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AHISTORYOFPAINTING

THG GRNGGNIU

THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

P,V

THE MODERN GENIUS

Complete List of Volumes in

this

Series

THE RENAISSANCE

IN

CENTRAL ITALY

THE RENAISSANCE IN VENICE THE LATER ITALIANS AND THE GENIUS OF SPAIN THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH AND THE FLEMISH
GENIUS

THE DUTCH GENIUS

THE FRENCH GENIUS THE BRITISH GENIUS THE MODERN GENIUS

i

II

TURNER
1775-1851

"CROSSING THE BROOK"
(National Gallery)
Painted in
oil

on canvas.

6

ft.

4 in.

li.

x 5

ft.

5

in.

w. U'93i • I'^jl)

A HISTORY OF PAINTING

THE MODERN GENIUS
BY HALDANE MACFALL
ILLUSTRATED WITH

THIRTY PLATES IN COLOUR

LONDON
67

:

T. C.

AND

E. C.

JACK

LONG ACRE,
1911

W.C.

AND EDINBURGH

I

•i*

Edinburgh

:

T. and A. Constable, Printers to His Majesty

Art
Library

M /QJL

TO

Her Grace

THE DUCHESS OF RUTLAND
ARTIST AND LOYAL FRIEND
OF THE ARTS

THIS TRIBUTE
H.

M.

xJc/SfCiDo /

FOREWORD
ill u veckkss moment, to write this general survey of the History of Painting /// a twelvetnontb. On reaching this Jinal volume the ground so vast that I had to Jail back upon the generous good1 found will oj my publishers and beg Jor every week that they could allow tne

/ UNDERTOOK,

until the printing-press opened

its

inky

maw.

Indeed,

it

would

ill

become

me

to let the last volume go to the printers^ devil without acknowledgment of the generous support that I have receivedfrom my friends and publishers, the firm of Jack oj Edinburgh. I have strained their patience, their

generosity,

and

their goodwill in every direction,

and

not least in the

demand

for space far beyond the limits of their original intention, the which must have been a heavy burden on their enterprise, and upon their dogged desire to place the History within reach oj the ordinary ?nan. To my jriend
To the ge?jerous watchfulness and scholarly mind of Mr. Archibald Constable, oj' the famous house of prititers, I here acknowledge iny gratitude for his sportsinanl/ke hunt of errors throughout the huge work. To Paul Konody my thanks jor
debt
is

Leman Hare my

also heavy.

checking the dates in this volume.

Modern Kurope
more narrowed

is

become
life is

so cosmopolitan, distances

peoples have been so narrowed

— that

and broken down

and

barriers between

every year sees them

becotning Europeanised ; jor,

when alTs

said,

the Eriglish-speaking

as they are also

American and Colonial are leading Europe to modernism.

in essence

European, just

The achievement of the modern genius is so vast that within the limits single volume it has been but possible to give general movements and artistic intention ; I have therej'ore treated of the master spirits oj the age, the dominant figures, rather than attempted an exhaustive list oj every
oj

a

personality of high

taletit.

chiej intention throughout has been to show the ordinary man, as well as the student, how Art has ever been developing a larger and wider orchestration of craftsmanship. This is not the same thing as afiirmitig

My

that genius ever increases in power.

Art

itself, the

utterance

oj'

the sensed

communion oj life, is an affair oj' genius that any age or any school may bring forth in a great atid vigorous personality.
Critics,

who are nearly always what
traitiing,

often

with a heavy academic
VOL. VIII

termed highly cultured men, have tiearly always, by consequence
is

b

vii

FOREWORD
of that very
training,

the inclination
difiicult

towards

scientific

utterance rather
the

than the higher

and far more

and complex and inborn habit of

Yet^ whilst the gift of artistic utterance employment of words artistically. words may not go with the sensing of the arts of colour or music or of sculpture or the drama or the like, it Jollows nevertheless that if a man shall have been granted the faculty of sensing such arts deeply, he cannot express their significance until he himself shall have mastered the craft of words the machinery of that art of literature which he must employ, and which alone will enable him to give forth the impressions aroused in his I do not say that a critic must first be senses by the art, say, of painting. / say that he must be a literary artist. a painter When we find criticism written by a man who has not mastered the emotional, that is to say the literary, use of words, we may take it as certain that he is concerned with Tradition and the Reason, not with Art. Let me put the difference between the logical intention of scientifickese or academese as against the artistic intention of literature in an example. For instance, to create the atmosphere of the sea and ships the artist wrote, " They that go down to the sea in ships and have their business on great waters, these see the works of the Lord and His wonders in the deep^' ; the academese would be, '' Sailors exercise their calling at sea in ships, and since they conduct their operations upon the ocean, it naturally follows, as a postulate to the hypothesis, that the aforesaid perceive the works of the Lord and the wonders of the latter on the former." An artist does not employ such terms as ''former " or " latter^ for they appeal to the Reason, not to the senses ; they compel an intellectual act of reference, whereas the aim of the artist is direct and forceful appeal to the

feeling.

Now
life to try

let

us take

Mr. Finberg

on

Impressionism

mark you,

not a

casual scribbler for the press, but a man who has given precious years of and discover Art. Impressionism is, says he, " the attempt to

eliminate

all

those elements in art

which

are due to the reaction of

the intelligent self upon the immediate data of sense-perception.

The aim

of Impressionism is to get rid of what one eminent psychologist has called the noetic fringe in a state of consciousness, to abstract from memory and see objects as simple visual elements. The Impressionist wishes to see objects as though he was looking at them for the first time, as though they had no meaning for him. The theoretic justification of this procedure is that, in stripping off the formative and organising action of intelligence, we isolate the pure element of objective reality that pictures painted upon this principle give the real truth of Nature and are free from all those errors and distortions which the action of thought is supposed to
;

viii

.

FOREWORD
Now
introduce into the irrefragably trustworthy elements of the given." This is not the petition of a Hindoo Baboo with a I am not jesting.
This
is

university education.

serious academese.

approaches works
in

of

art in such a spirit

I say that the man who and endeavours to explam them

such a jargon, jails to sound the deeps of the significance oj' Art. Criticism has created an elusive jargon about Art ; worse still, it has wholly misunderstood the significance of " Style^^ oj " /Esthetic j^ of

" Art " ;

it

has

set

up Beauty as

so elastic

a

thifig

that

it is

tnade

to

cover

almost anything., and ugliness in particular. Rather than part with the parrot-taught phrase that Art is Beauty., critics will say anythi?ig, believe
anything, ignore everything, trample on sense
vital in Art, rend the firmament in twain

and truth, attack all that is and see blackness in whiteness.

They mistake the sensing of things for sensuality ; they dread to coif ess the limits oj' mere intellect lest they appear vulgar just as prurient men look upon the sublime fact oj sex as something obscene. But it is in the

jrigid heights of the intellect, that all that is noblest and most godlike in man has its habitation ; it is the senses that impel him to the courage and the adventure of noble acts, where the intellect would but
senses, not on the

send him cowering into the ditch oj fear, chilled by the mere promptings of Reason. That is why no intellectual impulse is of vital value until it is

flung

of the senses and comes out a changed thing, a vital That is why sigTiificance, transferred into the high realm of the emotions. academese and scientifickese are but a language cold as death, and the
into the crucible

behind such things of scant value until reborn in the simple emotiotial experience that is fashioned by the artist into what can be felt in
thought
the senses,

and

thereby reaches into that supreme sensing of
of art as the

man

that

we

call the Imagination

To mistake a work
intention.

map of

a fact

is

to

miss

its

whole

In this volume I treat of the Modern movements. With Crome and Constable and Bonington and Turner we enter upon a vast increase oj artistic utterance which has affected the whole of painting wrought thereafter. And to attempt to understand Modern Art without Turner is to miss the whole basic intention of the achievement that has bee?i so vital and profound across the face of Europe. The orchestration of
painting as developed by

Turner was

stupendous.

The

artist

must be judged as

artist by the height
;

and
in

reach, the range oj his emotional utterance
is

and width, the depth and just as Shakespeare

accounted the sublime genius of poetry in the measure of his astounding range, so in his eagle flight in the province of huidscapepainting does

words

Turner stand forth as a very giant amongst men.
ix

FOREWORD
no art-lover s shelves should be " Portfolio Monograph." The foundation of any life without Binyon's Constable must he on his friend Leslie's ivritings ; hut there are of several good books upon his work by Sturge Henderson, by Lord Windsor, and others. The most complete account of his works is in the elaborate volume by C. J. Holmes, though this writer, like most scientifc On Girtin critics, must he discounted when he comes to estimate his art. the best writer is Lawrence Binyon, who writes with charm. waterconstant source of confusion is the misuse of the words drawing " and " water-colour painting " by critical writers. colour " water-colour drawing " being the " staining " of a pen or line drawing,

As

regards

Crome and Cotman

A

''^

A

and wholly different
is

frotn the employment of water-colour as painting,

complete in

itself.

O/' Turner's

life

Thornbury held

the key

which which

might have unlocked to him the gates of immortality as a biographer ; he published instead a slovenly jumhle of falsities ; Ruskin neglected the material, burying it under a vast mass oj brilliant rhetoric ; Hamerton made the first sincere effort towards a }-eal life ; hut to Cosmo The authority on Monkhouse is due our heaviest debt of gratitude. biography perhaps he Turner, Mr. Rawlinson, might give us the great

will.

Secretive as a monkey.

Turner puts every

difficulty in the

way, but

the unflinching devotion

and

scholarly research of

Mr. Finberg have given

Complete Inventory of the Drawings of the Turner Bequest, and he has written an interesting volume on Turner's Sketches and Drawings which should not be overlooked. In the Complete Inventory Two valuable hooks published on Turner is the key to his artistic life. are the Golden Visions of Turner and the Water-Colour Drawings of Turner in the National Gallery {Cassell), in that they are rich in reprous the
ductions of his works in colour, as are the several volumes published by The Studio. But I would warn the lover of art that whilst Mr.

Finberg has proved himself as fine a scholar in his particular province as we have amongst us, and whilst his Complete Inventory ts of enormous value as to the career of Turner, his criticising must at all times he treated with the greatest caution, for his sensing of art is not deep. more conspicuously after 1825, When we read that "After 1815 his work is designed to startle the world into attention by its audacity and extravagance," and that Mr. Finberg can see in it nothing but that " it has dazzled and called up the admiration of the multitude, and the influence of his example has been as widespread as it has been vicious," it would indeed seem that Turner has poured music into the ears of a deaf man. The great life ofTnmtv is still to be
. . .

will not be done by such as see in the most splendid Utterance of his genius an aim " to startle a rather stupid public."
written.
it

But

A

X

;

FOREWORD
careful work on the

Dickes. 0// the whose information works. To Caw's " Scottish Painting " / have had
reference

Norwich School of Painting /} that by W. F, life of Cox the chief authorities arc Hall atul Solly, may be found in winnowed jorm in several tnodern
to

tnake constant

J or J acts.
are
several
books

English upon the Impressionist movements. Lecomte's "Impressionist Art," published by the firm of Durand-Ruel, the most loyal patron of impressionism, I have not seen. Most of the literature on the subject, even in France, is, I fancy,
There

now

to

be

had

in

only to be found in magazines.
significance

Even Mauclair's

theories, his ideas

of the

of Art, and

his

acceptance oj false traditions, must be taken

with caution, and are strange in the mouth of a man with appreciation of the craftsmanship of the movement he surveys. Mr. Wynford Dewhurst suffers from the same narrow vision, but has given us an interesting volume

As regards a sound general survey of There are many good articles scattered through magazines on various artists which are of value such fine magazines /// as The Studio ; but these require much research. There is, of course, the general survey of Meier-Graefe's " Modern Art," but we must
on

Impressionist

Painting.
none.

Modern Art, I know

wholly discount his opinions, since

from

the very first

page he authorita-

which the two volumes are built fact of a somewhat strident tnodern attitude being taken up is the more likely to mislead the student. Like tnost writers upon Art, the author has no deep sensing of the vital significance of Art, and only proceeds to set up a new code of criticism which is as blighting as the old academism. "Painting," saith he, "is the art of charming the eyes by colour and line." This is perhaps about as egregious a definition of painting as ever issued from a bookish man. Fancy tragedy or a tnartyrdom " charming " the eye ! to say nothing of sorrow and agony and horror and hate and tears I The man who could affirm in surveying Modern Art that " Neither France nor England has an original art," when Turner created the whole modern intention, gives an idea of the incompetence of tnodern criticism. Meier-Graefe sheds much falsity, but he
tively gives forth fallacy after fallacy on

and

the very

enjoyftient,'' ''pleasure," of ''•beauty^'' and the like clap-trap, which are a danger to Art, since they exclude Art's most majestic and greatest fights into tragedy and pain and the agonies. But criticism always lags behind achievement. When Meier-Graefe approves " the coalition of art with science " as being " no less natural than that with poetry and music," he reveals the hopeless bog in which criticism founders.

clings desperately to the falsities

''

Haldane Macfall.
xi

Foreword

... .....
THE DAWN OF MODERN PAINTING

CONTENTS

rxGi

vii

CHAPTKR
I.

1800
the

Of

the

Coming of

Dawn

.

.

.

.

.3

II.

Wherein we

see the

Dawn

break in splendour over England
.
.

out of a Barber's Shop
III.

.

.

.9

Wherein

a

Miller's

Son

finds

Romance
his

in

the

Reality of

England's Landscapes, and paints

Impressions of the
.
.

Home-Land
IV. Wherein

.

.

.

.40
.51
to teach

we watch

the splendour of the

Dawn
.

set

aglow the
.

ancient City of

Norwich

.

.

V. Wherein we see the Drawing-masters

set

up School
.
.

Art
VI.

in

So

Many

Lessons

.

.56
.

Of the

early Sea-painters

and Animal-painters of England

65

VII. Wherein, out of the Scottish Painting of the

Home-Life of
.

the early Eighteen-hundreds, emerges Colour Realism

68

I

S
steps out of

'I

o
into

VIII.

Wherein Romance

the native Genius aflame

.....
England
Prance and
. .
.

sets

72

IX. Wherein,
the

sid-?

by

side with

Romance, we
.

see biting Satire walk

Land of France

,80
.87
xiii

X. Wherein, alongside of Romance and

Satire,
.

we

also see the
.

Academic-classical walking in France

CONTENTS
REALISM AND PRE-RAPHAELITE ACADEMISM
CHAPTER

1850
. . .
.

PACK
.

XI. Wherein we walk awhile with the Frenchmen of Barbizon

91

XII. Wherein

a

Truculent Fellow turns the eyes of France to
Realities
.

sombre

.

.102
109

XIII. Wherein the British Painters take the Figure into the open
air,

and Realism passes into the glamour of the Sunlight

.

XIV. Wherein we walk with two English Giants of the Victorian
Years
. . . . . •

"^5

XV. Of the German

Genius

at the

Mid-century

.

.

.129

THE CONFLICT OF MASS-IMPRESSIONISM WITH THE MEDIEVAL ACADEMISM OF THE ESTHETES

i860
. . .

XVI. Wherein we walk

awhile with the ^Esthetes

,

-135
in
.

XVII. Wherein we look upon the various Forms of Academism
the Mid-century of the Eighteen-hundreds in France

143

XVIII. Wherein we
the East

see

French Realism seeking for the Sun
.
.

in

'47

XIX. Wherein we

see

Dark Realism

in
.

France
.

sending
.

forth

Forerunners to Impressionism

.150
.157
.

XX. Wherein

the great Revelation of Mass-Impressionism comes
.

to France

.

.

.

.

XXI. Wherein we
XXII. Of
the

see

Mass-Impressionism

arise in

England

169

English Painters of the Pastoral,

and the great
.

Illustrators of the

Home-Life of

the Sixties

.180
.182

XXIII. Of the Mid-century Scotsmen
xiv

.

.

.

CONTENTS
BROKEN-COLOUR IMPRESSIONISM
CHAPTER
PAGE

1870
.

XXIV. Wherein we

see the Revelation of

English Turner burst upon
.

France of the Seventies

.

.189
.

XXV.

Wherein

is
.

much

talk of Millet
.
.

and Velazquez throughout
. .

Europe

XXVI. Wherein we
XXVII. Of

see

Impressionism

the Englishmen in the Seventies

COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION AND THE COMING OF A PRIMAL-ACADEMISM
XXVIII. Wherein

...... 1880
.
.

.198
204

Realism step into Germany and lead to

.210

NEW

we

see
.

Impressionism
.

triumphing
.

in
.

Colour-

Orchestration

.

.215

XXIX. Wherein

several mistake Art for Science,

and essay to create
• .

Art on the Mathematical Principle

.229
returns

XXX.

Wherein Primal-Academism
to the Life of Savages
.

is

created by
.

One who
.

.

'^33

THE TRIUMPH OF IMPRESSIONISM IN COLOURORCHESTRATION AND THE REACTION TOWARDS PRIMAL-ACADEMISM INTO OUR OWN DAY

1890
making
with those

XXXI, Wherein

Impressionism through Colour-Orchestration con.
.

quers the Realm of the Imagination

.241
Dead
.

XXXII. Wherein we
their

see the i^isthetes

the Styles of the
.

God, and creating the

New Academism

295

XXXIII. Wherein we walk

to the Infancy of the

who would have us believe that World was granted the final Revelation
highway and part
.
.

299

XXXIV. Wherein we

INDEX

........
step

on

to the

302
309

'

VOL. VIII

C

XV

—— — —

ILLUSTRATIONS
II.

Turner

Crossing the Brook

.

Frontispiece

PLATI
I.

Crome

— The Windmill^
Ulysses

on an undulating heath probably

Mouse-

hold Heath, in the neighbourhood of Norwich
III.

4
28

Turner

IV.

V.
VI.

— deriding Polyphemus Turner — Hastings 1835) Constable — A Country Lane Constable — Cathedral
[about
Salisbury

30

40
46
52 58

VII.
VIII.

CoTMAN

Greta Bridge, Yorkshire

IX.

— The Woodcutter De Wint — Harvest
David Cox
Scene

.

60 74
76
96 98

X, CoROT
XI.
XII.
XIII.

UEtang
Souvenir d'ltalie

Co ROT Millet

XIV.

— The Sawyers Millet — The Gleaners HoLMAN Hunt — The Scapegoat
Ophelia
.

114
116
118

XV. MiLLAis
XVI. RossETTi
XVII.

Ecce Ancilla Domini

^ATT^—Hope

126

XVIII. Burne-Jones

— Sidonia von Bork
of Psyche

136

XIX. Leighton

— The Bath

140
xvii

ILLUSTRATIONS
HATE

XX.

LIST OF PAINTERS
Abbey,
293-

Edwin,

290,
185.

292,

Bartels,

Adam, Denovan,

Adams, Dacres, 258. Adams, John Quincy, 283,
284. Aiguier, Auguste, 152. Alciati, 286. Aldin, Cecil, 247. Alebardi, 286.

Alexander, Edwin, 251. Alexander, J. W., 291. Alexander, Robert, 185.
Allan, R. W., 185. Allan, Sir William, 70. Allen, 291. Alma Tadema, Lady, 141.

Alma Tadema,Sir Lawrence,
88, 140. Alt, Rudolf von, 205, 283,

297.

Aman-Jean, Edmond, 267.
Andri, 284. Angeli, 283. Anglada y Camarasa, 275. Anquetin, Louis, 269. Antonio de la Gandara, 269.

Arago, 82. Aranyossy, 285. Archer, James, 123, 182. Armfield, Maxwell, 292.

Armour, Denholm, 251.
Arosenius, 288. Artz, David Adolphe Constable, 199.

Atkinson, 294. Aubert, Raymond, 152.

Augrand, 230. Aumonier, 247.

Baar, 283. Baertsoen, 286. Bail, Joseph, 268. Barker of Bath, 4, 6.
Barratt, Reginald, 247.

Hans von, 278. Basch, Arpad, 297. Bashkirtseff, Marie, 201. Bastien-Lepagc, 201. Batten, 142. Baudry, 87, 146, Bauer, 286, 293. Baum, Paul, 209. Bayes, Walter, 247. Beardsley, Aubrey, 261, 265. Beatty, 294. Beaux, Cecilia, 245. Becht, 286. Becker, Harry, 248. Beckwith, 290. Behmer, Marcus, 264. Bejot, 274. Bell, Anning, 142, 265. Bentley, Charles, 64. Berchere, 147. Berg, Gunner, 298. Bergh, 287. Bernard, Emile, 300. Bernard, Valere, 144. Bertin, Victor, 75. Berton, Armand, 267. Besnard, Albert Paul, 216, 266. Bezzi, 286. Billotte, 215. Binet, 149, 215. Birgers, 287. Bjorck, 287. Blacklock, 250. Blake-Wirgman, 265. Blanche, Jacques Kmile, 269. Blashfield, 290. Blommers, Bernardus Johannes, 199. Blomstedt, 289. Blum, 291, 293. Boberg, Anna, 288. Boch, Anna, 232. Bocklin, 131. Boldini, 225. Bone, Muirhead, 251, 265.

Bonheur, Rosa, 198. Bonington, Richard P., 49. Bonnard, Pierre, 299. Bonnat, Leon, 202. Bonvin, Francois, 154. Bonvin, Leon, 154. Borthwick, 251. Bosboom, Johannes, 152. Bosch, 286. Bouchod, 78. Boudin, Louis Eugene, 150, Bough, Samuel, 64, 183. Boughton, 291. Bouguereau, 145. Boulanger, Gustave, 147. Boulard, Auguste, 198. Bouquet, 82. Boutet de Monvel, 272, 274,
296. Boyce, George Price, 64. Boyd Houghton, 181, 265. Brabazon, 247.
Bracht, 209.

Bracquemond, Marie, 171,274.
Bradley,

168,

W.

H., 264.

Bramley, 249. Brangwyn, Frank, 241, 265.
Brcitner, 286.

Breton, Emile, 198. Breton, Jules, 198. Brett, John, 123. Bricher, 290. Brickdale, Eleanor Fortescue, 123, 266. Bridgman, 291, 294. Bright, Henry, 55. Brock, 265. Brough, Robert, 245, 250. Brown, Arnesby, 248. Brown, A. K., 185. Brown, Hablot K., 265. Brown, T. Austen, 227, 251.

Browne, 293.
Brownell, 293, 294. Bruce, Blair, 293.

xix

PAINTERS
Brush, 290.
Chasseriau,

Theodore,

87,

Brymner, 293. Bunny, Rupert, 294.
Burger, 132.
Burgess, 67.

145, 147.

Chenavard, 87. Cheret, Jules Charles, 218.
Chessa, 287. Chevalier, Guillaume
pice, 82.

Burnand, 289.
Burne-Jones, 136. Burnet, 70. Burnitz, 132. Burns, 142. Burridge, 265. Burton, W. S., 122. Bussy, Simon, 144, 267.

Sul-

Chiesa, 286. Childe Hassam, 290, 291.
Chintreuil, 95. Chowne, 250.

Crawhall, Joseph, the younger, 258. Creswick, Thomas, 64. Crome, John, 3. Crome, John Berney, 4. Cross, 230. Cruikshank, 265, 294. Cullen, 295. Czok, 283.

Church, 291, 293.
Ciamberlani, 285. Ciardi, 286. Clarkson Stanfield, George,
65.

D'Ache, Caran, 272. Dagnan-Bouveret, 215.
Dall'oca-Bianca, 286.
Daniells, 55.

Cabanel, 145. Cadenhead, 226. Caillebotte, Gustave, 197. Caldecott, Randolph, 2 1 1, 265. Calderon, Philip, 123. Calcott, Sir A. W., 50. Callow, William, 63. Cameron, D. Y., 226, 251,
265.

Dannat, William, 291. Daubigny, Charles Fran9ois,
94-.

Clarkson Stanfield, William,
65. Claus, Emile, 220.

Daubigny,
94-.

Edme

Francois,

Clausen, 247, 249. Clays, Paul Jean, 78.
Coffin, 290. Cole, Vicat, 50.
Collier,

Daumier, Honore, 80. Daveneck, 290, 293. Davis, H. W. B., 123.
Davis, William, 123.

Thomas,
Charles

64.

Dayes, Edward,

7.

Collins,

AUiston,

De De De

Braekeleer, Henri, 286.
78, 99, 147.

Cameron, Hugh, 123, 185. Cameron, Katharine, 123,
142.

122.
Collins, William, 70. Collinson, 121.

Decamps,

Degas, 164.

Groux, Charles, 286.
Josselin de Jong, 289.

Canon, Hans, 283, 284.
Caputo, 287.
Caro-Delvaille, 269. Carozzi, 286. Carriere, Eugene, 224. Carse, 70. Carter, 266. Casanova v Estorach, 276. Casas, 275. Casciaro, 286. Caspari, 282.
Cassatt,

Conder, Charles, 252. Connard, 249.
Constable, 40-49. Constant, Benjamin, 148.

Cooke, Edward William, 65.
Cooper, Sidney, 67. Corbould, Chantrey, 265.

Delacroix, 73. De Latenay, 274. Delaunay, Elie, 87. Delaunois, 286. Delleani, 286.

Delug, 284.

Cormon,

144. Cornelius, 1 1 1.

Corot, 74.

Mary, 167, 168.

Cossmann, 285. Cotman, John Sell, 52.
Cottet, 149, 216.

De Maria, 287. De Monvel, Bernard, 274. De Morgan, Mrs., 141. De Nettis, 225.

Cassie, 185.
Cassiers, 286.

De

Cattermole, George, 79. Cayley Robinson, 124. Cazin, jean Charles, 198. Cezanne, Paul, 233. Chahine, 275.
Challoner, 294. Chalmers, 184.

Courbet, Gustave, 102. Couture, Thomas, 87. Cowper, Cadogan, 123, Cox, David, 57.

Denis, Maurice, 231. Neuville, 143. Der Kinderen, 297. Despret, 82.

Desvallieres, 144. Detaille, 143.
De\-erell, 121. Deveria, 82.

Cox, Kenyon, 290.
Crabb, 68.
Craig,

Edward

Gordon,

Chalon, 67.

Cham,

82.

Chambers, George, 66.
Charlet, 80.

Chase, 290, 291.

257. Craig, Frank, 123, 293. Crane, Walter, 138, 141, 265. Crawhall, Joseph, 181,226, 254.

Dewhurst, Wynford, 248. Dewing, 290. De Wint, Peter, 59.
Diaz, Emile, 94.
Diaz, Narcisse Virgilio, 93. Dicksee, F., 141. DidierPouget, 268.

XX

PAINTERS
Diebold, 96. Dielman, 290, Diez, Julius, 280.
Dijsselhof, 297.
Dill,

Faed, Thomas, 181. Fagerlin, 287.

Gaskin, 141, 142. Gaugain, 234.
Gavarni, 82, 83.

Ludwig, 278.

Diriks, Edouard, 288.

Fantin-Latour, 155. Farquharson, David, 185. Farquharson, Joseph, 185. Farrer, 290.
Fattori, 287.

Discovolo, 286.

Docharty, 183.

Donnay, 286.
Dore, Gustave, 80. Douglas, Sir William Fettes,
123, 182.

Douglas, Sholto, 251. Dow, Millie, 226. Drake, 293.
Drolling, 146. Dubois-Pillet, 230.

Feldbauer, 281. Fenn, 290. Fergusson, J. D., 259. Ferraris, 284. Feuerbach, Anselm, 130. Fielding, Copley, 61. Fildes, Sir Luke, 210, 265. Filiger, 300. Finch, Francis Oliver, 64,

Gavin, 182. Gay, Walter, 291. Gcbhard, 289. Geddes, 68. Georgi, 281. Gere, 142. Germala, 285. Gcrmela, 284. Gerome, Jean Leon, 148.
Giani, 286.

Gibb, 185. Gibson, Dana, 293. Gibson, Hamilton, 290.
GifFord, 290.

232, 297.

Dufrenoy,
268.

Georges

Leon,

Fischer, 282.
Fisher,

Gignous, 286.

Mark, 247.

Duhcm,

267. Du Maurier, George, 170, 265.

Flageolet, 102.

Flameng, Francois, 144.
Flandrin, Hippolyte, 145. Fleury, Tony Robert, 80.
Flint, 258.

Graham, 68. Gilbert, Sir John, 79, 265. Gilsoul, 286.
Gilbert,
Gioli, 287. Girtin, Thomas,
7.

Duncan, 70. Dupont, 274. Dupre, Jules,

96.

Duran, Carolus, 202. Duval, Amaury, 87. Dyce, William, 71, ill. Dyonnet, 293. Dyson, 294.
East, Sir Alfred, 246, 265.

Flodin, 289. Footet, Fred, 248. Forain, Jean Louis,

Gleichen-Russwurm, 209. Godin, 274.
167,

GofF, Colonel, 265. Gonzales, Eva, 168.

269. Forbes, Mrs. Stanhope, 294. Forbes, Stanhope, 249.

Gotch, 142.
Grabar, 289. Graf, 282, 284.

Fortuny, Mariano, 148, 276,
Eaton, 290, 293.
287. Foster,

Graham, Peter, 184. Graham, Tom, 184.
Grandville, 82. Grasset, 275. Graziosi, 287. Green, Charles, 210, 265. Green, E. S., 293.

Miles Birket,

180,

Eck, 284.

Eckmann, 298.
Edelfelt, 289.

265. Fowler, Robert, 250. Francia, 6.
Eraser, 70, 183. Eraser, Lovat, 258.

Edwards, 290. Eeckhoudt, 286.
Eichler, 281.

Greenaway, Kate, 141.
Gregory, E. J., 210. Greiffenhagen, 253, 266.
Greiner, 282. Gresy, Prosper, 152. Grier, Wyly, 293. Griggs, 266. Grom-Rottmayer, 284. Grosso, 286. Guerard, Henri, 168. Guerin, Charles, 299.

Frederic, Leon, 286.

Tristram, 265. Ende, Hans Am, 282. Engelhart, 284-5. Engels, 281. Engleheart, J. D., 67. Ensor, 285. Erler, 281. Estoppey, 289. Ethofer, 285. Etty, William, 109. Eugene, Prince, 288. Evenepoel, Henri, 285. Eysen, 205.
Ellis,

Freer, 290. Freidrich, 284. Frere, Edouard, 78. Frith, William Powell, 121.

Fromentin, Eugene, 149.
Frost, 293. Fuller of Boston, 290.

Fullwood, 294. Furse, Charles Wellington,
244.

Gagnon, 293.
Gaillard, 286.

Guillaume, 272. Guillaumet, Gustave, 149. Guillaumin, Armand, 197.
Guillion-Lethiere, 91. Guthrie, 226.

Fabres, 287.

Gallacher, 266. Gallen, 288, 289.

Guthrie,

J. J.,

142.

xxi

PAINTERS
Guthrie,
Sir

James, 227.

Holman Hunt, William,
265.
Holzel, Adolf, 278.

1

14,

Guys, Constantin, 86.
Hacker, 293.

Kalckreuth, 282. Kappes, 290.
Kasparides, 284. Kaulbach, 207. Keene, Charles, 169, 265.

Haden, Seymour, 171, 265. Haider, Karl, 205. Haite, 247. Hall, Oliver, 247. Hall, Peter Adolf, 287. Hammershoj, 288. Hammond, Miss, 265. Hampel, Walter, 283. Hankev, Lee, 247. Hansen, Hans, 227, 289. Hardie, C Martin, 185. Harding, James D., 63. Hardy, Dudley, 254. Harpignies, 78.
Harris, 293. Harrison, Miss F., 142.

Homer, Winslow, 290. Hook, 66.
Hope, 294.

Kemble, 293.
Khnopff,
286.
145,

Hopwood, 247. Hdrmann, 283.
Hornel, 226, 228, 250. Horovitz, 283. Horst-Schulze, 282.

232,

285,

Kidd, 70.

King,

Jessie, 142.

Houghton, Boyd, 181, 265. Housman, Lawrence, 141,
266.

Hovenden, 293. Huard, 274.
Hucffer, Mrs., 114.

Huet, Paul, 73, 74. Hughes, Arthur, 122. Humbert, Ferdinand, 144.

Harrison, Alexander, 291. Hartrick, 251, 266. Harvey, 70, 183. Hassall, 266.

267,

Hunt, Alfred W., 64. Hunt, W. H., 61, 62. Hunter, Colin, 185.
Hutt, 293.
Ibels,

Kiev, 282. Klimt, 297, 298. Klinger, Max, 277, 282. Knight, 291. Kobke, 288. Kollwitz, Kathe, 282. Koner, 207. Konopa, 285. Koppay, 284. Korovine, 289. Koster, 286. Kramer, 284, Krausz, 283.

Kronberg, 287. Kroyer, 288, 289.

Haydon,

67.

271, 275.

Kruger, 129.
Kruis, 284. Kustodieff, Boris, 289.
Lacoste, Charles, 268.

Hayter, Sir George, 67. Hebert, Ernest, 87, 146. Hegenbart, 282. Heine, 264, 280, 298. Hejda, 284. Helleu, 267, 274 Hemy, Napier. 88. Henderson, Joseph, 123, 185.

Image, Selwyn, 141. Ince, John Murray, 64.
Lichbold, 123. Ingres, 87.
Inness, George, 290, Innocenti, 2B7.
Isabey, 73, 80.
Israels,

Ladbrooke, Robert, 3, 54. Laermans, Eugene, 286,

La Farge,

290, 298.

Joseph, 198.

Lafitte, 274.

Henner, 105. Henry, George, 226, 228,
250.

Herdman, 182. Herkomer, Sir Hubert von,
210, 265.

Jacque, Charles, 95. James, 250. Jamieson, 251. Jank, 281. Jansson, 288.
Jarnefelt, 289. Jeanniot, 270.
Jeffreys, 294. Jettel, 284.

Lafrensen, Nikolaus, 287. Lambert, 294.

Raven, 265. Hillestroms, 287. Hilton, William, R.A., 61. Hirth der Frenes, 205.
Hill,

Lance, George, 67. Landseer, Edwin, 66. Lang, Albert, 205. Lange, Olaf, 288. Langhammer, Arthur, 279.
Langlois, 97.

Hitchcock, George, 291. Hockert, 287. Hofman, Ludwig von, 278,
298.

Jettmar, 285, 297, 298. Joannovits, 284. Johannot, Tony, 80. Johansen, 288.

Laprade, Pierre, 299. Larssons, Carl, 287. Laszlo, Philip, 284.
248, 249. Lathrop, 290, 293. La Touche, Gaston, 217, 266. Laurens, Jean Paul, 143. Laurent, Ernest, 230, 267. Laurenti, 286. Lautrec, 270. Lauzet, 230.

La Thangue,

Hoffmann, 297. Hohenberger, 285.
Hole, William, 185. Holiday, 142. Holl, Frank, 210. Holland, James, 63.

John, Augustus E., 250. Johnson, Eastman, 290. Jones, Garth, 266, 290. Jongkind, Johann B., 150, Josephson, 287.
Julien, 82.

xxii

PAINTERS
Laval, 300. Laveiy, 226, 228. Lavreince, 287. Lawless, Mathew
123.

Lucas, David, 47. Luce, 230. Lundberg, 287.

Mason, George Heming, i8o.
Maufra, Maxime, 268. Mauve, Anton, 200.

James,

May,
Macallum, Hamilton, 185. Macbeth, Robert W., 185. Macdougall, 142. MacGeorge, 250. Macgregor, W. Y., 226,
251.

Phil, 264, 265.

Mediz, 284.
Mediz-Pelikan, 284.

Lawson, Cecil Gordon, 185.
Leandre, 272. Lebourg, Albert, 197.
Lefebvre, Jules, 145.
Lefler, 284.

Mee, Mrs.,

67.

Mehoffer, Josef, 284. Mein, Will, 142.
Meissonier, 143. Melchers, 291. Melville, Arthur, 227. Melville, Walter, 226.

Legrand, Louis, 270. Legros, Alphonse, 156, 265. Leheutre, 274.
Leibl,

Mackay, 185. Mackensen, Fritz, 282. Mackenzie, 68.
Mackie, 226. Maclaughlan, Shaw, 293.
Maclise, Daniel, 70.

Wilheim, 204.

Leighton, Frederick, Lord,
139, 265. Leistikow, 282, 298. Lemmen, 232, 297. Lenbach, Franz von, 206. Lenfesty, 247.

Macnce, 68. MacWhirter, 184.
M'Bride, 251. M'Culloch, Horatio, 69.
M'Gillivray, 226. M'Gregor, Robert, 185.

Menard, Rene, 267. Menzel, Adolph von, 129. Merson, Olivier, 143. Meryon, 105. Mesdag, Hendrick Willem,
199. Metcalf, 290. Mettling, Louis, 203. Meulen, Frederick Pieter Ter, 200. Meunier, 106, 201, 286. Michallon, 75. Michel, Georges, 74, 91, Michetti, 220. Michie, Coutts, 185.

Lenz, 284. Lepere, Auguste, 270, 274. Le Sidaner, Henri, 266. Leslie, Charles Robert, 79. Leslie, G. D., 123. Lewis, John Frederick, no. Leys, Jean Auguste Henri,
88.

M'Lachlan, Hope, 185.

M'Leay,

68.

M'Nicol, Bessie, 251. M'Taggart, William, 123,
184.

Madox Brown,
Madrazo, 148. Maggi, 286.

Ford, 112.

L'Hermitte, 198. Liebenwein, 285. Liebermann, Max, 207, 282.
Liljefors, 288.

Michl, 274. Middeleer, 286.
Migliaro, 287.
Millais,

Mahoney,

Lindner, MofFat, 247. Lindsay, Norman, 266, 294. Lindsay, Ruby, 294. Linnell, John, 62. Linton, Sir J. D., 123. Lionne, 286.
Lippincott, 290. List, 284. Lista, 219.
Little, 247.

J., 210, 265. Maitland, 249. Majani, 286. Makart, Hans, 283. Maliavine, 289. Mancini, Antonio, 219, 287. Manet, Edouard, 159. Mann, Alexander, 226,251. Mann, Harrington, 226,25 1.

John Everett, 115,

265.
Millar, 266.

Millet, F. D., 290. Millet, Jean Francois, 97. Milne-Donald, 183.

Minns, 294.
Miss, 289. Mitchell, Campbell, 251. Miti-Zanetti, 287. Modersohn, Otto, 282.

Manson, 185. Manuel, 265.
Mariaiii, 286. Marilhat, 78, 147. Maris, Jacobus, 200. Maris, Mathys, 200. Maris, Willem, 201. Marold, 282, 284. Marolle, 97. Marshall, 247. Marstrand, 288. Mattel, Eugene, 144. Martin, Henri, 268.

Livens, 247. Lloyd, 247. Lobre, Maurice, 267. Lockhart, 185.

Moir, 68. Moira, Gerald, 142.
Moll, Carl, 284. Monet, Claude, 190.

Lomont, Eugene, 267. Loos, 297. Lori, 286. Lorimer, 226. Loubon, Emile, 152.
Loudan, Mouat, 246. Lound, 55.

Martineau, Robert, 123.
Matisse, Henri, 301.

Low, 290, 291.
VOL. VIII

Monnier, 82. Monsted, 289. Montalba, 247. Monticelli, Adolphe, 152. Moore, Albert, 141. Moore, Henry, 123. Moore Park, Carton, 266. Morans, The, 290.
xxiii

d

.

PAINTERS
Moreau, Gustave, 144. Morel, 286.
Morelll, 287.

Norstcdt, 287.

Pointeiin,

Auguste

Em-

Moret, 300. Morisot, Berthe, 167. Morner, 287.

Morot, Aime, 143. Morren, 285. Wilson Morrice,

Oberlacnder, 282. Ochtman, 291. Oldbrich, 297. Olgyai, 285.
Olivier, Luc, 143.

manuel, 225. Poupart, 95. Poynter, Sir Edward
141.
Preisler, 283.

J.,

Prellar, 282.

James,

Opsomer, 285.
Orchardson,
184. Orlik, 285.
Sir

Preshun, 281.
Priest, 55.

268, 293. Morris, Edmund, 293. Morris, William, 136.

William O.,

Moser, 297.
Mosler, 291.

Mostyn, Tom, 253. Mouchel, 97. Mouncey, 250

Orpen, William, 246, 250. Orr, 258. Overbeck, iii, 282.

Prikker, Joan Thorn, 297. Prinsep, Val, 123. Prout, Samuel, 56.

Pryde, James, 227, 255.
Pujol,

Abel

de, 78.

Mowbray, 290.
Muclcley, 142.

Palmer, Samuel, 61, 290. Park, Stuart, 216.
Parrish,

M., 293.

Muirhead, David, 251.
Miiller, Victor, 132.

Parrish, Stephen, 293. Parsons, 265, 290.

Puttner, 281. Putz, 281. Puvis de Chavannes, 145. Pyie, Howard, 290, 292, 293Pyne, James Baker, 50.

Miiller,

William James, 50,

284.

Mulready, 61, 70.

Munch,

288.

Munlcacsy, 205, 283. Munthe, Gerhard, 298. Miinzer, 281. Murray, David, 185, 247.

Murray, Fairfax, 141. Myrbach, 284.
Nairn, 251. Nanteuil, Celestin, 80. Nasmyth, Alexander, 68.

Partridge, Bernard, 265. Paterson, James, 226, 251. Paton, Sir Noel, 122, 182. Paton, Waller, 123. Patterson, 293. Pau de Saint-Martin, A., 91. Paul, Bruno, 282. Paulsen, 288. Pearce, 291.
Peel, Paul, 293.

Quin, 294.

Rackham, Arthur, 266.
Jean Francois, 196, 275, 287. Raffet, 80, 82. Railton, 265. Ralston, W., 185. Ranft, 274, Ranken, 247. Rassen fosse, 285. Rauscher, 285.
RafFaelli,

Nasmyth, Patrick, 68. Nelson, Townsend, 266. Neuhuys, Albert, 199.

Pegram, 266. Pennell, 293. Peploe, S. J., 250, 258. Peppercorn, 247. Perugini, C. E., 141. Peterssen, 288. Pettenkofen, 283.
Pettie, 184.
Phillip,

Redon, Odilon, 144, Reed, E. T., 266. Regnault, 149. Reicher, 286.
Reid, John R., 185. Reid, Ogilvy, 185. Reid, Sir George, 185. Reinhart, 291, 293. Rcisen, 281.

New,

266.

Newell, 293.

John, 182.

Newton,

67. Nicholson, P.

Walker, 185.
68,

Philpot, 250. Picard, Louis, 267.
Piccini, 220.

William, Nicholson, 256. Nicol, Erskine, 182.
Nicol,
J.

Remington, 292.
91. Renoir, 194. Renouard, 167, 270. Ress, 283. Rethel, 144. Rever, 286. Reynolds, S. W., 47.

Picknell, 291.

Remond,

Pietschmann, 286.
Pigal, 82.
Pilo, 287.

Watson, 185.

Nieuwenkamp, 286.
Nisbet, R. B., 185. Niss, 289.

Pin well, George John, 181,
265.
Pirie,

Noble, Campbell, 185. Noble, Robert, 185, 226. Nocci, 287. Noire, 149, 269. Nomellini, 287.

George, 216.

Pissarro, Camiile, 193, 230.

Rhead, 142.
Riabuskine, 289. Ribot, 105. Ricard, Gustave, 154.

Pitman, Miss, 266.
Piatt, 293.

Point,

Armand,

144.

xxiv

PAINTERS
]Rice,

Miss

Estelle, 261.

Richmond, George, 141. Richmond, Sir William, 141.
Riclcetts, Charles, 142.

Rico, 287. Rieth, 281. Riocreux, 95.
Riviere, 272.

Sargent, John S., 218, 249, 290. Sartoris, 146. Sattler, 144, 282, 298. Sauter, 246. Scattola, 286. ScharfF, 284. Schattenstien, 284.
SchefFer, Ary, 87, Schider, 205.

Sorolla, 276.

Souchon, 93.
Southall, 142. Spare, 266.

Sparre, 289.
Sperl, 205. Spiegel, 282.

Robbe, 274. Roberts, David, 69.
Roberts, Tom, 294. Robertson, Andrew, 68. Robertson, Graham, 227. Robertson, Tom, 251.

Schirmer, 131. Schlittgen, 282.

Schmid, 284.
Schmoll, 284.

Stanhope, Spencer, 141. Stanton, Hughes, 247, Stark, James, 5, 55. Stauffer, 284. Steer, Wilson, 249. Steiner-Prag, Hugo, 282.
Steinlen, 167, 272, 274, 275.

Robinson, 246, 291. Robson, George Fennel, 64. Roche, 226, 228. Rochegrosse, 144.
Roll, Alfred Philippe, 215. Roller, 297.

Schmutzer, 285. Schuch, Karl, 205. Schwabe, Carlos, 144, 275. Schwaiger, 284. Scott, David, 71. Scott Lauder, 70.
Scott,

Stephens, F. G., 121.
Sterner, 293.

Stetson, 293. Steuben, 102.

Stevens, Alfred, 105, 127. Stevenson, Macaulay, 226,

Romako, 283. Romberg, 286.
Rooke, 141.
Rops, Felicien, 106, 232. Roqueplan, Camille, 95. Roslin, 287. Ross, R. T., 182. Ross, Sir W. C, 68.
Rossetti, Christina, I2I.

William

Bell,

138,

182.

Seddon, 123. Segantini, Giuseppe,
284, 287. Seguin, 300. Selvatico, 286.

220,

Sem, 275.
SerolF, 289.

Rossetti,

Gabriel

Charles

Serusier, Paul, 300.

Dante, 117, 265. W. M., 114. Roth, 283. Rothenstein, William, 249.
Rossetti, Mrs.

Seurat, 230.

Shannon, C. Hazlewood, 142. Shannon, J. J., 292.
Sharp,
5.

251. Stewart, 68, 292. Stillman, Mrs., 141. Stillwell, Sarah, 293. Stohr, 284, 285. Stoitzner, 284. Storey, 123. Stott, Edward, 248. Stott, William, 226. Strang, 251, 265. Strathmann, 298. Streeton, 294. Stremel, Max, 209.

Rouault, 144. Rousseau, Theodore, 91. Roussel, 249, 299.

Shaw, Byam, 123, 266.
Shields, Frederick, 138, 265.

Roux, 284.
Roybet, Ferdinand, 202.

Shirlaw, 290. Short, Frank, 265.
Sickert, 249.

283. Strudwick, 141. Stuck, Franz, 277, 282, 298. Sullivan, E. J., 266.
Stretti,

Sumner, Heywood, 142.
Svabinsky, 283. Swan, John Macallan, 226.

Runge, 298.
Rusinol, 275. Russell, 249, 294. Ryder, 291. Ryland, 142. Rysselberghe, Theo

Signac, 230.
Signol, 87.

Syme, John, 68.
Szekely, 285.

Sime, Sidney H., 252, 266. Simon, Lucien, 216, 283. Simpson, Joseph, 257.

Talaga, 284.

Van,

Sisley, Alfred, 194.

231, 232.

Small, William, 185, 265.

Tannock, 68. Taquoy, Maurice, 274.
TarkhofF, 289. Tattegrain, 144. Tegner, Hans, 289. Temple, 284. Tenniel, 265. Thanlow, Fritz, 288. Thaulow, 267. Thayer, 290, 291.

Sagcr-Nelson, 288. Salmson, 287.

Salzmann, 281. Samberger, 278. Sambourne, Linley, 265.
Sanders, 68. Sandys, Frederick, 138, 265.

Smedley, 293. Smith, Bellingham, 266. Smith, Colvin, 68. Smith, Hopkinson, 290. Smith, Jessie E., 293. Smythe, Montague, 247. Solomon, Simeon, 141. SomofF, Constantin, 252, 289.

XXV

PAINTERS
Thirtle, 55.

Vedder, Elihu, 291.
Vegetti, 287. Vcrestschagin, 288. Verkade, 300. Vierge, Daniel, 270, 275. Vincelet, Victor, 105. Vincent, George, 5, 55. Vogel, 282. Vogeler, Heinrich, 282. Vollon, Antoine, 105. Von Breda, 287.

Wery, Emile, 216.
Wetherbee, 247.
Whistler,
293170,

Thoma, Hans, 205, 282. Thompson, Elizabeth, 143. Thomson (of Duddingston),
69.

265,

290,

Thomson, Hugh, Thomson, Leslie, Thomson, W. J., Thony, 279, 282.
Thorburn, 67, 68.
Thulstrup, 292. Tichy, 284, 285.

265. 185.
68.

White, 185. Wieden, 284. Wierusz-Kowalski, 285. Wilhelmson, 288. Wilke, 282.
Wilkie, David, 69.
Willette, 272.

Tidemand, 288.
Tiffany, 298. Tissot, 88.

Von Glehn, 249. Von Marees, Hans, 130. Von Rosen, 287. Von Uhde, Fritz, 209.
Vuillard, Edouard, 267, 299.

Tito, 287.

Tommasi, 287.
Tonks, 249. Toorop, 286, 296. Toulouse-Lautrec, 167.
Traquair, Mrs., 142. Travies, 82. Troili, 287. Troyon, Constant, 95. Trubetskoj, Prince Paul, 289. Triibner, 205, 206.

Williams, 69. Williamson, 293. Willumsen, 298. Wilson, Andrew, 69. Wilson, Edgar, 266. Wilson, George, 141.

Wacik, 284. Wagemans, 285.
Wahlberg, 287.
Waldmiiller, 283. Walker, Frederick,
181,

Wimperis, 247. Windus, William Lindsay,
123.

Wingate, 185.
Winterhalter, 146. Wintour, John Crawford,
183.

265, 294. Wallis, Henry, 123. Walls, William, 251. Walton, E. A., 226, 228.

Witsen, 286. Wolff, 282.

Ward,

Edward

Matthew,

Wood,

290.

Tuke, 249.
Turner,
9-39-

Joseph
291.

M.

W.,

Twachtman,

183,291. Waterlow, Sir Ernest, 247. Watson, C. J., 247, 265. Watson, George, 68. Watson Gordon, Sir John,
68.

Woodville, Caton, 143.

Woolner, 121. Wright, John Massey,

7.

Ubbelohde, 282. Unger, 285. Uprka, 284. Urban, 284.
Vail, 267.

Wyant, 290. Wytsman, Juliette, 285. Wytsman, Randolph, 285.

Watson, Homer, 293. Watson, J. D., 123. Watson, W. Smellie, 68. Watt, Fiddes, 251. Watts, George Frederick,
125.

Young Hunter,
Yule, 250.

Mrs., 123.

Valloton, 300. Van de Velde, 232, 297. Van Gogh, Vincent, 221,

Zanetti-Zilla, 286. Zerlacher, 284.

Wauters, 286.

Ziem, Felix Francois G.
123. 147Zoff, 285.

P.,

Webbe,

W.

J.,

234;

Van Gravesande, 286. Van Houten, 286. Van Papendrecht, 286. Van Ryssel, 223.
Varley, John, 56, 61.

Webster, Thomas, 70. Weir, Harrison, 265, 290,
291.

Zogbaum,

292.

Weisgerber, 282.

Wenckebach, 286.
Werenskiold, 288, 298.

Zorn, Anders, 288, 289. Ziigel, Heinrich von, 278. Zuloaga, Ignacio, 275. Zwart, 286.

XXVI

I

8

o

o

THE DAWN OF MODERN PAINTING

VOL. viir

A

A HISTORY OF PAINTING
CHAPTER
When
I

OF THE COMING OF THE

DAWN
OF THE

1800 struck, all that was most vital in painting was British. Hogarth had created a virile utterance of the life of the people of Rowlandson and Morland the life of the countryside the cities and the landscape-painters were creating the pure impression of Nature in lyrical fashion. A vigorous national utterance was to be sounded throughout the land and was to resound across the face of Europe.
; ;

COMING OF

THE DAWN

CROME
1768-1821

Norwich was born on December 22, 1768, " Old Crome," to a weaver of the old city who John Crome, called kept the little tavern in the Castle Meadow below the castle. The It was a custom in Norwich for the lad knew but scant education. youths and girls of the place who sought service to " go on the palace," the site of the old Ducal Palace, in the early morning for hire and the boy Crome, at twelve, went and was hired as errandboy to Dr. Rigby, with whom he remained for a couple of years, running to surgery himself to the extent of near bleeding a patient Rigby liked the lad, and helped him to go 'prentice in to death. the August of 1783 for seven years to a painter of signs, coaches, and houses called Whisler (or Whistei) of 41 Bethel Street. Here the eager boy learnt to grind colours, and was soon using them on coaches and signboards. As the young fellow reached to manhood and the 'prentice years ran out, he struck up a close friendship with a printer's 'prentice, Robert Ladbrooke, and the two youngsters hired a garret and set to work copying prints, Crome getting off into the fields and painting from Nature, so that at twenty-two he painted his first known work (1790). His apprenticeship over, he still worked for Whisler as a journeyman painter, and painted several signs, including The
In a small tavern in
;

3


1

A HISTORY
THE DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING
Sawyers,

Norwich. Thomas Harvey of Catton became a most valuable patron, and lent him pictures, of which Cronve copied the Cottage Door by Gainsborough, a Wilson, and a Hobbema. Harvey introduced him to friends, Beechey amongst the number, to whom Crome always went in his now frequent visits to London. So Crome, founding on the Dutch style, but going direct to
still

at

Nature, rapidly increased in power, using a dark warm grey ground, relying on it for his shadows, and building his lights upon it sometimes the ground is almost untouched in his shadows. The famous Windmill and Mousehold Heath are so wrought. Wilson had died in 1782, Gainsborough in 1788, De Loutherbourg reigned in landscape. Barker of Bath, a year younger than Crome, showed his first picture in 1791. But landscape had yet no vogue. Crome, by painting signs, could give himself up to his beloved landscapes he was poor but content. see him being paid a couple of guineas and a half for a sign as late as the May of He married in 1792, being twenty-three, Phoebe Berney, 1803. whose sister, Mary Berney, was married to Ladbrooke the next year. Crome and his Phoebe had to marry in haste their daughter was born the same month. Children followed in rapid succession, amongst them John Berney Crome in 1794, to be known as "Young Crome." The struggle for bread became severe. Crome began to give lessons. To 1796 and 1798 belong two pictures, "compositions in the style of Richard Wilson." The Gurney family of Earlham seem to have been the first to employ Crome as teacher. In the summer of 1802 John Gurney took his family and Crome to the Lakes, by Matlock, and Crome's pencil was busy all the time making sketches. These journeys were so fruitful to Crome that he took several. In 1803 was founded the Norwich Society of Arts. Crome and Ladbrooke were the centre of the group two years thereafter they held their first display, and Crome sent twenty works, of which were the Carrow Abbey and the Scene in Cumberland. Crome made a visit to the Wye, when he painted Goodrich Castle, Chepstow, and Tintern Abbey and he next went to Weymouth. The Cow Tower on the Tare is of about this time. He still painted "compositions in the style of Wilson " and "of Gainsborough." In 1806 and in 1808 he showed at the Royal Academy. In 181 his son showed with him at the early age of seventeen. It was about 1812 that the oaks of Kimberley Park, which he passed on his rides to pupils, impelled him to try a fall with his idol, "his dear Hobbema."

We

;

;

I

CROME
1768-1821

"THE WINDMILL, ON AN UNDULATING HEATH, PROBABLY MOUSEHOLD HEATH, IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF NORWICH "
(National Gallkrv)
Pjintctl in oil

on wood.

3

ft.

7 in. h. x j

ft.

w.

(i

'092 xo'9l4).

OF PAINTING
Crome was now doing well his from money cares. He had a mania
;

teaching brought him ease for picking up " bargains " at auctions, and astonished his family once with a cartload of gravestones.

OF THE COMING OF

THE DAWN

1811 there came as pupil to Crome James Stark (17941859), for three years, at seventeen; and about the same time came George Vincent, a couple of years younger than Stark. To his pupils he ever remained a close and kind friend, and they loved him. Etching, which had fallen away in the seventeen-hundreds, was His first etching was of 1809 a soft ground taken up by Crome. that represents pencil-work. But he seems to have wearied of it about 1813. In 1814 Napoleon fell and was sent to Elba the artists flocked to Paris to see the superb art loot there collected. Crome made for Paris with a couple of Norwich friends, who told the story against him of his drawing an egg to show what he wanted and of the waiter bringing him a salt-cellar Coming home by way of Bruges, Crome now entered upon the full tide of his great career, his seven Of 1 8 1 5 was his Boulevard des Italiens. At once we see last years. the impressionism of the man's art, his style changing to suit his subject. It was five years later before he painted the Boulogne. Of 1 8 5 was the Grove near Marlingford. Then followed the La?je at 1 Cation, and of 1 8 1 6 also was the famous Mousehold Heath, painted to express " air and space " (one of the treasures of the nation), which he could not sell after his death it fetched a pound sterling This year unfortunately there was war in Crome's beloved
In

;

!

;

!

Society, and

Ladbrooke

led the rebels,

who
;

to the Shakespeare Tavern, but collapsed

deserted for three years and the year of their last

stand saw Crome paint his superb Poringland Oak with three of Crome's small sons bathing, painted in by Sharp. Of other masterpieces are the Willow (now in America) ;

the

On

the
fine

Tare at Thorpe

;

and the

Colman

Grove, tribute to

the superb Yarmouth Beach of Hobbema, of 1820.

1

8

1

9

;

It is a marvel to think of Crome's achievement being of his Sundays and holidays for he was riding round the country teaching
;

the tradition of Old Crome teaching and of the affection of the lads for him, often doing the young rogues' drawings for them, for, once started, he went on rapidly until
regularly.
is

At Norwich School

the

in the last few years of his life, have been profoundly impressed by the rising genius of that colossal figure

work was complete. That such a man should,

5

A HISTORY
THE
who was

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

about to give a stupendous revelation to the whole art of the world, was inevitable. In the spring of 1821 he set a six-foot canvas on his easel for the creation of his masterpiece of the Wroxham Water Frolic. He worked upon it for three days when death walked into his paintingstruck the brush from his hands
skilful fingers
;

room and
1

on the 22nd of April

82 1 the

were

stilled for ever.

Founding his art on the practice of Wilson and Gainsborough and the Dutchmen, chiefly Hobbema of the Dutchmen, Crome
advanced landscape-painting to that sincere native utterance that was about to make the art of England an example to the world.

Hobbema
great

led

him

to the truth.

He

stands out in his best art as a
:

impressionist.

"Trifles in raised by seeing the whole picture at a glance, not knowing how or why we are so charmed." Breadth and dignity were his watchAs he lay dying he turned to that words, and he kept his law.

gave forth his aim in simple terms Nature must be overlooked that we may have our feelings

He

John Berney Crome, who was to follow in his footsteps powers would let him, and gave his famous command " John, my boy, paint but paint for fame and if your subject is only a pigsty dignify it"; and later, as the hand of death chilled
eldest son,
as near as his
:

;

;

his

heart,
!

he added
"

:

"

Hobbema, my
is

dear

Hobbema, how

I

have

loved you At the National Gallery Hingham a very masterpiece.

his

superb painting of oaks Near

BARKER OF BATH
1769

-

1847

Thomas Barker was born near Pontypool, in Monmouthshire, to and there won as patron a coacha painter who settled in Bath builder called Spackman, who sent the young fellow at twenty-one
;

On coming back to England he developed a founded largely on the tradition of Gainsborough. He won to success and comfortable circumstance. His large fresco in his own home, Doric House, Sion Hill, Bath, of The Inroad of the He worked at Bath, Turks upon Scio, April 1822, is well known. where are most of his paintings; and died there on the iith
to

Rome

(1790).

landscape art

December 1847. Francia (1772- 839) was born at Calais, but the Frenchman came to London in youth and early won repute at the Academy Failing to get into the Academy, he and Water-Colour Society.
1

6

OF PAINTING
He painted coast returned to Calais in 1817, dying there in 1839. scenes and shipping. John Massey Wright (1773-1866) devoted himself chiefly to
illustration.

OF THE COMING OF

THE DAWN

GIRTIN
1775-1802
Turner, a year older than Constable, the " Had eager vitality of Girtin was to be cut short at twenty-seven Girtin lived, I should have starved," said Turner. To a rope-maker of Southwark was born in 1775 the son Thomas Girtin who was to make the name famous. The father The lad early showed the was a man in a large way of business. artistic bent, and was apprenticed by his father to the brilliant but quarrelsome and difficult landscape-painter Edward Daves " bilious Dayes," who once had his 'prentice sent to the Fleet Dayes was not wholly sane, and Prison for insubordinate conduct. Girtin had as friend a lad called ended by taking his own life. The two boys, of the same age, were both being employed Turner. in colouring prints, and they would go copying paintings and on sketching journeys together. In his seventeenth year, the CopperPlate Magazine published an etching of Windsor by Girtin at nineteen the Academy hung his first water-colour drawing. Girtin's enthusiasm and genial heart won him friends wherever " His house, like his heart, was open to all " he went. a noble,
as

Born the same year

;

;

generous, unselfish fellow, he flung himself at his art with a will. The young Girtin found that his water-colours at the Academy, in gold frames, had to stand the severe rivalry of the oil-paintings about them, and forthwith essayed to employ water-colour with a force that should make his paintings hold their place. The result on his exhibited work at the Academy was to force the craft of water-colour outside its limits but it revealed to the young fellow that water-colour heretofore had been but timidly subject to drawing, and he compelled it to seek a wider and deeper gamut of colour which was to become in the hands of Turner and others the means of superb artistic utterance. Girtin's innate genius led him to employ water-colour with a pure translucent witchery, in those vivid, ardent impressions of Nature that live in his best work, as in the Cayne Waterfall, the View on the Wharf Yorkshire, the London series, the St. Anne's Gate, Shrewsbury, all uttered through the luminous qualities of the floated water-colour. The series for his Panorama of London gives the Thames with rare skill. Girtin was
;

always

at his best

when

boldly working in the presence of Nature;

7

PAINTING
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

and that bold intimacy with Nature even higher adventure.

fired the

eager art of Turner to

Girtin's craftsmanship still built up the picture upon a modelled ground in his case vi^rought in brownish greys over which he swept the colour. He shirked no labour to perfect his hand in artistic statement. He copied the works of others until his hand was facile Wilson, Morland, Canaletto. His only painting In 1796 Girtin went to Scotland sketching. In in oils was shown in 1 801, just before his health broke down. advantage of the Peace of Amiens to the spring of 1802 he took On the 9th of go to Paris, busy with his pencil the while. November 1809 he died, but twenty-seven years of age. But his He rid short lease of life had given to England largeness of vision. For the men that the art of niggle and tameness and petty finish. came after him he opened the gates. He inspired Turner we have Constable's witness that he inspired Constable.

;

8

B

CHAPTER

II

WHEREIN WE SEE THE DAWN BREAK IN SPLENDOUR OVER ENGLAND OUT OF A BARBER'S SHOP

When

1800
in

utterance

struck, the British genius had found its highest the realm of colour ; the giant of that realm was

WHEREIN

WE SEE
THE DAWN
BREAK
IN
^P^IyEN-

Joseph Mallord William Turner.

TURNER
I77S-I8SI
^

Do you

not

know

that you ought

to

paint your impressions

f — Turner.
;

OVER ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

In Turner we reach the supreme artist in painting of our race In the in the realm of landscape the supreme artist of all time. poetic employment of colour, in the wide gamut of colour-music, in the prodigious power of the orchestration of the art of painting, he stands beyond all other achievement whatsoever, as in the art of That literature Shakespeare stands above all other achievement. Turner should have reached to this prodigious achievement in the realm of landscape is the more extraordinary, since other painters, Velazquez as mere painters, have been greater craftsmen than he. Hals, Rembrandt and Titian, Watteau and Vermeer knew no and One is more subtle, such vast adventure in the realm of colour. another more tender, another more absolute in his craftsmanship ; but their range in artistic utterance is small compared with the eagle-flight of Turner. Turner was given a long life, as though Destiny had fitted him His for its chosen mouthpiece in his mighty adventure in the arts. art went rapidly through the phases of the earlier developments of artistic utterance burst into the supreme utterance of the art of his own age and launched on the vast uncharted seas of the future orchestration of colour.

SHOP

'Tis a dingy grey thoroughfare that Maiden Lane which leads from the south-west corner of Covent Garden to the west and, likely enough, was dingy even when Milton's secretary, "the

incorruptible patriot,"
VOL. viii

Andrew

Marvell, dwelt therein, and

later,

9

;

A HISTORY
THE
when

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

at the sign

Voltaire fretted and fumed of The White Perruke.

away two

years of his restless

life

In a mean shop, at 26 Maiden Lane, long since pulled down, opposite the Cider Cellar, in the parish of St. Paul's, Covent Garden, there lived in good King George's days, and plied his calling of
barber, one

William Turner,
lived
his

a fellow

from Devon

— indeed,
this

Molton

still

father

and mother.

To

South Devonshire
at

barber and his wife Mary Marshall was born, 'tis said on St. George's Day of 1775 (April 23rd), a man-child whom they christened Joseph Mallord William Turner, destined to bring immortal fame to that Devonshire stock, and to the England that bred him, the greatest poet in colour that the world has seen. The mother, Turner rightly called a grim warrior of a woman, ended mad. himself with pride a " Devonshire man " he was a Cockney of Devon breed. From the tradesman father he is given by the wise his petty thrift, his mania of "economy," and it may be his

industry.

We

draw the bow of heredity

at a venture.

He might

have been all these things if the son of a drunken jailbird but so From the mother he got the blue eyes, the they say, and so be it. aquiline nose, the falling underlip she was a masculine sort of creature, "not to say fierce," who led the poor barber a devil of a life with her furious temper. From her, too, the lad inherited his " And, 'tis likely enough, the " economies shortness of stature. came from her as from the plagued barber. She is said to have been kin of the Marshalls of Shelford Manor House by Nottingham indeed, 'tis certain her sister was Mrs. Harpur, wife to the curate of Islington, whose grandson, Henry Harpur, was one of Turner's moreover, the boy Turner was godson to Mrs. Turner's executors eldest brother, Joseph Mallord William Marshall, then living at Poor woman she Sunningwell, where the child visited him. But the lad's heritage of " parrot nose " and blue lived a sorry life. eyes would seem to have been as much from the barber as the mother, and the short stature likewise a cheery, talkative little man he was, but stingy of money withal. In fact, " Dad's " only remembered praise of " William " that the lad could ever recall was for having saved a halfpenny So, in that dark house giving on to Maiden Lane through a low arch and iron gate, in a dark, ill-lit, squalid, unlovely home, flung back upon his own imagination, the small William grew up. Scant wonder that his art never uttered the mood of Home. Thither Stothard was wont to go through the archway, and turning sharp to the left to step into the door of the barber's shop for his regular shaving.

!

!

10

OF PAINTING
At nine the boy Turner drew Margate Church, just before going
uncle at
to his

WHEREIN

Brentford for change of air, and eventually to school there, to draw cocks and hens and birds and flowers on wall and He was always drawing. He would copy engravings, book. colour them, and the thrifty father would hang them in his window The early intention of making the boy a barber soon for sale.

New

WE

SEE
IN

THE DAWN
BREAK
SPLEN-

DOUR
OVER ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

gave way

to

encouragement of the

arts.

APPRENTICESHIP
1787

-

1792
lad to

SHOP

one architect for nothing, and paid the whole of a recent legacy for the bonds to Thus, having learnt to read another the barber had his moments. from his father, having gone in 1785 to school at New Brentford, by 1787-8 being with "a floral drawing-master," one Palice, in Soho by 1788 at Coleman's school at Margate he was soon thereafter with Malton, a draughtsman of perspective in Long Acre, who Reynolds sent him away for incapacity to understand perspective and in 1789 he was bound to the is said to have taken him up architect Hardwick, going also to the schools of the Royal Academy
father refused to apprentice the

The

;

;

!

;

early in 1790, at fifteen, working for two years at the antique. seems to have gone also to Paul Sandby's school in St. Martin's Lane.

He

But the boy was not seeking the mysteries
drawings
in that
ill-lit

lazily.
;

He

was making

he was colouring he was out sketching with a lad ot prints for John Raphael Smith and the evening saw him drawing at his own age called Girtin the generous Dr. Monro's in the Adelphi, besides washing-in backWhat labour for a boy grounds for the architect Mr. Porden. Scant wonder that scholarship had small part in his life. But at least he was learning to draw for that he was trained like a racehorse for the race. And he loved the life. People liked the boy ; asked him out much, greatly encouraged the light-hearted, merry young fellow. His one curse was secretiveness. It was to grow upon him. So he learnt to lay the flat water-colour wash, clearly and His luminously, bringing light and quality to architectural eft^ects.
the while for sale
; ; ! ;

home

sensitive

hand was schooled to his will. And his secretive nature told him that what he did was good, that power was coming to him. With his boy companion Girtin, he was soon the finest " waterWe colour draughtsman " in the land, except perhaps Cozens. know that at least one architect would call for the boy at his father's shop, and give him a guinea to work in backgrounds for his
II

A HISTORY
THE
architectural drawings
;

we

also

know

that the lad

would never
in

let

DAWN

OF

his

patron see

him
!

at

work, going and locking himself

his

MODERN
PAINTING

Once when Britton called about some drawings bedroom to do it and went up to the lad's bedroom, young Turner covered the work Newby Lowson, who went with hurriedly and flew at his employer. him later on the Continent, was never once shown even a sketch. It was at Raphael Smith's that the boy met Girtin, the close
and the generous Dr. Monro used to ask the the Adelphi, sending them to sketch in the country at Bushey and Harrow, buying their drawings and giving them supper. Turner is said to have met Gainsborough at Monro's; if so, he could only have been thirteen, and already being talked Girtin and the boy Turner worked together, helped each about.
friend of his youth
;

lads to his house in

other, and, as

much

as

could be, lived together.

Of

Girtin,

doomed
I

to an early death in 1802,

Turner

said,

"Had Tom

Girtin lived,

should have starved"; but epitaphs are generally generous to a fault. How or why Dr. Monro suddenly went out of Turner's life it is hard to say; he lived until 1833, yet after Turner's student days were done he seems to have come no more into the young fellow's The fact was that Turner's secretive nature early drove him to life. "keeping himself to himself"; he was early wholly living in his He was soon shunning all social art it was all in all to him. intercourse, the very companionship even of his fellow-artists. Indeed, some of his early water-colour drawings in their exquisite harmonies of green and grey, painted at sixteen, are so astoundingly original and in advance of all landscape painted before him that his craft must have been marvellous long before he came to manhood. His art and fame and wealth were his sole objects and he pursued them like a young giant of Will he, like Shakespeare, was a very Will. He neglected every other culture of the mind and body and manners, of comradeship, of affection, for it. In isolation of the mind and of the body, in a rude ignorance, ruthlessly and without flinching, he paid the price of immortality. Dr. Monro taught him water-colour drawing, he as greedily learnt architecture from Hardwick, he picked up something of oil-painting from Sir Joshua Reynolds 'tis said during a short while with him but of education, as we mean the word, he had scarce any. His master was himself;

;

;

and he obeyed him like a slave. Sir Joshua Reynolds laid down his brushes and palette in 1789, his sight gone at Hardwick's urging Turner went thence to the Academy schools, a lad of fourteen. With feverish eagerness he studied and copied Claude and Van der Velde, Titian and Canaletto, Cuyp and Wilson. Above all, he went

12

OF PAINTING
good quality in the water-colour painters did he WHEREIN He took WE SEE after a few efforts he outstripped every master. pass by delicacy from Hearne, strength from Sandby, architectural sense THE DAWN from Dayes and Daniell he caught the green and silvery wizardry BREAK IN he steeped in the sunlight of SPLENof Cozens' poems of the earth He would see a picture at DOUR Girtin; and he outran them all. In very OVER straight home and strive to outclass it. exhibition, and go youth he began that rivalry with the best that the world had given ENGLAND which was to be a marked feature of his whole career. All the OUT OF A water-colour men were making low-toned water-colours of castles, BARBER'S
to Nature.
;

Not

a

;

;

works "

abbeys, the seats of the nobility and gentry, for " topographical young Turner did them too, because every one else was He even thought of portrait-painting. He as yet doing them.

SHOP

made no

he must master the Destiny seemed to float him to a great career. His wants simple, inured to hardship, strong and vigorous of body, He would paint he simply bent his will to excel in all that he did. He never waited for the mood. He was always at anything. on work. His sole condition was solitude he needed that. When he came to journey for subjects, he would carry all his baggage over his shoulder on a stick, jotting, noting, his sensitive brain alive to He every vista. His prodigious memory could recall cloud-shapes. he promptly employed found that minute methods were slow
eff'ort

to

get out of the stream

;

craft of the

day

first.

;

;

broad, swift handling. At fourteen, then, in

1789, he became a student at the Royal year after, he showed his View of the Archbishop's Palace at Lambeth. In 1 791 he spent a holiday at Sunningwell with his uncle Marshall, and at Bristol with his father's friends the Narraways. Each of the three following years 179 1-2-3, so-called the Academy held water-colour drawings of places by him " topographical drawings," made in and around London, except for a drawing or so of Malmesbury, Canterbury, or Bristol, made on visits to friends at Margate and Bristol. His sketch-books of 1792 and 1793 are of Oxford, Windsor, Hereford, Worcester, Wales and Monmouthshire. But in 1792 had come Walker with an order for a drawing for the Copper-Plate Magazine, the beginning of that engraving after works by Turner which was to add so greatly to his He at once decided to get a painting-room of his own ; repute. going to Hand Court, Maiden Lane, hard by his father. He was

Academy

;

at

full

fifteen, a

now

seventeen.

