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Kwasy_karboksylowe

Kwasy_karboksylowe

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Published by: Cezary Makarewicz on Apr 16, 2011
Prawo autorskie:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/05/2014

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Slajd 1

Kwasy karboksylowe

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Slajd 2

Związki zawierające ugrupowanie
karbonylowe
kwas karboksylowy ester
chlorek acylu
bezwodnik kwasowy
bromek acylu
halogenek acylu
amid

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Slajd 3

względna reaktywnośc pochodnych kwasów karboksylowych
rosnąca aktywność
chlorek acylu bezwodnik ester kwas karboksylowy amid

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Slajd 4

Kwasy karboksylowe reagują według tego samego
mechanizmu

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Slajd 5

Nazewnictwo kwasów
karboksylowych
nazwa systematyczna:
nazwa zwyczajowa:
kwas metanowy
kwas mrówkowy
kwas etanowy
kwas octowy
kwas propanowy
kwas propionowy
kwas butanowy
kwas masłowy
kwas pentanowy
kwas walerianowy
kwas heksanowy kwas propenowy
kwas akrylowy
kwas benzenokarboksylowy
kwas benzoesowy

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Slajd 6

kwas α-chloropropanowy kwas γ-aminobutanowy
kwas β-metylobutanowy
(kwas izowalerianowy)

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Slajd 7


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Slajd 8

Dimery kwasów karboksylowych
stabilizowane wiązaniem wodorowym

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Slajd 9


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Slajd 10


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Slajd 11

najwięcej mniej najmniej

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Slajd 12

Sole kwasów karboksylowych
beznoesan sodu
mrówczan sodu octan potasu

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Slajd 13

kwas karboksylowy silna zasada sól

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Slajd 14

sól odtworzony kwas
przykład
octan sodu kwas octowy

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Slajd 15

kwas octowy kwas chlorooctowy kwas dichlorooctowy kwas trichlorooctowy
kwas 4-chlorooctowy kwas 3-chlorooctowy kwas 2-chlorooctowy
mocniejszy kwas

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Slajd 16

alkohol alkoholan
kwas karboksylowy
anion karboksylanowy
e
n
e
r
g
i
a
stabilizacja anionu
karboksylanowego

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Slajd 17

Estry
propanonian fenylu
3-bromobutanonian
metylu
cykloheksanokarboksylan
etylu
octan etylu

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Slajd 18

kwas alkohol ester
przykład
kwas ftalowy
ktalan dimetylu

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Slajd 19

protonowany kwas karboksylowy
Mechanizm estryfikacji katalizowanej
kwasem

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Slajd 20

stabilizowane rezonansem ester

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Slajd 21

Aktywowanie kwasów
karboksylowych

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Slajd 22

bezwodnik chlorosiarczanowy
Otrzymywanie chlorków kwasowych

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Slajd 23


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Slajd 24

lub
chlorek tionylu
chlorek oleilu
kwas oleinowy
kwas 3-fenylopropanowy
chlorek oksalilu
chlorek 3-fenylopropioilu
kwas 3-fenylopropanowy
przykład

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Slajd 25

kwas
chlorek kwasowy
ester
kwas benzoesowy chlorek benzoilu benzoesan etylu
lub
przykład

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Slajd 26

Estry cykliczne nazywane są
laktonami
δ-kaprolakton β-butyrylolakton γ-butyrylolakton γ-kaprolakton

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Slajd 27

kwas diazometan ester metylowy
kwas cyklobutanokarboksylowy cyklobutanokarboksylan metylu
przykład

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Slajd 28

Reakcje estrów
hydroliza
transestryfikacja
octan metylu kwas octowy
benzoesan metylu benzoesan etylu

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Slajd 29

Ta reakcja jest nieodwracalna
mechanizm hydrolizy estrów katalizowany jonem wodorotlenowym

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Slajd 30

aminoliza
propionian etylu N-metylopropionamid

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Slajd 31

Tłuszcze są triestrami glicerolu
tłuszcz
glicerol sól sodowa kwasów tłuszczowych
mydło

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Slajd 32

Amidy
etanoamid
acetamid
4-chlorobutanoamid
benzenokarboksyamid
benzamid
cis-2-etylocykloheksanokarboksyamid

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Slajd 33

chlorek kwasowy amina amid
chlorek acetylu metyloamina N-metyloacetamid
przykład
Otrzymywanie amidów

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Slajd 34

kwas amina sól amonowa kwasu karboksylowego amid
kwas
benzoesowy
etyloamina benzoesan etyloamoniowy N-etylobenzamid

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Slajd 35

Odwodnienie amidów

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Slajd 36

Hydroliza amidów
N-etyloacetamid
N-metylobenzamid

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Slajd 37

Reakcje bezwodników
bezwodnik octowy octan etylu
kwas octowy
bezwodnik benzoesowy
bezwodnik propionowy
kwas benzoesowy
N-metylopropionamid

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Slajd 38

mechanizm przekształcenia bezwodnika w ester

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Slajd 39

kwas alkohol
pierwszorzędowy
kwas fenylooctowy
2-fenyloetanol
przykład

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Slajd 40

chlorek
kwasowy
aldehyd
kwas izobutanowy chlorek izobutyrylu aldehyd izobutylowy
przykład

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Slajd 41

kwas benzoesowy propylofenon
przykład

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Slajd 3

względna reaktywnośc pochodnych kwasów karboksylowych

chlorek acylu

bezwodnik

ester
rosnąca aktywność

kwas karboksylowy

amid

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Kwasy karboksylowe reagują według tego samego mechanizmu

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