interdendritic network consists of particles of is silicon. Black script is Mg2Si. Blades are Fe2Si2Al9.
silicon. As-polished. 50⫻ Light script is FeMg3Si6Al8. 0.5% HF. 250⫻

Fig. 164 Alloy 356.0-T6. Hydrogen porosity


Fig. 165 dition,
Alloy 356.0-T7, modified by sodium ad-
(black) in a 356-T6 permanent mold cast- sand cast, solution heat treated,
ing that had been solution heat treated and artificially and stabilized. Structure: rounded particles of silicon
aged. 0.5% HF. 100⫻ and blades of Fe2Si2Al9. 0.5% HF. 250⫻
168 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 166 Alloy 356.0-F sand casting to which no Fig. 167 and Alloy 356.0-F sand casting with 0.05% Ti
0.005% B added as grain refiners.
grain refiner was added. The macrograin
size is 5 mm (0.20 in.). See also Fig. 167. Tucker’s Macrograin size is 1 mm (0.04 in.). Tucker’s reagent. 2⫻
reagent. 2⫻

(a) (b)

Fig. 168 Alloy A356.0-T6. Comparison of structure fineness using dendrite arm spacing (DAS). Two structures in the
eutectic alloy A356.0-T6. (a) DAS ⫽ 20 μm. (b) DAS ⫽ 40 μm.
Representative Micrographs / 169

Fig. 169 Alloy A356.0-T6. Scanning electron microscope image of the


fracture surface of a cast sample of A356.0-T6, with microporosity
exposing the bare dendrites. Only on the right is there a small area (appearing
fibrous) of ductile fracture where there had been cohesion. Dendrite arm spacing,
50 μm; porosity, 3–4%; elongation in rupture, 1%

Fig. 170 Alloy A357.0-F, as premium quality cast.


The structure consists of an interdendritic
Fig. 171 Alloy A357.0-T6, premium quality cast,
solution heat treated, and artificially
network of eutectic silicon (gray); some particles of aged. Compared with Fig. 170, the silicon particles in
Mg2Si (black). See Fig. 171 and 172 for the effect of the eutectic have been rounded and agglomerated by
solution heat treatment and artificial aging. 0.5% HF. solution heat treatment. See Fig. 172 for a higher
100⫻ magnification view. 0.5% HF. 100⫻
Fig. 172 artificially
Alloy A357.0-T6, premium quality cast, solution heat treated, and
aged. At higher magnification than Fig. 171, showing
that very little undissolved Mg2Si (black particles) remained after solution heat
treatment. No silicon precipitate is visible. See Fig. 174 for the effect of
insufficient solution heat treatment. 0.5% HF. 500⫻

Fig. 173 Alloy A357.0-T61, permanent mold cast,


solution heat treated at 540 °C (1000 °F)
Fig. 174 Alloy A357.0-T61, permanent mold cast,
insufficiently solution heat treated and
for 12 h, quenched in water at 60 to 80 °C (140 to 180 artificially aged. Structure contains undissolved Mg2Si
°F), aged at 155 °C (310 °F) for 10 h. A desirable (black), and some of the particles of silicon are more
structure: rounded silicon particles and no undissolved angular than those in the desirable structure shown in
Mg2Si. See also Fig. 176. 0.5% HF. 500⫻ Fig. 175. 0.5% HF. 500⫻

(a) (b)
Fig. 175 Alloy A357.0-T6. Commercial thixocast parts and the equiaxed development of the
␣-crystals in the solid solution before and after deformation (thixostructure). Here, the
shape and size of the primary crystals remain unchanged, the solidification process being limited to the
residual melt in the thin layers between them. (a) Microstructure of a log in A357.0-T6. (b) Microstructure
of a landing gear component “thixoformed” in a die casting machine.
Representative Micrographs / 171

Fig. 176 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Area near a


machined surface (A) shows structure Fig. 177 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Area near a
machined surface (A) illustrates some pri-
typical of a casting that has desirable properties: inter- mary crystals of sludge (B) in the aluminum matrix (C)
dendritic particles of eutectic silicon (B) and CuAl2 (C) in that contains eutectic silicon (D). Sludge is a high-
a matrix of aluminum solid solution (D). See also Fig. melting iron-manganese-chromium phase that forms in
177. 0.5% HF. 260⫻ high-silicon aluminum alloys. See also Fig. 176. 0.5%
HF. 130⫻

Fig. 178 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Fine Al2O3 (A),


which should not cause machining diffi-
Fig. 179 Alloy 380.0-F die casting shown at a
higher magnification than in Fig. 178.
culties, near the machined surface (B) of an alloy 380-F Aluminum oxide particles are indicated by (A) and (B);
die casting. Eutectic silicon is indicated by (C); CuAl2 by particles of eutectic silicon, by (C); aluminum matrix, by
(D); and sludge, by (E). See also Fig. 179. 0.5% HF. (D); and particles of sludge, by (E). 0.5% HF. 520⫻
260⫻
172 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 181 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Edge of hard


area in Fig. 180 shown at a higher mag-
nification. Hard area (A) is separated from the area of
Fig. 180 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Hard area (A)
at a machined surface (B) of an alloy normal structure (B) by a “flow line” (C) where two
380-F die casting. Figures 181 and 182 show details of streams of liquid alloy met. Some sludge (D) in hard
the microstructure in the hard area, which differs from area. 0.5% HF. 425⫻
the normal microstructure (C). 0.5% HF. 65⫻

Fig. 182 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Hard area in


Fig. 180 shown at a higher magnification.
Structure consists of a heavy concentration of eutectic
silicon (A) and CuAl2 (B) in the aluminum matrix (C).
The hard area caused difficulty in machining. 0.5% HF. Fig. 183 Alloy 380.0-F die casting. Gas porosity
(A), caused by entrapped air, near the
1300⫻
machined surface (B) of an alloy 380-F die casting.
Eutectic silicon particles (C) in aluminum matrix (D) and
particles of sludge (E and F). 0.5% HF. 130⫻
Representative Micrographs / 173

Fig. 184 Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Flow lines (A,


B, and C) in an alloy 384-F die casting. Fig. 185 Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Region near a
These lines may have been caused by incorrect gating, cast surface (A) has the desired structure,
incorrect die lubrication, or incorrect injection and back which consists of interdendritic particles of eutectic
pressures. 0.5% HF. 65⫻ silicon (B) in an aluminum matrix (C), but also has some
Al2O3 particles (D, and in outlines area E). For a higher
magnification view of area (E), see Fig. 186. 0.5% HF.
65⫻

Fig. 186 Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Area (E) in Fig. Fig. 187 Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Cold-shut (A,
185 at higher magnification, which B) and flow lines (C, D), both caused by
shows that the Al2O3 particles (A and B) are fine and failure of the streams of molten metal to merge, at the
may not cause machining problems. Small particles of cast surface (E) of an alloy 384-F die casting. 0.5% HF.
sludge (C, D, and E) are associated with the Al2O3 55⫻
particles. (F) is eutectic silicon; (G) is matrix of alumi-
num solid solution. 0.5% HF. 520⫻
174 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 188 filling Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Void (A), which was caused by poor
of the mold and associated flow lines (B) in an alloy 384-F
die casting. Figure 183 shows for flow lines without voids. 0.5% HF. 65⫻

Fig. 189 Alloy 384.0-F die casting. Gas-porosity Fig. 190 Alloy 384.0-F. Coarse primary crystals of
cavity (A), which was caused by en- sludge (A, B, C, and D) removed from
trapped air, at a machined surface (B) of an alloy 384-F molten alloy 384 prior to die casting. The remainder of
die casting. Microstructure is eutectic silicon (C) in an the structure consists of aluminum matrix (E), eutectic
aluminum matrix (D); some sludge (E) is present. 0.5% silicon (F), and Al2O3 (G). 0.5% HF. 40⫻
HF. 130⫻
Representative Micrographs / 175

Fig. 191 Alloy 392.0-F, as permanent mold cast. The structure consists of
silicon (small, angular, gray particles in eutectic, and large,
unrefined primary particles) and Mg2Si (black constituent). See also Fig. 192.
0.5% HF. 100⫻

Fig. 192 Alloy 392.0-F, as permanent mold cast. The structure consists of
silicon (small, angular, gray particles in eutectic) and Mg2Si (black
constituent); however, the addition of phosphorus to the melt refined the size of
the particles of primary silicon. See also Fig. 191. 0.5% HF. 100⫻
176 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 193 Alloy 413.0-F, as die cast. The structure


consists of eutectic silicon (gray constitu-
ent), blades of Fe2Si2Al9, and some light-gray particles
that probably are Fe3SiAl12 in a matrix of aluminum
solid solution. Note extreme fineness of all particulate Fig. 194 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. The gate area
constituents. 0.5% HF. 100⫻ (A) of the casting has the desired struc-
ture, which consists of interdendritic particles of eutectic
silicon (B) and the light-etching matrix of aluminum
solid solution (C). 0.5% HF. 41⫻

Fig. 195 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Gate area (A)


Fig. 196 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Area (G) in Fig.
of an alloy 413.0-F die casting, showing 195 at a higher magnification. Angular
gas porosity (B, C, and D) scattered from the outside wall eutectic silicon (A) in matrix of aluminum solid solution
(E) to the inside wall (F). See Fig. 196 for details of (G), (B) in normal and rounded silicon in undesirable struc-
a sound region. 0.5% HF. 11⫻ tures (C and D). 0.5% HF. 520⫻
Representative Micrographs / 177

Fig. 197 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Gate area (A).


There are areas of undesirable silicon
Fig. 198 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Gate area (A)
of a die casting that has a cold-shut void
structure (B) and a gas pore (C), which was caused by air (B) and a region of undesirable structure (C and D)
entrapment, in a region that otherwise exhibits a normal surrounded by areas of normal structure (E and F). See
structure (D). 0.5% HF. 41⫻ also Fig. 199 and 200. 0.5% HF. 11⫻

Fig. 199 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Area of cold-


shut void (A) in Fig. 198. The void re-
sulted when two streams of molten metal failed to merge Fig. 200 Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Inner end of
and interdiffuse. One of the streams produced a normal cold-shut void (A) in Fig. 199 showing
structure (B), and the other produced an undesirable start of flow line between region of normal structure (B),
structure (C). See also Fig. 200 and 201. 0.5% HF. 35⫻ with eutectic silicon (C) of normal shape in matrix of
aluminum solid solution (D), and region of undesirable
structure (E). See also Fig. 201. 0.5% HF. 520⫻
178 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Fig. 201 separating


Alloy 413.0-F die casting. Continuation of flow line (A) in Fig. 200,
normal structure (B), with angular silicon (C) in alumi-
num matrix (D), from undesirable structure (E), with rounded silicon (F) in
aluminum matrix (G). Line extends across entire section thickness. 0.5% HF.
520⫻

(a) (b) (c)

Fig. 202 Alloy B413.0-F. (a) Angular. (b) Lamellar. (c) Modified
Representative Micrographs / 179

Fig. 203 Alloy 443.0-F, as sand cast. Large den-


drite cells resulted from slow cooling in
Fig. 204 Large Alloy B443.0-F, as permanent mold cast.
dendrite cells resulted from slow
the sand mold. Interdendritic structure: silicon (dark cooling in the sand mold, but the dendrite cells are
gray), Fe3SiAl12 (medium-gray script), and Fe2Si2Al9 smaller than in Fig. 201 because of faster cooling in the
(light-gray needles). 0.5% HF. 500⫻ metal permanent mold. Interdendritic structure: silicon
(dark gray), Fe2SiAl12 (medium gray script), and
Fe2Si2Al9 (light gray needles). See Fig. 205. 0.5% HF.
500⫻

Fig. 205 Alloy C443.0-F, as die cast. Dendrite cells Fig. 206 Alloy 520.0-F, as sand cast. Structure is
are smaller than in Fig. 203 and 204 insoluble particles of FeAl2 (black) and
because of the very rapid cooling obtained in the an interdendritic network of Mg2Al2 phase (gray). Fig-
water-cooled die-casting die. Interdendritic structure: ures 207 and 208 show the effect of solution heat
silicon (dark gray), Fe2SiAl12 (medium gray script), and treatment 0.5% HF. 100⫻
Fe2Si2Al9 (light-gray needles). 0.5% HF. 500⫻
Fig. 207 Alloy 520.0-T4, sand cast, solution heat Fig. 208 Alloy 520.0-T4, sand cast, solution heat
treated at 425 °C (800 °F). Structure is in- treated. Solidus was exceeded during solu-
soluble particles of FeAl2 (black) and an interdendritic tion heat treating, and melting of the eutectic has formed a
network of Mg2Al2 phase (gray), although the solution heat lacy network and rosettes of Mg2Al2 phase (gray). See also
treating has dissolved most of the Mg2Al2 phase. See also Fig. 207. 0.5% HF. 500⫻
Fig. 208. 0.5% HF. 100⫻

Fig. 209 Alloy D712.0-F, as sand cast. Interdendritic network: particles of


CrAl7, Fe3SiAl12, and FeAl6. Note the segregation (coring) of
magnesium and zinc in the grains. See also Fig. 210. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻

Fig. 210 Alloy D712.0-F, as investment cast. Interden- Fig. 211 Alloy 850.0-F, as permanent mold cast. Note
dritic network: particles of CrAl7, Fe2SiAl12, hot tear, which occurred at or above the
and FeAl6. Intergranular fusion voids (black) were caused by solidus, and some Al-CuAl2 eutectic (gray) back filling of
eutectic melting as a result of exceeding the solidus tem- tear. Particles of tin (rounded), NiAl3, and FeNiAl9 (both
perature during dip brazing. Keller’s reagent. 100⫻ irregular). 0.5% HF. 100⫻
Representative Micrographs / 181

Welded Cast Aluminum Alloys

Fig. 212 Welded alloy 295.0-T6, investment casting. Electron Fig. 213 Welded alloy 295.0-T6, in-
beam weld in an alloy 295.0-T6 investment casting. vestment casting. Edge of fu-
Weld was made without filler metal. Overheating during welding sion zone of weld shown in Fig. 212 (base
resulted in a considerable amount of dropthrough (right), with metal at bottom). Large dendrites of solid
accompanying longitudinal shrinkage cracks in the center of the solution in base metal, small dendrites in
weld metal. See also Fig. 213. Tucker’s reagent. 5⫻ weld bead. Al-CuAl2-Si eutectic in both.
Keller’s reagent. 150⫻

Fig. 214 Welded alloy 356.0-F, investment cast- Fig. 215 Welded alloy 356.0-F, investment casting
ing. Edge of a fusion zone of a gas after solution heat treatment. Particles of
tungsten arc repair weld in a 356.0-F investment casting. eutectic silicon have become rounded and agglomer-
Alternating current and R-SG70A filler metal were used. ated. Zone between weld bead and heat-affected zone is
Interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic (gray); porosity less clearly defined than in Fig. 214; porosity remains.
(black). See also Fig. 215. Keller’s reagent. 50⫻ Keller’s reagent. 50⫻
182 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Welded Wrought-to-Cast Alloys

Fig. 216 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6. Gas tungsten arc fillet weld
joining a 6061-T6 tube (upper left) with an A356.0-T6 investment
casting. ER 4043 filler metal. Keller’s reagent. 15⫻

Fig. 217 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to


Fig. 218 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6.
A356.0-T6. Structure of Edge of the fusion zone of the weld
A356.0-T6 investment casting (sodium-modi- shown in Fig. 216, with the tube at the left and the weld
fied, grain-refined) used for the weld shown in bead at the right. Aluminum-silicon eutectic is present
Fig. 216. Interdendritic network is eutectic sili- between the dendrites of the weld bead; Al-Mg2Si
con. Keller’s reagent. 50⫻ eutectic is between the grains of the heat-affected zone
of the tube. Keller’s reagent. 50⫻
Representative Micrographs / 183

Fig. 219 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6. Edge of the fusion zone of the weld shown
in Fig. 216, with the weld bead at the top and left and the casting at bottom and
right. Interdendritic aluminum-silicon eutectic is present, some in the weld bead, and a large
amount in the heat-affected zone of the casting. Keller’s reagent. 50⫻

Fig. 220 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6. Bead (near tube) at the weld in Fig. 216.
Interdendritic network of aluminum-silicon eutectic is present in the matrix solid
solution. Keller’s reagent. 50⫻

Fig. 221 Welded alloy 6061-T6 to A356.0-T6. Bead (near casting) of the weld in Fig. 216.
Dendrites of solid solution are less equiaxed, more columnar than in Fig. 220.
Keller’s reagent. 50⫻
184 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Welded Aluminum to Steel

Fig. 222 Aluminum-steel weld. Explosive welded Fig. 223 Aluminum-steel weld. Ripple at interface
joint between aluminum sheet (top) and of explosive welded joint between alumi-
steel showing characteristic ripples at the interface. A num sheet (top) and steel. Cracks have appeared in the
ripple is shown at a high magnification in Fig. 223. dark-gray phase (which probably is FeAl3). As-polished.
As-polished. 6⫻ 60⫻

Welded Aluminum to Copper

Fig. 224 Aluminum-copper weld. Explosive welded joint between alumi-


num sheet (top) and copper. Cracks (black) have appeared in the
aluminum-copper phase (light gray) at the relatively smooth interface. As-
polished. 225⫻
Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers Copyright © 2000 ASM International®
J. Gilbert Kaufman, p187-224 All rights reserved.
DOI:10.1361/iaat2000p187 www.asminternational.org

APPENDIX

Terminology

The following list of terms covers wrought and cast aluminum products
and their production. These terms may be helpful in understanding and
interpreting other information in this book regarding aluminum alloys,
tempers, production processes, and applications.
Most of these terms come from the Aluminum Association publication
Aluminum Standards and Data and are republished with the permission of
the Aluminum Association. The terms included for casting processes are
taken from publications of the American Foundrymen’s Society (AFS);
the reader is referred to those publications for more complete terminology
for casting and casting processes.
The list is not intended to include every term likely to be used within
the aluminum industry, but it is hoped that most of the terms that are
unique to the industry are defined and may help in understanding the alloy
and temper designations that are the subject of this book.
Note: Italicized words within a definition can be found as a separate
entry in this list.