13

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

STAINED DRAWINGS OR WATER-COLOUR DRAWINGS OF PLACES FOR ILLUSTRATION
1793

-

1796

The next year of 1793, Harrison ordered drawings for his It meant, for Turner, journeying over England. Pocket Magazine.
by Mr. Narraway, his father's The water-colour drawings of Wales began to old friend at Bristol. appear in 1794 with the three drawings at the Academy and the Chepstow in the November number of Walkers Magazine. In 1794 he made a tour of the midland counties, and the engravings and pictures of 1795 show him at Nottingham, Bridgnorth, Matlock, Birmingham, Cambridge, Lincoln, Wrexham, Peterin 1796 and 1797 he had clearly been to borough, and Shrewsbury
for

He made

Wales on

a

pony

lent

;

Chester, Neath, Tunbridge,
Flint,

Bath, Staines,
Herefordshire,

Hampton

Court,

Wallingford, Windsor, Ely, Salisbury, Wolverhampton,

gan.

Waltham, and Ewenny in GlamorSo far he has been held by the magazines to the " topographical drawing," the mere picture of the place that people will easily recognise, even if he insist somewhat on bridges and anglers. He looks at the place from a distance, and is concerned with
Llandilo, The Isle of Wight, Llandaff,

details

of houses.

Of 1797 was
1794

his

first-known displayed

oil-

painting, the National Gallery Moonlight, Milbank.
is treated as being of the Christchurch Gate, Canterbury, by The first importance by critics. He is warned W. Turner, is " amongst the best " in the exhibition against " contemporary imitations."

Already, at nineteen, in

his art

!

The

Interior of a Cottage at

to be a portrait of Turner's

Ely (long called the Kitchen, and held mother) is suspected to have been an

picture of 1796. About 1796 Turner appears to have been jilted by the sister of a friend at Margate ; it drove him still more closely to secretiveness

Academy

With marvellous energy and remarkable rapidity he and solitude. moves about the country his baggage in a handkerchief, and armed with his great " gamp " umbrella and a fishing-rod, he trudges it across the face of the world, now taking the stage-coach, now astride of a pony, this eagle-nosed, clear-blue-eyed, " covetouseyed," bandy-legged, big-headed, short, thick-set figure of a man of mighty poetic gifts and unflinching courage.

14

OF PAINTING

1797
movement was

WHEREIN

WE
;

SEE
IN

Turner now

steps into the

Garden of Romance

the Poet finds

THE DAWN
BREAK
SPLEN-

utterance, and creates water-colour painting.

Now,

the romantic

already agog in literature

during the last half of the eighteen-hundreds the tragic intensity of life, the mysterious and the picturesque, were appealing to the race. Young's Night Thoughts stirred Blake. Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard had caused a profound sensation. Burke had given forth his essay On the Sublime and the Beautiful in 1756. Percy's Reliques were in wide vogue. Macpherson's Ossian came to a public eager for romance. And in the very midst of this romantic movement Turner was born. He grew up steeped in its atmosphere. His sketch-books teem with copied verses, and original attempts at verse. Turner was now, at manhood, to be led into the mighty realm of art by the sombre, tragic genius of Wilson. Turner still draws in pencil the exact details of the scene before him about which his senses are weaving the spell of its romance, and for the utterance of which in a masterpiece of poetry this careful drawing in pencil is made as in the interior of Ripon Cathedral or the view of Conway Castle. When he comes to paint, the full orchestration of the romantic mood finds utterance. A poet has been born. He senses the lyric joy of peaceful scenes as consummately as the tragic gloom of awful and sublime vistas. Turner has done with his detested "map-making," as he called topographical drawings he is about to launch himself upon the wings of emotion. Not only is Turner's painting pure poetic expression of the moods of Nature called up in his sensing by the thing seen, but he reveals an intense love of verse. Until 1798 the Academy catalogues admitted no quotations. In 1798 Turner adds lines from the poets to his pictures. He was soon to be writing his own lines, inarticulate, but intense in their desire to be articulate. He now made for the north, for the famous "Yorkshire journey" that was to set his genius aflame. Yorkshire and Cumberland roused his innate romantic gifts. He left the cloak of the student behind him amongst the fells, and arrayed himself in the habit of the master. What took him north is not known. Whether Dr. Whitaker had already approached him as to illustrating his Parish of Whalley, or it were Girtin's journey the year before. Turner went. The next Academy shows the National Gallery Morning on

DOUR
OVER

ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

SHOP

;

15

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

and Buttermere Lake, And Norhani Castle cast its over him. A new vision had come to landscape a new revelation was given to art. A poet was arisen who was not dependent on ruins for glamour one to whom light had revealed its At South Kensington is the mysteries, and colour its music. His tour brought him Warkivorth Castle of the Academy of 1799. the friendship of Dr. Whitaker, the famous Yorkshire historian, of one of his staunchest friends, Mr. Fawkes of Farnley Hall by Leeds, of Lord Harewood, and of Sir John Leicester who became Lord de Mr. Orrock's fine Heath Scene is of this year. Tabley. The Academy elected Turner an Associate in 1799. He stood He at once head and shoulders above all rivals at twenty-four. moved to 64 Harley Street. The Dolbarden Castle of 1800 is at
the Coniston Fells
spell
;

the Diploma Gallery.

Henceforth his castles and abbeys are little concerned with "topographical drawing"; Carnarvon in 1800, St. Donates and Pembroke in 1801, Kilchurn in 1802, Pembroke again in 1806, all Light has been revealed to Turner. He reveal interest in Light. always co?nposes hereafter, as a musician makes music, concerting his poems as a whole. His every sketch is now made with rhythm and with lyric intention. Ruskin sees in his art a stern manner, reserve, quiet, gravity of colour, tranquil mind fixed on mountain subject, on moral study, on mythology and the Law of the Old As a matter of simple tact, just as Turner had pitted Testament himself against the water-colourists and outclassed them, he now flung himself into rivalry against all the oil-painters, of his own day and of the dead past, who had concerned themselves with
!

landscape.

In 1799 with the Battle of the Nile, in 1800 with his Fifth Plague of Egypt, in 1802 with his Army of the Medes destroyed by a Whirlwind and the Tejtth Plague, he boldly challenged the theatrical they owe art of De Loutherbourg, then at the height of his repute Wilson, a scant tribute to the " Law of the Old Testament." mightier genius, he strove to outdistance for many a year, nor ceased until 1822 but he recognised in him "a powerful antagonist." "To succeed would perhaps form another epoch in the English school and if we fall, we fall by contending with giant strength." What a superb epitaph upon poor neglected Wilson A tranquil mind indeed fixed on moral study Now, be it noted. Turner did not seek the rivalry of other artists from vulgar aim of He jealousy it was his standard whereby to measure his strength. had none other. It was always with Turner a sign of homage. In

;

;

!

!

!

;

16

c

OF PAINTING
1 80 1 he journeyed to Scotland, for 1802 saw him display the Kilchurn and the Scottish impressions. In 1802 he was elected a Royal Academician. " A new artist has started up one Turner." The water-colour painting of Stonehenge was of the year of

WHEREIN

WE

SEE
IN

THE DAWN
BREAK
SPLEN-

Calais Pier,

1802

DOUR OVER ENGLAND
BARBER'S

a

802, at twenty-seven. Turner crossed the sea to France, and to his vision two worlds ; the sea and France. He added the mystery of the sea to his ever-widening realm. Like the young Alexander he pined for worlds to conquer. And as he searched out always the greatest conquerors to try a fall with them at once he set himself to outrival Van der Velde. Above all, we know by his written note on Poussin's Deluge that he has gone leagues beyond Blake in his concept of art " the colour of Turner has this picture impresses the subject more than the incidents." found the key. have seen him move from Hand Court, Maiden Lane, to

In

I

new world was opened

SHOP

We

64 Harley Street. He seems to have bought the house he soon also bought the next house to it, and one in Queen Anne Street, all of which abutted at the back, the corner-house on the two streets separating them in front. Now, in the catalogues of the Academy, his address in 1801, and for two or three years afterwards, is given as y^ Norton Street, Portland Road, thereafter being given as Harley Street again. Why this secrecy ? Well, Turner began in
;

1

80 1

to live

with

women

of the servant

class

;

in
;

that year there

came

to

mistress.

him a girl of sixteen, Hannah Danby she was soon his Whether he deliberately made a servant the companion

of his life to be rid of acquaintances, or whether he repelled acquaintances and shirked hospitality in order not to have his weakness known, who shall tell ? But he was soon steeped in that secret life that gave him solitude at the heavy price of association with an uncultured woman that kept him an ignorant man, but perhaps made him walk thereby wholly in the realm of the imagination. The powder-tax of 1795 ruined the trade of barbers of the old school and Turner took his father with him to Harley Street when he moved thereto in 1800, where the old man would strain his canvases and varnish his pictures for him; as Turner jestingly put it, " Dad begins and finishes my pictures for me."
;

VOL. VIII

17

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

In 1 80 1 he had shown the Bridgewater Dutch Boats in a Gait ; 1802 Lord Iveagh's Fishermen upon a Lee Shore, a great work, and the superb Petworth Ships bearing up for Anchorage. In 1803 he displayed at the Academy half-a-dozen pictures of this wayfaring
in

over sea the National Gallery has his Calais Pier, in which stands revealed the poet of the sea. It is a fit orchestration, employed to and it achieves the create the sombre impression of a stormy day
;

impression with power.

The Yarborough Macon, Savoy with Mont Blanc, the
St.

Vintage Festival, the Bonneville in Chateaux de Michal at Bonneville, the
the

the Arveron in the valley of but he had laid up large store of impressions, and six years afterwards gave forth his Fall of the Rhine at Schaffhausen (1806), and in 18 12 his Castle of St. Michael, otherwise the great studies of the Alps, Chamouni, Bonneville Grenoble, the Grande Chartreuse, and many others, lay secreted in his portfolios. He waited awhile, and let them lie by, whilst he challenged the masters, dead and living, to find his strength. War broke out again with Bonaparte in 1803, and closed the gates of France to Turner for twelve years, until 18 15. He made some roundabout journey to Switzerland in 1804; but otherwise he was driven back upon England nor was he discontent had he not And he had seen the sea what he saw the gods to overthrow ? he must conquer. In his earlier wanderings over England he had reached the seacoast at Margate, in Wales, and in the Isle of Wight and Kent he had seen shipping on the Thames and at Bristol. The National Gallery has his famous Shipwreck, painted in 1805, whilst the superb Yarborough Wreck of the ''Minotaur'''' (18 10), the Stafford Fishing Boats in a Squall, show Turner riding upon the storm. He outclasses Van der Velde. He makes the winds grip the sails of shipping, he catches the complex movements of the angry waters ; over all is the sublime sense of Nature in anger. In 1806 he painted the majestic, tragic, and fittingly sombre Goddess of Discord choosing the Apple of Discord in the Garden of the Hesperides, challenging the classic vision of Poussin, and repeats his triumph in the Venus and Adonis. In the Garden of the Hesperides we have a very masterpiece of statement. He was pouring forth great sea-pieces which he did not exhibit. To 1805 belongs the famous Shipwreck. Several of the sketches for this are in the national water-colour collection. Turner fills the canvas with the anger and spites of the seas, its brutal sweeping 18

Hugh, the Glacier and Source of
his ranging
;

Chamouni, announce

OF PAINTING
blows,
its

spitting spume.

Sir

John

Leicester, not

liking

it,

ex-

WHEREIN

changed it for the Sun rising through Vapour (1807). SEE It was from 1805 to 1810 that Turner wrought the twelve THE landscapes in oil which were found wrapped in brown paper in the BREAK IN National Gallery, and which, with forty-eight water-colours, are the SPLENsecond instalment of the rediscovered Turners now at the Tate. DOUR time upon the waters at the OVER Turner is said to have spent much mouth of the Thames from 1805 to 1809. Nothing was lost upon ENGLAND Sketch-book after sketch-book bears witness to it. Storm and OUT OF A him. calm, sunset peaceful or lowering, he realised them all. And with BARBER'S the sound of the tempest in his ears, the peace of great calms SHOP upon the still waters in his heart, he wrought masterpiece after
masterpiece of the sea the Wantage Sheerness, the Fawkes Pilot Hoy^ the Gould The Nore, the fine Meeting of the Thames and Medway, the superb Spithead : Boat's Crew recovering an Anchor, thereby creating such epic of the sea as the world had never known ; they hold the sonorous and orchestral majesty of the great waters. The Death of Nelson was of 1808. I have lately read a bookish theory that the "patriotic " pictures narrow Turner's genius; but why should not patriotism be a profound emotion ? And he who lowers the credit of the Boat's Crew recovering an Anchor because it represents the return of Nelson's victorious fleet from Copenhagen is digging for formulas to convince himself that a sublime masterpiece is not so sublime as something else, for it remains one of the supreme paintings of the sea wrought by human genius I for my part did not know or care whether it was Nelson's fleet returning from Copenhagen to me it but uttered the sublime patriotism of the triumph and courage of sailors in the execution of their awesome calling upon the mighty waters. In fact. The Fighting Temeraire is just as "patriotic " and offensive to a Jingo Frenchman. He who is read in history knows that in the May of 1807 the Prince Regent of Portugal warned England that by the Treaty of Tilsit Napoleon was about to invade England with the Danish and Portuguese fleets; that Canning at once struck. Nelson seized the Danish fleet at Copenhagen on the 8th of September, and Turner going down to Portsmouth saw the victorious fleet and created the immortal Boats recovering an Anchor. Who but a bookish man would think it possible to utter all this in a painting even if he would ? The Boats recovering an Anchor he painted in 1809 from these impressions.
hailing a Whitstable

WE

DAWN

;

19

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

1807
;

THE LIBER STUD 10 RUM AND SIMPLE NATURE
Let us leave Turner awhile thrilled by the cheers and the triumph at sight of the victorious navy with the Danish fleet in tow and before we take the journey back riding on the sea at Spithead with him to town a journey that is to have a vast significance for his art let us turn over the leaves of his LiSer Studiorum. At Knockholt in Kent, in the October of 1806, the year before Copenhagen was fought, Mr. Wells suggested the scheme which Turner rapidly developed into his Liber Studiorum. Turner sat down and drew the first five designs for the book in sepia, beginning with the Bridge and Cows, the so-called Flint Castle being a scene on the

French

coast.

Probably, guided by his rivalry of the classic landscapists in his Goddess of Discord and the like, in 1807 Turner challenged the It was accepted god of landscape, Claude, with his Liber Studiorum. He now put his own the ultimate challenge to the great dead. direct challenge vision against the more limited vision of Claude. he made in his Woman Flaying a Tambourine and Hindoo Ablution, his Bridge atid Goats, his Isis, his Solitude, the superb Junction of the Severn and the Wye and Sun between Trees, and the so-called Pope's but his HindVilla, Twickenham, which is The Alcove at Isleworth head Hill, his Mount St. Gothard, his Devil's Bridge, the Solway Moss, the Norham Castle, the Hedging and Ditching, the St. Catherine's Hill near Guildford, the River Wye, the Inverary Castle, the Gale, the Peat Bog, the Ben Arthur, the Bonneville, the Chamouni, the Morpeth, the Dunstanborough Castle, even the Okehampton and Raglan Castle, and Mill near the Grande Chartreuse, and the Dunblane Abbey, smashed the Claude tradition. Claude stood between painting and Nature as the

A

;

Hogarth had warred Greeks stood between sculpture and life. Turner set them up as his standard of against the " black masters."
measurement
;

he did so too

much

— but

at least

he did not seek to

degrade them.

For the Liber Studiorum he chose F. C. Lewis as his engraver, power in aquatint Turner to etch and Lewis to aquatint the works. The Bridge and Goats was the first plate. Turner asked Lewis both to etch and aquatint the next, the which etching Lewis did, charging eight guineas instead of the original five. Turner refused to allow the plate to be aquatinted, and they parted. Turner next turned to Charles Turner the mezzotinter at eight 20
for his

OF PAINTING
guineas the plate

after

price to ten guineas, dealings Turner was mean, often dishonest with the public, selling

making twenty, Charles Turner raised the which ended in a quarrel. In his money

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

THE DAWN

by Charles Turner as first plates. Turner BREAK IN Indeed, the whole scheme of the Liber SPLENnever hesitated to cheat. Studiorum was a cheat a cheat which, fortunately for us, was to DOUR create masterpieces. Claude had never intended his Liber Veritatis OVER for anything but notes of his pictures by which to identify them ENGLAND Turner's works were complete works of art, ninety designs, of which OUT OF A Here Turner stands out BARBER'S twenty were not published to the public. as master of a wide gamut. He can raise the mood of the pastoral, SHOP of the sea, of the mountains, of historic places, of mythology with equal skill. He challenges not only Claude, but Poussin and Van der Velde and Wilson. The frontispiece, a poor enough affair, is He was now of 1812 the advertisement of the book of 1816. the supreme master of landscape of all time and he was to go

worn and retouched

plates

;

;

further

still.

The

tree,

its

texture,

its

form,

its

significance, has

yielded to him its secrets. The clouds have yielded their mysteries. The earth and the rocks have become his very own. The atmosphere, the rainbow, moisture, drought, all are in his orchestration ; the romance and tragedy of ruins, the glamour of the dawn and the
twilight.

the hundred odd sepia drawings for the Liber, eighty-four are at the Tate. As a rule they are but guides to the engravers ; and he worked much upon them as they were being engraved.

Of

In 1808 Turner gives his address as 64 Harley Street and West End, Upper Mall, Hammersmith, and continues this until 181 1, when, odd to say, he drops Harley Street, though the house was undoubtedly his; and the next year of 1812 sees him give Queen Anne Street West that house which, as we have seen, was round the corner from his Harley Street residence, and which, presumably,

he bought in this year. In 1808 he also uses P. P. after his name ; he had become Professor of Perspective at the Royal Academy, and was greatly proud of it. In 1809 Turner began those "one-man shows" of his work in his house in Harley Street, which soon became known as the "Turner Gallery." The caretaker and general factotum was Turner's father, who showed in visitors and was well capable of driving good bargains. The two eccentric men were deeply attached in their quaint way, and close allies. Let us return awhile to the year of 1807. As Turner came homewards from Portsmouth from the triumph 21

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

and cheers of Spithead, his eyes were suddenly opened to the rural of England. At once he jotted notes and sketches for that lyrical utterance of " Simple Nature," wherein he gave us as superb a series of poems of England as he had wrought of the sea and of her stately castles and abbeys and sublime vistas. This survey of pastoral life or Simple Nature brought forth such fine masterpieces as the National Gallery works of the Frosty Morning, the Windsor (1810), the Abingdon (18 10), the Kingston Bank, the Union of the Thames and Isis, and Sandbank with Gipsies ; the fine Trout Stream, the Wantage JValton Bridges, the Orrock Walton Bridges, the Cook Windmill and Lock, the rich glowing River Scene with Cattle (1809) at the Tate, and the famous Bligh Sand, which he refused to sell, yet later employed to fill the place of a It first found utterance in the Liber Studiorum, broken window where the Hedging and Ditching, the Hindhead, published in 181 i, but probably drawn in 1808, and the like reveal a new intention
life
!

in art.

But the dates of plates are no proof of the dates of the drawings from which they were made and Mr. Finberg's researches in the
;

biography of Turner's artistic Turner had discovered since that Yorkshire journey, ten years gone by, that art does not imitate, it utters the mood of the
sketch-books
a

make

significant

living.

thing aroused in the senses of the artist. And here Turner, in the presence of simple everyday life in the fields and meadows of rural England, discovers as subtle a poetry lurking as in the romantic Yorkshire drew him back again in 1809 to many triumphs, castles. and to Yorkshire he returned again and again. Of 1 8 I o were the Tate Mountain Stream, a glowing thing the peaceful Abingdon and Windsor, the stately Lowther Castle, and the Dewy Morning, Petworth. By 1 8 1 1 he was turning again to the he painted the Apollo test of his powers against the great dead killing the Python. He went this year to Devon, made his sketches Crossing the Brook for a masterpiece that he painted in 1 8 1 5 and in a sea-picnic, when others were near dead of sickness, he mounted an island rock and drew in the teeth of the gale, " seemed writing rather than drawing." In 8 1 2 he wrought his Hannibal crossing the Alps, moved thereto by the sight of a snowstorm at Farnley. In this same year he began to work for the plates for his Southern Coast of England. Of 1 8 1 3 were the Deluge and the Frosty Morning. This Simple Nature or pastoral phase of Turner may be said to end with the Frosty Morning of 1813. He turns again on the edge of forty
;
;

;

i

22

OF PAINTING
to the challenge of Claude in the realm of the sublime,

from which

WHEREIN

he

is

to

emerge

to

make

his highest flights.

WE
4

SEE
IN

THE DAWN
BREAK
I

8

I

SPLEN-

DOUR
OVER

the moods of Nature in colour also urged Turner to break into song in words. When Turner first wrote the lines for his own pictures is not known. The earliest appear to have been the lines to his Apollo and

That deep poetic craving

to give forth

ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

Python in 1 8 1 1 given to Callimachus, they are a tangle of the description of two dragons from Ovid the Python and Cadmus's terrible worm. Turner's reading was clearly chiefly confined to the tags in Academy catalogues from Milton, Pope, Thomson's Seasons, Ovid, and the like. 'Tis said that Turner played the flute very sweetly we know that Coleridge, with exquisite ear for the melody of words, could not tell one note of music from the other ; so strange are the limits of the human But we must not judge even Turner's inarticulate words by Thornbury's crass and ignorant translation of them. It was to Ovid's Metamorphoses, that
the
;

SHOP

;

!

strange book that has inspired so great genius, that Turner chiefly

turned and what mythology he had was found in its pages. The jottings and first of his quotations from Fallacies of Hope, those stumblings in verse that came from his own skull, appears in 1812, to his Snowstorm Hannibal and his Army crossing the Alps. The high poetry in which Turner lived was in strange contrast with his daily surroundings. He was now rapidly becoming rich, and he was no spendthrift. In 18 14 he bought a home at Twickenham Solus Lodge, changing its name to Sandycombe Lodge the next year where he lived apart of each year until 1826, his father going up to Harley Street every morning to open the Turner Gallery. The cost of this got upon the old man's mind, until he lighted on the brilliant economy of making friends with a market-gardener who, for a glass of gin, allowed the old man to come up in his cart on the top of the vegetables The old barber had the land-hunger too, and was for ever adding little bits to his son's property at Sandycombe by running out little earthworks into the roadway, and then fencing them round, until they looked like a number of fortifications, which drew the local wags to call them "Turner's Cribs," until the local powers came down on them and angrily swept them away. Whether Turner approved " Dad's " ridiculous little filchings of
;

!

23

A HISTORY
THE
pieces

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

helped in the darkness of the night, we know not but we do know that even as these preposterous things were being done, his hook-nosed, bandyl^gg^<^5 fantastic figure of a son was dreaming vast dreams and essaying to conquer the wide realm of the imagination. Turner had won to romance, to conquest over the sea, to triumph in the lyrical utterance of the pastoral he now steps forward to a mightier conquest he had challenged the achievement The of man, he now flings himself at the conquest of the sun. haunting atmosphere that light or the shadow of light has woven about castle and historic home and site of Britain he had conquered The subtle and elusive whilst scarce entered into manhood. he now flings himself at mysteries of the sea he had conquered For thirty years he was to create the conquest of the imagination. masterpieces of supreme power. So far, bookish men have approached the art of Turner fairly Henceforth they reveal bafflings, they gasp and fret, comfortably. they abuse the vulgarity of the public who stand in wonder before In the presence of the superb the wizardry of Turner's art. emotional orchestration of so overwhelming a work as the Ulysses deriding Polyphemus^ so shallow is their sensing that they begin to the ship could not be lighted, but must have pick holes in it been dark and in silhouette, if the sun were setting beyond it the sails on the ship in the Burial of Wilkie his " tones " are wrong at Sea are too black if you Well, let us put it bluntly. All Craft is a make-believe The canvas and the paint upon it, the sculptured like, a sham. stone, the notes of music, the words employed in the poetry of verse And in the and prose are a make-believe to trick the senses. Yes. hands of the mediocre and the academic they are never anything It is only in the hands of the artist, or, if you else but sham. prefer the word, it is only in the hands of the poet, that these things for the poet employs the make-believe, lose their dross of falsity since by no other means may he so do it, that he may utter the for he seeks to truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth utter the significance of things, not their husk. He who sits in the theatre before the drama of Shakespeare and can see but the painted pasteboard and canvas of the scenery, the who can but think with solemn paint on the faces of the players wisdom that these be not the kings and queens, the heroes and heroines, the soldiers and clowns and wits and wags, the prince and pauper, the children of high and low degree, but mere mummers
thereat, or
;

from the highway, or chuckled

I

;

;

;

;

!

;

;

24

D

OF PAINTING
playing for livelihood a sham thing, a mere pretence, is absolutely truthful, but a hopeless and unmitigated fool. Let me give you an instance of Turner's later achievement in Take the Burial of Wilkie at Sea. this increased realm of his art. time that Turner painted this masterwork he had realised By the the stupendous fact that, master of the truth, of the mere facts of life, as he was, this mastery alone could not utter the supreme emotions of life. That was Turner's mighty revelation to the art of painting. He had discovered that the emotions, the sensing of man, were above reason, beyond the intellect the inmost sanctuary of the Holy of Holies, the nearest approach to the awful and sublime mystery of Life. Rembrandt, of all his forerunners, had pushed nearest to the mysteries Turner pushed his inquisition still closer. By the time he came to paint the Burial of Wilkie at Sea he had realised that the supreme province of the artist is to create emotional truth he employed colour to utter by its orchestration the solemn pomp of a funeral oration, of the stately and majestic pomp of death and to that end he gave forth a solemn and sombre scheme of colour, wherein the night puts the sails and hull of a stately ship into mourning and we have that mighty suggestion of the passing of life as though its voyage upon the adventure of life were come to an end, as the cold clay is committed to the deep Yet, in the presence of so profound a masterpiece, 'tis said that even so fine an artist as Clarkson Stanfield could stand unmoved as a village idiot with his fool's comment that the sails were untrue The wonder is that he didn't complain against their not being made of canvas. Well might Turner growl, looking at Clarkson's unseeing eye with contempt, " Wish I had any colour to make 'em blacker."

WHEREIN

WE

SEE
IN

THE DAWN
BREAK
SPLEN-

DOUR
OVER

ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

SHOP

;

;

;

!

!

But we must go back to the beginning of this great phase : the year 1814 saw the publication of seven of the plates for the Southern Coast of England. At the same time he flings out the challenge to Claude with his Dido and Aeneas leaving Carthage, and the superb Apuleia in search of Apuleius, with its stately, wondrous horizontality of the long bridge and the mighty leagues of distance. This masterpiece was a fit forerunner of the immortal Crossing the Brook of the next year of 1 8 5 that also saw him paint the great Dido building Carthage which, with the Sun rising through Vapour, challenge the art of Claude both of which he left to the nation on condition that they should hang beside Claude's Isaac and Rebecca and Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba. Bookish men to-day are wont to write that Claude does not suffer from the challenge Yet the
1
;

VOL, VIII

!

25

A HISTORY
THE DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING
Dido building Carthage completely outclasses even the noble genius of Claude. He was so great that he could find no measure but the triumphs of the greatest. We may sneer as we will at the littleness of such an aim I can imagine no greater test of strength, no more noble test than this high tribute. As yet he has not scaled the highest peaks but here he advances leagues beyond Claude. They tried hard to make him Chantrey lured him but the price ever part with Dido but no. rose, until Chantrey asking what in the world he was going to do " Be buried in it, to be sure " with the picture. Turner growled This was the year in which he essayed a grim love-letter. Henry Scott Trimmer of Heston, the vicar, made Turner welcome, and he was soon at ease with the family. The young Trimmers would even invade Turner's town-house in Queen Anne Street, and were cheerfully received. Turner cramming their pockets with cakes. Turner made a feeble offer to the vicar for the hand of a kinswoman, but it does not seem to have been taken seriously, and he was already far more excited about a journey to the Continent. Of 1 8 1 6 are the two paintings of The Temple of Jupiter Panellenius but the sketch-books are full of studies of skies he was much in
; ;

;

;

:

!

;

Yorkshire. In 1 8 17, the year he sold fifty water-colours to Mr. Fawkes of Farnley Hall, he had made a journey of three weeks along the Rhine, as the Goarhausen and Katz Castle, the Bonneville, Savoy, the Lake of Nemi, are of this year. And he began the great series for Whitaker's History of Richmondshire, published from 18 19 to 1822, and costing the publisher ten thousand pounds, for which he produced the famous water-colours that include the Crook of the Lune, the Hornby Castle, the Richmond Castle, and the like. Of 1 818 is the not very happy Field of Waterloo. He went north to make the series for the Provincial Antiquities of Scotland Turner's works including the which Scott volunteered to write Edinburgh fro?n the Calton Hill, which with the set were given by the publisher to Sir Walter Scott, and are known as the Abbotsford
;

Turners.

In

1

8 19

Turner

at

the urging of Lawrence,

pushed on for the first time into Italy Naples, Paestum, Pompeii, Sorrento he moved eagerly from place Rome and the rest, his sketch-books incessantly busy. The to place, colour, the atmosphere, made him drunk. But he left them to thrill in his memory. For the Academy he had painted the superb The Meuse : Orange Merchantmen going to pieces on the Bar, one of the 26
;

then in Rome, Venice, Rimini, Ancona,

OF PAINTING
greatest pictures ever painted of the sea.
rivalries.

He

He

Then to Italy. Nature alone THE DAWN Turner had painted probably before he went to Italy the two BREAK IN huge canvases of Richmond Hill on the Prince Regent's BirthJay, that, SPLENwith the huge Roine from the Vatican, he showed in 1820. The fine DOUR Tate water-colour of the Church of SS. Giovamii e Paolo (18 19) OVER shows Turner not yet ranging on eagle wings into the wide blue of ENGLAND But he has outclassed all his standards. He OUT OF A his greatest flights. now takes breath for the enterprise on the uncharted seas of his great BARBER'S adventure, for there is now no light to guide, no compass by which SHOP He must go alone. He has achieved the Southern Coast to steer. and the Richmondshire series on the road beyond. He makes pause. is now forty-five. Turner
Turner was absent from the Academy; in 1822 he sent his What Tou Will. It clearly baffled the critics. Standards there were clearly none. Turner went by sea to Scotland this year, the king visiting his northern people as George iv. But the
In
1

has reached beyond standards. to himself to outclass himself.

is done now with His challenge is to

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

82

1

National Gallery water-colour of Norham Castle of this year reveals an increase of power towards impressionism. He was bending his wits to the Bay of Baiae which was to startle the Academy of 1823. Henceforth the bookish critic wades in morass. Even whilst Turner steps into the mighty realm of a wide conquest, he is taken to task as painting merely for public acclaim He is out of tradition! Even as he realises that the art of painting cannot utter its full music until the orchestration of colour is made to yield the mood of the thing seen Turner is about to create the emotional utterance of colour such as the world had not before dreamed of. Mr. Jones, R.A., looking to photographic truth, wrote in chalk across the frame of course, in Latin Splendide Mendax and Turner laughed and " All poets are liars," quoth he left it there. " but it is all there." And Jones, oh, where is he ? The National Gallery was founded in 1824; Griffiths was deputed by the Committee, which included Sir Robert Peel and Lord Harding, to buy Turner's Dido buildijig Carthage and Decline Turner was deeply of the Carthaginian Empire for the nation. touched, burst into tears, but refused the Dido turning to Griffiths, as he retired, he expressed his gratitude, but the Dido " may some day
! !

;

;

become the property of the nation."
muttering, " A great triumph no picture at the Academy.
!

He
at

went about
!

for

days,

A

great triumph

"

He showed
his glorious

He

was hard

work on

27

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

Rivers of England, and The Harbours of England, now in the national collection. The Scarborough shows how he had advanced towards great orchestration of emotional utterance. And what an immortal
it is with its stately shipping Portsmouth and Sheerthe Dover, and the Humber prove him the master of the sea the beautiful Totnes, the splendour of Dartmouth and of Dartmouth Castle, the lordly Okehampton Castle and spacious Arundel, the limpid More Park and superb Kirkstall Abbey, the tragic Brougham Castle and the dark blue Norham Castle against the daffodil sky, reveal the greatest colourist of all time, uttering with insight the spirit and significance of the place seen and its presiding genius. To the Academy of 1825 he sent only the Dieppe; but the Thames and Holland sketch-books show him busy with ideas. Fawkes died this year and Turner was so overwhelmed by it that he would never go to Farnley again, though he clung to the friendship with the son,
!

achievement

ness,

;

;

Hawksworth Fawkes,
Turner

to the end.

In 1826 he gave up the house at Twickenham which he had taken for " Dad," but where " Dad " was forever catching chills. Henceforth he draws still more into solitude in his London home. Money poured in he had no use for it. The house becomes ever more squalid, ever more dingy. Turner has no eyes but for his art. His eternal squabbles with his publishers become ever more furious yet he shows at the Academy his brilliant Cologne. It is hung between two portraits by Lawrence puts them out he covers his Cologne with water-colour lamp-black to give Lawrence's portraits honour. Then he makes across sea to the Meuse, the Moselle, and the Rhine.
to burst forth into fullest song.

two

— then

is

now

fifty.

He

is

to pause awhile yet for a year or

;

;

In 1827, his fifty-second year. Turner begins to pour forth his splendour. The serene Mortlake, Morning and Mortlake, Evening, the Kembrandf s Daughter, in which he tries a fall with the great Dutch-

man, are of this time. He takes to painting the sea in the open he is at Cowes, and begins his superb yachting series with the vivid Yacht Racing in the Solent at the Tate the Shipping at Cowes heralds
;

the splendour of Turner's golden visions. He has challenged the Sun itself. It was the year in which he began the ill-fated work, the Picturesque Views in England and IVales, which was to reveal He every mood of the land every mood of the day and night. wrought over a hundred paintings for it from 1827 to 1838. Many are amongst the supreme masterpieces in all landscape. In 1828 Turner again made for Italy. The academic souls of

28

Ill

TURNER
1775-1851

"ULYSSES DERIDING POLYPHEMUS"
(National Gallery)

Un

Ihe

sliore,
fire

in

the left-hand corner of the

picture,

is

seen

tlic

half-

which Ulysses heated the staff with which he put out the eye of Polyphemus, the one-eyed king of the Cyclops, who had devoured the companions of Ulysses. On the rock above, outlined against the skvline,
extinguished
in
is

the agonised figure of the giant.

The

galley of Ulysses, with the

King of

Ithaca in

command,
oil

is

putting out to sea.

Painted in

on canvas.

4

ft.

3

in. h. x

6

ft.

7

in.

w.

(I

'295 x 2'oo6).

OF PAINTING
the so-called artists forgathered in Rome could " make nothing " of his works. His sketch-books show him moving from Orleans to

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

Lyons, to Marseilles, to Genoa, to Florence, to Orvieto, to Rome. To the Academy he had sent Dido directing the Equipment of the Fleet, the Regatta beating to Windward (East Cowes Castle), the East Cowes Castle (Regatta starting for their moorings), and the Boccaccio, which Constable declared "glorious and beautiful" "golden visions." But there was a mightier golden vision about to hang on these

THE DAWN BREAK IN
SPLEN-

walls.

1820

DOUR OVER ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

SHOP

In 1829 Turner sent the superb masterpiece of U/ysses deriding Polyphemus to the Royal Academy. At once Turner steps into the front rank of the poets of all time. Here, by pure orchestration ot colour, he arouses in our senses such an impression of the mood desired as it would be impossible to excel. The resultant whole is of epic power. Turner is master of a majestic orchestra, and the music crashes forth in a stupendous masterpiece. This was the year of the unfinished Chichester Canal, and probably the unfinished Rocky Bay with Figures and the Sunrise. In 1830, at fifty-five, the year that Lawrence died. Turner lost his father. The loss of his " Dad " was a serious blow to the man
;

he was

still

slovenly.

more driven upon himself, and his habits grew utterly At the same time the solitude still further keyed up the

man's imagination and sent him soaring to higher visionary flights. He had dared into the superb realm of absolute Impressionism on a
majestic scale in the Ulysses deriding Polyphemus.
his

He

has

come

into

kingdom.

For

close

on twenty years he
is

is

to

pour forth master-

widen the gamut of artistic utterance in colour to an astounding range. He is to employ harmonies in almost endless arrangements, from the blithest light keys to the deepest and most profound blacks, as Beethoven employed music. Turner is the first to discover this prodigious significance of colour. Before his achievement the achievement of the past pales.
pieces in this realm.
to

He

To understand exactly what this marvellous revelation is, we must now attempt to grasp the meaning of the increase brought to
Impressionism by Turner. So far, the men of Venice and Holland Turner was to bring and Spain had brought values to Impressionism
;

colour orchestration.

has been debauched by critical writers The critics, needing a to mean a narrow parish of a great realm. word, dubbed the fine French endeavour of 1870 whereby broken

The word Impressionism

29

A HISTORY
THE
colour
is

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

name of " Impressionism."
part of Impressionism
It
;

struck upon the canvas by dots or strokes or blobs, by the So it is. But this is only a very small

and even

at that it is

derived wholly from a

part of Turner's genius.

came
;

to

Turner that colour

affects

if sombre and solemn, it And the day he discovered this vital fact, he thrust the emotions. art of painting beyond all previous achievement into the modern achievement.

music does gay emotions

if the colour be blithe and gay,

the senses exactly as it arouses blithe and arouses solemn and sombre

1830 Turner began those little vignettes for illustration of the poets, often forced and hard, to assist the engravers. The Rogers' Italy of 1830 begins them. Lord Egremont seems to have been a most sympathetic friend and to Petv^^orth he went this year, and painted much to Turner
In
;

there, including the oil impression of the Interior of Petworth, which shows the eccentric lord to have allowed the drawing-room to

become little better than a farmyard. To hang Impressionism to It is simply Turner's genius on this rapid fantasy is idiot's babble. and a marvellously suggestive one. a note, a sketch of an idea Turner was also at Brighton and Arundel, and the peaceful Old The sketch-books Chain Pier at Brighton was one of the results. show him to be at Dieppe, Rouen, and Paris. He was probably

plotting the Rivers of France.

of 83 i saw six pictures by Turner, of which one was his return to the classic note Caligula's Palace but he was now The Watteau Painting is turning the classics into Impressionism.
i ;

The Academy

The Soane Museum Admiral Van Tromfs Barge again pure mood. South Kensington at the Entrance of the Texel is a golden scheme. has the fine Lifeboat going off to a Stranded Vessel (Blue Lights of And the Cochem on the Moselle is a fine sketch. Turner Distress). went to Scotland to illustrate Scott's Poetical and Prose Works., being here he made the first the guest of Scott whom he now first met draft of that will that was to end in such heavy litigation. Of 1832 was his glowing golden Childe Harold's Pilgrimage and

the grey Hehoetsluys (City of Utrecht, 64, Going to Sea). In 1833, at fifty-eight. Turner painted his first picture of Venice Venice that he was to immortalise in masterpiece after master-

and state in wondrous fashion, haunted by all the wizardry other sea romance. He begins by challenging and overwhelming Canaletto soon he was to breathe Venice across the canvas,
piece,
;

30

IV

TURNER
1775-1851

"HASTINGS"
(Tate

(about

1835)

Galllry)

'Jt

'

(

*

f.
•(• >

.J

4'^

J

OF PAINTING
aerial as splendid

dreams.

He

set

Canaletto into his

first

master-

WHEREIN

piece.

From 1H33 to 1835 were published The Rivers of France for which he made his sixty water-colours. The Pont de fArche, the
Roadfrom Vernon
to

WE

SEE

THE DAWN
BREAK IN
SPLEN-

Mantes, the purple Mantes, the lovely Bridge of Meulan, the stately Troyes, haunt the imagination with their melody of France. If a man in his decline could paint such masterwork, then for heaven's sake let us pray for decline. This year his old friend Dr. Monro died, and Turner bought in his own works odd to say, the forgers were already at work several of the works given to him were not by him. In 1834, his fifty-ninth year, Turner's sketch-books are of the Meuse, the Moselle, the Rhine, Oxford, and Bruges South Kensington has the St. MichaeTs Mount, and the Fire at Sea, and a Venice. Gillott, the Birmingham pen-maker, pushed his way into Turner's home this year and secured five thousand pounds' worth of paintings from him. It was during this and the next four years to 1838 that Turner painted the fine unfinished oils that long lay rolled up and hidden away at the National Gallery, and are now part of the glory of the Tate.
sunlit airy Post

DOUR
OVER ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

;

SHOP

;

it marked well, was sixty. Many an artist, narrow gamut, has exhausted his genius upon that gamut before thirty, and is in decline. Turner, of wiry frame, amazing virility, and nerve like steel, is to pour forth work from sixty which has the blithe jocund feeling and freshness of youth.

In 1835 Turner, be
to a

tied

bookish men can find decay in his work at this period it beats the wit of artist to comprehend. His powers enormously increase he adds territory after territory to the realm of art vast territories such as aforetime had never even been explored. Look at that Sunrise, with a Boat between Headlands at the Tate. Here is the fresh dewy dawn uttered in a melody of pure colour which is absolutely fragrant of the coming of day. Look at the *' And remember that for the last eleven unfinished " Hastings. from sixty to seventy-one Turner poured years of his creative life forth a blithe art, exquisite and melodious as the music of viols and flute and lute, giving us at seventy-one the fresh and joyous Queen Mab^s Grotto that is jocund as the hearts of young lovers meeting. Now it requires far greater artistic powers to call such subtle emotion from the deep than to set down the mere facts of Nature. But it is evident that to judge such achievement by rule and plummet is hopeless. So far from decay. Turner's powers are at their full, his sense of colour at its subtlest, his wizardry of genius

How

;

31

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

as youth. He has long left human rivalries behind he conquers the light, the sun, the translucent atmosphere, the dewy morning, the mystic twilight, the hauntingness of the evening, the glamour of the night. Look now upon his last vision of Norham Castle, that Norham that, when first painted, kept him thereafter " busy with as much work as he could attend to " that Norham now held in the diaphanous atmosphere like a thing of magic weaving, haunting the senses, subtle as music of a shepherd's pipe in the sweet dawn Look at that superb Bridge and Tower, with of a new-born day. tree, consummately placed, and bathed in aerial its foreground luminosity, telling its majestic note of dark splendour, with the distant bridge and the leagues beyond. This, his sixtieth year, he showed at the Academy his LineFishing off Hastings, his Venice from the Porch of Madonna della Salute, his night-piece of the Burning of the Houses of Parliament, of which another version was shown at the British Institution. It is interesting to note that the Press now began to attack Turner. Blackwood opened the ball by assailing the Venice. The following year, 1836, this attack became more general over the Mercury and Argus. Juliet and her Nurse and the Ruskin at seventeen took up the championship of Turner, which the old man grimly let go by him with his " I never move in these

fresh

Turner had visited Italy with Monro, who was dismatters." appointed in Turner's verbal lack ot enthusiasm in the presence of The attack increased in 1837 on his Snowstorm and Nature. Departure of Regulus. This year his England and Wales venture collapsed, and he bought out the whole stock when put up to auction for three thousand pounds. The Dresden sketch-book is of this time. Henceforth Turner, in his sixties, spends a great part of his life abroad. His vigour of body must have been astounding,
consider the " Diogenes himself and the difficulties of travel.
for

we must

way

were enough to exhaust a young man. which he put his artistic powers to their

which he skimped His mere bodily adventures Yet this was the decade in
full stretch

" in

in masterpiece

Venice and the Righi, how he watched their every change of line His sketch-books are full of Venice and the Lake of Lucerne. To the Academy of 1838 he sent Ancient Italy and Modern Italy. The Tate holds his
after masterpiece of superb water-colour.
!

delightful unfinished water-colour of The Salute.

To 1839 belong the immortal Fighting Temeraire tugged to her Last Berth a wondrous utterance of pathos and the fine Agrippina

32

E

OF PAINTING
landing with the Ashes of Germanicus. sketch of a Venetian Fishing-Boat.

The Tate

has the water-colour

840 were the Slave Ship lauded by Ruskin as his supreme THE DAWN work, but, judging by reproductions, a poor affair with brilliant bits BREAK IN the superb SPLENthe fine South Kensington Venice the New Moon masterpiece of Rockets and Blue Lights now in America, a work DOUR in which the mood of the tempest is recorded as no man but Turner OVER the rich and glowing Arch of ENGLAND ever had the power to utter it the Tivoli and the glorious Burning of the OUT OF A Constantine at the Tate And when we remember that Tate water-colours, such as BARBER'S Ships. the Lake of Lucerne from Fluelen, the large Lake with Distant SHOP Headlands and Palaces and the Rawlinson Vale d" Aosta are of this Of time, one wonders where to look for Turner's decay or decline. 1842 were a Venice and the Depositing of Bellini s pictures in the Church of the Redentore, Venice, a pageant of sunlight. The sketchbooks show him at work at Lucerne, on the Rhine, at Thun, Zug,

Of

1

WE
;

WHEREIN
SEE

;

;

;

;

And his Goldau, Fluelen, Bellinzona, Como, Spliigen, Grenoble. floats upon the paper those aerial visions which clearly were wrought whilst the colours were flowing and were caught and kept in place by the calculated wizardry of his hand's skill. In 1842, at sixty-seven, Turner painted several of the masterpieces of his great career. The magnificent work known as the Snowstorm, in which a paddle-steamer thrashes its way through the turmoil of seas and heaven, is a masterly statement of mist and light, of the movement of the sea and of the vessel upon the sea, of the thrash of the storm, and the glint of light and darkness upon the sweeping waters such as places him beyond the reach of all previous achievement in art whatsoever. "The critics of all kinds were furious." Yes ; they would be. It is so unlike Michelangelo, and holds scant They called this wondrous thing, this, one of the hint of Raphael. masterpieces of the ages, they called it " soapsuds and whitewash," Turner had been lashed to a mast on a vessel off Harwich in a he had made the sailors take him out hurricane to see that vision The IVar : the a man of sixty-seven, " in his decline " to see it Exile and the Rock Limpet missed its intention, but the Burial of Wilkie at Sea was of this year, a masterly impression of the solemnity And of this year also were many of the superb waterof Death. colours and the five water-colour sketches made in Switzerland, The Rawlinson Spietz on the Lake of Thun chiefly about Lucerne. is of them, also the Coblentz, the Constance, the Spliigen, the Bay
art

;

!

of Uri, the Zurich. Munro of Novar offered
VOL. VIII

him ^25,000

for all

he had
33

at

the

A HISTORY
THE
Queen Anne

DAWN

OF

won't

Street Gallery, but
. . .

Turner answered with

his

"

No

!

I

I

can't

MODERN
PAINTING

Of 1843 were
Venice " goi?Jg
to

Good evening besides, I can't be bothered. the immortal Approach to Venice and The ''Sun of Turner, mark you, was sixty-eight the day he Sea.
!

"

painted the Approach

to

Venice

;

he was an old man the day he gave

His piercing old eyes could forth this jocund exquisite impression. see that he had thrust the art of painting vast realms beyond the
power, to say nothing of the achievement, of the greatest masters of Here he utters a song of the dawn in purest poetry such the past. Gaze on the whole range of that as had aforetime been impossible. majestic past that may be seen in such splendid fashion at the and you shall realise how National Gallery, and then come to this Colour takes voice, becomes dull and drab it all is by comparison. music there are harps in the air. The dewy day is fragrant of the fresh breath of morning. Of this year also were The Evening of the Deluge, The Morning after the Deluge, and the Walhalla, that Turner sent as gift to the King of Bavaria, and that gentlemanly person returned, saying he could not Turner was also fretted by the publication of the understand it. Painters Of the wonderful first volume of Ruskin's Modern Moonlight, and the water-colours are the Rawlinson The Seelisberg Decline ? Little the old man South Kensington Lake of Brienz. who shuffled about his dirty, squalid, ill-kept house, and who would sit on the Margate boat amidst the squall and tossing waters, eating shrimps out of a red handkerchief, watching and noting impressions A quaint kind of decline that, in the of the sea, knew of decline. year of 1 844, the last year of his sixties, saw him give forth his next Rain, Steam, and Speed in which he utters the impression of a a quaint sort of decay that sends a man, on the edge railway train roaming to Lucerne, Thun, Interlaken, Lauterbrunnen, of seventy, Grindelwald, Meiringen, Rheinfelden, Heidelberg, sketching hundreds of sketches But he confesses that " the rigours of winter " because he is twice driven back begin to tell on me at seventy from tramping across the Alps. Well might he jot down with pride on the edge of seventy " No matter what befell Hannibal, W. B. and J. M. W. T. passed the Alps from Fombey, Sept. 3, 1844." The death of his friend Callcott was a heavy blow to him. The Tennant Approach to Venice and the National Gallery Fishing Boats But at last the vigorous bringing in a Disabled Ship are of this year. body begins to yield to the weight of the years. He becomes very bent. In 1845 he was seventy. have Ruskin's witness that his health began to fail, yet the little black figure squats down by
;

!

;

!

!

!

We

34

OF PAINTING
Thames mud
to the shore
!

for over half-an-hour, to

watch how the water

painted the Sunrise, with a Sea Monster he was and showed Whalers in this year and interested in whales this year The whalers' sketch-book has drawings of whaling the next. subjects, whether made on a voyage or from gossip amongst the shore Thackeray blemished his repute for folk at Wapping is unknown.

He

ripples

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

THE DAWN
BREAK IN
SPLEN-

DOUR
OVER

Punch, which display his own art by The sketch-books ignorance, whilst deeply wounding the old artist. of 1845 and 1846 show Turner at Folkestone, Hythe, Walmer, Ambleteuse, Wimereux, Boulogne, Eu, Treport, Dieppe, then back at Folkestone. In the Rawlinson TelTs Chapel, his last water-colour of Switzerland, there is no slightest sign of hesitation or decline nor in his seventy-first year, 1846, in which the old singer utters his Think last great song. Yet what a song, and what a significance of it. At seventy-one he utters that sweet aerial fancy of Queen MaFs Grotto, blithe as a young man's first love-lyric, exquisite as a great soprano's fullest song a very swan-song. Other pictures he painted, a Whaler, Undine, The Angel standing in the Sun, two whalers Hurrah and Boiling Blubber Venice, Morning Returning from the Ball, and Going to the Ball, wherein the hand begins to falter ; but he painted the Queen Mab's Grotto his swan-song of splendour This year, also, he shuts up his last sketch-book it is the "Kent, 1845-46."
childish attacks on

Turner

in

ENGLAND OUT OF A
BARBER'S

SHOP

;

!

:

!

1847
THE BEGINNING OF THE END
The next year of 1847, his seventy-second year, he shuns his old haunts, disappears from his house. His doors at Queen Anne Street are locked and barred. He rarely creeps into his dingy old home. His old housekeeper, the faithful Hannah Danby, knows not where
he goes.
suddenly turns up at a council-meeting of the Academy or on Varnishing Day speaks little to any one avoids old friends, then vanishes again. He sends old pictures to the Academy displays. He turns up at Mayall the photographer's, in Regent Street says he is a Master in Chancery, for he is deeply interested in this thing called photography he goes again and again. He goes to dine with the Bicknells at Heme Hill, is merry his portrait is made there secretly by Landseer and Count D'Orsay, the portrait attributed to Linnell then suddenly, in 1850, appear

He

:

;

35

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

four paintings by Turner at the Academy they are called his " failures " ; well the nation possesses Aeneas relating his Story to Dido, his Mercury sent to admonish Aeneas, the Departure of the Trojan

and the Visit to the Tomb. At a dinner at Roberts's house he made merry, was seen into a cab, evaded the giving of the address to the cabman with a wink, saying " Tell him to drive to Oxford Street, and then I'll direct him where to go," and so rattled back into the mysteries. On the death of Shee, Turner fretted at not being made
Fleet,

President of the Academy. At the private view of the
a shaky, broken, feeble

Academy of 1851 Turner appeared man Roberts, in the name of his fellows,
:

but Turner, touched as he was, replied that he would come and see Roberts whenever in town. Hannah Danby, turning over his clothes one day, found a letter which gave her a hint with another old woman she made for Chelsea, and found that Turner was living at Cremorne Cottage in Cheyne Walk as Mr. Booth. She went straight to Mr. Harpur, a trustee of Turner's, who arrived only to find the old artist sinking. He had been living in the old cottage with Mrs. Booth, who spoke Having been wheeled to the window to of him as her husband. look upon the winter sunset, he died in her arms on the 19th of December 1851. The urchins of Chelsea had called the eccentric old man Admiral Booth or Puggy Booth. It was said that he would go to Wapping and hobnob with the rough river folk. He was buried in He left both St. Paul's Cathedral, hard by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Hannah Danby and Mrs. Booth comfortably off. He left his vast But the huge sum that he willed for treasure of art to the nation. Poor and Decayed Artists of lawful English birth was a home for So the 19,331 items fought over in Chancery, and went to his kin. of his art came into the nation's keeping, many of them ruined, most in a filthy state, but all, thanks to the care and research of lovers of his art, now emerging into the splendid display of his genius in the national collections, and handsomely housed, thanks to the generous gift of a fine home for them at the Tate by Sir Joseph
; ;

offered to visit him, promising not to disclose his hiding-place

Duveen.

Turner's great discovery was this, that each and every thing seen needs a style created for itself, apart from all other subjects,

36

OF PAINTING
before it can be created by the artist into its supreme emotional utterance. He could not have told you so in words ; he was not a man of reason, of bright intellect, he did the thing, moved thereto

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

THE DAWN

by unerring instinct just as Shakespeare did it. BREAK IN Mallarme, gazing upon Rain^ Steam, and Speed, said, " Turner is SPLENthe greatest painter that has ever lived"; and he was nothing less. DOUR All that is vital in modern art was born out of the revelation of OVER Turner. ENGLAND Turner, with infinite labour, mastered tradition, entered into rivalry OUT OF A with it, challenged it, conquered it and, having made it his own, and BARBER'S thus equipped, embarked on the wider adventure of the conquest of a SHOP new world. He discovered that painting was an immense instrument hundreds of instruments and he discovered thereby the orchestration of colour. Velazquez played upon realistic subtilities he created a narrow art thereby, even though he did so in supreme fashion. And so with the others. Turner flung mere triumphs of handling into the waste-paper basket. He saw that the colourscheme to create a blithe, light, jocund emotion could never be fitted to create a deep, solemn emotion of awe that the pomp of death must be uttered in colour-harmonies of a solemn and majestic cadence far different from the blithe mood of a bridal, with merry bells a-ringing and roses, roses all the way. And he bent the Light to his will so that the blithe harmonies should utter blithe emotions, sombre harmonies the solemn emotions. So that the Dawn at Venice appears clad in pale aerial vesture floating upon the mirrored waters, turning gondola and shipping and edifice and cupola into the fabric of a dream such as the dawn compels into our eyes and weaves into our sensing. He rides upon Turner's range is prodigious an eagle's flight. the storm, and the long, sweeping buffets and staggering blows of the raging waters fling their anger across his canvas, the spiteful waves spit their venom of spume, the thunder and the roar of the tempestuous heavens join their din to the frantic tumult of the great waters. At a stroke of his wizardry he brings forth the awful silence of a great calm in which mountain and city lie mirrored in the reflecting waters that lie still as glass under the leagues of the glorious heavens. The tragic sense of great barren mountains, the sweet fragrance of meadows that lie by pleasant streams, the city's multitudinous haunt of men, the lap of waters against the clumsy
;

;

float

of great ships, the sunrise, the sun's setting, the twilight, the moonlight, all were granted to him to utter in unforgettable fashion and he triumphed the supreme poet that colour has yet given to the

;

37

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

" All the torches that have shed a flood of new light on Art, that of Delacroix in 1825, those of the Impressionists in 1870, have in turn been lit at his flame," says French De la Sizeranne, Constable, returning from the disand utters but the scant truth. play of 1828, might well write, "Turner has some golden visions, They are only visions, but still they are art, glorious and beautiful. and one could live and die with such pictures." What indeed is life but a vision ? with what has the art of painting to do but with Of Turner Constable the vision ? and Turner was lord of it all. said, " I believe it would be difficult to say that there is a bit of landSmall scape now done that does not emanate from that source." wonder that this lonely man, faced with the artist's eternal agony of having to part with his works, was wont to say when he screwed his courage to the sale of a picture, " I 've lost one of my children." Fortunately for the nation the bulk of his fortune was made out of He clung to his his engravings, not out of the sale of his pictures. world,

"children." Mean of money, he was artistically generous. A young fellow Turner takes down one of called Bird has his picture crowded out He covers his luminous Cologne his own and sets up Bird's instead. with lampblack to give Lawrence's pictures honour " it will all wash off after the exhibition." So the little, bow-legged, snuff)', big-headed man, with the small hands and feet, who, when sitting perched on a high place, well-plied with Academy sherry, could paint masterpiece after masterpiece in the four days allowed for varnishing at the annual displays, who gave his life to the conquest of light and colour, lives immortal ; indeed, did not Constable affirm that the painting of Turner was the most complete work of genius known to him ? Turner, as at the stroke of a magician's wand, raises out of the void the vision and the dream in such consummate fashion that he It is but the dullard pedant who, untouched conquers the mind. by the wizardry of it all, peers at the painted canvas and picks holes

in details.

Turner exults in the glory of the bent with age, he shouts his song of were in his blood the music of his some great seer uttering his visions to
;

world

;

as

his

exultation as exultation
is

body becomes though youth
of
stand before

as the voice

the ages.

We

the vast achievement of his genius as though we were in a great cathedral the aisles and majestic deeps of which reverberate with the Dullards ask for sobriety of mood sounds of his mighty utterance. from one drunk with the wine of life. He found at last the splen-

38

!

OF PAINTING
dour of colour and the vast orchestra that would pour forth art WHEREIN that fits each mood, sublime or dainty, epic or lyrical, dramatic SEE splendour that his eyes had seen, the THE or homely pastoral, the significance that his senses had known. BREAK IN And little dullard men, with pen and ink, walk about his feet SPLENand blame him for it DOUR

WE

DAWN

OVER ENGLAND

OUT OF A
BARBER'S

SHOP

39

CHAPTER
WHEREIN A

III

MILLER'S SON FINDS ROMANCE IN THE REALITY OF ENGLAND'S LANDSCAPES, AND PAINTS HIS IMPRESSIONS OF THE HOME-LAND

REALISM IN LANDSCAPE
XHE
There were
Turner,

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

who

Modern

born, within a year of each other, Constable and were, with Crome, to lead into the promised land of Painting and take possession,

CONSTABLE
1776
It is usual

-

1837

to begin a survey of Constable's genius

by asserting

that the impetus given to English landscape by Wilson and Gainsborough had died out in a barren formula the formula of " the


;

made to plan, of grass that must not be Constable arose and cracked the farce asunder. Such Crome, in some ways was far from the case. Morland was alive Turner, a far as great as Constable, was creating master-work. vaster genius than he, was beginning his great career beside him. Constable, of the patrician Yorkshire family of that name, and his grandson, Golding had come to Suffolk as a farmer Constable, who had built himself a fine house, was owner of water-mills at Flatford and Dedham and two wind-mills at East Bergholt. To Golding Constable and his wife Ann Watts was born at East Bergholt, in Suffolk, on the iith of June 1776, his second son, John Constable. The delicate child grew to healthy boyhood, and at seven was sent to a boarding-school, thence to another, and thence to the Grammar School at Dedham, where he stayed until seventeen. By sixteen he was playing with paints, and neglecting His leisure time at East Bergholt he spent the latinities for them. with a plumber and glazier called Dunthorne, who was given to landscape-painting. But the father had the Church in his mind for the youth, whereon the young fellow, from dread of it, went to the mills for a year, when the father, realising the bent of his son, got
brown
green,
tree," of landscape

when

A

;

40

V
CONSTABLE
1776

-

1837

"A COUNTRY LANE"
(National GALLtRv)

F

PAINTING
an introduction to the generous Sir George Beaumont on one of his visits to his mother, the Dowager-Lady Beaumont, who lived at Dedham, in the house where Constable now saw his first Claude (the National Gallery Hagar), and some thirty water-colours

him

WHEREIN
A MILLER'S SON FINDS
IN

by Girtin. In 1795 Constable went to London armed with a letter to Wilson's pupil, Farringdon, and so became known to John Thomas For a couple Smith, the engraver, from whom he learnt to etch. of years Constable divided his time between London and Suffolk, sketching at Bergholt, reading artists' lives, and working at anatomy and etching; pen drawings of 1796 by him being at South Chymist and An Kensington. To 1797 belong oil-paintings of Alchymist. He returned to his father's business. But the man fretted and in 1799 he took to art again, never to withdraw from entering the schools of the Royal Academy on the 4th of it, February, lodging in Cecil Street, Strand, and starting copying Ruysdael on his own account by the end of the year he had copied two Wilsons, a Carracci, a Ruysdael, and Claude's Hagar. The summer of 800 saw him back amongst his beloved scenes, where were " every stile and stump, and every lane in the village " that he knew so well. In 80 1 he went to Derbyshire, and made sketches in water-colour, of which twelve are at South Kensington. On his return to London he withdrew to 50 Rathbone Place to be more by himself, being already disgusted with the "cold trumpery stuff" of his academic fellows. The Academy of i 802 saw his first picture West seems greatly to have encouraged him, a small landscape. and did him the far-reaching good service of making him refuse a post as drawing-master which Dr. Fisher (afterwards Bishop of Salisbury), with the best intention, had secured for him. Constable now saw that to " seek the truth at second hand " from pictures instead of from Nature meant death to art. And it was in this year that he wrote to Dunthorne There is room enough for a natural painter. South Kensington holds the small and exquisite Dedham Vale of the September of this year the Windmill, in black chalk and wash, reveals the coming of the master. In 1803 he

ROMANCE THE RE-

ALITY OF ENGLAND'S LANDSCAPES,

AND
PAINTS
HIS IM-

A

PRESSIONS

;

OF THE

HOMELAND

;

i

1

:

sent to the

Academy, but not

in 1804, the year of his altarpiece,

Christ Blessing Little Children, for

Brantham Church.
;

but in 1806 he was north in the Lake Country, of which he made during two months many sketches in water-colour and some in oil, of which South Kensington holds some twenty-two in water-colour and Indian ink they exhausted his utterance of the mountains. He could only feel the
;

Of 1805 was

a Moonlit Landscape

VOL. viii

41

A HISTORY
THE
homely landscapes
in

which men

dwell.

Still,

1807 saw him show
\

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

Keswick Lake, View in Westmorland, and Bow Fell and in 1808 the Borrowdale, the Scene in Cumberland, and Windermere Lake. All 1807 he was making copies of family portraits, chiefly by Reynolds, This training led his hand to for the Earl and Countess of Dysart. Church altarpiece of Christ Blessing the decision. The Nayland Bread and Wine is a marked advance, if still not a masterpiece. He goes through a stage of painting in monochrome and then glazing in colours after Reynolds, then of proceeding to paint in strong The man was trying to find a colours and softening by glazing. way out. He was very slow of brain and hand. He was plodding But he was rapidly coming into a forceful direct style of at it. setting down values at once, as at a stroke, of objects bathed in their distance of atmosphere and if it be correct that the superbly wrought Dedham Vale at the National Gallery, the Golding Constable's House and the fine South Kensington On the Stour near Dedham are of this time, 1 8 10, then Constable had arrived. On the Stour near Dedham shows him complete master of a craftsmanship that at once answers the brain's impression. For him now to conquer. But his prospects were scarcely bright he had for some years been in love with the young daughter of Charles Bicknell, Solicitor to the Admiralty, and granddaughter of Dr. Rhudde, the rector of Bergholt this mutual love was hotly opposed by all the relations. The old rector was greatly rich, and there was bad blood between him and Golding Constable. All this misery was doing the man little good. Then his own family kept taunting him with waste of time on landscape, and urged him to portraiture. However, to the Academy of 1812 went his Flatford Mill and View of Salisbury. In the spring, being unwell, he made for his beloved Suffolk. Though sixteen years younger than Constable, Fisher, son of the Master of Charterhouse, and then chaplain to his uncle the Bishop of Salisbury, a man of rare culture, grew into loyal intimacy with Constable, to whom his decision of character was to be of value. Fisher became
;

A

;

;

Archdeacon in 18 17, and often entertained Constable. For Constable, the Fishers secured some portraits to paint he worked much for Lady Louisa Manners but the simple fellow, to whom Cowper's poems and letters were the supreme literature, yearned for Bergholt. By the June of 18 13 he had painted so many portraits that he was at last in funds as he entered London town. It was to the Academy of 1813 that he sent the two landscapes Morning and Afternoon, which drew Fisher's praise and waggery " I only liked one better, and that is a picture of pictures, 42
;

;

:

OF PAINTING
But, then, you need not repine at this the Frost, by Turner. decision of mine ; you are a great man, and, like Buonaparte, are In 1814 he sold his first displayed only to be beaten by a frost." works, one to Mr. Allnutt and the other to Mr. Carpenter, The Lock. And he painted much about Flatford, of which the Boat-building

WHEREIN
A MILLER'S SON FINDS

ROMANCE IN THE RE-

where

(18 1 5) and the sketch of Cart and Horses are at South Kensington, ALITY OF also is the Dedham Vale of this time, with the figure of the ENGLAND'S LANDcow in the foreground. In the February of 1815, Dr. Rhudde seems to have given his SCAPES,

" sweet permission " for the young lovers to meet under his root. These two quaint, respectable lovers seem to have met pretty often, and to have deemed it wise not to tell the worthy grandfather that they were making good his " sweetness," until, discovering it just a year after, he flew into a theological fury, and told the The girl's father that she was " no longer his grand-daughter." Constable's mother had died careful Maria was in consternation. In DeMaria's mother a few days after. in the May of 1815 cember his father was seized with sickness, and Constable remained Then came the discovery and fury. That the winter with him. fury drove the languid blood of Constable to action. The death of Golding Constable called back his famous son to He came into ^4000, which gave Bergholt in the May of 18 16. him a small certainty. Fisher, in the August of 18 16, wrote and
;

AND
PAINTS HIS IMPRESSIONS

OF THE

HOMELAND

told

he would marry them in London. Maria hedged and changed, but on October 2, 18 16, she and Constable were married at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields by the Reverend John Fisher, and they spent their honeymoon with the Constable and his wife settled in a small Fishers at Osmington. house in Keppell Street, Russell Square, and there the two eldest Of this time is the National children, John and Maria, were born. Gallery Flatford Mill; and to the Academy of 18 17 he sent, amongst others, the famous sunlit Cottage in a Cornfield at South Kensington, in which he makes lyrical the noontide heat of a summer's day. Of 1819 was his largest canvas yet shown, the Pierpont Morgan On the River Stour, better known as The White Horse on the six-foot canvas he put the price of a hundred guineas and Fisher bought it. without the frame, that startled the art world and in the same Late in 1819 Constable was elected A.R.A. from her fierce old grandyear his wife received a legacy of _|r40oo The Academy of 1820 had his Harwich Lightfather Dr. Rhudde. house, now at the Tate, and the large Stratford Mill called also The Toung Waltonians from the boys fishing in the foreground, a work

him

that if they

wanted

it,

;

;

;

43

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

which Fisher bought and gave to his solicitor Tinney. Being with Fisher at Salisbury in the summer, he painted the exquisite South Kensington Water Meadows near Salisbury^ which, having been put by mistake amongst the works of outsiders at the selection, was rejected by the Hanging Committee, on which Constable himself
but the carpenter, as he set the cross of rejection on it, however, amidst the judges' apologies and noticed the name it had been refused, so out excuses Constable remained relentless must go. Constable took his family awhile to rooms at Hampit stead and painted the famous view called The Salt Box at the Tate. The next year (1821) he took a small house at Hampstead in Lower Terrace and often painted there trom this time. To the Academy of 182 i he sent four landscapes, of which one was the large Landscape, Noon, to become world-famous as The Haywain it to-day hangs at the National Gallery, the far finer oilsketch for it being at South Kensington. Now the Haywain went to the Academy and made small stir enough. The first of the year saw Constable wander over Berkshire with Fisher, and South Kensington is the richer by some ten drawings of Reading, Newbury, and Abingdon, and the British Museum with sketches at Oxford. In the November he went to Salisbury as Fisher's guest, and made many sketches of the neighbourhood. To the Academy of 1822 he sent the large River Stour near Dedham, a Hampstead Heath, Malvern Hall, the Terrace at Hampstead, and a study of Trees. He was now asked by a Frenchman to sell his Haywain for display in Paris. He took a larger house at 35 Charlotte Street. But the winter of 1822-23 meant heavy sickness in his house. Then he got to work upon his Salisbury Cathedral from the Bishop'' s Garden, now at South Kensington the Cathedral seen amongst the trees and in this picture we see the beginning of that effort to give the glitter of sunlight that vibrates amongst his coming masterwork, known to the foolish as " Constable's snow." In the October of 1823 he was staying with Sir George Beaumont at Coleorton Hall in Leicestershire and enjoyed the fine Claudes, Wilsons and Poussins there gathered together. In the meanwhile, in the April of 1824, Constable had sold the Haywain, a Yarmouth, and another picture to the Frenchman or rather to Arrowsmith, the English dealer in Paris, who clearly looked upon himself as a Frenchman, since he spoke of the French as his " countrymen " he who had approached him before. To the Academy he sent the Boat passing a hock. Constable's Haywain and

grimly

sat

;

;

;

44

;

OF PAINTING
two other landscapes had been hung at the Salon at the Louvre, WHEREIN Delacroix was so deeply stirred A MILLER'S and their effect was astounding. by the freshness and truth of Constable's art, that he completely SON FINDS repainted his canvas of the Massacre of Scio during the four days ROMANCE before the Salon of 1824 threw open its gates to the public. The IN THE REthe

were well hung from the first, but so great was the stir ALITY OF they made that they were moved into a more prominent place in the ENGLAND'S chief room. The following year Constable received a gold medal. LANDDuring 1824 and 1825, Constable had had to take his family SCAPES, much to Brighton, which place he detested. By the January of 1825 he had set to work on the six-foot canvas of the famous PAINTS Diploma Gallery masterpiece of Dedham Lock, better known as the HIS IMThe Leaping Horse, in which all his great powers are revealed, whilst PRESSIONS South Kensington has the superb large oil-sketch of the same. OF The eldest boy's ill-health gave Constable and his wife grave HOMEanxiety all through this great year and Fisher proved a loyal and LAND friend. generous This summer Constable was hard at work upon his Opening of Waterloo Bridge, but it beat him ; and was not again taken up for seven years. It was rather a pity that Constable's touchiness at this time lost him the valuable support of Arrowsmith
pictures

AND

THE

;

in Paris.

Constable was

now

fifty

came

forth to full power.
Cornfield,

and with the years the Poet in him To .the Academy of 1826 he sent the
;

in the National Gallery. The health of and all began to smile for Constable. To the Academy of 1827 he sent The Marine and Chain Pier at Brighton, the Water-mill at Gillingham, and Hampstead Heath whilst he showed elsewhere The Glebe Farm, now in the National Gallery. In the summer he found his permanent home at Hampstead in a little house in Well Walk, and let his house in Charlotte Street, except the parlours, painting-room, and such part as he could use for work there. He glories in the view. On the 2nd of the thereafter his wife began January of 1828, his fourth son was born to sink. Then her father died, leaving Constable ^(^20,000, and Constable could write to Fisher that he could now settle that sum on his wife and children and " stand before a six-foot canvas with a mind at ease, thank God"! Alas! he was to know sorrow deeper than the poverty that was past his wife died of consumption on the 23rd of November; her death left a scar on the man's soul, and his self-distrust and nervousness regained a grip upon him. He went back to the house in Charlotte Street with his seven children and looked henceforth on Hampstead as but a place to visit.

large The

now
;

his family

improved

;

;

;

45

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

of this fateful year of 1828 he had sent a Hampstead Heathy and a Dedham Vale, but finer than these is the Summer Aftermot} after a Shower, National Gallery oil-sketch of seen near Redhill, a masterpiece of impression and to judge by National Gallery The Gleaners, and that their lyrical power, the Mill near Brighton, other great oil-sketch, the South Kensington must be of the same great time. On February 10th, 1829, Constable was elected R.A. Turner came to hail him. But Turner's generosity was not equalled by the egregious Lawrence, on whom Constable had to call as President, and who frankly expressed his surprise at the election of a Before sending his Hadleigh Castle to the landscape-painter Academy, Constable asks Leslie's advice on it, two months later,
the

To

Academy

A

;

A

!

smarting under my election." The delightful story is told of it that, on varnishing day, Chantrey, saying the foreground was too cold, took Constable's palette and brushed a broad glaze of asphaltum across it "There goes my dew," cried Constable, and promptly took it all off again. Depressed and down at heart. Constable began tnis year that famous series of his English Landscape to be engraved in mezzotint by David Lucas a work which engaged his chief energies for the remaining decade of his life. As newly elected R.A. he was on the Hanging Committee of Dell in Helmingham Park, and the 1830, to which display he sent South Kensington Hampstead Heath with the carter's team in the foreground. In 1 83 I he became visitor to the Life Schools, the year of the superb large oil-sketch in the National Gallery of Salisbury, which created the nearly as great completed Ashton canvas of Salisbury from the Meadows with the Rainbow, which was to have been bought for the nation, but gave way to the inferior Cornfield. The but the nation is great canvas with the rainbow is a masterpiece more fortunate in possessing the oil-sketch of Salisbury, which is marvellously well reproduced in this volume, and for glitter and values, for virile force and lyrical utterance is amongst the supreme works Of the same year was the Tarof this great artist's achievement. The painter was so ill at this time that he was clearly mouth Pier. contemplating death. This year In 1832 he was seriously crippled with rheumatics. As it glitters tackled the large Opening of Waterloo Bridge again. he upon Sir Charles Tennant's walls to-day, there is no sign of that heavy coat of blacking and mastic varnish that was spread over it

"as

I

am

still

A

;

46

VI

CONSTABLE
1776
-

1837

ENGLISH SCHOOL
"SALISBURY CATHEDRAL"
(National Gallerv)
Painted in
oil

on canvas,

i

ft.