A
AFS. American Foundrymen’s Society
AMS. Aerospace Material Specification.
ANSI. American National Standards Institute.
ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
AWS. American Welding Society.
abrasion. See mark, traffıc.
age hardening. An aging process that results in increased strength and
hardness.
age softening. Spontaneous decrease of strength and hardness that takes
place at room temperature in certain strain-hardened alloys containing
magnesium.
188 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

aging. Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in proper-


ties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural
aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).
alclad. An aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is metallurgically
bonded to either one or both surfaces of an aluminum alloy product,
and that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolyti-
cally protecting the core alloy against corrosion. For alclad products,
see specific product such as plate, sheet, tube, or wire.
alligatoring. See lamination.
alloy. A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or
more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal.
angularity. Conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimen-
sions in the cross section of a shape or bar.
angulation. The deliberate departure from a horizontal passline on the
entry side of a rolling mill used for one-side bright rolling.
annealing. A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress
resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid
solution.
annealing, partial. Thermal treatment (H2X temper nomenclature)
given cold-worked metal to reduce strength and increase ductility to
controlled levels other than annealed temper.
anodizing. Forming a coating on a metal surface produced by electro-
chemical treatment through anodic oxidation.
anodizing sheet. See sheet, anodizing.
arbor break. See buckle, arbor.
arbor mark. See mark, arbor.
artificial aging. See aging.
as-cast condition. Referring to newly produced, unmachined castings
that have not been subjected to any form of finishing operations
(beyond gate removal or shot-blast cleaning) or treatment of any kind,
including heat treatment.

B
back-end condition. A condition occurring in the last metal to be
extruded. It is a result of the oxidized surface of the billet feeding into
the extrusion.
backup roll. Nongrooved roll that stiffens or strengthens work rolls.
bar. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section,
which is square or rectangular (excluding plate and flattened wire),
with sharp or rounded comers or edges, or is a regular hexagon or
octagon, and in which at least one perpendicular distance between
parallel faces is over 10 mm (0.375 in. or greater).
Terminology / 189

bar, cold-finished. Bar brought to final dimensions by cold work to


obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
bar, cold-finished extruded. Cold-finished bar produced from extruded
bar.
bar, cold-finished rolled. Cold-finished bar produced from rolled bar.
bar, extruded. Bar brought to final dimensions by hot extruding.
bar, rolled. Bar brought to final dimensions by hot rolling.
bar, saw-plate. Bar brought to final thickness by hot or cold rolling and
to final width by sawing.
base box, general. An agreed-upon unit of area used primarily in
packaging applications. One common base box for aluminum is 20,232
m2 (31,360 in.2) originally composed of 112 rectangular sheets, each
356 by 508 mm (14 by 20 in.).
belled edge. See edge, belled.
belly. A loose center buckle extending to near the edges of a sheet.
billet. A hot-worked semifinished product suitable for subsequent work-
ing by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, and so on.
binder. A material used to hold the grains of foundry sand together to
form a mold or core. It can be a cereal, an oil, clay, or natural/synthetic
resin.
blank. A piece of metal cut or formed to regular or irregular shape for
subsequent processing such as by forming, bending, or drawing. The
piece of sheet stock cut out by blanking die. It will subsequently be
drawn into a cup or end shell.
blast cleaning. A process to clean or finish castings by use of an air blast
or airless centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles or metal shot
against the surface of castings.
bleed out. See two-tone.
blister. A raised area on the surface of an extruded product due to
subsurface gas expansion. This condition can occur during extrusion or
thermal treatment.
blister, bond. A raised spot on only one surface of the metal whose
origin is between the cladding and core in clad products.
blister, coating. A blister in the coating of an alclad or a clad product.
blister, core. A raised spot (one or both sides) on rolled metal.
block mark. See scratch, tension.
bloom. A semifinished hot-rolled product, rectangular or square in cross
section, produced on a blooming mill.
blow hole. A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. See also
blister.
boss. A knoblike projection on the main body of a forging or casting.
bottom draft. Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to
assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area.
bow. Longitudinal curvature of rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube. Bow
is measured after allowing the weight of the extrusion to minimize the
190 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

deviation. Bow can be caused by a nonuniform extrusion rate across


the cross section, resulting in one portion of the extrusion being longer
than the other or nonuniform contraction during quenching.
bow, lateral. Deviation from straight of a longitudinal edge.
bow, longitudinal. Curvature in the plane of sheet or plate in the rolling
direction.
bow, transverse. Curvature across the rolling direction of sheet or plate.
brazing. Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting
points above 425 °C (800 °F) but lower than those of the metals being
joined. This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing),
in a furnace (furnace brazing), or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip
or flux brazing).
brazing rod. A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in
joining by brazing.
brazing sheet. Sheet of a brazing alloy or sheet clad with a brazing alloy
on one or both sides.
brazing wire. Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing.
bright sheet. See sheet, (1SBMF), (S1SBF) and (S2SBF).
bristle mark. See mark, bristle.
broken edge. See edge, broken.
broken eie. A deviation from the desired cross section due to the absence
of a certain portion of the die used to extrude the profile (shape).
broken matte finish. Nonuniform surface on the inside of packed rolled
foil (bright spots).
broken surface. See crazing.
bruise. See mark, roll bruise.
buckle. A distortion of the surface of the metal.
buckle, arbor. Bend, crease, wrinkle, or departure from flat, occurring
perpendicular to the slit edge of a coil and which are repetitive in
nature, with severity decreasing as the distance increases in the coil
from the original source. Normally, it is found on the inside diameter
of a coil but can appear on the coil outside diameter as a result of a
prior winding operation.
buckle, center. Undulation (wavy region) in the center of the metal.
buckle, edge. Undulation (wavy region) along the edge(s) of the metal.
buckle, oil can. See buckle, trapped.
buckle, quarter. Undulation (wavy region) that occurs approximately at
both quarter points across the width.
buckle, trapped. Undulation (wavy region) that is smaller sized and
often circular in shape.
buffing. A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are
applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of
developing a lustrous finish.
buff streak. See streak.
burnish streak. See streak, burnish.
Terminology / 191

burnishing. See two-tone.


burr. A thin ridge of roughness left by a cutting operation such as
slitting, trimming, shearing, blanking, or sawing.
bursting strength. The pressure required to rupture a foil specimen
when it is tested in a mullen instrument under specified conditions. See
also mullen test.
bus bar. A rigid electric conductor in the form of a bar.
butt-seam tube. See tube, open-seam.

C
Camber. See bow, lateral.
carbon mark. See mark, carbon.
casting (noun). An object formed by pouring, pumping, or sucking
molten metal into a mold or set of dies and allowing it to solidify.
casting (verb). The act of pouring, pumping, or sucking molten metal
into a mold (made of sand, metal, ceramic, or graphite) or a set of metal
dies.
casting strains. Strains in a cast metal component resulting from internal
stresses created during cooling. Heat treatment and other processes are
used to remove these strains.
casting yield. The weight of casting or castings divided by the total
weight of metal poured into the mold, expressed as a percent.
center. The difference in thickness between the middle and edges
(average) of a sheet.
centrifugal casting. In the centrifugal casting process, commonly ap-
plied to cylindrical castings, a permanent mold is rotated rapidly about
the axis of the casting while a measured amount of molten metal is
poured into the mold cavity. Centrifugal force is used to hold the metal
against the outer walls of the mold with the volume of metal poured
determining the wall thickness of the casting.
center buckle. See buckle.
chafing. See mark, traffıc.
chatter mark. See mark, chatter.
chill. Metal insert placed in a mold to increase speed of cooling. Internal
chills are placed in the mold cavity and become integral parts of the
casting.
chip mark. See dent, repeating.
chop. Metal sheared from a vertical surface of a die forging, which is
spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface.
chucking lug. A lug or boss added to a forging so that on-center
machining and forming may be performed with one setup or checking.
This lug is finally machined or cut away.
cinching. See scratch, tension.
192 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

circle. A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet, or foil.


clad sheet. See sheet, clad.
cleaning. Removal of sand and excess metal from a sand casting,
ceramic and excess metal from an investment casting, or excess metal
from a die casting.
CO2 process. Molds and cores, made with sand containing sodium
silicate, which are hardened by permeating the sand with carbon
dioxide gas.
coating. Continuous film on the surface of a product.
coating blister. See blister, coating.
coating buildup. A coating thickness greater than nominal in localized
area of sheet, usually along edges, due to uneven application tech-
niques.
coating, conversion. An inorganic pretreatment sometimes applied to a
metal surface to enhance coating adhesion and to retard corrosion.
coating drip. A nonuniform extraneous deposit of coating on the coated
sheet.
coating, high or low. Failure of the coating to meet the agreed-upon
thickness limits measured in weight per unit area.
coating oven trash. See dirt.
coating streak. See streak, coating.
cobble. A jamming of the mill by aluminum product while being rolled;
a piece of aluminum, which for any reason has become so bent or
twisted that it must be withdrawn from the rolling operation and
scrapped.
coil curvature. See coil set.
coil orientation, clockwise coil. With the coil core vertical (eye to the
sky) and viewed from above, a trace of the metal edge from the inside
diameter to the outside diameter involves clockwise movement.
coil orientation, counterclockwise (anticlockwise) coil. With the coil
core vertical (eye to the sky) and viewed from above, a trace of the
metal edge from the inside diameter to the outside diameter involves
counterclockwise (anticlockwise) movement.
coil set. Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the same direction as
curvature of the wound coil.
coil set differential. The difference in coil set from edge to edge of a
coiled sheet sample. It is measured with the sample on a flat table,
concave side up, and is the difference in elevation of the comers on one
end.
coil set, reversed. Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the direction
opposite the curvature of the wound coil.
coiled sheet. See sheet, coiled.
cold shut. (1) A linear discontinuity in a cast surface caused when
meeting streams of metal fail to merge prior to solidification. (2)
Terminology / 193

Forging defect developed by metal flowing into a section from two


directions, resulting in a discontinuity at the junction.
cold working. Plastic (i.e., permanent) deformation of metal at such
temperature and rate that strain hardening occurs.
collapse. Out-of-round condition of coil often due to inappropriate
tension during rewinding operations.
coloring. A finishing process, or combination of processes, that alters the
appearance of an aluminum surface via coating, chemical, and/or
mechanical operations.
combination die (multiple-cavity die). In die casting practice, a die
with two or more different cavities for different castings.
concavity. Curved as the inner surface of a sphere. See also convexity.
concentricity. Conformance to a common center as, for example, the
inner and outer walls of round tube.
condensation stain. See corrosion, water stain.
condenser tube. The term “heat-exchanger tube” is preferred, unless
specific reference to a condenser application is intended.
conduit. A tube used to protect electric wiring. See also tubing, electrical
metallic.
conduit, rigid. Conduit having dimensions of ANSI schedule 40 pipe in
standardized length with threaded ends.
coned-out coil. See telescoping.
contour. That portion of the outline of a transverse cross section of an
extruded shape that is represented by a curved line or curved lines.
controlled cooling. Process by which a metal object is cooled from an
elevated temperature in a manner that avoids hardening, cracking, or
internal damage.
conversion coating, can ends. See coating, conversion.
convexity. Curved such as the outer surface of a sphere. See also
concavity.
core (for casting). Separable part of a mold that usually is made of sand
and a binder to create openings and various specially shaped cavities in
castings.
core (for rolled products). A hollow cylinder on which a coiled product
may be wound that forms the inside diameter of a coil.
core blister. See blister, core.
coring. See back-end condition.
corner turnup. A distortion, buckle, or twist condition that causes the
corner(s) of the sheet to deviate from a perfectly flat plane on which
it rests.
corrosion. The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical
reaction with its environment.
corrosion, exfoliation. Corrosion that progresses approximately parallel
to the metal surface, causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the
formation of corrosion product.
194 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

corrosion, galvanic. Corrosion associated with the current of galvanic


cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two
similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. Aluminum will corrode if
it is anodic to the dissimilar metal.
corrosion, intergranular. Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain
boundaries (also termed “intercrystalline corrosion”).
corrosion, pitting. Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters
in a metal surface.
corrosion, stress-cracking. Failure by cracking resulting from selective
directional attack caused by the simultaneous interaction of sustained
tensile stress at an exposed surface with the chemical or electrochemi-
cal effects of the surface environment. The term often is abbreviated
SCC, which correctly stands for stress-corrosion cracking.
corrosion, water stain. Superficial oxidation of the surface with a water
film, in the absence of circulating air, held between closely adjacent
metal surfaces.
corrugating. Forming rolled metal into a series of straight parallel
regular alternate grooves and ridges.
coupon. A piece of metal from which a test specimen may be pre-
pared.
covering area. Yield expressed in terms of a given number of square
inches in a pound. For metric units, use square meters per kilogram.
crazing. A macroscopic effect of numerous surface tears, transverse to
the rolling direction, which can occur when the entry angle into the
cold mill work rolls is large.
crease. A sharp deviation from flat in the sheet that is transferred from
processing equipment subsequent to the roll bite.
cross hatching. See crazing.
crown. See convexity.
curl. An undesirable condition caused by uneven rates of absorption or
evaporation of moisture, uneven rates of contraction or expansion, or
internal stresses in the material. Curl is most prevalent in laminated
structures where the components have differing physical properties.
cutoff. Removal of gates, risers, and other excess metal from a casting.

deep drawing. Forming a deeply recessed part by forcing sheet metal to


undergo plastic flow between dies, usually without substantial thinning
of the sheet.
defect. A defect is anything that renders the aluminum unfit for the
specific use for which it was ordered.
Terminology / 195

dent. (1) For rolled products, a sharply defined surface impression on the
metal that may be caused by a blow from another object. (2) For
extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See also mark, handling.
dent, expansion. Localized surface deviation from flat generated by
expansion of vapor during thermal treatment of cold-rolled coiled
sheet.
dent, repeating. Repeating depression caused by a particle adhering to a
rotating roll over which the metal has passed.
die (in casting). Metal form(s) used to produce a die casting, a lost foam
pattern, or a wax pattern. A metal block used in the die casting process,
incorporating the cavity or cavities that form the cast component, the
molten metal distribution system, and means for cooling and ejecting
the casting.
die (in forging or extrusion). Metal forms between which metal is
forged or through which metal is extruded. The shapes of the dies
control the form and shape of the finished parts.
die casting (noun). A casting produced by the die casting process. Today,
the process is most suitable for high-volume production of aluminum,
zinc, and magnesium alloy castings.
die casting (verb). Injecting molten metal under pressure into a mold
chamber, which is formed by metal die. In Europe, any casting
produced in a metal mold.
die casting, cold chamber. Die casting process in which the metal
injection mechanism is not submerged in molten metal.
die casting, gravity. Term used in Europe for producing a casting by
pouring molten metal (gravity pouring) into a metal mold, with no
application of pressure. In the United States, this is the permanent-
mold casting process.
die casting, hot chamber. Die casting process in which the metal in-
jection mechanism is submerged in the molten metal.
die casting, pressure. In Europe, a casting made in a metal mold (set of
metal dies) in which the metal is injected under high pressure, by either
cold-chamber or hot-chamber die casting machines. In the United
States, this is simply die casting. High-pressure die casting and
low-pressure die casting are terms commonly used in Europe to
differentiate between what in the United States would be called,
respectively, die casting and low-pressure permanent molding. See also
low-pressure casting process and high-pressure molding.
die line. A longitudinal depression or protrusion formed on the surface of
drawn or extruded material. Die lines are present to some degree in all
extrusions and are caused by a roughening of the die bearing.
die number. The number assigned to a die for identification and
cataloging purposes, and which usually is assigned for the same
purpose to the product produced from that die.
diffusion streak. See streak, diffusion.
196 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

dimensional stability. Ability of a casting to remain unchanged in size


and shape under ordinary atmospheric conditions.
dirt. Foreign debris from rolling or post-rolling operations imbedded in
or under the coating.
disc. A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet, or foil, from which a
central concentric area has been removed.
double shear notch. See notch, double shear.
draft. Taper on the sides of a die or mold impression to facilitate removal
of forgings, castings, or patterns from dies or molds.
drag mark. See rub, tool.
draw and iron-can bodies. Term that refers to a method of fabricating
a can body in which a cup is drawn from flat sheet, redrawn to the final
diameter, and then wall ironed to reduce the wall thickness and to
achieve the required height.
drawing. (1) In forging, an operation of working metal between flat dies
to reduce the cross section and increase length. (2) The process of
pulling material through a die to reduce the size, change the cross
section or shape, or harden the material.
drawing stock. A hot-worked intermediate solid product of uniform
cross section along its whole length, supplied in coils and of a quality
suitable for drawing into wire.
drawn-in scratch. See scratch, drawn-in.
drawn product. A product formed by pulling material through a die.
dropped edge. See edge, dropped.
dry sand molding. Dry sand molds are made by many different
processes. Sand mixed with binders that cure by baking is one form of
dry sand mold; other more common dry sand molding techniques use
sand with binders that can be cured by chemical, or catalytic, reaction
induced by mixing with the sand or by blowing gases through the mold
after it is formed.
dry sheet. See lube, low.
dry surface. A foil surface substantially free from oily film and suitable
for lacquering, printing, or coating with water-dispersed adhesives.
ductility. The property that permits permanent deformation before frac-
ture by stress in tension.
duct sheet. Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths, and thick-
nesses, suitable for duct applications.