2

in. h.

x

i

ft.

8

in.

w, (0'35ox o'soS).

OF PAINTING
This year he good taste lost his old friend, Archdeacon Fisher, and young Dunthorne died. In the June of 1833 he gave his first lecture, afterwards given He to the Royal Institution as The History of Lafidscape-Painting. fretted at the loss of his tw^o sons, whom he had to send to school Fortunately the friendship of George Constable of at Folkestone. In the February of 1834, Arundel had now come into his life. Constable had a severe attack of rheumatic fever, from which he To the Academy he could only probably never wholly recovered. Old Sarum, the fine Stoke Pogis Church and send water-colours Interior of a Church, which, with the drawing of a Study of Trees, He visited George Constable at are all at South Kensington. Arundel and later stayed at Petworth with Lord Egremont. To the Academy of 1835 he sent The Valley Farm, now at the National Gallery, of which he himself said, " I have kept my brightness without my spottiness, and I have preserved God Almighty's daylight, which is enjoyed by all mankind, excepting
after Constable's death, to bring
it

into

!

WHEREIN
A MILLER'S SON FINDS

ROMANCE IN THE REALITY OF ENGLAND'S LANDSCAPES,

AND
PAINTS
HIS IM-

;

PRESSIONS

OF THE

HOMELAND

only the lovers of old dirty canvas, perished pictures at a thousand In the June he gave his second lecture at Hampguineas each." and in July he was with George Constable at Arundel again, stead sketching the British Museum Stormy Effect, Littlehampton, and In the August he started his drawing Arundel Mill and Castle. The autumn saw him at second boy on a sea-faring career. Worcester, and sketches of Worcester ensued. In the early part of 1836 he was giving all his strength to the four lectures on landscape art to be delivered before the British Institution but he began his unfinished Arundel Mill and Castle, which he set aside for The Cenotaph now at the National Gallery
;

;

the picture of that

monument

to

Reynolds which

Sir

George

Beaumont had raised in his grounds at Coleorton. In the February On the 31st of of 1837 he was back at work upon Arundel Mill. Castle went on an March, he worked on the Arundel Mill and supped and went to bed errand for the Artists' Benevolent Fund The servant took away the candle by which he had at eleven. his son John coming in from a been reading, and left him asleep and an hour thereafter he theatre found his father in great pain
; ;

;

;

was dead.

They

buried Constable by his wife in Hampstead churchyard.

Constable was singularly fortunate in his mezzotint engraver, David Lucas, the pupil of S. W. Reynolds. The first edition of Lucas was dilatory and untwenty-two plates appeared in 1833.

47

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

the venture did not pay ; yet, spite of much trial of patience, the two men grew greatly into each other's Under Constable's close guidance Lucas wrought the affection. he largely failed in reprobroad bold sketches with great power

methodical

;

Constable

ill

;

;

ducing the completed pictures
far

;

and with other men's work he was

from masterly.
Constable saw that painting from other men's pictures could not

create art, and he early discovered that "paintingiswith me but another word for feeling " in that moment he plumbed the mystery of art.

Asked

to give the
;

am

of idealism " roused the scorn contained in " / shall but he had no love of mere vulgar realism. that phrase conclude 'with a brief allusion to a certain set oj painters, who, having substitutedfalsehood for truth, and formed a style mean and mechanical,
fields
;

no judge I "into the vacant

money-value of a Cuyp he made answer, " I only know^oo^ things from bad in art." Excursions

Much of the confusion oj opinions in art arising are termed mannerists. from false taste is caused by works of this stamp, for if the mannerists had The never existed, paintings would always have been easily understood.
gallery
education of the professed connoisseur being chief formed in the picture y and the auction room, seldom enables him to perceive the vast

a mannerist and the genuine painter. To do this requires long and close study, and a constant comparison of the art with nature. So few among the buyers and sellers of pictures possess any knowledge so derived, that the works of the mannerists often bear as large a price in the The difference is not understood market as those of the genuine painters. by picture-dealers, and thus, in a mercantile way, has a kind of art been propagated and supportedfrom age to age, deserving only to be classed with They the showy and expensive articles of drawing-room furniture. are the productions of men who have lost sight of nature, and strayed into
difference between
. . .

the vacant fields of idealism.'^

Much of what is attributed to the mouth of Constable must be read with extreme caution ; for his addresses were published from reports by men who completely fuddled his statements and did not It is only when his own notes exist that we understand his ideas.
are safe in

complete Constable saw that it was but mere picture-making to " study For him no critic's problem of "where to place pictures only." " your brown tree he left it out. Watching Sir George Beaumont trying to paint a landscape like a Poussin instead of from nature, he reminds him that Poussin's greens were not brown when he painted
lectures,

considering his statements speaking from notes.

for

he did not write the

48

G

OF PAINTING
To Beaumont's theory that Nature should be painted in the tone of an old Cremona fiddle, Constable flings the fiddle on the A MILLER'S green lawn. " I look on pictures as things to be avoided; connoisseurs SON FINDS look on them as things to be imitated." " The IN Constable had a quick tongue, and considerable humour REand a half to a gentleman, and a ALITY OF price of the drawing was a guinea but I insisted on his taking the larger ENGLAND'S guinea only to an artist
them.
:

WHEREIN

ROMANCE THE

'

'

;

sum,

And LANDhe had clearly proved to me that I was no artist." " More overbearing meekness I never SCAPES, this description is delicious met with in any one man." He was the perpetrator of the message AND
as
:

" In future we shall feel obliged if you will send To Blake's admiring us the milk and the water in separate cans." exclamation on seeing a sketch in one of Constable's note-books "Why, this is not drawing, but inspiration!" Constable replies " I
to the

milkman

:

PAINTS
HIS IM-

:

PRESSIONS

:

OF THE

meant

it

for

drawing."

HOMELAND
BONINGTON
1801

-

1S28

Dead

at

twenty-seven, the genius of

Richard Parkes Bonington
life.

His romantic figuresubjects seem commonplace enough to-day, and were in fact largely imitative of Delacroix, to whom he brought, with Constable, the new revelation in landscape. Born at Arnold near Nottingham on October 25, 1801, to an artist who moved to Calais when Bonington was young, the lad worked awhile under Francia (i 772-1 839) who was settled there, and had sat at the feet of Girtin. At fifteen Bonington went with his father to Paris, where he met another Water-colour was so little known in France student, Delacroix. Then the lad copied at the that Bonington became quite a vogue. the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, and became pupil to Louvre, entered Baron Gros. But he took the far finer lessons of English landscape with him. His landscape and buildings were painted with such power of brushing and colour, that he became one of the chief Going to Italy in inspirers of the Romantic movement in France. 1822 he worked awhile in Venice, and thereby became known in England, where he died of consumption on the 23rd of September 1828 in Tottenham Street, London. The Wallace Collection is rich Bonington 's breadth of handling, his subtle tones, his in him. on brilliant colour, create a remarkable, personal, and masterly art his first appearance at the Salon in the famous display of 1824 he In 1825 Delacroix came with Bonington came to high honour.
achieved remarkable power in so short a
;

VOL. VIII

49

PAINTING
THE
to

England

;

and

on

their

return

to

Paris
at

they took

a

studio

DAWN

OF

together.

MODERN
PAINTING

James Baker Pyne
for art,

(i

800-1 870), born
at

Bristol, left the

law

and painted landscapes

home and

abroad,

MULLER
1812-1845

William James Muller was born
June 1812 to
a Prussian

at

Bristol on the 28th

of

who was

Curator of the

Museum

there.

Showing early gifts in art, he became pupil to the landscape-painter Pyne of Bristol. Developing with astonishing rapidity, he J. B. Mijller found a handsome patron in Mr. Acraman of his town. went straight to Nature and was soon one of the most remarkable of In 1833 he went abroad, the landscape-painters of his great period. In 1839 he settled in London. In and in 1838 was in Egypt. He was early 1843 he went with Sir Charles Fellows to Lycia. showing at the Academy. But his finest landscapes were of his own
;

land

and such masterpieces as Eel-pots at Goring and the Dredging The nation is fortunately rich on the Medivay attest his high gifts. He died at Bristol on the 8th of September 1845, at in his works.
;

thirty-three.

ton

Augustus Wall Callcott (1779-1844), born at Kensingand brother of the famous composer, sang as chorister in Pupil to Hoppner, he made a mark in 1799 Westminster Abbey. He became A.R.A in 1806, with a portrait of Mrs. Roberts. R.A. in 1 8 ID, and was knighted at the coronation of Queen His fame rests upon his inhabited landscapes. Victoria. Of the mid-century was a painter of landscape closely akin to Born at this pure English movement, Vicat Cole (i 833-1 893). Portsmouth to an artist father, Vicat Cole showed his first landscape Made A.R.A. in 1870, he became R.A. in 1880. at sixteen.
Sir

50

CHAPTER

IV

WHEREIN WE WATCH THE SPLENDOUR OF THE DAWN SET AGLOW THE ANCIENT CITY OF NORWICH

THE NORWICH SCHOOL OF PAINTING
That
in
a fortunate day for landscape-painting in England when, mid-seventeen-hundreds, a son was born to old John Crome, landlord of the " King and Miller " tavern in Norwich a more fortunate day when the ignorant and uncouth but genial lad, grown to be errand-boy to a doctor, was dismissed his job for the awkward frolic of changing the labels on the medicine bottles, and so came, with the kindly doctor's help, to apprentice himself to the

was

WHEREIN

the

WE WATCH
THE
SPLEN-

;

DOUR OF THE

DAWN

SET

was still more fortunate that just when the AGLOW youth had been thoroughly grounded in making colours and varnishes THE to resist wind and rain, the vogue for swinging signs passed away, ANCIENT driving him back for means of livelihood to landscape, though his CITY OF poverty was so hard that he had to use his mother's castaway dish- NORWICH
sign-painter Whisler
;

it

clouts for canvases, and

brushes.

Indeed,

it

the hairs out of the cat's tail for paintwas probably the very aloofness of Norwich

from London and the old Italian masters that sent the Norwich men straight to Nature as they saw and felt it. We see a group of men, now making a mark, now despondent with debt and difficulty and neglect. Nature their studio the
ale-house their club
day's

— we —

;

see

work

is

done, the genial
shilling

them Crome, fond of
and

sitting in the tavern after their

his

glass,

flinging

down his last Ladbrooke is

the thrifty content to drink his copper's worth of excitement. see the kindly old man, well liked by the King Edward the Sixth School lads teaching the gentle art of Norvicensians
jest

with

free hand, whilst

We

staining paper in

the old painting-room of the school to Rajah Brooke of Sarawak and to " Lavengro " Borrow, and to botanist Lindley and stout, dogged General Eyre that is to be, finishing the

drawings for them, in over-eagerness to have the thing well done, with the aphorism that his rambling brain repeated on his deathbed " If your subject is only a pig-sty dignify it."

SI

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

COTMAN
1782-1842

John Sell Cotman, one of the greatest glories of British painting, was to know a harsh wayfaring. To a well-to-do silk-mercer of Cockey Lane, Norwich the streets of Norwich hold quaint names was born his eldest son, John Sell Cotman, on the i6th of May 1782. Educated at the famous Grammar School, he would go into the country sketching. There is a wash drawing of Old Houses by the lad, made when he was twelve (1794), in which his breadth of handling is already promised. Irked by his father's business to which he went on leaving school, the advice of Opie was asked, who gave the well-

known
to

bitter reply, "

Let

him

profession of artist."

But

artist

rather black boots than follow the the young fellow would be and
;

London he went about 1797, but found the print-sellers inclined to sneer at his drawings. Dr. Monro, however, early recognised the young fellow's genius. At Monro's house at Adelphi Terrace Cotman came under the glamour of Girtin's broadly washed landscapes.

He

joined Girtin's sketching club

;

and

of the group,

Underwood, Samuel, Worthington, Denham, Callcott, and Murray, Cotman was youngest. By 1800 he had sketched in Wales and Surrey, since in that year he showed at the
Girtin, Francia, Porter,

paintings of places near Dorking, Guildford, and heatherand one of Harlech Castle. In 1801 and 1802 he was again in Wales. He also ran down to Norwich and gave lessons from Nature. The monochrome Centaur is of about 1803. He was now roaming Wales, Shropshire, Somersetshire, Lincolnshire, and spending much time in Yorkshire, where Mr. Francis Cholmeley of Brandsby became his close friend, whose children he taught. The handsome charming fellow was welcome everywhere. Dawson Turner also
head,

Academy

became

his

warm

friend.

he suddenly decided to go back to Norwich and settle there, and he now began to work in oils. He opened a school of drawing, and his Durham Cathedral and Croylafid Abbey, so often painted by him, show the rubbing and handling due to being used for copying by pupils. The famous Greta Bridge shows him a great master. In the fine Duncombe Park we have the purity of his direct unteased colour, the translucency of
in Lincolnshire in 1806,

Whilst

portraiture.

In his portrait of Crotne we find him interested also in In 1808 he showed sixty-seven works, of which were the blithe, breezy, sunlit Twickenham, Mid-day.
his paint.

52

VII

COTMAN
1782-1842

'GRETA BRIDGE, YORKSHIRE'
(Water Colour at British Museum)
By kind permission
ot

Tke

Stmfio

OF PAINTING
WHEREIN In 1809 he married Ann Mills, a farmer's daughter. Cotman, forming a lending collection of sketches, was giving WE WATCH He was also THE the numbers on his water-colours show this. lessons In painting he begins to use the warm yellows that he SPLENetching. grew to love. The famous Trenthatn Church Interior^ the stately DOUR OF THE Draining-Mill, Lincolnshire, and the Mousehold Heath are of 18 10. His superb drawings of Breaking the Clod and the Mare and Foal DAWN SET
;

are of

1

8 16.

The
Cader

lovely

tishing, the
Idris,

monochromes, the Dewy Eve, with the two boys Shadowed Stream, and the Postwick Grove, with the rich
followed.
to

AGLOW THE
ANCIENT CITY OF

Cotman,
Waterfall in

be near

Dawson Turner, went

to live at

Yarmouth,

NORWICH

and thereafter spent his time between the
oils is

two towns.

The famous

boats off Yarmouth.

of this time, as also is the fine seascape of FishingThe sea entered henceforth into his art, and he

mastered shipping with rare genius. In 1 8 17 Cotman went with the Dawson Turners to Normandy ; He made a hundred again in 1818 and by himself in 1820. But Normandy had a rather hard etchings of the buildings. His colour faculty showed enormous profound effect on his art. Henceforth he painted in a high key. increase. In 1824, with a family of six children, he made again for Norwich, and settled in St. Martin's Palace Plain. He had sent to the Norwich Society, the year before, several Normandy subjects, including the Entrance to Falaise, daring and powerful in colour. He was now using the reed pen for outlines in his water-colours. Of this time are the superb so-called Chateau in Normandy, the Dieppe, the Blue Afternoon. Of 1824 were the oil-landscapes View And he was at Yarmouth Bridge, the Old House at St. Albans. from work on hh Liber Studiorum etchings, his finest work in this medium. In 1825 Cotman joined the Old Water Colour Society, and showed regularly in London. He also made a number of waterBut colours, from sketches by Harriott, of places he had never seen. his means his work was selling badly ; he had to rely on teaching were scant ; his house was large ; and he fell into gloom. It was on June 26, 1829, that he wrote of his "eldest son, who is following the same miserable profession with myself." One of his children, looking up, said pathetically, "Why, Papa smiled!" Of 1832 is his rich golden Gate of the Abbey Aumale, and of about this time the rich autumnal Landscape Composition in the Reeves Collection. In the January of 1834, to his great joy, Cotman, thanks to Lady Palgrave and to the great painter, J. M. W. Turner, was appointed
; ;

S3

;

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

Professor of Drawing at King's College. Both men, from their Indeed, youth at Dr. Monro's, had hotly admired each other. of one of his own water-colours for the Turner bought a copy In Rivers of France by Cotman, and gave it away as the original order to move to London Cotman had to sell his beloved belongings His own drawings and water-colours he at his Norwich home. kept for teaching ; but his oils he sold, his fine Mishap going for
!

the National Gallery Wherries on the highest price of five guineas afterwards sold as a Crome. The Breydon for eighteen shillings oils after the Normandy visit were painted on a yellow ground, and
! !

are richer in colour, such

as

The Mishap (1828) and The Baggage

Waggon (1828), which

fetched five

pounds

!

King's College was to come as Professor of Italian one Rossetti, whose son, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, was Cotman's pupil there. For a while Cotman was happy he had many artists for The friends. But with painting he could not earn his bread. Liber Studiorum, soft-ground etchings most of them, was published His duties sadly cut in 1838 as the fifth part to his etchings. down his creative work. Each year he spent his holidays in his beloved Norwich, and Norfolk fired him to utterance of his great genius. Of the autumn of 1841 were his Below Hardley Cross, and Below Langley, or The Wold Afioat. He sketched his father's house at Thorpe, which he laid in with black and white on a yellow But the July of 1842 found Cotman broken by ground to paint. care he was worn out. He died of weariness one of the supreme painters in water-colour that the world has known, unable to earn
; ;

To

bread by his supreme

art.

in them he wrought masterhim. In 1836 his great Greta pieces at least that was granted to Ruskin Bridge water-colour sold at Christie's for eight shillings scarce mentioned him. Had it not been for Mr. Reeve of Norwich, a large part of Cotman's achievement had been wholly lost

Cotman knew moments of joy, and

!

fortunately the nation
collection.
all

now
first

possesses the larger part of his great

From
in

the

we

see

Cotman

selecting and reducing
skill,

objects to decorative

Backwater

flats with astounding a Park, painted at sixteen.

as

witness his

The
ing.

history of Ladbrooke and of Crome's sons is less interestLadbrooke, the companion of Crome's youth, shared his

garret-studio, and together with

spent his evenings after the Ladday's work was done in hard training to become an artist. brooke's brilliant son, J. E. Ladbrooke, has not yet come into his

him

54

OF PAINTING
kingdom. James Stark (1794-1859), the brilliant pupil of Crome, WHEREIN and Thirtle (1777-1839), were members of this group. The poor, "WATCH suddenly and strangely THE drunken, debt-pursued Vincent (1796-183 i But there are three SPLENvanished, no one knows how or where.

WE

.?)

Norwich School who deserve to be widely known remarkable amateurs, Daniell (i 804-1 842) and Lound (1803two the brilliant genius, Bright, to say nothing of the poor I 861), and doomed etcher, Priest (18 10-1850).
painters of the

DOUR OF THE

DAWN
AGLOW THE

SET

HENRY BRIGHT
1810

-

1873

'^
.
.

ANCIENT CITY OF

Born

at

Saxmundham
artistic

as a child to a chemist,

could take up the
in all his spare

Henry Bright was apprenticed and it was only in early manhood that he career for which he pined, and for which,
in 18 10,

NORWICH

direct

moments, he had been preparing himself by painting from Nature. He early came to the front, both in wateroils

colours and
lighting.

modern, especially

He

indeed his handling of both is extraordinarily his grip of fugitive atmospheric effects and died at Ipswich in 1873. His superb Shrimper is his
;

in

masterpiece.
Daniell's Ruined Aqueduct forestalls
pressionistic interest in light

much

of the modern im-

and mass and colour.

SS

;

CHAPTER
WHEREIN WE
SEE

V

THE DRAWING-MASTERS SET UP SCHOOL TO TEACH ART IN SO MANY LESSONS

THE DRAWING-MASTERS
VA RLEY
1778

- 1842

THE

Now
OF

there had been born a couple of years after Constable one

DAWN

MODERN
PAINTING

John Varley, who was to begin in England the systematising of the methods of English water-colour painters, and so establishing a sort of "way to do the trick." Born at Hackney on 17th of August 1778, to a Lincolnshire man, he was through his mother a
descendant of Cromwell's son-in-law. General Fleetwood. 'Prenticed to a silversmith, he in 1791 was allowed to follow the calling of artist. He became one of the group at Dr. Monro's in the Adelphi and thereafter a teacher, and was soon making tours in Wales, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Devonshire, and elsewhere. He became the principal teacher of his day, made a large income which his careless, generous ways easily squandered and his mania for the language of the stars, and his prodigious strength, seem to have taken up as much of his attention as his art. Twice married, he had two sons who followed in his career. He died in London on 17th November 1842. of
;

P R O
1783

U T
1852
as

Samuel Prout, vaunted by Ruskin

the greatest painter of

Born at Plymouth on the 17th of September 1783, brought up at the Grammar School, he suffered sunstroke in childhood, and was an ailing man by consequence. Learning drawing in his town, he was employed by Britton in Cornwall for material for his Beauties of 'England and Wales in 1 80 1 in 1802 he came to Clerkenwell for two years to live with Britton, showing at the Academy of 1804. But ill-health drove him back to Cornwall. In 1 8 1 1 he again made for London became
architecture, was of a truth a mediocre fellow.
;

;

56

H

PAINTING
a

crossed to the of the Old Water-Colour Society in 1819 in 18 19, beginning his well-known paintings of Norman cathedrals, churches, town-halls, market-places, and street-scenes. Painter in By 1824 he was in Venice, Italy, and Germany. water-colours to George iv and Queen Victoria, he died at Denmark Hill in the February of 1852. " Bits for Beginners " readily expresses his superficial survey of the significance of art.
;

member

WHEREIN

Continent

WE
THE

SEE

DRAWINGMASTERS SET UP
SCHOOL,
so

1783

-

1859
;

MANY

Like Cotman, Cox went direct to Nature and to him Nature LESSONS by consequence yielded exquisite tender lyrical notes. He was a pure impressionist. Of humble stock, David Cox was born on the 29th of April 1783 to a blacksmith of Heath Lane, Deritend, Birmingham; and the child was early at work in the father's forge. The work was too Having broken his leg, he was given a paint-box hard for the boy. Sent to learn it made him a painter. to amuse his convalescence sixteen he was 'prenticed drawing at a school hard by, by fifteen or to a manufacturer of fancy goods, one of the " toy trades," in which his master, Fielder, soon found the lad useful for the miniatureBut the suicide of his master threw painting on the knick-knacks. the lad out of his apprenticeship after eighteen months, and he determined to be an artist. He went as scene-painter's labourer to the Special scenery was elder Macready at the Birmingham theatre. required De Maria, the scene-painter at the Italian Opera House in London, was called to Birmingham, and, struck by young Cox's inCox was soon promoted telligence, let him do the work with him. scene-painter to the theatre. This four years' engagement done, he went in 1804 at twenty-one to London to the theatres there. Here he became interested in water-colours was introduced to Varley and met other artists and in 1805 he was painting landscape in North Wales. A display of his work at Palser's, the picture-dealer, brought him a patron. Colonel Windsor, afterwards Earl of Plymouth and he was soon being employed as teacher, so that he left scene-painting behind him. In 1808 he married his landlady's daughter, Mary Ragg, took a cottage at Dulwich, and at twenty-six was a father. He had now to produce a vast number of drawings to be sold in batches of a dozen for use by teachers. However, by tramping it from pupil to pupil, and by hard work. Cox made bread. From the first Cox was an artist. Mere topographical drawings were no concern of his. He was concerned with atmosphere, and
;
;
;

;

;

VOL. VIII

57

A HISTORY
THE
the

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

times of the day and of the year. He was deeply interested in Velazquez, Ruisdael, Poussin, and other masters but he saw Nature with his own eyes, if at first with some-

moods of Nature
;

at different

what slovenly

eyes.

A In 1813 he was elected to the Old Water-Colour Society. vacancy occurring, he applied for and was made drawing-master but he only kept it for a year at the Military College at Farnham live in the College and be separated from as he was compelled to He returned to find his his family, whilst the work irked him. pupils flown but seeing an advertisement for a drawing-master at ^100 a year, with right to pupils outside his school hours, at a girls' school at Hereford, he applied for and secured the office. So at the end of 1 8 14, borrowing ^40, miserably poor, he settled in a little cottage at Hereford, to his great glee and at Hereford he worked He for thirteen years, soon getting other schools and many pupils. wisely never lost touch with London. In 1826 he went abroad to Holland and Belgium for a holiday. But his Hereford holidays were mostly spent on the Wye or in Wales. An ardent Liberal in politics. Cox was greatly interested in public affairs. He had written a book on painting in 1814; he wrote another in 1825. Living simply and keeping his name before the public, he slowly gathered a little money together even bought a piece of land and built a cottage thereon, which he sold a couple of years afterwards for a thousand pounds. Going back to London, he settled at Foxley Road, Kennington, and not only got many pupils, but found his work freely bought; and he could now put by money. So in London he worked hard until 1841, doing his share of the illustrations for the book Wanderings in North and South Wales in 1852, and taking a trip to France, but chiefly spending his holidays in England and Wales, in Yorkshire, Derbyshire, Hastings, Lancaster. He besides became interested in oils, going as pupil to the gifted young Miiller who was then exciting the town. He was now on the edge of sixty he determined to risk the desire of his heart; he left London in 1841, made for the neighbourhood of Birmingham, and gave himself wholly to painting, settling at Harborne, whilst his son took over his London pupils. Here he knew the happiest years of his life, painting the landscapes that were his delight, and selling them freely. So he poured forth his famous aerial masterpieces so personal and blithe and colourful. From Harborne he could wander to the little Welsh village of Bettws-y-coed, that his art has immortalised in masterworks thither he went in 1844, and there he returned again
; ;
;

;

;

58

VIII

DAVID COX
1783
-

1859

"THE WOODCUTTER"
By kind permission of James Orrock,
Esq., R.I., and

The

Studio

i

OF PAINTING
summer. During the winter of 1845 he WHEREIN blow of his career his wife died at seventySEE But he was soon again pouring THE four, and Cox knew terrible grief. He was acknowledged master DRAWINGforth work in oils and water-colours. the great of his land, when, in the June of 1853, he was MASTERS amongst stricken with apoplexy, which left his sight and memory enfeebled, SET UP In the June of 1859 he said SCHOOL and broke his vigour and energy. " Good-bye, pictures " and took to his bed, sleeping peacefully away TO TEACH on the seventh of the month. ART IN
after

and again, summer
suffered the
first

bitter

;

WE

!

DE
1784

W
-

I

NT
1849

SO MANY LESSONS

Peter De Wint, or De Windt, came of Dutch merchant stock, some of whom had gone to the American Colonies. One Henry De Wint as a young fellow recrossed the Atlantic, making for Leyden,
where he graduated in medicine, thence to St. Thomas's Hospital in London. In 1773, at London, he married a Scottish girl, a Miss Watson, whose family had become impoverished through loyalty to the Stuart. On its becoming known, the poor fellow was disowned
and disinherited. He settled in 1781 at Stone in Staffordshire in a modest practice. Of his children, the fourth was born on January 21, destined to make the name famous. 1784, and called Peter Peter De Wint was a dreamy boy, who wandered alone about the country-side and at school was for ever drawing. He patiently suffered his father to start him on a medical career, biding

;

his

time.
;

He

tactfully

won

his father

to interest in his artistic

bent took lessons in drawing from Mr. Rogers at Stafford, and, on the I St of April 1802, set out to seek his fortune in London to become apprentice to the rollicking mezzotint-engraver John Raphael Smith, who, though a dissipated dog, was a kind and generous master, and De Wint's strong character stood small risks from contact with the less reputable side of the man. De Wint went to live with the family in King Street, Covent Garden, and here for four years he was busy upon pastel heads and engraving, thoroughly happy, as he had for friend a fellow 'prentice, William Hilton, afterwards an Academician, then a shy sensitive lad of sixIt was owing to and lifelong friends. away and breaking apprenticeship that Smith, on De Wint's refusal to tell him where Hilton had gone, sent the dogged honourable young fellow to prison until Hilton, hearing of it, surrendered. The two young fellows joined the volunteers during the Napoleon Invasion panic.

teen.

The men were

close

the wilful Hilton running

59

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

In 1806 De Wint cancelled his apprenticeship with John R. Smith, on condition of painting him eighteen landscapes in oil, nine De Wint solemnly kept his pledge. Thus De Wint began a year. But he soon found water-colours sold his career as a painter in oils. in the May of 1806, the two young fellows more easily. However, De Wint going to Lincoln on a visit with Hilton, fell left Smith. Thence De Wint in love with Hilton's sister Harriet, then fifteen. Stone, sketching on the way. Hilton joined him at tramped it to Stone,where both secured several portraits to paint. Settling in London in Broad Street, Golden Square, near Varley, who gave De Wint lessons in water-colour, the young fellow was soon at Dr. Monro's, Here it was that De the friend of Turner and Girtin and Cox. Wint came under the glamour of Girtin's art, which held him his His fellow-lodger Hilton, meanwhile, was getting work life long. due to the friendly J. Raphael Smith, at the same time entering the

Academy schools, which De Wint also joined later, in the March of Meantime De Wint's father had died in the May of 1807, 1809. and De Wint took on himself the burden of the family that his elder brother shamefully repudiated. In this year De Wint showed his
first

picture at the Academy. His mother came to live with him

until

De

Wint's younger

brother,

the medical schools, got a practice at Ancaster. However, with hard work, De Wint's water-colours were selling so that he risked marriage with Harriet Hilton if at small prices

then

at

on June

16, 18 10,

and thereby

won

a

happy comradeship.

After

an autumn in Yorkshire, the De Wints and Hilton settled in Percy Street, where a daughter was born to the De Wints, and where they lived happily for seventeen years in 1827, Hilton being made Keeper of the Royal Academy, the De Wints went to 40 (now 1 1 3) Upper Gower Street, their home for the rest of their lives. In the year of his marriage he was elected to the Old Water-Colour Society. His Cricketers at South Kensington was found, long years afterwards, under another water-colour, which he had stretched over it to save All his subjects are British except those made in a new stretcher. Normandy, whither he went with his wife in 1825. He soon had powerful friends and patrons, at whose houses in the country he went and painted in the summer Lord Lonsdale, Lord Powis, Lord Ailesbury, the Clives of Oakley Park, the Heathcotes of Connington Castle, Mr. Fawkes of Farneley, Mr. Cheney of Badger, and Mr. Ellison of Sudbrooke Holme. He made six illustrations for Cooke's Southern Coast of England, and a dozen for The Thames. Doggedly working to secure independence, he wrought at his
;

60

IX

DE WINT
1784- T849

"HARVEST SCENE"
B\-

kind permission of

).

L. Rogkt, Esq., and The Studio

OF PAINTING
art

without ceasing.

Hilton's death in the

a cruel loss to

De Wint.

drawing-room. This money- DRAWINGwith a dour religious sense that approached mania. The MASTERS lust went story is told of a rich man who came to his private views, and SET UP always swore that the sold pictures were the ones he had wished. SCHOOL, At the next display TO TEACH But De Wint got his money out of him. " patron " rushed to them, ART IN he labelled two pictures as sold the rich swore he would have bought them, " what a pity 'twas that they SO MANY were sold " De Wint slapping him on the shoulder, told him he LESSONS had reserved them for him.
in his
;
!

money increased. He own works, which he showed

December of 1839 was morose, and his greed of was a pressing salesman at all times of his

WHEREIN

He became

WE
THE

SEE

In 1843, whilst at work, in the New Forest, De Wint nearly died of bronchitis, being brought home to London with difficulty the disease recurred again and again, until it killed him on the 30th
;

of June 1849.

His widow kept most of his best works, and left them to her daughter, Mrs. Tatlock, who offered The Cornfield and the Woody
Landscape to the National Gallery, only to have them spurned Fortunately, South Kensington now has them. As De Wint rarely signed or dated his works, their order is
!

but his earlier work is markedly affected by Girtin. He rapidly evolved a style of his own. His employment of He was not flat washes gives fine luminous colour to his design. it is with the earth that he is cona great master of the heavens His vision was not various, cerned and its fruitfulness and richness.
difficult

to follow

;

;

but stately and serene withal.

William Hilton, R.A. (1786-1839), became Keeper at Royal Academy, a gentle and amiable personality, much loved by
students.

the
the

His
best

portrait of his brother-in-law

Child

is

known

of his works.

De Wint's Wife and He married De Wint's sister in

1828.

COPLEY FIELDING
1787

-

1855

the creators of the drawing " tips " and " dodges," the invention of the quick short-cut to drawing and painting innate in the schoolmaster, Anthony Vandyke Copley Fielding is the type. Copley Fielding, hke Linnell, Samuel Palmer (i 805-1 881), W. H. Hunt (" Bird's-Nest Hunt"), and Mulready, had been pupil to old John Varley (1779-1842), the kindly, generous, Copley Fielding just caught those careless old drawing-master.

Of

61

!

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

wide popularity; and being a man who cultivated manners, he was soon the most fashionable drawingmaster of his age. He became President of the Old Water-Colour Society. Son to a portrait-painter from near Halifax in Yorkshire, he was one of the young group who went to Dr. Monro's at the Adelphi. He shared with Constable and Bonington the chief honours of the famous Paris Salon of 1824. He married old John Varley's sister-in-law, Miss Gisborne,and came to considerablefortune. Retiring to Brighton, he died at Worthing on March 3, 1855.
pretty habits that

won him

to a

W. H.
1790

HUNT
1864

William Henrv Hunt,
a tinplate-worker at
;

or " Bird's-Nest
Street,

Hunt," was born

to

8

Old Belton

Long Acre, now

called

'

Endell Street a sickly child, he early took to drawing, and being apprenticed to John Varley became one of Dr. Monro's set at the Adelphi. In 1807, the year he first showed a painting at the Academy, he entered the Academy schools. Elected to the Old Water-Colour Society in 1824, he sent regularly about thirty works a year to the displays. The deformed and sickly child grew up into an uncultured youth, his ill-health shutting Nature largely out of his life except so far as Nature could be torn out by the roots and dragged into his painting-room, such as a nest with eggs, and primroses and grass, fruit, plums and the like ; and he painted them with rare truth of detail, and prodigious stipple. And he sold freely, especially as he painted humorous or sentimental figuresubjects, such as the famous pair of the boy with the large pie, the Attack and Defeat^ and the negro boy in Brown Study. His SelfPortrait and the Boy with the Puppy are amongst his finest works. Bird's-Nest Hunt was fortunate in his time in the powerful approval of Ruskin. Students were advised to " take William Hunt for their only master," as Hunt's painting shows " what real painting is,

A

as

such"

LINNELL
1792-1882
and woodcarver joined the Academy schools in 1805; studied under John Varley and in 1807 showed two landscapes at the Royal Academy. He and Mulready became close friends, and lived

John Linnell was born
; ;

in

Bloomsbury

to a picture-dealer

together.

but

it

was 62

Linnell, besides giving drawing-lessons, painted miniatures, In 18 18 in landscape that he made his chief successes.

OF PAINTING
he came
to

know

Blake, a year after his

He lived at Hampstead and London for Redhill, where he
died on January 20, 1882.

marriage in 1817. at Bayswater, but in 1852 he left built himself the house in which he

own

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

HARDING
1797- 1863
son of a drawing-master, James Duffield Harding was one of the best of the typical drawing-masters in art who evolved a system of drawing Nature founded on Turner and the other masters and managed it in a series of lithographs that became important drawing-copybooks in the years after. Trained by Prout, after his
;

DRAWINGMASTERS SET UP
SCHOOL,

The

TO TEACH ART IN
^O MANY LESSONS

had done with him, Harding was so slow that he was sent awhile to an engraver but came back to drawing, and deliberately developed for himself a convention with the pencil which was to make him one of the most fashionable teachers of his age. Lithography, newly discovered, came to his service and he employed the " lithotint " whereby a drawing was made to lie on wash which shows touches of white for the high lights.
father
; ;

HOLLAND
1800 - 1870

family

James Holland was born at Burslem in Staffordshire to the who made black pottery so much beloved by the American

Holland began by painting flowers on pottery at the works of James Davenport. In 18 19 he was in London teaching, and painting flowers. In 1831 he went to Paris, and blossomed into a painter of street-views he was in Venice, Milan, Geneva and Paris in 1835; ^" Portugal in 1837; in Paris in 1841 in Rotterdam in 1845; ^" Normandy and North Wales in 1850; in Geneva in 1851; in Venice and the Tyrol in 1857. And he poured forth the results of his visits in fine water-colours. In both oils and water-colours he shows brilliant powers.
colonies.

;

CALLOW
1

812-1908

William Callow, born at Greenwich on the 28th of July 1812, was apprenticed at eleven to the brothers of Copley Fielding for six years thence went to Newton Fielding in Paris for a year, returned to England on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1830, went back to Paris, made a hit at the Salon with his Richmond^ became drawing;

63

PAINTING
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

He was elected to the Old master to the family of Louis-Philippe. Water-Colour Society in 1838. In 1841 he returned to England. Travelling much in France, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, he painted fine street-scenes. George Fennel Robson (i 790-1 833) was a Durham man fond Francis Oliver Finch (1802-1862) became of mountain scenery. pupil to Varley in 18 14, and ran rather to classical ideas in landscape Charles Bentlev (i 805-1 854) was fond of coast-scenes John Murray Inge (1806-1859) was pupil to Cox, as was George Price BoYCE (1826-1896). Thomas Creswick, R.A. (1811-1869), born at Sheffield on the 5th February 181 1, studied under John Vincent Barker; came to London in 1828, and showed two landscapes of Wales at the Royal
; ;

Becoming A. R.A. in 1842, full R.A. in 1851, he died at Bayswater on the 28th December 1869. Samuel Bough (i 822-1 878), born at Carlisle, taught himself
Academy.
painting, lived with the gypsies, painted scenery,
in 1855,

went

to

Edinburgh

and became A.R.S.A. in 1856. Alfred Willi-am Hunt, "Landscape Hunt" (1830-1896), though by date of a somewhat later generation, belongs by vision to the landscape school of Turner. Born at Liverpool in 1830, and discouraged from an art career by his artist father, Andrew Hunt, the young Hunt went to Corpus Christi, Oxford, distinguished himself in letters,

won

a fellowship in 1858, but

was meanwhile paintin 1854.
later

ing,

showing

his first landscape at the
(i

Academy

Thomas Collier
wrought

840-1 891), of an

even

generation,

in the vision of this earlier age.^

64

I

CHAPTER

VI

OF THE EARLY SEA-PAINTERS AND ANIMALPAINTERS OF ENGLAND

THE SEA-PAINTERS
CLARKSON STANFIELD
1793

-

1867

Clarkson Stanfield, born at Sunderland, was apprenticed to an heraldic painter at Edinburgh, but went to sea in i8o8. Being pressed into the Navy in 181 2, he passed into the East India service, retiring in 18 18, at twenty-five, to become scene-painter to the sailors' theatre in the East End of London the Royalty in Wellclose Square; whence he went in 1821 to Edinburgh, whereat he met David Roberts (1796-1864) then working at In 1822 he came to the Theatre Royal, and Alexander Nasmyth.

William

OF THE

EARLY SEAPAINTERS

AND
ANIMALPAINTERS OF

ENGLAND

Drury Lane, having exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1820 and 1821 ; rapidly came to a vogue for sea-pieces and views of Venice ; was made A.R.A. in 1832, and R.A. in 1835, having painted ten Venetian views for the banqueting-room at Bowood in 1830, and ten for Trentham Hall in 1834. He had given up scene-painting in 1834. Of 1836 was his Battle of Trafalgar for the Senior United Service Club. Twice married, of his nine sons and three daughters his son George Clarkson Stanfield followed in his father's footsteps. Clarkson Stanfield died at Hampstead on the i8th of March His finest works are his seascapes, of which one of the 1867. masterpieces is the famous The Provision Boat. Few men caught better the action of the waters and the whip of the gale. He could
set

the breezes on his canvas,

COOKE
1811-1880
R.A., was born at Pentonville on 181 1, to George Cooke, the engraver employed by Turner, being of Dutch descent. Taught by his father, Cooke began on dry-as-dust scientific works ; then studying architecture under Pugin, Cooke made twelve large engravings of Old and New London

Edward William Cooke,
28,

March

Bridge, then a series of Shipping

voL. VIII

and

Craft.

In 1835 he sent paint-

65

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

ings of shipping to the Royal Academy. His first visit to Holland in 1838 produced a host of pictures which became typical of his art. lie

From 1845 ^° 1854 he was paintto Holland sixteen times. ing along the shores of the Mediterranean, also views of Florence and Rome. He became A.R.A. in 1851. Then he went to By 1861 he Scandinavia, then to Venice, where he painted much. was in Spain ; then he appears in Egypt. He was made R.A. in Cooke died at his home near Groombridge on the 4th of 1864. January 1880. George Chambers (i 803-1 840) began life as a sailor, being He early showed artistic bent, born at Whitby to a seaman. After becoming a house-painter he sketching sea and shipping. came to London as scene-painter, and was soon making a mark with pictures, becoming a member of the Old Water-Colour Society
went
in 1834,

dying

six years later.

The
painters.

sea later called

vision belong to the

(18 19-1907), and other artists who by earlier group of landscape-painters and sea-

Hook

THE EARLY ANIMAL-PAINTERS
LANDSEER
1802 - 1873

There was born to an engraver at 83 Queen Anne Street East in London (now called Foley Street), on March 7, 1802, his third son, who was to become world-famous as Sir Edwin Landseer. Edwin Henry Landseer, trained by his father, became a student at the Academy, and won a prize for the drawing of a mastiff at thirteen.
It was in 1820 that he sounded the first anecdotal note with his and following it Alpine Mastiffs succouring a Distressed Traveller the Larder Invaded, he caught the favour of a wide public, who with eagerly bought the engravings from his works made by his brother Thomas Landseer, by S. Cousins and others, during his long career. In 1824 he went to Scotland with Leslie, stayed with Sir Walter Scott, and was busy with portraits and animals. In 1826 he became A. R. A., and in 1831 full R.A. His visit to Belgium in 1849 for his Dialogue at Waterloo of 1850, was followed by knighthood in 1850. He refused the Presidency of the Academy on the death of Eastlake in 1865. His five lions in Trafalgar Square were unveiled in 1869. Landseer painted for homely people, bringing on to the canvas the four-footed friends of man in their relation to man. That he ran to mawkishness of sentimentality in the doing only too often
;

66

OF PAINTING
is

not to be denied.
1873,

He
was

October
Cathedral.

and

died at St. John's Wood on the given a public funeral at St.

ist

of

Paul's

OF THE EARLY SEAPAINTERS

SIDNEY COOPER
1803

^^D
, .

-

1902

Canterbury, Thomas Sidney was sketching at an early age was apprenticed to a coach-painter came to London in at twelve at seventeen was scene-painting and was soon painting 1823 to enter the Academy schools; In 1827 he went portraits at Canterbury and teaching drawing. with Burgess to Brussels, where the two young fellows settled, painting signboards for shops and taverns, and blossoming thereafter into portraiture. At Brussels Cooper married Charlotte Pearson ; became a drawing-master and coming under the glamour of VerThe boeckhoven, entered upon his career of pastoral painting. In Belgian Revolution of 1830 sent him packing to London. ^^ became A.R.A., and R.A. in 1867. In 1863 he married 1845 a second time ; in 1901 he was made C.V.O.

Born of humble stock
;

at

ANIMALPAINTERS Cooper Qp

;

ENGLAND

;

;

THE MINIATURE
nineteen-hundreds, the art of the miniature passed more into an art of the small portrait, as practised with skill by Chalon (178 1-1860) and the group of men so much engraved in the Keepsakes of the day. Sir George Hayter, J. D. EngleHEART, Mrs. Mee (1770 ?-i85i), Newton (1785-1869), and Thorburn (18 18-1 885), all belong to a newer endeavour and age. Photography was to ruin the art.
the
early

With

Of the
still

fruit

and flower painters of

this

(1802-1864), the son of a cavalry officer. Poor essaying the grand manner, but was in sorry straits. Haydon (1786-1846), whose lofty ideas and vast ambition set him foul of the Academy, thought that the Westminster Competitions at last would give his ambition scope but his rejection overwhelmed him, and he put an end to his life.
;

time was George Lance The academic school was

67

CHAPTER

VII

WHEREIN, OUT OF THE SCOTTISH PAINTING OF THE HOME LIFE OF THE EARLY EIGHTEEN - HUNDREDS, EMERGES COLOUR REALISM

THE

The

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

year 1800 opened with bright promise for Scotland. Commerce was coming into the land. Shipping increased. When Watt retired from business in 1800 the steam-engine was being used everywhere; in 18 12 steam was applied to shipping. To the merchants as well as the upper class began to come a marked refinement. The year of 1832 was to see the rise of the Middle Class. Scott on the reactionary side brought Romance into the land. In portraiture, Raeburn was followed by George Watson (1767-1837), by Sir John Watson Gordon (1788-1864), by Geddes

(1783-1844), by Graham Gilbert (1794-1866), (1806-1882), all fine craftsmen.

and

Macnee
a

Of

the

portrait-painters
fine painter,

Sir
like

John Watson

Gordon was

Geddes, when at his best steps to his silvery key and vigorous style being a place beside Raeburn very powerful. Of lesser portrait-painters were Colvin Smith (1795-1875) ; Samuel Mackenzie (1785-1847) ; John Syme (17911861) ; William Nicholson (1784-1844); Tannock (i 784-1 863) ; W. Smellie Watson (1796-1874) Moir (1775 •''-1857) Crabb (1811-1856 ?), the strong painter of small portraits the miniaturists Andrew Robertson (1777 ?-i845) Sir William Charles Ross

remarkably

who,
;

;

;

;

;

Anthony Stewart (1773Sanders (1774- 1846) (1794- 1 860) Thorburn (1818-1885) W. J. Thomson (1771-1845) R. 1846) and the water-colour portraitists, Douglas (1780-1832), and M'Leay (i 802-1 878).
; ; ;
;

;

LANDSCAPE
NASMYTH
1787 - 1831

1787, was the son and pupil of Alexander Nasmyth (1758-1840), the landscapeAbout twenty he came painter, whose style he closely followed.
at

Patrick Nasmyth, born

Edinburgh

in

68

I

PAINTING
Injuring his right hand in south to London, where he settled. He died in South Lambeth on the painted with his left. youth, he 17th of August 183 I. Others trained by Alexander Nasmyth soon developed a romantic vision. Thomson of Duddingston (1778-1840), and more particularly Horatio M'Culloch (1805-1867), led the way in the utterance of the glamour of Scotland, whilst David Roberts,

WHEREIN, OUT OF

THE
SCOTTISH PAINTING OF THE

HOME
OF THE

Andrew
abroad.

Wilson (1780-1848), and Williams (1773-1829) ranged LIFF2

the son of a poor cobbler of Edinburgh, was apprenticed to a house-painter, but was early at work scene-painting in theatres, where he met Clarkson Stanfield (1793-1867), afterwards coming to wide fame as a painter of architectural scenes he first showed at the Academy in 1826 his Rouen Cathedral; in 1823 he went to Spain, the beginning of his many European journeys, thence to the East. Leitch (i 804-1 883) was a pupil of also began in the theatre. Orrock (1829) Leitch. William Simson (1800- 1847) was pupil to Wilson.

David Roberts, R.A. (1796- 1864),

EARLY
EIGHTEENHUNDREDS,

EMERGES COLOUR
REALISM

THE HOME LIFE W LKIE
1785 - 1841

Born in a manse at Cults, in Fifeshire, on i8th November 1785, the third son to a minister, David Wilkie, after passing through the Trustees' Academy in Edinburgh, came to London in 1805 to the Academy schools, and in 1806 created a sensation at the Royal Academy with his Village Politicians ; at once leaping into fame, which his Blind Fiddler, the Card Players, the famous Rent Day, the Jew^s Harp, the Cut Finger, the Village Festival, and the
like

four,

works every year increased. Made A. R.A. in 1809 at twentyhe became R.A. in 181 1, his Blind Mans Buff, the Letter of Introduction, the Duncan Gray, the famous Distraining for Rent, the popular Rabbit on the Wall, the Penny Wedding, the Whisky Still, and For the the Reading of the Will, still further increasing his repute. Duke of Wellington he painted the Chelsea Pensioners. In 1825 he suddenly went abroad for three years, coming back as an historical painter, founding a broader style on Correggio, Rembrandt, Murillo, and Velazquez, of which is his John Knox Preaching of 1832. On the death of Lawrence in 1830 Wilkie had become Painter in Ordinary to the King. He was knighted in In 1840 he went to Constantinople, thence to the Holy 1836. 69

A HISTORY
THE
Land and Egypt

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

but fell ill at Alexandria, and died on board the Or/tv//^/ off Gibraltar on June i, 1841, his body being committed to the deep, in that funeral immortalised by Turner. His study of Rembrandt and Ostade drew him to revive etching in England. Of Scottish painters influenced by Wilkie were Eraser (1786;

1865),
others.

Burnet (1784-1868), Carse and Kidd (1796-1863), amongst

William Mulready, R.A. (1786-1863), son to a leatherbreeches maker of Ennis, County Clare, Ireland, came to London in 1 800, entered the Academy schools in 1 803 he married the sister of Varley in 1804 showed landscapes at the Academy by 1809 John was painting Returning from the Alehouse^ and the like homely subjects. Made A. R.A. in 1815, he became R.A. in 18 16. His Idle Boys (18 1 5) and The Fight Interrupted (18 16) had won favour. Of a group of painters who were interested in the home life of the people was William Collins, R.A. (1788-1847), son of an Irish picture-dealer in London. Collins was a friend of Morland, whom he used to watch whilst painting. He painted several pictures of boy-life which had a wide vogue such as the Boys with a Bird's Nest. His Cromer Sands and Prawn Catchers belong to the nation. Thomas Webster, R.A. (i 800-1 886), born in Pimlico to a father then in the household of George iii, showed early gifts in music, joined the choir of the Chapel Royal, St. James's thereafter entered the Academy schools, was exhibiting in youth, and entered upon that portrayal of boyhood of which his Truant and Dame's School were popular examples.
; ;

;

;

HISTORICAL PAINTING
The historical painter Sir William surpassed by his pupils Robert Scott
George Harvey ( 1 806-1 876), Throughout all the intention was Realism, of All subject was illustration.

Allan (i 827-1 850), was Lauder (i 803-1 869), by and Thomas Duncan (1807-1845).
a theatrical

kind.

MACLISE
1806-1870

:•

.,.
'
'

A young Scotsman, born at Cork, the young Daniel Maclise 1828 became a student at the Royal Academy schools, won a gold medal for composition in 1831, having already shown a painting of Malvolio in 1829. He was an industrious painter of History and of Home Life. Made A. R.A. in 1835, and R.A. in 1848, his later
in

OF PAINTING
years

were largely spent on the two large decorations for the Houses of Parliament, the Wellington meeting Blucher and the Death of Nelson^ his masterpieces. His Charles Dickens in 1839 is at the National
Portrait Gallery.

WHEREIN, OUT OF

THE
SCOTTISH PAINTING

There
a

also arose

two

painters

who were

to initiate in the north

which was to forestall OF THE the Pre-Raphaelite School in England, David Scott (i 806-1 849) HOME and William Dyce (i 806-1 864). These men, in their very LIFE

movement of

detailed and jewel-like colour

the way to the brilliant colour-harmonies, the detail, and the realism of the English Pre-Raphaelites. Lack of space prevents the elaboration of their careers, of which the significance will be followed out in the aims and achievement of the Pre-Rapha'clite Brotherhood. It was as though they had brought the glitter and luminosity of the old painted glass of church windows on to the canvas.
separate
arts,

led

OF THE

EARLY
EIGHTEEN-

HUNDREDS,

EMERGES COLOUR
REALISM

8
CHAPTER

3
VIII

o

WHEREIN ROMANCE STEPS OUT OF ENGLAND INTO FRANCE AND SETS THE NATIVE GENIUS AFLAME

THE FRENCH ROMANTIC MOVEMENT
OF
THE
Let

1830

us recall the doings in Paris in the early days of the eighteen-

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

In 18 19 Gericault, heading the reaction against frigid classicalism in French painting, came to England. In 1822 Bonington's Lillebonne and his Havre, and works by Copley Fielding, Varley, and Robinson were at the Salon the year of Delacroix's Barque of Dante. In 1824 Constable showed the famous Hay Wain and other works, and won the gold medal at the same Salon hung works by Bonington, Copley Fielding, Harding, Prout and Varley. Delacroix repainted his Massacre of Scio the following year of 1825 he journeyed to London to study Constable, and fell enamoured of Turner and Wilkie and Lawrence as well. He noted that Constable painted with touches of colour set side by side to create the effects of light in mass ; which on being focussed gave great brilliancy. In 1827 Constable showed in Paris for the last time and between his canvas and one by Bonington hung a picture that bore into the Salon for the first time the name of Corot. Constable, Bonington, and Turner sent the Frenchmen out of the studio into the open air. The eighteen-hundreds opened lyrically, impelled by the romantic feeling aroused by the birth of Democracy in the American and French Revolutions. The poets in prose and verse burst into song. The gigantic figures of Washington and Napoleon stood out, the heroes of the new revelation. Scott and Byron fired the French poets Turner and Constable and Bonington the French painters. Romance was everywhere. Men thought awhile as though castles were on every hill, and rapiers on every hip, and women became love-lorn damsels, sighing for dangerous adventure. David, in exile at Brussels, was tyrant still he could write to Gros and sneer at his romanticism, and send him back to the reading of Plutarch and the painting of the classic nude and so potent was hundreds.

— —
;

;

;

72

K

PAINTING
career,

the voice of the old master of the frigidities, that Gros wrecked his went back to obedience, and in the June of 1835, drowned have seen Gericault, with his Raft of the himself in the Seine. " Medusa," lead forward the romantic intent of Gros's Pestfere de

We

WHEREIN ROMANCE STEPS OUT
OF ENGLAND INTO FRANCE

Jaffa.

Delacroix followed with his Dante and Virgil. Gericault had been in England, and was overwhelmed by the romantic landscape of Turner but death took him at thirty-three. His genius had done its work nevertheless. Delacroix took up his mantle and Bonington and Decamps and Delaroche and Isabey were at hand. The academics hailed him as deifying the Ugly. He has found he seeks not Beauty but Emotion. the key At the Salon of 1836 the academics struck; they rejected Delacroix and Huet.

;

AND THE

SETS

NATIVE GENIUS

AFLAME

DELACROIX
1798

-

1863

To

Charles Constant Delacroix of Champagne (1740- 1805)

who

had been diplomat under Napoleon, and to his wife Victoire Oeben, daughter of the famous designer of furniture, who had been pupil to Boulle, there were born four children. The eldest died a general and a baron the second David was to paint as Madame de Verninac Saint-Maur, her husband an ambassador; the third, Henri, was killed at Friedland the youngest, Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix, at eight or nine was covering his books at the Louis-leGrand Lycee in Paris with drawings. His uncle Riesener (17671828) the miniaturist and portrait-painter (son to the famous furniture designer), taught the lad. In 18 15, an orphan and without means, he went to the studio of Guerin (1774-1833), and mastered the antique and the figure with his wonted fiery energy and it was Guerin's, while still a student, that in 1822 he won to fame with at his Dante and Virgil; but he did not confine his training to Guerin, going to Gericault and Bonington and Paul Huet (i 804-1 869) working at the Louvre from Rubens and amongst the wild beasts with the sculptor Barye (1795-1875). Then came the revelation of Constable, and he repainted the Massacre de Scio and in 1825 he made for London, with Bonington and Isabey, to meet Lawrence and Wilkie, and fell under the glamour of Shakespeare. He made the famous lithographs for Goethe's Faust. In 1828 he showed his Mart de Sardanapale, his Christ in the Garden of Olives, and the Marino Faliero in 1830 the Le Vingt-Huit Juillet. Two years thereafter he was in Morocco and Algiers, painting on his return the Femme d* Alger, the Convulsionnaires de Tanger, the Noce Juive and the like.
;

;

;

;

\

VOL. VIII

73

A HISTORY
THE DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING
Salon of 1833 proved him a master, and he became head and front of romantic painting, with Hugo in verse and Dumas in the theatre. He poured forth works: the Battle of Taillebourg, the Barque de Don Juati, the Battle of Nancy, the Combat of the Giaour and the Pasha^ the Boissy d'Anglas, the Ovid, the Justice of Trajan, the Medee, the Muly Abd-el-Rahman, the Entree des Croises a Constantinople the decorations of the Palais Bourbon, of the Louvre, of the Hotel de In 1838 he Ville the Heliodore, the Saint-Sulpice Lutte de Jacob. was in Belgium awhile. He had now won the younger painters to him; Ingres and the classicals were bitterly hostile. In 1836 his Hamlet was rejected by the jury. But bv 1855 Delacroix was fully In 1859 he was elected a Member of the Institute and recognised. showed for the last time four years thereafter he was dead. Nervous, fiery, elegant of manner, without pose and detesting notoriety, the refined soul of Delacroix was housed in a feverish He rid art of the frigidities, and realised that passion and body. feeling are its very breath.
;

The

;

;

Meantime the now forgotten Georges essayed to utter landscape as he saw it.
sees

Nature through the eyes

Michel in rugged fashion Paul Huet (i 804-1 868) Then emerges Corot. of romance.

C O R O

T

1796- 1875
In Jean Baptiste Camille Corot the Romantic movement brought forth its greatest lyrical poet, in Millet its greatest tragic
poet.

year older than Delacroix, Corot was born on the 20th July 1796 to the son of a wigmaker of the Rue du Bac in Paris, who was cashier in his father's shop, and to a milliner of Swiss origin for

A

whom the painter ever adored. The wigmaker father was commonplace tradesman who looked with eyes of wonder at his a son's desire to become an artist, and even when at fifty the painter sold a picture, the father frankly showed surprise at the gullibility of
mother,

and was astonished to find the decoration of the Legion of Honour bestowed upon the painter instead of himself. However, the worthy man, having set the dutiful lad to quill-driving as a clerk, at last handed over to him the money he had saved to set him up in business, besides giving him a small allowance for the degrading business. The lad was a good son, and showed no desire to sow wild oats, even in the vile place called a studio. His robust
art patrons,

74

COROT
1796-1875
"

L'ETANG
(Louvre)

"

in the impression, the emotion that is Seek truth and exactitude, but with the envelope If you have been sincere in your emotion of sentiment which you felt at first. Corot. you will be able to pass it on to others."

"Beauty

in art is truth
.

bathed

received from nature.

.

.

OF PAINTING
body was the lamp
like faith, a to an exquisite flame of soul that

knew

a child-

deep but unvaunting religion, and the purity of a maiden. Brought up in a happy home, he lived and died a happy, generous, kindly man, whose wayfaring was like a gentle breath from heaven wheresoever he went. His religion was of the simple kind that looked on future bliss as being a place where " Well, at any rate, I hope we shall go on painting up there." He loved his fellows and never missed a gathering of his kin or friends, whether a baptism, a wedding, or a merry-making. As in religion, so in politics, he was wholly conservative for him no revolutions, who was to revolutionise French painting! Nevertheless, in painting, whilst Courbet greatly appealed to him, he would have none of Manet and, until he was a very old man, he disliked the art of Delacroix. Corot left school at Rouen at eighteen to become a clerk for eight long years, until 1822 then at twenty-six he went to learn the mysteries from the classical Michallon (1796- 1822), but he dying in 1822, Corot passed to Victor Bertin, the academic. But he went to Nature, intent only on rendering her moods as aroused in his sensing. Bonington and Huet had guided him chiefly and Constable was to open the gates still wider to his wayfaring. At thirty Corot was at Rome under Aligny (1798-1871), but he saw Rome as a suburb of Paris. During his two years' stay in Rome he never once went to the Sistine Chapel and visiting Rome fifteen years thereafter, Michelangelo made no appeal to him. He detested line for its rigidity he painted in tones, in pure values, thus winning to pulsing, moving, unrigid sense of lyrical movement as of song. His etchings even show this the painter-like scratches never set into line, the landscape moves and looms and sings. Millet was to be deeply impressed by his art. Of this, his Roman or first period, the art is tentative he is searching his way. Corot came back to France in 1838 with a large mass of work, and forthwith began his wanderings over his beloved land ; Ville d'Avray, Fontainebleau, Dieppe, Honfleur, Rouen, all knew him.
;

WHEREIN ROMANCE STEPS OUT
OF ENG-

LAND INTO
FRANCE

AND THE

SETS

NATIVE GENIUS

AFLAME

;

;

;

;

;

of his family, which they dubbed carihe made for northern Italy, visiting Pisa, Florence, 834 In 1835 he sent his Hagar in the Wilderness to the Salon. He had been in Italy when the men of the Thirties broke new ground. So far he had not joined the rebels. He had not come under Dutch realism in landscape. He now came under the glamour of Poussin and Claude awhile. So in 1837 he painted his St. Jerome, in 1839-40 his Flight into Egypt and the Monk. Of 1836
also painted portraits
I

He

In and Venice.
catures

1

75

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

his Diana bathing in 1838 his nymphs dance for the first time the glades in his Silenus at forty he arrives, and the nymphs lead him into his kingdom. Of 1840 were the four scenes of the Passion for Rosny church, and the large Flight into Egypt whilst

was
in

;

;

;

four landscape panels for Decamps' house at Fontainebleau, afterwards in Lord Leighton's house, were of this time. In 1843 Corot was in Rome again Ingres was directing the French Academy thereat, and Corot sent an Odalisque to the Salon. Corot had grown to love Giorgione and Correggio. The Concert Champetre was not lost upon him but Giorgione's glowing colour did not rouse him as did Correggio's subtler tones.
his
; ;

It was now, about the time of his second visit to Rome, that Corot created in pure terms of tone his first great landscapes. The Genzano and the Gardens at the Villa d'Este at Tivoli reveal him conqueror. Henceforth he pours out masterpieces of landscape. The famous Louvre Matinee of 1850 with its dancing nymphs shows him coming into his own. And if he over-repeat his personal vision, at least it is personal vision. If his realm be not wide, at least it is a complete conquest and wholly his own. In the Souvenir d' Italie at Glasgow he reaches the heights in his great achievement. As he advances in years he slowly comes to a broader handling of the paint. In 1847 Delacroix came to see Corot. They had admirations in common. Delacroix set Correggio beside Michelangelo. In the early forties, Corot, going to visit Robert at Mantes, found the house-painters at work on the bathroom and begging his " worthy " to let him take their place, he painted six panels with colleagues Souvenirs d'ltalie from memory. In this year of 1847 ^^ painted in the little kiosque of his garden at Ville d'Avray, for his mother's birthday, several panels. At the church he painted four frescoes. Now, be it noted that the young Millet was at this time painting his nudes and early works; it was not until 1848 that Millet broke into the uncharted sea of his great adventure with The Winnowers
;

Corot's fifty-second year.

In 1854 Corot went to Holland. The critics' talk about Rembrandt's Anatomy Lesson meant nothing to Corot he did not like it. But Rembrandt was a revelation to him, as were Vermeer and De Hooch and the painters of the home-life. He painted soon thereafter the Kitchen at Martes and the Interior at Mas-Bilier, his

first interiors.

About 1857 he painted his St. Sebastian in which Delacroix seems to come into his ken, as also in 1859, the year not only of the Toilet of a girl before a pool in a wood, but also of his Dante and
76

XI

COROT
1796-1875

SOUVENIR D'lTALIE
(Louvre)

"

OF PAINTING
and Macbeth, now at the Wallace, at which Corot, eight WHEREIN ROMANCE years later, himself so greatly scoffed. STEPS OUT 1 Corot came to England. In 1 86 In the 'sixties his friend Daubigny having settled in a house at OF ENGAuvers, Corot painted for him several superb decorations on the LAND INTO walls, of which the largest was a pendant to Daumier's Don Quixote. FRANCE He increases his dreamy, idyllic, vaporous vision. In 1865, the AND SETS year of Manet's Olympia, Corot showed his Nymph reclining on a THE NATIVE Tiger-skin, and Nymph lying on the Sea-shore. Corot now returned to the painting of interiors and wrought GENIUS those single figures of women in a room that he AFLAME exquisite work painted with broader handling and stronger light and shadow and increase of colour the Neapolitan woman seated on the ground, the six her arm on a jar, the whole painted with fuller palette easel painted from 1865 to the portraits of a woman before an woman in the black velvet dress of 1870, in which he reveals his In his heads of ever-deepening interest in the art of Rembrandt. girls Corot shows kinship with Vermeer. As Corot aged, his powers but increased, his colour in range, his handling in tone. He gave forth the superb Lady in Blue and the Monk playing the 'Cello in 1874, on the edge of eighty. Beginning in the tradition of Claude and Poussin with paintings of the Roman Campagna, Corot slowly emerged into the purest lyrical utterance of the fascination of France in her exquisite twilight moods. He wrought his art without encouragement, in poverty his kindly, sensitive, and gentle soul and his genial humour The simple fellow captured the subtlest content with creation. tendernesses of the atmosphere in wizard landscapes, which he was so surprised at any man coming to buy, that he threw in others for His early the paltry sum to make good weight in the bargain Nothing could make commercial training was utterly lost upon him. him a tradesman. He was hopelessly, unmitigatedly, irretrievably a poet. With pearly greys, tender greens, as tender blues, and a little umber, he could create a wide gamut of art that is amazing in its depth of feeling. His smallest canvases are compact of the
Virgil

;

;

!

infinite. Mystery yielded to this gentle soul her key. In his utterance the tree and lake and foreground, the still waters, the fairy backgrounds, the leagues of heaven, are all bathed in a translucent In presence of his art we forget all tricks of handatmosphere. the sheer art of it compels ling craftsmanship is conquered

homage.
So Corot walked
his wayfaring, a child to the end.

One
77

laughs

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN

OF

MODERN
PAINTING

the laugh of sheer affection, not without a catch at the throat, over the simple fellow's trouble, when some fellow who has bought one of his pictures, bringing it to him to find out whether it be his or not, Corot on discovering a forgery, rather than see disappointment written on the buyer's face, paints a new picture over the scandal.

He

never really became a part of the Barbizon

movement

;

he

stood alone.

HARPIGNIES
1819

-

Born at Valenciennes, Harpignies was to become one of the most lyrical poet-painters of France. The exquisite luminous atmosphere of the south was to be uttered with a vision somewhat akin to that of Corot. Whether in water-colours or oils, his art is a book of

poems of the peace of Nature.

DECAMPS
1803
in

-

i860

Alexandre Gabriel Decamps, born in Paris, lived his childhood Picardy amidst the children of the peasants, and coming back to Paris in youth he went to learn the mysteries of painting from BoucHOD (1800-184.2), thence to Abel de Pujol (1785-1861), and elected to paint the life of the people and animals. Then suddenly he went a wandering over Switzerland and Italy and down the Levant, and thereby came to that brilliant colour wherein the East did as much for him as Morocco had done for Delacroix. His Turkish Patrol was of 1827 the Corps de Garde of 1834, the Kcole Turque of 1837, the Defake des Cimbres was of 1834; after which he rarely displayed his work in public, unfortunately wasting his powers on the heroic. He died of a fall from his horse. Marilhat (1811-1847) ^^^ ^^^° ^ lover of the East, but died young. Edouard Fricre (18 1 9- 1 886), born in Paris, became pupil to Delaroche, and whilst still at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts showed work in 1842. To win bread he drew on wood for illustration ; and only in 1 848 did he begin to make a mark with his Petit Saltimbanque, Plagiaire, and Poule aux CEufs d'Or. Selling himself for twenty years to a dealer in Brussels, he painted the popular picture. Finding the pathetic to pay, he played the sentimentalist.
;

BELGIUM the Romantic movement had Clays (18 19-1900), born at Bruges, pupil Jean
In

a disciple in to

Paul

Gudin (1802-

1880), the friend of Delacroix and Isabey
that of the

French Romantics

in his

and his art is akin to marines and river-scenes.
;

78

OF PAINTING
In

ENGLAND

George Cattermole

(i

800-1 868), a prominent

of the Old Water-Colour Society, was chiefly interested in romantic subjects, into which he brought wide antiquarian lore. The son of a man of means, Cattermole lived in the whirl of society, He refused knighthood in 1839. belonging to D'Orsay's circle.

member

WHEREIN ROMANCE STEPS OUT
OF ENGLAND INTO

FRANCE
SIR
1817

JOHN GILBERT
1897

AND THE

SETS

Blackheath, July 21, 18 17, to George Felix Gilbert of GENIUS a Derbyshire family, the child Gilbert showed delight in drawing. "TprA'lvi'F Sent in youth to the office of an estate agent, the young fellow was at last allowed to take up art, being taught by the fruit-painter George Lance. Gilbert was early showing pictures from History and Romance, painted in the flowing lines and rich colour of the Romantic movement, of which he was a lifelong leader. Made A.R.A. in 1872, R.A in 1876, he was elected President of the Old Water-Colour Society in 1871, and knighted. His facile art poured forth illustrations by the thousands for books and journals. He died on the 6th October 1897. William Est all (i 857-1 897), though of a much later generation, caught the Romantic spirit of the French School of Barbizon, and settling in a remote Sussex village, wrought his art away from cities, brooding on the pastoral life. Charles Robert Leslie, R.A. (1794-1859), came of American stock ; he painted historic subjects and historic anecdotes his Uncle Toby and Widow Wadman in the Sentry Box being well

Born

NATIVE

at

;

known.

79

— —
;

CHAPTER

IX

WHEREIN, SIDE BY SIDE WITH ROMANCE, WE SEE BITING SATIRE WALK THE LAND OF FRANCE

THE REALIST ILLUSTRATORS AND
SATIRISTS

THE

DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING

Fleurv also IsABEY was more concerned with the play of light on historical draperies. But of a more vigorous breed were the Napoleonic illustrators Charlet (1792-1845) and Raffet. Raffet (i 804-1 860) became, in 1824, pupil to Charlet, from whom he went to the Beaux-Arts, and thereafter became the
;

Of the Romantics, Delaroche (1797-1856) had painting of historical romance Tonv Robert

taken

to

the

historian in lithography of the great Napoleon.

The Romantic movement had produced other illustrators Tony JoHANNOT, Celestin Nanteuil, and the rest, with Gustave Dore (who also gave much time to painting and sculpture). The Revolution had made free men. The artist no longer depended on the noble patron. The citizen became the buyer
but he paid low.

The

artist

found the middle

class a dull patron,

became the ally of the people, their prophet, their standard-bearer. Daumier and Gavarni were born. The burgess being in power tried to seize the offices and power of the old aristocracy the artists became revolutionaries.

DAUMIER
1808- 1879
In the creation of modern art in France Honore Daumier stands side by side with Delacroix at the great initiation. He was Daumier created French not shackled with Delacroix's "culture." realism. Courbet owed heavy debt Millet was born out of him. to him. The power of the man is seen in that marvellous woodengraving by Marx after Daumier's bold design of The Two Lawyers. His caricature statuette of Napoleon in as Ratapoil shows his power in modelling. His Doti Quixote proved him a painter of the first
rank.

His 80

relief plaster

of The Fugitives foretells the great sculpture

L

PAINTING
of the coming
reality.

Daumier

stands out a giant at the gates of

WHEREIN
SIDE BY SIDE WITH

modern

art.

the draughtsmen of his century. bitter and ruthless satirist of the life of his time, wielding a tragic art, a political lampooner who was dreaded by the government, his

HoNORE Daumier was one of

A

ROMANCE

WE

mastery as a painter was overlooked in his adventurous career, his remarkable personality, and his illustrations. His chief means of utterance was the lithograph. But his paintings, tragic, sombre, His and dramatic, are amongst the masterpieces of his skill. indictment of the law and of the " respectability " of the middle class is an imperishable document. Their effect and his art are over all French painting and illustration to-day. He greatly influenced Manet and Degas as well as Millet he also influenced sculpture. His output was enormous hut his art can be judged from a few masterpieces. I read of late an effusive monograph on Daumier which speaks of his art " attracting and delighting us " Daumier had scant concern with attractions and delights. Born at Marseilles on the 26th of February 1808 to a mother of Marseilles and a poetaster father from Beziers, the child's early passion for drawing had to evade the constant dislike of the poetaster father. In Paris the boy secretly sketched and studied the old masters at the Louvre. Put with an usher of the law-courts, the young Daumier came to know the inwardness of the lawyer's life that he was to attack with such galling satire. Meantime the lad steeped himself in the antique and then in the Dutch and Flemish genius at the Louvre. The father then sent the lad to a bookseller's, but with as poor success. At last the family allowed the youngster to become an artist under the direction of the archaeologist Lenoir. Lenoir was disturbed by the youngster's lack of interest in the antique, and his love of nature. The youth saw the possibilities of lithography, and set himself to master it his young friend Ramelet taught him the mysteries. Daumier soon found that he could make a livelihood out of it. He went awhile to Boudin's academy, worked from nature, studied the nude, and was soon master of the human figure. From i 829 he was working for the publishers, galled with uninteresting subjects only too often, but making lithographs also in Charlet's style of Napoleonic subjects. With Louis-Philippe came wide satire of politics and of bourgeois life from the studios ; Charles Philipon gathered about his newspaper a group of artists of talent who were moved by revolt against the king. Philipon was soon shaking the throne with his laughter, and all young France leaped to his support to strike for
; ;
1

SEE BITING SATIRE

WALK THE
LAND OF
FRANCE

;

VOL. VIII

81

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

Grandville, Raffet, Bouquet, Despret, Julien, Arago, Deveria, Monnier, Travies, and Pigal, gathered about Philipon. Young Daumier's satires upon Louis-Philippe led the nation towards His Masques de 183 in La Caricature the Revolution of 1848. His Gargantua got him a dose of six further increased his fame. months' imprisonment at Ste.-Pelagie and thereby made his reputation, besides giving him the fame of martyr in the public esteem. He came out of prison in the February of 1833 to create some his sense of light and shade of his finest work, passionate and virile rapidly increased, set down with power, rejecting all in lithography He would often first model his subject from memory in detail. His portraits were always clay, then draw it in rapid forms in line. memory. With hot indignation he bitterly caricatured the from The public statesmen, the burgesses, and the judges of the day. scandals of 1844 lashed him to fury.
Liberty.
1
;

laws of September, that struck at the liberty of the Press, sent Daumier from political caricature to his great satires upon the life and manners of the time instead, with Monnier, Cham, and Gavarni for comrades. Monnier had invented " M. Prudhomme," the worthy, dull, respectable burgess, and had already created the Daumier created " Robert Macaire," showsocial satirical picture ing himself as brutal and unflinching in his social satire as in his Daumier did not political attacking, above all, the stockjobbers. invent the titles and tags for his drawings these were done by his editors. His art lashed the swindler and the rogue.
; ; ;

The

Daumier had declared war on the sham antique. He was revered by Corot and Delacroix and Daubigny and Dupre and the sculptor Barye. Delacroix spent hours in copying drawings by Daumier. All hated sham classicalism. Loving the antique as the antique, Daumier would have no sham antique. The Revolution of 1848 took Daumier back to political caricature, but he was in fact now more concerned with painting, to which, on leaving Charivari in i860, he gave himself wholly.
Naturally his public was not so wide for his paintings as for his sense of lithography. But from the first he was a master. He grandeur and of enormous forcefulness are over all he wrought. was always a realist his effect on the French genius was stupendous. The street, the shop, the factory, the pulsing lite of the day, all found their profound interpreter in Daumier. Ruthless, frank, seeking the truth always, his art is a compelling sincerity. He sees the pity of it all the broken heart of the Mountebank and the street-hawker and the poor. His Parade of the Mountebanks, his Wandering

A

;

82

OF PAINTING
Musicians, his Clowns, his Third Class Railway Carriage, his PrintCollectors, his Shop Window, his Waiting for the Train, how Daumier

WHEREIN,
SIDE BY

carves a slice out of hfe, rid of all superfluous detail when he paints a Christ Mocked or a Good Samaritan, The poets gave separates him from the formal thing
fine subject

!

And

even SIDE
a

WITH

what a gulf

ROMANCE,

— the
!

!

him many

WE

Miller, his Son

and

the

Ass

the several wonderful paintings of Don His painting period was from 1850 to 1866 ; in had no vogue he left Le Charivari in order to paint ; in 1864 he had to go i860

the Thieves and the Ass, Quixote. Yet his paintings
;

SEE BITING SATIRE

WALK THE
LAND OF FRANCE

back to Le Charivari

1

He attacked the the horrors of the war of 1870. guilty of defeat. But the Commune sobered Empire that had been He was him. It is sad to think of Daumier in destitute old age. saved from want by Corot, who tactfully gave him a cottage at
Then came
Valmondois, to
live his last years there, at least free of

want,

as the

Here he was surrounded by comrades, who reverenced and honoured him. He became blind. In his
old eyes lost their keenness.

the cottage he died on the iith of February 1879 wrought that marvellous water-colour of Les Buveurs.

man who

GAVARNI
1804-1866
the gay and humorous observer of all classes in his age, employing a fascinating draughtsmanship and a black of velvet He had the racy native inquisition into the richness in the doing. Than Daumier, Gavarni made of the lithobattle of the sexes. his pictures of society, high and low, graph a more artistic whole were more complete, less concerned with the figure alone than in

Gavarni was

;

Daumier's

art.

To Sulpice Chevalier, once member of the revolutionary committee of the Bondy section of Paris, a man of modest fortune and a high reputation for integrity, and to his wife Marie Monique Thiemet, sister to the painter-actor Thicmet, there was born on the 13th of January 1804, in Paris, the son whom they wrote down upon the register as Guillaume Sulpice Chevalier, but who was
to

become immortal
Gavarni
is

as

Gavarni.

he had nothing say this in spite of his famous of the caricaturist in he was no more a caricaturist than was invention of Vireloque Satirist and wit he was. Charles Keene. A dandified fellow, Gavarni dominates French illustration from 1830 to 1866.
generally set

down him I

as a caricaturist

;

83

A HISTORY
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

As a child, Gavarni was drawing before he could write. At ten he was sent to the old architect Dutillard at thirteen he went to in 1818, at fourteen, he was Jecker the scientific instrument-maker working at the integral calculus, and soon thereafter he was at an academy for training students in the designing of machinery. Here he began to try and make profit from his art, whilst mathematics
; ;

remained a lifelong interest to him. Obliged to make a living, and fretted by the lack of liberty at the atelier Le Blanc, he left the machinery-designing to become an etcher with Jean Adam, who sent him to engrave the harbour of Bordeaux, in the October of Wretchedly paid by an unjust and ill-conditioned master, 1824. Gavarni here at twenty found comfort by sharing his poverty with a girl Heloise, whom he deserted for another called Angelique, that Heloise to whom he addressed a cynical letter confessing his incapacity to love. His love-aiTairs seem to have come to an unpleasant climax. Drawing what money he could from his manager he set off on foot upon the adventure of life. Arriving at Tarbes without a sou, utterly weary, he searched out an inspector-geometrician called Leleu, an old friend of his uncle Thiemet, who was kind to him, and kept him vaguely employed for three years visiting the Pyrenees three years in which the young fellow was making indifferent drawing after drawing of landscapes and costumes and people, and at the same time writing his impressions. But he had determined to be a painter. His affairs with girls continued. It was about this time that La Mesangere, seeing some plates by Gavarni then signing as " H. Chevallier " asked him to do a series of a hundred southern costumes at thirty-five francs apiece, which Gavarni made in pen-drawings, washed with Chinese ink in flat tints but not meeting with approval, he stopped after the thirtysixth. In June 1828, Gavarni returned to Paris. In June 1829, at twenty-five, he signs his name Gavarni for the first time he was living in a garret, and a comrade who shared the garret led him to a printseller and dealer, who ordered a series of Costumes of the Pyrenees, for which Gavarni invented the signature that was to make him famous. Several years saw him designing fashion-plates in which a Gavarni meanwhile was going to certain charm of artistry appears. nature, working without ceasing at the types of life in Paris, and steadily he developed. His efforts in political caricature were few. His own words show his attitude "The street cad and the dandy are animals but one stinks and the other equally far from man smells nice, so I like the other best, though I don't care much about him." His drawings of the people of Paris began to win him a
also
;


;

:

;

84

OF PAINTING
public.

work. He was foul of his creditors, SIDE BY dunned by bailiffs; in 1834 he knew imprisonment for debt at SIDE WITH Clichy jail, and for once in his life knew genuine love for a ROMANCE, woman, a humble girl of the streets called Arscne. The anguish he SEE suffered from parting with this girl, and his troubles of life, BITING increased his art and the human comedy of manners emerged, his SATIRE fame leaping forward by leaps and bounds from 1839. WALK THE On the 2 1st of November 1847 he set out for London, welcomed LAND OF by the writers and artists and aristocracy, determined to paint the FRANCE splendour of London society ; but the street scenes and low life seized his fancy, and to them instead he gave all his powers. The human herd enthralled him and for four years held him in England, with a visit to Scotland. The longer he stayed the more he was fascinated by the tragic and mysterious misery of the scum of the people. And yet, whilst he haunted the London slums, he continued his deep researches into mathematics English society, deeply disappointed, became angry when Gavarni, having made an appointment to paint the Queen's portrait, even sending his water-colours to the palace, failed to keep the appointment. This ill-bred discourtesy was rightly censured by the press and Gavarni himself later reproached himself for it. Back in Paris in 1851. His pretty daughters of pleasure grow old, turn into hags ; he seeks his types in the wreckage at hospitals; his once dainty jocund vision grows dark ; disenchantment is over His voice becomes morose and bitter. This contempt is all. personified in Thomas Vireloque. To Gavarni one must go for the life of his time. In his superb lithographs, his engravings, his fine pencil drawings, and his water-colours, he showed rare and consummate gifts of artistry. In England his powers in water-colour rapidly came to fulfilment. He developed that floating of gouache or body-colour into the coats of paint which brought him the brilliant luminous quality so remarkable in his art. No man was more shamelessly forged in
vogue.

He joined the He poured forth

staff

of

Charivari.

He became

a

WHEREIN,

WE

;

;

!

;

his!

day.
;

Gavarni was besides an exquisite writer of prose and it may be that one day when his researches are properly worked out, he will be found to have been a genius in mathematics. To his craftsmanship Gavarni ever gave enormous study and pains. Small wonder that he won the homage of Delacroix, of Daumier, of Charlet. Gavarni designed men's fashions and created them for his age. He enormously influenced and largely designed the dress of women.
85

PAINTING
THE DAWN OF MODERN
PAINTING
played with of the high and the low of that age He is said to have created over eight its follies, joyed in its grace. thousand works. His view of life was far broader, wider, and more A dandy, despising the justly balanced than was that of Daumier. bourgeois, the "grocer," he was not above a pose, even to rings on He was ever a light lover ot women yet he was his gloves. devoted to father and mother, and in 1 844 he married Jeanne Leonie Martin de Bonabry, whose two children by him he ever A genial, kindly comrade a hot ally a friend who, when adored. he failed to prevent the condemnation of Balzac, procured his unjealous, he knew no ill-will for the success pardon from the king Always in money difficulties, he laughed away distress of others. When and difficulty, and lived out his disordered life like a dandy. money came, after his English visit, he bought a house at Auteuil, Gradually and squandered money in laying out the park about it. The destruction of his he lost interest in art for mathematics. He property by the circular railway was a heavy blow to him. was already ill. He bought a huge property in 1865 fell into consumption, and in a black brooding state of mind he passed away on the 24th of November 1866. CoNSTANTiN GuYS, in exquisite water-colours, made the women of Paris his subject, and portrayed them, and flipped their shortcomings as well, in frank fashion. Born in 1805, Guys died in
the
life
;

He drew

;

;

;

;

;

1892.

86

CHAPTER

X

WHEREIN, ALONGSIDE OF ROMANCE AND SATIRE, WE ALSO SEE THE ACADEMIC-CLASSICAL WALKING IN FRANCE
" academic " he always means art founded WHEREIN, upon classical ideals. This is but a small part of academism. For ALONGSIDE Academism is the painting in the manner OF art, academism is death. of some one else, whether that other be Greek or Florentine, ROMANCE Hottentot or Egyptian, Dutch or Scandinavian, medieval glass- AND SATIRE, stainer or Spanish portrait-painter. ALSO The century opened in France with the godlike strut of Ingres, A man of genius, he attacked character and set SEE THE in the Greek vein. up beauty upon the altar. Yet he made fine portraits by instinct, ACADEMICfor logic here failed him. He was besides a good schoolmaster for CLASSICAL Manet, and Degas, WALKING the coming men he taught them discipline taught, he taught well. To him Rubens IN FRANCE and the rest. What can be " the genius of evil," and " Rembrandt and the others " an was His insult to "the divine Raphael " and the great Florentines. he had not the but frigid art was created by a man of great power passion or fire for the heroic, nor the broad grasp of life to create

When

a critic speaks of

WE

;


;

vital things.

The French Academics Ary Scheffer, Signol, Amaury Duval, Baudry at least could draw, and Chenavard sang like the ghouls. Elie Delaunay could paint a fine and painted excellent portraits.
portrait.

Ernest Hebert could paint

a religious picture in

antique

fashion.

COUTURE
1815 - 1879
pupil to Gros and Delaroche, was markedly affected by the realistic tendencies of his time and came under them. His Little Confectioner is strongly influenced by Millet and the other

Thomas Couture,

should not be judged by his large Romans of the Decadence^ which the State bought.
realists
;

and he painted fine

portraits.

He

CHASSERIAU
1819

-

1856
to be sent to

Theodore Chasseriau

as a

boy of ten clamoured

87

PAINTING
THE

DAWN OF
MODERN
PAINTING

the studio of Ingres, whose favourite pupil he became but he was still young when Ingres went to Rome to take over the Academy The youngster turned to Delacroix. Then in 1846 he there.
;

He was to die ten years thereafter and of those Combat of Arab Horsemen. At nineteen, Chasseriau brought forth his Venus Anadyomene, of which he also made a fine lithograph. He was born in the East, and his art caught the sensuousness of the East. His Self Portrait shows him Eastern. Of 1842 was his Toilet of Esther of of 1838 of 1846 the Apollo and Daphne. For the 1843 his Tnvo Sisters Palais de la Cour des Comptes he painted the panels of Feace and
went
to the East.
is
;

ten years

his

\

\

destroyed after the Prussian War or rather the elements for thirty years slowly destroyed after the Commune burnt the place. Part of the fresco of Peace has been transferred to canvas and may be seen near the Botticelli frescoes at the Louvre. But Chasseriau, young as he was, had shot his bolt. His later decorations at the chapel of St. Roch and the like show lesser He had shown in Primitive-academism his best gifts. powers. He was to inspire Puvis de Chavannes, who as a youth was a friend of the older man who opened the gates to him.

War

that the

Commune

Of

these days

the Netherlanders, the most eminent academic painter of was Leys.
r

LEYS
1815-1869

Jean Auguste Henri Leys was
(1792-1883).
his innate gift of colour to

trained

by

De Braekleer
;

Giving himself to historical painting, he subordinated draughtsmanship and narrative accuracy and romance by consequence were shy of him. Leys was passion showing his work as early as 1833, and his patriotic subjects soon A barony was granted to him in 1862. brought him to repute. front of the Academy, he was given the decoration The head and In 1847 he won the ribbon of the Legion of the Hotel de Ville. Whether in his earlier, broader manner or his later of Honour. detailed " pre-Raphaelite " style founded in imitation of the Van Eycks, Leys was never a great creative artist, bending his powers to
archaeological
intention.

He

trained

Alma Tadema, Napier

Hemy, and TissoT amongst

other famous pupils.

88

I

8

5

o

REALISM AND PRE-RAPHAELITE ACADEMISM

VOL. VIII

M

89

CHAPTER

X

I

WHEREIN WE WALK AWHILE WITH THE FRENCHMEN
OF BARBIZON
In speaking of the
first

of Barbizon, a Frenchman who was one of must not be passed by. the Michel came much to England saw much of Constable's art and was largely concerned on the diffusion of his art amongst the men Born in 1763, Georges Michel died in 1843. of Barbizon.
to paint the Forest of Fontainebleau
; ;

Men

WHEREIN WE WALK AWHILE WITH THE
FRENCHMEN OF BARBIZON

THE MEN OF BARBIZON

ROUSSEAU
1812

-

1867
to
a

of chilly laws. He essays to carry on Then Theodore Rousseau appears. landscape from Poussin and the Dutchmen, with the decorative Hobbema looms large to him. Then he settles in sense of Claude. and he the Forest of Fontainebleau, greatly interested in trees Rousseau was a rebel, draws Daubigny, Diaz, and Millet to him. an original, and he went straight to Nature, though his heavy training still held him even whilst he rebelled. Born in Paris on the 15th of April 1812, to Claude Rousseau, a merchant-tailor of Salines in the Jura, and to his Parisian wife, Louise Colombet, of artist stock, their only son Pierre Etienne Theodore Rousseau was early playing with art. Going to the studio of his mother's cousin, Alexandre Pau de Saint-Martin who had been pupil to Carle Vernet, the youngster was soon at work with colour. By fifteen, Rousseau had been much in the forests of Franche-Comte. The father intended the youth for the calling of engineer but Rousseau bought colours and brushes, went to Montmartre, made a sketch from Nature, delighted his parents Pau de Saint-Martin took him sketching, and advised his with it. training under the classic Remond (1795-1 875), thereby fretting the young fellow, who boldly made for nature. The fine days saw him sketching at Sevres, Meudon, Compiegne, Cernay, Saint-Cloud ; the rain drove him to copying Claude and du Jardin at the Louvre, or drawing from the nude under GuiLLioN-LETHiiiRE (1760-183 2).
in

Landscape

France was

treated

code

;

;

91

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

But Rousseau, breaking away from Rcmond in 1830, betook him to the wild Auvergne to work out the mysteries by himself. Returning to Paris to find art ablaze with Romanticism, he was wellreceived by the rebels and Ary Scheff'er, of all men, became his Rousseau sent work to the Salon of i 831, again powerful friend. in 1833 in 1834 he won a medal, the Duke of Orleans buying his Lisiere de Bois. In 1836 the luck turned against him. The jury there was to be war against the rejected his Descente des Vaches romantics, for Marilhat, Champmartin, Huet, Barye and Delacroix were all refused. The Salon knew him no more until, in 848, the revolution opened the doors to him again. These twelve years Rousseau, never a happy man by temperament, suffered much distress, though Decamps, George Sand, Daumier, Delacroix, Diaz, Scheffer, and Dupre stood by him. But the Second Revolution saw the art elections carried by the suffrage of the artists, and Rousseau found himself one of the jury of 848. He was given a commission by the state and declining marriage with a lady to whom he was deeply devoted and who loved him, he withdrew to Barbizon with a girl who had thrown herself on his protection. Thenceforth he made his home in Barbizon. He showed at the Salon of 1849, the first time for thirteen years, won a First Class Medal, but finding his faithful ally Dupre given the ribbon of the Legion of Honour he there and then broke with him. Rousseau had an ugly side. At the Salon of 1851 he had six pictures; but Diaz winning to the Legion of Honour, Rousseau fell foul of the authorities, and swore he would send no more yet in 1852 he sent the Effet de Givre and Paysage apres la Pluic, and was admitted to the Legion of Honour. His affairs and his temper and manners thenceforth improved. The Universal Exhibition of 1855 was a triumph for him. Behind the sham of a rich American he now bought, generously, the needy Millet's Greffeur for 4000 francs. In 1861 he sold twenty-five paintings and studies at the Hotel Drouot for 37,000 francs in 1863 another fifteen for 15,000 francs. Three years thereafter he
;

;

;

i

i

;

;

;

painted a couple of pictures at 10,000 francs apiece, for Prince Demidoff; and the dealers kept him busy to the tune of 140,000 francs. At the Universal Exhibition of 1867, he was awarded one of the four medals, but had expected promotion as Officer of the Legion of Honour the bitter disappointment crushed him. Paralysis struck him down. He was promoted Officer of the Legion, but died in agony after six months' suffering in the December of the year. " Madame Rousseau," long hopelessly insane, danced and sang about the death-chamber.
;

92

OF PAINTING
In Paris, in Normandy, in the Auvergne, in the Jura, at Brogh'e painting the castle, in Brittany, in the tie de France, in Berry, in Gascony, and the forest of Fontainebleau, Rousseau came to grips But it was at Fontainebleau, to with varied aspects of Nature. which he first went in 1833, lodging year after year at Ganne's

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
FRENCHMEN OF BARBIZON

Barbizon and made his home there, where Diaz became his pupil, and Jacque and Millet soon became his neighbours, that he wrought his fullest art, uttering the spirit of the forest, its mystery and its vastness, as his supreme song. A slow and laborious painter, he created his unequal works, rising at his best to powerful impressiveness and largeness of utterance. He would keep his pictures by him, and touch and retouch them, often to their disadvantage.
tavern or with some peasant, until in

1848 he

settled in

DIAZ
1809 - 1876

Narcisse Virgilio Diaz de la Pena, the son of Tomas Diaz and Maria Velasco, Spaniards driven out of Salamanca into exile in France through a plot against Joseph Bonaparte, was born at Bordeaux on 2 St August 1809. The father, exiled from France as The destitute well as Spain, made for London, where he died. mother came friendless to Paris, thence made for Sevres, where she In the boy's gave lessons in Spanish and Italian to win bread. the Protestant pastor of Bellevue tenth year, his mother died adopted him until he was grown enough to make for Paris to seek fortune. At fifteen he was stung in the foot by a poison-fly, or by Beginning with a viper, and had twice to have parts amputated. pointing china, he was early at work in oils, working under Souchon He and the Salon of 1831 saw his first picture. (1787-1857) painted for some time strongly under the influence of Correggio and Delacroix any subject that was saleable, battles, naked women, He gave no flowers, portraits, for as little as five francs apiece. sign of that amazing sense of colour that lay latent in him. About 1836, at the edge of thirty, he came under the spell of Rousseau. In 1844 his Bas Breau, his Oricntale and the Bohemiens won him a Third Class Medal two years thereafter his Delaissees, Magicienne^ Jardin des Amours^ Interior of a Forest^ and Leda won him a Second and two years thereafter, in 1848, at forty, his Diane partant Class pour la Chasse, the Meute dans la Foret de Fontainebleau^ and Venus and Adonis brought him a First Class. A Portrait^ the Baigneuse, and The Salon the Love Disarmed got him into the Legion of Honour.
1
; ;

;

;

93

A HISTORY
REALISM
of 1850 that brought so

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

many decorations to artists saw Rousseau At the dinner given to the new Diaz was furious. passed over. Honour, he arose, and in a loud voice officers of the Legion of Life was our forgotten master " toasted " Theodore Rousseau

!

ACADEMISM

he moved forward with his Riva/es, His tourmcntee par f Amour, the Fin cPiin Beau Jour. his Nymphe but he wrought his last displayed work was at the Salon of 1859 The loss of his painter son, Emile Diaz, art to the day he died. like him a pupil to Rousseau, was a bitter affliction to him in i860. He outlived Millet and Corot but a year. At the height of his vogue and prosperity he caught a chill, and was hurried off to Mentone, but arrived to find Mentone in the grip of a hard frost. He died in his wife's arms in the December of 1876. Diaz has been termed the Correggio of the Barbizon school. The influence of Delacroix and Correggio, of Millet and Rousseau His brush and Prud'hon all left their mark upon his sensitive art. was dipped in magic; and the allure of his art is difficult to describe. He loved bosky groves, with gleam of lights breaking through and the white stems of birches haunt his dark groves.

now

a bright

affair for

him

;

;

:

DAUBIGNY
1817 - 1878

Charles Fran(;ois Daubignv was the son of a painter Edme and his Fran(,ois Daubignv, who had been trained by Bertin own son continued the tradition as Karl Daubignv. Born in Paris, Daubigny had early to get to breadwinning, decorating clock-cases and box-lids. Going to Italy at eighteen, he worked hard from Nature at Rome, Florence, and Naples for a
;

on his return to Paris he entered the studios of Granet (1775-1849), and Delaroche (1797-1856), at twenty-one displaying He at the Salon of 1838 his Notre Dame and Isle of St. Louis. drew on wood for illustration. In 1848 he won a etched, and Second Class Medal with his Environs de Chdteau-Chinon and Bords de Cor?iin. In 1853 he carried off a First Class Medal with his ^tang de Gylien. He was now one of the great group of landscape painters with Corot, Rousseau, Dupre, and Courbet, pouring forth work that was eagerly bought, reaching at times to high achieveLoving the river, and ment, but very unequal in his quality. painting the running waters by preference, he was ever happy in his house-boat, le Bottin. A good colourist, he painted the river with intimate regard and seeing eyes and he loved the paths
year
;
;

94

OF PAINTING
of corn, the blossoming fruit-trees, and spring in the meadows. He was the poet of Normandy. Chintreuil also loved to paint vast stretches of the land and green nooks in Nature.

through

fields

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
FRENCHMEN OF BARBIZON

TROYON
1810 - 1865
at Sevres to a worker in the Imperial Riocreux and Poupart, and therefore in Factory, was trained under But sketching one fine day at youth wore the spectacles of David. Saint-Cloud, he met one of the lesser Romantics, Camille RoquePLAN (i 802-1 855), who made him meet some friends, of whom were Rousseau, Flers (i 802-1 868), Diaz, and Dupre, Troyon at once went over to the Romantics he became the friend of Dupre. The Salon of 1832 saw his first work; in 1835 he won the Third, in 1840 the Second Class, and in 1846 the First Class Medal. The Legion of Honour took him into its fold in 849. The Painting landscape, Louvre Bceufs allant aii Labour was of 1855. he ranged far afield, from Sevres and Saint-Cloud to Fontainebleau From 1833 to and Brittany and the Limousin and Normandy.
; 1

Constant Troyon, born

his violent colour, his excesses in paint.

1846, they spoke of the "truculent energy of his brush-work," of It was in Holland that the Dutchmen Paul Potter and Rembrandt now led him to the conquest

In 1848 he " found himself," and began his career as of his art. His training in landscape taught him the cattle-painter of his age. to set his animals in their fulness of atmosphere.

JACQUE
1813-1894
or Jacques, born in Paris, was to pass his youth of a lawyer, where he got to copying lithographs. Then, getting restless, he went for a soldier, serving in the ranks In 1836 he for five years, selling drawings the while at a franc. passed over into England, working for the wood-engravers upon a Shakespeare, a Dance of Death, and other books for a couple of years. Going back to Paris, he helped to illustrate the famous Paul et Virginie, Beratiger, Perrault, and Bretagne Illustree. Meanwhile he was etching also. It was about 1845, ^'^ ^"^^ thirty-second year, that he began to use oils, and was soon leading the way to the life His paintings of sheep-folds and of the peasant and the pastoral. hen-houses made him famous he painted them with power, solid
in the office
;

Charles Jacque,

95

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
IXE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

handling of the colour, play of light and shade, and vigour of draughtsrnanship. The neighbour of Millet at Barbizon, he with Millet and Rousseau may be said to have founded the Barbizon school. Winning to the Legion of Honour in 1867, Jacque knew wide fame. The forgeries of his works are widespread. Jacque shares with His Troyon the chief honours of animal painting in France. etchings also are very fine.

DUPRE
1811-1889
to a potter a son Jules Dupr£, At Nantes was born in 181 who was early at work in Paris painting china. Going to the studio of DiEBOLD the younger^ he made a mark in 1831, at The twenty, with five landscapes, and at once came to the front. Marquis, who bought the works of Dupre from an old clothes1

shop, brought fame to a true poet the day he climbed to a sixthfloor garret at five of the morning and brought good luck to the penurious young man who lay abed ; the strange man straightway

bought every sketch on the young artist's walls and commissioned him to paint others. What was more, he brought other clients. In 1832 began the close friendship with Rousseau which was to In 1833 he won a Second Class Medal with his benefit both men. To Interieur de Ferme, but became disgusted with popular success. the Great Exhibition of 1867 he sent a dozen pictures, but only Caring nothing for appeared in public again at the Salon of 1883. money or fame, he wrought only what he desired to utter. The friend of Rousseau, like him he has ranged over a wide gamut of landscape, from the serene pastures and the gloom of the forests, along the lonely plains to the vastness of the seas, with rare sincerity. Rousseau seems to have fretted at Duprc's success and his own In failure and his suspicious behaviour deeply wounded Dupre. 1849, the Legion of Honour took Dupre into the fold, and For three years thereafter Dupre painted Rousseau was mortified. no more. When he took to painting again his whole style changed.
;

The way

early brilliant colour departed
to a thick

;

impasto

;

and he grew

the precise handling giving to love the golden phases

of foliage.

MILLET
1814 1875

Born
96

in

the weather-beaten

little

sea-shore, hard

by Cherbourg,

to a peasant

hamlet of Gruchy by the who had refined tastes

XII

MILLET
1814-1875

"THE SAWYERS"
(South Kensington Museum)

N

OF PAINTING
and a gift of music, the boy, Jean Francois Millet, was largely brought up by his grandmother, a pious woman, whilst the father and mother were at work on their little farm; and he came under the care of a great-uncle, the Abbe Millet, who lived with the The mother, family and fired in the lad his love of literature. It was a happy household, Louise Jumelin, came of a higher class. He was early drawing the life and and the boy loved his home. land about him. On the edge of twenty-one his father decided to the brothers and send the youth to Cherbourg to learn painting sisters were springing up and could take the eldest son's place in the fields. To Mouchel he went to learn the mysteries but a year thereafter, in the November of 1835, Millet had to hurry home his father lay dying. There was nothing for it but to take up the work of the farm. But his grandmother and mother insisted on his returning to his art, so to Cherbourg he went again, this time under Langlois, a noble-hearted man, Langlois, the pupil of Gros. wrought upon the town council to send him to Paris and to Paris he was sent, feeling the wrench from his home, and baffled on his arrival by the whirl of a great city. He found his way to the Louvre with difficulty ashamed to ask the way. Michelangelo Millet chose Delaroche as his master. cast his glamour over him. Whilst with Delaroche, Millet fell under the glamour of Giorgione's Concert Champetre, and his art ever owed much to Giorgione, Poussin, and Correggio. To the students he was " the Wild Man of

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
FRENCHMEN OF BARBIZON

;

;

the

Woods,"

this

suffering of

man. Suddenly he left Delaroche Marolle, left with him, befriended him, and

big serious fellow so deeply interested in the and a fellow-student,
;

sold his

works

for the

shy country fellow to the dealers. In 1840 Millet showed at the Salon, and in the summer made home again for Cherbourg to be near his kin, fretted by the fact that he was not supporting them. But sell his pictures he could Then he made portraits not, and was glad to paint signboards. of the young folk of the town and for Dr. Asselin, the Saint Barbara Carried up to Heaven. In the November of 1841 he married a young dressmaker, Virginia Ono, a delicate girl, whose constant ill-health was a drag upon the young fellow's resources. In 1842 he took his young wife to Paris, and thence, to her death in 1844, the man knew the very blackness of hardship and distress he failed to get his pictures into the Salon until two pastels got into the display of
;

^

1844-.
Millet was now thirty. Since 1841 he had rapidly discarded the dark painting of Delaroche's school, and had learnt from
VOL. VIII

97

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

tb^ Conqueror

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

He painted the nude much. Love was of 1844. On the death of his wife, Millet went back to Gruchy, to paint and work amongst the fields of his old home. He had left Cherbourg in disgrace over his ill-fated portrait of a dead mayor he now knew success awhile. He next married
Correggio and Michelangelo.
;

Staying awhile at Havre from the November of 1 845 to paint portraits, the seathe Offering to Pan, Daphnis and captains ordered subject pictures Chloe, Sacrifice to Priapus, and the Flute-lesson amongst them godlike fellows on occasion. Strange folk, sea-captains To Paris he went in 1845, and took three rooms near his friends, Charles Jacque and Diaz. The Salon refused his Temptation of St. Anthony, so he painted over it the famous Oedipus taken from a Tree, and thenceforth for a while poured forth glowing colourschemes of nudes, nymphs, fauns, infants. The spring of 1848 saw him at death's door and in terrible penury but he recovered to paint the first success of his career, and to show at the Salon the Winnower. The State bought it. Commissions followed. Unfortunately, the Revolution of June disturbed the arts. Compelled to shoulder a musket in the days of the ugly bloodshed, he fretted to be done with cities. Taking his State commission, Hagar and Ishmael, he painted over it his Haymakers Resting in the Shadow of a Haystack he had heard two men denote him as " Millet, who paints nothing but nude women." Having sold his Haymakers a year thereafter. Millet, in the June of 1849, turned his back on Paris, and, with his friend, Jacque, made for " a little
girl

Catherine Lemaire, a peasant

of eighteen.

!

!

;

,

in the Forest of Fontainebleau. alarmed the wife of Millet they drove to Chailly, and on foot they sought the " village that ends in -zon," Millet entering it carrying his two little girls, whilst trudged beside him his wife with the baby boy, and made for Pere Ganne's inn, where Barye, Corot, Diaz, Rousseau, and Fran9ois were wont to go there they were welcomed by Diaz and Rousseau. Millet and Jacque rented two peasant cottages, and in his barn Millet made his Working in his garden until midday, he went to his studio studio. His art burst into song of the life of the and painted until sunset. peasant folk. In 1850 he showed his immortal masterpiece of The Sower, so often treated again in pastel. The critics attacked it as socialistic Then followed the masterpiece Goi?ig to Work. In 1 85 I sorrow struck at Millet, his beloved grandmother died ; his ailing mother called for her son, but the state of penury he was in forbad any journey. His mother died, without seeing him, a

village ending in -zon,"

somewhere

Fontainebleau, with

its cost,

;

;

!

98

XIII

MILLET
1814-1875

THE GLEANERS'
(Louvre)

OF PAINTING
But to WHEREIN Millet suffered bitter sorrow. couple of years thereafter. win money he wrought hard upon the Man spreading Manure, -yvg and the Young Women Sowing. In 1853 he won a medal with his AWHILE The L'udttente or 7b<^//' followed. In 1854 wi rH THE Repast of the Harvesters. Rousseau sent Latrone to buy works by Millet, of which was FRENCHthe Woman Feeding Chickens. To his old home the whole family now OF went for a few months, busy months of painting for Millet. BARBIZON On his return to Barbizon, he painted The Grafter. He worked much from himself in a mirror, and from his wife, who often had to wear her shirt for weeks in order that it might shape to the body. No one bought the picture, and penury threatened again, when, one After awhile the American fine day, an American buyer came. myth vanished and Rousseau stood revealed. The needy fellow had For awhile Millet was raised the catalogued price for it somehow. gay and blithe. Then, in 1856, he was in difficulties again. But he was now turning to the life of the shepherd the moonlit Shepherd in the Sheepfold and the like were created, in which, with astounding skill, he suggests the sound of the pattering footfall of the sheep, the cry of the shepherd, the bark of the dog, and the stilly silence of the night. Of 1857 was his immortal Gleaners. The " threat to the social order " critics saw in it a Thereafter Millet was in dire want. He even dreamed of suicide and brought forth the world-famed Angelus It was sent to the Salon of 1859 with the powerful Death and the Woodcutter., which was rejected. It was at this time that the Pope mysteriously ordered and paid for an Immaculate Conception by Millet for his private railway carriage For the State he painted the Woman (1858), which has vanished. Leading a Cow (1859). The headaches which so afflicted him his lite long now set in with plaguing regularity, for which at last, against all advice, he found relief in black coffee. Meanwhile Millet suffered much fret at the constant neglect by the State of his old friend, Rousseau. There now came to his studio, but never into his house, the strange, mysterious visitor. Decamps, the old cavalry officer, who left his horse outside the village and crept in by back-

WALK

MEN

!

\

ways

to learn

from Millet.

On the 14th of March i860, Millet signed the famous contract with Stevens and Blanc, whereby for all he did he was to receive a thousand francs a month for three years. Of these pictures the best known is that of a woman shearing a sheep which is held by a man. Of 1862 were his Woolcarders, a Shepherdess, the Birth of the Calf the Winter, and the Man Leaning on a Hoe, the attack on which by the critics probably sent him for a while to pastels and drawings.
99

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND PRERAPHAELITE

ACADEMISM

In 1864 he found a shepherdess who inspired him to paint a In 1865 he painted the four decorative panels for Joan of Arc. M. Thomas for his house in the Boulevard Haussmann Springs Summer, Autumn, and Winter and he met M. Gavet vv^ho ordered many drawings. In 1866 his eldest sister died, to Millet's deep sorrow. His wife's serious illness added to his gloom. He took her to Vichy, where he was inspired to fresh endeavour by the more primitive shepherdesses, who spun with distaff as they watched His display at the International Exhibition of 1867 their flocks. saw Millet acclaimed a master and, to Millet's joy, Rousseau was made president of the jury but honours came late for the doomed Rousseau. In 1868 Millet entered the Legion of Honour. Of 1869 was the Knitting Lesson of 1870 the Woman Churning and the landscape November. His difficulties were over and done. He was famous. His pictures were fetching high prices. He painted the Louvre Spring, and several exquisite works of women with babes. Pastel had brought back his early colour sense which he had put from him in hi§ first Barbizon days. Yet of this year was his gruesome Pig-killers. Then came the War Millet, with his family, made for Cherbourg, where he painted his coast-scenes at Greville he painted the Village Church now at the Louvre in the November of 1871 he was back at Barbizon. The dealers were now scrambling for him. It should be said that Millet worked from memory, helped by notes. His working days were now near numbered. By 1873 a cough racked his body. The great order to decorate the Pantheon with legend of Saint Genevieve came too late. the By the summer of I 874 he was a doomed man. He lingered over Christmas and the New Year. In mid-January he was bitterly grieved by a hunted stag that had taken refuge in his garden being butchered there by the sportsmen. At six of the morning of the 20th of January 1875
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;

;

body. It was Daumier who brought the revelation of his great art to Millet. His whole style and vision suddenly changed. He came to grips with lite. The superb woodcut after Millet's drawing of the Man on the Horse by the Seashore is easily taken for a Daumier. A tragic intensity and realism suddenly took possession of the man. Bookish men are wont to speak of Millet's primitivism. No man was nearer the life of his age than Millet. In Millet the great democracy spake its pure tongue. Daumier and Millet brought French art back to grips with Life. It was only when Millet went to Barbizon and found himself, that his art burst into song and he
left his

the great spirit of Millet

100

OF PAINTING
thereby stepped amongst the immortals as the great epic painter of It was at Barbizon, beginning with his great the life of the fields. masterpiece of The Sower of 1850, and creating the Gleaners, the Bucheron et la Mart, the Man with the Hoe, the Meules, the Berger au Pare, the Vigneron au Rcpos, and his other majestic utterance of the heroic employment of the labourers on the land that he won to immortal fame. He saw life grey, and he employed grey to utter The right and fit colour to utter the mood of the epic things it. Millet that he saw, he employed with consummate tact and power. was of the heroic essence. His emotional vision is awe-filled. His heart is like a god's. Whether peasant girls work at the churn, or old women wearily gather faggots for the winter's warming, whether peasant mothers nurse their little ones, or weary toilers return from the heavy day's work in the fields, Millet creates a majestic statement of their significance once and for all time. In his figures are the eternal types of the field. I have seen it written for praise that Millet's Killing a Hog is beautiful. It is wholly unbeautiful. Had Millet made it beautiful, he had uttered the stupidest of lies. Indeed, Millet's aim in art, a large part of his significance in art, is a protest against the pettiness of mere beauty. He took the earth, this great-soul'd man, and he wrought with a master statement the pathos and the tragedy, and the might and the majesty of the earth, and of them that toil upon the earth. The Man with the Hoe is far more than " beautiful " it holds the vast emotions of man's destiny to labour, and of man's acceptance of that destiny it utters the ugliness as loudly as it states the beauty of the earth and of toil and it most rightly utters these things, so that they take equal rank, and thereby add to our knowledge of the emotions of life through the master's power, and the wondrous craftsmanship whereby he so solemnly uttered the
; ;

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
FRENCHMEN OF BARBIZON

truth.

loi

CHAPTER

XII

WHEREIN A TRUCULENT FELLOW TURNS THE EYES OF FRANCE TO SOMBRE REALITIES

THE DARK REALISTS OF FRANCE
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

an ally in a forthright violent peasant of Courbet. Courbet rose against the Romantic a Delacroix as hotly as against classic Ingres yet, whilst he painted what he saw, he invented and developed no new craftsmanship whereby to utter it, but fell back on the orchestration of strong light and shadow of the Tenebrosi. By consequence he painted darker than nature even whilst he clamoured for realism and Realism
fellow
called
;

The

Barbizon

men found

alone.

COURBET
1819

-

1877

Ornans, Gustave Courbet was the son of a peasant of the Doubs, who would have made the lad a lawyer, but from the time he left Ornans for Paris in 1839 he gave himself wholly to painting. He had already at the Seminary at Besan9on learnt painting from a pupil of David, called Flageolet ; and in Paris he went to Steuben (i 788-1 856) and Hesse (i 806-1 879); but the Flemish masterpieces of the Louvre were his real trainers. He went straight to Nature. The romantic movement was beginning to slacken, and Courbet headed straight for the new Realism and an innate insolence and conceit made him a fierce partisan. He detested the orientalism into which the romantic movement was passing. With a contempt for the Classics and Romantics, Courbet painted what he saw his only aim to paint well. He would have none of the dead symbols none of the past. He was a born rebel, and leader of rebels. As a republican he bluntly refused the cross of the Legion of Honour from the Emperor and he fought for the Commune. With the landscape men of the " thirties," who were outcasts, he threw in his sympathies. They were rebels. His famous portrait of himself as The Man with the Leather Belt announced a new movement in France of great power. In his hatred of " the pretty " of the academics he brought in the 102

Born

at

;

;

;

;

PAINTING
He set character above beauty. painting of gross female nudes. He prepared the way for a greater Manet. Henley, I think it was, who neatly put it that "in Millet there were none of the bad qualities of the peasant there were tew of the good ones in Courbet." It was a harsh judgment, but Courbet was a vulgar fellow, a braggart, and an egoist whose conceit drove him to any kind of notoriety, and to lord it amongst low fellows, and to rough company. But he had the hand and eye and brain of the born painter ; even whilst he laughed loud at imagination and scorned poetry. He would scoff at the folly of painting angels. "Painting," said he, holding up his ten fingers, "is that" but he forgot that the impression on the senses and the brain that guided the fingers were even more " that " his instinct made no such mistake. Courbet had seen Delacroix and Corot and Millet passed by ; he was determined that he at least should be noticed. He shouted his way to notoriety. He was no mere artist, but hot politician and hard talker ; he loved to hear himself shout down all opposition. And be it said, in all fairness, he did for Realism what tlie great artists of his age could not do he made it a power, a thing to be considered. He rid painting of the literary danger of Delacroix. He had to be, if the French genius were to be saved. 'Tis true he set up the false formula of Art for Art's sake that is to say, for mere power of craftsmanship but he killed the Beauty folly. The critics took the vapourings and theories of the drunken dog as seriously as they always do.

WHEREIN
A TRUCU-

;

LENT FELLOW TURNS

THE EYES
oF FRANCE TO SOMBRE
REALITIES

;

;


;

;

Courbet was an illiterate boor saw only the crudities of life ; and painted but material things. But what he could see he could paint. The mere realism of Hals and Zurbaran and Ribera and Velazquez appealed to him as the whole end of art. He discovered that if a thing were to be painted with vitality it must be done
rapidly, as at a stroke.

Yet Courbet began by copying Van Dyck, and was influenced by Delacroix. He slowly rejected the softer style for a more vigorous brush. His famous Self-Portrait^ the Man in the Leather Belt, was of 1849. In 1850 he entered upon his great middle period, beginning with the powerful Enterrement (funeral at Ornans). Taking Hals, the great Spaniards, and Rembrandt as his masters, Courbet the great Tenebrosist opened the gates to France. The Dresden Stone-Breakers was of 1850, the year of Millet's Sower Millet had only broken with his past in 1848 with his

103

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

by side, though Both men probably the IVinnoiver had made its mark on Courbet. were deeply indebted to Daumier. But mightier as was Millet in his r6alm Courbet worked in a wider realm and had a far wider Millet was the greater effect on the development of painting. Courbet a far greater painter. But designer, the greater artist Courbet had relied on dark shadows as a school arose that filled its shadows with colour, Courbet essayed to paint colour into his shadows, and found his limitations. Of 1853 ^^^ ^^^ Bathers, the Lutteurs, and the Fileuse of 1854 his Cribleuses de Ble % of 1855 was his famous one-man show in protest against the official display, which took Paris by storm with his realistic huge Atelier, in which he pays homage to Velazquez, a powerful work; to Velazquez he looked again in 1855 in his and in Rencontre, to the realistic Velazquez, not the impressionist 1856 in his Ladies on the Bank of the Seine, and the portrait group of the Proudhon Family. Then came his woodland scenes during the sixties. The Curee and the huge Halali were of the fifties; then in 1861 he painted the huge Combat of Stags and the rocky landscape of the Roche the Puits Oragnan, and thereafter he poured forth great pieces But Courbet was not greatly Noir, the Siesta (1869), and the rest. He dwells, even in his nudes, upon concerned with atmosphere. He was concerned with the contrast of flesh with other substances. shadows more than with light. The nude In the mid-sixties begin his Trouville Seapieces. Woman in the Wave was of 1868. The Louvre Wave is of 1870. Then came the War thereafter the Commune, into which he was Whether he took part in the Fall of the Vendome Column swept. At the prison of or not, he went to prison for it for six months. some fine Still Life of remarkable power, and Ste.-Pelagie he painted His hard life, his harder portraits. But prison broke him. drinking, perhaps a sense of dishonour in the affair which made him and he died at fifty-seven on an outlaw, saw him rapidly break up His repute the last day of 1877 in the Swiss village of La Tour. suffered in the wrangle over his disorderly life and boorish ways but to-day the genius of Courbet is being realised. He remains this great example to the age that, instead of going back to dead art, he took up art where the greatest had laid it down, and essayed to Courbet must not be judged by much carry its utterance forward. of the landscape of his last years, in which he employed
IVirifiower.

The two men

thus developed

side

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

assistants.

104

o

OF PAINTING
ALFRED STEVENS
1828

WHEREIN
A TRUCULENT

-

1906

Courbet's friend, the Belgian Stevens, born at Brussels in 1828, in Paris in 1906, was one of the most exquisite masters of the age. His subtle sense of colour, and his style, make him one of the greatest limners of the age of the crinoline.

and dying

FELLOW TURNS

THE EYES
OF FRANCE

VOLLON
1833

TO SOMBRE
REALITIES

-1900
le

Chardin de nos jours," is a superb painter of still-life. Self-taught in the mysteries, he learnt engraving in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts of his town he was early painting, and he made for Paris when the down came to his lip. The Salon of 1864 saw two pictures by him. Art et Gourmandise and Interior of a Kitchen, which last was bought by the city of Nantes. Thenceforth he knew success. A medal came to him in the city of Lyons bought his Singe a P Accordeon from the 1865 Salon of 1866, and the Luxembourg his Curiosites. In 1870 he won the ribbon of the Legion of Honour with his famous Poissons de Mer, and thereafter came success after success. Vollon is also a fine painter in water-colours. Vollon trained Victor Vincelet, who committed suicide in 1871 whilst still young and at the height of a
at
; ;

Antoine Vollon, born

Lyons, "

rare promise.

R

I

B O

T

1823- 1891

most powerful artist, painting the nude with the strong lighting and dark shadows of the Tenebrosi, and carrying on the revelation of Ribera in an art akin to that of Courbet, Ribot
stands out as one of the greatest of the

A

men belonging
still-life

to the Realist

movement. In by Chardin.

his kitchen-scenes and

he takes rank hard

HENNER
1831-1905

Henner bathes his nudes of beautiful women in a rich warm colour, and treats them in an atmosphere of twilight that gives his work a character all his own, and makes his art kin with that dark movement towards impressionism that preceded Manet. Henner has
painted fine portraits.

MERYON
1821-1868

A

word must be

VOL. VIII

said

of Meryon,

who

etched several fine plates

105

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

of somewhat hard realism, amongst others the haunting masterpiece of the Morgue.

RAPHAELMeanwhile,
Millet

ACADEMISM

Millet her peasants and miners roused artistic utterance. and Courbet appealed to such a people with power and sympathy. The movement was to bring forth two artists of genius the sculptor Meunier and the painter-etcher Rops.

to

Belgium

to Brussels

— had gone the glamour

of

MEUNIER
1831 - 1905

Although Meunier,

as

sculptor,

is

outside the

range of this

History, his influence has been profound.

He

began by essaying

Sculpture he rid of tradition, as painting as well as sculpture. He particularly of Italian spectacles. Millet had rid painting impression. Under applied sculpture to life, and wrought it as an In his sculpture he Millet and Courbet he became a realist. he uttered the miner and the peasant with created the sensed thing great power. He became in clay the poet of Labour. He gave

;

forth

its

dignity and

its

tragic significance.

There

is

epic grandeur

in all his art.

ROPS
1833-1898
Belgian Felicien Rops, beginning under the glamour of Millet, alongside Meunier, soon found in the satire of sex a more As Guys concerns congenial field of utterance for his biting line. femininity of the Second Empire, so Rops may be himself with the Pleasure was the aim of said to have continued the inquisition. Rops satirises the lure of but it was now pleasure by night. Paris dominating pursuit of the France of his age woman that seemed the He has something of the mediaeval idea of woman in his eyes. and he draws her with great power, being the temptation of Satan generally in this pose or the pose of the Sphinx, which was dominating the whole poetry of the age, from Baudelaire to Laforgue. Not only was Rops one of the greatest mezzotinters and even engravers of his age, but he drew the nude with power though he gave forth his art in erotics. The sense of wizardry and occultism that his work exhales is difficult to put into words. Born on the 6th of July 1833, at Namur, to a rich manufacturer half Walloon, half Hungarian, Felicien Rops went through the
; ; ;

The

106

OF PAINTING
the hunt, and frail of the world was drawing for the satirical papers, and at once made a mark, with drawings akin in style to the genius of Gavarni and of Daumier, but with a strong erotic note from the start, and with a pronounced revelation of his By interest in sombre and dark grounds and largeness of design. His earlier satires he was married and his repute established. 1 86 1 on the classics and on the romantic schools were chiefly in lithoWith his famous attack on the scandals of the monasteries graphy. in Les Trappistes, he turned from lithography to the etching acid and His entered upon his great series of etchings and engravings. line etchings are weak comand the strength was always in mass Restless and energetic, Rops seemed pared with his mass work. unable to settle anywhere. From Thoze, his wife's chateau, he made for Brussels; from Brussels he made for Paris, held by perpetual discontent and disquietude. At Paris he met Daumier. Rops was a student all his life, ever bent on learning and on increasing his powers. From 1869 to 1874 he poured forth some of his finest plates. In 1875 he founded in Belgium the "International Society of Engravers." Living between Paris and Belgium, he made a journey By the end of 1878 he to the Tyrol, returning to the Ardennes. He now took a had created a large mass of studies of the nude. Marlotte by Paris, where he gave forth the famous Woman house at ivith the Hog, a large plate in colours. About 1880 he made for Seville and Granada. He steadily increased his craftsmanship to the end, coming to high achievement in aquatint. It is no easy matter to describe Rops' plates, as he invented with Rossenfosse a method of " Vernis-Mou " to produce
university as a gay student, given
to pleasure,

WHEREIN
A TRUCULENT

women.

At twenty-three

this

man

FELLOW TURNS

THE EYES OF FRANCE
TO SOMBRE
REALITIES

;

the effect of pencil and his essays in dry-point, eau-forte, and aquatint are affairs of technique that require the craftsman's skill to define and as he employed on his plates water-colours, crayon,
; ;

pastel, ink,

and body-colour [gouache) his range is most intricate. famous " Cent Croquis " he himself engraved but one, the Fair of the Loves the rest were engraved after his death. In 1891-92 Rops began to suffer that paralysis of the brain that was to destroy His sight was him. The first attack passed, he went to Provence. attacked. The madness that fell on his friend Maupassant caused him severe suffering. He wrought a few fine plates in 1893 and Passing his winters in Provence, his summers at Corbeil 1894. He outside Paris, death took him on the 24th of August 1897. His Scandal, the Satan Solving lived to see France supreme in art. Tares, the Absinthe^dr inker, the Woman Crucified, the Coup de la 107

Of

his

;

PAINTING
REALISM
Jarretiere, the Sunday, the

AND
jYE

PRE-

the

Dame au

Pantin

;

Head of an Old Flemish Woman, the Sphinx, the fine nude of the Masques Parisiens in which

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

the flesh is wrought with miraculous power, a plate wrecked, as so often by Rops, with tedious, puerile, and distracting details ; as is Attrapade, women the fine Ulmpuissance d' Aimer, the powerful lyrical etching of La Grande Lyre in quarrelling on the stairs ; the

V

which the

the brutal strings of the lyre ascend into the heavens and the largely powerful Le Gandin Ivre the fine Gleaners but designed Woman with the Hog, show the wide range of the man who gave all his gifts to the utterance of the call of sex.
; ; ;

[o8

I
}
i
I

V

CHAPTER

XIII

WHEREIN THE BRITISH PAINTERS TAKE THE FIGURE INTO THE OPEN AIR, AND REALISM PASSES INTO THE GLAMOUR OF THE SUNLIGHT

ENGLISH REALISM OF THE FIFTIES CALLED PRE-RAPHAELISM
That
most foreign writers should be utterly baffled by the English Pre-Raphaelite movement, and mistake its significance, its intention,

WHEREIN THE

and its results, is not difficult to understand when it is seen how BRITISH vaguely the whole movement is understood by our own writers. PAINTERS The confusion is due to the complication that from the very begin- TAKE THE ning it was a vague effort involving two absolutely different inten- FIGURE INTO THE tions, which inevitably burst asunder in a very few years. OPEN AIR,

THE ENGLISH REALISTS
E X T Y
^^ colourist of high rank, one of the in his century, Etty's modest character His masterly are of the heroic essence. Think of the position that neglected.
'

^!^?r.c.. REALISM

PASSES
'^^"^
_

1787-1849 '

A

great painters of the nude

GLAMOUR qf THE

™^

and sincerity and simplicity gifts have been all too long would be given to Etty if

SUNLIGHT

he had been Born to

Frenchman of York on the loth of March 1787, the boy William Etty, in 1798, at eleven, was 'prenticed to a painter of Hull for seven weary years. In 1806, at nineteen, he went to London to his uncle in Lombard Street, to work for the Academy
a
!

a miller

schools,

studying the plaster-casts at Gianelli's shop. Etty and Collins entered the Academy schools together in 1807. Etty's uncle now paid the fees to apprentice Etty to Lawrence, who shockingly neglected his pupils, and Etty went through the deeps His year with Lawrence over, he went straight to of despondency. Nature, and copied Old Masters the while for schooling and to the end of his days he sat as a simple student at the Academy life-school.
;

109

A HISTORY
REALISM

He

missed

all

the prizes of art
after year,

— he would,

naturally.

His pictures

AND
ITE

PRE-

were rejected year

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

At last, in 1820, the Coral-Finders, and in 1821 his Cleopatra, made his reputation. So in 1822 he made for Italy, Venice in particular casting its glamour over him. In 1824 he was back in showed his Pandora crowned by the Seasons London was made In the summer of 1849 a collection A.R.A., and in 1828 R.A. of his works in London surprised the public with his great gifts of but he died in his native York on the 13th of November colour of the same year, a bachelor of retired and simple ways, who The National Gallery has his had won to considerable wealth.
; ; ;

Bather.

To understand the Pre-Raphaelite movement it is necessary to grasp fully the fact that Pre-Raphaelite academism was but a small part of a movement which had for its far greater aim the intention of realism and colour under full open daylight. and It was from Etty that the young Millais learnt colour Madox Brown owned his indebtedness. They all strove to follow They struggled to acquire the subtlety of his Etty's flesh-painting. touch and his astounding range of colour from his three or four Frith also, but Millais above all, was his worshipper and paints. Etty it was who drew Millais to his gospel of early mandisciple.

hood "to go

direct to Nature."

LEWIS
1805 - 1876

John Frederick Lewis, R.A,, known in his early days as "Spanish Lewis," went thereafter to the East, always interested in the sunlight, and painting with minute care. He forestalled the detailed painting of the Pre-Raphaelites, their realism, and their
gem-like colour.

PRE-RAPHAELISM
canvas

Meanwhile, the domestic anecdote or pretentious historical was being produced by Augustus Egg, by Poole, by Mulready, by Cope, Maclise, and their like. Now, since so-called Pre-Raphaelism contains two great movements the vital stream of Realism, and the reactionary stream of Primitive-academism we had better first glance at the Primitiveacademic intention which was setting in all over Europe, since it is the most serious threat to art to-day.

1

10

OF PAINTING
about the end of the seventeenthe Houses of Parliament Primitive-academism was in the were built in the Gothic ideal. In France Poussin had called Raphael an ass, and even air. By Raphael-worshipping Ingres had cast back his hard eyes.

A

pseudo-Gothic ideal had

set in

hundreds, led by Horace Walpole.

Then

WHEREIN THE
BRITISH

PAINTERS

TAKE THE
FIGURE INTO THE

1820 Berlin was buying Primitives. The group of German artists at Rome, called " Nazarenes," Of sought the foundations of art in mimicry of the Primitives. " Nazarenes," Overbeck, Veit, Schnorr, Cornelius, and Pfiihler, these the leaders were Cornelius (1783-1867) and Overbeck (1789subjects of a somewhat frigid kind resulted; 1869). they were devout Catholics who worked in cells like Fra Angelico, hoping thereby to snare his genius. There were vigils, fastings, and and flagellations. They had little concern with Nature Sir Francis Palgrave seems to abhorred the nude model as a sin. have been smitten with the affectation, for he published in 1 840 the doctrines of the reaction, which Ruskin afterwards made the " basis of his Modern Painters, and clamoured for the " arts and crafts that afterwards became the gospel of Morris and Burne-Jones. Now, the term Pre-Raphaelite has been so widely used both by this school itself and for other schools, that I here intend to use it in its only significant sense as being a deliberate intention to paint in the manner of the Italians before Raphael. shall see that this was a definite part of the intention of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, but not its first intention, nor long persisted in by the whole three

OPEN

AIR,

AND
REALISM
PASSES

Scriptural

;

THE GLAMOUR OF THE
INTO

SUNLIGHT

We

original

members.
(i

806-1 864), born at Aberdeen, 19th September 1806, to a physician of that town, studied art secretly whilst at the Marischal College, saved enough to take him to London with a letter to Lawrence and thereafter went to the Academy schools. In 1825 he was in Rome, went back to Aberdeen in 1826, then back to Rome the next year, where he met the German "Nazarenes." Back again in 1828, Dyce won to wide success in portraiture at Edinburgh. In Italy again in 1832, he became A.R.S.A. in 1835 he wrote on art education, and on the creation of the national Schools of Design he was made the head. He competed for the Westminster decorations and painted the Baptism of Ethelbert in the Lords (1846), and the series of Arthur frescoes in the Queen's Robing Room. He did a large mass of
;

William Dyce, R.A.

;

;

decoration.

He became

A. R.A.

in

1844,

R.A.

in

1848

;

and

refused the presidency on the death of Shee.

Dyce was an ardent
Ill

High Churchman,

a learned

man,

a fine musician.

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

a far greater than Dycc, Madox Brown, it was who gave its vital impetus in Realism to the coming school. A group of young men drew together vaguely as the PreRaphaelite Brotherhood, weary of the banalities of classic-academism, and sought to bring back English art to relation with life. Yet so steeped was painting in the Old Masters, spite of all Hogarth's thunders and Constable's warnings, that these very men a galaxy of genius whose intention ivas modern sought to utter it in an academic craftsmanship older than the academism they despised. The Pre-Raphaelite artists, with a sincere intention to be Realistic, could not create a new form to utter it even though Turner was before them as a stupendous creator of the new orchestra whereby They therefore sought for a certain freshness to utter the new art. of manner in the style before the classical, which had become a boredom they naturally went to the century before Raphael that was the most obvious path to unobviousness. The Englishmen went back and steeped themselves in the scattered unrelated details of the earlier Italians. The first blight that fell upon them, almost of necessity, was symbolism the mistaking of sensing in Art for intellectual appeal. At once thev stepped outside the limits of painting into the art of literature. Their own age receded, and they tried to see it in terms of Renaissance Florence.

But

really

;

MADOX BROWN
I82I

1893

There was born at Calais on the i6th of April 1821 to Ford Brown, a purser who had retired trom the British Navy, a child, Ford Madox Brown, perhaps the genius of the whole movement. Now he went as a youth to Bruges to the Academy there, to learn thence to Ghent thence to the Antwerp Academy the mysteries under Baron Wappers and whilst under Wappers he painted in In 1841 he sent the Giaour s Confession 1837 his Job and his Friends. to the Royal Academy, and was painting his Execution of Mary About 1842 he went to Paris for three years' study Queen of Scots. Of 1 844 at the Louvre, and came under the glamour of Delacroix. was his Bringing the Body of Harold to the Conqueror for the West;

;

minster Hall competition, and other works, with Justice in 1845. From Paris he made for Italy for the benefit of his wife's health,

He desired to she dying in Paris on his way to London in 1845. get back to Nature, but the Nazarenes in Rome despised Nature.

He

could find no master to lead

him

to Nature, so

he

set to

work

to

112

p

OF PAINTING
He went first of all to the white canvas discover her for himself. At twenty-five, in instead of the brown as ground for painting. 1846, Madox Brown came to settle in London, with designs for
his

WHEREIN

THE
BRITISH

WickUffe and Chaucer^ and
IVickliffe,

set

to

work on

his

Our Ladye of PAINTERS

It was in 1 847 that he painted his oil-sketch for TAKE THE which, on being shown, drew a letter of warm enthusi- FIGURE asm from a young Italian in London called Rossetti, who begged INTO THE him to teach him colour for six months. Madox Brown, then OPEN AIR, unknown, and suspecting irony from some flippant youth, sallied AND out with a stout stick to his address to chasten him, found a wild REALISM enthusiast instead, and refusing all fees, he undertook to train him PASSES so to Madox Brown in the March of 1848 Rossetti went. INTO THE there gathered together the youths Rossetti, GLAMOUR That year of 1 848 Holman Hunt, and Millais, and banded themselves into the " Pre- OF THE Raphaelite Brotherhood." Madox Brown was its father, though SUNLIGHT never a member. Madox Brown was now to reject all forerunners and create open-

Saturday Night.

the

air painting of great power.

of the youngsters caught the inspirer of the 85 1 he painted the Pretty Baa Lambs in open-air effects, and the unfinished Take Tour Son, Sir. The fine Washing of Peter s Feet was of 1852, in which year he begun to paint his famous tfork wherein a new art arises in England, which Work he finished eleven years later, and his great and powerful The Last of England, painted from himself, his wife, and infant child, in the open air, regardless of all precedent, and suggested by seeing Woolner off to Australia a haunting, powerful impression in which the stern resolve and pathosof the emigrant is rendered with immortal phrasing this he finished three years afterwards in both masterpieces he comes to grips with Reality, and paints poems of Life, hampered only by an antique instrument for the utterance of it. Though painting literary romance the while, he, in 1878, began his famous twelve historical paintings for the Town Hall of Manchester which he worked upon until the year of his death in London on the 6th of October 1893. Madox Brown by 1 840 was making the play of light during the different parts of the day utter the colour-moods fitting to those times of the day. But be it remembered that whilst he encouraged the youngsters he sternly refused to join any clique as being against the essential quality of a man's artistic utterance the development of personality. He could not carry on, had not then the power to carry on, the development of the gamut of art where the greatest had laid it down and his sole salvation was to go back to earlier
school.

The enthusiasm
In
1

VOL. viii

;

113

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND PRERAPHAELITE

ACADEMISM

to get in touch with life at such a point on the backward he could reach. He then rapidly added the colour-hariTionics of Turner, essaying to put his figure in the open air, and to utter the colour resulting therefrom in brilliant and broken form. Madox Brown worked on with heroic dignity, unrecognised, passed over by Ruskin and the vogue that hailed with enthusiasm all that was reactionary and bad in the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. In him England brought forth one of her greatest masters, who wrought colour like flashing jewels, and snared the sun to his canvas. His greatly gifted son Oliver died at nineteen but his daughters Mrs. Hueffer and Mrs. W. M. Rossetti inherited also something of their great father's genius.

realism

''°^^

^s

;

THE PRE-RAPHAELITE BROTHERHOOD HOLMAN HUNT
1827

-

1910

William Holman Hunt was born in the April of 1827 to a warehouseman of London in Wood Street, Cheapside. He had to struggle in youth against his father's desire to make a clerk Leaving school at twelve or so, he went as clerk of him. to an auctioneer, who by good luck was interested in art and encouraged the lad. At sixteen he went as assistant to the London ot a Manchester calico-printer called Cobden, who was to agent become immortal as the champion of Free Trade, where a brotherclerk and he indulged in drawing flies on the frosted glass
overlord into brushing them off. Much against of his family he now spent his salary on paintinglessons from a portraitist. The loss of money by his father in a lawsuit looked like wrecking the eager young fellow's hopes but by doggedly painting portraits after office-hours he paid his way and worked at the British Museum. Twice rejected for the Academy schools, he at last won through in the July of 1844. Here the youth of seventeen met the boy Millais, then fifteen, and Rossetti. Then in 1 848 came the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, and with the generous money aid of Millais he painted one of his finest pictures, T6e Hireling Shepherd, the year that Millais painted It is remarkable that, whilst he never mastered a certain his Ophelia. hardness, Holman Hunt in this open-air picture, in his effort to utter sunlight and out-of-door lighting, employs and masters the broken colour which was later to create an astounding movement in France. The Hireling Shepherd marks an epoch in the developto trick

their

the desire

;

/

114

XIV

HOLMAN HUNT
1827
-

1910

"THE SCAPEGOAT"
(Sir

Cvthbert Quilter's Collection)

" The Apostles regarded it (the Scapegoat) as a symbol of the Christian Church, teaching both them and their followers submission and patience under affliction. One important part of the ceremony was the binding a scarlet fillet round the head of this second goat when he was conducted away from the Temple, hooted at with execration, and stoned until he was lost to sight
.
. .

in the wilderness.

The High

Priest kept a portion of this scarlet

fillet in

the

Temple, with the belief that it would become white if the corresponding fillet on the fugitive goal had done so, as a signal that the Almighty had forgiven their iniquities. The whole image is a perfect one of the persecution and trials borne by the Apostolic Church, and perhaps by the Church, as subtly
. .

.

understood, to this day."

" Azazel '' it was painted near Oosdoom " Every minute the mountains became more gorgeous and Afar all .solemn, the whole scene more unlike anything ever portrayed. .seemed of the brilliancy and preciousness of jewels, uhile near, it proved to be only salt and burnt lime, with decayed trees and broken branches brought

The

picture

was

originally called

:

by the Dead Sea.

down by

the

rivers

feeding

the

lake.

Skeletons of animals, which had

perished for the most part in crossing the Jordan and the Jabbok, had been

swept here, and lay salt-covered, so that birds and beasts of prey left them untouched. It was a most appropriate scene for my subject, and each minute
I

rejoiced

more

in

my

work.'
kV.

H. H.

OF PAINTING
ment of painting which has never received
its

right recognition.
;

WHEREIN

time the critics had been assailing the youngsters THE Hunt's father heard nothing but sneers about his son's art, and the BRITISH young fellow^ had serious thoughts of emigrating to the colonies. PAINTERS The Hireling Shepherd was hung upon the line. TAKE THE The Valentine and Sylvia saw him return to illustration from FIGURE which the Hireling Shepherd had freed him. The merchant-princes INTO THE of Lancashire now and for years became noble patrons of art. OPEN AIR, The making of gem-like colours into pictures in the sordid AND purlieus of Fitzroy Square was at an end. Then came the friend- REALISM ship of the Combes at Oxford, who were also to become loyal patrons PASSES to him. Thereafter came The Strayed Sheep, the Canon Jenkins, and INTO THE the Claudia and Isabella, which freed him of his debt to Millais and GLAMOUR the debt to his landlady, which had been an agony to him. OF THE Then he painted the world-famous Light of the World, bought SUNLIGHT The by Mr. Combe, and given to Keble College at Oxford. Awakened Conscience of 1854 followed, and Hunt made for the East to paint sacred subjects " on the spot," returning after two years in the February of 1856 with his Scapegoat. He came home to find he could not sell the picture and then himself wellnigh forgot his father died. By the help of Mr. Combe he painted the Finding So he of Christ in the Temple, for which he received a large price. made for the Holy Land again for several years. In 1867 he was exhibiting, and painted the Isabella and the Pot of Basil. From 1869 until 1874 he was at work on his Shadow of the Cross. He was still to paint his Triumph of the Innocents. In black and white he made one of the supreme designs of this great age of illustration
to
this
; ;

Up

Lady of Shalott. Both Millais and Holman Hunt, as well as Madox Brown, rid but they painting of low tones, and increased its orchestration could not realise colour as a whole impression as Turner had done.
in his
;

Holman Hunt added

to

his artistic intention a further source

of

danger, the didactic aim, and, most dangerous of all, symbolism ; thus he brought the Reason into play where it has little power of utterance. It is exactly in the degree that his pictures require a " book o' the words " that he fails.

MILLAIS
1829 - 1896

Born at Southampton on the 8th of June 1829, to a father and mother from Jersey in the Channel Islands, John Everett Millais
passed his
first six

years of childhood in that island, going with his

115

a

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
IXE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

He early displayed family to Dinan, in Brittany, thereafter (1835). The child was but eight when his family settled in artistic gifts. London at Gower Street, and the boy was sent at the advice of Sir Martin Shee to Sass's art school, winning at nine the silver medal of the Society of Arts, surprising the audience and the Duke of Sussex who was presenting the prizes, when a child in a pinafore stepped At eleven he went to the forward on the call of "Mr. Millais." Academy schools. At seventeen he painted the Pizarro seizing the Inca of Peru (1846), and at eighteen won the gold medal, the year in which he also painted The Widow's Mite for the Westminster Hall The young fellow now realised that he was on the competition. wrong road to mastery. The following year of 1848 he was one of the three leaders of the seven artists who became the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, with Nature as their aim, and the intensity and simplicity of the early Italians as their scheme of craftsmanship. In 1850 the Brotherhood began the issue of the short-lived
Millais' Germ, in which they gave forth their views on art. but his Ferdinand and Isabella had been received with tolerance Then in 1851 came Carpenters Shop (1849) was bitterly assailed. Mariana in the the exquisite Bridesmaid (or All Hallows^ E'en). Moated Grange and the Woodman^s Daughter, in spite of their literary aim, announced the coming power of the man. Literary he remained throughout his great period, but the Huguenot and exquisite Ophelia The Ophelia, of 1852, his twenty-third year, reveal a living art. painted from Miss Siddall, afterwards wife to Rossetti, is a superb and revealing an intense masterpiece of colour, glittering like gems Realism of high poetic power the Realism that must go before Impressionism is born. In his Ophelia Millais, and in his Last oj England Madox Brown, and in his Hireling Shepherd Holman Hunt created a forceful and realistic art without parallel in Europe
;

;

modern Realism.
and Millais, on the last day of the sitting, forgetting to fill the lamps that kept the water warm. Miss Siddall received the chill that set up the rheumatic attack which at last brought about the suffering from which she sought relief in an Millais gave forth the overdose of the drug that ended her life. Order of Release and Proscribed Royalist in 1853, in which he reveals more breadth. The Academy had with rare courage elected the brilliant young Millais, but the election had been quashed owing to In 1855 Mrs. his age. In 1853 he was again elected A.R.A. Ruskin had her marriage with Ruskin annulled, and Millais married
a bath
;

Realism indeed paid Miss Siddall as she lay in

a full price for Ophelia.

Millais painted

116

XV
MILLAI8
1829-1896

"OPHELIA"
(Tate GftLLtRv)

OF PAINTING
The Autumn Leaves and the immortal Blind G ir/ v/erc of 1856. WHEREIN was now famous. The iTa/e oj' Rest, Black Brunswicker, First THE Sermon, and St. Agnes' Eve followed amidst growing enthusiasm BRITISH and in 1863, at thirty-four, he was elected R.A., entering upon a PAINTERS wide popularity and success that brought him fortune. The TAKE THE Sir Isumbras at the Ford, the Raskin (1854), the Vale of Rest FIGURE haunting In INTO THE (1858), mark, the end of his so-called Pre-Raphaelite effort. 1867 he was painting realistic detail; suddenly in 1868 he burst OPEN AIR
her.

Millais

;

forth as an impressionist with his fine Souvenir of Velazquez. In 1 87 1 he essayed to paint landscape in his Chill October, in

AND
REALISM

But he was now rapidly advancing PASSES as a portrait-painter, of which was one of his masterpieces, Mrs. INTO THE In 1874 he painted his virile The North-West GLAMOUR Bischoffsheim of 1873. Passage, in 1 876 the Teoman of the Guard, and the Princes in the qF THE Tower \Vi 1878. Fortune came to him, and wide popularity; and SUNLIGHT the frank, kindly, and downright man slowly lost his fine qualities in a somewhat commonplace style. Made an officer of the Legion of Honour in 1878, a baronet in 1885, and honoured by almost every nation in Europe, he became President of the Royal Academy in but even as he stepped into the 1896, on the death of Leighton office he was a dying man, he knew that cancer had fallen upon him, and he died on the 13th of August 1896. In the last of Millais that was buried in St. Paul's beside his dead friend Leighton, there was laid to rest the body of a noble-

which

his limitations appear.

;

hearted and forceful personality. He rapidly rejected Primitiveacademism, and from detailed Realism advanced towards a broader and more impressionistic vision, which, whilst he never reached in it to as great heights as he had done in his earlier manner, at least yielded the Souvenir of Velazquez, The Convalescent, and The NorthWest Passage, in which Trelawny, the friend of Byron and Shelley, appears. But Millais had shot his bolt.