E
earing. Wavy symmetrical projections formed during cupping, deep
drawing, or spinning. Earing is caused by nonuniform directional
properties in the aluminum and/or by improperly adjusted tooling.
Terminology / 197

ears. Wavy symmetrical projections formed in the course of deep


drawing or spinning as a result of directional properties or anisotropy
in sheet. Ears occur in groups of four or eight with the peaks of the
projections located at 45° and/or at 0 and 90° to the rolling direction.
Degree of earing is the difference between average height at the peaks
and average height at the valleys, divided by average height at the
valleys, multiplied by 100 and expressed in percent.
eccentricity. Deviation from a common center as, for example, the inner
and outer walls of a round tube. The difference between the mean wall
thickness and minimum or maximum wall thickness at any one cross
section. The permissible degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a
plus and minus wall-thickness tolerance.
edge, band. See two-tone.
edge, belled. Excessive buildup of material on edge(s) during a rewind-
ing operation. Typical causes include excessive edge burr, turned edge,
and dog bone-shaped cross-sectional profiles.
edge, broken (cracked). Edge(s) containing crack, split, and/or tear
caused by the inability to deform without fracturing.
edge, build-up. See edge, belled.
edge, damaged. Edge of a coil that has been bent, torn, or scraped by an
object.
edge, dropped. A continuous, downward edge deflection.
edge, liquated. Surface condition remaining after portions of a side of an
as-cast rolling ingot deforms enough during hot rolling to become top
and/or bottom surface(s) of the rolled product at an edge.
edge, rippled. See buckle, edge.
edge, wavy. See buckle, edge.
elastic limit. The highest stress that a material can withstand without
permanent deformation after complete release of an applied stress. For
most practical application purposes, the elastic limit is the yield
strength.
electrical conductivity. The capacity of a material to conduct electrical
current. For aluminum, this capacity is expressed as a percentage of the
International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS), which has a resistiv-
ity of 1/58 ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) and an arbitrarily designated
conductivity of unity.
electrical resistivity. The electrical resistance of a body of unit length
and unit cross-sectional area or unit weight. The value of 1⁄58
ohm-mm2/m at 20 °C (68 °F) is the resistivity equivalent to the IACS
for 100% conductivity. This means that a wire of 100% conductivity,
1 m (3 ft) in length and 1 mm2 (0.002 in.2) in cross-sectional area
would have a resistance of 0.017241 ohms at 20 °C (68 °F).
elongation. The percentage increase in distance between two gage marks
that results from stressing the specimen in tension to fracture. The
original gage length is usually 50 mm (2 in.) for flat specimens. For
198 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

cylindrical specimens, the gage length is 5D for metric usage and 4D


for U.S. standards. Elongation values depend to some extent upon size
and form of the test specimen. For example, the values obtained from
sheet specimens will be lower for thin sheet than for thicker sheet;
those obtained in 5D will be lower than those for 4D.
embossing. Raising a design in relief against a surface.
endurance limit. The limiting stress below which a material will
withstand a specified large number of cycles of stress.
equivalent round. The diameter of a circle having a circumference equal
to the outside perimeter of other than round tube.
expendable pattern casting. Metal casting process that employs a foam
plastic pattern-and-sprue assembly that is usually robot positioned in a
metal flask. Loose sand is poured into the flask and vibrated in and
around the pattern-and-sprue assembly. Molten metal, poured into the
sprue, vaporizes it and the foam pattern instantly and replaces its shape
with what becomes the casting when it solidifies. This process is also
widely referred to as lost foam casting.
extrusion. A product formed by pushing material through a die.
extrusion billet. The starting stock for the extrusion operation. Extrusion
billet is a solid or hollow form, commonly cylindrical, and is the length
charged into the extrusion press cylinder. It is usually a cast product but
may be a wrought product or powder compact.
extrusion butt end defect. A longitudinal discontinuity in the extreme
rear portion of an extruded product, which is normally discarded.
extrusion log. The starting stock for extrusion billet. Extrusion log is
usually produced in lengths from which shorter extrusion billets are
cut.
extrusion seam. A region in extruded hollow profiles observed after
creating two streams of metal and rejoining them around the mandrel
of a porthole or bridge die.
eyehole. See holiday.

F
fatigue. The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated
cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength.
feeder. See riser.
feed in. See back-end condition.
feed line. See streak, grinding.
fillet. A concave junction between two surfaces.
fin. A thin projection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the
metal under pressure being forced into hairline cracks in the die or
around die inserts.
Terminology / 199

finish. The characteristics of the surface of a product.


fin stock. Coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys, tempers, and thickness
ranges suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications.
fish mouthing. See lamination.
flag. A marker inserted adjacent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or
foil.
flaking. A condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating
become loosened due to inadequate adhesion.
flange. See rib.
flash. A thin protrusion at the parting line of a forging that forms when
metal, in excess of that required to fill the impressions, is forced
between the die interfaces.
flash line. A line left on a forging where flash has been removed.
flatness. (1) For rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such
as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling.
Often described by location across width (i.e., edge buckle, quarter
buckle, center buckle, and so on). (2) For extrusions, flatness (off
contour) pertains to the deviation of a cross-section surface intended to
be flat. Flatness can be affected by conditions such as die performance,
thermal effects, and stretching.
flow lines. (1) Lines on the surface of painted sheet, brought about by
incomplete leveling of the paint. (2) The line pattern revealed by
etching, which shows the direction of plastic flow on the surface or
within a wrought structure.
flow through. A forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of
a rib, resulting in rupture of the grain structure.
foil. A rolled product rectangular in cross section of thickness less than
0.15 mm (0.006 in.). In Europe, foil is equal to and less than 0.20 mm
(0.008 in.).
foil, annealed. Foil completely softened by thermal treatment.
foil, bright two sides. Foil having a uniform bright specular finish on
both sides.
foil, chemically cleaned. Foil chemically washed to remove lubricant
and foreign material.
foil, embossed. Foil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of
an engraved roll or plate.
foil, etched. Foil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide
an increased surface area.
foil, hard. Foil fully work hardened by rolling.
foil, intermediate temper. Foil intermediate in temper between annealed
foil and hard foil.
foil, matte one side (M1S). Foil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one
side and a bright specular finish on the other.
foil, mechanically grained. Foil mechanically roughened for such ap-
plications as lithography.
200 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

foil, mill finish (MF). Foil having a nonuniform finish that may vary
from coil to coil and within a coil.
foil, scratch brushed. Foil abraded, usually with wire brushes, to
produce a roughened surface.
foil stock. See reroll stock.
fold. A forging discontinuity caused by metal folding back on its own
surface during flow in the die cavity.
forgeability. The term used to describe the relative workability of
forging material.
forging. A metal part worked to a predetermined shape by one or more
processes such as hammering, upsetting, pressing, rolling, and so on.
forging billet. The term forging stock is preferred.
forging, blocker-type. A forging made in a single set of impressions to
the general contour of a finished part.
forging, cold-coined. A forging that has been restruck cold to obtain
closer dimensions, to sharpen comers or outlines, and in non-heat-
treatable alloys, to increase hardness.
forging, die. A forging formed to the required shape and size by working
in impression dies.
forging, draftless. A forging with zero draft on vertical walls.
forging, flashless. A closed-die forging made in dies constructed and
operated to eliminate, in predetermined areas, the formation of flash.
forging, hammer. A forging produced by repeated blows in a forging
hammer.
forging, hand. A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by
repeated strokes or blows and manipulation of the piece.
forging, no-draft. See forging, draftless.
forging plane. A reference plane or planes normal to the direction of
applied force from which all draft angles are measured.
forging, precision. A forging produced to tolerances closer than stan-
dard.
forging, press. A die forging produced by pressure applied in a forging
press.
forging, rolled ring. A cylindrical product of relatively short height,
circumferentially rolled from a hollow section.
forging stock. A wrought or cast rod, bar, or other section suitable for
forging.
forging, upset. A forging having part or all of its cross section greater
than that of the stock.
formability. The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through
plastic deformation.
fracture toughness. A generic term for measure of resistance to exten-
sion of a crack. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture
mechanics test, which is directly applicable in fracture control.
fretting. See mark, traffıc.
Terminology / 201

friction scratch. See scratch, friction.


full center. See buckle, center.

gage. A term previously used in referring to the thickness of a wrought


product. Thickness is preferred in dimension description.
gas porosity. Casting defects caused by gases trapped in molten metal or
developed during solidification.
gate. Specifically, the point in the runner system at which molten metal
enters the sand mold cavity. Sometimes used as a general term to
indicate the entire assembly of connected columns and channels
carrying the metal from the top of a mold to the part forming the
casting cavity proper. Term also applies to pattern parts that form the
passages or to the metal that fills them.
gated patterns. One or more patterns with gates or channels attached.
gated system. The complete assembly of sprues, runners, and gates in a
mold through which metal flows to enter the casting cavity. Term also
applies to equivalent portions of the pattern.
gating system. Gating is the term used to describe all of the passages
leading to the casting cavity. When molten metal is poured into a mold,
it is poured into the pouring basin or cup. It travels down the sprue
through the runner into the feeder or riser then through the gate into the
casting cavity. The gate is the breaking point at the casting from which
the gating system is separated from the casting.
glaze. See pickup, roll.
gouge. A gross scratch. See also scratch.
gouge, rolled in. A more localized gross rolled-in scratch. See also
scratch, rolled-in.
grain flow. The directional characteristics of the metal structure after
working, revealed by etching a polished section.
grain size. A measure of crystal size usually reported in terms of average
diameter in millimeters, grains per square millimeter, or grains per
cubic millimeter.
grease streak. See streak, grease.
green sand. Moist clay-bonded molding sand ready for making molds.
green sand molding. The mold is composed of a prepared mixture of
sand, clay, sea coal, and moisture for use while still in the damp
condition. The mold is not cured or dried and therefore is known as a
green (uncured) sand mold.
202 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

H
hair, slitter. Minute hairlike sliver along edge(s) due to shearing or
slitting operation.
handling mark. See mark, handling.
hardener. An alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more
added elements for use in making alloying additions to molten
aluminum. Also referred to as master alloy.
hardness. Resistance to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. The
term also may refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching,
abrasion, or cutting. Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by
measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball
indenter 10 mm in diameter after loading with a 500 kgf (4.903 kN) for
15 s and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression.
Rockwell hardness: An indentation hardness test based on the depth of
penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain
arbitrarily fixed conditions.
heat streak. See streak, heat.
heat treatable alloy. An alloy that may be strengthened by a suitable
thermal treatment.
heat treating. Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way
as to obtain desired conditions or properties. Commonly used as a shop
term to denote a thermal treatment to increase strength. Heating for the
sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this
definition. See also solution heat treating and aging.
heat treat lot. See lot, heat treat.
heat treat stain. A discoloration due to nonuniform oxidation of the
metal surface during solution heat treatment.
herringbone. See streak, herringbone.
high-pressure molding. A term applied to certain types of high-produc-
tion sand molding machines in which high-pressure air is instantly
released from a large pressure vessel to produce extremely hard,
high-density molds from green sand.
holding temperature. The temperature at which the liquid casting alloy
is held during casting. Usually set as the lowest temperature that fills
the mold (no misruns). The higher the temperature is, the higher the
equilibrium gas content in the metal will be.
hole. Void in rolled product. Typical cause is a nonmetallic inclusion
during rolling.
holiday. Region in which film is absent due to nonwetting of the metal
surface by the coating.
homogenizing. A process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near
the solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths
of time. The purposes of this process are to (1) reduce microsegrega-
Terminology / 203

tion by promoting diffusion of solute atoms within the grains of


aluminum and (2) improve workability.
hook. An abrupt deviation from straightness. Hook can be caused by
nonuniform metal flow during breakthrough. See also bow.
hot cracking. A crack in a casting caused by thermal contraction of the
part combined with thermal expansion of the surrounding steel die.
Sometimes confused with hot tearing, the crack surface looks quite
different under low-power magnification.
hot isostatic pressing (HIP). A process that uses high pressures at
elevated temperatures to close interior voids in castings or consoli-
date P/M products.
hot line pickup. See pickup, roll.
hot shortness. A condition of the metal at excessively high working
temperatures characterized by low mechanical strength and a tendency
for the metal to crack rather than deform.
hot spot. Dark gray or black surface patches appearing after anodizing.
These areas usually are associated with lower hardness and coarse
magnesium silicide precipitate caused by nonuniform cooling after
extrusion.
hot tear. See tear, speed.
hot working. Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate
that strain hardening does not occur.

I
impact. A part formed in a confining die from a metal slug, usually cold,
by rapid single-stroke application of force through a punch, causing the
metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the punch
or die.
impregnation. A process for making castings fluid tight by pressure
injecting them with liquid synthetic resins or other sealers. The injected
liquid is solidified in place by heating or baking. Media used include
silicate of soda, drying oils with or without styrenes, plastics, and
proprietary compounds.
inclusion. Foreign material in the metal or impressed into the surface.
inclusion, stringer. An impurity, metallic or nonmetallic, that is trapped
in the ingot and elongated subsequently in the direction of working. It
may be revealed during working or finishing as a narrow streak parallel
to the direction of working.
incomplete seam. See weld, incomplete.
ingot. A cast form suitable for remelting or fabricating. See also ingot,
extrusion; ingot, fabricating; ingot, forging; ingot, remelt; and ingot,
rolling.
ingot, extrusion. A cast form that is solid or hollow, usually cylindrical,
suitable for extruding. See also ingot, fabricating.
204 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

ingot, fabricating. A cast form suitable for subsequent working by such


methods as rolling, forging, extruding, and so on (rolling ingot, forging
ingot, extrusion ingot). See also ingot, extrusion; ingot, forging; and
ingot, rolling.
ingot, forging. A cast form intended and suitable for subsequent working
by the forging process.
ingot, remelt. A cast form intended and suitable for remelting, usually
for producing castings.
ingot, rolling. A cast form suitable for rolling. See also ingot, fabricat-
ing.
injection. The process of forcing molten metal or plastic into a die cavity.
inoculant. Material which, when added to molten metal, modifies the
structure, and thereby changes the physical and mechanical properties
to a degree not explained on the basis of the change in composition
resulting from its use.
insert. A metal component (plug or stud) that is placed in a die casting
die or sand mold allowing molten metal to be cast around it. The
component becomes an integral part of the casting.
inspection lot. See lot, inspection.
interleaving. The insertion of paper or application of suitable strippable
coatings between layers of metal to protect from damage.
investment casting. A process in which a wax pattern is invested (dipped
in a slurry then sprinkled with loose sand). This process is repeated
several times, making a thick, green pottery mold. After the mold dries,
the wax pattern is melted out, and the mold is baked, producing a
ceramic shell or mold. Molten metal is poured into the mold to make
a casting.
investment molding. The process also is known as the lost wax process.
Molds are produced by dipping wax or thermoplastic patterns in a fine
slurry to produce as smooth a surface as possible. The slurry is air dried
and redipped several times using cheaper and coarser, more permeable
refractory until the shell is of sufficient thickness for the strength
required to contain molten metal. Investment molds also are produced
as solid molds by putting the pattern assembly in a flask, which is then
filled with a refractory slurry and air dried. The molds then are put into
a furnace where the wax or plastic is melted and burned out of the mold
cavity. Molten metal is poured into the molds while the molds are still
superheated, thus making it possible to pour very thin wall sections. A
metal pattern die is used to produce the wax or plastic expendable
patterns. Investment molding produces casting of superior surface
finish, dimensional accuracy, and without parting fins or seams. This
process is expensive and is used to produce parts that would be very
difficult or impossible to machine, such as turbine engine parts,
particularly high-temperature, heat-resistant alloy applications such as
turbine blades.
Terminology / 205

K
kink. (1) For rolled products, an abrupt bend or deviation from flat that
is caused by localized bending during handling. (2) For extrusions, an
abrupt deviation from straightness. A kink can be caused by handling.
knife mark. See mark, knife.
knock-out mark. See mark, knock-out.

L
lacquer. Occasionally used to describe oil stain. See also stain, oil.
lamination. An internal crack or separation aligned parallel to the
direction of major metal flow and, in the case of plate, sheet, or foil,
parallel to the rolled surfaces. In extrusions, it can be caused by
contaminants that feed into the metal flow before it reaches the die
opening or cracked billets. See also back-end condition.
lap. See fold.
lateral bow. See bow, lateral.
layout sample. A prototype forging or a cast used to determine conform-
ance to designed dimensions.
leveler chatter. See mark, chatter (roll or leveler).
leveler mark. See dent, repeating.
leveler streak. See streak, leveler.
leveling. The mechanical flattening of plate, sheet, or foil.
leveling, roller. Leveling carried out by bending.
leveling, stretcher. Leveling carried out by uniaxial tension.
leveling, tension. Leveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretch-
ing, usually with the assistance of bending.
leveling, thermal. Leveling carried out at an elevated temperature under
an applied load normal to the surface to be flattened.
line, flow. The line pattern that shows the direction of flow on the
surface.
line, looper. Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal
that has undergone nonuniform deformation, usually in a drawing
operation.
line, Lueders. Elongated surface markings or depressions appearing in
patterns caused by localized plastic deformation that results from
nonuniform yielding.
liner. The slab of coating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is
subsequently rolled down to clad sheet as composite.
line, weld. See seam, extrusion.
liquated edge. See edge, liquated.
liquation. The bleeding of the low-melting constituents through the
solidified ingot surface.
206 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

lock. A condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one
plane.
log. See extrusion log.
longitudinal bow. See bow, longitudinal.
longitudinal direction. The direction of major metal flow in a working
operation.
long transverse direction. For plate, sheet, and forgings, the direction
perpendicular to the longitudinal direction that is also at right angles to
the thickness of the product. See also longitudinal direction.
looper line. See line, looper.
loose wrap. See wrap, loose.
lost foam casting. The casting process, also known as full-mold,
polycast, cavity’s molding, evaporative-pattern, or expendable-pattern
casting, is one in which a polystyrene pattern is vaporized by molten
metal during the metal pour and is thereby lost.
lot, heat treat. Material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section, and
size traceable to one heat treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or
billet in the case of press heat treated extrusions) or, if heat treated in
a continuous furnace, charged consecutively during an 8 h period.
lot, inspection. (1) For non-heat-treated tempers, an identifiable quantity
of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section, and size
submitted for inspection at one time. (2) For heat treated tempers, an
identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper,
section, and size traceable to a heat treat lot or lots and submitted for
inspection at one time. (For sheet and plate, all material of the same
thickness is considered to be of the same size.)
low-pressure casting process. The term low-pressure permanent mold-
ing (LPPM) is a casting process in which air pressure is introduced into
a molten metal holding furnace to force molten metal (usually
aluminum alloys) up a central tube into the metal mold cavity. Pressure
is maintained on the heat until the metal in the mold solidifies as a
casting. In a low-pressure (sand mold) casting process, the same basic
approach is used to force molten metal up a tube into the cavity of a
sand mold. Once filled, an automatic mechanism seals the mold
immediately, and the mold is quickly removed from the filling tube
connection and turned over before the metal solidifies. See also
vacuum casting process.
lube, high. Lubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed-upon limit
measured in weight per unit area.
lube, low. Failure of the lubricant to meet the agreed-upon minimum
limit measured in weight per unit area.
Lueders line. See line, Lueders.
Terminology / 207