ROSSETTI
1828

-

1882

and refugee, Gabriele Rossetti and his wife Frances Polidori, in London on the 12th of May 1828, a son Gabriel Charles Dante Rossetti, a precocious child, who by sheer genius and personal force was to be chiefly instrumental in Leaving King's College setting back the genius of British art.
to an Italian poet

There was born

School, where his father was professor of Italian, the young fellow in 1 841-2 went to Cary's studio in Bloomsbury and the Academy Whilst there he was more interested in the work of schools in 1 846. Gavarni than the teaching ; and there he met two young students,

117

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

taken lessons from themselves together in primitive-academic intention as the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood in 1848, with its secret signs and all the other paraphernalia of a secret society that Rossetti's Italian blood and fancy made a part Four lesser men were of the group. The aim of the compact. " was Realism. The German Pre-Raphaelism of the " Nazarenes being their sampler to a certain degree. Rossetti shared a studio with Holman Hunt Under Holman Hunt's guidance the young Rossetti painted his first picture, The of 1849-50 being the fine 'Ecce Girlhood of Mary Virgin, in 1849 The critics, including Dickens, Ancilla Domini (Annunciation). Rossetti and Holman Hunt paid a visit bitterly assailed this work. then came the publication of The Germ. to Belgium and Paris Rossetti came back to England to find himself frantically abused. He was miserably poor. He had as yet sold but one picture, and He now that to the rich patron to whom his aunt was governess. seriously thought of becoming a telegraphic clerk, but found the He called the unsaleable Annunciation instrument difficult to learn. his "blessed white eyesore"; turned his back on religious subjects, In the November of and opened his Keats, Dante, and other poets. Help was at hand. 1 852 he took rooms at Chatham Place, Blackfriars. Of essentially an illustrator of ballads and legends. Rossetti was 1853 ^^^ ^^^ only effort in Realism in relation to life, the wellknown Found. Holman Hunt went In 1853 the Brotherhood was broken up. Woolner had Millais was elected to the Academy to Palestine Madox Brown alone remained to Rossetti. gone to Australia Ruskin now came into his life to save him he became his patron and Swinburne and the Morris family as well as friend in 1854 increased the number of his circle. In i860 Rossetti married a milliner. Miss Siddall, his model, whose haunting face did much for his type of womanhood she took on the loth of February 1862 an overdose of laudanum and died the next morning, but had sat to him for five years before his

Millais and Holman Hunt. Rossetti having Madox Brown, the three young fellows banded

;

;

;

;

;

;

He was pouring forth poems that are as much rich marriage. The the haunting painting as his paintings are rich verse Blessed Damozel, and Sister Helen, and his writings for The Germ In bitter sorrow he buried his first volume of manu(1850). In 1854 Rossetti started the script poems with his dead wife. public interest in Malory's Morte d" Arthur. glowing colourist, Rossetti created a resonant use of colour-

A

118

XVI

ROSSETTI
1828- 1882

"ECCE ANCILLA DOMINI"
(Tate Gallkry)
From
ihe oil painting (28J
in.

x 17

in.)

painied

in

1850.

Slightly letouclied in 1873 for the then owner,

Mr Graham.

x\

j>00^^^^j

OF PAINTING
music
;

all

his

own,

if

founded on old Italian

art,

with

little

relation

to his age, redolent of a sweet, sad fragrance of the years that are gone an alien art in an alien land, haunted by the longings of an exile for a make-believe land of which he dreamed all his years. Without the sense of the limitations of any artistic utterance, he painted oils like water-colours painted literature and wrote colour
;

WHEREIN THE
BRITISH

PAINTERS

TAKE THE
FIGURE INTO THE

and water-colours like oils. In the Christmas of 1855 an Oxford youth called Burne-Jones came to London and met Rossetti, whom he and a fellow-student at Oxford, William Morris, had began to worship. The fellowship of
the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood now bore fruit in creating at Exeter College, Oxford, a still more powerful fraternity, whose " crusade and holy warfare against the age" was to have a wide effect undreamed of by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Ruskin had already interested Rossetti in his East-End enterprise of taking art amongst the workmen.

OPEN

AIR,

AND
REALISM
pASSES

intO THE GLAMOUR qF THE

SUNLIGHT

The Arthurian

legend was the symbol of their cause. Rossetti flung himself into the new movement. In 1857 Morris took him to Oxford; and he entered into the project of the decorations of the debating hall of the Union Society which so rapidly perished. It was at Oxford that he met Miss Burden, who afterwards married Morris,

Of 1858 was his of Rossetti's heroines. the Pharisee. Of 1859 is the fine Magdalene at the Door of Simon Bocca Baciata, in which the face of Miss Fanny Cornforth first appears, whom he painted again and again, bringing her to eternal fame in his Lilith. Of 1 860 was his Dr. Johnson at the Mitre of
and

who

sat

for several

;

1861 his delightful lovers kissing, called Roman de la Rose, and his two fine designs for his sister's Goblin Market, the frontispiece being It should be remembered that Morris's first effort at a woodcut. Morris and Company were now bringing Rossetti much work ; Ruskin had practically given up all patronage of him long ago. The tragic death of his wife on the iith of February 1862 made Rossetti seek another home, and he at last found 16 Cheyne Walk, called Queen's House, where he went with Swinburne and George Meredith. Meredith soon left but Swinburne there wrote It was in the garden of "Atalanta in Calydon," and other poems. house that Rossetti gathered the " Zoo " which has been the this
;

source of much anecdote. became freed Rossetti was now being sought by collectors develop along his own from the Morris movement and could lines. He filled his home with a mixture of many styles of furnishments, and with Whistler "discovered" Japanese art and china.
; ;

Here, with his heart-hunger for his dead wife, he painted his 119

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

memory in 1863. Thereafter came a series of which Adam's first wife, the Lady Lilith^ combing her hair is the supreme achievement, painted in 1864. Of 1866 was the famous The Beloved. Joli Cceur and the superbly designed Motm Rosa followed, then the Loving Cup in 1867. Of 1868, the y^^r that his health broke and his eyesight was threatened, was the portrait of Mrs. William Morris. In 1869 he was attacked with sleeplessness. In the October his book of poems was taken from his wife's grave and published in 1870. Buchanan's attack upon the poems in " The Fleshly School of Poetry," drove the ailing man to believe that there was a conspiracy against him. His habit of taking chloral for sleeplessness had now become a vice. Buchanan's
Beata Beatrix in her
single figures, of

hint of unmentionable vices set the drugged
said to

man

brooding.

He

is

have attempted
;
1

suicide.

He

saw

a hostile

crowd

in every

spies lurked behind every wall. 872 he went to the old Elizabethan manor-house of Kelmscott in Gloucestershire to his friend Morris, and got to work again in 1874 he came back to London. Mrs. Morris from 1870 figures much as his heroine, in the Mariana and the like. His Pandora was of 1 871, as was his famous Dante's Dream, his largest work. Mrs. Morris sat for the Proserpine.

gathering
In

;

On Rossetti's return to London in 1874, the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co. was broken up, and became William Morris only, leading to estrangement with Madox Brown ; Rossetti also drifted away from Morris. Rossetti wandered hither and thither. In 1877 he had a severe illness, went to Heme Bay, recovered, and returned to London, but shut himself up in his house in Cheyne Walk, where a few close friends alone visited him, including Theodore Watts, Whistler, Legros, Shields, and Sandys. Of 1876 was the Blessed Damozel of 1877 the Astarte Syriaca and the Sea-Spell. In the September of 1881, Rossetti with the faithful Hall Caine went to Cumberland for a change hurriedly returned but, broken by drugs, was taken in the February of 1882 to Birchingtonon-Sea, where he died on the loth of April. Rossetti had genius and his power of uttering emotion raised his art to mastery, but it was rather the emotions roused by the art of literature than by life. He saw life always through the art of With the vast orchestra of modern art he had nothing to others. He was a master of olddo, and was incapable of employing it. world instruments, dragged out of museums, and restrung for his thrumming, out of which he drew the ghosts of the dead Past that
;
;

;

;

120

Q

OF PAINTING
son of an Italian, he went to Sass's in youth, translator of Dante, held sway, and he left his school to conquer English culture with the book of Dante under his arm, and wellnigh destroyed the native vision with

haunted them.

The

where Cary, the son of the

WHEREIN THE
BRITISH

PAINTERS

He was the one true Pre-Raphaelite TAKE Renaissance Italian spectacles. and he was and never became anything else but a FIGURE of the lot It is significant that under Madox Brown he INTO primitive-academic. delighted in the copying of pictures, but fretted at painting still- OPEN AIR, life. Yet it was a part of the strange paradox of his genius that he AND that REALISM could and did people his art with ghosts from a bygone day he could make song out of the twilight of the past that his power PASSES of imagination was so great that he could give us the fragrance of a INTO dead day and still more wonderful that, with all his hesitations in the craft of painting, he did deliberately and by instinct move oF towards the modern effort to break up colour, and to compel colour SUNLIGHT to rouse the eye, as the ear is stirred by concord of sweet sounds.
; ; ; ;

THE

THE

THE GLAMOUR THE

Of
as

the lesser
F.

recruits,

members of the P.R.B. whom Rossetti beat up G. Stephens gave up indifferent painting for in;

Woolner the sculptor was a poet to the firm ; brother seems to have been biographer and general secretary and the sluggish Collinson, after suffering much dragging out of bed to see the moon shine, " got religion," and retired to Stonyhurst, when Deverell was elected in his place, but died young. An almost part of the brotherhood was Rossetti's greatly gifted sister Christina Rossetti. Of the detailed Realists, wholly untouched by Primitivedifferent criticism

Rossetti's

;

academism, was Frith.

FRITH
1819-1909

William Powell Frith, C.V.O., R.A., was born

to a

man-

servant in the house of Mrs. Lawrence of Studley Royal in the village of Aldfield in West Yorkshire on January 9, 18 19, the father later, in 1826, becoming landlord of The Dragon Inn at

Harrogate. When a boy at school at Knaresborough, the small Frith at seven showed signs of an artistic gift, and his father requested that all his other schooling should give way to drawing. At school at Dover later, the boy was copying prints. The father was set on the lad becoming an artist, checked his desire to become an auctioneer, brought him to London in 1835, where, after two
VOL. VIII

121

A HISTORY
REALISM
years under Sass, he joined the
portraits, tried his

Academy
from

schools,

was early making

AND
IXE

PRE-

hand

at

subjects

literature,

won

Dickens's

RAPHAEL-

first

ACADEMISJVI

approval with his Dolly Varden in 1842, having shown in 1840 his His first hit was picture, Malvolio, at the Royal Academy. made in 1843 with the Vicar of Wakejield. In 1845 he was elected Two years to the Academy, of which he became R.A. in 1852. thereafter he painted Ramsgate Sands, which was bought by the

1858 he knew a wide sensation with his famous Derby Day, and four years thereafter painted his Railway Station. The Road to Ruin in 878 revealed loss of power. In passages, such as the central lady in the Derby Day, he not only proves

Queen; and

in

1

himself a colourist, but an excellent painter of life. It is to be noted that the Pre-Raphaelites were Realists first ; and only after they had gathered together was it that, on looking at some prints of the frescoes at the Campo Santo in Pisa, did they become Pre-Raphaelites in aim. Even whilst, in intention, they only took artistic utterance as far as Hogarth had taken it, they in reality, coming to grips with life in order to create the illusion of life under full sunlight, vastly increased the gamut of painting. Their failure lay in dissipating Impressionism by breaking the Holman Hunt and Millais impression upon warring details. should have " gone to Nature " before Raphael, considering that the men before Raphael did not come within leagues as close to Nature as the masters after Raphael Hals and Velazquez and Rembrandt and Constable and Turner heaven alone knows, since by their very lack of the gamut of painting they could not possibly so go The young fellows condemned Rembrandt, adored Ary Scheffer made Delaroche a god, and in general reorganised ,and kicked the world about for a few short years, rearranged the universe, and drew up a list of the only immortals headed by Jesus Christ and ending

Why

!

!

with Tennyson

!

Of the disciples of detailed Realism were Arthur Hughes (1830) who was

several
a

good artists. mere lad when the

P.R.B. took shape, wrought an art closely akin to that of Millais. His April Love is famous. Sir Noel Paton (i 821-1908), the friend of Millais, gave himself up to religious and fairy subjects. Born at Dunfermline, he came to the Academy schools in 1842. He was knighted in 1866. Charles Allston Collins, son of William Collins, R.A., and brother to Wilkie Collins, painted in the manner of Millais Convent Thoughts and the like works, but died early. W. S. Burton, best known by his Wounded Cavalier and his haunting face of the Christ 122

OF PAINTING
behind prison bars in The World's Gratitude^ was to suffer neglect, WHEREIN beginning with winning the gold medal THE ill-health, and ill-fortune schools, he has been dogged by sorrow and BRITISH at the Academy bad luck. PAINTERS The art of William Lindsay Windus of Liverpool was TAKE THE silenced for many years by a great sorrow, after a brilliant beginning. FIGURE Mathew James Lawless, born in Dublin in 1837, learnt the INTO THE mysteries in London, and, though afflicted with deafness and ill- OPEN AIR, health, and destined' to an early death, made a mark in illustration. AND Consumption took him in 1864. Holman Hunt strongly influenced REALISM W. J. Webbe also Robert Martineau, who was doomed to an PASSES
;
;

early death.

Others began their careers under the Pre-Raphaelite influence, and afterwards drifted from it Henry Wallis, best known for his dead Chatterton John Brett, A.R.A. (1830-1902), who first made his mark with his fine Stonebreaker before he became a sea-painter (he was the son of an officer in the 12th Lancers) Henry Moore (i 831-1895), another sea-painter; Inchbold Seddon ; William Davis Waller Paton, R.S.A. ; G. D. Leslie Val Prinsep ; Storey J. D. Watson, best known for his masterly drawing of Ash Wednesday H. W. B. Davis, R.A. Philip Calderon, R.A. ; whilst the Scotsmen, Sir William Fettes Douglas Hugh Cameron, R.S.A. James Archer Joseph Henderson and the powerful broad work of a great Scottish painter, William M'Taggart, R.S.A., began in the Pre-Raphaelite tradition with such fine canvases as The Thorn in the Foot. Sir J. D. Linton is of this school,
:
-,

INTO THE GLAMOUR OF THE

SUNLIGHT

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

DETAILED REALISM OF TO-DAY
the Detail-Realists, in Millais' vein, are Byam Shaw, Eleanor Fortescue-Brickdale, and Katherine Cameron whilst Mrs. Young Hunter is one of its most exquisite disciples,
;

Of

her husband J. Young Hunter nor is the slowly produced and gem-like work of Cadogan Cowper readily passed by. The whole group of these painters is remarkable for brilliant colour, for mastery of daylight, and for poetic sense. Frank Craig is one of the most gifted with imagination and craftsmanship of the group, combining something of the Sargentesque side of Abbey's art with his realism.
as is
;

123

PAINTING
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

CAYLEY ROBINSON
1862

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

of pure genius is Cayley Robinson who, whilst he an antique style, breathes a modern utterance, and his art employs He gives voice to a haunting poetry is at close grips with life. and his original and that is a part of modern Detail-Realism He art raises him to a high place in the art of our age. powerful combines mass with detail, and is in some ways quite an artist apart.
;

A man

forth a powerful emotional intensity difficult to and the spirit of it is so remarkably modern that it describe perhaps pronounces the somewhat archaic form wherein he utters And its Its appeal is as forceful as its form is rhythmic. it. of lyrical and at times tragic power seems to be enhanced intensity

His

art

gives

;

by

its restraint.

124

CHAPTER XIV
WHEREIN WE WALK WITH
ENGLISH GIANTS OF THE VICTORIAN YEARS

TWO

CLASSICAL-ACADEMISM ALLIED TO PRE-RAPHAELISM

WA T T S
1817 - 1904

Born

in

London on the 23rd of February 18 17

to

a piano-tuner,

WHEREIN

George Watts of Hereford, was the child George Frederick Watts, who, beginning in boyhood by painting small pictures from Sir Walter Scott, and pastorals, and Cavaliers and Roundheads, and battle-pieces after Salvator Rosa, went for a month to the Academy schools in 1835, watched the sculptor Behnes at work, and came under the glamour of the Elgin marbles, but was destined to create a personal and powerful art that stands alone throughout a century vexed by wars and battle-cries of the studios through which he took his solitary way aloof and untouched, his eyes on Titian and his heart moved by the majesty of life. He was early painting
portraits:
reveals great personal beauty

WE WALK WITH TWO
ENGLISH GIANTS OF THE VICTORIAN YEARS

the poetic Self-Portrait at seventeen, painted in 1834, and in 1837, at twenty, he sent to ;

the Academy two portraits and a Wounded Heron. Thereafter came Cavaliers and Roundheads ; in 1841 an Isabella finding the Corpse oj

He about and in 1842 a Scene from Cymbeline. time painted his first portrait of the lonides family who were to this be such lifelong patrons His Aurora the Mrs. Constantine lonides. pronounces his debt to Etty, who had a marked influence on his art. The new Houses of Parliament were now to be decorated, and Watts suddenly leaped into fame thereby His he an unknown man. Caractacus of 1 843 won the prize in the Westminster Hall competition, which gave him his desire to go to Italy where he lived for four years, the friend of Lord Holland, the British Minister, and there painted portraits. His Alfred iov Westminster Hall in 1847 won him another prize was bought by the State, and hangs in the
her

Wounded Lover

;

;

125

A HISTORY
REALISM

AND
ITE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

House of Lords. His proposal tc decorate the large hall of Euston Station was rejected but the Benchers of Lincoln's Inn accepted his Justice. In 849 was shown his first allegory, LiJ^s Illusions. About 1850 Watts went to live with his friends the Prinseps,
; i

ACADEMISM

rented a house on Lord Holland's estate. Watts's The People that sit in Darkness was of 1850, as was The In 1856 he went to Paris to stay with Lord Good Samaritan. Holland and painted several famous Frenchmen, including Thiers, beginning also the superb series of portraits of the great men of his He went to Asia age, which he afterwards gave to the nation. Minor in 1857. Fine paintings of these years are the Bianca and Sir Galahad oi' 1862, and the Ariadne in Naxos of 1863. In 1864 Watts was persuaded by busybody friends into the marriage with Miss Ellen Terry which proved a meeting of Autumn and Spring, and was soon dissolved. Watts was elected A.R.A. in 1867, and soon afterwards full R.A. He worked in considerable privacy in his studio in Melbury Road, setting himself the painting of that cycle of human life that has made his name immortal, and which he presented to the nation, besides the Esau and Jacob (1868), the Death oj Cain (1886), the Paolo and France sea, Endymion, and Fata Morgana of 1 870 ; landscapes of poetic power sculpture of remarkable achievement such as his Clytie (1868), his great bronze equestrian Hugo Lupus (1884) and the colossal Physical Energy set up on the Matoppo Hills to the memory of Cecil (1904), Rhodes, and replica'd for Kensington Gardens. Marrying at sixtynine Miss Mary Fraser-Tytler, Watts had made a country home at Limnerslease, in Surrey. Raised to the Order of Merit in 1902, having declined a baronetcy, the old artist wrought on to the end which came on the first of July 1904. Watts was a poet of great power. Founding his craft on that of the Greeks and the great Venetians, he uttered the significance of His Hope, and Love and life as he felt it in broad majestic fashion. his Eve Tempted, and Eve Repentant, his Love and Death, his Life, Love Triumphant, his Time, Death, and Judgment, his Sic Transit Gloria Mundi, his Minotaur, the haunting For he had Great Possessions, his superb nude Psyche and the like masterpieces, show him employing his art to utter the mood aroused in colour-schemes of astounding power. And he is interesting as employing broken colour freely. He deliberately sought to mirror his age he made the problem The difficult for himself by employing the speech of dead days. it was a century of nobly-striving century took itself seriously men it was a century that realised that if ancient faiths were
;
;

who had

;

;

;

126

XVII

WATTS
1817-1904

"HOPE"
(Tate Gallery)
The heavens are iUuminated by a solitary star, and Hope bends her ear to catch the music from the last remaining string of her almost shattered lyre.
Painted
in

1885 and given

to

the nation in

1S97.

A

duplicate

is

in

tlie

possession of

Mrs Rushton.

a

OF PAINTING
blown away, there was something more
spiritual than mere arid He felt the desolation of catchpennies materialism to take its place. He felt life that paraded under great words and empty battle-cries. and his age being a didactic age, as a great and dignified adventure Essentially a Mass-Impressionist, Watts he preached ruthlessly. hampered his great gifts only by looking at old symbols wherein His robust and powerful art loves to clothe that Impressionism. power and force in Nature. He is without a touch of the medieval spirit of the Pre-Raphaelite school he has nothing in common with the classical school of Leighton and Alma Tadema. Unable to copy, he learnt his craftsmanship by simply gazing on the masterpieces of the great dead. He could never illustrate another man's idea. He saw art as a national need he worked always with public aim. He gave freely of his masterpieces to the nation. He twice refused a baronetcy. Watts, I have said, employed the danger to art called symbolism but he used symbolism as only an artist should as an emotional attribute that any man in the street may at once recognise. In his portraiture Watts stands out a giant poet for he reveals insight into the soul of man. a mystic By nature a stoic, he looked on art as the utterer of moralities ; but he was an artist by instinct, and his paintings are, as he himself called them, " anthems." Seeing that worldly rewards pass away he fixed his eyes on eternal realities, and sought to find them in the nobler emotions. So, on the curtain in the Sic Transit, when Death has robbed man of crown and fame and strength and power and " What I spent, I had riches, Watts wrote what I saved, I lost
; ; ;

WHEREIN

WE WALK WITH TWO
ENGLISH GIANTS OF THE VICTORIAN YEARS

— —

;

:

;

;

what

gave, I have." For Watts Death had no terrors, but was a calm majestic giver of peace. Hotly opposed to the vapid ideals of all academies all his life, he
I

never realised that the very basis of academies was Academism art founded on the art of the dead instead of personal vision of life. His superb Wife of Pygmalion reveals academic ancestry ; and his carved bust of Clytie is wholly antique.

ALFRED STEVENS
1818

-

1875

Within a year of Watts was born England's greatest sculptor, Alfred Stevens. Stevens is one of the tragedies of English art. That his art should have been chiefly given to designing iron firebacks, superb as these are, is tragic. His two female nudes for the
famous
fireplace at

Dorchester House, and his Wellington Memorial

127

PAINTING
REALISM
are immortal

AND PRERAPHAELITE

ACADEMISM

works in sculpture. His portrait of Mrs. Collmann the Tate, proves his high artistry as painter. Born at Blandford, Dorset, to a painter of signs and heraldry, George Stevens, on the 30th December 1 8 1 8, the child knew school-life The lad, only until ten, when he passed into his father's workshop.
(1854)'
^'^

befriended by the Honourable and Reverend Samuel Best, the rector, His instinct was sent to study art in Italy, whither he went in 1833. chose Andrea del Sarto as master, and he became deeply interested in He drifted to Florence, where he copied for the school of Giotto.

In 1839 he was in Milan, thence made Going back to Rome for Venice to copy Titian and the Venetians. in 1840 by way of Bologna, his poverty drove him to become a His portrait of Morris Moore at the clerk-of-works to a builder. Tate shows his fine gifts in painting at this time. In 1841-42 he
the dealers for

some

years.

Thorwaldsen, whom he vowed to be By 1842 he was back in England. In 1844 he his only master. was in London, failed in the competitions for Westminster, and in 1845 became Master to the New School of Design at Somerset House, resigning in 1847, when he decorated Deysbrook, near In 1854 he was at work on St. George's Hall, LiverLiverpool. In 1850, for the firm of Hoole of Sheffield, he designed pool. stoves, fenders, and the like, winning for them great exhibition honours. In 1852 he was in London again, designing the lions on Of 1855 the railings of the British Museum amongst other things. were his series of decorative paintings after Spenser for the Murietta's house in Kensington. Then came medals, a ceiling for a musicroom, and the like. In 1856 he began the WeU'mgton Monument which took up the remaining seventeen years of his life, shackled by lack of money, and the Philistinism of officialdom, the Dean damaging the great design by objecting to the equestrian statue for

was

assistant to the sculptor

The four mosaics in St. Paul's (1862), the crown of the masterpiece. of which the cartoon for the Isaiah is at the Tate, were of these He died on the days, and his masterwork is at Dorchester House. May-Day of 1875, worn out by the anxieties of his great monument,
unrecognised and broken.

128

R

CHAPTER XV
OF THE GERMAN GENIUS AT THE MID-CENTURY

GERMAN REALISM
have seen German art essaying a primitive-academism of Pre- OF THE Raphaelism. The German people forgot their native utterance, except GERMAN that a certain morbid romanticism was latent. Kruger (1797-1857) GENIUS showed the German middle-class with a certain smug middle-class AT THE truthfulness. Then came Menzel in the years of the French realism MIDCENTURY at Barbizon, and brought Realism with him.

We

MENZEL
1

8

15

-

1905

Born

at

Breslau on the 8th of
rapidly to

December

18 15,

Adolph von
His
;

Menzel came

fame

as a great

trations to the History of Frederick the of 1839 to 1842. His painting so far

about
Berlin.

they were feeble stuff. was Suddenly, 1845, he went to a display of paintings by Constable in

draughtsman. Great are famous

illus-

He

left

that display a painter

;

something had awakened in

Thenceforth he painted little pictures that are redolent of the land that bred him luminous, masterly, compelling. That very year of 1845 ^^ painted the Berlin National Gallery Interior with the sunlit window-curtain. Here a sense of impressionism kept him from the minute detail that he loved. Those years of the forties and fifties were the years of the simple, strong, German and Menzel was of the fine breed, and uttered him. citizen He has something of the German lack of fire, 'tis true ; he is a little cold except in those little masterpieces. His senses were stirred by material facts he rarely felt the thrill of life as a great mystery. But his Garden of the Tuileries, his Boys Bathing (1865), his Morning in Paris (1869), his Elephant (1869), his Peacock and Turkeys of 1883, and the like, show Menzel a greatly gifted man.

him.

;

;

THE ROMANTICO-CLASSICAL GERMANS
arose, spectacled in the vision

In the middle of the eighteen-hundreds two men of genius of Italy, 'tis true, but of virile force Feuerbach and Von Marees.
VOL. VIII

129

A HISTORY
REALISM

FEUERBACH
1829

AND PRERAPHAELITE

-

1880

ACADEMISM

1

Anselm Feuerbach went to Paris, to the studio of Couture in 85 I, a year after Manet began his six or seven years of studentship

Feuerbach left and Puvis de Chavannes was student there. Couture was in the ascendant, and Feuerbach mistook 1854, him for French art. Feuerbach was saved from Couture by the glowing colour of the Venetians as seen in his Death of Aretino (1854), and in his Mother and Children^ founded on Titian's Sacred and Profane Love (1866) ; but even Paolo Veronese could not give him modern vision he founded on Poussin, and he was of the He steeped himself in Italy, and may be said to classic mould.
thereat,
in
;

represent in German art what Chasseriau created in French painting. Yet in his classicism was a certain fine feeling. Of light he knew

of arrangement much. He lived in a dead city. He misPast for culture. He was to know bitter neglect. His took the masterpieces, the Medea and the Battle with the Amazons, display His Italian Funeral, the hooded burial his best and his weaknesses. the Misericordia, is a noble work and his portrait of Lucia party of Brunacci very sound.
little
;

;

VON MAREES
1837

-

1887

of French-Huguenot stock that had settled in Germany. His art was founded on the Dutchmen, particularly Rembrandt, judging by the fine portrait of Hildebrand and Gratit. About the mid-seventies Marees developed a new style. He essayed great decorative painting his intention is akin to that of Puvis de Chavannes, who had the fortune to work alongside of He employed coat upon coat the mass-impressionists of France. His triptych charged with varnish that has wrecked his work. of the Hesperides at Schleissheim is his masterpiece of this period, where also is his last fine work The Wooing. From his Golden Age to the IVooing, primitive-academism lies, a heavy burden, upon a fine nature. At work in Rome, with his pupil Volkmann, a carbuncle neglect of it brought death on June 5, appeared on his neck In him died genius unfulfilled. 1888.
;

Hans von Marees came

;

GERMAN ROMANTICISM
Romanticism
130
in

Germany was

to

be of native growth

;

the

influence of Delacroix seems to have been wholly unfelt.

OF PAINTING
1827-1901

GERMAN
GENIUS

Schack had been awhile the patron of Feuerbach and of AT THE but neither the classic intention of Feuerbach nor the MIDMarees heroic intention of Marees had satisfied his desire for painted idylls. CENTURY Bocklin's more quaint invention and essentially idyllic art appealed to him, and he rejected patronage over the others wholly And, of a truth, Bocklin was essentially more German for Bocklin. in imagination, even though he brought Pan and the Centaurs and
;

the sea-gods of southern fable into the land. He is in this sense classical but he set his classics into a German wonderland of gloomy or romantic landscape, painted with a primitive sense much akin to that of the English Pre-Raphaclites. He brought an austere and haunting power into landscape, which landscape, I take it, is in a manner suggestive of a certain part of Germany feudal and romantic. Taught by Schirmer, his earlier work of the sixties has much of that smooth painter's emptiness, into which, however, Bocklin weaves a haunting poetry that cannot be denied even whilst its handling repels. The influence of Feuerbach is next seen in his Shepherdess and his Murderer pursued by the Furies (1870). Both men had a style founded on that of Poussin. Bocklin has at least painted mythic folk with a remarkable conviction of realism, though the intense realism at times tears the myth to pieces. This is the inevitable result of the very success of his attempt to show unrealities as real. judge them as realities. Bocklin does so create these sensations. In his Rocky Glen by Moonlight (1848-9) he rouses the haunting sense of such a time, so in his Pan amongst the Reeds (1857), ^"^ ^^^ Triton and Nereid (1873), does he rouse in our senses something of the spirit of the hour amongst the reeds or by the sea, which every one of us feels as the twilight falls so in
;

We

;

Nymph and Pan (1874) our senses, urged by remote echoes from some ancestor, make us see haunting shapes in the thicket or the grove; so in his War of the Centaurs (1878) we hear the tramp and fury of the gale that drives across the moors or when the seas swing over the great rocks at set of sun we hear the Family of the
his
;

play, or the Mermaid with the Seafowl and the Seaof 1887 or in the great majestic glades of the forest, as in the Sacred Grove (1882), we almost see the procession of priests and
Tritons (1880) at
;

idyll

priestesses

emerge

to

make

sacrifice at

some high

altar

;

just as his

terminal god of the Frog-King might have emerged from the weedy pool. So also his gloomy tragic landscapes, founded on Nature, are

PAINTING
REALISM

AND
IXE

PRE-

RAPHAEL-

ACADEMISM

of the imagination, and rightly and fitly create a world of the imagination. That he failed badly at times cannot be denied. The short-lived Victor MtyLLER, the friend of Feuerbach, was the connecting link between the German romantics and the realists. Fellow-pupil of Feuerbach at Antwerp, he was with him also under Couture in Paris. His portrait of a Girl with Terrier and his selfportrait show that Courbet had impressed him. He was to have a great influence on Liebl and to turn his eyes to the French realists. BuRNiTz, the landscapist, and Burger, who became the head of a school at Cronberg, were of Miiller's school.

Backward

as

was German painting,

it

was a remarkable sign
(i

that out of such an art as that of

804-1 871), of Runge of Wasmann (1805-1886) and of Oldbach (1804(1777-1810), 1830), so wide an art as that of Menzel should suddenly emerge.

Schwind

132

I

8

6

o

THE CONFLICT OF MASS-IMPRESSIONISM WITH THE MEDIAEVAL ACADEMISM OF THE ^ESTHETES

CHAPTER XVI
WHEREIN WE WALK AWHILE WITH THE .ESTHETES

THE MEDIAEVAL ACADEMISM OF THE ESTHETES
We
have seen how,
at

the Christmas of 1855, the Oxford youth

WHEREIN

Burne-Jones, then studying to become a cleric, came to London and met Rossetti, whom he and his fellow-student William Morris worshipped. At the end of 1856 Burne-Jones and William Morris left Oxford, settled in Rossetti's old rooms at 17 Red Lion Square, and, hanging the place with old Church brasses and drawings by Diirer, set to work to make furniture of mediasval style. Then antique pictures were painted on the walls and cupboards and doors. Morris was now dreaming of a " palace of art " at the Red House at Upton, by Bexley Heath. In 186 1-2 was started the firm of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Co., whereby Morris, Rossetti, Burnes-Jone, Madox Brown and others were to reform the " arts " of

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
AESTHETES

which they meant the crafts. The Anglo-Catholic movement had begun, and kept them busy. Glasspainting, tapestries, wall-papers, carpets, all were to know a great
decoration and
furniture, by renaissance.

Mark, it was the true primitive-academic, not the two realists of the brotherhood, to whom this Oxford group paid homage. So Rossetti created at Exeter College, Oxford, the still more powerful Brotherhood of the ^Esthetes, whose " crusade and holy war against the age" was to have a wide effect. In 1857 Morris took Rossetti to Oxford, and he entered into the scheme of decorating the debating hall of the Union decorations which rapidly perished. The Arts and Crafts movement, born out of the brains of the Esthetes, had for its head and front the vigorous personality of William Morris, who brought an academic and precious kind of Socialism into the affair, whereby enormously expensive tapestries and mosaics and mediccval crafts were to be wrought for the beautifying of the home.

^35

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
Born
at

WILLIAM MORRIS
1834

-

1896

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

Walthamstow of a well-to-do family on the 24th of 1834, William Morris grew to manhood a remarkable William Morris first essayed architecture but wearied personality. of it. With a deep love of the medieval life, he gave himself up to

March

THE
iESTHETES

He went back to mimicry the revival of the arts and crafts. By consequence the whole modern splendid mimicry though it be. movement has been eclectic borrowing not a natural development, and consequently incongruous and out of keeping with modern life.

Its initial blunder was in the curse it laid upon machine-made work, the which, instead of despising, it ought to have madesubject to it. have had by further consequence most expensive arts and crafts, beyond

We

the reach of the ordinary man, whilst manufactured things, though better in design, have not advanced to the degree they should have

Morris brought back to the pure printed page the distracting ornament of the early printers elaborate bindings added to the cost, and made these books the mere museum treasure of rich collectors. These things had no relation to the vital quality of a work of literature that it should be read by the millions. Morris's Defence of Guinevere, with its archaic form and spirit, published in 1858, of course drew the unqualified praise of the academic esthete Walter Pater, who was equally trying to write English like a dead language. But Morris brought pure colour to design, and pure materials. To De Morgan designed tiles his service he called five architects Crane, Voysey, Heywood Sumner, Lewis Day, wrought for him as did Benson, Rathbone, Ashbee, Wilson, Alexander Fisher, and a
done.
;

:

;

;

swarm of other

fine craftsmen.

It was out of the brain of Morris that the vigorous movement of the " Arts and Crafts " was proposed, which we shall see spreading across the face of Europe, and creating the widespread primitiveacademism of our time. And in order to understand the two great movements of Impressionism and Primitive-Academism, that are the serious rivals in art to-day the one the forward impetus, the other the reactionary we must grasp the significance of Morris and his Esthetes in the England of the sixties, and the great Impressionistic revelation of France to which we are about to come,

BURNE-JONES
1833
28,

-

1898

There was born in Birmingham to a Welsh father on August he was to 1833, a son whose birth cost his mother her life

136

XVIII

BURNE-JONES
1833
"
(In

-

1898

SIDONIA

VON BORK "
Robertson, Esq.)

the Possession of

W. Graham

" Sidonia von Bork" was one of the characters in a romance called "Sidonia the Sorceress," written by a Swiss cleigyman a favourite book

of Rossetti's.

s

OF PAINTING
Edward Coley become famous as Sir Edward Burne-Jones. BuRNE-JoNES showed no artistic gifts until, going to Exeter College, Oxford, in 1852 to study for the Church, he met another student, also intended for the Church, also a Welshman, to become famous
Both keenly interested in literature, developed and a woodcut by Rossetti set art aflame in both men. Both men, like Rossetti, mistook Romance for something Sincerity was ever dead; and were unable to see living romance. on their lips, yet both men, like Rossetti, were mimics of dead
as

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
^ESTHETES

William Morris.
art
;

interest in

things.

In 1854 Burne-Jones and Morris heard of Rossetti and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood saw MilWis' Return of tie Dove. BurneIn 1855 the two friends went to France, Jones was already drawing. and decided to be artists. Then came Malory's Morte if Arthur the Oxford and Cambridge Magazine was founded into their lives and in the winter of 1855-6 the young Burne-Jones came to London, and his drawings won the approval of Rossetti, who urged him to make art his career, and Burne-Jones became his greatest disciple. In 1857 Burne-Jones, thanks to Rossetti, was commissioned to paint two pictures of the Blessed Damozel, was designing for stained glass, and with Morris, Rossetti, and others, decorated the Union Swinburne was to enter the circle. The year Hall at Oxford. and marrying Georgina Macdonald 1859 saw Burne-Jones in Italy in i860, he thereafter painted his Sidonia von Bork and Clara von Bork which are very Rossetti, as is the Backgammon Players. The Merciful Knight of the following year shows personality emerging. He was soon pouring forth from his studio works in oils, in tempera,
;

;

;

;

in

cast his

water-colours, cartoons for stained glass, mosaics. Swinburne glamour over the enthusiastic group round Morris and Burne-

Jones. colours

of which were the Laus Veneris of 1861, the Backgammon Players of 1862, the Merciful Knight and IVine of Circe of 1863, the Chaunt d" Amour oi I'^bt,. He had joined the R.W.S. in 1864. Stained glass and tapestry designs were being made the while. Burne-Jones was one of the leaders at the founding of the Grosvenor Gallery in 1 877, sending The Days of Creation, the famous Mirror of Venus, and
other works.
Veneris

For

five or six years

Burne-Jones was enamoured of water-

The

gallery greatly spread his fame.
Stairs

The

large

Laus

of 1880, the Fortune He next set to work on the of 1883, the King Cophetua of 1884. series oi Perseus and the Briar Rose. In 1885 he was elected to the Royal Academy, sent The Depths of the Sea thereto in 1886, retiring in 1893; being made a baronet in 1894. To the New Gallery,
VOL. VIII

was of 1878, the famous Golden

137

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

1888, he was a tower of strength, until his Lone the He died suddenly on June 17, 1898. Pilgrim ended his career. Burne-Jones's decorations, like those of Morris and the whole With little relation school, were but enlarged book-illustrations. indeed despising modern life, he created for to life whatever, himself a beautiful pallid wonderland wherein he sought to escape from life. He is melancholy, wistful, hungry of soul. He stands out the supreme master of this " ^Esthetic School " of Pre-Raphaelite academism its chief poet, its finest imagination. But like all academics and the irony of his life was that he detested academism when it was classical like all the Esthetes he mistook Style as the foundation of art, mistook art for Beauty instead of realising that it is the impression of life, and strove to create art by looking at the works of art of the Past. Of the brilliant group of iEsthetes who arose about Morris and Burne-Jones were several men of rare gifts. Frederick Shields (1833-1911), though he painted pictures, did much decorative work of considerable distinction as a religious designer in private chapels, such as the famous chapel in the

founded

in

— —

Bayswater Road.

WALTER CRANE
1845

Born

in

Liverpool in

1845

to

a

miniature-painter,

Walter

was exhibiting at the Heatherley's in Newman Street, and apprenticeship to the wood-engraver W. S. Linton. The amount of his decorative work is enormous, from wall-papers to designs in damask. Pottery, fabrics, books, metal-work, and his wide industry in other crafts, are outside our survey. Crane has been one of the most original and influential of all his group. William Bell Scott (1811-1890), born at Edinburgh, painted
at

Crane early showed artistic gifts. Academy by 1862, after schooling

He

mural decorations. Akin to the Pre-Raphaelite and ^Esthetes remarkable school of classical-academics.

in intention

was

a

SANDYS
1832

-1904

Frederick Sandys was a man of genius interested in the tragedy of the antique heroes and heroines. Sandys was not only a fine painter but one of the greatest masters of black and white. Born at Norwich in 1832, he became pupil to his father, and came under
138

OF PAINTING
The friend of Rossetti, he was the glamour of Madox Brown. His drawing of The Old Chartist is a strongly influenced by him. Tragic and intense, his glowing sense of colour was masterpiece. employed with rare force and he showed malice and hatred in a beautiful face with gifts that were beyond the reach of Rossetti.
;

WHEREIN

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
ESTHETES

was one of the greatest draughtsmen of the century, as he was one His portraiture was very fine. of the most poetic artists.

He

LEIGHTON
1830 1896

Frederic, Lord Leighton, was born at Scarborough on December 3, 1830, to a physician, a man of culture, who trained the child in classic lore from the first; and often the boy was taken abroad by his ailing mother to Italy, France, and Germany, where he met the most eminent men in art and society from tender years. At ten he was drawing under Meli at Rome. His father consulted the American sculptor, Hiram Powers, who replied that the lad was So to Florence the youngster went to art-masters. an artist already In 1849 he was at Paris, copying Titian and Correggio in the Louvre and working from the life. Then he went to Steinle, one of the " Nazarenes," at Frankfort for a year. From Frankfort he vv^ent to Brussels, thence to Ingres and Ary Scheffer in Paris, where he
!

painted his first picture, Cimabiie Jinding Giotto in the Fields of Florence, Going back revealing that Italy had won him from the beginning. to Steinle at Frankfort in 1850 for two years, Leighton then made
for

Rome.

Thackeray, meeting him

at
is

prophecy
will run

to the

young Millais: " Here

a versatile

Rome, wrote his famous young dog who

you close for the Presidentship one of these days." In 1855 he brought from Rome the Cimabiie'' s Madonna carried in Procession through the Streets of Florence, which was bought by the Queen at the Royal Academy and created a sensation. His home in the Rue Pigalle in Paris he changed to London in i860, and made his superb drawings for Dalziei's Bible and his less successful Rotnola drawings. Made A.R.A. in 1864, he became a full member four years thereafter ; in 1866 he painted the Wise and Foolish Virgins in spiritfresco on the wall of Lyndhurst Church, in which year his famous house at No. 2 Holland Park Road was finished. Ancient Greece and the Italian Renaissance were his life, and created his vision. With Life he had no relation. In 1867 he was in Egypt, which often afterwards called him back. With independent means, he was able to cultivate the love of society that was so large a part of his handsome life.
139

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

Leighton was now thoroughly set in the classic mould. He painted picture after picture with Beauty for his sole aim. The teaching of Ingres had done its deadly work, and he smoothed out his fine designs until their vigour was lost. Yet he caught the moods of antique days in the Summer Moon, the Dapbnephoria, the Nausicaa, and the glowing Eastern Slinger. Of mural decorations were the famous War and Peace at South Kensington. But it was in portraiture and sculpture that Leighton was to reach the highest achievement of his art. His Captain Burton is one of the portraits of the age. In I 877 Leighton with his fine Athlete struggling with a Python proved himself a sculptor before a painter, even though the Greek vision was upon him. The following year, elected President of the Academy, he was knighted and his high social gifts made him an ideal President. He stood out, a handsome romantic figure, and he gave himself unsparingly to his office. From his Garden of the Hesperides to the Captive Andromache, from the Elijah to the Greek Girls playing Ball, from the Bath of Psyche to The Sea gave up the Dead, from the Phryne to the thought-filled Fatidica, the Greek intention of the beauty of the human figure is the sole aim of Leighton's art. The sculptured Sluggard wzs of 1886. He never developed as he found himself, so he went to the end. His Clytie of 1896 showed such rapid decline in power, that it was no surprise to hear that his peerage had come almost too late he died on the 25th of January 1896. His art lacked passion; but his exquisite sense of draughtsmanship brought forth an eloquent rhythmic line and held subtlety of form.
;

;

ALMA TADEMA
1836
Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema was born Laurens Alma Tadema, at Dronryp in Holland, on the 8th of January 1836, to a lawyer with a taste for music, who died in Tadema's childhood. The boy was early revealing the artistic bent. By 1851 he showed

Antwerp, where David was living in exile, heading the classicals and Tadema declared for the opposition, the Belgian Realists, led by Wappers From Wappers he went to Van Leys, the historical painter, whom he assisted in his frescoes at the Town Hall. This roused his interest in the early history of the Low Countries. Married in 1865, his wife died in leaving him two girls, Laurence and Anna. Meantime he had 1869, been to Italy. Then the French dealer Gambart came into his life and
a portrait of his sister.

He' went

to
;

!

140

XIX

LEIGHTON
1830
"
-

1896
"

THE BATH OF PSYCHE
(Tate Gallery)

Painted six years before his death.
l8go.

Exhibited in the Royal Academy Purchased by the Chantrey Trustees in 1890.

in

[

1

:

OF PAINTING
commissions by the dozen, and treated 1870 Tadema came to London, where he was at once a success, and settled, marrying a year thereafter his second wife, Miss Epps, better known as the painter Mrs. Alma Tadema, now Lady Tadema. Entering the Academy in 1876, he became R.A, in 1879, being knighted in 1899. His reconstrucand it is a tions of Roman life under the Empire are well known common jest that he paints marble well At the Shrine of Venus, the Ave, Ccesar! lo Saturnalia ! and the Earthly Paradise, are amongst his most famous works. Sir Edward J. Poynter, P.R.A., is another excellent reconstructor of the life of antiquity, his Catapult being one of his best works. Others of the school were George Richmond, R.A. (1809set

him hard at work to him most generously.

fulfil

WHEREIN

In

WE WALK
AWHILE WITH THE
^ESTHETES

;

:

1896), Sir
F.

William Blake Richmond (1843).

),

C. E. Perugini,

DicKSEE (1853-

841-1893), the son of an artist and the brother of artists, began in sacred subjects on academic lines, then suddenly in 1 86 1 he invented the series of ideal classic figures in a decorative style that are so personal to his achievement, being harmonies in colour schemes of women with Pomegranates, Apricots, and the like. Simeon Solomon wears a part of the cloak of Rossetti. Born in Simeon Solomon also came of artist stock. Largely self1 84 1, taught, he reached such heights as his Amor Sacramentum, He died
(i

Albert Moore

in 1905. to

George Wilson (i 848-1 890), born near Cullen in Banff, came London at eighteen, passed from Heatherley's school to the

Academy schools, thence to the Slade, Struggling against ill-health and lack of recognition, a shy, silent man, he set himself to paint idylls from Nature in sincere fashion, wherein he calls the dryads out into the valleys. Loving his Shelley and his Keats, he lived in the rarefied atmosphere of a dream-world peopled by nymphs and fauns. Spencer Stanhope (1835-1908), friend to Rossetti and BurneJones, and taught also by Watts, painted religious and allegorical and romantic themes, and decorated churches. Fairfax Murray was of the group. Strudwick, the assistant of Stanhope and Burne-Jones, was born in 1849, learnt his craft at South Kensington and the Academy schools. Rooke was the assistant of Burne-Jones. Mrs. Stillman and Mrs. de Morgan, who founds largely on Botticelli, are two lady-artists of remarkable distinction in the i^sthetic movement. The movement also found a group of artists in book-illustration Walter Crane, Kate Greenaway, Selwyn Image, Gaskin,
Lawrence Housman.
141

PAINTING
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
Anning Bell, born
forth by the ^Esthetic
in

1863,

is

one of the

finest artists

brought

WITH THE
MEDIiEVAL

movement. He has a purity of hne and a richness of colour wedded to a severe sense of design. C. Hazlewood Shannon and Charles Ricketts are prominent Hazlewood Shannon, a fine colourist, and a and brilliant men. painter of rare and consummate gifts, who has brought a poetic
he does, has largely looked at life through the spectacles Batten, of the great dead instead of with the modern vision. Holiday, Heywood Sumner, the brothers Rhead, and other lights of the Arts and Crafts are well known ; as well as Southall, Gere, Muckley, Gaskin, and others of the Birmingham men and Gerald Moira, Ryland, and Gotch. Miss Florence Harrison
vision to
all
;

ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

has

shown

herself a perfect illustrator in colour of Christina Rossetti's

Of the Scottish artists of our day under this influence are poems. Burns, Mrs. Traquair, Katherine Cameron, Jessie King, all touched by the Pre-Raphaelite flare, as also have been Macdougall, Guthrie, and Will Mein'. J. J. Of the classical aim are two men of imagination Solomon of the medieval aim, more closely akin to and Hackfr J. Solomon ). the original -Esthetes, was the art of Waterhouse (1849;

142

CHAPTER

XVII

WHEREIN WE LOOK UPON THE VARIOUS FORMS OF ACADEMISM IN THE MID-CENTURY OF THE EIGHTEEN-HUNDREDS IN FRANCE

REALISTIC HISTORICAL PAINTING
Historical painting cident and costume.
in

France

took,

to

extreme accuracy of

in-

MEISSONIER
1815 ^

WHEREIN WE LOOK UPON THE
VARIOUS FORMS OF

-

1891 ^
,

Jean Louis Ernest Meissonier, born
trained under Cogniet, he soon set to

at

Lyons

in 181 5,

went

to

aCADEMism IN

Paris at a tender age, poor, and with his livelihood to earn.

First

himself as etcher and illustrator. In 1834 he went to colour, and began to make a mark about 1840 with the famous little highly finished interiors such as the famous Chessplayers, the Artist at his JEasel, and La Rixe. Then came the cycle of Napoleon. On the 31st January 1891 his career was at an end. He devoted enormous pains to the creation of military subjects, but Meissonier was more concerned with " accuracy," with details, and the like. Oddly enough, his realism was not given to events of his own age, but to the past. Meissonier's interest in war created a school developed by Detaille and De Neuville and Aim^ Morot in France. In England war, strangely enough, found its genius in the remarkable gifts of a woman, Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler), in such works as Scotland for Ever and Quatre Bras. Caton WooDviLLE, though it is said an American, chiefly wrought his telling art in England.
to teach

work

THE

MID-

CENTURY
qF THE EIGHTEEN-

HUNDREDS
jj^

FRANCE

LAURENS
1838school has produced Jean Fourquevaux, Laurens was trained at the Beaux-Arts at Toulouse, he thence went to Cogniet and Bida in In 1863 he showed his Death of Cato, making his mark Paris. about 1869 with his Supper of Beaucaire. Olivier Merson and his son Luc-Olivier have a certain
historical

In

painting, the French
at

Paul Laurens.

Born

H3

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
distinction
in

their

academic

intention.
distinction.

Ferdinand

Humbert
;

produced

a sad art also of
)

some

CoRMON (1845-

reconstructs savage

man

of primeval times

RocHEGRossE the barbarians of primitive Asia and the Grecians. Tattegrain rebuilt the Middle Ages. Francois Flameng (1856)

WITH THE
MEDIi^VAL ACADEMISM OF

is

interested in the eighteenth century.

MID-CENTURY SYMBOLISM
(18 16-1859), influenced strongly by Ingres in his portraiture, had the innate German gifts for the woodcut, which Battler more recently brought him fame in his Dance of Death. took up the German line of Diirer and far surpassed Rethel in its employment, bringing superb gifts of design and powerful crafts-

THE
.ESTHETES

Rethel

manship

The
words

to his remarkable achievement. symbol, if living and understood of the
;

man

in the street, is

book o' the then it is a dead thing. Rossetti, for instance, It means nothing, except used " the stars in her hair were seven." Burne-Jones requires a library to interpret him. to pedants.
perfectly legitimate in art
" to explain
it,

the

moment

it

requires a "

MOREAU
1826-1898

in solitude, selling his

to
at

GusTAVE Moreau, having made a mark at the Salon, hid himself work to collectors who, it is said, under promise him, concealed them from the public eye. On becoming professor

the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, to the consternation of the academicians he showed a wide taste in art, whilst he pointed the students back " primitive-academism " should offend the to the primitives.

Why

more than any other form of academism, who shall At his death he left a large number of his works to the unravel Moreau is essentially a painter-illustrator; his subjects are State. mythological anecdotes, impossible to be understood except by the His Salome, Hydra, the Phaeton, the Indian Poet, and book-read. Jupiter and Seme le are held to be his masterpieces. artel and Simon Bussy, His school brought forth Eugene
academics
.?

M

Rouault and Desvallieres who have both left their teaching. have gone to the primitives to find utterance for the occult and the Valere Bernard also worked under Rops and Puvis de mystical Armand Point seeks inspiration in the Italian ReChavannes. The Swiss Carlos Schwabe employs symbolism of a naissance. more modern intention. Odilon Redon (1840), has essayed
;

144

T

OF PAINTING
symbolism
he began to exhibit in Paris about in lithography 1881. He influenced the Belgian Fernand Khnopff (1858) Germany. and others and his art spread to
; ;

WHEREIN WE LOOK UPON THE
VARIOUS FORMS OF
jgjyj

MID-CENTURY CLASSICAL-ACADEMISM
Under the Second Empire,
classicalism brought forth

Cabanel

(i 823-1 889) with his History of Saint Louis at the Pantheon, and Bouguereau (1825his portraits, and his famous Birth of Venus. his La Fierge Conso/atrix having some emois of this type 1905) tional sense of a conventional style. Jules Lefebvre was of the
;

jj^

school

(he

made

also

some good

portraits),

as

MIDrFXTTURY „p tHF „.^jj_pp^ was Hippolvte utjndRFDS
IN

^he

Flandrin.

FRANCE

PRIMITIVE-ACADEMISM
Akin
to

the classical painters, but creating a

more primitive

academism, and endowed with rare decorative gifts, appeared a man of power in the mid-century who was also strongly influenced by Millet and the men of Barbizon, thereby bringing vitality to the aid of outworn forms but it was chiefly the decorative work of Chasseriau that inspired Puvis de Chavannes.

PUVIS DE CHAVANNES
1824

-

1898

Born at Lyons on the 14th December 1824, Pierre Cecile Puvis de Chavannes became pupil to Henri Scheft^er and Couture, and came to the front late, his first Salon picture being of 1859. An aristocrat and a religious mystic, Puvis de Chavannes wrought his art amidst the last half of the eighteen-hundreds. Deeply immersed
in classic poetry,

and

as

deeply rooted in the land that bred his

upon the world with the eyes of the past. W^ithout subtlety of vision, vigorous of body and in spirit, he could feel the splendour of the whole impressionistic intention but colourist he uttered sweet could not become a part of it. he As a if pallid harmonies and remained, even so, more deeply concerned with line yet even his line had a rude, severe, old-world intention. His colour-faculty creates no profound sensing it is chaste, severe, pleasantly austere. He was a realist in a primitive fashion, not a classicalist. His favourite poet is said to have been Virgil and his art is epic of the soil. He detested the Academy, and it returned Puvis de Chavannes the dislike. It was but a war of academisms. made his spaces as splendidly " empty " as Chasseriau had overstock, he looked out
; ;
; ;

;

voL. viii

145

PAINTING
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
loaded his surfaces

he won to a greater power thereby, but remained somewhat empty. Puvis de Chavannes wisely discarded fresco, and painted on
;
;

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

THE
iESTHETES

he had the right instinct to paint in canvas attached to the walls harmony with stone walls, not to make easel pictures. At the Pantheon is his fine Life of Saint Genevieve at the Hotel de Ville his famous Summer and Winter at the Sorbonne he wrought the decorations of the amphitheatre; at Rouen is work by him; at Lyons the Sacred IVood, Vision Antique, the Rhone, and the Sadne at Amiens the decorations include his Work at Marseilles are his Marseilles, Porte de F Orient, and the Greek Colony at Boston the famous decoration for the Library. The general impression is that of a man essaying to put back life into terms of the past, painted with exquisite freshness of colour, but pallid of vision. Like all academics, he creates types rather than character a landscape setting that is typical rather than real. Bookish men have dubbed him "Hellenist"; he conveys to me no classic intention. He paints his decorations with fit the conditions of their position. consummate tact to There is a mystical haunting sense about his works in position which is not fully realised in his painting when seen apart.
; ;
;

;

;

;

BAUDRY
1828 - 1886

Paul Jacques Aime Baudry,
maker of wooden shoes
1828
at

third of the twelve children of a

was born on the 27th November Roche-sur-Yon, and taught by a local artist Sartoris, from whom he went to Drolling in 1844. Winning the Prix de Rome, he made for Italy for five years, working under the glamour of Raphael and Correggio. His famous nude of The Wave and the and his bestPearl W2i^ of 1863. Thence he went to decoration known work was the decoration of the Opera House. As Delaroche had been the favourite of the Orleans Restoration, the favourite Court portrait-painter under the Second Empire was WiNTERHALTER (1806-1873), who had an enormous vogue he has Hubert also painted the portrait in sunk into his mediocre place.
in Brittany,
;

;

these years.

146

CHAPTER

XVIII

WHEREIN WE SEE FRENCH REALISM SEEKING FOR THE SUN IN THE EAST

MID-CENTURY ORIENTALISM
Romantic movement. Delacroix concerned himself with it. Decamps made the subject his own, with a fine sense of colour. Even Ingres Marilhat (1811-1847) went rather to painted pseudo Odalisques. Algiers than the Levant. BERCHiiRE followed, creating Eastern sentimentalism. Chass^riau, the favourite pupil of Ingres, from whom he went to Delacroix, gave his best work, to the painting of the Arabs; and he painted their fights and their doings with masterly force and glittering colour. Gustave Boulanger wrought Orientalism.
Orientalism was
a part of the
Scio

WHEREIN

in his

Massacre of

WE

SEE

FRENCH
REALISM SEEKING FOR THE

SUN

IN

THE EAST

ZIEM
1821-

Felix Fran^iois Georges Philibert Ziem, born at Beaune, left the Cote d'Or as early as he could and made for Paris, where he worked for several years but at twenty-four he went to Italy, thence Coming back, to the East, being away some three or four years. he sent a Bosphorus and Grand Canal, Venice, to the Salon of 1 849, the next year of 1850 his Meudon won him a his first display medal he made for Holland, and in 1852 won a First Class Medal with his Chaumiere a la Haye. His Anvers of 1855 was bought by the State. The Constantinople of 1857 won him into the Legion of Honour. In 1868 he showed his last picture, his Marseilles. He never again ejihibited. In 1878 he was promoted Officer in the
;
;

;

Legion of Honour. One of Ziem's four studios was Another was at Venice, the painting of which city

at
is

Barbizon. his chief

claim to fame. He loved to paint her red. Some of his finest water-colours are of Venice. A friend of Rousseau, he bought the famous old windmill, the Moulin de la Galette, Montmartre, intending to rebuild it at Barbizon as a studio but the affair fell through.
;

H7

A HISTORY
ger6me
1

8

24- 1 904

THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

Jean L6on G£r6me, born at Vesoul on the iith May 1824, became the favourite pupil of Delaroche, and encouraged by his parents in his artistic desires came early to fame, making his mark with his first Salon picture in 1847. In 1854 he made his first journey
to the East.

Gerome

interested himself largely in Orientalism, as

WITH THE MEDIEVAL ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

He has marked dramatic gifts. His coloured statuettes are remarkable. His famous statue of Bellona shrieking war was dramatic and powerful. One of his greatest works of art is his much despised Death of Ney and his Napoleon and the Sphinx has rare dramatic intensity.
well as the nude and history.
;

CONSTANT
1845 - 1902

Benjamin Constant also interested himself in Orientalism, and to wide favour his portraiture of a somewhat theatrical academic type also had a wide vogue. Morocco brought out all

won

;

his best qualities.

FORTUNY
1838 - 1874

Reus on the iith of June 1838 of humble Catalonian stock, his father dying when the boy was little more than a child, Mariano Fortuny was cared for by his grandfather, a travelling showman, the little fellow painting the marionettes for the old man's He was early carving show. The boy knew terrible hardships.
Born
at

the

little

dolls that

form so large

a part of Spain's devotional offerings.

The went

grandfather sent the lad to the Reus Academy, thence he his student days to the Academy of Fine Arts at Barcelona saw him suffering wretched want. At twenty he won the prize that took him to Rome, after sharing the money with his grandfather, who, unfortunately, was to die before the young fellow In i860 Spain sent an expedition to punish the Riff returned. Here General pirates, and Fortuny was allowed to go with it. Fortuny painted for Prim, the " kingmaker," became his friend. On his return Barcelona the great canvas of the fight of Wad Ras.
;

he was sent to Paris, but Tangier called and called, and to Tangier he went, Rome seeing much of him also. In 1867 he married the daughter of Madrazo a happy marriage.

He
was
to

led the

way

to that vivid use
finest

of floating water-colour that

produce the
148

highly finished glittering

modern achievement. The dazzling work that brought him to early fame and

OF PAINTING
him and bored at last by it, he was turning from " the kind of art which success has imposed upon me," and was about to enter upon the art of his desire, when he caught a chill whilst sketching until sunset in a damp part of the marshes by the Tiber and died suddenly on the 2ist of November 1874. Fortuny created school in illustration, a large part of the best modern endeavour, such as that of Edwin Abbey, being founded upon him. The Warrington Gallery possesses a superb oil sketch
wealth, fretted
;

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

FRENCH
REALISM SEEKING

FOR THE SUN IN THE EAST

oi Arabs Tumbling by him.

REGNAULT
1843

-

1871

Regnault by thirteen was so skilled that he could have earned he haunted the Jardin des Plantes his livelihood as an illustrator
;

sketching animals. It was when at Rome, in the March of 1869, after Fortuny's marriage, that Regnault met Fortuny and hailed him master but he had already painted his superb portrait of General Prim, which that worthy did not like, whereby tl\e Louvre came to it, and the heroic Automedon with the Horses of Achilles. He was in Tangier when the threat of the Prussian War broke out, and, locking the door of his studio, he made for Paris to volunteer for the front. He refused a commission as officer " You have a good why lose him to make a mediocre officer?" soldier in the ranks in me He fought through the war but in the last action before said he. Paris, perhaps by the last rifle fired in the war, he was struck in the left temple by a bullet. He fell for his country at twenty-eight. The virile art of Henri Regnault created the greatest equestrian portrait of the age. General Juan Prim reining up his black horse. Regnault is essentially of the spirit of the earlier Romantic movement, and one of the supreme masters of it, and he bridges the gap His water-colours of Oriental life are bathed to open-air painting.
;

;

;

in sunlight.

GusTAVE GuiLLAUMET (1840-1887),
his

living the

life

of the Arabs
;

in Algeria, essayed to utter the true colour of the desert fringe

and

Luxembourg Sunrise in the desert and Evening at Laghouat show remarkable powers so to do. Noire has uttered the waste places of Algiers Cottet created Oriental splendour before he gave his art to Brittany. Eugene Fromentin (i 820-1 876) painted the gleam of the sun's bringing to Orientalism flood upon Arab horses in Oriental pictures Binet paints the Eastern women with mass-impressionistic less pose. power.
; ;

149

CHAPTER XIX
WHEREIN WE
SEE DARK REALISM IN FRANCE SENDING FORTH FORERUNNERS TO IMPRESSIONISM

JONGKIND
1819 - 1891

THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

There was born at Latdorp, by Rotterdam, in 18 19, Johann Barthold Jongkind, who lived his life in France. Pupil to
Scheffont, he then went to Isabey
(i

804-1 866).

At the Salon of

WITH THE
MEDIAEVAL

ACADEMISM OF

THE
^ESTHETES

1852 he won a first class medal, and was thereafter steadily rejected. Living a life of bitter neglect and penury, he produced water-colours of a strange glitter, sold a few works here and there at a wretched price, and crushed by want and utter misery he drank himself to death at Isere in 1891, alone, deserted, forgotten. Yet this man was throughout these years striving to break up and set upon the paper the vibrating rays of the sun's light to master the gleam of reflections and to catch and utter the changing colours created upon the same objects by the light at different hours of the day. His art deeply impressed two young Frenchmen, Manet and Monet. Monet hailed him " le grand peintre." He found towards the end of his life the fulness of his powers in the painting of the country of the Dauphine, in which luminous atmosphere is his chief concern.
; ;

'*'

BOUDIN
1825 - 1898

Jongkind had

a friend, Louis

Eugene Boudin, born

at

Honfleur

who on July 12, guided the fortunes of the steamboat Francois of Havre, and to his wife the stewardess aboard her husband's boat. Little Boudiq began to earn the bread of his harsh life as cabin-boy, seeing before MBT fourteenth year the seas that lie between France and England and At fourteen the lad yearned to become a the Western Indies. done with seafaring. Luck was in his way, for painter and to be the father, weary of the sea, set up a little stationery shop on the Grand Quai at Havre, and young Boudin became shopboy. The shopboy taught himself painting on the quays in and out of season. Into the shop strayed a hard-up artist called Troyon, then well
1825, to a bluff, hearty sailor fellow, the pilot

;

.

PAINTING
picture for a sovereign, bought a canvas, and made Another down-at-heels fellow called Millet, friends with the lad. then near starving, and pestering the merchants, officials, sailors

content to

sell a

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

DARK
REALISM

and their sweethearts

to let

him

paint their portraits at thirty francs

him. Courbet sought out the lad. His IN FRANCE friends and kin warned the youth that Corot at fifty could not earn SENDING but to painting young Boudin would go. The town FORTH a livelihood council of Havre raised him a small students' allowance, and to FOREThe money RUNNERS Paris he went on a pound a week for a short while. himself without friends or TO IMPRESwas soon at an end and Boudin found fee. He paid his laundress forty francs with a picture it has SIONISM recently brought four thousand. For his wine he paid in pictures they have passed into gold at forty times the cost of the wine. Driven home at last, he So Boudin knew the bitters of penury. tried to raise the money to get to Paris in 1857 by auction of pictures, tempted by Claude Monet thereto, who promised him the help of dealers. He had settled in rooms at the old inn and farmthe sale failed house on the road to Honfleur called Saint Simeon That old inn of the man sadly opened a school of painting there. Saint Simeon was to become the nursery of French Impressionism. There for five-and-twenty years lodged from time to time Millet, Troyon, Courbet, Diaz, Harpignies, Jongkind, Lepine, Isabey, Daubigny, Monet, Cals, and others. However, Boudin's academy was no success and he moved twenty miles to the coast, to Trouville. Rapidly his mastery of the sea and heavens won him the homage of painters. Courbet cries " you alone understand the heavens"; Dumas calls him "master of the skies"; Corot dubs
a head, also befriended
;
;

;

;

;

him "king of the heavens."
Boudin, utterly \But the public would not buy, nor the dealers. with a small dot of eighty pounds the poor, married in 1864, and pair made their home in a garret up a flight of rickety stairs in a niean street of Honfleur at a rental of half-a-crown a month. There Boudin fought the out-at-heels Jongkind would sadly visit them. starvation, there for four years then made for Havre, but his poverty was so acute that he had to lose an order to decorate some panels for a rich tradesman of the town, not having decent clothes wherein to go to the business. The winter saw him burning the furniture for warmth, and going out to work as a common labourer. The artists called him to Paris, a city he detested, only to be dogged Boudin made for Brussels, and by the ill-luck of the war of 1870. amidst the swarm of refugees knew the bitterest poverty he had His wife, by good luck and manageto go out as a labourer again.
; ;

151

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
ment, interested a dealer in his art whilst marketing, and the gooa' fellow enabled the artist to get back to his easel. At last in 1881, Boudin's persistent appearance at the Salon won him a third class medal. In 1884 he won a second class, which cleared him of all terrors of rejection and put him " hors concours." future He had
selling his pictures slowly for some time, if at poor prices. In 1888 a hundred canvases were sold at the Hotel Drouot for but £2^0. But the tide was turning. The State bought his large but 1889 saw him struck his bitterest blow in the Russian Corvette and the gold medal was given to a heart-broken loss of his wife
; ;

WITH THE now been
MEDIAEVAL ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

man.

him

But Whilst

In 1896 the State bought his Rade de Villefranche, and sent by Puvis de Chavannes the Cross of the Legion of Honour. the old artist's health was broken by long years of want.
at at his

work on a canvas Normandy, in 1898, he fell

chalet near Deauville, his native

dead.

A
said

modest man, who sought honours only for his fellows, Monet of him, " his advice has made me what I am."

BOSBOOM
1817- 1891

The Dutchman Johannes Bosboom, born at The Hague, learnt the mysteries from Philippus Jacobus Van Bree (1786-1871).

A very master-painter of interiors, Bosboom employed a breadth of handling and a glorious colour to utter the mood of daylight playing within church and house, such as place him amongst the immortals. His art yields the haunting spirit of the place. He draws the very atmosphere on to his smallest canvases, and arouses the poetic mood His water-colours are as great as his oils. of the place before him.
southern school of French painting had been rising somewhat the animal-painter Emile Loubon, akin in vision to the Romantics AuGUSTE AiGuiER the marine painter. Prosper Gresy. It was to come to splendour in Ricard and Monticelli.

A

MONTICELLI
1824

-

1886

born at Marseilles. Under the (1781-1857) Monticelli began his But standing before a art career subject to Ingres and Raphael. and Diaz, who lived near him in Delacroix his eyes were opened Paris for several years, revealed the wizardry of colour to him indeed, he copied Diaz so closely that his work of this time was,

Adolphe

Monticelli

was

training of

Raymond Aubert

;

;

152

u

OF PAINTING
Monticelli, a typical son of Provence, eccentric, handsome, vigorous of body, eloquent, winning of manner, made for the south to come to wide triumph awhile. Then came reverses. He made for Paris again, in desperate state. In Paris he knew bitter want, selling his pictures on the pavements, sleeping at night with vagabonds and wastrels on waste places and in empty houses. Then came the war of 1870, and he made south,

and

is,

sold as the

work of Diaz.

Then

WHEREIN

WE
IN

SEE

DARK
REALISM

FRANCE SENDING

FORTH
FORE-

tramping

it

to Marseilles, getting food

and shelter for the thirty-six

days' journey by painting

from place

to place,

RUNNERS
down
what is TO IMPREShe wrought his SIONISM
to

Back

in his native Marseilles again

he

settled

manner. A slave to absinthe, and made and sold a picture a day for anything he could get that he might have the means to indulge his vagabond tastes. The colour that he used with such musical skill to utter the romantic mood of the moment fair ladies on terraces, in the woods, and the like grew less coherent. His charming temper and eager will were soon clouded with drink. The paint grew clotted and the forms more vague. For years at last no one knew whether he were alive or dead. He passed away in the most
called his original
visions rapidly,

miserable penury. Monticelli " painted music."
rare

He

poured forth symphonies of
revealed the secret

and exquisite subtlety.

To him had been

of colour's power to arouse moods and sensations, as music by sound The Judge Evans' Landscape proves how he could catch the poetry of the sun's light upon the land. But he gave himself rather to dreams than to Nature. He wove golden songs without words. After he died his art came to great fame he is one of the most widely forged artists of modern times. His best-known works are his Fetes galantes but his rarer landscapes are amongst the most powerful interpretations of Nature in his age. Still-life, flowers, seascapes, he wrought them all. His earlier " allegories " or " fetes " are painted somewhat smoothly, marked by attention to form and drawing. He rapidly increased the loading of his paint, developed touch-impressionism, and came to his middle and greatest original style. The painting is broken, and is a mass of radiant gems, whilst the resultant effect is large and decorative. His art is blithe and joyous, as if it were good to be alive. It is a miracle when one remembers that he dashed off these pictures in a few hours. He is said rarely to have used brushes but to have squeezed the colour in touches on to the panel or canvas straight from the tube, and to have used the palette-knife or his fingers or nails when
so rouses the senses.
;

;

;

VOL. VIII

153

N

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
desired.
in

"

I

am

painting for thirty years hence," said Monticelli
easel pictures,
is

1870.

Monticelli, whose art was confined to small one of the supreme decorative painters of the land.

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

R CARD
I

1824- 1873
is one of the master portrait-painters of ProBeginning by copying Van Dyck and Titian for ten years, vence. Founding on the Ricard gave himself thereafter to portraiture.

Gust AVE Ricard

THE
ESTHETES

Venetians, his

searching

vision

for character
his

revealed

itself in

a

refined and subtle portraiture,

which

in its reserved

way

is

one of the achievements of

age.

and Ricard

aristocratic
states

the

essence of the sitter in haunting fashion.

BON VI
1834 - 1866

Leon Bonvin, one of the
There

best painters in water-colours of his great
life.

age, painted the blithe beauty of flowers amidst a miserable
lived at Vaugirard, a suburb of Paris, a
Lille, a

man who came from

hard old fellow who had been a domestic servant, then a barber, then a farmer, then a soldier, thereafter a gendarme. He was ending his days as a rural policeman and tavern-lord. The stern, harsh old man was the terror of evil-doers, and had been known to descend on a quarry and arrest a gang of them singlehanded. He was dreaded as much in his own home. One of his sons, FRAN901S Bonvin (1817-1887), had run away from home elder and became an artist of the realist school, and of fine gifts. The old Bonvin had married again, and his fourth child was born to him on the 28th of February 1834, and was to know a rough and harsh childhood. Though old Bonvin added to his other means of livelihood the setting up of the little rockeries in the windows of restaurants, he would let his sons learn no trade, making them act as waiters in his tavern. The youngest son, Leon Bonvin, had not the initiative to run away, and suffered the buffets and blows in silence. Timid, embarrassed, and awkward, he became silent and moody. His brother Fran9ois would come home at times, and seethe poet that lurked in the heavy, clumsy, fair lad, would give him pencils and set him to " copy what he saw as he saw it." Later he took him to the art school in the Rue de I'Ecole de Medecine to Lecocq de Boisbaudran. By 1857 the young fellow was painting remarkable water-colours. In 1861, at twenty-seven, the loveless

154

OF PAINTING
married, eagerly looking to that marriage to bring into his life the tenderness for which he craved. He found himself tied to a virulent The man was a poet not only by instinct a painter, but a shrew. He had been compelled to live his day over the pots and musician. tavern kitchen, seizing the early hours of the morning pans of a and the lamplit night in which to paint his superb water-colours. The gentle and affectionate, tall, blonde fellow now spent his days

man

WHEREIN

WE
IN

SEE

DARK
REALISM

FRANCE

SENDING

FORTH
FORE-

in like fashion,

to the tune of the raillery

and biting irony of

a

shrewish wife's tongue, flinging drunken ruffians out of the tavern He saved enough from "pourboires" to as part of his day's work. which he learnt to play from an old German in buy an harmonium the neighbourhood and after dinner he would play Beethoven and the masters, until his ignorant and scoffing wife went and tapped him on the shoulder, telling him he was " boring the people with play them something gay " and he, to his gloomy church music And all prevent a scene, would strike up a popular polka or lilt. tavern, he would paint flowers the while, when he could escape his or still-life, or the interior of his house with the shrewish wife at her household doings, or landscapes outside his doors, with exquisite and subtle power. For these superb things he could get but miserable fees. At night he would paint, enclosing a lamp in a box to
;

RUNNERS TO IMPRESSIONISM

;

on the flowers or still-life. The winter of 1865 was a terrible one for Leon Bonvin. Other taverns had been opened near him, and the workmen drifted away from him. Leon had to go out and work as a carter. Debts were On January 29, 1886, he took some water-colours to growing. an art-dealer, who said they were " too dark, not gay enough." On the evening of the last day of January he went to a wood at Meudon and hanged himself. They buried him in unconsecrated ground the poor soul slept at last.

throw

a strong light

;

FANTIN-LATOUR
1837

-

1904

Ignaz Henri Jean Theodore Fantin-Latour was born at Grenfrom whom he passed to that trainer of line oble to a pastel artist artists, Lecocq de Boisbaudran, thence to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts under Ingres. In 1857 he painted awhile under Courbet. But the old masters at the Louvre were his teachers his first display was at the
;
;

Salon of

1

86

1

;

thereafter he steadily

Honour came

to

him

in

the Toast of 1865, his and the Famille

D

his way. The Legion of His Hommage a Delacroix was of 863, 878. Atelier a Batignolles and Coin de Table of 1872, of 1 878. Of 884 was his Autour du Piano
1
1 i
;

won

PAINTING
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISiM
and of 1886 his famous fourteen lithographs for the Richard Wagner. His immortal achievement is in the painting of Flower-pieces. His portrait oi Manet is famous. Odd to say, his portraiture is generally cold and colourless, who was wont to make of his paintings of flowers a very music of splendid colour.

WITH THE
MEDIAEVAL
LE

GR O

S

ACADEMISM OF

1837 -

THE ESTHETES

Alphonse Legros, born at Dijon, was 'prenticed at eleven to a drunken house-painter of the town, going to the school of art There there for awhile until he made with his family for Lyons. he got work at a decorator's. Thence to Paris, where he was entered the Ecole des employed by the scene-painter Cambon Beaux-Arts; went to Belloc (1786-1866), the pupil of Regnault and Gros, and thence to Lecocq de Boisbaudran. At twenty, in 1857, he showed a portrait of his father. The Angelas W2.% of 1859 the Ex Voto of 1861 the Messe des Marts of 1863; but not winning to success he then came to England. At the Salon of 1866 he won a medal with his Lapidation de Saint Etienne. Perhaps his bestknown paintings are his Pelerinage, his Benediction de la Mer^ his Chaudronnier^ his Repas des Pauvres, his Jacob's Dream, and his Marchand des Poissons. Legros has also made a high reputation in
; ; ;

etching.

he has become famous
as a sculptor.

Slade Professor at University College in London in 1876, as a great teacher, besides doing fine work

Though Legros was

hailed as a realist, his art really

breathes the spirit

of a bygone day. belongs to another age.

Solemn, grey, severe, he

156

CHA PTER XX
WHEREIN THE GREAT REVELATION OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM COMES TO FRANCE

THE FRENCHMEN OF
We
have seen
in

i860
to

England the Realism of Constable go

France

;

we have

seen the Realism of Barbizon pass into the

Alongside these Realist Realism of Courbet. England and France, we have seen Primitive-Academism ousting REVELAFrance was now to take up the Mass- TION OF Classical Academism. Impressionism of Velazquez and Hals and the Tenebrosi, and MASSdevelop the gamut of Art. The wag on Charivari who on seeing Monet's sunset labelled Impressions, and who thereupon nicknamed the whole movement " Impressionism," spake truer than he intended. The essential point of Impressionism, as I have already shown in the chapter on Velazquez, is to paint the impression of the whole as it strikes the Every mood of life that is uttered by the artist must be eye. created by so bending colour and form, that both colour and form that blithe colours must give forth shall be redolent of the mood blithe moods, sombre colours sombre moods. Turner had discovered his revelation almost died with this majestic modern revelation him. It lay to a certain extent implicit in Velazquez and Hals and Rembrandt but the Frenchman thrust it forward. Manet painted what he saw in great flat masses, thereby giving a superb decorative effect to all he did, and ridding the eye of petty fatigues. It was in his power of selection, and his consummate use of colour to create the impression desired, that he stepped leagues beyond Courbet. Courbet said of Manet's Olympia that it was " like the Queen of Spades coming from the bath " Manet answered that Courbet's Yet so hard does academism die, ideal of art was a billiard-ball. that even Meier-Graefe discusses Manet's aim in terms of Beauty But then he sees beauty in the bowels of a bullock Now, lest there be confusion about the Impressionistic movements, owing to the befuddling of the name, we had best be clear

Dark Massmovements in

WHEREIN THE GREAT

IMPRESSIONISM

COMES TO FRANCE

— —

;

;

!

!

at once.

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

Courbet went back to the Tenebrosi, and painted sheer Realism Now came a group of men and took up the large art of in Mass. Remember that Chardin had Velazquez where he had left it. but the Revolution had come to already painted sheer impressions destroy his revelation and to turn back art to classical academism. It will be seen that the art of painting has steadily essayed from development to development to find a wider gamut of craftsmanship
;

whereby

to utter its fuller significance

— the play of colour so that

it

THE
.ESTHETES

wider and more complex emotions. Now Courbet in his gross way, with exaggerative violence, had struck against classic ideals, had struck down the historical ideals even of the early Romantic movement, railed against the painting that required literature to explain it, attacked symbolism as being an intellectual effort outside the province of art, and went to extremes In the larger part in denying art the power to interpret the soul. of this Realism he was unassailably right but being a coarse fellow But of considerable genius he naturally did not feel spiritual things. the senses are the avenues to the intellect and as long as an idea reaches the intellect by way of the senses it may become prodigious art. However, at first, Realism became largely an affair of sordidness. An ugly tendency also set in to mistake mere craftsmanship for art. And these two vulgarities lay upon and largely threatened Painting But at least it drove artists to set their own and Literature awhile. it cleansed and age above all the claptrap of tradition and the past purified the whole intention of art, and freed the artist from imitation of dead men. Manet now came to rid the movement of Courbet's grossnesses. Manet saw and felt life as a much nobler, more profound, and complex thing than the mere vulgarities of Courbet. He saw that colour was like rhythm in music, creative and arousing certain sensations each in its own power. The artists now cease to talk of Beauty they speak of Character. They are concerned with Life, with Truth, the value of things they realise that to the eye Light reveals all things. This rejection of Beauty for Life and Character is a prodigious forward movement to the heights. The life of the humble is seen to be as " noble " as the life of the rich. Painting is realised to be as a music of colour harmonies ; not a code of rigid academic laws. Let us realise that by i860 a group of men have arisen who, in their different ways, have found an instrument that will give them the orchestration they desire for the utterance of the impression of the thing seen by means of " values " that is to say, by their colour 158
shall yield
; ; ;

;

OF PAINTING
and by by Manet, they now all And, massing their forms and colours. Courbet's seek to create the impression of the thing seen by massing. mass Realism has at least led to that.
as seen
in

the depth of their atmosphere from the eye
led

WHEREIN THE
GREAT
REVELATION OF
MASS-

THE MASS-IMPRESSIONISTS

MANET
1832-1883

IMPRESSIONISM

COMES TO FRANCE

Coming of the old magistracy, born to a judge in Paris on the 23rd of January 1832 in the artery of the Latin Quarter now known as the Rue Bonaparte, Edouard Manet, the eldest of three brothers, grew up to manhood as the Elegant the man about town. As a but the judge had a judge's lad he had shown great gifts of drawing Manet's uncle. Colonel career in his mind for the young fellow. He was sent a voyage Fournier of the artillery, supported the youth. But in the Guadeloupe to Rio de Janiero to lure him from art. artist he would be; and in 1850 went into Couture's studio. Couture was at least a small respecter of tradition, but he demanded from Manet what he would not himself give to others. They But Manet realised that quarrelled and wrangled from the start. the shoemaker's quarrelsome, thickset, scowling son was the finest At teacher in Paris ; and he stayed with him for six long years. twenty-five he left him, and went a-wandering over Germany, Holland, and Italy copying Rembrandt in Germany, Hals in Holland, Titian and Tintoretto in Venice. Coming back to Paris he copied the Spaniards Velazquez and Goya at the Louvre. Beginning by painting in low tones, and strongly influenced by Goya, Manet concerned himself with Spanish subjects. Then came Courbet into his ken with his trend from Romanticism to massRealism. In 1859 Manet made his first attack on the Salon with his Buveur d'' Absinthe, and was rejected. Here we see that Courbet's blacks and greys have become rhythmical. The next Salon (1861) displayed Manet's portrait of his Father and Mother and the Guitarero\ Manet received honourable mention due to Delacroix. Ingres was kind. Couture sneered: "He will be the Daumier of i860." Daumier was the abhorred of the academics. Gautier hailed Manet with delight. There was general consternation. His Music at the Tuileries had been rejected. The Street-singer and the Boy with the Sword were of 1861 the sad-faced girl with the guitar is his first great effort in realistic impressionism. The Old Musician was

;

;

159


;

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE
MEDIAEVAL

ACADEMISM OF

THE
ESTHETES

of 1862. The death of his father brought Manet a considerable fortune; in 1863 he married a Dutch lady of musical giftb, Suzanne Leenhoff. A little one-man show, in which were seen the Spanish Ballet and Lola de Valence, with other works, won the Then he knew repulse. alliance of Baudelaire but divided the town. The Salon of 1863 refused him; and with him Whistler, Cazin, Fantin-Latour, Harpignies, Jongkind, Legros, Pissarro, and others. The Emperor had insisted that a room should be given to the rejected, and Paris flocked to the Salon des Refuses to laugh herself hoarse. Manet made the sensation of his Breakfast on the Grass. A new All objects were shown in full light vision was come to France. " arranged." The picture of the Dejeuner sur no dark shadows were rherbe with its nude lady amongst the dressed figures scandalised even those who gazed unmoved on Giorgione's Fete every one champetre at the Louvre. In 1864 the Salon accepted the Venetianesque Angels at the Tomb of Christ and the Bullfight, out of which he cut the dead Toreador, burning the rest. The academicians in alarm threw wide the doors of the Salon of Manet made his mark with Jesus insulteznd thefamous Olympia. 1 865 The air rang with tumult. The next Salon rejected him vindictively. So far, Manet had founded his art on Hals and Velazquez he had mastered their craft, and blended it in his own vision. This By 1865, then, he was famous the had scandalised the academic Baudelaire Paris was divided and fiercely. talked-about man. The famous Olympia finished the business. supported him. hotly This superb colour-harmony of the nude courtesan lying on her bed, a negress bringing her a bouquet of flowers, and the black kitten at it her feet, hangs to-day at the Louvre, the flag of a great victory reveals a new vision wholly distinct from all that has gone before the subject is placed in full light as though a great window were and the massy arrangement is enhanced by behind the painter the rhythm of its lines and the orchestration of its colour. Superbly drawn with large touch, this immortal masterpiece sets Manet The simplification is masterly yet beside Hals and Velazquez. even Manet hesitated to show it until Baudelaire urged courage, reminding him that much genius had found derision. Manet was now the recognised fighter and leader of the new movement his vigorous personality marked him for the office of He bore the brunt of the attacks by the critics. this leadership. The elder of the group, he was at full manhood, set in his purpose. To him gathered his friends Whistler, Fantin-Latour, and Legros. 160
;

;

!

;

;

;

XX EDOUARD MANET
1832
"

-

1883

OLYMPIA "
(Louvre)
1865."
Painted
in
uil

Signed on
4
ft.

left:
ft.

— "ED.

MANET,
i

on

canvas.

2 in.

x6

3 in.

(i'27x

'go).

X

OF PAINTING
To
The ill-favour of the WHEREIN Whistler his revelation was vital. and the young Degas, THE academicians drove others under his flag Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Caillebotte, Berthe Morisot, and the young GREAT The REVELABazille, who was to fall in the war of 1870, forgathered. and TION OF writers Gautier, Baudelaire, and Banville were his hot allies later Zola and the De Goncourts and Stephane Mallarme all came MASSThe generous nature of the man made him a born IMPRESto his support. leader, to say nothing of his fire, his large spirit, his tireless energy, SIONISM and his dauntless courage. COMES TO were soon jeeringly known as " L'Ecole des FRANCE The friends Batignolles," from the obscure BatignoUes cafe at which they met So far he had mastered the craft of Hals and the Cafe Guerbois. colourist, surpassed them in orchestration. Velazquez, and, as In 1886 the Salon rejected the Fifre and the Tragic Actor Finding the Salon inimical he in 1867 (Rouviere in Hamlet). collected works in the Avenue de I'Alma, with showed fifty of his Courbet. He was free of bread-winning, and he fought for his The catalogue held the famous phrase " The poorer brethren. Come and see flawless works, but. artist does not say to you to-day the painter has only thought of Come and see sincere works rendering an impression." Zola's enthusiasm for Manet led to that writer being dismissed from the Figaro in 1866. Academicians would buy the Figaro, waylay Zola or Manet on the boulevards, and tear the paper to
; ;
^
: : .

.

.

pieces before

them

in public

!

1868 were his Emile Zola and Lady with a Parrot; of 1869 the fine Dejeuner and Balcony both revealed the man's compelling power. For 1870 the Salon had the portrait of his pupil, the gifted pastellist Eva Gonzales, and he had painted the famous Execution of Maximilian (1867-8). It was in the early part of 1870 that his old journalistic friend Duranty attacked him in the press at the Cafe Guerbois Manet struck him across the face. In the resulting duel, with Zola and Vigniaux for seconds, Manet wounded Duranty in the chest. Thereafter there was reconciliation. The cloud of war was gathering over France that called Manet with the rest of the manhood of the land to the colours. Even the short-sighted Daudet Regnault fell in a sortie did sentry-go Bazille was slain Meissonier was made colonel of the Garde Nationale, and, grimly enough, Manet was promoted captain to his staff! Years afterwards, Manet, gazing upon Meissonier's Charge of Cuirassiers, was " Good, quite good heard to mutter everything is steel but the
;
;
;
;

Of

;

VOL. VIII

:

!

161

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
cuirasses."

However, Manet
fire

was

through some

under the

of the Prussians, and of his

own

hard fighting people later in the

Commune. Manet had now
art for livelihood.

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

fashion

;

Manet

spent his patrimony, and had to look to his Impressionists, so nicknamed, were not in the alone having considerable vogue. With all the

THE
ESTHETES

breeding that distinguished him, he took advantage of his vogue to display the works of his comrades in his studio. Manet heretofore had not greatly concerned himself with the figure in relation to its lighting out of doors. With his wonted force, he now shook off Hals and Velazquez, as he had shaken off Goya. His superb painting of the lady Before the Mirror was of 1876. Manet was thirty-eight was done with the Old Masters, and had created an intensely individual art. After the war, he allied himself with Monet, Degas, and Renoir, and increased his Impressionism towards brilliant lighting. This very year he had painted but had not shown the Garden ; he had already in 1886 painted the sun-filled sea-piece of the Fight of the " Kearsage " and the " Alabama" which revealed his development in the open-air painting towards which he had already moved in his Musique aux Tuileries and the Bal de r Opera; just as the Halslike Bon Bock of 1873, a masterpiece of great power, and the Liseur saw him working still in his earlier manner. From 1868 Manet had been painting in the open air. The Salon of 1874 showed his Le Chemin de Fer. In 1875 he sent his open-air Argenteui/ to the Salon; and the jury, afraid of the greatness of the man, admitted it under protest. But the following year of 1876 they rejected his Desboutin portrait and the fine open-air Le hinge of 1875. Manet promptly repeated The Salon his retort of 1867, and opened his studio to the public. of the next year, 1877, accepted the Faure as ''•Hamlet" but withdrew the Natia ; but at last the jury realised that Manet was too great to reject, and every Salon henceforth knew him until the day he died and there appear in 1879 En bateau (in which blue-andwhite scheme Mr. George Moore is seen arrayed in boating of 1880 were the Antonin Proust, flannels) and Dans la Serre the luminous Pere Lathuille restaurant; and in 1881 the Rochefort portrait and the serio-comic Pertuiset, the Lion-slayer, brought Manet a medal, and his old friend Proust being Minister of Fine Of 1882 was Arts, Manet found himself in the Legion of Honour. the glittering Bar aux Folies-Bergeres and the portrait of a lady called
;
;

;

Jeanne.

But Manet had
162

fallen

a victim to

locomotor-ataxy, and, worn

OF PAINTING
out with the great fight and his prodigious industry, having suffered amputation of a foot to save him from gangrene, he sank and died on the 30th of the April of 1883. The hand of the vigorous and forthright painter of the Woman with the Parrot, of the unforgettable young mother seated In the Square near her infant in the perambulator, of the portrait of a lady called Rest, of the great three-quarter-length portrait in profile of Madame M. L. was stilled at last, in but his fifty-first year. Void at last was that searching eye for character that set down with powerful direct strokes the weaknesses and the strength of men as you may see in his unflinching masterly portraits of Zola, of Rochefort, of Desboutin, of Proust, of Clemenceau and Guys and Faure, of Baudelaire, and of Irish George Moore amongst others. Manet was a giant. Knowing what he desired to utter, and with consummate hand and unerring instinct employing an art best fitted to that utterance, he never swerved a hair's-breadth towards the academies. He stands alone, and apart, as Hals and Rembrandt and Velazquez stood, without rival in his age. Men were shaped by him Whistler and Sargent and Degas and others of great gifts but he stood serenely above all. He handed on the torch to the coming years. He was one of the subtlest colourists. His handling and his virile forcefulness are a marvel. He was never subject to touch-impressionism never wrought his art by colour-spots. He rejected science wholly for sensing; by consequence he achieved the dignity and stateHness of the grand style of the classical without the emptiness, and mastered a compelling poetry of reality. Seeing that the sensitive temperaments of the rebels of his day flinched from war, he took that war upon himself, and fought the battle with his own sword. They resigned themselves to being misunderstood, but Manet was of more heroic clay, and insisted on being understood, or at least accepted by consequence he brought them courage, and, but for him, they might have been overcome. To him the nude or the portrait, landscape and seascape, the home-life or still-life, surrendered their wizardry. He never mistook Realism for sordidness, nor Life for a dunghill. His grasp of Life was profound his temperament fine and comprehensive and balanced. He lacked the psychology of Rembrandt, as did Hals and Velazquez yet psychology he had, as his illustrations to Poe's Raven prove indeed in illustration, in his

WHEREIN THE GREAT
REVELATION OF
MASSIMPRESSIONISM

COMES TO FRANCE

;

;

;

;

;

etchings, his lithographs, and his pastels, he showed his powers as in that he wrought. In his portraits above all he proves his psychology, a grip of character. He scorned to imitate any man,
all else

even himself.

He

saw that

art

must create

a style to

fit

every subject.

163

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
*'

Each time

I

paint

I

throw myself into the water

to learn

swim-

ming," said he.
not only led France into the promised land, he was Rembrandt's impressionism is the highest the mightiest achiever. but it is created by in spiritual sensing that the world has yet seen it is as effective in black and white light and dark, not by colour Mauclair reveals the Manet's is absolutely dependent on colour. bookish man when he asserts for one's understanding of Manet's art that " one has to know his admirable life, one has to know well the incredible inertia of the Salons,"or that one can feel something great Art in him " even without knowing the conditions of his life." reaches the senses with truthful power or it does not ; and no

Manet

WITH THE
MEDI7EVL

;

ACADEMISM OF

THE
^ESTHETES

reading about outside things can increase that sensing. The increase that critics feel has nothing to do with art, but is a refined form of intellectual snobbery. The object of loud laughter the Empress Eugenie demanding that his works should be removed from public display, thereafter President Grevy pursing his lips in demur at the name of Manet on the list for the Legion of Honour, indeed being overruled only by Gambetta Manet fought every inch of the way to conquest.

DEGAS
1834-

Manet

eagerly joined

battle

with

convention

;

Monet

and

Degas and Renoir shrank with horror from the squabbles of the academies and the publicity of war with the critics. HiLAiRE Germain Edgard Degas was born of bourgeois stock in Paris on July 19, 1834, and entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1855 in his twenty-first year, working under Lamothe and Ingres it was Degas who carried Ingres out of his studio when the old artist was stricken down in the seizure from which he died. Degas had gone to America, and the luminous atmosphere and

colour of Virginia and Florida roused the painter's vision for colour. Back again in Paris he joined the art rebels. In 1865 he was one of the group at the Cafe Guerbois on the Boulevard des Batignolles with Manet, Renoir, Monet, Lhermitte, Fantin, Legros, and Cazin, From i860, when he painted Whistler and Stephens and Pissarro.
the American Cotton-broker' s Office in
essentially realist

New

Orleans, his vision

was

and modern, even though he had not yet concerned himself with atmosphere and impression. He appeared at the Salon But the following of 1865 with a pastel of War in the Middle Ages. 164

OF PAINTING
year of 1866 brought forth his Steeplechase vjh'ich began his long The next year saw portraits from his hand series of racing subjects. Ballet-dancer \ and more portraits followed in 1869 and 1868 a He played Thereafter he never again sent to the Salon. 1870. with classic subjects. Spartan Youths Wrestlings and the like, even
;

WHEREIN THE GREAT
REVELATION OF
MASSIMPRESSIONISM

whilst he essayed the modern life. In 1874, '76, '78, '79, and '80 he displayed his work with the In 1884 he impressionists, with Manet and Monet and the rest. Degas found his strength of the racecourse. showed some scenes in draughtsmanship. He is a genius of great power, ruthless, compelling, vital. His frank truthfulness and his biting wit were
gall to Whistler,
theatricalities.

COMES TO FRANCE

whom he He refused

loved to taunt with his poses and his
all

decorations.

Degas continues the development of Daumier. The Luxembourg possesses his superb Cafe on the Boulevard Montmartre amongst
other fine works.

Degas saw life in a narrower fashion, and was impressed by life on a lower plain of realism than was granted to the mightily endowed Manet. He became influenced by the touch-impressionists as did Manet. He has not the colour range either of Manet or of Monet; but he has the vision for mass and the power to utter modern His colour ranges through quiet life of the mass-impressionist. Retiring, grey harmonies his sense of orchestration is limited. pessimistic reputed to be of silent, and solitary, he is said to be He has an astounding quick and biting wit that men dread. draughtsmanship his line is broad, firm, telling his drawing and his vision are opposed to classical drawing and vision. He has a cynical contempt for critics, and says that a man only buys pictures because he thinks they will increase in value. Beginning by copying the Italian Primitives, Fra Angelico above all, he was for long under their glamour, painting finely drawn tawny portrait-heads against black or black-grey grounds, intense and earnest in inquisition. In his beginnings he had these two things in common with Ingres, hard mastery of drawing and photographic vision what we may call scientific perfection. He was at that time doggedly set on mathematical precision and mastering of technique soulless and icy. But from the first he revealed a marvellous sense of the harmonies that lie in greys and blacks. On such severe training was being built that loose pulsing drawing that was to bear him to his own. Thence he clearly came awhile under the glamour of Corot his subtle and intense feeling for greys developed. Degas never gave way to lyricism in colour even in his highest range 165
;
; ;

;

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
in

colour the scheme colour-note.

is

grey and black with here and there a

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

wounds. Degas His emotions of life as though guardedly. has given forth the whole interest is in life in the world of his own day. He is said But his astute to share Ibsen's contempt for modern morality. judicial he takes life as he finds it and sets it vision is impartial, upon the canvas, careless of its why or its wherefore. His interests are curious the racecourse, the ballet-dancer, and
Bitterly ironical, sensitive to impressions and to

;

THE
^ESTHETES

One remembers his finely taking their baths. middle-class arranged Carriages at the Races, saved from photographic truth by He catches the movements of horses its subtle statement of colour. subtle gradations of colour are as nervous and alive as the and his But it is the flutter and whirl of the mettle of the thoroughbreds. His severe training ballet that brings out the vitality of the man. draughtsmanship here serves him to fine purpose. The cloud of in gauzy skirts, the swing of the pink-fleshinged limbs, of the gracefully In poised arms, the glint of mirrors, all bring out his innate gifts. vulgar girls he sees no ideal Greek figures, but the coarsely the often muscled legs, the commonplace heads, the narrow shoulders, the at times ugly features. His insight into character never hesitates. He shows, with relentless skill, the allure of sex even under the betrayal of bodily imperfection. He suggests the curious movements of ballet-girls, and the jerk of their gauzy skirts, with rare He is wholly concerned with truth of impression. truth. When bookish theorists see in these masterpieces the " lavishness of Degas's intellect," and that a " figure or attitude tells us
;

women

than a whole novel," they mistake the function of painting for that of literature Degas never makes any such mistake. A very luminous example of Degas's art is the Dancer at the Photographer s, as she poses in her gauzy skirts before a large window, one foot out-pointed in the hideous convention of standing on the points of the toes which gives the foot an ugly buniony appearance, and does so much to destroy the grace and slay the rhythm of the dance in the ballet. Here we see him concerned with light in amazingly masterly fashion, as in the pastel of the three girls in the Greek Dance we see him akin to the touchParisian
life

more about

impressionists.

The series of women of the people bathing in their rooms shows Degas's grimly humorous searching vision into awkwardnesses he catches the awkwardnesses of the ungainly woman when

i66

1

OF PAINTING
she has put off public pose and gives herself to the slovenly habits

of privacy.

WHEREIN THE
GREAT
REVELATION OF
MASSIMPRESSIONISM

About 1896 Degas proved himself a poetic painter of landscape, in some ways the truest utterance of his soul. The art of Degas is said to reveal lassitude and disenchantment with life his subjects would go to prove this rather than his art. A lonely man he is, with few friendships. His satirical temperament shows throughout his work. He is ever something of the
perhaps
;

Pessimistic therefore he is in a degree. The human race mocker. looms majestic in his eyes. A genius as pastellist, as Degas is draughtsman, and within his limited gamut as colourist steeped in his age. He can feel none of the heroic faculty of the people. They race and dance in ballets or wash themselves they are innately awkward even when they pose as graceful. A man of prodigious force, he has created a craft all his own. He had the genius and the courage not to paint vulgar things in the grand
scarce

COMES TO FRANCE

style.

Degas made school. His influence has been very wide. A man, he trained at least two remarkable pupils Forain and Mary Cassatt. Out of Degas also grew the school that brought forth Renouard, and a greater, Toulouse-Lautrec, and a still
retiring

greater.

Stein len.

OF SOME

WOMEN OF
84

GENIUS IN MASSIMPRESSIONISM
BERTHE MORISOT
1

-

1894

Great-granddaughter to Fragonard, Berthe Morisot had come under the influence of Corot, when the genius of Manet burst upon France. She was on the edge of twenty when the great battle began and she flung herself on the side of Manet. Marrying Manet's brother Eugene, she continued to sign her works as Berthe Morisot, out of respect to her great brother-in-law's name. An artist of remarkable gifts, as her luminous work of Toung Woman seated on a Sofa proves, she had the genius to express herself, to utter a woman's vision instead of aping that of a man. Her realm was the garden and the life of young girls she had rare gifts in watercolour. A woman famous for her beauty, she came to as wide fame in her art. On the death of Manet, it was she who championed his name and fame until she died in the fulness of her gifts at fifty;

A

;

167

PAINTING
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

behind her a large output of her luminous designs, wherein her love of flowers, her blue and silvery colouring, her interest in the coast of Normandy and the glittering gardens of Nice, her concern with young women, and her glory in fruitful orchards Manet painted her in the famous canvas keep her fame green. seen seated on a sofa and in the Balcony. where she is Marie Bracquemond, wife of the famous engraver, was pupil She has painted enormous to Ingres, then joined the Impressionists. decorative schemes and delicate etchings.
three, leaving

THE
ESTHETES
Eva Gonzales,

EVA GONZALfeS
the favourite pupil of Manet, was coming to fame as an exquisite pastellist and, having rejected her early training under Chaplin, was winning to powerful utterance under Manet, when the end suddenly came. She was the wife of the engraver Henri Guerard. Manet has left us a portrait of her at work at an easel. The Luxembourg has a small pastel by her.
;

MARY CASSATT
An American, Mary Cassatt, is a remarkable woman of genius. Pupil to Degas, Mary Cassatt joined the Impressionists, and, like Berthe Morisot, she had the instinct to utter art as a woman, instead She gives forth the woman's vision of motherhood of aping men. and children. She has come to mastery of oils and pastels.

i68

Y

CHAPTER XXI
WHEREIN WE SEE MASS-IMPRESSIONISM ARISE IN ENGLAND

MASS-IMPRESSIONISM COMES INTO

ENGLAND
in

In the meantime Mass-Impressionism was being created in England his name, Charles the hands of a black-and-white artist

WHEREIN

WE

Keene.

CHARLES KEENE
1823

_

1891

SEE MASSIMPRESSIONISM ARISE IN

Of Suffolk stock, born at Hornsey to a solicitor of Furnival's Inn on the loth of August 1823 (his mother a Sparrow of Ipswich, therefore also of Suffolk stock), young Charles Samuel Keene entered his father's office at sixteen, soon thereafter going to an architect. Then he was apprenticed to the engraver Whymper for In 1851 he first drew for Punchy and was soon working five years. for the magazines. But it was Punch that gave him his great scope, his high gifts winning the admiration and applause of Menzel and Degas. In Keene we have the impressionism of the British genius developing into superb black-and-white illustration of the life of the age rendered with a power that has never been surpassed by mortal hands. He advanced impressionism in the utterance of the life of his age, so that it is to Keene that the future must go to see that life, whilst not a single painter was creating it, and painting was seeking false gods and aims in primitivism. The critics have placed the etchings and illustrations of Whistler upon the altar of their faith, accepting Whistler at his own valuation but the line-work of Whistler cannot approach the art of Keene, who stands head and shoulders above his age. With the pen's stroke he could weave the winds of heaven, the gale, the onset of waves, the movement of boats, the glamour of the sun on the fields, as well as the life of the streets, on to the paper with a wizardry of genius that has never been surpassed. Keene died at 112 Hammersmith Road on January 4, 1891. In his painter-like use of line Keene creates the impression of VOL. VIII 169
;

ENGLAND

;

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
gave us the life of the And he did it by middle and lower classes in immortal fashion. the conjunction of mass and of broken line which forestalls the whole
the thing seen with compelling power.

He

European intention of the years

to

come

in painting.

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF
What Keene

DU MAURIER
1834

-

1896

THE
AESTHETES

did for the middle and lower classes, George Du Maurier, with great gifts of impressionism in pen-line about equal His earlier work is so to those of Keene, did for the upper classes. close in genius to the art of Keene that it is difficult to separate Du Maurier and Keene, if all other records were swept them.

away, create for us the

life

of their age with consummate genius.

WHISTLER
1834

-

1903

Whistler looms large to the English-speaking peoples, since he was the disciple who spread the gospel of Mass-Impressionism ; it was the wilful genius of Whistler that bore the torch to his own people. A shrewd self-interest made him hide his indebtedness to Manet in the strut of the heir to Velazquez. Every ounce of his innate gift of intrigue and his arrogant egoism were absolutely essential to his triumph. And he rested neither day nor night, nor flinched from any act that might impress him upon his race. The influence both of Rossetti and of Fantin-Latour are most marked nor is the pseudo-classicism of Albert Moore absent from his vision. Then Courbet dominated him awhile, as we see in the Coast of Brittany (1861), the Wave (1862), and other strong landscapes. Thereafter came Manet. Then in the Old Battersea Bridge of 1865 Whistler found himself. Whistler, on the father's side, came of English stock long settled at Whitchurch and Goring-on-Thames, being descended from Charles 11. 's President of the Royal College of Physicians. The colonies, and in family had gone to Ireland, thence to the American the United States, at Lowell in Massachusetts, to Major George Washington Whistler and his wife, Anna Matilda M'Neill, of the old Southern aristocracy of Baltimore, descended from Scottish stock, was born on the iith of July 1834 James Abbott M'Neill Whistler, who was to bring immortal fame to the name. At seventeen the youth was sent to the military college at West Point, but his time being up, he surrendered the sword for the brush, and 170

XXI
WHISTLliR
1834 - 1903

"OLD BATTERSEA BRIDGE"
(National Gallery)
Bought by the National Collections Fund from the Whistler Memorial One of the canvases brought forward during the Whistler v. Ruskin trial.
Exhibition.

OF PAINTING
never to see his native land again, entering the studio of Gleyre in 1855, where Du Maurier and Fantin-Latour came Poynter were amongst his fellow-students. into his life when Whistler was copying the Old Masters at the Louvre and Manet, 'two years older than he, began to come to the front at the end of the fifties. Whistler's quick senses realised the new movement. He was soon attached to the group who worshipped at the Cafe Guerbois at Manet's feet Degas, Fantin-Latour, Monet, It was and the others. Into the fray he was later to fling himself. in etching that he made his first advance with the "little French set" (1858). At twenty-five (1859) he came to live in London with his brother-in-law, Seymour Haden (1818-1910), the surgeon whose Soon thereafter he was capable etching won him knighthood. then paintsharing a studio with Du Maurier in Newman Street ing and etching at Wapping. The end of the year saw him settled at Chelsea. In the following year of i860 he sent his first painting to the Royal Academy. At the Academy of 1862 was The Thames in Ice, Paris struck him his first rebuff. In 1863, on the edge of thirty, his White Girl was rejected at the Salon, being hung at the Salon des Refuses with the works of Manet and other rebels. Unfortunately, amongst Whistler's many affectations was the giving of numbers to the titles of his pictures instead of a distinguishing name, and this White Girl, " No. 2," hides a fine achievement. Bracquemond had burst into enthusiasm over the art of Hokusai in 1856 all Paris awoke to Japanese art. Whistler missed nothing. He saw that Japanese art was bringing a new arrangement into composition. It broke down classical symmetry. Manet was He took strongly influenced. Whistler revelled in the revelation. violent perspectives, and the sprigs of leaves, and set up schemes on He invented a Japanese butterfly signature out of his Japanese lines. Above all he painted in flat initials which he set in his design. coats. He employed oil-painting as the Japanese employed colourprints from the wood. The result was tender, delicate, subtle but on the other hand it lacked power and other great attributes. But, since Whistler was not stirred by great and majestic moods, it did little harm and in adapting the Japanese colour-print he wisely realised his limitations, at the same time that he increased his exquisiteness. Just as his landscapes of London were soon to
for Paris at twenty-one,
;

made

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

MASSIMPRESSIONISM ARISE IN

ENGLAND

;

;

;

;

seen through eastern vision, so we shall see his portraits suggest British folk seen through the eyes of a Spaniard.

suggest

London

171

;

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

The

following year (1864), rejected by Paris, Whistler showed at the Royal Academy the Wappiug and the Die Lange Leizen of the In 1865 the Academy held his Golden Screen, his Six Marks. Old Battersea Bridge, The Little White Girl, and The Scarf- master-

pieces

all.

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

Whistler was

now come

into

his

kingdom.

The voyage

to

THE
^ESTHETES

Valparaiso in 1866 completed the conquest. His hand becomes bolder; he rises above schooling and tradition. T\\q ^n^trh Nocturne Valparaiso is the revelation of an original and in Blue and Gold consummate genius. He had already proved that genius in the Old Battersea Bridge he now established it. He came back to Chelsea and proceeded to paint masterpiece after masterpiece of poetic Thames river-pieces. Whistler now used colour in glowing restrained key with a tense, emotional exquisiteness. Beauty of statement and ease of utterance were become a confirmed habit. Some magic had fallen on the vision of the man, and his skill of hand leaped eagerly to express the lyrical ecstasy within him. Henceforth his craftsmanship stated every impression that he desired to arouse. Without a note of music in him indeed, he owed the musical notation of his works to Fantin-Latour he has discovered the oneness of the arts of colour and sound. Using a large polished table instead of palette, he mixed in the centre of it a great patch of the colour he decided to be the key to his scheme, and into this he dragged each colour of his gamut. But his eyesight always baulked him from complete mastery of values and he painted far darker than Nature. He painted up his whole canvas together, not in patches. He required for portraits many sittings. His earlier work is in bold, thick, vigorous strokes rapidly he came to painting in a thin fluid manner. He painted direct, never softening the stroke of the brush-work. In oils he constantly mixed black with his colours, as in water-colour he mixed white. Not sending to the Academy in 1866, he sent in 1867 The Symphony in White No. 3, the Battersea, and Sea and Rain. Skipping two years he sent in 1870 The Balcony, then skipping a year he sent to the display of 1872, in his thirty-eighth year, the world-famous and powerful Portrait of Whistler s Mother Arrangement in Grey and Black, which now belongs to the French State. Thereafter Whistler only sent once again to the Academy an etching in 1879. In his fortieth year Whistler held a display of works in Pall Mall, and the world saw his superb Carlyle, and perhaps his supreme

;

;

172

XXII

WHISTLER
1834 - 1903

"THOMAS CARLYLE"
(Corporation Art GALLtRits, Glasgow)

OF PAINTING
wherein the subtle atmosphere The of girlhood is caught with rare purity and exquisiteness. tenderness of the colours, the marvellous brushwork, the command of greys, alone raise Whistler in this canvas amongst the masters of The Carlyle the ages had he never painted another masterpiece. shows Whistler creating the effect of philosophic grim old age, with a power that equals his statement of Miss Alexander s childhood, and his own Mother s serene old-ladyhood. The Grosvenor Gallery meantime was giving him a splendid outlet for his genius to London indeed he owed his recognition, his rapidly increasing vogue, his honours and his discovery and he proceeded to flout and sneer at England for the rest of his life Yet there was a reason for his spites. The whole solid body of Academicians, the Press, and Ruskin were bitterly hostile to the man. In 1877, at forty-three. Butterfly was to arouse the petulant illwill of Ruskin. Ruskin was now the despot of the art-world. In an evil moment for himself, he turned peevish unseeing eyes upon the master-work of Whistler, and uttered the now notorious drivel "The ill-educated conceit of the artist so nearly approached the aspect of wilful imposture. I have seen, and heard, much of Cockney impudence before now ; but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public face." The injustice and sin of this thing were insane, almost criminal. A weaker man than Whistler must have been utterly destroyed by it. But Ruskin had delivered himself, naked, into the hands of the spoiler. He never spoke again with the same authority. Whistler sued him for libel and the doings of those two dark November days, when the case came before Baron Huddleston and a special jury, became the laughter of the whole country. It was a duel between him and the Attorney-General, with Whistler's brilliant wit and passionate confidence in his art against the pompous playfulness of the legal luminary screening his ignorance. The Attorney-General walloped the air with a sandbag, hitting his own nose, perspiring and inanely jocund, slowly realising at last that the keen rapier-play of his enemy was shedding his brains all about the cockpit. Stupidly asked by the AttorneyGeneral whether he asked two hundred guineas for the labour of two " No days. Whistler made his famous reply I ask it for the " ; and later, to the Attorney-General's " Do knowledge of a lifetime you think you could make me see the beauty of that picture ? " Whistler, after a pause, gazed at the Attorney-General's face, looked
portrait of the little girl Miss Alexander,
;

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

MASSIMPRESSIONISM ARISE IN

ENGLAND

!

:

.

.

.

;

:

;

173

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
Court " No. I fear it would be as hopeless as for the musician to pour his notes into the ears of a deaf man." His farthing damages made him the best talked-about man for many a day his pictures advanced in the
at the picture,

and answered

to the expectant

:

;

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

whilst they did not fully appreciate his art, admired his courage and his wit. Whistler knew full well that that farthing on his watch-chain had dealt a blow for art which a

favour of

many who,

THE
ESTHETES

pamwhich Whistler was wont to rail at his enemies. The next year (1879) saw him in Venice, where he wrought for nearly two years upon the famous series of Venetian etchings and he was busy thereafter with portraiture. In 1884, at fifty. Whistler was elected to the Royal Society of British Artists in Suffolk Street. In 1885 he delivered his lecture Ten 0^ Clock. It was the year of The last day of the year saw the eruption of his his Sarasate. quarrel with Mr. Leyland over his famous decorations for the Peacock Room. Whistler had set up his La Princesse du Pays de la Porcelaine
phlets in
;

public subscription to Ruskin's costs could not mitigate. Out of the devilry emerged the first of those brown-paper

as

the keynote of the room.

The

red of the valuable gilt Spanish

leather
gold.

upon the walls

jarred

assistant,

feverishly painted out the leather

with the work. Whistler, with an with peacock-blue and

The

But a Whistler was elected President of the Royal British Artists fell foul of the old gang in the Society ; the decline of sales gave the Society the excuse for compelling his resignation ; and he withdrew with all the young Meantime he had begun to work in lithography. bloods in 1888. The nineties opened with a roar for Whistler. He published It tickled a large public to whom his Gentle Art of Making Enemies. the human his high achievement in art was Greek or boredom
;

became very bitter. fiercer quarrel was coming.
strife

always turns aside from the serious business of life to watch a dogIt set up such a nervous dread amongst critics that from the day of its appearance he became immune from attack. But the bulk and such things are best of the book is the record of his quarrels Whistler played catch-as-catch-can forgot at setting of the sun. For, when all 's said, and the face draws with an open razor. serious after the laugh, we become aware that he set up as picture of himself an acrid-witted and somewhat unlovely figure that was scarce even a half-truth of the man, but which was straightway Whistler himself felt this sense of accepted as his whole confession. blight. At that May-Day banquet of his life, when England rendered him homage, at the summit of his achievement, worldfight.
;

174

OF PAINTING
wide his repute, fifty-five of his stormy years of life behind him, rising with friendly faces greeting him, he made his public confession that he had had to " wrap himself in a species of misunderstanding, as the traveller of the fable drew closer about him the folds of his cloak the more bitterly the storm assailed him on the way." It is not in his book but in his art that you shall find him. Whistler attacked his life was one long effort to be the teacher, scorned the didactic thought a teacher. His Teti o^ Clock is the narrowest didacticism, as it is false from end to end. A year or so before he was sixty Whistler showed his "Nocturnes, Marines, and Chevalet pieces" in 1892 at Goupil's the world flocked to render homage. Such as felt no artistic emotion before his work kept silence, afraid to be thought dullards. His contempt had now the furnace-blast to wither reputations. Insincerity in praise was become as widespread as aforetime was fatuity in blame. A born fighter, there was now nobody to fight no giant to slay. Peace had settled upon his kingdom. He slowly
; ;

WHEREIN
SEE MASSIMPRESSIONISM
ARISE IN

WE

ENGLAND

died of

it.

Whistler went abroad and, roaming through Brittany, drifted to Rue du Bac. At sixty-one he came back to England, showed his lithographs, and the following year settled in London again. Tragedy now entered to him. His wife, the widow of the architect Godwin, died, leaving Whistler a lonely old man. In 1898 the "International Society" was founded with Whistler as President. But the great fight was done. Honours poured upon him. In 1899 he essayed to repeat his success of The Gentle Art with The Baronet and the Butterfly^ but to break the butterfly on a clumsy wheel. His quarrel with Sir William Eden was too parochial to stir the public pulse. There was a sense of stooping. The old war-dog was growling at shadows seeing ghosts
Paris, taking a studio in the

in the twilight of life.

He

worked

of 1903 he was slowly failing 17th of July, in his seventieth year. Whistler, when he spoke upon art, would have us believe that it is the province of Art to say nothing very beautifully his instincts and his genius made no such mistake. He said that Art was the Science of the Beautiful which were no mean definition of Craft, and had been no bad definition of Art, but that Art is not Science and is not Beauty. It is of the wisdom of the wiseacre who defined a crab as a scarlet reptile that walks backwards which were not so bad had it been a reptile, had it been scarlet, and had it walked backwards.
;

In the early part he died rather suddenly on the
to the last.

^7S

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

THE
yESTHETES

Art concerns itself with tears and pathos and tragedy and ugliness and greyness and the agonies of life as much as with laughter Neither Whistler nor another may narrow and comedy and beauty. acreage of the garden of life. the It was exactly in his confusion of Art with Beauty that Whistler There are far greater emotions than fell short of the vastnesses. mere beauty and it was just in these very majestic qualities, in the sense of the sublime and the immensities, before which his exquisite But at least one of the greater senses and subtle genius stood mute. was granted to him in abundance the sense of mystery. His fine instinct told him that Suggestion was the soul of craftsmanship, and Out of the mystic twilight he never over-stated the details of life. caught the haunting sense of its half-revelations and its elusivehe His masterly brush ness with an exquisite emotional use of colour. painted the moods of landscape with a power that compels them
;

upon the
So
far

senses.

sneered that America can only create a British art. subject to sneer, it is America's glory and her significance. The fact that she has politically separated from Her law, her speech, her England is a mere parochial affair. whole significance are a part, and a magnificent part, of the EnglishIt is often

from being

She inherits Shakespeare and Chaucer as much When Whistler flung his spites at as England inherits them. England, as he never hesitated also to do at America, he was but but a suburban Buggins quarrelling with a suburban Tompkins both Buggins and Tompkins in their hearts know full well that they are of the same breed, and the mastery of their race is their
speaking genius.
;

pride.
is

To
miss

miss
their

the

oneness

of

the

English-speaking
significance,

peoples
their

to

whole destiny, their

and

reality.

but he took good care to live in Whistler flouted his race He flits across the Victorian years gay, debonair, laughEngland. a dandified exquisite of a man, insolent, ing, quarrelsome, huffy and he drew charming, unexpected a wit amongst the chiefest wits upon them all, hidalgic, swaggering, blithely stepping his rapier like one of those tempestuous into frays for mere love of a quip Spaniard dons of his beloved Velazquez, hot upon his honour Strutting it like gamecock always, just to keep his blood jigging. he fought his duel, drew blood, and, almost before his blade was wiped, had forgotten his man, and, with flashing eyeglass in choleric
;

;

;

eye,

was peering
176

for another.

OF PAINTING
And it was behind this so mocking fantastic figure, which he whimsically created and set up, and almost came to believe in, to trick the herd of men and bewilder the authorities, that he strove to hide the wounds he suffered from the dull unseeing eyes and clownish malice of his stupid day. And with the bitterness of years of hate and obloquy in his heart, and stung by the injustice of it all, he grasped that what the world would not see he could whip it into seeing so he whipped it with flout and knout and jeer and sneer and caustic jibe he whipped it, until its unwieldy bulk became first uneasy, then wholly perplexed, then tolerant, then forgave itself, then recognised him and paid him cautious homage, admiring just his truculent audacities, discovering only his gr,eatnesses after fearsomely bowing to his small disdains. So he smiled away the agonies, playing the fop, with flashing eyeglass and long cane and flat-brimmed silk hat and the long glove and devil-may-care laugh and, except from a few, hid as best he might the serious artist that was in him. All that was greatest in him he spent in the eager agony of artistic endeavour. The rest of his day he played at play-acting in a fantastic farce, dressing up in theatric attire, and thrusting before the footlights the dandified quarrelsome little figure that strutted it with bigod airiness, making even of Nature's defect, the white forelock amidst his black hair, a source of pride moving in a whirl of mockeries and witticisms, and rough and stinging repartee, reckless of consequence except the answering laugh, reckless of friendships broken. He essays to play the part of Butterfly— the gorgeous wings but thinly veil the venomous body of Wasp. He did not wholly deceive himself the butterfly that was his pictured signature he often drew with sting
;

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

MASSIMPRESSIONISM ARISE IN

ENGLAND

;

for

tail.

He

tried to

despise the

good opinion of the world

;

came near

to breaking his heart in the effort to prevent the

and he world

from ignoring him. Endowed with great gifts, he would spend precious hours of his working day in attacking critics, sometimes friends, for stupidities or unmeant slights. To this end he would cudgel his
keen wits to pen the spontaneous epigram, or to find a victim for a ready-made slur. Whistler stepped into the Victorian years out of some old-world tangle, some old romantic brawl, unreasonable, quixotic. He was of the blood of the dictators. He must never be in the wrong. He ruffled it, dapper, fire-eating, striking insults with his cane across offending shoulders, calling men out to duel and in

VOL. VIII

Z

177

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASS•whimsical aside,

tongue

in

cheek, hopes to

God

they

may

not

come

out.

law to himself, whether in the country taking his walks abroad in dancing-pumps, or climbing rocks by IMPRESwhether in town posing and strutting the seashore in the same SIONISM by the hour before the mirror at the tailor's or the hairdresser's. WITH THE He was a very strategist. He detested the vulgarities. If MEDIi?£VAL possible, the rude scuffle was to be avoided. But war must be. ACADEMHe had the genius for war. If it had to be the personal scuffle, ISM OF fearless but small, he did not give battle until the more powerful THE enemy was at disadvantage then he darted in and flung the clumsy ESTHETES fellow, taken unawares, through the plate-glass window in Piccadilly. And before the other had recovered from the fierce surprise of the first onslaught. Whistler had skipped into the public eye and was He set his wit against the other's strength. crowing his victory. The most mischievous of sprites, and at eternal strife, he detested war as an unrighteous horror and unclean. He hated sport

He

was

a

rollicking

abhorred killing. Up with the lark ever blithe he was an early riser, a tireless He lived worker, the man of taste in all the things that he did. was temperate with wine, of which he delicately on slender fare was a good judge. He was the dandy always, dressed even at his work as though ready to enter the drawing-room of fashion. His With day's work done, he sallied out to dine with the wits. Shakespeare's or friends he spent his evening at the playhouse the comic song of the other serious play a huge joke to him music-hall a joy. He had no sense of music whatsoever. IntelHe had few books and read lectual pursuits were not for him. His day's work shed Religion troubled him not at all. fewer. from him, he must enjoy life know men through contact with Always fresh, always bright, never weary, their wit and gossip. he was never heard to utter an indecent phrase he detested all

;

uncleanness.

Vague

in affairs of

He loved his work to part with the work of his He refuses an etching to a dealer for agony, the drawing of blood. guinea he gives it to a poor admirer for a crown. a and his home Full of energy, he never lounged in an arm-chair " If you want comfort," cried contained no comfortable furniture. And his evening's gadding over, he he, laughing, " go to bed." would walk home, making of his exercise an opportunity to study the glamour of the night when sluggards are abed.

money,

his difficulties at times

were pathetic. hands was an

;

178

a

OF PAINTING
With a trivial mind WHEREIN Whistler had certain evil effects on art. He deliberately belittled the he gloried in art being a trivial thing. SEE range of art, for he deliberately saw^ life as a little thing. But he MASSsaw it exquisitely and created it exquisitely. Whistler mistook IMPRESthe joy of craft for the sole aim of art ; as men and women SIONISM only too often mistake church for religion. ARISE IN About Whistler arose a cult of Art which is about as sorry a ENGLAND falsity as was ever uttered upon it. There lies before me a book, wrought through and through with the antique drivel about art being beauty, and the stupid cackle about " Whistler helping to purge art ot the vice of subject " as if Whistler might not have become a mightier genius had his subjects been of vaster range For,

WE

!

subject,

spite of the gabble of the
is

studios,

there

is

in

all

art

portrait

a subject.

Then we come on such

fatuities as

that " the

realist in this

as if

it

troubled world cannot look through rosy spectacles," were not the idealists who are not amongst the greyest of
!

pessimists, whilst the realists almost as often bring forth the optimist

Whistler, exquisite and subtle as were his sensing, at least cannot be accused of wearing "rosy spectacles" that eyeglass of his was the window to as pessimistic a soul as any man ever possessed.
;

179

CHAPTER

XXII

OF THE ENGLISH PAINTERS OF THE PASTORAL, AND THE GREAT ILLUSTRATORS OF THE HOME-LIFE OF THE SIXTIES

THE
CONFLICT

OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

the mass-impressionism of Charles Keene in black and white brought forth a superb achievement in pen-work, there also arose in England a group of painters of pastoral idylls and landscapes.

Whilst

BIRKET FOSTER
1825

North Shields, Northumberland, in 1825, the youth Miles Birket Foster went at sixteen as 'prentice to the wood-engraver Landells. At twenty-one he was illustrating THE children's books, and working for the Illustrated London News. ^ESTHETES Wielding a delicate poetic craft, he wrought a multitude of little

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

-

1899

Of Quaker

stock, born at

landscapes that breathe the very air of his beloved England. By 1858 he was also working largely in water-colour, and was elected
to the

R.W.S.

in i860.

MASON
1818 1872

George Heming Mason came of the old county aristocracy. at his father's seat, Wetley Abbey in Staffordshire, on March 8 18, the lad was sent to Edward vi's School at Birmingham II, Going abroad with the intention of making a physician of him.
Born
1

1843, at twenty-five, the young fellows, whilst at Rome, heard that money disasters had fallen on the family. Mason turned to art. At Rome the young Leighton found him befriended him, and secured him work. Coming near starving back to England in 1858, Mason married and went to his old home in Staffordshire, and began the painting of those rural scenes which created a school. In 1865 he came to live in HammerBut his health, never of the smith; in 1869 h^ became A.R.A. best, gave way and he died on the 22nd of October 1872.

with

his brother in

;

;

Side by side with this Idyllic movement was working a school of Realists who won to chief mastery in the field of BookIllustration, known as " the men of the sixties," some of whom

180

PAINTING
adventured
into

painting,

into

which
man.

they

carried

their

book-

illustrating intention almost to a

Frederick Walker (i 840-1 875) idealised the pastoral life of Born at Marylebone, London, on May 24, 1840, to a the land. working jeweller, the lad early showed the artistic bent. Entering PASTORAL,
the office of an architect in 1855, he studied at the British Museum; in 1858 entered the Academy schools, apprenticed himself to the wood-engraver Whymper for three years, and was soon illustrating for the magazines. Thackeray called him to work up his own sketches for Philip in Cornhill. In 1863 he showed paintings at the Academy was elected to the old Water-Colour Society in the
;

OF THE ENGLISH PAINTERS OF THE

AND THE GREAT
ILLUS-

TRATORS
OF THE HOME-LIFE OF HE

1867 the Royal Academy showed his 1 works at these displays. Elected SIXTIES A.R.A. in 87 1, he was already suffering from the consumption which was to cut short his life at thirty-five he died at St. Fillans in Perthshire on June 4, 1875. His Harbour of Refuge is typical of
following February; and in
Bathers,

which began
1

his series of

;

his art.

Wycombe

George John Pinwell (i 842-1 875), born on December 26, 842, developed
1

to a builder at
early,

High

and became a

designer at an embroiderer's. In 1862 he went to Heatherley's school, and was soon illustrating. He worked with Whymper
just after
for

Walker had

left.

He

was

early doing important

work

Like the illustrated magazines. In 1865 he was painting. Walker, he was doomed to an early death, dying on the 8th September 1875. Boyd Houghton (i 836-1 875) was another good artist of this

time.

Joseph Crawhall, one of the finest descendants of the old chap-book illustrators, I shall return as creator of one of the most vigorous of the younger schools amongst us to-day. He was the friend of Keene, and to his wit we owe many of the humorous legends that adorned Keene's masterwork. Of Tenniel (1829) and the other brilliant illustrators there
It was a great period of some of the not space here to speak. in black and white, to which the rare imagination of Tenniel and the men of the time brought a vast range of
is

To

supreme work done
achievement.

181

CHAPTER

XXIII

OF THE MID-CENTURY SCOTSMEN

SCOTTISH PAINTING UNDER WILKIE
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
In the forties Scotland brought forth a group of painters of the home-life, who emerged from under the wing of Willcie the Realists Erskine Nicol, the Faeds, and R. T. Ross, all of them

good
for

colourists.

WITH THE
MEDIiEVAL

(i 826-1 900), showed at the Royal Academy time in 1851, and settled in London the next year. His pictures of Scottish home-life were painted with power and

Thomas Faed, R.A.
the
first

ACADEMISM OF

breadth.

Erskine Nicol, A. R.A.
people, Irish as well as

THE
.ESTHETES

825-1 904), painted the life of the Scottish, with broad humour and a telling
(i

brush.

At the same time the Pre-Raphaelites cast their glamour over Sir Joseph Noel Paton (1821-1901), James Archer (1823-1904), David Scott's brother W. Bell Scott (1811-1890), Sir W. Fettes Douglas (1822-1891), Herdman (1829-1888), and Gavin (18271883),
all

seeking literary inspiration.

JOHN PHILLIP
1817
It

-

1867

painters of Scotland

was out of Wilkie's school was to come

that broad mass-impressionism that

Channel.

a man to whom was revealed was arising in France across the The son of a poor soldier, young John Phillip, born in

that one of the most powerful

Aberdeen on April 19, 18 17, apprenticed at an early age to a housepainter, was soon essaying portraiture, beginning with the copying A local painter of a picture of William Wallace from a signboard. of portraits, called Forbes, gave him lessons; and in 1834 he made In London he visited the for J^ondon as a stowaway aboard a brig. Academy, was taken up by Major Lockhart Gordon, and under his influence came to the notice of Lord Panmure, who placed the He joined the Academy schools in 1837, youth as pupil with Joy.
182

PAINTING
his

twentieth year; showing at the

Academy
to

in

1839

In

1840 he went back

to

Aberdeen
1843.

paint

portraits

— amongst

his

Moor.

OF THE
MID-

In London again in 1846, it was in 185 1-2 that he first went to Spain, winning the name of "Spanish PhilHp," or " PhilHp of Spain." The Diploma Gallery copy of has Meninas proves his deep interest in Velazquez. He was in Spain again in 1856-7 with Ansdell was elected A.R.A., and in and began his famous 1859 R.A. In i860 he was again in Spain series of brilliantly lit and broadly handled pictures, which had a wide influence in the north. His royal portraits are of this time. In 1866 he went to Italy, studied Titian but was driven home by ill-health, dying in London of a paralytic stroke on February 27, Phillip had a marked influence on Millais, and was the 1867. man who bought Whistler's first painting at the Royal Academy.
others the

young

Millais

in

CENTURY
SCOTSMEN

;

;

;

WARD
1816-1879

under the advice of Wilkie, entered went to Rome in 1836 for three 1835 years, thence to Munich under the Nazarene Cornelius to study fresco, and came back to London in 1839 showed his Cimabiie and Giotto. Made A. R.A. in 1847, he became R.A. in 1855, having in 1853 been commissioned to paint eight historical pictures for the House of Commons. He died by his own hand on January 15, Ward had married in 1848 Henrietta Ward, herself an 1879. artist, daughter of George Raphael Ward, and granddaughter of James Ward. Ward's best-known pictuies are the Doctor Johnson waiting for an Audience in the Ante-room of Lord Chesterfield, the Disgrace of Lord Clarendon, the South Sea Bubble, and James II receiving News of the Landing of the Prince of Orange. In landscape the Scottish artists were now close at grips with Nature, catching her moods, her weather, and the breezes that blew across her face. Naturalism and Pre-Raphaelism went hand in hand. Sir George Harvey (1806- 1876) gave his later years to landscape; and Milne-Donald (1819-1866), Sam Bough (18221878), and Fraser (1828-1899), and Docharty (1829 ?-i 878),
the

Edward Matthew Ward,
Academy
schools in
;

;

wrought their art. John Crawford Wintour (i 825-1 882) bridges the gap towards the modern achievement, as seen in his poetic masterpiece, A Border
all

Castle. Etty had initiated him into his splendid art, thence he broke into landscape, with Constable as his influence, and came to splendour thereby.

183

A HISTORY
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM

SCOTT-LAUDER'S SCOTSMEN OF THE SIXTIES
In Scotland about
1

860 the work of R. Scott Lauder began

WITH THE
MEDIAEVAL

lor he had trained a group of painters romantic illustrators awhile dominated the Scottish achievement, and there emerged Orchardson, M'Taggart, Cameron, Chalmers, MacWhirter, the Grahams, the Burrs, and others.

to tell

;

who

ACADEMISM OF

ORCHARDSON
1835
Sir

THE ESTHETES

-

1910

William Quiller Orchardson, born in Edinburgh, was a Highlander. Joining the Trustees' Academy in 1850, he early showed such gifts that he had left when Scott Lauder was made
headmaster. Orchardson returned and became leader of a brilliant group of Scott Lauder's students, Chalmers, M'Taggart, Pettie, Tom Graham, Peter Graham, MacWhirter, who joined together into a sketching club, and came in touch with the Pre-Raphaelite movement in 1857, doing much illustration. Orchardson rapidly developed a manner of his own, in which the exquisitely drawn line in pencil on the canvas was made the base, about which the strokes of paint were subtly and tenderly hatched with flowing touch, emOrchardson came ployed in a restrained pearly or golden harmony. to London in 1862 and made a mark, being elected A.R.A. in 1868, Of 1878 was and R.A. in 1877, the year of his Queen of the Swords. began his series of modern dramatic his Social Eddy, in which he The Napoleon on scenes, the Manage de Convenance being of 1884.
the Bellerophon

was of 1880,

initiating

his

French

series.

Of 1886

was his superb black-and-gold harmony of his wife and babe called Master Baby. His Sir Walter Gilbey of 1891 was one of the finest as his Windsor group of the Royal Family portraits of his age
;

(1899) was one of the greatest Court portraits. John Pettie (i 839-1 893) struck a more vigorous and dramatic note, and was a good colourist, taking his anecdotes from history Chalmers (i 836-1 878) painted homely subjects; M'Taggart (1835-19 10) beginning in Pre-Raphaelism developed into one of the most powerful painters of the sea, of the sunlight and the wind, the poet of the fisherfolk. Besides this dominant group, Lauder trained or influenced Peter Graham (1836), well known for his landscapes and seascapes; John MacWhirter (1839-1911) the landscapist ; Tom
;

Graham

(i

840-1 906)

who came

to brilliant

achievement

in

the

184

OF PAINTING
and
painting of the figure, he was under the Pre-Raphaelite influence, Hugh Cameron (1835) who painted the humble folk. this school was a group of well-known artists. Closely akin to Lockhart (1846- 1900) came under the influence of Scott Lauder's
at

OF THE
MID-

CENTURY
SCOTSMEN

time when John Phillip's masterly Spanish phase was profound impression in Scotland. making a Gibb (1845) painted battle-pieces; William Hole (1846), most famous for his etchings, is an Englishman trained in Scotland C. Martin Hardie (1858known for his Burns in Edinburgh in ) is best Orchardson's manner Ogilvy Reid is much of the same style and J. Watson Nicol is interested in the romance of old Scottish life. George Wilson (i 848-1 890) was Pre-Raphaelite. The Pastoral cast its glamour over Robert W. Macbeth (1848), whose art is akin to that of Mason and Walker, the English Pastoral painters Manson (i 850-1 876) and P. Walker Nicholson (1858-1885) and John R. Reid (185 i), White, Noble, and Robert M'Gregor, were all born at this time. The portraitpainters include the academic Sir George Reid (1841). Of the illustrators, one of the finest was William Small and the humourist W. Ralston. Landscape brought forth W. D. Mackay A. K. Brown ; David Murray David Farquharson (i 839-1 907) Joseph Farquharson ; Leslie Thomson (185 1); Campbell Noble (1846), whose art is so akin to that of the Modern Dutchmen Robert Noble Cecil Gordon R. B. Nisbet (1857); Coutts Michie Lawson (1851-1882), who made his mark in England; Hope M'Lachlan (i 845-1 897) both deeply moved by the work of the men of Barbizon, and the subtle and tender landscapist Wingate (1846), one of the most poetic painters of the age who had looked upon the art of Corot. Of the sea-painters, Cassie (18 19-1879) painted calms; but M'Taggart revealed his vigorous art to Colin Hunter (i 842-1 904), Hamilton Macallum (1841-1896), Henderson (1832-1908), and R. W. Allan. Of the animal-painters were Robert Alexander, whose Watching and Waiting is in handling much like the work ot Macbeth and Denovan Adam (i 842-1 896), who painted cattle.
school
a
; ;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

school of illustrative painters largely concerned with Historical Illustration, that brought forth fine craftsmen.
also

There

arose

in

England

a

Seymour Lucas, R.A. (1849VOL. VIII 2 A

),

proved

by

his

famous

185

PAINTING
THE
CONFLICT OF MASSIMPRESSIONISM
Gordon Riots a close kinship with the painters of Hogarth's time the Scotsman Gow, R.A. (1848), gave himself to historical wavered between anecdote; whilst Yeames, R.A. (1B35), historical anecdote and the type of costume-comedies by which ), is best known. Marcus Stone, R.A. (1840;

WITH THE MEDIEVAL
ACADEMISM OF

THE
.ESTHETES

186

1870
BROKEN-COLOUR IMPRESSIONISM

CHAPTER XXIV
WHEREIN WE SEE THE REVELATION OF ENGLISH TURNER BURST UPON FRANCE OF THE SEVENTIES

With

France the revelation of Turner. Mass-Impressionism developed to Broken-Colour Impressionism
the seventies there
to

came

— WE

WHEREIN
SEE

colour employed like music.

THE
REVELATION OF ENGLISH
rr* T T T3

BROKEN-COLOUR IMPRESSIONISM
Broken-Colour Impressionism (or Touch Impressionism) it was that was labelled "Impressionism" by the Press; and if we would understand its significance we must here and now rid it of this false critical claim of t6e impressionism. It were best to it before we proceed further. This misuse of the word grasp impressionism by the critics must be stopped if the student hopes
to understand

XT T"*

T)

pyTncT
frp^,^

^_ .».^„ tut?
^.T-y^T-.^^

r^^^^

modern

painting.

The

Mass-Impressionists had been essaying to thrust forward

the massing of the Tenebrosi and Hals and Velazquez, so that colour But towards 1870, should take the place of merely dark shadows. the artists were getting into the sunlight, and they felt that their masses were founded on indoor colours that failed to utter the They looked about them, and in glittering impression of sunlight. all the vast achievement of art but one man beckoned to the sunThey discovered the whole modern revelalight English Turner. tion in what bookish men called the Decline of Turner science was showing that a ray of sunlight on passing through a prism is broken into three pure colours, yellow, red and and at their edges by junction these colours by mingling blue The men of '70 (or rather of '75) create violet, green, and orange. found that by using pure colours in broken strokes side by side, the impression of colour could reversely be created and, not only so, but that the results were far more brilliant than the painting of the old

!

Now

masters.

Turner had conquered.
189

A HISTORY
BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

THE FRENCHMEN OF
The war
Several
to

1870
Guerbois. revealed

of 1870 scattered
for

the artists of the Cafe
;

made

London town

them the genius of Turner.

London town was The effect was profound.
and
in

Whilst

Boudin and Jongkind were working as common labourers in Belgium, Monet and Pissarro, and F. Bonvin and Daubigny, with Monet worked in the others, were in London, almost penniless. parks, Pissarro joyed in the fog and snow and the coming of the both haunted the galleries and museums, revelling in spring Turner and Constable and Old Crome. They sent to the Academy were rejected. and They noticed what Delacroix had noticed, that Constable and Tur'ner employed flecks of colour side by side to create masses of
;


;

They copied bits and that it created intense luminosity. tone They went back to of Constable and Turner and Watts. France complete revolutionists in painting. They preached a new They set up a brotherhood at the Cafe de la Nouvelle gospel. Athenee, forgathered there with Manet, and greatly influenced him. They added to their old literary allies Arsene Alexandre of the They were poor, and unpopular the Figaro, and others. the public timid the music halls laughed critics were hostile them to scorn the dealers shut their doors to them the Salon their would have none of them. The artists knew starvation they were glad to sell a picture for a couple houses were sold up The dealer Durand-Ruel was near bankrupt with their of pounds. The historic exhibition of Impressionists in 1874 former stock. was a failure ; the critics bitterly assailed it. But on the roll of honour were the names amongst others of Boudin, Cezanne, Degas, La Touche, Lepine, Monet, Pissarro, Renoir, Sisley. By 1879 the group includes Forain and Mary Cassatt by 1880 Raffaelli, Vidal, increase the list and in 1886 appear Odilon Redon, Seurat,
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Signac.

the Painters of the Broken-Colour of the Seven Hues of the Spectrum or Touch-Impressionism, the leader was Monet.

Of

MONET
1840-

Born in Paris on November 14, 1840, to a rich merchant of Havre, Claude Monet early revealed artistic gifts, hotly discouraged by his parents, who sent him travelling abroad. At Havre 190

OF PAINTING
Two years he played with caricature and made friends with Boudin. of soldiering with the Chasseurs d'Afrique in Algeria sent him home with fever. Thereafter he went to Gleyre's studio in
Paris.

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

REVELAart
;

on Corot and Boudin, then sat TION OF attracted to his art by 1863, he thereafter ENGLISH at the feet of Manet based his art upon mass-impressionism. Monet first appeared at TURNER the art and the nearness of the man's name BURST the Salon of 1865 But it was in 1870, on coming to London with UPON interested Manet. Pissarro, that he saw the work of Turner, and returned to France FRANCE to create a new craftsmanship from that revelation, and was soon OF THE thereafter influencing Manet. SEVENLet me put this in simple terms. Turner's earlier art is con- TIES cerned with the impression of masses. His genius from the first kept him from mistaking art for imitation. He strove always to " impression " of the scene he used the word as the whole give the aim of art. He sought to express the romance of a place, the mood it aroused in his sensing. He did this by massing. Then he rapidly realised that colour, regardless of mass altogether, when employed like music, did, by certain combinations, create the mood and when this colour orchestration was combined with massed forms, colour yielded so vast an utterance that the most subtle and mystic emotions could be suggested. It is this later phase of Turner that the critics usually call his decadence It so happened that the scientific discoveries of light and colour by Chevreul in 1864 interested the whole world in the seven colours of the spectrum. Monet found that, instead of mixing colours into mass like Manet, he could, by setting little strokes of the seven colours of the spectrum side by side, create the illusion of a scene before him, when you stood off and focussed the painting as a whole. He not only found this, but he also discovered that the gamut of artistic utterance was enormously increased, so that the play of light upon objects could be suggested almost to any degree of intensity. Monet found that painting as heretofore practised, except by Turner, would not yield the wide orchestration necessary to utter the intense moods of full sunlight. He found that the sun's light changed the whole colour-scheme of the same thing in every differing hour of the day. The texture of surfaces, the glint of
;

Claude Monet, founding his

;

!

leafage, the surface of rocks, the glitter of water, are

of colour. The distance or nearness of things black and white, but of the values of colours.

is

an illusion not an affair of
all

191

!

A HISTORY
BROKENIf you look at the
leaf,

same scene
to

in different

times of the day, you

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

will find that the green leaves of a tree are not the green of a single

the lighting, may be many colours. So, also, shadows are not blackness or brownness, but different values of colours ; they are the colours of the spectrum, but seen in less In other words, high lights are colours more vibrant intense light.
but, according
;

but both are in a rhythmic state of than colours in shadow To add to this rhythm, all objects reflect light on and from each other. Thus, an unobservant person is astonished to see a face against a blue ground that is lit by orange light, showing green reflections. Now Monet found that for all Manet's superb instinct for massvalues he could not utter the vibration of colours as he saw them playing under the glamour of sunlight so he took the seven pure solar colours, added black and white, and employed these in touches until he created the illusion that gave forth the vivid moods of nature, not by mixing them, but by putting them directly on to the " And all was light." canvas side by side. It has this immense advantage, not only that it creates astounding brilliancy and rhythm, but that the purity of the unmixed colours keeps the whole work fresh and brilliant. But and here it is necessary to contradict the sneers of the academic it creates an enormous increase of difficulty in handling to do it. Impressionism by broken-colour had this advantage that it turned the artists from bastard artistic intention. // compelled
vibration.
;

artists to look at Life, not at pictures.

Lady in a Fur-lined Jacket master in portraiture, he gave his genius nearly wholly Manet himself added colour-orchestration to his to landscape. powerful flat- impressionism. Monet began his art career by painting figures he then went In 1883 he to landscape, and to sea-pieces with boats in harbour. settled at Giverny, and the neighbourhood inspired his present work. About 1885 came his first efforts in luminosity, in rhythmic orchestration of colour. Only displaying his work in private galleries, he won his way to fame but slowly. He and Degas knew Against both was a long climb, side by side, to recognition. brought the charge of charlatanry they were tricksters, mad Monet now took scenes and painted them at different hours of his famous Haystacks of 1890 are perhaps the best known. the day He painted the same haystack in a field in phase after phase of the day's light by consequence they varied in colour-harmonies from
whilst Monet's portrait of a
a

Now,

shows him

;

;

;

192

OF PAINTING
did the same with near as famous a series of lyrical poems of the Poplars, of the Cliffs of e ^tretat, of the Golf Juan, of the Coins de Riviere, of the superb series of of the Water-Lilies and of the Thames. These series Rouen Cathedral, He made of these themes a sequence of are his chief triumphs.
silvery greys to brilliant reds

and purples.