M
mark. Damage in the surface of the product whose name is often
described by source.
mark, arbor. Surface damage in the vicinity of a coil inside diameter
caused by contact with a roughened, damaged, or noncircular arbor.
mark, bearing. A depression in the extruded surface caused by a change
in bearing length in the extrusion die.
mark, bite. A line that is generally perpendicular to the rolling direction.
mark, bristle. Raised surface approximately 25 mm (1 in.) long,
crimped wire shaped, and oriented in any direction.
mark, carbon. Gray or black surface marking caused by contact with
carbon run-out blocks.
mark, chatter (roll or leveler). Numerous intermittent lines or grooves
that are usually full width and perpendicular to the rolling or extrusion
direction.
mark, drag. See rub, tool.
mark, edge follower. Faint intermittent marks at the edge of a cold-
rolled product, which are usually perpendicular to the rolling direction.
This mark is caused by action of devices designed to rewind coils
without weave.
mark, handling. (1) For rolled products, an area of broken surface that
is introduced after processing. The mark usually has no relationship to
the rolling direction. (2) For extrusions, damage that can be imparted
to the surface during handling operations.
mark, heat treat contact. Brownish, iridescent, irregularly shaped stain
with a slight abrasion located somewhere within the boundary of the
stain. It is a result of metal-to-metal contact during the quenching of
solution heat treated flat sheet or plate.
mark, inclusion. Appearance of surface where actual inclusion or the
void it left is observed. See also inclusion, stringer.
mark, knife. A continuous scratch (which also may be creased) near a
slit edge, caused by sheet contacting the slitter knife.
mark, knock-out. A small solid protrusion or circular fin on a forging or
a casting, resulting from the depression of a knock-out pin under
pressure or inflow of metal between the knock-out pin and the die or
mold.
mark, leveler chatter. See mark, chatter (roll or leveler).
mark, metal-on-roll. See dent, repeating.
mark, mike. Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a
contacting micrometer.
mark, pinch. See crease.
mark, roll. (1) For rolled products, a small repeating raised or depressed
area caused by the opposite condition on a roll. The repeat distance is
a function of the offending roll diameter. (2) For extrusions, a
208 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

longitudinal groove or indentation caused by pressure from contour


rolls as a profile (shape) passes through them for dimensional correc-
tion.
mark, roll bruise. A greatly enlarged roll mark with a very shallow
height or depth. See also mark, roll.
mark, roll skid. A full-width line perpendicular to the rolling direction
and repeating as a function of a work roll diameter.
mark, rub. A large number of very fine scratches or abrasions. A rub
mark can occur by metal-to-metal contact, movement in handling, and
movement in transit.
mark, snap. A bandlike pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded
section and perpendicular to its length. A snap mark can occur
whenever there is an abrupt change in the extrusion process. See also
mark, stop.
mark, stop. A bandlike pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded
section and perpendicular to its length. A stop mark occurs whenever
the extrusion process is suspended. See also mark, snap.
mark, stretcher jaw. A cross-hatched appearance left by jaws at the
end(s) of metal that has been stretched. These marks are seen if
insufficient metal has been removed after the stretching operation.
mark, tab. See buckle, arbor.
mark, tail. See mark, roll bruise.
mark, take-up. See scratch, tension.
mark, traffic. Abrasion that results from relative movement between
contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color
from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A
mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contacting
surface.
mark, whip. A surface abrasion that is generally diagonal to the rolling
direction. It is caused by a fluttering action of the metal as it enters the
rolling mill.
master alloy. See hardener.
mean diameter. The average of two measurements of the diameter at
right angles to each other.
mechanical properties. Those properties of a material that are associ-
ated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that
involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example,
modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, endurance limit. These proper-
ties often are incorrectly referred to as physical properties.
microporosity. Extremely fine porosity in castings caused by shrinkage
or gas evolution, apparent on radiographic film as mottling.
mike mark. See mark, mike.
minimum residual stress (MRS). The term applied to products, usually
flat rolled, that have been processed to minimize internal stress of the
kind that causes distortion when material is disproportionately re-
Terminology / 209

moved from one of the two surfaces through mechanical or chemical


means.
mismatch. Error in register between two halves of a forging by opposing
die halves not being in perfect alignment.
modulus of elasticity. The ratio of stress to corresponding strain
throughout the range where they are proportional. As there are three
kinds of stresses, so there are three kinds of moduli of elasticity for any
material modulus in tension, in compression, and in shear.
mold. A refractory container into which molten metal is poured to
produce a specific cast shape.
mold cavity. The space in a mold that is filled with liquid metal to form
the casting upon solidification. The channels through which liquid
metal enters the mold cavity and reservoirs for liquid metal are not
considered part of the mold cavity proper.
mottling, pressure. Nonuniform surface appearance resulting from un-
even pressure distribution between adjacent layers of the product.
mullen test. Measurement of bursting strength of foil in pounds per
square inch. Testing machine applies increasing pressure to 645 mm2
(1 in.2) of the sample until it ruptures.

N
natural aging. See aging.
nick. Rolled products, see scratch; extrusions, see mark, handling.
nondestructive testing. Testing or inspection procedure that does not
destroy the product being inspected.
nonfill. Failure of metal to fill a forging die impression.
non-heat-treatable alloy. An alloy that can be strengthened only by cold
work.
notch, double shear. An abrupt deviation from straight on a sheared
edge. This offset may occur if the flat sheet or plate product is longer
than the blade for the final shearing operation.

O
off gage. Deviation of thickness or diameter of a solid product, or wall
thickness of a tubular product, from the standard or specified dimen-
sional tolerances.
offset. Yield strength by the offset method is computed from a load-strain
curve obtained by means of an extensometer. A straight line is drawn
parallel to the initial straight line portion of the load-strain curve and
at a distance to the right corresponding to 0.2% offset (0.002 mm per
mm, or 0.002 in. per in., of gage length). The load reached at the point
210 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

where this straight line intersects the curve divided by the original
cross-sectional area (mm2, or in.2) of the tension test specimen is the
yield strength.
oil stain. See stain, oil.
orange peel. Surface roughening on formed products that occurs when
large grains in the metal are present.
oscillation. Uneven wrap in coiling and lateral travel during winding.
Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before
rewinding and insufficient rewind tension are typical causes. See also
telescoping.
out-of-register. An embossed pattern distortion due to misalignment of
the male and female embossing rolls.
ovalness. See quality.
oxide discoloration. See stain, heat treat.

P
pack rolling. The simultaneous rolling of two or more thicknesses of
foil.
parent coil. A coil that has been processed to final temper as a single
unit. The parent coil may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller
coils or into individual sheets or plates to provide the required width
and length.
parent plate. A plate that has been processed to final temper as a single
unit. The parent plate may subsequently be cut into two or more
smaller plates to provide the required width and length.
partial annealing. See annealing, partial.
parting line. A condition unique to stepped extrusions where more than
one cross section exists in the same extruded shape. A stepped shape
uses a split die for the minor, or small, cross section and, after its
removal, another die behind it for the major configuration. Slightly
raised fins can appear on that portion of the shape where the two dies
meet. See also profile, stepped extruded.
pattern. A wood, metal, plastic, or wax replica of a casting that is used
to form the cavity in a mold into which molten metal is poured to form
a cast part. A pattern has the same basic features as the part to be cast,
except that it is made proportionately larger to compensate for
shrinkage due to the contraction of the metal during cooling and
solidifying.
patterned sheet. See embossing.
permanent mold casting. A casting process that uses a long-life mold,
usually metal, into which molten metal is poured by gravity. Metals
cast are usually aluminum alloys, although a few producers pour iron
into water-cooled metal dies.
Terminology / 211

physical properties. The properties, other than mechanical properties,


that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical
conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal expansion.
pickoff. The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the
sheet to an adjacent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating.
pickup. Small particles of oxide adhering to the surface of a product at
irregular intervals.
pickup, repeating. See dent, repeating.
pickup, roll. Small particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated
in the roll bite, which subsequently transfer to the rolled product. It
may be distributed uniformly and/ or in streaks. See also streak,
coating.
pinch mark. See crease.
pinhole. (1) Minute hole in foil. (2) A small-sized void in the coating of
a sheet or foil product. A typical cause is solvent popping.
pipe. Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall
thickness, commonly designated by nominal pipe sizes and American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) schedule numbers.
pipe, drawn. Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a
die.
pipe, extruded. Pipe formed by hot extruding.
pipe, seamless. Extruded or drawn pipe that does not contain any line
junctures resulting from the method of manufacture.
pipe, structural. Pipe commonly used for structural purposes.
piping. See back-end condition.
pit. A depression in the rolled surface that usually is not visible from the
opposite side.
pitting. See corrosion.
plate. A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section and with
thickness over 6.3 mm (equal to or greater than 0.25 in.) with sheared
or sawed edges.
plate, alclad. Composite plate composed of an aluminum alloy core
having on both surfaces (if on one side only, alclad one-side plate) a
metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is
anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against
corrosion.
plate circle. Circle cut from plate.
pop, solvent. Blister and/or void in the coating resulting from trapped
solvents released during curing process.
porosity. Holes or nonspecific cavities in a casting from insufficient feed
metal during solidification, or numerous other causes.
precipitation hardening. See aging.
precipitation heat treating. See aging.
preheating. A high-temperature soaking treatment to provide a desired
metallurgical structure. Homogenizing is a form of preheating.
212 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

pressure mottling. See mottling, pressure.


profile. A wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional
dimensions, which is of a form other than that of sheet, plate, rod,
bar, tube, wire, or foil.
profile, class 1 hollow extruded. A hollow extruded profile, the void of
which is round and 25 mm (1 in.) or more in diameter and whose
weight is equally distributed on opposite sides of two or more equally
spaced axes.
profile, class 2 hollow extruded. Any hollow extruded profile other than
class 1, which does not exceed a 125 mm (5 in.) diameter circumscrib-
ing circle and has a single void of not less than 10 mm (0.375 in.)
diameter or 70 mm2 (0.110 in.2) area.
profile, class 3 hollow extruded. Any hollow extruded profile other than
class 1 or class 2.
profile, cold-finished. A profile brought to final dimensions by cold
working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
profile, cold-finished extruded. A profile produced by cold finishing an
extruded profile.
profile, cold-finished rolled. A profile produced by cold finishing a
rolled profile.
profile, drawn. A profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through
a die.
profile, extruded. A profile produced by hot extruding.
profile, flute hollow. A hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and
outside surfaces that comprise regular, longitudinal, concave corruga-
tions with sharp cusps between corrugations.
profile, helical extruded. An extruded profile twisted along its length.
profile, hollow. A profile in which any part of its cross section com-
pletely encloses a void.
profile, lip hollow. A hollow profile of generally circular cross section
and nominally uniform wall thickness with one hollow or solid
protuberance or lip parallel to the longitudinal axis; used principally for
heat-exchange purposes.
profile, pinion hollow. A hollow profile with regularly spaced, longitu-
dinal serrations outside, and round inside, used primarily for making
small gears.
profile, rolled. A profile produced by hot rolling.
profile, semihollow. A profile in which any part of its cross section is a
partially enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than
the square of the width of the gap. The ratio of the area of the void to
the square of the gap is dependent on the class of semihollow profile,
the alloy, and the gap width.
profile, solid. A profile other than hollow or semihollow.
profile, stepped extruded. An extruded profile with a cross section that
changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.
Terminology / 213

profile, streamline hollow. A hollow profile with a cross section of


tear-drop shape.
profile, structural. A profile in certain standard alloys, tempers, sizes,
and sections, such as angles, channels, H sections, I-beams, tees, and
zees, commonly used for structural purposes. For channels and
I-beams, there are two standards: (1) Aluminum Association Standard
and (2) American Standard.
profile, tapered extruded. An extruded profile with a cross section that
changes continuously in area along its length or a specified portion
thereof.

Q
quality. Deviation from a circular periphery, usually expressed as the
total difference found at any one cross section between the individual
maximum and minimum diameters, which usually occur at or about
90° to each other. Since quality is the difference between extreme
diameters, it is not expressed as plus or minus.
quarter buckle. See buckle, quarter.
quenching. Controlled rapid cooling of a metal from an elevated
temperature by contact with a liquid, a gas, or a solid.
quenching crack. Fracture caused by thermal stresses induced during
rapid cooling or quenching or by stresses caused by delayed transfor-
mation after the object has been fully quenched.

R
RCS. Rigid Container Sheet.
radiographic inspection. Examination of the soundness of a casting by
radiography.
radiography. The use of radiant energy in the form of x-rays or gamma
rays for nondestructive examination of opaque objects, such as
castings, to produce graphic records that indicate the comparative
soundness of the object being tested.
razor streak. See inclusion, stringer.
rear-end condition. See back- end condition.
redraw rod. This term is not recommended. The term drawing stock is
preferred.
refined aluminum. Aluminum of very high purity (99.950% or higher)
obtained by special metallurgical treatments.
reflector sheet. Sheet suitable for the manufacture of reflectors.
reheating. Heating metal again to hot-working temperature. In general,
no structural changes are intended.
214 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

reoil. Oil put on the sheet after cleaning and before coiling for shipment
to prevent water stain.
reroll stock. A semifinished rolled product of rectangular cross section
in coiled form suitable for further rolling. Examples: foil stock and
sheet stock.
rib. An elongated projection on a shape, forging, or casting to provide
stiffening.
riser. Sometimes referred to as a head or feeder. (1) A chamber that forms
the reservoir for feed metal necessary to compensate for losses caused
by shrinkage as the casting solidifies. (2) The pattern part that forms it
and the metal solidified in it.
riser gating. Gating system in which molten metal from the sprue enters
a riser close to the mold cavity and then flows into the mold cavity.
rivet. See wire, cold heading.
rod. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its circular cross
section, which is not less than 10 mm (0.375 in.) diameter.
rod, alclad. Rod having on its surface a metallurgically bonded alumi-
num or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core alloy to which
it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against
corrosion.
rod, cold-finished. Rod brought to final dimensions by cold working to
obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.
rod, cold-finished extruded. Rod produced by cold working extruded
rod.
rod, cold-finished rolled. Rod produced by cold working rolled rod.
rod, cold-heading. Rod of a quality suitable for use in the manufacture
of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.
rod, extruded. Rod produced by hot extruding.
rod, rivet. See rod, cold-heading.
rod, rolled. Rod produced by hot rolling.
roll chatter. See mark, chatter (roll or leveler).
roll coating. See streak, coating.
rolled-in metal. An extraneous chip or particle of metal rolled into the
surface of the product.
rolled-in scratch. See scratch, rolled-in.
rolled-over edge. See edge, liquated.
roll grind. The uniform ground finish on the work rolls that is imparted
to the sheet or plate during rolling.
rolling slab. A rectangular semifinished product, produced by hot rolling
fabricating ingot and suitable for further rolling.
roll mark. See mark, roll.
roll pickup. See pickup, roll.
rolled ring. See forging, rolled ring.
Terminology / 215

roofing sheet. Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths, and


thicknesses suitable for the manufacture of corrugated or V-crimp
roofing.
roping. A ropelike appearance in the rolling direction after the metal has
undergone severe deformation.
roundness. This term is not recommended. The term quality is preferred.
rub mark. See mark, rub.
rub, tool. A surface area showing a scratch or abrasion resulting from
contact of the hot extrusion with the press equipment or tooling or,
in the case of multihole dies, with other sections as they exit the
press.
runner. That portion of the gate assembly connecting the downgate or
sprue with the casting.
runner system. Also called gating; the set of channels in a mold through
which molten metal travels to the mold cavity; includes sprues,
runners, gates, and risers.

S
sample. A part, portion, or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test
as representative of the whole.
sand castings. Metal castings produced in sand molds.
sand mold. A mold is a form that contains the cavity into which molten
metal is poured. It usually consists of two mold halves, separately
made, and mated to form the mold cavity.
saw-plate bar. See bar, saw-plate.
scalping. Mechanical removal of the surface layer from a fabricating
ingot or semifinished wrought product so that surface imperfections
will not be worked into the finished product.
scratch. (1) For rolled products, a sharp indentation in the surface
usually caused by a machine or during handling. (2) For extrusions, a
synonym for handling mark. See also mark, handling.
scratch, drawn-in. A scratch occurring during the fabricating process
and subsequently drawn over, making it relatively smooth to the touch.
scratch, friction. A scratch caused by relative motion between two
contacting surfaces.
scratch, handling. A more severe form of rub mark. See also mark, rub.
scratch, machine. An indentation that is straight, is in the rolling
direction, and is caused by contact with a sharp projection on
equipment.
scratch, oscillation. Minor indentations at an angle to the rolling
direction that result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewind-
ing.
216 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

scratch, oven. A scratch caused by moving contact of coating against a


nonmoving object in an oven.
scratch, rolled-in. A scratch that is subsequently rolled. It will then
appear as a grayish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the
longitudinal indentation).
scratch, slippage. See scratch, tension.
scratch, tension. A short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling
direction.
seam defect. An unbonded fold or lap on the surface of the metal, which
appears as a crack, usually the result of a defect in working that has not
bonded shut.
seam, extrusion. The junction line of metal that has passed through a
hollow die, separated and rejoined at the exit point. Seams are present
in all extruded hollows produced from the direct extrusion process and
in many cases are not visible. See also weld, incomplete.
seamless. A hollow product that does not contain any line junctures
resulting from method of manufacture.
section number. The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile
(shape) for identification and cataloging purposes, usually the same
number assigned for the same purpose to the die from which the profile
(shape) is made.
serpentine weave. See snaking.
shape. This term is no longer recommended. The term profile is
preferred.
shear strength. The maximum stress that a material is capable of
sustaining in shear. In practice, shear strength is considered to be the
maximum average stress computed by dividing the ultimate load in the
plane of shear by the original area subject to shear. Shear strength
usually is determined by inserting a cylindrical specimen through
round holes in three hardened steel blocks, the center of which is pulled
(or pushed) between the other two so as to shear the specimen on two
planes. The maximum load divided by the combined cross-sectional
area of the two planes is the shear strength.
sheet. A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thickness
over 0.15 through 6.3 mm (less than 0.250 in. but not less than 0.006
in.) and with slit, sheared, or sawed edges.
sheet, alclad. Composite sheet composed of an aluminum alloy core
having on both surfaces (if one side only, alclad one-side sheet) a
metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is
anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against
corrosion.
sheet, anodizing. Sheet with metallurgical characteristics and surface
quality suitable for the development of protective and decorative films
by anodic oxidation processes.
Terminology / 217

sheet, clad. Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side
only, clad one-side sheet) a metallurgically bonded metal coating, the
composition of which may or may not be the same as that of the core.
sheet, coiled. Sheet in coils with slit edges.
sheet, coiled circles. Circles cut from coiled sheet.
sheet, coiled cut to length. Sheet cut to specified length from coils and
which has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet.
sheet, flat. Sheet with sheared, slit, or sawed edges, which has been
flattened or leveled.
sheet, flat circles. Circles cut from flat sheet.
sheet, mill finish (MF). Sheet having a nonuniform finish that may vary
from sheet to sheet and within a sheet and may not be entirely free from
stains or oil.
sheet, one-side bright mill finish (1SBMF). Sheet having a moderate
degree of brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other.
sheet, painted. Sheet, one or both sides of which has a factory-applied
paint coating of controlled thickness.
sheet, standard one-side bright finish (S1SBF). Sheet having a uniform
bright finish on one side and a mill finish on the other.
sheet, standard two sides bright finish (S2SBF). Sheet having a
uniform bright finish on both sides.
sheet stock. See reroll stock.
shell molding. Shell molds are made from a mixture of sand and
thermosetting resin binder.
shell mold process. A process in which resin-coated sand is laid on a
heated pattern, bonding it together to form a hardened shell about 10 to
20 mm (0.40 to 0.80 in.) thick. Two mating shells are glued together to
make a precision mold to produce a casting with excellent dimensional
accuracy and a smooth surface texture.
short transverse direction. For plate, sheet, and forgings, the direction
through the thickness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long
transverse directions.
shrinkage. Contraction that occurs when metal cools from the casting or
hot-working temperature.
side crack. See edge, broken (cracked).
side set. A difference in thickness between the two edges of plate, sheet,
or foil.
skip. An area of uncoated sheet frequently caused by equipment mal-
function.
slippage scratch. See scratch, tension.
slitter hair. See hair, slitter.
sliver. Thin fragment of aluminum that is part of the material but only
partially attached. Surface damage or residual liquation that is subse-
quently rolled are typical causes.
slug. A metal blank for forging or impacting.
218 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

smudge. A dark film of debris, sometimes covering large areas, depos-


ited on the sheet during rolling.
smut. See smudge.
snaking. A series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. This
condition is caused by a weaving action during an unwinding or
rewinding operation.
solution heat treating. Heating an alloy at a suitable temperature for
sufficient time to allow soluble constituents to enter into solid solution
where they are retained in a supersaturated state after quenching.
specimen. That portion of a sample taken for evaluation of some specific
characteristic or property.
speed crack. See tear, speed.
speed tear. See tear, speed.
splice. The end joint uniting two webs.
spot, lube. A nonuniform extraneous deposit of lube on the coated sheet.
sprue. The vertical portion of the gating system through which molten
metal first enters the mold.
squareness. Characteristic of having adjacent sides or planes meeting at
90°.
squeeze casting. Also known as liquid metal forging or forge casting, it
is a casting process by which molten metal (ferrous or nonferrous)
solidifies under pressure within closed dies positioned between the
plates of a hydraulic press.
stabilizing. A low-temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent
age softening in certain strain-hardened alloys containing magnesium.
stain, heat treat. A discoloration due to nonuniform oxidation of the
metal surface during heat treatment.
stain, oil. Surface discoloration that may vary from dark brown to white
and is produced during thermal treatment by incomplete evaporation
and/or oxidation of lubricants on the surface.
stain, saw lubricant. A yellow to brown area of surface discoloration at
the ends of the extruded length. It is the residue of certain types of saw
lubricants if they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal
treatment.
stain, water. See corrosion, water stain.
starvation. Nonuniform coating application that results in the absence of
coating in certain areas.
sticking. Adherence of foil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the
normal ease of unwinding.
straightness. The absence of divergence from a right (straight) line in the
direction of measurement.
strain. A measure of the change in size or shape of a body under stress,
referred to its original size or shape. Tensile or compressive strain is the
change, due to force, per unit of length in an original linear dimension
in the direction of the applied force.
Terminology / 219

strain hardening. Modification of a metal structure by cold working


resulting in an increase in strength and hardness with loss of ductility.
streak, bearing. A longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there
are large changes in wall thickness as a result of uneven cooling. These
streaks usually appear lighter than the surrounding metal.
streak, bright. A bright superficial band or elongated mark that produces
a nonuniform surface appearance.
streak, buff. A dull, continuous streak caused by smudge buildup on a
buff used at shearing or other operations.
streak burnish. A bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll
surface wear.
streak, coating. A banded condition caused by nonuniform adherence of
roll coating to a work roll. It can be created during hot and/or cold
rolling. If generated in the hot rolling process, it also is called hot mill
pickup.
streak, cold. See streak, heat.
streak, diffusion. Surface discoloration that may vary from gray to
brown and found only on alclad products.
streak, dirt. Surface discoloration that may vary from gray to black, is
parallel to the direction of rolling, and contains rolled-in foreign debris.
It is usually extraneous material from an overhead location that drops
onto the rolling surface and is shallow enough to be removed by
etching or buffing.
streak, grease. A narrow discontinuous streak caused by rolling over an
area containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.
streak, grinding. A streak with a helical pattern appearance transferred
to a rolled product from a work roll.
streak, heat. Milky colored band(s) parallel to the rolling direction that
vary in both width and exact location along the length.
streak, herringbone. Elongated alternately bright and dull chevron
markings.
streak, leveler. A streak on the sheet surface in the rolling direction
caused by transfer from the leveler rolls.
streak, mill buff. See streak, roll.
streak, pickup. See streak, coating.
streak, roll. A nonuniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling
direction.
streak (stripe). A superficial band or elongated mark that produces a
nonuniform surface appearance. A streak often is described by source.
streak, structural. A nonuniform appearance on an etched or anodized
surface caused by heterogeneities (variabilities) remaining in the metal
from the casting, thermal processes, or hot-working stages of fabrica-
tion.
220 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

stress. Force per unit of area. Stress is normally calculated on the basis
of the original cross-sectional dimensions. The three kinds of stresses
are tensile, compressive, and shear.
stress-corrosion cracking (SCC). See corrosion, stress-cracking.
stress relieving. The reduction of the effects of internal residual stresses
by thermal or mechanical means.
stretcher strain. See line, Lueders.
striation. Longitudinal nonuniform coating thickness caused by uneven
application of the liquid coating.
strip. This term is not recommended. The term sheet is preferred.
structural streak. See streak, structural.
suck-in. A defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill
a projection on the opposite side.
surface tear. Minute surface cracks on rolled products that can be caused
by insufficient ingot scalping.

T
tail mark. See mark, roll bruise.
tear, speed. A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding
direction. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities
of a section and is caused by localized high temperature.
telescoping. Lateral stacking, primarily in one direction, of wraps in a
coil so that the edges of the coil are conical rather than flat. Improper
alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding is a
typical cause. See also oscillation.
temper. The condition produced by either mechanical or thermal treat-
ment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure and mechanical
properties.
tensile strength. In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original
cross-sectional area. Also called ultimate strength.
tension scratch. See scratch, tension.
tolerance. Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension.
tool. A term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, and so on used in the
production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube.
tooling pad. See chucking lug.
tooling plate. A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section over
6.3 mm (0.250 in.) or greater in thickness and with edges either as-cast,
sheared, or sawed, with internal stress levels controlled to achieve
maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applications.
torn surface. A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by
extrusion or drawing tools.
traffic mark. Abrasion that results from relative movement between
contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color
Terminology / 221

from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide usually is observed. A


mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contacting
surface.
transverse bow. See bow, transverse.
transverse direction. A direction perpendicular to the direction of
working.
tread plate. Sheet or plate having a raised figured pattern on one surface
to provide improved traction.
trim inclusion. Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil.
tube. A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross
section, which is symmetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or
octagon, elliptical, or square or rectangular with sharp or rounded
corners, and that has uniform wall thickness except as affected by
corner radii.
tube, alclad. Composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core
having on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded
aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus
electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.
tube, arc-welded. Tube made from sheet or plate butt welded by either
gas tungsten or gas metal arc welding method, with or without the use
of filler metal.
tube bloom. This term is not recommended. The term tube stock is
preferred.
tube, brazed. A tube produced by forming and seam brazing sheet.
tube, butt-welded. A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by
positioning one edge of the sheet against the other for welding.
tube, drawn. A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing
through a die. (Note: This product may be produced from either
seamless or nonseamless extruded stock or from welded stock.)
tube, embossed. A tube, the outside surface of which has been roll
embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal
direction.
tube, extruded. A tube formed by hot extruding. (Note: This product
may be either seamless or nonseamless.)
tube, finned. Tube that has integral fins or projections protruding from
its outside surface.
tube, fluted. A tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular,
longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corruga-
tions.
tube, heat-exchanger. A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside
the tube will be heated or cooled by fluid outside the tube. The term
usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators
or radiators.
tube, helical-welded. A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to
form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding.
222 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

tube, lap-welded. A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by


longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding.
tube, lock-seam. A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock
seaming sheet.
tube, open-seam. A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally
uniform wall thickness and approximately tubular form but having a
longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25% of
the outside diameter or greatest overall dimension. Also referred to
as butt-seam tube.
tube, redraw. This term is not recommended. The term tube stock is
preferred.
tube, seamless. A tube that does not contain any fine junctures (metal-
lurgical welds) resulting from the method of manufacture. (Note: This
product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piercer
processes.)
tube, sized. A tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight
amount to minimize quality.
tube, stepped drawn. A drawn tube whose cross section changes
abruptly in area at intervals along its length.
tube stock. A semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn
tube.
tube, structural. Tube commonly used for structural purposes.
tube, welded. A tube produced by forming and seam welding sheet
longitudinally.
tubing. This term is not recommended. The term tube is preferred.
tubing, electrical metallic. A tube having certain standardized length
and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than
that of rigid conduit, commonly designated by nominal electrical trade
sizes, for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for
electrical wiring.
tubular conductor. A tubular product suitable for use as an electric
conductor.
twist. (1) For rolled products, a winding departure from flatness. (2) For
extrusions, a winding departure from straightness.
two-tone. A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due
to a difference in the work roll coating.

ultimate tensile strength. See tensile strength.


Terminology / 223

V
vacuum casting process. A process in which a special design sand mold
or a permanent (metal) mold with a bottom opening is used and a
vacuum is placed on the mold; the metal is drawn into the mold
through gates in the bottom of the mold. It is a foundry industry term
for any casting process in which metal is melted and poured under very
low atmospheric pressure.
vent mark. A small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance
of metal into a die vent hole.

W
water stain. See corrosion, water stain.
wavy edge. See buckle, edge.
weave. See oscillation.
web. (1) A single thickness of foil as it leaves the rolling mill. (2) A
connecting element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on shapes and
forgings.
weld, incomplete. The junction line of metal that has passed through a
die forming a hollow profile (shape), separated and not completely
rejoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.
welding. Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or
pressure, or both, with or without filler metal, to produce a localized
union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. (Cold
welding is a solid-state welding process in which pressure is used at
room temperature to produce coalescence of metals with substantial
deformation at the weld.)
welding rod. A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in
joining by welding.
welding wire. Wire for use as filler metal in joining by welding.
weld line. See seam, extrusion.
wettability test. The degree to which a metal surface may be wet to
determine the absence of or the amount of residual rolling or added
lubricants or deposits on the surface.
whip marks. See mark, whip.
whisker. See hair, slitter.
wire. A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section,
which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges,
or is round, hexagonal, or octagonal, and whose diameter or greatest
perpendicular distance between parallel faces is up through 10 mm
(less than 0.375 in.).
wire, alclad. A composite wire product composed of an aluminum-alloy
wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or
224 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is


bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corro-
sion.
wire, cold-heading. Wire of quality suitable for use in the manufacture
of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.
wire, drawn. Wire brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.
wire, extruded. Wire produced by hot extruding.
wire, flattened. Wire having two parallel flat surfaces and rounded edges
produced by roll flattening round wire.
wire, flattened and slit-flattened. Wire that has been slit to obtain
square edges.
wire, rivet. See wire, cold-heading.
workability. The relative ease with which various alloys can be formed
by rolling, extruding, forging, and so on.
work hardening. See strain hardening.
wrap, loose. A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension that creates
a small void between adjacent wraps.
wrinkle. See crease.
wrought product. A product that has been subjected to mechanical
working by such processes as rolling, extruding, forging, and so on.

Y
yield strength. The stress at which a material exhibits a specified
permanent set. The offset used for aluminum and its alloys is 0.2% of
gage length. For aluminum alloys, the yield strengths in tension and
compression are approximately equal.
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)

Subject Index

A Aluminum Association Technical


Committee on Product Standards
Abrasion. See Mark, traffic. (TCPS) ................................... 2–3, 72–73
Aerospace industry alloys used ...... 5, 30–31, address for .................................................. 3
69, 90, 92(F), 107, 110, 117 alloy registration process controlled
AFS. See American Foundrymen’s by ........................................................ 9
Society. Aluminum Casting Technology ............ 73, 80
Age hardening, definition ......................... 187 Aluminum-copper alloys
Age softening, definition ........................... 187 aerospace industry applications .... 90, 92(F)
Aging. See also Artificial aging; Natural aircraft industry applications ........ 90, 91(F)
aging. automotive industry applications .. 90, 91(F)
definition ................................................. 188 mechanical properties ......................... 89–90
microstructures of forgings ............... 130(F) properties ............................................ 89–90
wrought alloys .......................................... 72 railroad industry applications ....... 90, 93(F)
Airbus .................................................... 112(F) weldability .......................................... 89, 90
Aircraft industry, alloys used . . . 4, 90, 91(F), Aluminum-copper casting alloys
94, 103–104, 105, 107, 109(F), 110(F), mechanical properties ................ 109–111(F)
112(F), 117 properties ................................... 109–111(F)
Alclad, definition ....................................... 188 special alloys for engine components .... 111
Alligatoring. See Lamination. Aluminum-lithium alloys, aerospace
Alloy, definition .......................................... 188 industry applications ................. 90, 92(F)
Alloy and Temper Registration Aluminum-magnesium alloys
Records ............................................ 2, 39 automotive industry alloys ..... 96(F), 101(F)
Alloy registration process ............................ 9 construction industry alloys ....... 96, 100(F),
Aluminum 102(F), 103(F)
advantages .................................................. 1 container applications ................. 96, 101(F)
applications, industrial ............................... 1 cryogenic applications .............................. 96
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) marine industry alloys ...... 96, 97(F), 98(F),
physical properties .............................. 29(T) 99(F), 100(F)
welded to copper ............................... 184(F) mechanical properties ............................... 96
welded to steel ................................... 194(F) packaging industry alloys ........... 96, 101(F)
Aluminum alloys properties ................................. 95–97, 99(F)
applications ................................................. 7 stress-corrosion cracking .......................... 96
definition ..................................................... 6 weldability ................................................ 96
experimental alloys ...................... 16, 24–25 Aluminum-magnesium casting alloys
heat treatment ..................................... 84–85 castability ........................................ 114–115
percent aluminum content .......................... 6 mechanical properties ............................. 113
variations in compositions ....................... 25 properties ........................................ 112–115
Aluminum Association ................ 1, 2–3, 7–8 Aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys
casting alloy designation system ............. 37 construction industry alloys .................... 98,
designation systems ................... 9-22(T), 37 100–101(F), 102(F), 103(F),
H temper designation of wrought 104(F), 105(F), 106(F)
alloys ........................................... 61–62 electrical industry alloys .......................... 99
Aluminum Association Alloy and mechanical properties ....................... 97–102
Temper Designation Systems (ANSI properties ............................. 97–102, 107(F)
H35.1) .......................................... 9–22(T) weldability ................................................ 98
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
226 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Aluminum-manganese alloys American National Standard Alloy and


as automotive alloys ..................... 93, 94(F) Temper Designation Systems for
beverage can application .............. 93, 95(F) Aluminum .............................................. 1
brazing ...................................................... 93 American National Standards Institute
chemical industry alloys .......................... 93 (ANSI) ............................... 1, 2, 3, 22, 73
construction industry alloys ..................... 93 AMS, definition .......................................... 187
Angularity, definition ................................ 188
culinary industry alloys ............................ 93
Angulation, definition ............................... 188
for heat exchangers ....................... 93, 94(F) Annealing
mechanical properties ........................ 90, 93 cold rolled sheet ...... 123(F), 132(F), 137(F)
properties ............................................ 90, 93 definition ................................................. 188
soldering ................................................... 93 hot rolled sheet .................................. 135(F)
weldability ................................................ 93 microstructure ....................... 140(F), 141(F)
Aluminum-silicon alloys partial ........................................................ 40
brazing ........................................... 93, 95(F) partial, definition .................................... 188
mechanical properties ............................... 93 plate ...................................... 135(F), 136(F)
properties ............................................ 93–95 precipitates in microstructure ........... 124(F),
soldering ................................................... 93 131(F), 138(F)
weldability .......................... 93–95(F), 96(F) sheet ................................................... 143(F)
Aluminum-silicon casting alloys temper designation ................. 16-17, 18(T),
construction industry alloys ................... 112 21(T), 22
for office machine housings ................... 112 Annual Book of ASTM Standards ............... 7
marine alloys .......................................... 112 Anodizing ..................................................... 27
mechanical properties ............................. 112 aluminum-magnesium alloys ......... 114, 115
properties ................................................ 112 definition ................................................. 188
Aluminum-silicon-copper casting alloys, Anodizing sheet. See Sheet, anodizing.
properties ..... 111–112(F), 113(F), 114(F) ANSI. See American National Standards
Aluminum-silicon-magnesium casting Institute.
alloys, properties ..... 111–112(F), 113(F), Arbor break. See Buckle, arbor.
114(F) Arbor mark. See Mark, arbor.
Aluminum-silicon plus copper or Artificial aging. See also Aging. ................ 84
magnesium alloys casting alloys ............................................ 74
mechanical properties . . 111–112(F), 113(F), of extrusion, microstructure affected
114(F) by ............................................... 139(F)
weldability .............................................. 111 microstructure of castings ... 164(F), 166(F),
Aluminum Standards and Data ...... 1–2, 8–9, 167(F), 169(F), 170(F)
11–13(T), 22, 29, 39, 73 microstructure of closed-die
1998 metric standard units ......................... 8 forgings ........... 128(F), 129(F), 130(F)
Aluminum: Technology, Applications, microstructure of forgings ................. 152(F)
and Environment (D.G. Altenpohl) ..... 7, microstructure of plates ....... 127(F), 128(F)
77, 87 temper designations ................ 19–20, 21(T)
Aluminum-tin casting alloys wrought alloys ..... 26, 27, 60, 65–68, 70–72
mechanical properties ............................. 115 As-cast condition, definition ..................... 188
properties ................................................ 115 ASME, definition ....................................... 187
Aluminum-zinc alloys Automotive industry
aircraft industry alloys .......... 103–104, 105, alloys used .. 4, 90, 91(F), 93–96(F), 98–99,
109(F) 101(F), 107(F), 108(F), 112–114(F)
mechanical properties ..................... 102–105 investment casting of engines .................. 83
properties .............. 102–105, 109(F), 110(F) AWS, definition .......................................... 187
weldability .............................................. 103
Aluminum-zinc casting alloys
mechanical properties ............................. 115 B
properties ................................................ 115
Alusuisse Alucoban .............................. 102(F) Back-end condition (coring) .. 164(F), 180(F)
American Foundrymen’s Society definition ................................................. 188
(AFS) ...................................... 37, 73, 80 Backup roll, definition .............................. 188
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 227