He

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

of colour playing through the leafage of the sparkling waters, all created by the TURNER trees, given forth by symphony of reverberating colour employed in an astounding BURST It is difficult to UPON orchestration like the notes of musical instruments. His power of FRANCE put into words the resonance of these things. conveying the sense of heat, of luminosity, of what one may call the OF The wizardry whereby he SEVENvitality of the atmosphere, is miraculous. pours into our senses the aerial lyric of the famous Poplars on the TIES Epte in Autumn, one of his masterpieces, just with those simple lines The compelling force of the of trees, is an unforgettable thing. thing is as much a wonder as its poetic dreaminess. Yet, on looking Monet is one of the into it, we see but a shower of gaudy spots. His skill can conjure up lor us the greatest painters of symphonies. The vaporous mists of heat as easily as the ruggedness of rocks. thunder of the seas, the peace of tranquil waters, the level flowerfields of Holland, the snow, the river, all yield their essential significance to him. The sunlight pulses and throbs and thrills
lyrical
:

poems

the

thrill

REVELATION OF ENGLISH

the

THE

over his landscapes

;

the wind moves and

stirs.

PISSARRO
1830-1903

Camille Pissarro has carried out his art in landscapes, pastorals, Born in the Danish island of and pictures of streets and markets. St. Thomas, to a well-to-do Jewish trader of the West Indies, the young Pissarro early showed artistic bias. Sent to Europe about i 837, the youth was taken into the he returned to St. Thomas about 1847 studio of the Danish painter Melbye. In Paris again by 1856, the
'>

Salon of 1859 displayed his first success. He worked in the woods of Ville d' Avray beside Corot on huge canvases. Then he came under the glamour of Millet and changed his style, painting peasant Then he fell under the glamour of life, and adding to his repute. mass-impressionism and later again changed his artistic style and intention to broken-colour. It brought him great increase of power in rendering his scenes of harvests and of the market-place. The war He returned of 1870 sent him with Monet a fugitive to London. to France with his great leader Monet to work on the new Turneresque revelation. Twelve years thereafter he was bitten
;

VOL. VIII

2 B

193

A HISTORY
BROKENawhile with the
to

new

idea of scientific painting called

Pointillism,

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

which we

of Renoir.

coming. He was the close friend of Monet and finest works are perhaps his Streets of Paris. His
are

SISLEY
1839-1899

A

more personal

vision

is

that of Alfred Sisley, a fine master of

remarkable grasp of the play Sisley must be ranked close to Monet. of light and atmosphere. He has not Monet's tenseness, his compelling impression of heat, of he does not concern the sluggardy of nature, of the anger of nature But the more placid moods of France himself with these moods. Sisley died an old man at the little village of reveal him a master. Moret on the edge of the forest of Fontainebleau, which he made Whether he painted the Road under Snou\ the Bougival, immortal. by the water's edge with willows aquiver, boats reflected in the still flood, and all bathed in the daylight, or the Bridge at Moret, he caught with rare skill the mood and atmosphere of the thing seen. Born in Paris to English parents, Sisley adopted the land of his Beginning under the vision of Courbet, he painted huge birth. canvases of landscapes in brown and grey, in the manner of his Thence Corot won him away, and he painted smaller master. Thereafter he found himself creating rich colour, being canvases. caught with the glamour of the violet glow of the country under sunlight. Then came England, and he grew to love Hampton Court and the Thames. To France he went back and painted along the Seine. Settling at last at Moret he immortalised the neighbourHe wrought all his life in dire poverty, though his blithe hood. He never knew relief from the art does not reveal his sufferings. He needed all his great courage and dogged toil for daily bread. Unjealous, loyal, great-hearted, will for the struggle never ceased. he saw the others winning to fame whilst he was passed by.
landscape, poetic, luminous,

with

a

;

;

RENOIR
1841-

have seen it written that Renoir, "like all truly great and powerful painters, has treated almost everything nudes, portraits, I subject-pictures, sea-scapes, and still-life, all with equal beauty." at the same do not think that Renoir is so poor an artist as that time the great tragic moods may not have been attempted by him, and therefore he may not have been guilty of the unforgiveable
I

;

194

OF PAINTING
artistic lie

of painting horrible, terrible, or dreadful things as

if

they

WHEREIN

were

beautiful.

WE
THE

SEE

son of a poor tailor of Limoges, the youthful Renoir was His gay earning his livelihood at seventeen by painting on china. Then, and glowing sense of colour was revealed from the first. owing to the ruin of the painters on china by the invention of being in a sorry plight, the young fellow saw printing on china that hands were wanted in a shop for painting the transparent blinds for churches he went in offered himself was set to work was within a week earning good money by his rapid skill. He saved the money to enter the Ecole des Beaux-Arts met Monet and Sisley and Bazille there went to Fontainebleau in the summer with them, and met the veteran Diaz, who liked him and gave him lessons and helped him. Renoir, with Monet and the rest, now under the black glamour of Courbet, was disciplined thereby to realism. Then Manet brought him a more juicy handling. From his early Boucher-like phase he rapidly developed to impressionism in landscape, flowers, and portraiture. I have said that there is something feminine, receptive, in the His hand is art of Renoir he is quick to catch the movements. less virile than that of Manet. But he was to paint masterpieces. By twenty-six, in 1867, he had painted the famous open-air portrait, Lise, a powerful work. In 1873 came the Lady on Horseback with Boy on Pony in 1874 he gave forth the Ballet Dancer and La Loge. Then colour and luminosity came to Monet and Renoir drank of the revelation. Monet uprooted Courbet's influence Renoir sought colour, and forthwith he entered upon his finest phase of brilliant lighting. Healthy of brain and senses, he was to paint the healthy allure of women, the healthy charm of children, in all their natural mundane reality. Of 1 88 1 was the Dejeuner des Canotiers ; and his Bal au Moulin de la Galette, the First Step, the Sleepitig Woman with Cat, the Box, and the Terrace are of this time, and his finest landscapes. The portrait of Sisley shows the use of the point, and the Jeune Fille au Panier shows his having looked upon Greuze, whilst Fragonard inspires the Jeune Fille a la Promenade. Always he sees life superHe was as yet selling his works at miserable fees and with ficially. cruel difficulty. He now turned to draughtsmanship and bent his will to the line of Ingres awhile. The result was seen in his masterly works from 1885, the year of his fine Women Bathing, in which a girl in the water splashes two nude women on the bank. Renoir had found himself. In the Women Bathing he has not only

The


;

REVELATION OF ENGLISH

TURNER
BURST

UPON FRANCE
OF THE
SEVENTIES

;

;

;

;

;

195

A HISTORY
BROKENbrought colour and
line subject to his intention, but

he increases

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

the impression desired by the angular awkwardness of the reclining nude, who makes an abrupt effort to defend herself from the assault He gave forth also his superb nude seated of the cold water.
three-quarters back to us, doing up her red hair (1885). Thereafter Renoir went to Venice, painted fine landscapes, and met and painted JVagner, whom he worshipped. Wagner had just

and would only sit for twenty minutes his on the portrait was that he looked " like a Protestant clergyman." Renoir went back to Paris, his eyes dazzled with the colour of the south, and created masterpieces of painting of the nude. The
finished

Parsifal,

;

laughing

verdict

fair-haired nude, seated three-quarters facing us, in The Bather on the

work, showing his characteristic habit of seeking and fulness of form. His creative faculty is restless. He pours out work. And even when his fingers have grown crippled, he cannot rest from work.
Beach,
is

a superb

for roundness

RAFFAELLI
1845

-

Jean Fran^iois Raffaelli is concerned with the comedy of the people of Paris, as Steinlen is concerned with the more profound significance of that people. Raffaelli does not use the brokenspectrum colours of Monet, but he has evolved a technique of vibrant touches in which black and white are used in conjunction with touches of direct colour to build up an original utterance and
reveal a most personal vision.

came to the front in 1875 with illustrations in colour magazines. His famous series of Parisian Types in an for several
Raffaelli

album revealed
the
life

a genial irony, free

from

bitterness,

interested

in

of the people of Paris, in the fascination and character of Raffaelli has given us the Paris herself, and of her neighbourhood. working-man and the small tradesman, the poor, the wastrels, and the scum of Paris in her streets, her hospitals, in their work or

and with what human kindliness, for all his chaffing, quizzing comedy, he brings the folk into our experience He has done the same thing for the quaint suburbs of Paris ; the picturesqueness of her very Cinderella moods he has caught and But Raffaelli has not been content with rendered with rare skill. He blazons her splendour, the the workers and working Paris. fascination and allure of her great thoroughfares as few men have done the glitter and splendour of her exquisite colour harmonies,
shirking of

work

;

!

196

OF PAINTING
whether on pearly-grey days or when the sun bathes her in golden His art is fresh and blithe as the breezes of and silvery hues.
Spring.
RafFaelli,

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

besides being

a

sculptor,

has invented

an

oil

pastel pencil.
Raifaelli

REVELA-

joined the impressionists somewhat late. He had TION OF strange adventures in his artistic beginnings. In his search for l^LNGLISH work he has put his hand to many trades. He had known the TURNER drudgery of an office awhile sang bass at the theatre was chanting BURST psalms in a church choir to keep himself a student under Gerome UPON at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts worked his way at each town at FRANCE which he stayed on his wander through Europe, reaching at last to OF Algiers came back to Paris to show his pictures discovered the SEVENwastrels and the toilers of the dingy suburbs of Paris and made a TIES
; ; ;

THE

;

;

hit.

Raffaelli

is
;

basically in his art

like all touch-impressionists
like pastels.

a fine pastellist

he employs oil-colour

His work, by

consequence, is vivid, pulsing. The State did well to give ribbon of the Legion of Honour.

him the

Another of the prismatic-impressionists is Armand Guillaumin, who, born to a linen draper, and beginning life himself behind the counter, passing to clerkdom, came to learn from fellow-students,
chiefly Pissarro and Cezanne,

the mysteries of his craft of

artist,

founding his art on Courbet, Daubigny, and Monet. But it was a lucky draw in a lottery of the Credit Foncier of some ^^4000 that
the amateur painter, befriended the from the beginning. The Luxembourg has his Raboteurs de Parquets, with its steep perspective of the floor on which the workmen are at their task. His gift to the State of works by the impressionists constitutes the Caillebotte collection at the Luxembourg. He made it a condition of his bequest that his old masters should not be separated from the impressionists and
impressionists
;

made him a free man. GusTAVE Caillebotte,

the academicians yearned for the old for the Louvre, but refused to have the new. A bitter war followed, in which the academicians, led by Gerome, hotly assailed impressionism. But when it is remembered that they hotly opposed Whistler's superb portrait of his Mother, it is good to know that the Minister of Fine Arts

overthrew them.

Albert Lebourg was

a landscape-painter

of poetic

gifts,

whose

tender use of blues and greens was very personal.

197

CHAPTER XXV
WHEREIN
BROKENIS

MUCH TALK OF MILLET AND VELAZQUEZ THROUGHOUT EUROPE
seventies

Now
art,

whilst

the

saw
in

Broken-Colour
its

Impressionism
revelation
to

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

struggling amidst bitter enmity to herald
there
it.

great

were two movements

painting fulfilling themselves

beside

Inspired by the genius of Millet there arose a school of " Plein-

Air Realists," who gave their art to the life of the peasant, painted in the open air. Jules Breton (i 827-1 905), as Millet said, painted
peasant girls too pretty to stay in their villages.
or

Leon Lhermitte

Mont-Saint-Pere on the 31st July 1844, gave his labourers dignity, whilst keeping the reality of his reapers He later employed something of the brokenand husbandmen. He is a master colour touch in his impressions of the pastoral life. About Millet also arose Rosa Bonheur (1822lithograph. of the Emile Breton 1899), who painted animals with remarkable skill AuGUSTE Boulard and Cazin.
at
; ; ;

L'Hermitte, born

C

AZ N
I

1841-1901

Jean Charles Cazin loved the moonlit nights by the seashore, Born near Samer, by the fishermen's hamlets in northern France.
Boulogne, to a well-to-do physician, he learnt the mysteries in Paris under Boiscaudron, the master of Rodin (i 840) and L'Hermitte. early a wife who was herself an artist. The Salon of He married he began to make a mark about 1865 saw his first displayed picture 1876, and came to the front about 1887. A distinguished group of Dutch painters arose, also schooled in
;

the vision of Barbizon.

ISRAELS
1827 - 1911

In Holland Joseph Israels took up the revelation of Millet, mixed with that of Rembrandt. Born at Groningen in Holland on

198

PAINTING
the 27th January 1827, Israels has devoted a long life to the paint- "WHEREIN ing of the life of the people. IS From the Academy in Amsterdam under Peinemen (1809- 1 861), TALK OF and the studio of Kruseman (1786-1868), Israels went to Paris MILLET and worked under Picot (1786-1868) and Henri Scheffer (1798-

MUCH

AND

He made his mark at the Universal Exhibition of 1855 ^^ 861). Then his Paris with an historical picture of William of Orange. pathway seems to have been revealed to him, for, in 1857, he was
1

VELAZ-

QUEZ THROUGH-

painting at Katwyk, and sent to the Salon his Children of the Sea and Evening on the Shore. The Legion of Honour came to him in 1867, The art of Israels conthe year of his Orphan Asylum at Katwyk. even in his landscapes cerns itself with the deep emotions of man human mood. Israels the scene is but the accompaniment of some has compelled all his gifts to the utterance of the spiritual signifiIf he force the pathetic note to cance of the life of the people.
;

OUT
EUROPE

concerned with true pathos. by training, and, as I think Henley neatly put it, " They have read their Constable in a French translation," But they have developed a subtlety of colour and of utterance wholly apart. David Adolphe Constant Artz (i 837-1890), born at The Hague, became a student at the Academy of Amsterdam, thence made for Paris, where he worked for eight years, until 1874, under several artists. His best known works are the Orphanage at Katwyk, the Chaude Journee, and the Moment Propice. He gave his powers to the character and sentiment of his own people, without essaying the deeper and more sombre moods of Israels. Albert Neuhuys (1844), born at Utrecht, trained thereat Gisbert de Craayvanger went to the Antwerp Academy for by four years, and developed along the lines of Israels in a more
excess at times, at least he
is

Modern Dutch

art

is

largely Parisian

;

comedy vein. Bernardus Johannes Blommers (1845t>orn at The )' Hague, and trained at The Hague Academy under Koelman (18201857), owes much of his vision to Israels, and the great Dutchmen
of the past.

MESDAG
1831-

Hendrick Willem Mesdag was born at Groningen in 183 1, He was thirty-five before he began to paint, went and born rich. to Roelof in Brussels to learn the mysteries, and Alma Tadema gave him lessons. But he rapidly and steadily came to the front. He
199

A HISTORY
BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

a painter of the sea, and of the heavy the waters.
is

Dutch

craft that roll

upon

MAUVE
1838- 1888

Anton Mauve, born at Zaandam, became pupil to Van Os. His subtle vision caught the glamour of the grey greens, the silver and pale blue, of Holland with a rare and exquisite sensing and his swift deft brush uttered the subtleties in oil and water-colour with as He mastered atmosphere. He was above all a lyrical rare power.
;

poet.

Frederick Pieter Ter Meulen, born at Bodegraven in 1843, began by painting cattle, but had to give up painting for a considercoming back in ten years he wrought thereafter an art able time largely founded on that of Mauve and Willem Maris, chiefly in
;

water-colours.

THE FAMILY OF MARIS
To
Maris,
a painter

of

The Hague were
to

born three sons, the brothers

who

all

came

wide repute

as painters.

JACOBUS MARIS
1837

-

1899

Jacobus Maris, the eldest of the Maris brothers, and the more powerful artist, born at The Hague, after being trained by his father went to Antwerp to the Academy there, thence in 1865 making for Paris, to the studio of Edouard Hebert. His first Salon picture was of 1886, the Little Italian Girl, followed in 1868 with subjects like the Woman Knitting and the Sick Child but he was soon thereafter giving himself to that landscape that was to bring him to fame in oils and water-colours, rising at times to high flights of achievement, vigorous in handling and breadth of conception. He mastered the movements of clouds, their lights and shadows, and aerial manoeuvre, their mystery.
;

MATHYS MARIS
1839

Mathys Maris,
his father to the

like his brother,

born

at

the Hague,
in

went from
to

Antwerp Academy, thence

1867

Paris to

Hebert and the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He was in London ten years afterwards, where he settled. Mathys Maris is shy or contemptuous 200

OF PAINTING
of publicity. A poetic and imaginative man, inclined to be morbid, he paints dreams. His melancholy concept of life is uttered with distinction, and his remote fancy wears an elfish and weird apparel he gives lyrical utterance to a dreamy romance that is without positive passion a far-away unearthliness. Dowered with a tender sense of colour, he weaves his blue-and-golden magic web.
;

"WHEREIN
is

MUCH

TALK OF
MILLET

AND
VELAZ-

WILLEM MARIS
1843

-

1910

like his brothers born at The Hague and trained by his father, unlike them stayed at home and sought his " Silvery " Maris, the youngest of the three, is the art at home. painter of cattle and haze and sunshine, revelling in the play of light

WiLLEM Maris,

QUEZ THROUGHOUT EUROPE

upon the leafage of trees and upon peaceful streams. He loves the grassy lands with the herds loitering or resting in the heat of the
noonday sun. But the man of great genius whom Millet inspired to immortal masterpieces was the Belgian sculptor, Constantin Meunier. To him the torch of Millet was handed on in full flame. But before the torch was born to further heights, it looked like being quenched in a shallow stream of photographic Realism through Bastien-Lepage.

THE OPEN-AIR GREY REALISM OF THE SEVENTIES
BASTIEN-LEPAGE
1848

-

1884

Damvillers, the son of a farmer, Bastien-Lepage came under the glamour of Millet. Bastien-Lepage wrought his art out of doors without the genius and epic gifts of Millet. The Hayjield made a sensation, and brought the artist into wide fame ; and his Joan of Arc listening to the Voices caught the mystical mood of the simple religion of the peasant folk of France. Unfortunately Bastien-Lepage led the way for the wide practice of photographic painting, not only in his own country, but in England. The Russian girl, doomed to an early death, Marie Bashkirtseff (1860-1884), pupil to Bastien-Lepage, is more famous for her Diary than for high achievement in painting.

Born

at

VOL. VIII

2 c

201

A HISTORY
BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

SPANISH ACADEMISM OF THE SEVENTIES
B

ONN
-

AT

1833

Alongside of Manet's interest in the Spaniards, a painter Leon Bonnat was being influenced by the powerful light and shade of the Leon Bonnat, from Bayonne, Tenebrosi, particularly by Ribera. founded his style upon Rembrandt and Ribera, if trained by COGNIET. But even in his historical painting, the famous and much-reviled Beheading of St. Denis at the Pantheon, Bonnat shows vigorous qualities In that compel attention, even if its realism be of the bloody kind. portraiture Bonnat is the painter of the official caste. Meantime Hals and Velazquez were on the town, and a marked Hals and Velazquez academism set in, producing at least some
strong painters as craftsmen.

RO YBET
1840 -

Ferdinand Roybet, born
and
Salon
trained

at Uzes, beginning life as an engraver, under Vibert at Lyons, was given a medal at the of 1866. He took to the historical anecdotal painting

under the influence of Meissonier, employing gay, bright colours, and came to popularity with his academic effects after Hals and Velazquez in bright colour-schemes.

CAROLUS DURAN
1837

Born Durand,

on the 4th of July 1837, Charles Auguste Emile he prefers to call himself, Carolus Duran, strongly inspired by Velazquez, began a brilliant career with Realistic massimpressionism, giving forth the famous and masterly portrait of his wife known as the Lady with the Glove (1869), in which Manet's influence is overwhelming. Returning from Italy to France in 1866, he later went to Spain, thence to England, making a sensation in 1869 with the Lady with the Glove. His fine portrait of a little child in red, called, I think, Beppino, was of his good period. But his art rapidly fell into a convention, and the plush hangings brought a woolly and muffled quality into his portraits. Carolus 202
at Lille

or, as

OF PAINTING
Duran has been
owes much
to
a his

great

teacher,

and
is

Sargent

amongst

others

WHEREIN

training.

He

the fashionable

painter of IS

MUCH

the plutocracy. Louis Mettling was born at Dijon in 1 847 of English parents, Taught the mysteries at but is French by training and in vision. the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the pupil of Cabanel, he was early showing at the Salon, founding his craftsmanship on that of Velazquez. Beside these movements, affected by the interest in light, in handling, and in style, several men were working of whom one of the most brilliant was Chaplin (i 825-1 891), whose portraits and pictures of French young-womanhood are painted with exquisite grace and masterly decision, in a rhythm and utterance all his own, and finely fitted to express the mood and intention desired.

TALK OF MILLET

AND
VELAZ-

QUEZ THROUGHOUT EUROPE

203

;

CHAPTER XXVI
WHEREIN WE
SEE REALISM STEP

INTO GERMANY AND

LEAD TO IMPRESSIONISM

MUNICH REALISM
L E
I

B L

1844- 1900

BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

Cologne on the 23rd of October 1844, Wilhelm Leibl to manhood about the time that Manet first struck for MassImpressionism in France. With high promise and a brilhant outlook, Leibl went to Paris. Some six years before he arrived in Paris Manet had painted his Olympia and Luncheon on the Grass. Leibl, with his keen intention of Realism, founding on Holbein and the German old masters, with an eye for the Dutchmen, came into the circle of Courbet and Alfred Stevens he never went to see Manet or his art. He painted Realism, 'tis true but he painted it in a hard flat manner, and all his art gives an intention of mathemathics, of science as if he worked by triangles or curves or laws. In Paris he painted in 1869 his Cocotte it is a French light-o'-love seen through German eyes. His masterly head of Schuch of 1866 is more modern. The Head of a Boy (1869), and the Old Woman of Paris of the same year show touch and depth influenced by Courbet but at heart he was with the old Germans. Realism was in the air it became his god yet of Realism he made a sort of science. He painted with the mind more than with the senses. His sense of impressionism was so scant that he would paint in an eye before the rest of the picture and he had a habit of cutting pieces out of
at

Born came

;


;

a painting to make pictures. After a brief success in Paris, Leibl passed amongst the neglected
like

Feuerbach and Von Marees he became a lonely man. About 1879 (i 878-1 881) he painted his famous Women in Churchy hard, mathematical, but with power, which his few allies at Munich persuaded him to show alone at Munich in 1881, and which sold for about a quarter of what he had asked for it. The bitter disappointment at the neglect of his Poachers at Paris in 1888 broke the man. He cut the picture into pieces. Melancholy fell upon him and he 204

PAINTING
life, from which nothing could rouse him, even of a great display of his works at Berlin. the triumph Dogged by neglect, Leibl suffered the humiliation of seeing parts of his pictures repainted by others to " improve " them. One of the finest heads he ever painted was that of a Country Girl in a white headdress even in that the Holbein tradition is most marked. And his very fine etchings have the old German vision. He laid down the Munich law of painting alia prima at first stroke, without interbrushing and working over, and Nature as sole guide. His portraits of the sixties are his masterpieces. By 1870 Leibl had created allies in Germany the Hungarian MuNKACSY, Eysen the landscapist, Karl Haider, and Hans Thoma, with Alt, Rudolf Hirth der Frenes, Sperl, Schider,

retired to a lonely

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

REALISM STEP INTO

;

GERMANY AND LEAD TO IMPRESSIONISM

Karl Schuch, Albert Lang, and Trubner. The landscapist Sperl was the faithful
into exile with him.

ally

of Leibl and went

MUNKACSY
1844 -

1900

born on 20th of 1844, carried on the influence of Leibl in Realism. Though he called himself the pupil of Leibl, he had also owed much to Alfred Stevens, their common friend. His earlier work in particular, and his portraits, reveal his pupilage to Leibl. Like Leibl and Lenbach he remained his life long a dark painter, though following Leibl's black painting, not Lenbach's brown. His paintings of the home-life of the people, his elaborate homes of the rich, and his large sacred subjects, came to a wide vogue.

The Hungarian Michael von Munkacsy,

February

THOMA
1839

-

Born to a miller on the 2nd October 1839, Hans Thoma began under the necessity of painting signs, amongst the peasants and wood-carvers of the Black Forest. In 1868 he made for Paris to learn painting and was the first German to discover the revelation of Manet, and to bring the news of his greatness to Munich. This produced the period of Thoma's best and most sunny art unfortunately he afterwards painted out many of these pictures that he might not offend his public His fine Flower pieces are of this time. Thereafter he came under the glamour of Bocklin he gave himself up to hard dry pictures of mermaids and the rest of it. His journey to Italy, and the glamour of the early Florentines finished
;


;

!

205

A HISTORY
BROKENhim.
pieces.

In

1877

Thoma

left

Munich

for

Frankfort, and went to
up.

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

In ^'^11 the Leibl circle at

Munich broke

Leibl went into

Hirth and Thoma left Munich. the country with Sperl. Alt was Schider went to Bale. in an asylum. One pupil remained true to Triibner. Leibl
:

trObner
I85I

-

'

Born on the 3rd of February 1851 to a goldsmith of Heidelberg was WiLHELM Trubner, the colourist of this school. Beginning in the hard manner of Leibl with a couple of figures at prayer in church, which showed the young fellow of twenty a firm draughtsman, Trubner turned his strength to colour. Unfortunately he looked to the past like the rest of them, instead of looking forward, and delayed his development. There was no national tradition The winter of 1872 he spent in Italy except Holbein and Diirer. thence going to Holland and Belgium. It was the Dutchmen, fortunately, who fired Triibner, and he found himself. Ter Borch and Hals led to Velazquez. In 1872 his Girl on the Sofa showed an advance in German art towards colour and impressionism, the flirtation in The Studio of the same year showed increase. He advances at a stride towards Manet. By 1876 he painted his Lady in Grey he had seen Hals and Velazquez and evolved a forward art it was the year of his Schuch and a fine Still The break-up of Leibl's circle at Munich saw Bocklin and Life. Thoma in favour. Trubner fell to Battles of Giants and Centaurs awhile but even here he was a colourist and a realist. The Germans shut themselves up in black during the eighties as though Manet were unknown. Then came Liebermann to Berlin, and Trubner broke into luminous colour. Trubner had lost time and development by trying to find art in the Old Masters he now, under the influence of Liebermann, flung the ancients from him and made
;

;

;

for the

new

adventure.

LENBACH
1836 - 1904

Franz von Lenbach was of the Tyrol, being born on the 13 th of December 1836 and was gifted with swift draughtsmanship whilst
;

limited in colour-faculty. He was early painting portraits, founding on the famous portrait-painters such as Rembrandt, Van Dyck,

Reynolds, and occasionally showing that he had seen the work of

206

OF PAINTING
but employing a curious brown tone always, not free of Hals yet muddiness, that refused to yield him atmosphere or luminosity painting, or rather drawing with the brush, virile strong portraits of the greatest and most famous men and women of the wonderful years of the making of Germany, from the German Emperor and Princes, and Bismarck and Moltke, downwards.
; ;

WHEREIN

WE

SEE

REALISM STEP INTO

GERMANY AND LEAD
TO IMPRESSIONISM

Kaulbach
(1854).

is

a

portrait-painter

of this

school,

as

is

Koner

GERMAN IMPRESSIONISM
THE GREAT SECESSION
The
stultified

of the by the war.
effect

French display

at

Munich

in

1869 was

LIEBERMANN
1849

-

Germany, philosophic, scholarly, thorough, and running at every hand to academism and authority, was slow in moving towards Her " literary " interest in allegory was hard vital art in painting. " symbolism " on the brain. she had Fauns, unicorns, to kill
;

everywhere. Munkacsy, the Hungarian, had brought her vigour, but sombre intention. Then came Liebersatyrs

ramped

mann.
Liebermann, born on the 29th of July 1849 to a wealthy Jewish merchant of Berlin, showed early artistic leaning, but the father decided that he must become a philosopher, and sent him to Philosopher he proved to be, for he kicked philothe university. sophy out of the window and spent his time in Steffeck's studio, painting the guns and uniforms and hands into his master's battlepiece of Sadowa, and sketched in the streets and parks, and haunted At last, in 1869, the youth of twenty was allowed to the galleries. go to the painting-school at Weimar, and for three years under Thumann and Pauwels suffered the cast-iron classicism of the day. He then broke away and went to Nature. In 1 873 he painted his Women plucking Geese, the black picture now at Berlin, and the
the " apostle of ugliness." The young artist shook the dust of Berlin from his feet, made for Paris (1873), and came under the revelation of Millet and
it

Max

" vulgarity " of

caused

him

to be

vowed

Courbet.

Munkacsy was then the god of German art and the young fellow went to seek his guidance, who advised him to make for Holland and paint massive black shadows like Ribot. Courbet
;

207

A HISTORY
BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

so to Holland the young Liebermann went, in the ascendant painted his IVotnen preserving Vegetables in a dimly lit barn in '^^^ execration of Germany sent him to Paris to settle. ^873* As yet Manet meant little to him. The galleries revealed to him then he was to the romance of Troyon and Daubigny and Millet slight degree his eyes were to become be won by Degas, whilst to a He went down to Barbizon slowly used to Manet and Monet. to the aged Millet, and painted the Labourers in the Turnip Field He was at the and the Brother and Sister of the Salon of 1876. parting of the ways.

was
^rid

;

;

Roaming Belgium and Holland and Germany and

Italy,

he

At Venice he met Lenbach, sought for light out of the darkness. who advised him to make for Munich, whither he went for six years ; painted sacred subjects ; was scowled upon by the clergy ; To the Salon he sent and, leaving Munich, made for Amsterdam.
Asylum for Old Men, and won a medal. His countryhe was becoming a force. The Society of Fifteen, of whom were Alfred Stevens and Bastien-Lepage, elected him to their body and he lived thenceforth between Berlin and a Dutch village. In portraiture he made hits with his Virchow and The Courtyard of the Orphanage at Amsterdam Gerhart Hauptmann. of 88 1 showed that he had shaken off the dark influence of Munkacsy and in it he struck his characteristic use of red.
in
1

88

1

his

men began

to realise that

;

1

;

Thereafter

Woman
Young
gives

came his Ropeyard, the fine Netmenders with Goats (1890), the Old Woman Darning Shepherdess (1890), the Boys Bathing (1897), in

(1888), the (1880), The

which

detail

way to impression, and colour is employed with power. His " interiors " henceforth glow with reflected light. So he emerged fulness of sunlight and violet of open-air shadows under the to the He became the natural leader of blue heavens and by the sea. He revolt from the academic, and headed the great Secession. Germany, and created the fine modern brought the sun into endeavour of Munich, which has passed from greys to the glitter Fauns and unicorns grew dusty and mothand play of light. and pulsing life is gripped by the younger men of Germany. eaten Germany Slithery and minute polish and finish are passing away.
;

is free.

Decadence is flung at them by the dying, as it was flung at Delacroix and Manet and Monet and Corot they are warned of " the abyss " the end ot things. After Liebermann came the group of landscape-painters that are done with prettiness, and paint great open spaces with haunted empty roads that lead away into an unknown Beyond, away to a 208

OF PAINTING
wonderful wistful gloomy Whither ? even in ugliness a wonder Life. Intellect has killed the old Poetry seeks the great mystery there is gloom without some light to guide gods, the old religions the optimism of a new revelation of the godhood of man is not But they march forward to the Beyond, even if the theirs as yet. way be as yet but dark with tragic threat. Instinct guides where mere reason fails the senses lead towards the mighty adventure. The feeble ones look back primitive-academism lulls them. But for the forward-moving no opiates. The people, the poor, the primal man call them the convention of the rich baffles with its

!

WHEREIN

WE

;

SEE REALISM STEP INTO

GERMANY AND LEAD
TO IMPRESSIONISM

;

smug

self-content.

A

witty, caustic, and brilliant

man, Liebermann

rid the

German

genius of symbolism and other professorial gabble.

VON UHDE
1848

-

1910

Fritz Von
subjects in

Uhde

is

chiefly

famous for his treatment of religious

modern dress. He brings the Christ amongst modern folk in their modern attire thus really only doing what was done in the Italian Renaissance, but the costumes of Italy, having become old-world, do not strike us as being " modern " to their age. The curious part of this essay in bringing the Christ amongst modernly

arrayed people has too often been to give the effect of incongruity, as though Christianity were out of date. Von Uhde, born on the 22nd of May 1848, began his career with great promise in the realistic school. An officer in the Saxon army. Von Uhde turned to painting. Beginning under subjection to Munkacsy, he turned to Frans Hals, to whom Manet had owed such heavy debt, and whom alone Liebermann ever copied. But Von Uhde never wholly got free, and his intention was always
intellectual.

So far the colour development of Monet in impressionism had not stirred the Germans. But Gleichen-Russwurm brought it into the land.

Max
of Seurat.

Stremel and Paul Baum were

to take

up the pointillism

Bracht was concerning himself with Realistic landscape, and slowly evolved towards a powerful handling and sense of colour. His romantic landscapes such as the fine Haniiibars Grave gave way to even stronger realism, in which he shows affection for tawny golden moods of nature.
VOL. viii

2

D

209

CHAPTER XXVII
OF THE ENGLISHMEN
IN

THE SEVENTIES

BROKEN-

In England the seventies were chiefly possessed by the illustrators.

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

ENGLISH ILLUSTRATION OF THE SEVENTIES
A
since

group of men

who were

fine illustrators

have most of them

become

illustrators in paint.

Fildes, R.A., (1844did his early work, in ), and concerned himself with the life of the people. His first works in painting, such as The Casual Ward, little more than monochromes, were of remarkable promise. A visit to Venice drew In his eye to colour, and he became a fashionable portrait-painter. the famous The Doctor he went back in later life to essay his earlier
Sir
illustration,

Luke

triumphs.
Sir

Hubert von Herkomer, R.A., (1849illustration,

),

also

made
mark

his

mark

in

his

masterpiece.

portraiture, of

He, too, which was

Danton, was soon
his

Marat and
painting,

Robespierre

being a
in

making
in

a

famous portrait

a

white key of

Miss Grant.
(i 845-1 888), born in London, 4th of July engraver Holl, early showed the artistic bent in i860 1845, and in 1864 showed his he was working at the Academy schools At first working upon tragic and subject picture. first portrait subjects from the life of the people, he rapidly came to the front as a portrait-painter of power, and the famous Duke of Cleveland, and An A. R.A. the like, gave him a leading place as a painter of men. but overwork killed him on in 1878, he became R.A. in 1884 4th August 1888. Charles Green (i 840-1 898) was one of the most exquisite illustrators of this time, an ideal illustrator of Dickens, his sense of character being as fine as that of the author. -1882) was another of the illustrators of this J. Mahoney (18 Mason and Walker and Pinwell. period, influenced by E. J. Gregory (i 850-1 909) was an artist of the same group who gave a more powerful brush to the life of the well-to-do classes.

Frank Holl, R.A.
to the

;

;

;

210

1

PAINTING
But the genius of the decade in England was Randolph Caldecott, though he belongs even more to the early eighties.

OF THE
ENGLISH-

CALDECOTT
1846

MEN
j>^^
is

IN

-

1886
to an

sevenTIES

Randolph Caldecott was
scarce realised by criticism.

a master of such significance as

accountant of Chester on at fifteen a clerk in a Shropshire bank. March 22, 1846, he became In 1868 some drawings by him appeared in a Manchester paper. In 1872 he went to London and worked at the Slade under Poynter, and was illustrating Blackburn's Harz Mountains; but whilst there is hint of his personal vision, so far he is a mere capable illustrator of no distinction. It was in a series of line drawings with colour washes in the Graphic and in a series of Nursery Rhymes that he revealed to England that a new artist of personal vision had arisen amongst us. Free from all the affectation of the esthetic movement of Morris, Caldecott took up the pure English achievement

Born

where Rowlandson had

down, perfected it, and raised it to remarkable fulfilment. In 1878 appeared his immortal John Gilpin^ and every year thereafter his books of nursery rhymes were eagerly awaited throughout the length and breadth of the land. Caldecott evolved an impressionism of line that was a marvel. His drawings
laid
it

and wash, finely engraved by Edmund Evans, created will one day be prized as amongst the supreme works in this field. The fell disease that early threatened him and killed him in Florida whilst in the prime of life, on the edge of forty, never cast a shadow over his blithe art, which was native and sane and healthy to Caldecott the meadows and woodlands of England yielded their fascination and their charm, his art is lyrical of England, of its romance in the fields, fresh and fragrant of buttercups and daisies and streams and the cattle in the fields. His dainty humour played with jocund delight about the village green. To turn from the alfected mediaeval academism of the day with its pseudo-Renaissance mimicry to the art of Randolph Caldecott is to step out of a hot-house or museum into the fresh airs of heaven. At once there is a sense of life, of blitheness, of joy in nature. And vital as was his art, produced for reproduction in colours to be scattered broadcast throughout the homes of the people, as remarkable was his craftsmanship and mastery of line. All the glory of the great British school of water-colour draughtsmen was in him. His sense of character in line had no equal in his day. It is as absolute and quick as the fine achievement of Japan, without a

with the pen

line

colour-prints

which

;

21

PAINTING
BROKEN-

COLOUR
IMPRESSIONISM

suspicion of alien vision or affectation or influence. So true and just is it that one does not realise its mastery for the very reason of its seeming simplicity. To this marvellous use of line he brought a

of colour employed in flat washes that was a revelation to the age. In the years to come he will be collected as men collect Japanese prints to-day. He created a wide school, and here and abroad much of the modern endeavour was founded upon him. Essentially of romantic mind, Caldecott saw romance in all God's world, in the meadows and on the highways and his pendrawings during his best period have a personal vision, a fascination, a charm, and an exquisite quality and sense of character that are a joy for ever. As his colour-books appeared one realised that the Bull-dog, the Cow, the Pig, the Latnb, the Sheep, and Goat, with the flights of Pigeons and Rooks and all the other dumb friends in our English pastoral life, had never been perfectly seen until Caldecott came. His line-drawings of beasts and birds in Msop are masterpieces. He caught the character of horses and ponies and their movements with positive joy in the act. And in him the romance and glamour of the countryside found their supreme interpreter.
gift
;

consummate

212

I

8

8

o

COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION AND THE COMING OF A NEW PRIMAL-ACADEMISM

CHAPTER XXVIII
r
WHEREIN WE SEE IMPRESSIONISM TRIUMPHING ORCHESTRATION
IN

COLOUR-

by 1880 there were three chief streams in painting running WHEREIN SEE First, the Impressionistic^ which was producing into IMPRESpowerful artists who were combining mass and broken-colour

Now

beside each other.

WE

Colour-Orchestration and essaying towards a higher utterance of the imagination. Secondly, the Scientific Impressionists who were essaying to reduce craftsmanship to painting in round regular spots, called
Pointillism.

SIONISM

TRIUMPHING IN

Thirdly, a genius arises
to Savage Primitivism.

who

essays to lead

back painting and

lite

COLOURORCHESTRATION

Realism meanwhile brought forth masters. BiLLOTTE, with his charming pictures of the sea-folk, is more idyllic than Bastien-Lepage ; Binet paints strong Eastern or Moorish subjects with power.

DAGNAN-BOUVERET
1852

7th January 1852, to a Brazil merchant who was the son of one of the great Napoleon's officers, Dagnan-Bouveret has painted realism with power, and has brought a poetic vision to his His religious pieces and his peasants ot Brittany have made survey. him famous. He paints religious subjects with an austere fervour and large simplicity, and has employed the treatment of Christ in modern surroundings with fine results. He began to make his mark about 1878.

Born

in Paris,

ROLL
1846interpretation of

Alfred Philippe Roll has given his considerable powers modern life, war, strikes, workmen, peasants
215

to the
treat-

ing ordinary facts with force.

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION

SIMON
LuciEN Simon has painted impressively powerful pictures of the rude emotions of the Breton fisher-folk, in which he calls up with p-reat force the life of the simple people. r tf

AND THE
COMING
OF A
T^M ISM

NEW

COTTET
1863 -

PRIMAL-

Charles Cottet paints with equal force, but with deeper emotional sense, the tragic moods of the Breton toilers of the sea. The intense and grim type of the people, their poverty, their suffering, and their harsh life, he gives forth with dark and gloomy dramatic sense. Emile Wery has concerned himself with strongly painted seascapes and the life of the people.

COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION
CREATED BY

THE GREAT IMPRESSIONISTIC TIDE
The
artists

now combined

the brilliant colour-music of Broken-

the range as vvell as increasing the

Colour Impressionism with Mass-Impressionism, and thrust forward gamut of artistic orchestration.

BESNARD
1849 -

Albert Paul Besnard is an artist who has combined massimpressionism with the intensity of colour revealed to the touchimpressionists by Turner. Daring and masterly in handling, he is ever attempting fresh conquests. His sensitive sight sees the play of colour in nature about objects with intensity, and his hand's skill is trained to record his vision in an art which creates thrill and movement and luminosity. He can make objects in the flare of the sun blaze with light. He had the good fortune to come into French art at a time when the battles of the impressionists were completely won, and honours have fallen thick upon him. Born in Paris, married to a sculptor of considerable gifts. Mademoiselle Dubray, Besnard has gone from success to success. The municipal authorities of Paris the great nursery of painting in our times as well as the provincial municipalities of France, that are an example to the world as encouragers of painting, have given Besnard's fine

216

OF PAINTING
The State gifts full play in painting his vivid, telling decorations. has enriched the National collection with his splendid painting of The Nude Woman Warming Herself {La Fennne qui se Chauffe), the hauntingly powerful and tragic La Morte, the Port d^ Alger au Crepusculc, the Etitre deux Rayons, and a Self- Portrait. Winning the Prix de Rome in 1874, Besnard soon shook off all academic training, and flung himself into the problems of massimpressionism and touch-impressionism. In his Madatne Roger Jourdain at the Salon of 1884, Besnard caused a sensation with the treatment of golden lamp-light So he advanced to his Madame against the lilac lights of evening.
Rejane.

WHEREIN

WE

SEE IMPRESSIONISM

TRIUMPHING IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

Mauclair
interpreting

lays

it

down

that

it

is

with modern " decorative

art

modern and scientific symbols," as shown in the art of Besnard that the future of painting lies. This is to lower the whole achievement of Besnard, and to set up a new academism as the aim Art has nothing to do with symbols with science it has of art.

To make a sextant or a not a tittle in common. or an electric light a symbol is as bastard art as to make quadrant Cupid and Psyche a symbol, or Arethusa or the musical glasses. Art is an emotional interpretation of life, and has no other faculty whatever indeed that faculty raises it to the next importance to No man life itself; all other aims lower it from its high Emprise. knows where the future of art lies since no man knows where the but in Besnard's powers are of a high order future of life lies. the range of deep and profound emotions he is not a supreme master. Intended for diplomacy, born of artistic stock, Besnard early came to repute, and has known success from the first, making
absolutely

;

a

mark with

his

La Femme

rose in

1868

;

but

it

was

his

La Femme

jaune

et bleue in

1883 that settled his reputation.

LA TOUCHE
1854 a very remarkable painter of vivid has wrought figure and landscape in masterly fashion, and has also given his art to pictures of modern La Touche has rare lyrical utterance his intensely fetes galantes. sensitive vision for the play and counterplay of reflections yielding
is

Gaston La Touche

impressionistic methods

who

;

him

a pulsing orchestration in colour of

pure

artistic force

without

wandering into blind alleys of science or intellect or other baleful endeavour. His decorative gifts are brilliantly employed, since he a poet. is a man of quaint and ranging imagination VOL. VIII 2 E 217

COLOURORCHESTRATION

A HISTORY H
C

ERET
-

1836
in

AND THE COMING
OF A NEW PRIMALACADEMISM

Jules Charles Cheret began life as a lithographic workman London, designing, it is said, the gay wrappers for a well-known perfume manufacturer. About 1870 Cheret began to design posters in black, white, and red. His knowledge of lithographic printing he developed its capacity to superb effect stood him in good stead
;

made resplendent the picturesque streets of France. the time he went back to France he rapidly came to a wider range in art and by 1885 he was famous. He caught the grace of the Parisian women. Cheret is a born decorative genius. His art is pure impressionism, colour being employed like music. Whilst the pompous academies were imitating the great dead, and producing still-born art, Cheret, despised of them, was ranging modest man, his triumphs are a gratification far above their ken. display of his works proved him a nervous telling to artists. draughtsman and a great pastellist. The State gave him large mural decorations to carry out, and he won to further triumphs. His kinship to Watteau is most marked, even to his love of the characters of Italian comedy and the old heroes and heroines of Watteau French comedy. His is the very spirit of Carnival. Fragonard are in him. He brought imagination, and Boucher and
in the poster that

From

;

A

A

gaiety, and blitheness to impressionism,
its

and thereby vastly increased

gamut and

its

orchestration.

SARGENT
1856

at

Florence in 1856, John Singer At nineteen he went to Paris, already an accomplished painter, entering the studio of Duran brought him Carolus Duran (1875), an excellent teacher, gaze at the life about him, to look upon it broadly, in the mass to and the young fellow, in the midst of the great mass-impressionistic
to

Born

American parents

Sargent

passed his boyhood in that city.

;

movement

created by Manet, was early essaying to create art in its most advanced form. On leaving the studio of Carolus Duran he painted his master's portrait. Thence he made for Madrid, to learn

Searching into the mastery of Velazquez, Sargent rapidly came to power. When he came back to Paris in the early eighties In 1881 he he was already making a mark. showed a portrait of a Young Lady the year of his Smoke ofAmbergris, In 1882 he stood revealed a master at twenty-six, with his masterpiece of the dancer against the dark room, where she whirls
a greater teacher.

from

:

218

XXIII

LA TOUCHE
"VENICE"
By kind permission of the
Artist .uid

Tke

Stmiio

OF PAINTING
the music of the mandolinists who sit in the gloom, the WHEREIN famous £/ Jaleo, which created a sensation. A portrait of four SEE children and the Manetesque Madame Gautreau followed. Mean- IMPREStime his reputation was spreading to London, which he frequently SIONISM visited and some six years after he returned from Spain he settled TRIUMPHin London. His early triumphs at the New English Art Club were ING IN Carmencita, the Japanese Dancing Girl, COLOURthe sensations of these years In 1894 he was elected to the Royal ORCHESthe nude Egyptian Girl. Academy in 1897 he became R.A. TRATION The influence of Sargent has been sane and far-reaching. His healthy and searching vision has been a splendid example to his age. His superb craftsmanship has done much to rid painting of pettiness. Sargent came into art when a rank mimicry of the low-toned art of Whistler was a widespread threat to the national genius. In portraiture his range has been astounding. His search into character is uncompromising. He stands out to-day one of the supreme masters of his age. Sane, wide-surveying, masterful, fearless, Sargent founded his technique on the mass-impressionism that is the vastest orchestration of painting yet revealed to us from the great Spaniards and Dutchmen, developed by Manet. To essay an examination into the wide achievement of Sargent would be to catalogue the celebrities of the age. His fine scheme in grey and white and rose of the beautiful Mrs. hangman the gorgeous yellow schemes of the famous masterpiece of the dancer Carmencita the two handsome Jewish ladies, the Misses Wertheimer, so remarkably in contrast with the aristocratic atmosphere of the Lady Elcbo, Mrs. Adeatie and Lady Tennant group he ranges from
to

WE

;

;

;

;

;

the marvellous effects of the golden lights of Japanese lanterns being lit in the lilac twilight by children in the famous Carnation Lily., Lily Rose, to the tragic intensity of Ellen Terry as " Lady Macbeth " ;
fine character-study of Graham Robertson with the jadehandled cane, to the great portrait oi Lord Ribblesdale in hunting kit. Sargent's decorations for Boston Library are famous and he has of late given his remarkable genius to landscapes of which are the stately Santa Maria della Salute, his powerful studies of sunlight, and his manifold vigorous impressions of nature.

from the

;

MANCINI
1852-

Antonio Mancini was born at Narni to a tailor, who moved to Naples when Mancini was a boy. At Naples the lad worked under LiSTA, who trained him to paint flowers and fruit. At the Fine 219

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION
Art
Institute,

with

Piccini

and

Michetti

for

fellow-students,

AND THE COMING
OF A NEW PRIMALACADEMISM

Mancini soon got a name for portraits. But his poverty was so intense that he would often exchange a picture for a new canvas. At last, one fine day, his work caught the eye of M. Albert Coen and Fortuny began to buy some of his pictures. He made foi Paris, and worked for the Goupils for several months. His second visit to Paris, with a friend, the sculptor Gemito, saw him get foul of his employers and it so preyed upon his mind that on his return to Naples he had to be put under restraint. He painted
;
;

the portraits of his fellow-sufferers at the asylum.
to sanity, he stepped forth into the world

again,

Winning back going to Rome,

where he was well received and made ings. His health broke down again, back to his art with all his wonted Venice. Mancini is essentially, like
colour- orchestration.

of, and sold his paintbut on his recovery he went energy. He next made for Monticelli, concerned with

much

C L A
1849-

U

S

Emile Claus, born in Western Flanders, was the humble position who sold provisions to the boatmen as they worked on the river Lys. The child early showed the artistic bent and escaping from the drudgery of the home life, essayed the offices of pastry-cook, railway watchman, and went behind the counter of a linen-draper. At last, scraping together some seven pounds from his family, he made for Antwerp, became a free pupil to De Keyser, the art professor there worked at the
Belgian,
sixteenth child to parents of
;
;

The

day, gave drawing-lessons by night, or coloured the religious pictures of the stations of the cross, or did the rough work for a sculptor. After enduring struggles with bitter want, he

Academy by

gradually began to win orders for portraits of children in fancy dress. In i 879, at thirty, he made for Spain and Morocco, painting the while. He came back to Antwerp a changed man. In

1883 he completely threw over all his former craftsmanship, and leaving the city for his old home in the country, he developed a vivid art of intense and close intimacy with the moods of nature

brilliant,

land.

His debt

throbbing with light, personal, and lyrical of his native to Turner he glories in acknowledging.

SEGANTINI
1858 -

1899
first

Born at Arco 220

in

Trent, Giuseppe Segantini's

impressions

XXIV

SARGENT
1856-

"LA CARMENCITA"
(Luxembourg, Paris)
Exhibited
at

the

Royal Academy

in

1891

;

acquired

liy

the

French

Government.

OF PAINTING
he knew bitter poverty and WHEREIN a labourer on a farm. His first essay in SEE learning the mysteries of painting was in the studio of Tettatamanzi IMPRESin Milan, who, asking the lad what he would do if he were an SIONISM " Throw myself TRIUMPHartist like his master, was met by the blunt reply whereon the apprenticeship ended. The ING IN out of the window " young fellow struggled on as best he could in Milan. Withdrawing COLOURto the mountains he gave his whole strength to the rendering of the ORCHESBeginning by painting somewhat broadly and TRATION life of the peasant. hesitatingly, Segantini rapidly developed towards broken-colour His Woman knitting in the Sun shows the palpitation of fierce realism. Beginning life as a swineherd, living in the mountains, off" light. the highway of the world, Segantini evolved a vibrant colour-sense and a large and spiritual aim. Segantini is from the Tyrol where Italy and Germany meet. He has uttered the life of the humble with poetic intensity. Simply and without affectation he takes us back to the innocence of the ages, where so much modern effort is striving with affectation to lead us from London and Parisian drawing-rooms. In Segantini as in Millet is no primitive-academism, but true, simple peasant, sincere and compelling in the communion of his art. He uttered the rhythm of light, even if his atmosphere be somewhat dry, and sometimes lack depth and envelope.

were of the mountains. the lad went to work as

As

a child

;

WE

:

;

;

VAN GOGH
1853 - 1890

The Dutchman, Vincent Van Gogh, employed an impressionistic craftsmanship of remarkable power. Van Gogh used an extraordinary impasto, and relied on swinging lines and masses of colour to produce exquisite moods of nature. The subtle colour-music of his Orchard in Provence and of his Garden of Daubigny in Auvers place such works amongst the unforgettable things of the time. Though Van Gogh worked in France, he saw nature with Dutch eyes and there is a Dutch quaintness in all he did. Born at Grootzundert in Holland on the 30th of March 1853, to a Protestant pastor. Van Gogh only began to paint at thirty He was always an unbalanced man. Going to clerking (1883). at an art-dealer's, he was with Goupil in their offices at London, Paris, and The Hague, and as a picture-dealer he was constantly seeing art. In 1876, at twenty-three, he gave up commerce and became a schoolmaster in England. The next year his religious fervour took him to Amsterdam to become a clergyman. Dissatis221
;

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
COMING
OF A
ISM

NEW

PRIMAL-

ACADEM-

he made next year for Brussels found that, to reach their simple, uncouth minds, he had to change his whole utterance by 1880 he longed for some means of closer communion with his fellows. He saw that Millet had reached to prodigious range by forsaking conventional art and uttering the life of the people. By 1881 Van Gogh was in Holland again with his people in the vilhige of Etten in North Brabant his cousin being married to the painter, Anton Mauve, he went to him for advice, and entered his studio at The Hague. They did not get on well together and Van Gogh's brother soon set him up in a studio, where he worked hard and studied the old Dutchmen. In 1883 he was back in his own country, painting forceful studies of the peasants his Potato-Eaters being of 1885. He discovered the primal sanity of the rude toilers of the earth he saw them without the sneer of the man of cities.
fied

with the formalities of
to

religion,

to preach

the miners.

He

;

;

;

To Van Gogh
was

the peasant became the symbol of health as against the corruption of the town. He was a fanatic in all he did he

a fanatic in this.
It

was natural that Van Gogh, seeing the peasant
;

as

the Healthy

Real Man, should try to utter this art in primal rude fashion. He now went further and having begun by developing impressionism, he tried back and essayed to see life through the spectacles of the primitive painters. Millet made no such mistake. In 1885 he went awhile to the Academy at Antwerp, painted scenes of jail-yards then in 1886 he made for Paris, and found one solitary dealer, Tanguy, to take up his work. At Tanguy's little shop he met Gaugain and Emile Bernard. With Bernard he went awhile to Cormon, whom Lautrec had just left. The touchimpressionists called him awhile, and developed his colour, and his best work is a combination of mass and of touch, developed into swinging, swirling strokes that give an astounding sense of movement. Then he came under the glamour of Seurat and essayed round-spot impressionism awhile but rejected it. are coming
;
;

We

to Seurat.

nervous, silent, reserved man, of concealed fire, was soon at work again amongst the peasants of the South of France at Aries. He flung himself at the recording of scenes that only last like a

The

breath of life. He swept his impressions on to the canvas as by magic they pulse and move. Those pictures painted at Aries from 1887 to 1889, hundreds of them, are his master-work. MeierGraefe even sees him essaying to give the sense of life to dead things Van Gogh was too pure an artist to so befoul his vision


!

;

222

XXV
SARGENT
1856-

"LORD RIBBLESDALE"
(Collection of Lord Ribblesdale)

OF PAINTING
but then Meier-Graefe sees "holy ecstasy" in a bunch of lettuces

WHEREIN

by Van Gogh.

^

WE

himself spoke of being misled by the Impresbut impressionism did much for him, as did Daumier and sionists Delacroix and Millet. Here let us touch awhile on the much-talked-of Symbolism of Van Gogh. Now his own talk of " symbolism " simply meant that

Now Van Gogh

SEE IMPRESSIONISM

TRIUMPHinG IN

in other words, created art. His colours created certain emotions It is of the whole use of the word was mere clap-trap of the studio.
;

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

impressionism in partiThis has cular, that colours alter impressions or moods as colour. nothing whatever to do with symbolism. Van Gogh was a genius, but half mad withal. Whether he suffered sunstroke or not, he was in the habit of flinging off his hat when painting under the fierce sun of the south until the hair was Whether struck by sun or that the madness burnt off his scalp. increased upon him, he had threatened suicide to Gaugain when with him at Aries. In a tavern at Aries he quarrelled with this friend Gaugain, and the next day with a razor tried to kill him. That night he cut off his own ear with the razor as an act of penance. The next six months of his life saw him in the asylum
essence of painting as an
art,

therefore of

all

at Aries.

Van Gogh went
painted
pictures

of his

there

own will to the asylum at his mad Self-Portrait and
to

Aries
his

;

even
child-

flowerpieces.

His
hood.

thoughts

returned

incessantly

the

days

of

Thence he went awhile to paint at St. Remy, but his brother who had supplied him with means and encouragement all his life was in trouble in Paris, and Van Gogh went to Paris. All the
while he seems to have been dogged by the hideous ghoul that for ever whispered suicide. Afraid of himself he went to Dr. Gachet (himself a painter under the name of Van Ryssel), a good friend to artists (Daumier and Daubigny and Cezanne amongst others), at Auvers-sur-Oise to Auvers Van Gogh went in the summer of 1889 and painted. But he feared decline into the long negation ot an idiot. He shot himself. When Gachet found him lying with a bullet in him, he replied to the doctor's Why ? with a shrug of the shoulders. The two men smoked through that night and the next day together, talking art. On the 28th of July 1890, the restless plagued fellow passed into eternal sleep. Van Gogh essayed to develop impressionism on more rhythmical and lyrical lines, and to utter a more profound sense of life thereby. His sole mistake was playing with "primitive-academism."
;

We

223

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE COMING
OF A NEW PRIMALACADEMISM

when we compare his advanced utterance with of the EngHsh /Esthetes, Morris and Burne-Jones, and the hke, who dehberately went back to mediaeval reaction, not only in intention but in handling and craftsmanship. Meier-Graefe of course it is the very opposite, it is calls this reaction Anarchism Academism. Van Gogh is stimulative, reaches onwards Morris and Burne-Jones led back. In surveying the art of Van Gogh we must sharply separate his intensely lyrical impressionism from the archaic intention of his insane fobblings. Learning late, his fingers never grasped drawing with the skill of habit yet it was his insane and feeble draughtsmanship, not his increased use of impressionism that was to become the aim of the more feeble of the group of painters, the primalacademics, of to-day. But we are coming to that, and to Gaugain between, and must defer further reference awhile to look upon the impressionism of this decade.
see the difference

that

;

;

CARRIERE
1849 - 1907

Eugene Carriere founded

his superb impressionistic art
It yielded

on the

haunting and powerful instrument for the utterance of the mystery of motherhood. Carriere concerned himself little with colour he found the hauntingness of shadows a sufficient orchestration for the most intense of his moods. His power in portraiture was profound. He concentrated on character and the figure that he limned moves and breathes one almost senses the feelings of the sitter as well as the mood aroused in the painter. The lithograph gave him His vast hushed theatre, in which we as great utterance as oils. gaze at the audience in the sweep of the arena as they look enHe is thralled at the play upon the stage, was a marvellous work. ever a poet, he is often a mighty dramatic one. The son of a painter, and born at Gournay-sur-Marne in 1849, At twelve he Carriere lived at Strasbourg until he was eighteen. From the Academy at Strasbourg he went to business was drawing. A visit to the Gallery there set his creative at Saint Quentin. genius on fire he suddenly felt impelled to utter art under the glamour of La Tour. He went to Paris to the Beaux-Arts to learn the mysteries. The war burst over France Carriere was taken prisoner was sent to Dresden and at Dresden he lived in the galleries. Rembrandt greatly interested him. Sent back to France in 1872, he went to the Ecole des Beaux- Arts again, and to Cabanel
a
;

poetic mass-impressionism of Rembrandt.

him

;

;

;

;

;

224

OF PAINTING
work. Then he made the plunge, took a studio, WHEREIN He failed for the Prix de Rome. His and commenced artist. SEE compelled him to go to the Vaugirard for five years and IMPRESmarriage It made him. SIONISM he had to fall back on his ovi^n family for models. but he came back to Paris TRIUMPHThey were five years of intense toil The ING IN an artist of mark and almost at once won to success.
for five years' hard

WE

;

;

Luxembourg has

his

Dead

Christ.

COLOUREdmond
de Goncourt, his

Carriere's portraits of Verla'me, of

own ORCHES-

Family, and the like, are amongst the masterpieces of the century.
Carriere, impressionist of mass-impressionists, has led

TRATION

impres-

sionism forward by leagues from the mere superficial realism that Courbet flaunted, leagues beyond the mere outward play of light as an end in art. He has brought the inner significance of life into its utterance, and thereby at a stroke has vastly increased the conquest of impressionism, revealing how it may utter the most intimate moods of the soul. I stand in memory but a few years back when Carriere had a show in London town. It is almost incredible that the whole of criticism practically ignored that marvellous revelation altogether. And it is one of my chief sources of comfort that Carriere, who was an utter stranger to me, wrote to me as comrade, and thanked me that I understood him. Carriere wrought at first in subtle and exquisite colour-harmonies He lowered his palette to black and brown as revealed by Manet. and white ; and he evolved out of mass-impressionism thereby Mauclair sees in his a powerful and haunting musical utterance. No artist can do that in paint. art the power to render " thought." What he does is to utter the most inX.ivn2iX.t feelings. To find " absolute beauty " in the art of Carriere nay, to seek for it To find in his art a trying is to miss his whole significance. back from impressionism is wholly to misunderstand Carriere and impressionism. He has thrust forward impressionism to utter deeper and more subtle emotions than the earlier impressionists considered that it could utter. BoLDiNi (i8;3paints the portraits of fashionable people )

with verve,
(i

in impressionistic

manner,

if in

low

colour.

De Nettis
at

846-1 884) was a force

in painting.
),

AuGusTE Emmanuel Pointelin (1839-

born

Arbois on

The the 23rd of June 1839, learnt the mysteries from Maire. name of this painter of twilight landscapes at once comes to one's mind on writing of Carriere. He too dreams in low dark moonlight or twilight moods, sombre and sad, seeking the solitudes in VOL. VIII 2 F 225

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION
somewhat melancholy

AND THE COMING
OF A NEW
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM

amidst the wooded hills of his beloved Jura, and ever called by the darkling pools. He was a long time coming into his own, and he had to try his hand at several callings the while to earn his bread, chiefly that of a professor of But he was to enter the Legion of Honour at last. mathematics John Macallan Swan, who has just passed from us, was born at Old Brentford in 1847, and trained at the Worcester School of Art, then under Mr. Spark.es at Lambeth, and became a student at the Royal Academy. In i 874 he made for Paris, going to Gerome for five years, and to Fremiet at the Jardin des Plantes, to BastienSwan came to the Lepage, to Henecker, and to Dagnan-Bouveret. painting and sculpture of animals with exquisite sense of colour and He died in 1910. form.
reveries
!

\

THE GLASGOW SCHOOL OF THE EIGHTIES
" Glasgow School " may be said to have been created by Whistler and the French mass-impressionists. The literary anecdote was to be shed from painting. M'Taggart and Wingate had shown the way in landscape and Wintour had stepped towards the great revelation. W. Y. Macgregor, a dogged man, with hard theories, had come from the Slade James Paterson came from Paris and from Paris also soon came Lorimer, Cadenhead, Robert Noble from Carolus Duran's studio. By 1885 the school had forgathered, headed and led by Macgregor. In 1881 Guthrie, E. A. Walton, George Henry, and the Newcastle painter, Joseph Crawhall (the Younger), had been working together they soon came in touch with the

The

so-called

;

;

;

(i 856-1 904), who was also Hornel developing a broad impressionistic style, akin to theirs. soon joined the group and Roche and Lavery, coming back from Paris in 1884, added their force. Their first interest was with tone and values and the natural inclination to lower the tone resulted awhile. Then they concerned themselves with vigorous handling. As with all movements, the artists swore no other was art. Rapidly colour-harmonies and decorative rhythm were added. Whistler and Velazquez and Hals and Constable were the art-gods. William Stott of Oldham (i 858-1 900) created an art akin to their desire. The sculptor M'Gillivray joined the group, and the poetic landscapist Macaulay Stevenson, Alexander Mann, Millie Dow, Harrington Mann, D. Y, Cameron, Mackie, George Pirie, and the flower-painter Stuart Park, were added to the ranks, and in

Edinburgh

painter,

Arthur Melville
;

;

226

OF PAINTING
Edinburgh T. Austen Brown, James Pryde, and others were
to

WHEREIN
SEE IMPRESSIONISM

come

into the

movement

later.

WE

MELVILLE
1856 - 1904
In Arthur Melville Scotland brought forth a water-colour painter of power. A son of the people, Melville was to come to

• -

high distinction. /^T? r^T TT7C Beginning by painting much in the manner of John Reid, ^^^f^^^TR ATIOM Melville looked like becoming a painter of homely subjects, when ^ ^^-f^i^'-'i^ in 1878 he made for France, to Gerome and Meissonier. By 1880 he was painting much in the manner of the men who were founding In 1883, or a little later, he met Guthrie, the Glasgow School. and soon thereafter came into the Glasgow brotherhood. The water-colours of Fortuny had taught him light and luminosity and in 1 88 1 he had made for Egypt and the East, where he rapidly developed towards that broad handling of floating colours on to the paper which he was later to make so entirely his own. To this " blob and dash " use ot water-colour he brought a broad, glowing decorative, pulsing use of paint which he poured forth in superb colour-harmonies. Spain and the East ever afterwards called to him ; and it was typhoid contracted in Spain that killed him in Brangwyn, in the late eighties, also went to the East and 1904. colour and a broad, majestic treatment of water-colour and found
• •

TRIUMl H^^^ ^^ COLOUR-

;

;

oils.

After Brangwyn's display in

Bond

Street the

two men met

;

and drawn together by like problems of painting, they went to Spain together in 1892, each impressing the other; but Brangwyn was destined for far higher flights of the imagination, destined to he was to give the floated masses a create a far more profound art form and a significance beyond Melville's strength. Hans Hansen has painted excellent water-colours under the influence of Melville and Graham Robertson, who began subject to Rossetti, came under the glamour of Melville.
;
;

^

GUTHRIE
1859It is a somewhat strange fact that the grey photographic realism of Bastien-Lepage seemed necessary to free the Impressionists in England and Scotland from Academism and ^stheticism.

Sir James Guthrie got it badly. His Schoolmates was sheer mimicry of Bastien-Lepage. Thence he evolved a fine portraiture, gathering power and breadth and colour as he moved, under the

stimulus of Whistler, to his greatest performances.

227

PAINTING
COLOURORCHESTRATION
E. A.

WALTON
-

i860

AND THE
COMING OF A NEW
PRIMAL-

E. A. Walton is one of the purest lyrical poets in landscape. of the most original painters, he has evolved a personal art He is a master of colour, of design, and of handling. like music. Turning from landscape, he early proved himself as superb a painter

One

of the figure.

ACADEMISM
Alexander Roche

ROCHE
1863early developed
;

a personal impressionism.

He catches the character of his sitters and he brings the fresh air of heaven and the mystery of the night and the play of sunlight on
to his canvases.

LAVERY
1856Scottish-Irish blood, has come under many and has evolved a charming type of portraiture more He has come to wide concerned vi^ith beauty than with character. His portraits of ladies have brought him honours everywhere.

JoHN Lavery, of

influences,

into an

European vogue.

HENRY
1860?forth marvellously fine designs.

George Henry brought
his Japanese subjects,

Some of

^

and of his works that followed, are amongst the His technical achievements in colour in our generation. highest but of the portrait he makes decorasubjects are but veiled portraits tions, and his brush has a quick sense akin to the wit of his tongue.
;

HORNEL
1864-

The
was

The
"'*

Australian Scot, E. A. Hornel, met Henry in 1885, and painting conventional Scottish home-life when they met. Hornel was the two men greatly developed each other
;

?

essential decorative artist, and was soon painting those " carpetlike " paintings of children at play for which he is now famous, in which no attempt to create values or the illusion of atmosphere is

Hornel makes the colour-harmonies utter the mood and to that he sacrifices all else. desired, just as a musician must In 1893 Hornel and Henry made for Japan for a couple of years and Hornel still further rejected mass and depth of atmosphere, and his sense of character not being kept only pattern and colour
attempted.
;

;

;

strong, he forces the decorative intention.

228

CHAPTER XXIX
WHEREIN SEVERAL MISTAKE ART FOR SCIENCE, AND ESSAY TO CREATE ART ON THE MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLE
very time that the gamut of art was being widened by WHEREIN men who mistook art SEVERAL Now, as a matter of fact, Monet had not concerned MISTAKE for science. himself with science he instinctively employed a palette of the seven ART FOR prismatic hues. But the new group "the Frenchmen of '80" as SCIENCE, they are called had given themselves over to science, and found AND that by using little round dots of colour, the same size, they could ESSAY TO build up an impression of a mathematical kind, as though they CREATE employed mosaic. They were debauching impression and destroy- ART ON ing it at its very source and the fact that they now and again achieved a passable impression of a scene in a cast-iron way was MATHEsmall mitigation of their " science." MATICAL Of course they had to be Neo or Post-Something-or-Other, so PRINCIPLE they labelled themselves with the fatuous tag of Neo-Impressionists.

About

this

colour-orchestration, there arose a school of

;

;

THE

They are

also

known

as Pointillists.

They

are best called

Round-

Spot Impressionists.

ROUND-SPOT IMPRESSIONISM
OR

SCIENTIFIC PAINTING
Now
in

1807 Thomas Young

in

England

gave

forth

his

In 1852 discovery of the three stimulants of the retina of the eye. the German Plelmholtz published his theory of waves of colour and sound ; in 1853 Dove published his researches into colour ; in 1864 Chevreul published his famous Law of the Contrast of Colours, founded on the analysis of colour of the solar spectrum. Then in the eighties Charles Henry, a professor at the Sorbonne, who had the ear of Seurat, tried to apply to these laws a " science " of

painting and colour. Seurat was soon sinking his really artistic instincts in trying to "paint on principle."

229

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION

SEURAT
1859- 1891

AND THE COMING
OF A
ISM

NEW
-

ACADEM

power of artistry to overcome round-spot and to compel impressionism in a limited form His woolly sketch for La Grande Jatte of 1884 shows through it. him winning to impressionism his childish Le Chahiit of 1 890 He and his faithful Signac taking Duboisshows him baffled. thmg, copied the Impressionists, PiLLET as ally, did the " origmal and opened a Salon of the Refuses as the " Independants " in 1884. The real founder, Dubois-Pillet, soon sank, and the movement rapidly came to the end of its tether but the society was to create a movement of another kind. Seurat gathered to him Luce, Augrand, Cross, the young Brussels group, then Pissarro in 1886, Ernest Laurent, Lauzet, and others, besides Signac the best of them all. These " NeoImpressionists " quickly found that " science " was death to " personality," and personality is essential to art. Seurat, once admitting "science" as the foundation of art, soon fell back on the childhood of painting, and sought the early art of Egypt, under the fantastic delusion that because the mimicry was older than the mimicry of the Italian Renaissance or Greece, therefore it was more " original " vision
sufficient
scientific painting,
; ;
!

Seurat had

that he added to his theory of mathematics, whereby he created a new academism of geometrical laws for the silhouette of his figures and objects that was to mislead a later group of young painters into the bog. Seurat was doomed to an early death. But his mantle fell upon Both men did good Signac, who worked much upon his lines. Round-Spot work, and achieved atmospheric effects.
so far
art

But he

original

bastard

mistook system an

for

science

even

worse

SIGNAC
1863-

Paul Signac produced
"
scientific " spots.

a wonderful impression in spite of his

The
and

the tricks of thumb. peaceful luminous Morning at Samois of 1900, a steamer on the
set the

He

mood above

shows Signac doing the utmost that his craft can achieve, doing coming near to fusion of colour Even Monet's touch-impression failed to create texture the flesh of a woman is of the same material as grass or a turnip or
river,

in the

!

raiment

;

scientific painting loses material still

more,

230

OF PAINTING
The activity
Academism
is

in this so-called

as

Neo-Impressionism and in Primitivewide to-day almost as in the commonplace creation
;

WHEREIN
SEVERAL MISTAKE ART FOR
SCIENCE

The result is a sense of of the academic potboiler of every kind. no great masterpieces are created ; no great the belittling of life These men are emotions uttered at best little trivial moods. searching for a style, thinking style to be some fixed thing in itself, forgetful that every work of art, to be great and compelling, needs

AND
TO CREATE ART ON
ESSAY

a style to utter itself.

They
a

essay to

make

a Style,

hoping

to

bend

Art to
art.

it,

instead of creating art, and forming a style to utter that
as

It

is

though
piano.

man thought he

created music by

making

THE
MATHEMATICAL
PRINCIPLE

a

new kind of

Now
alone.

the masters could create mighty art in black and white

masterpieces," said artist to use all the colours of the Delacroix. rainbow and master the whole of science, if he create not the great moods of man ? Meantime, the reaction against the development of art created by
I

" Give

me but mud, and What shall it avail an

will

make

and TouchImpressionists of France, the reaction begun by Rossetti and the genius of Puvisde Chavannes, continued in the art of Maurice Denis, who, as Puvis had brought certain modern qualities from the Impressionists, now brought certain qualities from the later scientific Denis turns back his painting into his decorative achievement. But whilst his art may be more in to the early Italians. eyes keeping with Renaissance interiors, it is not in keeping with modern moods and intentions a whit more than was the art of Piety to-day is a very different thing from Morris or Burne-Jones. Denis went to Italy, and brought piety in the thirteen-hundreds. the Italian vision to France as definitely as any of the old Mannerists. At the same time he brings a personal colour, a certain sensuous

Turner and Constable and

the

Mass-Impressionists

healthiness into his religious decorations, that
in art
;

show him
in

a personality

for in old chapels

and churches he

fitly

employs an archaic

note,

compromising with the old building
jar. It
is

which modern

art

would

the disadvantage and the advantage of trying to decorate an old place. And it is such conditions that fitly create the but with modern utterance art of Puvis de Chavannes and Denis
;

such has nothing to do. Pallid, bloodless art must result and superb craftsmanship and a style that is departed be the chief sources of
;

victory.

Belgian Theo Van Rysselberghe (1862), holds by round-spot faith, and to it in portraiture he gives fine draughtsthe manship and good colour, but the chill hand of the new academism

The

231

PAINTING
COLOURORCHESis

not to be repelled

even by him.