Bar Brazing sheet ........................................ 163(F)


cold-finished, definition .......................... 189 definition ................................................. 190
cold-finished extruded, definition .......... 189 Brazing wire, definition ............................ 190
cold-finished rolled, definition ............... 189 Bright sheet. See Sheet, (1SBMF),
definition ................................................. 188 (S1SBF), and (S2SBF).
extruded ............................................. 151(F) Brinell hardness
extruded, definition ................................ 189 casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T)
rolled, definition ..................................... 189 wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T)
saw-plate, definition ............................... 189 Bristle mark. See Mark, bristle.
Broken edge. See Edge, broken.
Base box, general, definition .................... 189
Broken eie, definition ................................ 190
Bearing applications ..................................... 5
Broken matte finish, definition ................ 190
Belled edge. See Edge, belled.
Broken surface. See Crazing.
Belly, definition .......................................... 189
Bruise. See Mark, roll bruise.
Beryllium
Buckle
as alloying element ............................. 15(T)
arbor, definition ...................................... 190
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
center, definition ..................................... 190
physical properties .............................. 29(T)
definition ................................................. 190
Billet, definition ......................................... 189
edge, definition ....................................... 190
Billet casting .......................................... 77–78
Binder, definition ....................................... 189 oil can. See Buckle, trapped.
Bismuth quarter, definition ................................... 190
as alloying element .................. 12(T), 13(T) trapped, definition .................................. 190
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) Buffing, definition ...................................... 190
physical properties .............................. 29(T) Buff streak. See Streak.
Blank, definition ........................................ 189 Burnishing. See Two-tone.
Blast cleaning, definition .......................... 189 Burnish streak. See Streak, burnish.
Bleed out. See Two-tone. Burr, definition .......................................... 191
Blister Bursting strength. See also Mullen test.
bond, definition ...................................... 189 definition ................................................. 191
coating, definition ................................... 189 Bus bar ................................................... 88(F)
definition ................................................. 191
core, definition ........................................ 189
Butt-seam tube. See Tube, open-seam.
definition ................................................. 189
Blistering ............................................... 124(F)
Block mark. See Scratch, tension.
Bloom, definition ....................................... 189 C
Blow hole. See also Blister.
Cadmium
definition ................................................. 189
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
Bolting, wrought alloys ................................. 4 physical properties .............................. 29(T)
Boron, as alloying element ......... 13(T), 15(T) Camber. See Bow, lateral.
Boss, definition ........................................... 189 Carbon mark. See Mark, carbon.
Bottom draft, definition ............................ 189 Cast aluminum alloy, definition .................. 6
Bow Casting alloys
definition ......................................... 189–190 advantages ........................................... 34(T)
lateral, definition .................................... 190 alloy group ............................................... 14
longitudinal, definition ........................... 190 alloying element in greatest mean
transverse, definition .............................. 190 percentage ......................................... 14
Brazing ......................................................... 27 alloying elements ............... 14(T), 15–16(T)
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 93 applications for alloys and
aluminum-silicon alloys ................ 93, 95(F) tempers ............................... 108–115(F)
commercially pure aluminum .................. 87 artificial aging ........................................... 74
definition ................................................. 190 composition ........................ 14(T), 15–16(T)
dip ...................................................... 180(F) corrosion .............................................. 34(T)
of joints, microstructures .......... 162–163(F) cracking ............................................... 34(T)
microstructure of sheet ........ 162(F), 163(F) designation system ................. 11, 13–16(T),
wrought alloys ............................................ 4 32–37(T)
Brazing rod, definition .............................. 190 elongations .................................................. 8
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
228 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Casting alloys (continued) microstructure of sheet ....... 144(F), 151(F),


152(F), 153(F), 154(F)
family designated ............................... 32–33 microstructure of sheet, heat
fatigue ............................................. 108, 110 treated ........................................ 126(F)
finishing ............................................... 34(T) Clad sheet. See Sheet, clad.
fluidity ................................................. 34(T) Cleaning, definition ................................... 192
joining .................................................. 34(T) Coating
limitations ............................................ 34(T) conversion, definition ............................. 192
mechanical properties ................... 49–57(T) definition ................................................. 192
microstructures .......................... 164–180(F) high or low, definition ............................ 192
minimum aluminum percentage .............. 14 Coating blister. See Blister, coating.
natural aging ............................................. 74 Coating buildup, definition ...................... 192
product form ............................................. 14 Coating drip, definition ............................ 192
properties .................................................... 5 Coating oven trash. See Dirt.
Coating streak. See Streak, coating.
purity ......................................................... 14
Cobalt
solution heat treatment ..................... 34, 74 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
strengthening mechanisms ................. 33–34 physical properties .............................. 29(T)
temper designations ............................ 73–75 Cobble, definition ...................................... 192
temper subdivisions ............................ 74–75 Coil curvature. See Coil set.
tightness ............................................... 34(T) Coiled sheet. See Sheet, coiled.
unit conversion ........................................... 8 Coil orientation
UNS alloy designation system ................. 37 clockwise coil, definition ....................... 192
variations in designations ......................... 35 counterclockwise (anticlockwise) coil,
weldments .......................................... 181(F) definition ......................................... 192
Casting (noun), definition ......................... 191 Coil set
Casting processes .................................. 80–84 definition ................................................. 192
Casting strains, definition ........................ 191 reversed, definition ................................. 192
Casting (verb). See also specific casting Coil set differential, definition ................. 192
processes. Cold reduction, microstructure of
casting alloys .............................................. 5 forgings .......................................... 152(F)
definition ................................................. 191 Cold rolling ............................... 26, 30, 78–79
processes ................................ 77–78, 80–84 microstructures of plate ...... 127(F), 128(F),
Casting yield, definition ............................ 191 132(F), 134(F), 136(F)
Cast parts .............................................. 80–84 microstructures of sheet ...... 123(F), 132(F),
Cavity halves or parts ............................... 83 136(F), 137(F)
Center, definition ....................................... 191 Cold-shut .............................................. 173(F)
Center buckle. See Buckle. definition ................................................. 193
Centrifugal casting ..................................... 81 Cold-shut void ...................................... 177(F)
definition ................................................. 191 Cold upsetting, microstructure of
Chafing. See Mark, traffic. rivet ............................................... 129(F)
Chatter mark. See Mark, chatter. Cold working .............................................. 40
Chemical industry, alloys used .......... 93, 118 compressive .............................................. 67
Chill, definition .......................................... 191 definition ................................................. 193
Chip mark. See Dent, repeating. temper designation ............................. 19, 20
Chop, definition ......................................... 191 of wrought alloys ......................... 61–62, 63
Chromium Collapse, definition .................................... 193
as alloying element ...... 12–13(T), 15–16(T) Coloring, definition ................................... 193
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) Combination die (multiple-cavity die),
physical properties .............................. 29(T) definition ............................................. 192
Chucking lug, definition ........................... 191 Commercially pure (CP) aluminum
Cinching. See Scratch, tension. advantages ................................................ 26
Circle, definition ........................................ 192 aerospace alloy ....................................... 117
Cladding casting alloys ....................................... 14(T)
aluminum-copper alloys ................ 89, 91(F) container and packaging
aluminum-silicon alloys as material ........ 95 applications .................................. 88(F)
aluminum-zinc alloys ............................. 104 definition ................................................. 5–6
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 229

designation system ................................... 24 Coring. See Back-end condition.


electrical applications .......................... 88(F) Corner turnup, definition ......................... 193
electrical properties ............................ 87, 88 Corrosion
in wrought alloy designation aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89
system .................................... 10(T), 11 casting alloys ....................................... 34(T)
limitations ................................................. 26 definition ................................................. 193
mechanical properties ......................... 87–88 exfoliation ............ 104–105, 150(F), 152(F)
microstructure due to solidification . . 121(F) exfoliation, definition ............................. 193
microstructures ..................... 120(F), 121(F) fretting ............................................... 151(F)
properties ....................................... 87–88(F) galvanic, definition ................................. 194
sheet metal work ...................................... 88 intergranular, definition .......................... 194
strengthening mechanisms ............ 25–26(T) pitting .................................... 136(F), 149(F)
as telescopic mirror material ........ 88, 90(F) pitting, definition .................................... 194
Compressive cold working, wrought stress-cracking, definition ...................... 194
alloys ..................................................... 67 water stain, definition ............................. 194
Concavity, definition ................................. 193 Corrosion resistance
Concentricity, definition ........................... 193 aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89
Condensation stain. See Corrosion, aluminum-magnesium
water stain. alloys ..................... 96, 99(F), 113–114
Condenser tube, definition ....................... 193 aluminum-magnesium-silicon
Conduit alloys ..................... 97, 98, 101, 107(F)
definition ................................................. 193 aluminum-manganese alloys .............. 90, 93
rigid, definition ....................................... 193 aluminum-silicon alloys ......................... 112
Coned-out coil. See Telescoping. aluminum-zinc alloys ..................... 104–105
Construction industry, alloys used .... 93, 94,
commercially pure aluminum ............ 87, 88
96, 98, 100–101(F), 102(F), 103(F), 104(F),
105(F), 106(F), 112, 114, 116 temper designation ................................... 40
Container and packaging industry ............ 4 temper designations, wrought alloys ....... 71
commercially pure aluminum ............ 88(F) wrought alloys ......................... 3, 27, 28, 66
Continuous casting, microstructures ... 140(F) Corrugating, definition ............................. 194
Contour, definition .................................... 193 Coupon, definition ..................................... 194
Controlled cooling, definition .................. 193 Covering area, definition .......................... 194
Cracking, casting alloys ........................ 34(T)
Conversion coating, can ends. See
Crazing, definition ..................................... 194
Coating, conversion.
Crease, definition ....................................... 194
Conversion of units .................................. 7–8
Cross hatching. See Crazing.
Convexity, definition ................................. 193 Crown. See Convexity.
Copper Cryogenic toughness, wrought alloys .......... 4
as alloying element ..... 10(T), 11, 12–13(T), Curl, definition .......................................... 194
14(T), 15–16(T) Cutoff, definition ........................................ 194
as alloying element, casting alloy
applications .. 108, 109–111(F), 112(F),
113(F), 114(F)
as alloying element, casting
D
alloys ..................................... 33(T), 34 Deep drawing, definition .......................... 194
as alloying element, wrought alloy Defect, definition ........................................ 194
applications ........ 89–90, 91(F), 92(F), Dendrite arm spacing (DAS), effect on
93(F) casting structure fineness .. 168(F), 169(F)
as alloying element, wrought Dendrites ............................................... 157(F)
alloys ............ 23, 25(T), 26–27, 28, 29 of brazed joint in sheet ........ 162(F), 163(F)
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) in castings ............... 166(F), 168(F), 169(F)
physical properties .............................. 29(T) in sand casting ................................... 179(F)
welded to aluminum .......................... 184(F) Dendritic segregation, titanium in
CO2 process, definition ............................. 192 ingot ................................ 136(F), 137(F)
Core blister. See Blister, core. Density, wrought alloys .................... 28–29(F)
Core (for casting), definition .................... 193 Dent. See also Mark, handling.
Core (for rolled products), definition ..... 193 definition ................................................. 195
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
230 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Dent (continued) Drawing stock, definition ......................... 196


Drawn-in scratch. See Scratch, drawn-in.
expansion, definition .............................. 195 Drawn product, definition ........................ 196
repeating, definition ................................ 195 Dropped edge. See Edge, dropped.
Designation systems ................ 1–2, 31, 32(T) Dry sand molding, definition ................... 196
capital letters used for alloys ............. 24–25 Dry sheet. See Lube, low.
casting alloys ................................. 32–37(T) Dry surface, definition .............................. 196
casting alloys, cross reference Ductility
definition ................................................. 196
chart ....................................... 36–37(T)
wrought alloys .......................................... 27
comparison of previous and current
Duct sheet, definition ................................ 196
systems ........................................ 32(T)
Dynamic recrystallization ................... 134(F)
experimental alloys ............................ 24–25
temper, for wrought alloys ................. 39–40
UNS alloy ................................................. 31
variations .................................................. 25 E
wrought alloys ............................... 23–32(T)
Die Casting Development Council ........... 37 Earing, definition ....................................... 196
Die casting (noun) ................................ 83–84 Ears, definition .......................................... 197
aluminum-magnesium alloys ................. 113 Eccentricity, definition .............................. 197
Edge
aluminum-silicon alloys ......................... 112
band. See Two-tone.
aluminum-silicon plus copper or
belled, definition ..................................... 197
magnesium alloys ........................... 111
broken (cracked), definition ................... 197
compositions for commercial
built-up. See Edge, belled.
uses ................................................... 35
damaged, definition ................................ 197
definition ................................................. 195
dropped, definition ................................. 197
mechanical properties .............. 53(T), 57(T)
liquated, definition .................................. 197
microstructure ........ 171(F), 172(F), 173(F),
rippled. See Buckle, edge.
174(F), 176(F), 177(F), 178(F), 179(F)
wavy. See Buckle, edge.
Die casting (verb)
Elastic limit, definition .............................. 197
cold chamber, definition ......................... 195
Electrical and electronic industry
definition ................................................. 195
alloys used ... 88(F), 99, 106, 107, 110, 112,
gravity, definition ................................... 195
115–116
hot chamber, definition .......................... 195
commercially pure aluminum
pressure. See also Low-pressure casting
applications .................................. 88(F)
process; High-pressure molding.
Electrical beam welding
pressure, definition ................................. 195 of investment casting ........................ 181(F)
vs. permanent mold casting ..................... 81 of plate .................................. 158(F), 162(F)
Die forgings ................................................. 80 of sheet .................... 155(F), 156(F), 159(F)
Die (in casting), definition ........................ 195
Die (in forging or extrusion), definition .. 195 Electrical conductivity
Die line, definition ..................................... 195 commercially pure aluminum ............ 87, 88
Die number, definition .............................. 195 definition ................................................. 197
Diffusion processes .............................. 131(F) 8xxx series ..................................... 106, 107
Diffusion streak. See Streak, diffusion. wrought alloys ............................................ 4
Dimensional stability, definition .............. 196 Electrical resistivity, definition ................ 197
Dip brazing ........................................... 180(F) Elevated temperatures
Direct castings, microstructure ............ 131(F) aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89
Dirt, definition ........................................... 196 aluminum-copper casting alloys ............ 109
Disc, definition ........................................... 196 Elongation
Double shear notch. See Notch, double casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T)
shear. definition ......................................... 197–198
Draft, definition ......................................... 196 wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T)
Drag mark. See Rub, tool. Embossing, definition ................................ 198
Draw and iron-can bodies, definition ..... 196 Endurance limit
Drawing ................................................. 26, 30 casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T)
definition ................................................. 196 definition ................................................. 198
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 231

wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T) Flange. See Rib.


Energy absorption capacity, wrought Flash, definition ......................................... 199
alloys ....................................................... 4 Flash line, definition .................................. 199
English/engineering units ............................ 8 Flatness, definition .................................... 199
Equivalent round, definition .................... 198 Flat-rolled products .............................. 78–79
Expendable pattern casting, definition ... 198 Flow lines ..... 145(F), 172(F), 173(F), 174(F),
Experimental aluminum alloys .... 16, 24–25 177(F), 178(F)
Explosive welding definition ................................................. 199
aluminum to copper .......................... 184(F) Flow through, definition ........................... 199
aluminum to steel .............................. 184(F) Fluidity, casting alloys ........................... 34(T)
Extrusion ............................................... 30, 79 Foil
aluminum-magnesium-silicon annealed, definition ................................ 199
alloys ............. 97–102, 103(F), 104(F), bright two sides, definition .................... 199
105(F), 106(F), 107(F), 108(F) chemically cleaned, definition ............... 199
aluminum-zinc alloys ................ 105, 109(F) definition ................................................. 199
conform ..................................................... 79 embossed, definition ............................... 199
definition ................................................. 198 etched, definition .................................... 199
direct ......................................................... 79 fabrication ........................................... 78–79
gas tungsten arc welding ................... 161(F) for food products industry ..................... 188
indirect ...................................................... 79 hard, definition ....................................... 199
microstructures ....... 135(F), 138(F), 139(F), intermediate temper, definition .............. 199
141(F), 148(F), 149(F), 150(F), matte one side (M1S), definition ........... 199
161(F), 151(F) mechanically grained, definition ............ 199
reverse ....................................................... 79 mill finish (MF), definition .................... 200
Extrusion billet, definition ........................ 198 packaging applications, for food
Extrusion butt end defect, definition ...... 198 products ................................. 88, 89(F)
Extrusion log, definition ........................... 198 scratch brushed, definition ..................... 200
Extrusion seam, definition ........................ 198 Foil stock. See Reroll stock.
Fold ....................................................... 145(F)
Eyehole. See Holiday.
definition ................................................. 200
Food products industry, alloys used for
packaging and utensils .. 88(F), 89(F), 93,
F 95(F), 96, 101(F)
Foresmo Bridge ................................... 103(F)
Fabrication, temper designation ..... 16, 57–58 Forgeability, definition .............................. 200
Fatigue Forge casting ............................................... 84
aluminum-silicon alloys ......................... 112 Forging ................................................... 79–80
casting alloys .................................. 108, 110 blocker-type, definition .......................... 200
definition ................................................. 198 closed-die, grain structure ... 128(F), 129(F),
test, fayed sheet ................................. 151(F) 130(F), 141(F)
Fatigue limit cold-coined, definition ............................ 200
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) definition ................................................. 200
wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T) die, definition .......................................... 200
Feeder. See Riser. draftless, definition ................................. 200
Feed in. See Back-end condition. flashless, definition ................................. 200
Feed line. See Streak, grinding. hammer, definition ................................. 200
Fillet, definition .......................................... 198 hand, definition ....................................... 200
Fin, definition ............................................. 198 microstructures ....... 123(F), 124(F), 130(F),
Finish 144(F), 145(F), 146(F), 147(F),
casting alloys .............................................. 5 148(F), 152(F)
definition ................................................. 199 no-draft. See Forging, draftless.
Finishing, casting alloys ........................ 34(T) precision, definition ................................ 200
Fin stock, definition .................................. 199 press, definition ...................................... 200
Fish mouthing, definition ......................... 199 rolled ring ................................................. 80
Flag, definition ........................................... 199 rolled ring, definition ............................. 200
Flaking, definition ..................................... 199 upset, definition ...................................... 200
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
232 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Forging billet, definition ........................... 200 Glaze. See Pickup, roll.


Forging plane, definition .......................... 200 Gold
Forging stock, definition ........................... 200 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
Formability physical properties .............................. 29(T)
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 90 Gouge. See also Scratch.
commercially pure aluminum .................. 88 definition ................................................. 201
definition ................................................. 200 rolled in. See also Scratch, rolled-in.
Fracture rolled in, definition ................................. 201
brittle .................................................. 151(F) Grain flow, definition ................................ 201
ductile ................................................ 151(F) Grain refiners, effect on casting
of extrusion .......................... 148(F), 149(F) structures ........................................ 168(F)
Grain size, definition ................................. 201
parting-plane fracture in forging ....... 144(F)
Grease streak. See Streak, grease.
Fracture toughness Green sand ............................................ 81, 82
aluminum-magnesium alloys ................... 96 definition ................................................. 201
casting alloys .............................................. 5 Green sand molding, definition ............... 201
definition ................................................. 200
wrought alloys ............................................ 4
Fracture toughness testing ........................ 85
Fretting. See Mark, traffic. H
Friction scratch. See Scratch, friction.
Full center. See Buckle, center. Hair, slitter, definition ............................... 202
Hand forgings ............................................. 80
Handling mark. See Mark, handling.
Hard conversion ........................................... 8
G Hardener, definition .................................. 202
Hardness
Gage, definition .......................................... 201 casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T)
Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) definition ................................................. 202
aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 90 8xxx series .............................................. 106
aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ....... 98 wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T)
aluminum-silicon alloys ..................... 94, 95 Heat streak. See Streak, heat.
wrought alloys ............................................ 4 Heat treatable alloys .................................. 11
Gas porosity .. 172(F), 174(F), 176(F), 177(F) casting alloys ...................................... 33–34
definition ................................................. 201 definition ................................................. 202
Gas tungsten arc repair welding, of temper designations ............................ 65–68
investment casting ............ 181(F), 182(F) Heat treatable aluminum alloy,
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) definition ................................................. 6
aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 90 Heat treating. See also Aging; Solution
aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ....... 98 heat treating.
aluminum-silicon alloys ..................... 94, 95 aluminum alloys ................................. 84–85
of extruded tube ................................ 161(F) aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89
of plate .................................. 160(F), 161(F) aluminum-copper permanent mold
of sheet ...... 155(F), 156(F), 157(F), 158(F), castings ........................................... 109
159(F) aluminum-copper sand castings ............. 109
of wrought alloys ....................................... 4 aluminum-magnesium alloys ................. 113
of wrought-to-cast alloys .................. 182(F) aluminum-magnesium-silicon
alloys .......................................... 97, 98
Gate .............................................................. 82
aluminum-silicon alloys ............ 93, 94, 112
definition ................................................. 201
aluminum-silicon plus copper or
Gate area ................................. 176(F), 177(F)
magnesium alloys ........................... 111
Gated patterns, definition ........................ 201 aluminum-tin casting alloys ................... 115
Gated system, definition ........................... 201 aluminum-zinc alloys ..................... 102, 103
Gating ................................................... 173(F) aluminum-zinc casting alloys ................ 115
Gating system, definition .......................... 201 by nonproducer ......................................... 40
Geodesic domes .......................... 100, 102(F), definition ................................................. 202
104(F), 105(F) 8xxx aluminum series ............................ 106
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 233

Heat treat lot. See Lot, heat treat. rolling, definition .................................... 204
Heat treat stain, definition ....................... 202 Injection, definition ................................... 204
Herringbone. See Streak, herringbone. Inoculant, definition .................................. 204
High-pressure casting ................................ 84 Insert, definition ........................................ 204
High-pressure molding, definition ........... 202
Inspection lot. See Lot, inspection.
High-toughness alloys
Intergranular corrosion, of plate ....... 149(F)
aluminum-copper casting alloys .... 109, 110
Interleaving, definition .............................. 204
aluminum-silicon plus copper or
International Accord on Alloy
magnesium alloys ........................... 111
Designations .................................... 9, 73
Holding temperature, definition .............. 202
Hole, definition .......................................... 202 International Annealed Copper
Holiday, definition ..................................... 202 Standard (IACS) ................................. 88
Homogenizing ....................................... 142(F) Investment casting . . 82–83, 110, 112, 114(F)
definition ......................................... 202–203 aluminum-silicon plus copper or
Hook. See also Bow. magnesium alloys ........................... 111
definition ................................................. 203 definition ................................................. 204
Hot cracking, definition ............................ 203 microstructure ........ 166(F), 167(F), 180(F),
Hot isostatic pressing (HIP), definition . . 203 181(F), 182(F)
Hot line pickup. See Pickup, roll. Investment molding, definition ................ 204
Hot rolling ....................................... 30, 78–79 Iron
microstructure of ingot ........ 131(F), 134(F) as alloying element ........... 10(T), 11, 12(T),
microstructure of plate ........ 128(F), 133(F), 13(T), 15–16(T)
134(F), 135(F), 137(F), 142(F), 143(F) as alloying element, wrought alloy
microstructure of sheet ...................... 138(F) applications ........................... 106–107
Hot shortness, definition ........................... 203 as alloying element, wrought
Hot spot, definition .................................... 203 alloys ..................................... 25(T), 29
Hot tear. See Tear, speed. mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
Hot working, definition ............................ 203 physical properties .............................. 29(T)

I J
Impact, definition ...................................... 203 Joining
Impregnation, definition ........................... 203 aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 90
Impurities ........................................ 10, 11, 24 aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 90
in casting alloys ....................................... 14 aluminum-silicon alloys ......... 93, 94, 95(F)
Impurity limit ............................................ 14 aluminum-zinc alloys ............................. 102
Inclusion casting alloys ....................................... 34(T)
definition ................................................. 203 wrought alloys ............................................ 4
stringer, definition .................................. 203
Incomplete seam. See Weld, incomplete.
Ingot. See also Ingot, extrusion; Ingot,
fabricating; Ingot, forging; Ingot, remelt; K
Ingot, rolling.
casting ................................................. 77–78 Kink, definition .......................................... 205
definition ................................................. 203 Knife mark. See Mark, knife.
extrusion. See also Ingot, fabricating. Knock-out mark. See Mark, knock-out.
extrusion, definition ................................ 203
fabricating. See also Ingot, extrusion;
Ingot, forging; Ingot; rolling.
fabricating, definition ............................. 204 L
forging, definition ................................... 204
microstructure ........ 122(F), 131(F), 134(F), Lacquer. See also Stain, oil.
136(F), 142(F), 149(F) definition ................................................. 205
remelt, definition .................................... 204 Lacquering, temper designation ................. 17
rolling. See also Ingot, fabricating. Lamination, definition .............................. 205
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
234 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Lap. See Fold.


Lateral bow. See Bow, lateral.
M
Layout sample, definition ......................... 205
Machinability
Lead
aluminum-tin alloys ................................ 115
as alloying element .................. 12(T), 13(T)
aluminum-zinc alloys ............................. 115
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
physical properties .............................. 29(T) Magnesium
as alloying element ..... 10(T), 11, 12–13(T),
Leveler chatter. See Mark, chatter (roll
or leveler). 14(T), 15–16(T)
Leveler mark. See Dent, repeating. as alloying element, casting alloy
Leveler streak. See Streak, leveler. applications .......... 111–112(F), 113(F),
Leveling 114(F), 115
definition ................................................. 205 as alloying element, casting
roller, definition ...................................... 205 alloys ..................................... 33(T), 34
stretcher, definition ................................. 205 as alloying element, wrought alloy
tension, definition ................................... 205 applications .......... 95–101(F), 102(F),
thermal, definition .................................. 205 103(F), 104(F), 105(F), 106(F),
Light poles .................................... 101, 107(F) 107(G), 108(F)
Line as alloying element, wrought alloys ....... 23,
flow, definition ........................................ 205 25(T), 26, 27–28, 29
looper, definition .................................... 205 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
Lueders, definition .................................. 205 physical properties .............................. 29(T)
weld. See Seam, extrusion. Magnesium silicide ................. 152(F), 159(F)
Liner, definition ......................................... 205 in castings .......................................... 170(F)
Liquated edge. See Edge, liquated. in wrought alloys ....... 10(T), 11, 23, 26, 28
Liquation, definition .................................. 205
Liquefied natural gas tankage .................... 4 Magnetic levitation (Mag-Lev)
Lithium train .............................. 100–101, 106(F)
as alloying element, wrought alloy Manganese
applications ................ 106–107, 110(F) as alloying element ..... 10(T), 11, 12–13(T),
as alloying element, wrought alloys ........ 29 15–16(T)
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) as alloying element, wrought alloy
physical properties .............................. 29(T) applications ......... 90, 93, 94(F), 95(F)
Lock, definition .......................................... 206 as alloying element, wrought alloys ....... 23,
Log. See Extrusion log. 25(T), 26, 27
Longitudinal bow. See Bow, mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
longitudinal. physical properties .............................. 29(T)
Longitudinal direction, definition ............ 206
Marine industry, alloys used ......... 96, 97(F),
Longitudinal orientation, definition ............ 6
Long transverse direction. See also 98(F), 99(F), 100(F), 112, 113–114, 117
Longitudinal direction. Mark
definition ................................................. 206 arbor, definition ...................................... 207
Long transverse orientation, definition . . 6–7 bearing, definition .................................. 207
Looper line. See Line, looper. bite, definition ........................................ 207
Loose wrap. See Wrap, loose. bristle, definition .................................... 207
Lost foam casting, definition .................... 206 carbon, definition .................................... 207
Lot chatter (roll or leveler), definition ......... 207
heat treat, definition ............................... 206 definition ................................................. 207
inspection, definition .............................. 206 drag. See Rub, tool.
Low-pressure casting process. See also edge follower, definition ........................ 207
Vacuum casting process. handling, definition ................................ 207
definition ................................................. 206 heat treat contact, definition .................. 207
Lube inclusion. See also Inclusion, stringer.
high, definition ....................................... 206 inclusion, definition ................................ 207
low, definition ......................................... 206 knife, definition ...................................... 207
Lueders line. See Line, Lueders. knockout ................................................... 83
Lug ........................................... 146(F), 147(F) knock-out, definition .............................. 207
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 235

leveler chatter. See Mark, chatter (roll Necking ................................................. 151(F)


or leveler). Nick
metal-on-roll. See Dent, repeating. extrusions. See Mark, handling.
mike, definition ...................................... 207 rolled products. See Scratch.
pinch. See Crease. Nickel
roll, definition ................................. 207–208 as alloying element ................ 10, 12–13(T),
roll bruise. See also Mark, roll. 15–16(T)
roll bruise, definition .............................. 208 as alloying element, wrought alloy
roll skid, definition ................................. 208 applications ........................... 106–107
rub, definition ......................................... 208 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
snap. See also Mark, snap. physical properties .............................. 29(T)
snap, definition ....................................... 208 Nondestructive testing, definition ............ 209
stop, definition. See also Mark, snap. ....208 Non-Ferrous Founders’ Society
stretcher jaw, definition .......................... 208 (NFFS) ................................................. 37
tab. See Buckle, arbor. Nonfill, definition ....................................... 209
tail. See Mark, roll bruise. Non-heat-treatable alloy
take-up. See Scratch, tension. casting alloys ...................................... 33–34
traffic, definition ..................................... 208 definition ................................................. 209
whip, definition ...................................... 208 H temper subdivisions .................. 60–64(T)
Master alloy. See Hardener. slab casting ............................................... 78
Mean diameter, definition ........................ 208 strip casting .............................................. 78
Mechanical properties, definition ............ 208 temper designations, wrought alloys ....... 58
Melting temperature, wrought alloys ........ 3 wrought alloys ............................. 26, 27, 28
Metallography and Microstructures ....... 119 Notch, double shear, definition ................ 209
Metric/International Standard units .......... 8
Microporosity, definition .......................... 208
Microscopy .................................................... 7
Microstructure, of alloys .................. 119–184 O
Mike mark. See Mark, mike.
Minimum residual stress (MRS), Off gage, definition .................................... 209
definition ..................................... 208–209 Offset, definition ................................ 209–210
Mismatch, definition ................................. 209 Oil and petroleum industry, alloys
Modulus in tension, wrought used .......................................... 99, 100(F)
alloys ......................................... 40–49(T)
Oil stain. See Stain, oil.
Modulus of elasticity
Orange peel, definition ............................. 210
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T)
Oscillation. See also Telescoping.
definition ................................................. 209
definition ................................................. 210
measurement method (ASTM E 111) ..... 30
Out-of-register, definition ......................... 210
wrought alloys ............. 29–30(T), 40–49(T)
Ovalness. See Quality.
Mold, definition ......................................... 209
Overaging
Mold cavity, definition .............................. 209
microstructure .................................... 124(F)
Molybdenum
mechanical properties ......................... 30(T) temper designation ................................... 20
physical properties .............................. 29(T) wrought alloys .................................... 68, 71
Mottling, pressure, definition ................... 209 Oxide discoloration. See Stain, heat
treat.
Mullen test, definition ............................... 209
Oxide stringers ..................................... 134(F)

N P
Nailing, wrought alloys ................................. 4
Packaging industry, alloys used .............. 118
Natural aging. See also Aging. .................. 84
casting alloys ............................................ 74 Pack rolling, definition ............................. 210
temper designations ...................... 19, 21(T) Painting, temper designation ...................... 17
wrought alloys ......... 26, 27, 28, 59, 60, 65, Parent coil, definition ................................ 210
66, 68 Parent plate, definition ............................. 210
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
236 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Partial annealing. See Annealing, partial. effect on ingot ................................... 142(F)


Parting line. See also Profile, stepped effect on plate microstructure ........... 142(F)
extruded. Polygonization ...................................... 124(F)
definition ................................................. 210 extruded tube ..................................... 141(F)
Pattern, definition ...................................... 210 Pop (solvent), definition ............................ 211
Patterned sheet. See Embossing. Porosity, definition ..................................... 211
Peening .................................................. 152(F) Precipitation hardening. See also
Permanent mold casting alloys, Aging. ................................................... 84
mechanical properties .............. 51–53(T), temper designation ................................... 20
55–56(T)
wrought alloys ........... 26, 27, 28, 60, 65–66
Permanent mold casting (noun)
microstructure ........ 165(F), 166(F), 167(F), Precipitation heat treating. See Aging.
175(F), 179(F), 180(F) Precision casting ................................... 82–83
heat treatable .......................................... 109 Preheating, definition ................................ 211
Permanent mold casting (verb) .......... 80–81 Pressure mottling. See Mottling,
aluminum-magnesium alloys ................. 113 pressure.
Pressure welding .................................. 154(F)
aluminum-silicon alloys ......................... 112
Product forms, identified by temper
aluminum-silicon plus copper or
designation ............................................ 40
magnesium alloys ........................... 111
Profile
aluminum-tin alloys ................................ 115
class 1 hollow extruded,
aluminum-zinc casting alloys ................ 115
definition ......................................... 212
definition ................................................. 210
class 2 hollow extruded,
Permanent solid castings, definition ......................................... 212
microstructure ................... 166(F), 170(F)
class 3 hollow extruded,
Physical properties, definition .................. 211
definition ......................................... 212
Pickoff, definition ....................................... 211
cold-finished, definition .......................... 212
Pickup
cold-finished extruded, definition .......... 212
definition ................................................. 211
cold-finished rolled, definition ............... 212
repeating. See Dent, repeating.
definition ................................................. 212
roll, definition. See also Streak,
drawn, definition .................................... 212
coating. ........................................... 211
extruded, definition ................................ 212
Pinch mark. See Crease.
flute hollow, definition ........................... 212
Pinhole, definition ...................................... 211
helical extruded, definition .................... 212
Pipe
definition ................................................. 211 hollow, definition .................................... 212
drawn, definition ..................................... 211 lip hollow, definition .............................. 212
extruded, definition ................................. 211 pinion hollow, definition ........................ 212
seamless, definition ................................ 211 rolled, definition ..................................... 212
structural, definition ............................... 211 semihollow, definition ............................ 212
solid, definition ....................................... 212
Piping. See Back-end condition.
stepped extruded, definition ................... 212
Pit, definition .............................................. 211
streamline hollow, definition .................. 213
Pitting. See Corrosion.
Plate structural, definition ............................... 213
alclad, definition ..................................... 211 tapered extruded, definition ................... 213
definition ................................................. 211 Pure aluminum. See Commercially pure
fabrication ........................................... 78–79 aluminum.
microstructures ....... 124(F), 127(F), 129(F),
132(F), 133(F), 134(F), 135(F), 136(F),
137(F), 142(F), 143(F), 149(F), 158(F), Q
160(F), 161(F), 162(F)
Plate circle, definition .............................. 211 Quality, definition ...................................... 213
Polarized light Quarter buckle. See Buckle, quarter.
effect on annealed plate ....... 135(F), 136(F) Quenching ....................................... 40, 84, 85
effect on cold rolled sheet . . . 136(F), 137(F) casting alloys ............................................ 74
effect on extruded tube ..................... 141(F) definition ................................................. 213
effect on extrusion ............................. 135(F) of dies ....................................................... 85
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 237

modifications identified by temper extruded, definition ................................ 214


designations ...................................... 68 rivet. See Rod, cold-heading.
wrought alloys ............................. 70, 71, 72 rolled, definition ..................................... 214
Quenching crack, definition ..................... 213 Roll chatter. See Mark, chatter (roll or
leveler).
Rolled-in metal, definition ........................ 214
Rolled-in scratch. See Scratch, rolled-in.
R Rolled-over edge. See Edge, liquated.
Rolled ring. See Forging, rolled ring.
Radiographic inspection, definition ........ 213 Roll grind, definition ................................. 214
Radiography, definition ............................ 213 Rolling coating. See Streak, coating.
Rail transportation industry, alloys Rolling slab, definition .............................. 214
used ............................................. 117–118 Roll mark. See Mark, roll.
Razor streak. See Inclusion, stringer. Roll pickup. See Pickup, roll.
RCS, definition .......................................... 213 Roofing sheet, definition ........................... 215
Rear-end condition. See Back-end Roping, definition ...................................... 215
condition. Roundness, definition ................................ 215
Recommendation: International Rub mark. See Mark, rub.
Designation System for Wrought Rub (tool), definition ................................. 215
Aluminum and Wrought Aluminum Runner, definition ...................................... 215
Alloys ...................................................... 2 Runner system, definition ........................ 215
Recrystallization
dynamic ............................................. 134(F)
microstructure of closed-die
forgings ......................... 128(F), 130(F) S
microstructure of extrusions ............ 138(F),
150(F) Sample, definition ...................................... 215
microstructure of plate ...................... 134(F) Sand casting .......................................... 81–82
microstructure of sheet ....... 123(F), 131(F), aluminum-magnesium alloys ................. 113
132(F), 136(F), 137(F) aluminum-silicon alloys ......................... 112
Recycling aluminum-silicon plus copper or
casting alloy 332.0 from scrap .............. 112 magnesium alloys ........................... 111
wrought alloys ............................................ 4 aluminum-tin casting alloys ................... 115
Redraw rod, definition .............................. 213 aluminum-zinc casting alloys ................ 115
References ......................................... 185–186 vs. permanent mold casting ............... 81, 82
Refined aluminum, definition .................. 213 Sand casting alloys, mechanical
Reflector sheet, definition ......................... 213 properties .................. 49–51(T), 53–55(T)
Registration process, of alloys .................... 9 Sand castings
Reheating, definition ................................. 213 definition ................................................. 215
Reoil, definition .......................................... 214 heat treatable .......................................... 109
Reroll stock, definition .............................. 214
microstructure ........ 164(F), 167(F), 168(F),
Residual stresses
minimized by quenching .......................... 68 179(F), 180(F)
temper designations ............................ 67–68 Sand mold, definition ................................ 215
Resistance spot welding ......... 153(F), 154(F) Saw-plate bar. See Bar, saw-plate.
Reynolds Wrap ................................ 88, 89(F) Scalping, definition .................................... 215
Rib, definition ............................................ 214 Scratch. See also Mark, handling.
Riser ............................................................. 82 definition ................................................. 215
definition ................................................. 214 drawn-in, definition ................................ 215
Riser gating, definition ............................. 214 friction, definition ................................... 215
Rivet. See Wire, cold heading. handling, definition. See also Mark,
Rod rub. .................................................. 215
alclad, definition ..................................... 214 machine, definition ................................. 215
cold-finished, definition .......................... 214 oscillation, definition .............................. 215
cold-finished extruded, definition .......... 214 oven, definition ....................................... 216
cold-finished rolled, definition .............. 214 rolled-in, definition ................................. 216
cold-heading, definition .......................... 214 slippage. See Scratch, tension.
definition ................................................. 214 tension, definition ................................... 216
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
238 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Seam defect, definition .............................. 216 as alloying element, casting alloy


Seam (extrusion). See also Weld, applications .. 108, 111–112(F), 113(F),
incomplete. 114(F)
definition ................................................. 216 as alloying element, casting
Seamless, definition ................................... 216 alloys ..................................... 33(T), 34
Section number, definition ....................... 216 as alloying element, wrought alloy
Sensitization ................................................ 28 applications . . 93-95(F), 96(F), 97–102,
to stress-corrosion cracking ..................... 64 103(F), 104(F), 105(F),
Serpentine weave. See Snaking. 106(F), 107(F), 108(F)
Shape, definition ........................................ 216 as alloying element, wrought alloys ....... 23,
Shear strength 25(T), 26, 27, 28, 29
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) content effect on castability ....................... 5
definition ................................................. 216 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T) physical properties .............................. 29(T)
Sheet Silver
alclad, definition ..................................... 216 as alloying element ............................. 15(T)
aluminum welded to copper ............. 184(F) mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
aluminum welded to steel ................. 184(F) physical properties .............................. 29(T)
anodizing, definition ............................... 216 Skip, definition ........................................... 217
clad, definition ........................................ 217 Slab casting ................................................. 78
coiled circles, definition ......................... 217 Slippage scratch. See Scratch, tension.
coiled cut to length, definition ............... 217 Slitter hair. See Hair, slitter.
coiled, definition ..................................... 217 Sliver, definition ......................................... 217
definition ................................................. 216 Sludge ............ 171(F), 172(F), 173(F), 174(F)
embossed, temper designation ................. 64 Slug, definition ........................................... 217
fabrication ........................................... 78–79 Smudge, definition ..................................... 218
flat circles, definition .............................. 217 Smut. See Smudge.
flat, definition ......................................... 217 Snaking, definition .................................... 218
microstructures ....... 123(F), 124(F), 125(F), Soft conversion ............................................. 8
126(F), 129(F), 131(F), 132(F), 136(F),
Soldering ...................................................... 27
138(F), 143(F), 144(F), 151(F), 152(F),
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 93
154(F), 155(F), 157(F), 158(F), 159(F),
aluminum-silicon alloys ........................... 93
162(F), 163(F)
commercially pure aluminum .................. 87
mill finish (MF), definition .................... 217
wrought alloys ............................................ 4
one-sided bright mill finish (1SBMF),
Solid-solution melting ......................... 151(F)
definition ......................................... 217
painted, definition ................................... 217 Solution heat treating ................................ 84
pattern, temper designations ............... 64(T) casting alloys ...................................... 34, 74
standard one-side bright finish definition ................................................. 218
(S1SBF), definition ........................ 217 microstructure of castings ... 164(F), 165(F),
standard two sides bright finish 166(F), 167(F), 169(F), 170(F),
(S2SBF), definition ........................ 217 180(F), 181(F)
temper designation .............................. 20(T) microstructure of closed-die
forgings ........... 128(F), 129(F), 130(F)
Sheet stock. See Reroll stock.
Shell molding, definition ........................... 217 microstructure of forgings . . . 130(F), 152(F)
microstructure of plates ..................... 127(F)
Shell mold process, definition .................. 217
microstructure of rivets ..................... 129(F)
Short transverse direction, definition ..... 217
microstructure of sheet ....... 123(F), 125(F),
Short transverse orientation, definition ...... 7
126(F)
Shrinkage .............................................. 146(F)
definition ................................................. 217 temper designations .... 17, 19–20, 21(T), 59
wrought alloys ... 11, 26, 27, 28, 60, 66, 68,
Side crack. See Edge, broken (cracked).
Side set, definition ..................................... 217 70, 71, 72
Silicon Solution strengthening ............................... 26
as alloying element ..... 10(T), 11, 12–13(T), Specification limits, definition ...................... 6
14(T), 15–16(T) Specimen, definition .................................. 218
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 239

Speed crack. See Tear, speed. Strength, casting alloys ................................. 5


Speed tear. See Tear, speed. Strength/weight ratio, wrought alloys ......... 4
Spheroidization .................................... 131(F) Stress, definition. See also Residual
Splice, definition ........................................ 218 stress. .................................................. 220
Spot (lube), definition ............................... 218 Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC).
Spruce Goose ................................ 100, 105(F) See also Corrosion,
Sprue, definition ........................................ 218 stress-cracking ............... 104–105, 147(F)
Squareness, definition ............................... 218 wrought alloys .......................................... 28
Squeeze casting ................... 84, 108–109, 111 Stress relieving ............................................ 40
definition ................................................. 218 definition ................................................. 220
Squeeze/forge casting ............................... 111 microstructure of cold rolled
Stabilizing .................................................... 40 plate ........................................... 134(F)
definition ................................................. 218 microstructure of cold rolled
microstructure of castings .... 165(F), 167(F) sheet ........................................... 136(F)
temper designations ........................... 17, 20 temper designation .............................. 21(T)
wrought alloys .................................... 66, 68 wrought alloys .......................................... 65
Stain wrought alloys, temper
heat treat, definition ............................... 218 designations ................................ 67–68
oil, definition .......................................... 218 Stretcher strain. See Line, Lueders.
saw lubricant, definition ......................... 218 Stretching ........................................ 26, 71, 72
water. See Corrosion, water stain. microstructures of plates ...... 127(F), 128(F)
Starvation, definition ................................ 218 microstructures of sheets ................... 126(F)
Steel, welded to aluminum ................... 184(F) wrought alloys .......................................... 67
Sticking, definition .................................... 218 Striation, definition ................................... 220
Straightness, definition ............................. 218 Strip, definition .......................................... 220
Strain, definition ........................................ 218 Strip casting ................................................ 78
Strain-hardenable aluminum alloy, Structural streak. See Streak, structural.
definition ................................................. 6 Suck-in, definition ..................................... 220
Strain hardening Surface tear, definition ............................. 220
aluminum-magnesium alloys ................... 96
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 93
commercially pure aluminum ............ 11, 87 T
definition ................................................. 219
H temper subdivisions for Tail mark. See Mark, roll bruise.
non-heat-treatable alloys ....... 60–64(T) Tear, speed ............................................ 180(F)
temper designations ......... 17, 18, 22, 58–59 definition ................................................. 220
wrought alloys .......................................... 11 Tear testing .................................................. 85
Telescopic mirrors, of commercially
Streak
pure aluminum .......................... 88, 90(F)
bearing, definition .................................. 219
Telescoping, See also Oscillation.
bright, definition ..................................... 219 definition ................................................. 220
buff, definition ........................................ 219 Temper
coating, definition ................................... 219 annealed ................. 16–17, 18(T), 21(T), 22
cold. See Streak, heat. annealed, casting alloys ..................... 73–74
diffusion, definition ................................ 219 annealing treatments ................................. 58
dirt, definition ......................................... 219 artificially aged ....................... 19–20, 21(T)
grease, definition .................................... 219 cold worked ........................................ 19, 20
grinding, definition ................................. 219 corrosion resistant designations ............... 71
heat, definition ........................................ 219 definition ................................................. 220
herringbone, definition ........................... 219 designating residual stress relief of heat
leveler, definition .................................... 219 treated products .......................... 67–68
mill buff. See Streak, roll. designation identifying additional cold
pickup. See Streak, coating. work between quenching and
roll, definition ......................................... 219 aging ................................................. 70
(stripe), definition ................................... 219 designations, for wrought alloys ........ 39–40
structural, definition ............................... 219 designations identifying modifications
Streak burnish, definition ........................ 219 in quenching ..................................... 68
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
240 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Temper (continued) as alloying element, casting alloy


applications ..................................... 115
designations indicating heat treatment as alloying element, casting
by user ........................................ 68–70 alloys ..................................... 33(T), 34
designation systems ............. 1, 2, 16–22(T), mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
57–73(T) physical properties .............................. 29(T)
fabricated ...................................... 16, 57–58 Titanium
fabricated, casting alloys .......................... 73 as alloying element ...... 12–13(T), 15–16(T)
for aluminum pattern sheet ................. 20(T) dendritic segregation in
for casting alloys ................................ 73–75 ingot .............................. 136(F), 137(F)
for wrought alloys ......................... 57–73(T) mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
heat treatable alloys subdivisions of T physical properties .............................. 29(T)
temper ......................................... 65–68 Tolerance, definition .................................. 220
identifying cold work following aging .... 70 Tool, definition ........................................... 220
lacquered ................................................... 17 Tooling pad. See Chucking lug.
natural aging ................................. 19, 21(T) Tooling plate, definition ............................ 220
overaged ................................................... 20 Torn surface, definition ............................ 220
painted ...................................................... 17 Traffic mark, definition .................... 220–221
Transportation industry. See
precipitation hardened .............................. 20
Automotive industry.
solution heat treated ... 17, 19–20, 21(T), 59 Transverse bow. See Bow, transverse.
special or premium properties Transverse direction, definition ............... 221
designated ................................... 71–73 Tread plate, definition ............................... 221
stabilized ............................................ 17, 20 Trim inclusion, definition ......................... 221
strain hardening ............... 17, 18, 22, 58–59 Tube
stress relieved ...................................... 21(T) alclad, definition ..................................... 221
subdivisions of designation arc-welded, definition ............................. 221
system .................................... 17–22(T) brazed, definition .................................... 221
subdivisions of H temper for butt-welded, definition ........................... 221
non-heat-treatable alloys ....... 60–64(T) definition ................................................. 221
tensile strength ......................... 18(T), 19(T) drawn, definition .................................... 221
thermal treatment ............................... 59–60 embossed, definition ............................... 221
thermal treatment, casting alloys ............. 74 extruded, definition ................................ 221
thermal treatment for stability ..... 17, 19–20 extruded, weldment ........................... 161(F)
understanding importance of finned, definition .................................... 221
designations ...................................... 76 fluted, definition ..................................... 221
Temper designation system .............. 9–22(T) heat-exchanger, 93, 94(F)
Tempers for Aluminum and Aluminum heat-exchanger, definition ...................... 221
Alloy Products (Registration Records helical-welded, definition ....................... 221
Series) ............................................ 73, 75 lap-welded, definition ............................. 222
Tensile strength lock-seam, definition .............................. 222
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) microstructure of extrusion ............... 141(F)
definition ................................................. 220 open-seam, definition ............................. 222
temper designations ................. 18(T), 19(T) redraw. See Tube stock.
wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T) seamless, definition ................................ 222
Tension scratch. See Scratch, tension. sized, definition ...................................... 222
Test directions, definition ............................. 6 stepped drawn, definition ....................... 222
Thermal conductivity, wrought alloys ........ 3 structural, definition ............................... 222
Thermal treatment, temper welded, definition ................................... 222
designations ................. 17, 19–20, 59–60 Tube bloom. See Tube stock.
Thixocasting ........................... 84, 111, 112(F) Tube stock, definition ................................ 222
microstructure of parts ..................... 170(F) Tubing. See also Tube.
Tightness, of casting alloys ................... 34(T) electrical metallic, definition .................. 222
Tin Tubular conductor, definition .................. 222
as alloying element ........... 10(T), 11, 14(T), Twist, definition ......................................... 222
15(T), 16(T) Two-tone, definition .................................. 222
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
Subject Index / 241

U aluminum-zinc alloys ............................. 103


wrought alloys ............................................ 4
Ultimate shearing strength Welding, definition .................................... 223
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) Welding rod, definition ............................. 223
wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T) Welding wire, definition ........................... 223
Ultimate tensile strength. See also Weld line. See Seam, extrusion.
Tensile strength. Weldments
aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89 aluminum-copper, explosive
aluminum-copper casting alloys ............ 110 welding ...................................... 184(F)
aluminum-magnesium alloys ........... 96, 113 aluminum-steel, explosive
aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ....... 98 welding ...................................... 184(F)
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 90 casting alloys ..................................... 181(F)
aluminum-silicon alloys ................... 93, 112 of wrought alloys ...................... 153–162(F)
aluminum-silicon plus copper or Wettability test, definition ........................ 223
magnesium alloys ........................... 111 Whip marks. See Mark, whip.
aluminum-tin alloys ................................ 115 Whisker. See Hair, slitter.
aluminum-zinc alloys ..................... 102, 115 Wire
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) alclad, definition ............................. 223–224
commercially pure aluminum .................. 87 definition ................................................. 223
8xxx aluminum series ............................ 106 cold-heading, definition .......................... 224
wrought alloys ...................... 40–49(T), 106 cold-heading, microstructure ............. 129(F)
Unified Numbering System (UNS) alloy cold-heading, wrought alloys ..................... 4
designation system .............................. 31 drawn, definition .................................... 224
for casting alloys ...................................... 37 extruded, definition ................................ 224
Unit conversion ......................................... 7-8 flattened, definition ................................. 224
Units ............................................................ 7-8 flattened and slit-flattened, definition .... 224
UNS number ............................................... 31 rivet. See Wire, cold-heading.
Workability
definition ................................................. 224
V wrought alloys ............................................ 4
Work hardening. See Strain hardening.
Vacuum casting process, definition ......... 223 Wrap (loose), definition ............................ 224
Vanadium, as alloying element .. 12(T), 15(T) Wrinkle. See Crease.
Variations Wrought alloys. See also Wrought alloys
castings alloys .......................................... 35 index.
in alloy compositions ............................... 25 advantages .......................................... 26–28
Vent mark, definition ................................ 223 aging .................... 26–28, 60, 65–68, 70–72
Voids .............. 152(F), 174(F), 177(F), 180(F) alloying elements ......... 10–11(T), 25–26(T)
artificial aging ..... 26, 27, 60, 65–68, 70–72
brazeability ............................................... 87
W composition ................................... 12–13(T)
corrosion resistance ............................ 27, 28
Water stain. See Corrosion, water stain. density ........................................... 28–29(T)
Wavy edge. See Buckle edge. designation system ........................ 23–32(T)
Weave. See Oscillation. designation system of Aluminum
Web, definition ........................................... 223 Association ........... 10–11(T), 12–13(T)
Weld, incomplete, definition ..................... 223 ductibility .................................................. 27
Weldability elongations .................................................. 8
aluminum-copper alloys ........................... 89 limitations ........................................... 26–28
aluminum-magnesium alloys ................... 96 mechanical properties .................. 29–30(T),
aluminum-magnesium-silicon alloys ....... 98 40–49(T), 87
aluminum-manganese alloys .................... 93 microstructures .......................... 120–163(F)
aluminum-silicon alloys ..... 93–95(F), 96(F) modulus of elasticity ..................... 29–30(T)
aluminum-silicon plus copper or natural aging ....... 26–28, 59, 60, 65, 66, 68
magnesium alloys ........................... 111 non-heat-treatable ........................ 26, 27, 28
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Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers (#06180G)
242 / Introduction to Aluminum Alloys and Tempers

Wrought alloys (continued) definition ................................................. 224


wrought alloys ............................... 40–49(T)
non-heat-treatable alloys, H temper
subdivisions ........................... 60–64(T)
overaging ............................................ 68, 71
physical properties ........................ 28–30(T)
precipitation hardening ... 26–28, 60, 65–66
product forms ........................................... 30 Z
product units ............................................... 8
properties ................................................ 3–4
solderability .............................................. 87 Zinc
solution heat treatment .. 11, 26–28, 60, 66, as alloying element ..... 10(T), 11, 12–13(T),
68, 70–72 14(T), 15–16(T)
stabilization treatment ........................ 66, 68 as alloying element, casting alloy
stress relieving .......................................... 65 applications ..................................... 115
stress relieving, temper as alloying element, casting
designations ................................ 67–68 alloys ..................................... 33(T), 34
unit conversion ........................................... 8 as alloying element, wrought alloy
variations ............................................ 30–31 applications .......................... 102–105,
weldability ............................................ 4, 87 109(F), 110(F)
weldments ................................... 153-162(F) as alloying element, wrought alloys ....... 23,
Wrought aluminum alloy, definition ........... 6 25(T), 26, 28, 29
Wrought product, definition .................... 224 mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
physical properties .............................. 29(T)

Y Zirconium
as alloying element ...... 12(T), 13(T), 15(T)
Yield strength mechanical properties ......................... 30(T)
casting alloys ................................. 49–57(T) physical properties .............................. 29(T)
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