The

seascape gives

him

his

better utterance.

TRATION

AND THE
COMING OF A NEW
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM

system w^ere so indifferent that the group of painters rapidly deserted the round-spot practice. But it had turned their eyes to the old mosaics, having much the same effect and a rot set in, which turned back the vvhen viewed at a distance To go back, can never be to artists' eyes to primitive simplicity. go forward trite as the statement may be.
results of the
;

The

I" Belgium has

grown up

a

group employing

scientific painting

The creation of the " Society of primitive-academism. Twenty" in 1884 brought forth a group to which Constantin Meunier and Rodin and Fernand Khnopff and F^licien Rops and other masters brought fame ; and to the group came certain " neoimpressionists " Finch, Van Rysselberghe, Van de Velde, Lemmen, and Anna Boch. Van Rysselberghe at once fell under Finch has become a potter. Lemmen has the glamour of Seurat. Van de Velde deserted. concerned himself with the crafts.
and

232

CHAPTER XXX
WHEREIN PRIMAL-ACADEMISM RETURNS TO THE
There had been
IS

LIFE

CREATED BY ONE WHO OF SAVAGES
to

Life

— the savage was supposed

talk,

for

some years of getting back

the Simple

WHEREIN
PRIMAL-

to be nearer the heart of the universe

civilisation was vowed to be rotten and painting came forward to utter the Primal Intention in the person of a strange fellow with the savage name of Gaugain, as though some half-inarticulate fellow had arisen from the cave-dwellers and would take back mankind to Yet there is as much to sit in the branches of trees and crack nuts. be said lor the mimicry of primal man as for the mimicry of any But do not let us mistake other period if mimicry there must be. primal-academism for " originality," still less for development.

ACADEMISM
IS

CREATED
BY ONE

WHO
RETURNS TO THE
LIFE OF

understand how impressionism as a craft was dragged into of all things this movement we must go back awhile to the Cafe Guerbois, and look upon one man wont to sit there

To

SAVAGES

Cezanne.

PRIMAL-ACADEMISM CEZANNE
1839

-

1906

Son of a wealthy banker, Paul Cezanne was born at Aix in Provence on the 19th January 1839. Paul Cezanne, who wrought his art in Provence, and lived out of the world, has painted his landscapes, his still-life, and his country scenes, in his rude rough fashion, with a sort of primal vision, the hand essaying in a rude

way

to give the play of colour in the broader

manner of the mass-

impressionists, with the splendour of the broken-colour effects.
certain

A

and old world sincerity results. Whether deliberately, or from limit of craftsmanship, he has sacrificed an innately fine impressionistic power by reaching back towards primitive intention. He strove his life long to master drawing going to learn at studios until quite an old man but never mastered it. We shall see this defect made a virtue in our own time Cezanne made no virtue of it.
simplicity

— —

VOL. yiii

2

G

233

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
COMING
OF A NEW PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM

Cezanne and Zola were schoolfellows at Aix they each made for and whilst Zola became clerk in Hachette's publishing firm, Cezanne came under the glamour of Delacroix, then followed Courbet, then in 1866 sat at the feet of Manet at the Cafe Zola made Cezanne the hero, Claude Lantier, in his Guerbois. novel of the art-life, UCEuvre. Cezanne's somewhat vague handling of landscape, his inherent sense of colour, and his badly drawn stilllife, whether deliberate or not, largely helped to create the rude aim of the present primal-academism. But we are coming to this. His clumsy and brutal painting of the figure was due to lack of draughtsmanship. And these tendencies grew upon him. At times Van Gogh, Gaugain, and he creates work of astounding force.
;

Paris

;

to his leadership. He did not sign his the sixties is his strong black Courbet period ; of the seventies is his Auvers period of broad vigorous landscapes, rapidly moving to the higher keys of colour under Monet and using thin

Bernard

all

owe much

pictures.

Of

;

fluid

paint,

he reached

to

his

great

period of the paintings of

Provence

in 1885.

Now we

have already seen

Van Gogh, hampered

by

late

ad-

venture into the craftsmanship of painting, bending his will to create impressions of nature with power, but painting the figure in a crude elementary, savage fashion. But from Cezanne and Van Gogh's gropings, we are now come to a man who deliberately sought " to go back to savage times," the infancy of the world. And though the primitive-academism of Gaugain really began and belongs to the next decade of the nineties, it is best to consider it here in relation to the men who led him towards it.

GAUGAIN
1848

-

1903

There came into the art of Europe a strange disturbing influence from the Creole blood. Born in Paris on June 7, 1848, to a Breton father who was a journalist in Paris and died a young man, and to a mother who was a Peruvian Creole, the boy Gaugain early showed the adventurous spirit. Running away to sea at fourteen, on the edge of manhood he came back to Paris to enter a bank. He rapidly made money. He married, became the father of several children, then he saw pictures, and the creative desire to paint was

him. The friend of Pissarro and Guillaumin, he began to paint of a Sunday with them, and at thirty became an artist. In 1880 he showed his first pictures landscapes in the manner of

born

in

234

OF PAINTING
next year he "found himself" in a Nude Study of a Woman in profile on a divan, mending a chemise. He now forsook, scientific impressionism. Seeing that spotimpressionism was feeble in its powers as against mass-impressionism, he went to Manet and Degas, and reached to power. In 1886, he met Van Gogh in Paris, and in 1886 he went back to Brittany and painted the simple peasants in simple nature as big elemental types. In 1887 he made a voyage to Martinique, and came back with his La Baignade, with its two nudes, is of senses filled with colour. Gaugain was now under Manet and Cezanne he copied 1887. Then he made for the South of France, to the Olympia in 1888. Van Gogh at Aries. Living together. Van Gogh was driven to his violent attack of mania over one of their many disagreements. One evening in a tavern, Van Gogh flung his glass at the head of Gaugain, who left the place, and the following morning he told the remorseful Van Gogh that he would leave Aries and tell Van Gogh's brother of his act. Van Gogh grew sullen, and that Gaugain evening he attacked Gaugain in the street with a razor. held him, got him quieted, and Van Gogh went home and cut off his own ear with the razor for penance. Gaugain had gone to an hotel, and awoke the next morning to find a mob outside Van Gogh's lodging. Sending for a doctor, he left the place. Van Gogh was taken to a hospital, from which he went to an asylum. At Aries, Gaugain developed peculiar colour-faculties that were He to make his "yellow Christ'' typical of his next development. went back to Brittany, to Pont-Aven, and gathered a school about him. The poets gathered to him. In the May of 1891 was given the famous performance at the Vaudeville where Gaugain's pictures were shown, and Maeterlinck's VIntruse was played for the first time, to raise the money to send Gaugain to his hotly-desired Tahiti. In Tahiti he wrought his new intention. He forgot to be quite sincere and dreamed the while of Paris at his feet when he came back. He came back with his pictures in the autumn of 1893, and his book Noa-Noa, strutting the streets in his embroidered blue and yellow waistcoat, his fingers heavy with rings, carrying a huge stick, and pride and hauteur in his mien. His pictures were a complete failure. Paris was bored. Even Strindberg, who also had " an immense yearning to become a savage and create a new world " was frankly bored, and refused to write in his honour. Gaugain pined for Tahiti and savage life again. The great-hearted Carriere helped him to go out. Gaugain shook the dust of effete Europe from his
Pissarro.

The

WHEREIN
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM
IS

WHO

CREATED BY ONE

RETURNS TO THE
LIFE OF

SAVAGES

feet for ever.

A HISTORY
COLOURORCHESTRATION
Now,
fitting to

his skill

whilst Gaugain essayed to interpret savage life in terms and did so like the fine artist that he was, employing all to give fitting form to the primeval emotions of a barbaric
it,

AND THE COMING
OF A NEW PRIMAL-

people, and thereby achieving a superb mastery in the

communion

astoundingly original and true when compared with a European's bastard ideas of savage races as uttered by men of cities, he was wholly justified as were Puvis de Chavannes and
of savage
life

that

is

ACADEMISM

Maurice Denis to a far less extent, nevertheless to great extent, in employing primitive intention in the decoration of old churches. Unfortunately, the modern sophisticated artists have been led by these men to affectation, into mere primal-academism that is to

simply as a trick of craft, without the slightest relation to that primitive life that Gaugain had in his Gaugain's primitivism is one of the purest of arts in its blood. intention, for it uttered the life of a savage people, of whom he His art of literature in Noa-Noa is quite deliberately became one. and perhaps it is through its art of literary as simple and pure form that the ordinary man can best realise what at first seems untrue, but which is absolutely artistic and true, his astounding power to utter the sensing of life in the savage as revealed in his Tahitian The very absurdities of it, as we see it, are the realities paintings. They themselves so express their sensing of things to savage man. seen. It is to Gaugain's immortal fame that, as European turned savage, he revealed to us the sensing of the savage genius. He early rejected European fellowship in Tahiti rejected the half-breeds and took a pure native girl to wife, living the native His contempt of civilisation he showed in that great caricature life. of himself listening to the idyllic conversation of the two native girls in his Savage Legends (Contes Barbares). He detested the French oificialdom of the island. But marvellous as is his consummate tact in uttering the savages, there is something vast and massive and modern in its utterance, as in the great figures of the When he died on the 9th of May in 1903, in Farget Tahitians. Dominica, utterly ignored, he left a heritage, alas, from his remarkable genius, that is creating the blackest threat of mimicry
say, into

aping primitive

art

;

;

;

to-day.

Gaugain went to the savage life, and was in his marrow barbaric, but he had already mastered a superb draughtsmanship and massimpression. That is the inevitable paradox of civilised man essaying to return to the savage. In Tahiti he steeped himself in a primitive atmosphere of savage intention closely akin to the moods of children. Deliberately clumsy and awkward in his treatment of

236

OF PAINTING
the figure and of Nature, in order that he might interpret the savage man, a certain largeness in the man cannot wholly rid even his deliberate intention of being archaic from a broad massy utterance which has fine modern qualities in spite of himself. It is as though To try to shirk a man essayed to imitate the handwriting of a child. the complexities of modern life in an intense archaic simplicity may be a holy hobby, but it is to play with unrealities and to miss the
significance of
life.

WHEREIN
PRIMAL-

ACADEMJSM
IS

CREATED BY ONE

WHO
RETURNS TO THE LIFE OF
SAVAGES

And

the irony of his endeavour
craft are

lies in

the fact

that his vision and his hand's

modern

too well trained and too to play the primitive without the modern revealing that the

and a Frenchman at that. savage war-paint covers a European Gaugain and Van Gogh both knew the emotional use of colour; their both affected archaism to the extent of drawing askew followers play with deliberate bad drawing until they involve their often serious intention in farce, as though a priest preached a sermon in a fool's cap. But let us be clear, here and now this academism founded on primitivism is not a whit more preposterous or crack-brained than the academism founded on Michelangelo or Van Dyck at the same time it is as chill with death to art. And it is as well that the classic academic should realise that his art affects us in precisely this same way as that the bookish critic should realise that this primitive-academism is neither "post-impressionism" nor has anything to do with living art, but is more dead than classic academism if it could be more dead than death. It has been claimed for this primitivism that the artists are concerned with " individual expression," are not concerned with real things as they see them, but with the more real mystic things that lie behind them It is no more "individual " to mimic savage art than classic art. The mystic significance of things is as much within the modern world as in a " faked " world of crudities. " Freedom " is not found in reversion to prehistoric boors, but in the fulfilment of our own life here and now. To say that these men " themselves," " naked souls before the living God," is to set up are an emprise for the Almighty for which there is no proof. The tradition of the Hottentot is as much tradition as is the tradition of Michelangelo.
;

;

!

understand the two opposing modern streams in art to-day, then, it is necessary to grasp the significance of colour-orchestration and of primal-academism and the roots of primal-academism are in Gaugain. The wild rush, after dazed bewilderment, of a group of critics to embrace primal-academism is an amusing farce
;

To

237

PAINTING
COLOURORCHESThey
are little likely to grasp
its

essence

when such

a critic as the

TRATION

AND THE COMING
OF A
ISM

NEW

PRIMAL-

ACADEM-

Frenchman Duret (who has come to a sort of possession of Whistler and the French Impressionists, and has lived amongst their movements) shows in his handsomely illustrated works that he has scant insight into the vital qualities and significance of these artists indeed his estimate of the art of Turner and of modern English I should be alarmed at ihe painting is pathetic as it is dogmatic. size of a collection of writings I have poured forth for close on twenty years in support of the Impressionists, yet he denies all British recognition until Sir Hugh Lane the painters themselves If Monsieur Duret has such scant at least made no such mistake. insight into impressionism, it is little likely that English critics should suddenly, at a pistol shot, as by a miracle, be given that insight. Nor have they been granted the miracle. Their vapid ecstasies miss its essential significance and their eager worship is in large part mere intellectual snobbery. Above all, they miss the real essence of Gaugain ; and their theories of primal vision being more spiritual than modern vision and " Nearer God " is about the most frantic drivel that even British art-criticism has poured forth. But I trust that I have cleared the brain of the art-lover and the student of some of the sham and confusion that are bewildering and if so, the rest of the modern achievement leading astray to-day will appear in closer relation to its true significance.

;

;

238

8

9

o
IN

THE TRIUMPH OF IMPRESSIONISM COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION

AND THE REACTION TOWARDS PRIMAL-ACADEMISM INTO OUR OWN DAY

CHAPTER XXXI
WHEREIN IMPRESSIONISM THROUGH COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION CONQUERS THE REALM OF THE IMAGINATION
By 1890
Colour-Orchestration was being still further developed, and ranged into the realm of the Imagination.

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

the rival streams the iEsthetic alone showed force, for classical-academism may be ignored as utterly discredited. The /Esthetic movement of mediaeval-academism was giving place to

Of

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

L' Art Nouveau (an academic Stylism founded on Morris and the art of the East, mingled with other primitive art), spreading from Paris throughout the whole of Europe. As the whole aim of this school is to fit design to a preconceived style, aroused by Morris and BurneJones from Rossetti in the first instance, we may well use the

CONQUERS

word

Stylism.

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

third movement, a reaction, is the wide intention of PrimalAcademism. The scientific intention of the Pointillists was dead, giving place to the Primal-Academism ot Gaugain, who has set agog a vast academic interest in the infancy of the world, which has sent artists to the museums to search out old Egyptian and early Greek and Chinese gods and utensils, and to try and bring back to life the " simplicity " and " mysticism " of the ancient barbaric endeavour of savages. That such an academism It is considered " original." should label itself Post-Impressionism or Post-anything under the sun is part of its "originality," and must not be confused with the forward intention of thrusting Colour-Orchestration onwards to utter the highest sensing of Modern Man. It were as sensible to speak of a Post-lamp-post or a Post-turnip-field as PostImpressionism. Impressionism is not a slab of Time it is the basis of Art, without end.

The

COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION
BRANGWYN
1867

-

Brangwyn has taken all that was best in mass-impressionism and the play of sunlight in touch-impressionism and woven it into a vast
VOL. VIII

2

H

241

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
decorative intention, creating a masterly art that is hailed amongst living masters to-day as of the first achievement. He utters the life and Brangvsfyn has moved steadily forward. its imperial pride in the conquest of great intentions of the race strength the mighty conquests of man, with its the earth

— —

exultant

voice.

Massing

his

forms,

Brangwyn

relies

on

the

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

absolute stroke of the brush to set down at a touch the exact value Such of colour as seen in its distance of atmosphere from the eye. Yet the rapidity with mastery naturally comes to no man at once. which he conquered this, the most difficult achievement in the

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

whole range of painting, was very remarkable. Of an English father an architect of Buckinghamshire stock with Welsh blood in him and a Welsh mother, Frank Brangwyn was born on the I2th of May 1867 at Bruges, where his father had set up a factory for the copying of old embroideries for vestments The boy seems to have scrambled towards youth and altarcloths. in a careless, happy-go-lucky way, early developing artistic gifts in The art of Degroux, who died the dreamy picturesque old city. the painter of the poor of Belgium, a fine colourist, in 1870, employing a vigorous brush, was the inspiration that roused the for child only he was, of about eight latent genius of the child when he set his small fingers to the task of trying to copy years, Early in 1875 the some engravings after works by Degroux. child's father made for England again, and in this, his eighth year, he entered his father's the school days of Brangwyn were over The boy came to a London that office in John Street, Adelphi. Brangwyn was soon was astir with the aesthetic movement. Here Rathbone Kensington Museum. sketching at the South found the boy at work, and encouraged him, giving him linedrawings to do in pencil from the sculptures of Donatello he thus

— —


at

early

"

won to severe mastery of forms. Hobby Horse " fame, rediscovered
set

Thereafter Macmurdo, of
the
clever
lad

South

Kensington, and William Morris

him
to

to

the copying of Mantegna.

Then

discovered

the

young

Brangwyn was

set

making

full-sized

fellow drawing, and cartoons for tapestries

from Morris's sketches.
Fortunately the youngster was too originative to fall completely under the spell of Morris from fifteen to seventeen he worked for him, then, fretted by the museum atmosphere, impelled by a restless desire to be out across the face of the world and to see life itself, he scraped two or three pounds together and set out for the village of Sandwich, lived amongst the fisherfolk, and painted the life about 242
;

XXVI

BRANGWYN
1867

-

"THE WELL"
(Luxembourg, Paris)

OF PAINTING
him.
Supplies soon ran out, and

Brangwyn leaped

at the offer

of a

WHEREIN

At eighteen Brangwyn sent an oil painting, A Bit of ORCHESthe Esk, to the Royal Academy, and it was hung. Thereafter he TRATION settled in London awhile to work for Morris again, but the payment CONQUERS for the great Renaissance of the Arts and Crafts was wretched, and THE he was painting the moods of the sea between whiles. A sea-piece REALM in 1886, his nineteenth year, was hung at the Academy and bought OF THE by a shipowner, thereby bringing Brangwyn a personal friend who, IMAGINAa couple of years later, in 1888, sent him for a sea-voyage to the TION Levant. Two years afterwards he made a like voyage, and the March of 1891 saw his exhibition in Bond Street From the Scheldt to the Danube. He had been to Spain between the two Eastern voyages. But it was at that display of 891, in his twenty-fourth year, that Brangwyn revealed to the world his superb sense of colour.
sailor as artist.
1

go a voyage with him. He took a hand with the IMPREScrew in all their work, and was infected by that love of the sea-life SIONISM which has ever since remained with him. These roving voyages THROUGH became a settled habit, and the young fellow was soon as much COLOURship's captain to

Up

to this time his masterly use of silvery greys and tender low tones had created considerable stir ; but in his sudden outburst of

colour-song he stood forth as one of the most profound masters amongst the younger men. The achievement for a man of twentyfour was a revelation. The end of this same year saw Brangwyn in Spain again, this time with Melville, the two men having many aims in common and the comradeship did them both good. Brangwyn has been accused of imitating Melville, just as two years later Whistler was accused of imitating Brangwyn Brangwyn and Melville were both by this time set in their personal utterance, and, had the critics but followed Brangwyn as eagerly as we in the studios followed his art, they would have seen him set in his style in that display in
;
!

Bond Street. With the
men^ s Huts, in

Buccaneers, the Slane Market, and the Turkish Fisher-

1893,

Brangwyn

created the loud uproar that ever

means fame and the

arrival of a master.

From

that year his record

began to be European, and his reputation has leaped forward through triumph after triumph, until to-day he stands at the forefront of our national achievement, scarce past his fortieth year, world-famous. This man has gone on his way, careless of honours, regardless of petty things, building up the wide conquest of his art, bringing the highest distinction to every realm in which he has
essayed to create
art

in

decoration,

in

oils,

in water-colours,

in

243

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
Ij^

He stands out a giant in etching, in the woodcut, in lithography. his endeavour. He glories in the majesty of ships upon the all waters, in the strength of manhood, whether that manhood cleave
asunder the wilderness of the great forests with railways or bring whether that manhood, with 1'^^ to ^^^ deserts of continents shoulders bared to the adventure, hew its way through the bowels of the earth in the perilous work of mines, or, with the unceasing toiJ of industry, weld the iron from boiling cauldrons to the rigid He hymns the strength of the workers purpose of great enterprise. '" the factory, at the work-bench, or the loom. And when, in the after years, the generations look back upon the vast achievement of the race of which we are a part, it will be to the art of such as Brangwyn that they will go to find the dramatic and lyric utterance The king over us is of the sea-folk, and '^^ the people's splendour. ^t is fitting that his first painter should be of the sea-folk, as his people are of the sea-tolk. Our might and our significance are upon the great waters and in the vast industries of our toiling people we have spread that might across the oceans and carried the splendour of it to the ends of the earth and the whole vast gamut of this commonweal design has found its chief poet in Brangwyn. To achieve the utterance of so large an art were beyond small talents, however exquisite and Brangwyn came to the handsome business endowed with a wide orchestration of colour and form, of resonant darks and pulsing lights, of majestic rhythm, and of lofty
;

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

;

;

;

design.

FU
1

R

S

E

8 68 -1 904

Charles Wellington Furse, A.R.A., was born in 1868, the third son to the Archdeacon of Westminster, whose home was Halsden House, in North Devon. This son of Devon went to his
schooling at Haileybury College. His county and school were the nurseries of military adventure on land and sea, and it is probable that the soldierly young fellow was intended for the calling of arms ; but already the signs were against it, even if the desire were not. Furse early showed a bent towards art, and was soon the ardent disciple of Velazquez and Sargent. So to the unravelling of the mysteries of painting he went, joining the Slade, then under the vigorous direction of Professor Legros. From Legros he went to Paris thence to Munich. The New English Art Club drew the young rebel to its ranks. man of great personal charm, a soldierly fellow, not without the neat ways of the dandy, and with
;

A

244

OF PAINTING
of the cultured manner of the man about town, Furse gave Doomed to an early death by the impression of a man of affairs. the white scourge, he bore himself in handsome, debonair fashion, The that wholly concealed from the world the canker in his life. see and record life in fantastic, consumptive is often too prone to unhealthy forms but the art of Furse was robust, virile, vigorous. His first triumph came to Furse the year he painted Diana of the Diana was the type of healthy, Uplands. She caught the town. handsome, English young womanhood, walking the breezydowns with her greyhounds on leash. Furse married in 1900, in his thirtysecond year, the youngest daughter of John Addington Symonds of Renaissance fame but his married happiness was to know short years. Elected to the Royal Academy, on which he had led so many attacks, in 1904, death stepped across the threshold of his home on the 17th of the October of the same year, and took him, just as his powers were maturing.

much

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHES-

;

TRATION CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

CECILIA

BEAUX

Born at Philadelphia, this brilliant woman began her career by drawing fossils upon stone for the U.S. Geological Reports. Pupil to Miss Drinker, she went to Van der Wielen in Paris she joined the Julien Academy, but received her chief artistic impetus from Alexander Harrison and Charles Lasar. Coming to the front about 1885, Cecilia Beaux rapidly evolved a powerful style of portraiture akin to the art of Sargent, and stands out as one of the finest women-painters of her age.
;

BR O U GH
1872

-

1905
to

high wherein career. Born at Invergordon in Ross-shire in 1872, Brough went to school at Aberdeen, became apprentice to the lithographers Gibb and Co., studied drawing the while under Fraser, painting in the early hours of the morning and by gaslight at night out of business hours. On completing his apprenticeship he went to the R.S.A. schools at Edinburgh, working meanwhile at lithography and making chalk portraits. Thence he made for Paris, worked under Laurens and Constant, and coming back to Aberdeen in 1894, at twenty-two, painted portraits. Moving to London in 1897 he steadily came to the front. His
early

The

doomed

Robert Brough was reaching
in

achievement when a terrible death the carriage caught fire, ended his

a railway accident,

245

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
Fantaisle en Folie of

1897 was one of the sensations of the Royal

Academy.

O R
The
Irish painter

P E 1878-

N
is

COLOUR. ORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

School of Pryde and Nicholson than to that of the New English Art Club which gave him his road to tame. His sense of character is his and his quick eye for humour is as subtle as his sense great power of tone. Orpen is quite one of the most brilliant portraitists working
to the
;

William Orpen

more akin

amongst us to-day.

TOWARDS
PRIMALDouglas

DOUGLAS ROBINSON
Robinson, on leaving the Royal Navy, learnt the mysteries in Paris, and coming under the glamour of Whistler and
mass-impressionists rapidly won to the front as a portraitpainter and a poetic landscape-painter. considerable group of figure-painters, including Mouat
the

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

A

mass-impressionisms. Sauter, though alien by himself with the British, and paints blood, seems to have ranged harmonies of subtle distinction.
essay

LouDAN,

LANDSCAPE

EAST
1849 at

Sir

Alfred East, A.R.A., born

shire middle-class folk, lived in a little

Kettering of Northamptontown where there was not

Brought up to a even a shop to get the materials for painting. business career, entering a counting-house in Glasgow, it was in early manhood in that counting-house that he began to feel the He was full twenty-five, however, compelling desire to create art. before he could make for Paris and learn the mysteries in earnest. Painting landscape at Barbizon, under the glamour of the men of 1830, in 1883 East showed his first landscape at the Royal His out-of-door work soon brought Academy, Dewy Morning. him into touch with the problems of colour that were creating and he the mass-impressionists and broken-colour impressionism rapidly passed from grey schemes to the endeavour to utter the varying moods of Nature in colour-schemes that, whilst they held the stately compositions of the Romantic movement, were also His wide range concerned with the play and counterplay of light. water-colours has brought him honours from many in oils and
;

countries.

246

XXVII

ALFRED EAST
1849
-

"BY THE EDGE OF THE LAKE"
By kind permission of R. Clarke Edwards,
Esq.,

and The

Studio

OF PAINTING
has also founded his landscape on the majestic art of mass-impressionism, and has created a dignified and decorative bringing a art that sets him high in the modern achievement

Hughes Stanton

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

stately

measure into his decorative intention. In Peppercorn landscape has found a tragic impressionist, who, if somewhat monotonously, utters the gloom and threat of Nature with vigorous brush,

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

BRABAZON
1821

CONQUERS

- 1896

Brabazon, beginning as an amateur, developed into one of the most eloquent painters of blithe impressionism of the nineties. His original and intensely personal art was born out of Turner's revelation, wrought in the spirit of the broken-colour painters added to mass. He came to a luminosity and a lyrical power that mark him as one of the finest landscape-painters of the time and his fame will greatly grow. Of the many brilliant painters in landscape who have founded on the practice of the modern aims, there is no room here to speak but the original art of Moffat Lindner, of Livens and of Mark Fisher must be noted. In water-colour, Clara Montalba and her sisters. Sir Ernest Waterlow, C. J. Watson, Wimperis, Wetherbee, Haite, and others who founded on the old English school have been touched by the modern flame whilst Ranken, Cecil Aldin, Lee Hankey, Lenfesty, Aumonier, Oliver Hall, Little, Reginald Barratt, Lloyd, Marshall, and the like, have looked upon it. Walter Bayes' fine sense of decoration is wasted in criticism. Montague Smythe and Hopwood are both impressionistic. David Murray is one of the best-known landscapists of the Academy.
;

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

THE PASTORAL IMPRESSIONISTS CLAUSEN
1852

'''I'f-'^

Beginning under the grey threat of the photographic realism of Bastien-Lepage, one day the revelation of colour-orchestration from Monet came to Clausen. There is no man living who states the moods of pastoral life with more lyrical power no one who is in no one more intimate with her changtruer fellowship with nature ing moods amidst the meadows and orchards and barns of the farmer folk no one who so exquisitely catches the lyric poetry of her mystic colours from sunrise to sundown where the labourer tills the
; ; ;

247

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
or gathers the harvest or works in winter in the spacious gloom of barns. He takes just those exquisite ordinary scenes that are conveyed to us by the word Countryside, and he takes them in the fragrant and tender moments that haunt our whole being when we think of rural sounds and places ; he sets them down for us
fields

'

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

with that colour-sense in which our memory retains them, rid of all so superfluous detail, rhythmic and telling in all essential truths that there comes to us the whisper of familiar wayside sights and Whether he paint the night or the sunlight, the dusk or sounds. the sunset or the break of day, he utters the very music of it all in Whether the village green or the colours wrought by a lyric poet. the moonlight, or the peaceful village drowse in the village shop in wondrous shadow of the mystery of the night, half revealing the

ACADEMISM INTO

With ghosts of the sleeping hamlet, a poet's voice speaks to us. a more pulsing bravura of colour dazzles the play of the sunlight
the senses.

OUR OWN DAY

His has largely wrought his art in Holland. His of the weariness of toil. blithe pastorals are rid of all taint peasants labour in the fields in joyous health and jocund freedom from the weariness that hangs like a threat over nearly all the modern attitude towards the labourers of the field. He pitches his harmonies in vigorously painted schemes of subtle and tender colour that form a fine orchestration for the blithe labourers, men and women, who till the earth and reap the harvest, so that his georgics are like an anthem of thanksgiving for the goodly fruits of the fields He is one of the best of modern lithographers. and orchards. has brought mass-impressionism Arnesby Brown (1866) La to the utterance of the pastoral in a large decorative spirit. arouses a powerful impression of sunlight Thangue (i860)
employs Adrian Stokes (1857flooding a bright world. ) Edward Stott has painted colour-orchestration, as does his wife. the pastoral in twilight moods with tender and subtle charm and Mrs. Swynnerton is a forceful impressionist. wistful melancholy.

Harrv Becker

Fred Footet is one of the British touch-impressionists who weaves Wynford Dewhurst is another poems of fancy from landscape.
disciple of

Monet.

THE NEW ENGLISH ART CLUB
mark,
to a society of British artists that has made a not as great as it promised, in the production of genius. As the society has more or less swallowed the Newlyn School, perhaps we had better go back to the Newlyn men.

We

now come

*

if

248

xxvni

CLAUSEN
1852"

HOEING"
&
Co.
Studio

By kind permission of Messrs BoussoD, Valadon
and The

^"r'v^ti^',

.];, wf*

...iKtrf^-mm^>:-::::ar--.:.-..

,^-

•mtimtimmii

OF PAINTING
group of Realist painters of a grey and black WHEREIN photographic Realism, known as the Newlyn men. At Newlyn, in IMPRESCornwall, this English school of photographic realism founded on SIONISM the Continental intention of Bastien-Lepage, brought forth a group THROUGH of men, led by Stanhope Forbes, all of whom painted black realism COLOURStanhope Forbes of late has developed a more colourful ORCHESawhile. TuKE (1858art. ) much earlier became interested in colour, TRATION and seizes the play of light sparkling upon the waters and bathing CONQUERS the nude in luminosity, and Bramley, (1857) in his Hopeless THE Dawn, even whilst black and photographic, achieved work of tragic REALM power he has since greatly developed his colour-faculty. Hall OF THE was also of this school. IMAGINAIn 1886 the New English Art Club was formed as a secession TION from Academic ideals. It held two main streams, the Newlyn Realism and the Colour-Impressionists, of whom Sargent was the supreme genius. The grey realists soon passed over to colour-impressionism, and Clausen and La Thangue and others strengthened

There arose

a

;

the impressionistic aim.
sionists,

Then came

the broken-colour impres-

headed by Wilson Steer, who may be said to be the head of the body, and the Sickerts and other Whistlerians, like Maitland and Roussel, confirmed the intention. Sargent, Clausen, and others have been swept into the Academy, leaving Wilson Steer as the type of the brotherhood. The Academy found in it at last a brilliant group of artists, who combined to give the last blow to that outworn institution. The Academy, by silence in public, by absorbing the leaders of its enemies, and by intrigue, had always broken all rivals. The Club used the Academy's own weapons against it, and being a more energetic and younger group of men, have at last seized every position of power and practically dominate the old enemy. Although of a fresher academism, it became inevitably a clique and an academy itself. Wilson Steer (i860) is the most brilliant type of the Club. With rare gifts of craftsmanship, he has flitted from style to style ; now broken-colour impressionism now the old English landscape men, chieflv Constable. One of the most brilliant Mannerists of Tonks is one of the the time he has achieved remarkable work. colourists of the school, and has done rare impressionistic works, William Rothenstein is an artist whose Do/Ts House revealed a powerful impressionism, and whose lithographic portraits have distinction. Von Glehn, though wholly subject to Sargent, has painted good pictures. Connard is a fine colourist. W. W. Russell is a brilliant colourist whose landscapes, interiors, and figures are
;

VOL. viii

2

I

249

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
wrought with
sunlight.
a rare sense of the play of light

and of colour under

COLOURORCHESTRATION

Several men of mark treated elsewhere have belonged to the In Chowne it possesses Club, but are somewhat outside its type. one of the most remarkably gifted painters of flower-pieces in Europe to-day and in James, a painter of flower-pieces in water-colours whose Philpot is a portrait-painter luminous use of colour is exquisite. who, if he can rid himself of mimicry of the great, threatens to reach
;

a

high position.

AND THE
REACTION

of highest repute in the Club

Orpen we have already considered. But the man is Augustus E. John, its draughtsman.

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

AUGUSTUS JOHN
1877

ACADEMISM INTO

Augustus John began

his career

with powerful colour-realism

in the portraiture of gypsy-like

women.

He

has hot

allies

to-day.

OUR OWN DAY

Yet, in some strange way, the new-academism of the Club has cast His etchings recall pupilage to Rema shadow upon his vision.
brandt.

And

at present his

painting

is

so steeped in the vision of

Leonardo da Vinci that he seems ever seeking to reproduce the Leonardesque smile. Of all the Club Mannerists, he is incomparably but whether he will shake off Mannerism, the man nearest to genius whether he will reveal original gifts, yet remains to be seen. Now whilst the New English Art Club cannot be freed from
;

the charge of that

Academism, it is a far more It at least alive Mannerism than that of the Royal Academy. It has opened its doors to founds chiefly on modern developments. men of mark to whom the Academy held out, as Americans say, "the icy mitten " instead of "the glad hand."

Mannerism

that

is

THE SCOTTISH PAINTERS OF THE NINETIES AND TO-DAY
By 1890 broken-colour impressionism was George Henry and Hornel coming to the front
in
full

career,

after a visit to

Mouncey (i 852-1 901) in landscape, MacGeorge Japan in 1893-5. 1Robert Fowler and Blacklock (i 863-1 903) were (186 ), and strongly influenced by Hornel. The early doomed young painters Yule (i 869-1 900) and Robert Brough (i 872-1 905) followed; and then emerged a personality of
marked individual power
in
S. J.

Peploe,

who

has created a virile

and searching colour-orchestration. Before surveying Peploe's and Pryde's influence, however, it is well to note the exquisite water-colours of birds and flowers and 250

OF PAINTING
animals by Edwin Alexander, made a mark in landscape. Strang (1859) had been
whilst

Campbell Mitchell has

WHEREIN

gregor

at

etching.

a fellow-student with the Slade, and, under the glamour of Legros, had taken to He was elected to the Royal Academy as an etcher
;

W.

IMPRESMac- SIONISM Y.

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

but why he should have been so elected in face of his equally remarkable work in painting, the Academy alone knows. paints stately landscapes and has D. Y. Cameron (1865) made a mark as an etcher. Cameron is as serene and classical in both men are poets in art. spirit as Strang is rugged and brusque later came to the front as a Muirhead Bone (1876) draughtsman and etcher, winning to a considerable reputation upon Bone has felt the exquisite sense of a strangely scant achievement. the " size " of his Ayr the etched line he is the essential etcher Prison is marvellous as its sombre intensity of mood. David Muirhead paints the home-life of the ordinary well-toHarrington Mann, Fiddes Watt, Sholto Douglas, and do BoRTHWicK are of the portrait-painters. By the remarkably gifted three who were destined to an early death, Yule (1869-1900), Brough (1872-1905), and Bessie M'NicoL (i 869-1904), so much brilliant promise had been given that we can only lament the tragedy of their careers. Bessie M'Nicol was one of the most remarkable women-artists. In animal-painting William Walls has come to repute. T. Austen Brown is a forceful painter of country life. Of the Scottish Impressionist landscape-painters, W. Y. Macgregor, painting the grandly-phrased The Quarry^ and James Paterson (born in 1854), whose loosely handled and blurred landscape in oils and water-colours holds a personal vision, had as fellows Nairn (1859-1904) Alexander Mann (1853-1908) the poetic Macaulay Stevenson, who is concerned ever with an elegiac mystical mood of nature and the painter of spacious heavens with low horizons and low-lying foregrounds, Campbell Mitchell ; Tom Robertson, the lover of moonlit waters whilst the tender pastorals of M'Bride and the decorative design and forceful painting of Jamieson add to their repute. I take Jack the portraitist to be a Scot. Of masters of pen-drawing whom Scotland has given us, Denholm Armour should not be judged by his weak line-work for Punch ; he is essentially a water-colour painter, and approaches the superb work of Joseph Crawhall (the younger). Hartrick is master of the pen and has romantic sense. a finer
; ;
;

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

;

;

;

251

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

ROMANTIC IMPRESSIONISM
CONDER
1868-1909
Standing in some ways in relation both to Whistler and Beardsley, but creating an exquisite art all his own, was the colour-poet, Charles Conder, doomed to an early death. Conder
an original way that suggests all the wistfulness of Watteau, all the hauntingness of His art was Whistler, all the impudent naughtiness of Beardsley. blown across the silk of fans like the fragile atmosphere of dreams and in Conder the fan found its supreme master of the art. The His effects of space, of aerial distances in his art are magical. rhythmic utterance is like the music of viols and lutes in some old-

COLOURORCHESTRATION

employed colour

in

subtle

lyrical fashion

in

AND THE
REACTION

;

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

world terraced garden by
ful lithographs.

Versailles.

Conder has

also

made

delight-

OUR OWN DAY

He

gives to the allure of

women

the glamour of

the ballroom is aglow with gay lights, and music is in the air, and there is the excitement of the dance. He brings to his art an exquisite utterance that set his colour beside the best work of Whistler in its lower register, and far above it in his higher, freer flights. The Russian Constantin Somoff paints in a realm akin to that of Conder and of Beardsley.
the lover's vision, as
S
I

when

M

E

1867-

With Sidney H. Sime there came into the art of England in the nineties one of her most remarkable men of genius. The Manchester lad who began breadwinning in the bowels of the earth must have already, with grim northern humour, been spinning dreams of heaven and hell before he came up to the surface at the However, when he pit's mouth to try sign-painting for a change. came from the Liverpool School of Art in 1893 to seek fortune in London, he was already master of an art that soon won him on to the illustrated papers. He came into illustration just as Beardsley, Raven Hill, Phil May, and all the brilliant young illustrators of the nineties were making the decade one of the greatest periods in illustration. His exquisite sense of line showed him kin to Beardsley on one side of his art but he revealed a profound poetic sense, a grim philosophic gift, and a range of imagination far beyond Beardsley 's ken. He early shed all influence, and developed a craftsmanship From a swift dexterous that enabled him to range heaven and hell.
;

252

OF PAINTING
caricaturist

— one of the

first

of our generation
intellect far

— Sime suddenly came

WHEREIN

beyond the artists of IMPREShe bent that intellect to artistry, compelling the senses to SIONISM his time transform the idea into the experience. He felt the immensity of THROUGH life. Where Beardsley laughed shrilly at Death and Doom and the COLOURPunishment of Sin, or passed it by with a gay shrug of the shoulder, ORCHESSime treats of great ideas with grim humour, hears the thunder of TRATION the spheres. Throughout his art is a grim chuckle at bogies, a CONQUERS large love of the human being, a deep compassion for the weak, a THE fierce desire to see behind the screen of the Unknown. He stands REALM to-day in the foremost artistic achievement of our time a poet of OF THE exquisite and subtle fancy, with a rare beauty of craftsmanship IMAGINAwhereby to express his wide-ranging imagination. His painting is TION of a romantic and weird power. That this painting is not more
as a poet.
;

upon us

Sime had an

a public loss. The large imagination of the man profound inquisition into the minds of men. He is perhaps the greatest living authority on Blake and Foe, as probably on Meredith.

widely
is

known

is

wedded

to a

TOM MOSTYN
1864 -

Tom

Mostyn began

to

make

a

paintings of subjects and portraits France. I next remember him as creating landscapes in the great English tradition. He has steadily developed his art, until to-day he has emerged as a poetic painter of romantic landscape in which

mark with glowing low-toned that early won him honours in

with largesse of glowing and glittering jewels, the by dreams of the drama and romance of Nature. He is master of an art created by himself in which he has evolved a technique of extraordinary power. His sane vision has dreamed dreams founded on Nature and his romantic spirit, at first hesitant, has rapidly found a bejewelled craftsmanship that brings forth radiant colour-harmonies. He has taken from the
as

he pours forth,

moods aroused

in the senses

;

touch-impressionists all the orchestral possibilities of broken-colour, achieving without the disintegration of the prism what they thought could only be achieved by that disintegration.

GREIFFENHAGEN
1862 -

Greiffenhagen seems to have gone into silence of late yet, in the nineties, his was one of the most glowing brushes that gave itself to colour-impressionism in a luminous, if somewhat low-toned
;

253

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
and his vision revealed a of remarkable decorative power romantic essence all too rich and rare for retirement from the noble adventure of art.
art
;

DUDLEY HARDY
The
brilliant

son of a fine colourists of
gifts.

COLOURORCHESTRATION

squandered his
the lyrical

Dudley Hardy is one of the most time. No man has so wilfully Yet Dudley Hardy at his best remains one of
artist,

our

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

If he go to Holland he though the whole modern genius of the land had flung him its craftsmanship. He does the same in France. He has such an innate gift for caricaturing any man's style or of repeating it at will, that it becomes a danger to him. His pictorial memory He will stoop to the most trivial advertisements or is a marvel. illustrations. Yet, when he pours forth his gifts upon a painting,

painters of his generation.

paints Holland as

OUR OWN DAY

takes himself seriously, he rises to lyrical utterance. He has dashed off lyrics of Algiers and Tangier, and made paintings of the Arabs, which for glow of colour and intensity of poetic utter-

when he

ance surpass the art of Fortuny and others who have given their lifework to try and create what Hardy flings off like a gesture. He great Ne'er-do- Weels of art who create by sheer is one of the genius, and waste themselves on trivialities the greater part of their but his art will live, as their art nearly always lives. h'ves Mrs. Dods-Withers is a lyric poetess in landscape.
;

THE NORTHERN ROMANTIC IMPRESSIONISTS
Meanwhile a Northumbrian had gone back to the old English Chap-Books, and developed a most telling art from the broad black masses of the woodcuts of the English broad-sheet.

"OLD" CRAWHALL OF NEWCASTLE
Joseph Crawhall dips his hands into the stilted magnificence of the eighteenth century, gets a grip upon the elaborate etiquette and paste-buckled manners that held the time, and brings out in his deft fingers the discovered secret of the whole art of the chap-books, with And the bluff hint of his own deeper secret of artistry added to it. his modern eyes seeing the form of things more subtly than these Georgian folk saw it, seeing form with that deliberate grace that is the characteristic of our later nineteenth-century art, seeing it also with a full sense of its surface and body, and most of all of its texture So he gives us the art of the chap-books considerably glorified. that you shall find amongst the geniuses of the old chap-book days now wholly unknown, and their names altogether forgot no

— —

254

!

OF PAINTING
of them all with gifts so complete and hand's skill so adequate Crawhall. What squidgy soft body he gives to a snail for how we almost of the wood-block's technicalities all the limits count the slow inches of its slobby career as he sets his " demd, moist, unpleasant body " towards the vague ambition whither his protruding feelers blindly lead him to end in the thrush's singing interior, or otherwise end in the music of the spheres In none of those whimsical plays of fancy has this, our whimsical Old Crawhall, more vigorously displayed his knowledge of the sleight of hand that was in the craftsmanship of the eighteenth century, with its fine decorative sense, than in his Datidy with the Powder Puff; yet here again we see something of that subtlety of tone and of draughtsmanship peeping out through the breadth and rude skill of the thing. Even in his Battle Ships, with their laughing affectation of primitiveness, full of portholes, the artist but forced the drama a little so that he might give an inordinate threat of guns so chokefull are they of impossible masts that there is not deck's planking enough into which to step them all, wherefore one or two are of needs almost overboard but this exaggeration gives the desire to sail at all costs, and get the wind of all enemies, and we cannot quarrel with rigging that fouls under such virtuous ambition. And his conventional Sun, is it not lit with the flare of the old broadsheets ? flaming out of the days when journalism was touched with classic aspirations when journalism, not yet being devoid of some ambition to be accused of the smell of midnight oil that is the very perfume of scholarship, always spoke of him, half-playfully,
as this
!

man

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHES-

!

TRATION

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

;

as

Old Sol

P R Y
1866 -

D E
the the

largely, with Crawhall, created one of of painting of our time. Pryde took up British achievement where the most virile eflx)rt had ended, in the vigour and fearless vision of Hogarth, the broad art of

James Pryde has
schools

strongest

and
the

Crawhall perfected it, he founded his utterance. He rapidly increased in power, the mass-impressionism of France not being lost upon him. The full-blooded nature of the man has found its outlet in native art, powerful and haunting, dramatic above all things, and personal. The afl^ectation of the Arthurian romance repelled him he is rather the heir to Chaucer, to Balzac, to Rabelais. Romance and drama breathe through his every work. Pryde for awhile took up pastels but he seems early to have
as
; ;

chap-book men,

255

A HISTORY
•ppjE

TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
j)^y

and his use of oils reveals his exhausted the range of the pastel soundness of judgment in employing the more powerful medium in which his breadth of touch is as marked as his subtlety, as T^he Demi Mondaine bears witness. Strange to say, Pryde clings to a very low scale of colour ; and though he employs it with a resonant colour-sense, his art more Perhaps than hints at a rich orchestration held grimly in reserve. it is this reserve that is chiefly responsible for that monotony of style from which he seems unable or unwilling to shake himself free. James Pryde, with his brother-in-law, William Nicholson, first came before the public ken as the Beggarstaff Brothers, who brought ^rt to the walls of our thoroughfares, with some of the most He has the artist strain in masterly posters that have been created. ^'in^ both Scott Lauder and Beugo were his close kin on the But he owes most to his own romantic vision, mother's side. a Rabelaisian joy in life. His work is rich in character wedded to whether he portray the rubicund jollity of Jorrocks or the fullgirthed stupidity of 0/d John Willet, mine host of the old Maypole Inn from Barnaby Rudge, or limns the sardonic humour and tragic bearing of Henry Irving in the finest portrait ever painted of the great Victorian actor. He does not produce quickly. His Murder House is typical of the haunting power of his scenes, built up with It rare gifts of brushing, colour, arrangement, black and white. thrills by its high romantic atmosphere, its threat of tragedy, its resonant colour, its largeness of spacing. Pryde seems to be baulked by some strange sluggishness of He leaves the impression of genius unfulfilled, of creative faculty. Yet out of all his work a powerful imagination dropped to earth. there is breathed a strange, compelling, tragic sense as of the travail of a soul akin to the soul of Edgar Allan Poe.
:
'>

NICHOLSON
1872 -

of the famous " Beggarstaff Brothers," being six years the junior ot his brother-in-law, James Pryde, is William Nicholson. Nicholson, if we are to judge his art when created apart from that of Pryde, is gifted with rare distinction of arrangeHis ment, a fertile imagination, and great sense of arrangement. blithe art, strangely enough, he utters with an almost sombre reserve in colour. Nicholson has created an art of woodcut, printed in massed blacks upon an ochre or raw umber ground, and touched with colour, which has brought forth a large school of artists.

The younger

256

XXIX

PR YDE
1866-

"LA DEMIMONDAINE

"
Studio

By kind permission of His Honour Judge W. Evans and The

OF PAINTING
done in this method, his great London WHEREIN Almanack of Twelve Sports have brought him the IMPRESHe is equally a man of genius with SIONISM world-wide fame he deserved. oils, w^ater-colours, or coloured woodcuts. His still-life will one day THROUGH be reckoned amongst the masterpieces in this realm and his Cupids COLOUR-

His immortal

portrait series

Types, and his

;

Fighting for a Rose and the Cupids in a window are unforgettable. To everything that he designs he brings distinction whether

ORCHESTRATION

a playing card, a ball

programme, or an

initial letter.

CONQUERS

GORDON CRAIG
Craig, son of the famous actress, Ellen Terry, though he has given his art chiefly to the theatre, in which he is to-day an European influence, is also one of the most poetic painters

Edward Gordon

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINA-

TION

of our times. Self-trained in the chap-book art of Crawhall, and largely influenced in youth by James Pryde as he himself declares, he early developed an original personal vision of a high order. His woodcuts are amongst the finest that the age has produced, amongst the finest that any age has produced. But he has also developed an art of water-colour so intensely personal, wrought with so dramatic a power, that he is the supreme poet of this very remarkable group of painters. The dramatic intensity of such designs as some of the Shakespeare scenes, of the series for Electra, or the like, is of an order that defies comparison with anything else in the whole range of painting. The effect of his application of colour-harmonies to the theatre has been one of the most wide-reaching of all modern movements on the European stage. His unerring sense of arrangement, his consummate sense of design, have enabled him to give utterance to an art of the most dramatic kind, haunting and rhythmical. I know no artist to-day with such gifts for evoking majesty, tragedy,
dignity.

Amidst his wide activities he has brought to the craft of printing and lettering a consummate taste that far outdistances the whole achievement of Morris and his school showing a sense of selection and a grip of the relation of the design to the printed

word.

JOSEPH SIMPSON
Founding on the art of Pryde and Nicholson, which freed him from the hard esthetic tendencies of his pupillage, Simpson rapidly came to the front as the draughtsman of this group. His adventure into caricature, which was the rather fine portraiture in the solid blacks of the chap-book style of the Beggarstaffs, brought him
VOL. VIII

2

K

257

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
and his craftsmanship in the making up of personal utterance cover-design to the arrangement of the print, a book, from its has affected the modern book, based on the fine essays of the whole Simpson has of late taken to painting, in which his of this school. few essays give rare promise, and reveal him to be possessed of subtle
;

COLOURORCHESTRATION

colour-vision and a higher colour utterance than his first masters the Beggarstaffs, and more akin to the colour-orchestration of Fergusson

AND THE
REACTION

Indeed, Simpson bridges the two northern schools. Of several artists of this school, Dacres Adams and Flint are coming steadily to the front. The brothers Orr are also of this decorative school, as is the young artist Lovat Fraser.

and Peploe.

TOWARDS
PRIMAL ACADEMISM INTO
Akin
in

some measure but creating an

art

apart

is

Joseph

Crawhall the younger.

OUR OWN
DAY
The
with genius.

JOSEPH CRAWHALL THE YOUNGER
1861

son of "

Old " Crawhall, Joseph Crawhall was dowered

Trained by one of the most original of artists, his Joseph Crawhall came forth as one of the most An exquisite draughtsman, Crawhall original painters of our time. floats his luminous flat washes of colour over his design with His eye for the forms and structure marvellous decorative power. His studentship of animals surpasses the marvellous skill of Japan. His favourite ground to Aime Morot left no mark upon his art.
sporting father,
is

fine

brown

holland,

which

aids the swittly floated water-colours

to render the texture of fur and feather. Black Cock are of his highest achievement.

His Spangled Cock and

THE COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION OF THE
SCOTTISH SCHOOL OF PEPLOE
The Mass-Impressionism revealed to England by Manet through In Scotland there arose a painter Whistler found many pupils. who founded on Whistler, but rapidly developed an art quite outside
Whistler's range, into which light and blithe colour entered to rid This man, Peploe, added the bravura of it of Whistler's low tones. the broken-colour impressionists without breaking colour.

PEPLOE
and
is

Peploe has evolved a vigorous painting at first stroke, fluid which he has raised to remarkable achievement. It true that he has been more concerned with the means of uttering 258
S. J.

direct,

!

OF PAINTING
than with the emotional range of the significance of hfe that But the forerunner is often the craftsmanship alone serves to create. Whether life wide-ranging artist. great craftsman rather than the has yielded him a wide gamut of its significance he has as yet given no sign. But that which he does see, he interprets with a power of impressionism which it would be impossible to surpass so far as the The play of light upon craft of painting has as yet been employed. the thing seen, the values of colours in their depth of atmosphere, the whole basic significance of the vision of things to the naked eye, His subtle sensing of colour are easily within this man's empire. Compared with him. Whistler was surpassed. has never been For subtlety and freshness of colour-sense, there sombre, half-blind. approach him and his pupil Fergusson in Europe is no one to to-day. He has thrust impressionism far beyond Manet or Monet, yet he is also baulked by their lack of the eagle's flight by the It is as if the gods denied one man the All. limited imagination. All is delivered into his hands but the gift of song and the song is the essential All
art

"WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

FERGUSSON
Trained by Peploe, John Duncan Fergusson was soon the equal of his master, and rapidly increased his mastery of colour. Fergusson at first looked like becoming but a brilliant disciple of Whistler but he very early surpassed Whistler in colour-orchestration. Peploe's astounding range of colour soon lifted Fergusson to as blithe and joyous an art, and as wide-ranging a faculty of uttering Thenceforth Fergusson advanced light, as he himself had mastered. to that lyrical painting that places him amongst the supreme masters of the younger group. The Marchesi Berneval, The Lady in Pink, proclaimed him a master far outside the limited realm that Whistler made his own. There is now not only a fresh virile sense of the glamour of light, but a pulsing movement of air and leafage and He had already painted a moonlit square in Cadiz, in which water. he had revealed this virile handling in the treatment of the night The square is possessed with the that Whistler had mastered. wondrous mystery that enwraps the earth when the moon holds dominion in the heavens. The figures of the woman and child flit ghost-like across the moon-flooded square with that intangible subtlety of unreality which possesses the world when the purple firmament is ablaze with its myriad stars their very movement seems, with stealthy uncanniness, to add to the mighty stillness. Above all, the scene is bathed in the impalpable volume of the half-revealing
;

259

A HISTORY
yj^j?
lig^^t,

yielding a hush

into the

senses,

eloquent

as

it

is

of

the

TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

stillness

of things.

difficult realm.

In his famous night-piece oi Dieppe, he ventured into a far more He boldly attempted the vivid blues of the evening when the summer night is a pulsing harmony of rich tones. A stretch of green sward, the purple night winning to mastery over the

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

few well-dressed figures of fashionable beyond are the rush and swirl of fireworks folk, in evening attire that ascend with hiss and roar into the leagues of blue, shrilly bursting into glorious rain of vivid hues, descending in a shower of coloured fire that lurches downward to earth again, then hangs for awhile in the heavens, held back and sustained by the resisting air
defeated day
;

in front
;

flit

a

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

earthward velocity and allows the golden glory of it to come down only in slower and more sedate pageantry. Here was an artist who had mastered the craft of Manet, of Whistler, of Peploe, and the whole modern revelation, and found an utterance for his own personal vision which is a marvel in a
that opposes
its

young

vividness of his impression, the purity of tones and telling emotional sense of colour, win from Nature her gladness,
painter.

The

and light, and mystery. The play and flicker and rhapsody of light, the swirl and eddy and glint of the waters, the fragrance of the
earth, are his to create into lyrical art.

and
in,

his

domain widened by

every passing
is

whim

His achievement is enhanced and large interest that the light of heaven reveals to him.
his full-blooded joy in,

Nothing

tion of his interest

too exquisite, nothing too exuberant for the inquisiand he has mastered a direct technique and a ;

fearlessness of colour

which give him quick

facility

to interpret

what he

sees.

His forceful brush sweeps on

to the canvas

whatsoever

mood

the world at the

moment

whether

it be awakened ghostly passing of the night, or the laughing moments when sun and breeze run riot over the land, or the thunder-laden heavens announce their lightning-loaded tragedies. From each place he filches its essential spirit, its fragrance, its savour each of the twenty-four hours yields to him its secret. The sun-flecked waters set his brush skipping carol-wise the twilight yields its sombre
;

arouses in the mirror of his senses, by the haunted, subtle hour of dusk, the

;

stateliness.

have shown that Fergusson, mastering the superb craft of the mysteries of painting from Peploe, has brought to the practice a more profound art a larger sense of life. The whole realm seemed opening to him. And just as he seemed at grips with the greatest problems in art, he has become interested in enlarging the gamut of 260
I

XXX
FERGUSSON
"BERNEVAL—THE LADY
IN

PINK"
SliiJio

By kind permission of Madame Marchesi and The

OF PAINTING
craftsmanship again.
decoration.

He
it is

has turned aside to pattern, rhythm, and

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

Whether

wider ranging I know not result but there is danger in leaving the great advance in the midst of the onward charge in order to make flank attacks. For Fergusson the rest is on the knees of the gods. But he who mistakes craft for art
;

to

become his Sedan we must abide the

or to lead

him

to

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

is lost.

Fergusson

has

trained

a

brilliant

American

pupil

in

Miss

CONQUERS

EsTELLE Rice. Whether it be under his influence that she is dangerously threatened with primitive-academism I know not master and pupil are at work in Paris, and Paris rings with primitive-academism. Character, the supreme faculty of portraiture, is sneered at as subordinate to pattern. Rhythm, the essential of all great craftsmanship, is set above the sensing of life. A heavy

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINA-

TION

threat lies

upon the younger men.

Time

alone will

show whether

they are to conquer or to fall, as all great art falls at last, into Mannerism, and is no more. The professor of philosophy and the mathematician loom and song is always slain by the pedants. The craft of impressionism is the vastest yet built for the utterance of great song but where are the singers 'Tis time they were done patching up the instrument and got them to their singing.
;
;
.?

LINE-ORCHESTRATION
Alongside Colour-Orchestration has been evolved an impressionism of Line-Drawing whereby the line is employed in musical

rhythm.

BEARDSLEY
1872

-

1898

genius of the greatly gifted youth, Aubrey Beardsley, did not utter itself in painting. But his influence has been wide. Born of middle-class folk at Brighton, the delicate lad early displayed astounding gifts and almost before full manhood he had created a
;

The

remarkable art and was gone to his grave. Beardsley was attacked and is still attacked for his erotic intention. To deny that intention is to deny his whole significance. But art is as justified in treating the erotic emotions as in treating any other emotions and Beardsley uttered the sexual sensing of the human being with power. A sickly youth developing into a diseaseinflicted manhood turned his art to a flippant attitude to life but such also was the art of several giants of the Past, and we must judge him as artist, not as moralist. 261
; ;

A HISTORY
THE
TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
DAY

The lad was a greedy student of literature, and in his teens had mastered the erotic masterpieces of French and classic literature. The erotic colour-prints of Japan he bought at a time that money needed hard winning. Beardsley was the reaction towards the hectic life out of the esthetic movement that created him. Beardsley was born out of The whole monkish attitude is born out of the art of Burne-Jones. an unwholesome and distorted repulsion from sex, and its reactions Beardsley was the crown of that reaction. are inevitable. Beardsley utterly from the primal-academism of I withdraw his school, because the forms of the academism that originally interested him soon became a form only. Though he came from Rossetti out of Burne-Jones, and was subject to Botticelli and Mantegna, he early developed a style wholly his own, and fitted to utter his individual vision of life. Born on the 2ist of August 1872 at Brighton, the child, quiet and reserved by nature, early showed a liking for drawing. The at nine he disease which destroyed him showed a threat at seven was taken to Epsom. In 1883 his family went to London, the child appearing as a musical infant-phenomenon with his sister at Kate Greenaway's art drew the young musician, and he concerts. made pocket-money with menus and other cards. In 1884, his twelfth year, he was sent back to Brighton with his sister to live with an old aunt here the boy was soon reading books. In the November he went to the Grammar School, where he fell amongst His drawings of this time are of kindly and encouraging masters. In the July of 1888, his sixteenth year, he went to little promise. an architect in London, going thence in 1889 to an insurance In 1 891, at nineteen, office, and was very ill for a couple of years. he became stronger again, and set to work on illustration, warmly encouraged by the Rev. Alfred Gurney. Then artistic friends saw Up to the promise of the lad, Aymer Vallance amongst others. this point he was working on the lines of Burne-Jones, Botticelli, and Mantegna, and his Joan of Arc and Litany of Mary Magdalen His earlier work was little more than show promise of his gifts. imitation of Rossetti, Burne-Jones, and William Morris ; yet even
; ;

mimicry a personal vision rapidly revealed itself. However, whilst in the insurance office, he went in 1892 at night to Professor Brown's school at Westminster. In the August he Dent gave him the Morte d'' Arthur to illustrate and left the office. he left the art school. Whilst he wrought his fine designs for the Morte d^Arthur^ he 262
in this esthetic

OF PAINTING
•developed from

mimicry

to

a

personal art

which

sets

the whole

WHEREIN

effort of Morris's book-illustration in a second-rate position.

gulf between the earlier designs and the later designs is so vast another man might almost have been thought to have created them. The restless, feverish spirit of the lad tired of the task before it was completed. Then came Pennell as ally and hotly fought his cause. Beardsley haunted the British Museum and National Gallery. With the idea of illustrating The Shaving of Shagpat, he met Mr. John Lane. certain deft gift of literature of a meretricious

The IMPRESthat SIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

CONQUERS

A

kind he was persuaded to abandon, fortunately for his art, though he wrote two or three poems with skill. Intensely secretive about his work, it seemed a miracle that he did any, for one was soon meeting Beardsley everywhere. He destroyed early examples of his work with rare forethought and would exchange fine later works
;

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINA-

TION

for earlier
efforts
!

ones amongst his friends.
to

Yet,

many
his

that he desired
in
;

destroy, and

after

hid away early death published

the Pall Mall Budget in February 1893 but for the newly founded Studio he drew a passable cover in the style of the Morte d' Arthur, and Pennell introduced him to the public with some fine designs. Beardsley now came under strong Japanese influence, and produced the much lauded work of his career the Japanese imitation threatened to destroy all his great gifts. At the end of 1893 he was at work on the illustrations for Salome, in which he evolved this style founded on the Japanese his second phase. In the April of 1894 appeared the Yellow Book, the first four volumes containing illustrations that revealed to the world that there had arisen a new artist of personal and impudent vision. He became famous. He was widely assailed as well as praised. In the January of 1896, Beardsley showed enormous strides in his art by his superb contributions to The Savoy, published by Leonard Smithers. This was his great period, the third period that brought forth The Rape of the Lock and the superb masterpieces that made The Savoy one of the greatest illustrated works ever produced. The Lysistrata designs, though necessarily privately printed, show Beardsley at his highest powers those designs that in one of his last letters he adjured his friend "in his death agony" to destroy, and he is said to have destroyed the most obscene. Unfortunately, a chill at Brussels brought back ill-health, and his disease got a firm grip of the blithe, witty young fellow. His last works, the drawings to Mademoiselle de Maupin, in which he employs wash with his line, and the marvellous pencil

them Some drawings
showed
feeble

powers

263

A HISTORY
THE
TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
designs for the Volpone^ to say nothing of
its

glorious cover-design,

on which he was at work when death struck, prove his power. In 1897 he went to Paris, and was never to see his native land At the end of the year he was taken to the Riviera, dying again. Mentone on the 25th of March 1898. at A charming personality, witty, dry, and brilliant in converse,

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION AND THE REACTION

knew early fame. He feverishly packed a long life into few short years. Coming early into the glare of London society but it from a modest home, he acquired an affected manner
Beardsley
his
;

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR DAY

OWN

covered a really gentle spirit. Beardsley mastered a line of such exquisite quality that it affects Whilst the eye as the perfect notes of a violin affect the hearing. he was not an illustrator in the sense of interpreting the text, the subjects of literature gave him the motives for his rhythmic art. That But it was he owed much to the Greek vase-painters is obvious. when he mastered all that was greatest in the engraving of the eighteenth century, and utterly beat it, that he revealed his greatest gifts. His invention was limitless. His industry as enormous as He never mastered colour, except in the low tones it was secret. and his of his fine Mademoiselle de Mauphi, an exquisite thing meant little to self-sufficient talk about painting proved that colour Think of it In Turner he could only see " rhetoric " him. this lad at twenty-five was one of the world's greatest masters of
;
! !

one of the most dif^cult mediums known to the artist the pen line. And though at first he seem but an illustrator of books, at bottom He took subjects from literature, and his art is an utterance of life. he gave in the crucible of his genius they became new things them a pulsing life. Beardsley was a poet in every fibre. He took and surpassed it. He took the great eighteenththe Japanese line He took Morris's and surpassed them. century engravers He did mediaeval designs he put them into a mediocre class. superb achievement of Greece in its vasemore he took the painting and he surpassed it. Yet he was dead at twenty-five. Beardsley created schools on the Continent and in America. The American, W. H. Bradley, is one of the best gifted of the school. In Germany Heine and Marcus Behmer found their black and white work upon Beardsley, Behmer without disguise.
;

— — —

PHIL MAY
1864

1903

Born
his

to an engineer at
in the world, Phil

way

Leeds in 1864, and left at nine to fight May was twelve when he began to earn

264

OF PAINTING
Drawn to art from boyhood, he taught himself from WHEREIN Sambourne's cartoons in Punch. An assistant to the IMPRESscene-painter of the Grand Theatre at Leeds at fourteen, he made SIONISM pocket-money by drawing portraits of the actors and actresses. THROUGH For three years he toured with theatrical companies. In 1882 COLOURhe came to London without a shilling, and for a couple of years he ORCHESwellnigh starved. But the personal charm of this lovable man TRATION Lionel Brough got him upon the staiT of CONQUERS soon won him friends. Society, thence he went to the St. Stephen's Review, thence to THE Australia to the Sydney Bulletin until 1888, when he again REALM made for London, and won to ever-increasing fame on the illustrated OF THE making his mark on the St. Stephen s Review, on Pick-me- IMAGINApapers up, on the Graphic, and the Pall Mall Budget, at last reaching to TION He reduced the superfluous line. He employed line to Punch. utter the life of the people in immortal fashion and during his great decade he is the supreme master of the life of the people.
a

living.

LiNLEY

;

the essentially democratic medium of our etching is a technical harking back to a means of utterance age that had the same intention in Rembrandt's age the reduplicating of works of art. First as to Etching of the British genius Brangwyn stands out Legros at times in the European opinion as the supreme etcher. reached to great heights. Whistler, in a narrower realm, was very exquisite, but the great emotions of life were beyond him, and he wisely employed small plates. Seymour Haden was a good Colonel Goff is a brilliant if somewhat commonplace etcher amateur. Strang has made some excellent plates. Alfred East C. J. Watson, Burridge, Martin is a fine decorative landscapist. Hardie, Tristram Ellis are good etchers. The Scots D. Y.

Penwork to-day
;

is

:

;

Cameron and
excellent work.

Muirhead Bone and Frank Short have done

England's pen's draughtsmen have been remarkable since Preand Sandys, Lord Leighton, Holman Hunt, Raphaelite days MiLLAis, RossETTi, Mahoney, Charles Green, Harrison Weir, BiRKET Foster,' Cruikshank, Hablot K. Browne, Fred Walker, Fildes, Herkomer, Small, Pinwell, Tenniel, Boyd Houghton, Randolph Caldecott, Sir John Gilbert, Shields, Du Maurier, Brangwyn, Blake-Wirgman, Crane, Keene, Raven Hill, Linley Sambourne, Phil May, Bernard Partridge, Parsons,
;

ley,

Chantrey Corbould, Brock, Hugh Thomson, Aubrey BeardsAnning Bell, Railton, Manuel, Dulac, Miss Hammond,
vol. viii

2 l

265

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

New, Laurence Housman, Miss Pitman, Millar, TowNSEND Nelson, Carton Moore Park, E. T. Reed, Hassall,
Pegram,
Gallagher,
Griggs, Eleanor Brickdale, Byam Shaw, Sime, Garth Jones, Spare, Carter, Charles Robinson and the Australian Norman Lindsay, have raised it to the foremost achievement. Arthur Rackham employs a quaint and charming fancy in

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

inked line upon a brown ground, into which he floats low-toned colour. E. J. Sullivan has poetic gifts which he employs in the inked line, in water-colours, and in lithography, his fine draughtsmanship being the handmaid to a wide-ranging imagination. Edgar Wilson is one of the most original decorative artists with the pen line that this country has brought forth, and deserves a far Hartrick is a master higher place in art than is granted to him. of several methods, water-colour, pencil, lithography and oils. Maurice Greiffenhagen is one of the most delightful of living Bellingham Smith is a poet, as he reveals in his waterillustrators. colours of old English castles. Jackson is one of the most masterly of the lithographers, and Spencer Pryse has made his mark, as has Painters of the sea and shipping are Becker in this province.

Dixon and Wilkinson.

MODERN IMPRESSIONISM
mere docketing. Bi^snard and Gaston orchestration with power.
is

IN

FRANCE
;

French impressionists are labelled with different tags as the " Intimistes " and the " Peinture-claire," and the rest of it but this

La Touche LE SIDANER
1862

continue to develop colour-

-

Henri Le Sidaner, one of the most exquisite poets in painting, was a son of fisherfolk from St. Malo. Born in the He Maurice, where the little fellow passed his life until ten, thereafter his home was at Dunkirk, the greyness of the North Sea overwhelming the His father was given to painting Creole blood of the youngster. At fifteen he left and sculpture for recreation, and taught the lad.
school and entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Dunkirk, being brought up under the heavy tradition of the Antwerp School. When he went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Paris he passed under Cabanel for five long years, sketching animals at the Parisian Zoo,
It so happened and copying Delacroix and Jordaens the while. that in 1881 Manet showed the Slayer of Lions and the Rocbefort^ 266

OF PAINTING
and the young fellow stood before them in wonder. Here were WHEREIN things that were scorned by his studio, they were against all his IMPRESteaching, yet they profoundly impressed him. The Bar des Folics- SIONISM Bergcrcs still more moved him. It so chanced that he went to THROUGH Etaples for his holiday in 1881. At Etaples he settled from 1884 COLOURto 1893, ^^^^ eventful years that made him a poet. Here he made ORCHEScomrades of Vail, Thaulow, Duhem, Alexander Harrison, and TRATION
other impressionists.

Holland revealed to him the mastery of Rembrandt, Hoogh, and Vermeer. A third class medal at the Salon gave De him the chance to go to Italy, and he copied Fra Angelico. He turned his back on Titian, Veronese, and Tintoretto. Perhaps it was this visit that sent him to the deserted thoroughfares of peaceful Flemish towns. So he always paints, with a vision and lyrical melancholy like our poet Gray of the "Elegy in a Country Churchyard," the haunts of men in which the departed humans are felt but as ghosts. With a wizard power of invoking subtlest impressions, he yields into our senses the silent streets of oldworld Flemish cities or the glittering twilight and nights of Venice, with intense power, and a handling of masses built up by touches One of the purest of colour that thrill and vibrate in the senses. mystics of our day is perhaps Le Sidaner, who never employs a trick or symbol, but arouses in our senses the mystery of things above symbol, and wins from us a sigh such as twilight evokes. The Luxembourg possesses the exquisite La Table, spread with a white cloth on which glows a lamp mingling its light with the dreamy lilacs of a moonlight evening that holds possession of the He is a very poet who compels courtyard of a country house. Nature to sing her intense moods with lyrical tenderness. Of the more dreamy creators of impressionistic poems in France are Edouard Vuillard, whose art is closely founded on the Japanese vision, painting with tender colour the home-life of the Eugi^ne Lomont, with his people, seamstresses, children, flowers Maurice Lobre, who interiors in which women play music makes the old rooms at Versailles haunted with their ancient perfume Armand Berton, who brings smiling women into his Louis Picard, who sets blithe, Simon Bussy dreamy world Edmond Aman-Jean, who with slender women in gay gardens and Ernest subtler moods of women exquisite colour paints the
visit

A

to

CONQUERS THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Laurent, who paints the fascination of the home-life. Somewhat his nude maiden. By the Sea, akin to Conder is Rene Menard Helleu, best known as an is a fine type of this poetic sensing. 267
;

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
etcher of the portraits of beautiful a brilliant impressionist.

women,
Nantes

is

also

a fine colourist,

Maxime Maufra,

born

at

in

1861,

learnt
;

some-

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

thing of painting from a teacher of the town, Le Roux but his commercial father compelled the lad to take up a business career. Being sent to Liverpool, the young fellow copied pictures in the galleries there. Making some money, he broke with commerce and devoted himself to painting, to the consternation of his family and friends but five years' hard toil saw him without patrons. He collected his works and had a one-man show in Paris. The famous
;

dealer

Durand-Ruel walked into the show,
the
artist

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

thenceforth

knew no
in

neglect.

and Turner and Constable
sent for
;

Maufra

ACADEMISM INTO

were his Born

art gods.

OUR OWN DAY

1864 to an editor of the town who was interested in art, the young Didier-Pouget was encouraged from early days to paint Nature, and after local training he passed into the studio of Lalanne the famous illustrator. Local encouragement spurred him on to Paris, and success came to him early. Honours have fallen thick upon him. The Salon has shown his works since Belleroche (1864is 1886. a fine artist, as his famous ) Tea-Table proves. LuNois (1863is well-known for his )
at

Toulouse

impressionistic methods.

HENRI MARTIN
i860
has combined the decorative intention with realism and the flicker of sunlight to an extent that suggests Puvis de Chavannes set afire peasants and pastoral life set amidst glorious landscapes. Born at Toulouse on the 5th of May i860, Martin was

Henri Martin

born into impressionism of which he

is

one of the colour-poets to-day.

BAIL 1862at Limonest on the 22nd January 1862, of the front in the late eighties and made his mark in the nineties as one of the most forceful painters of the home-life and of still-life. His woman pouring vinegar from a

Joseph Bail, born
stock,

artist

came

to

large bottle

amongst

pickles, called

La Menagere
is

;

his fine paintings
gatte-sauces, as
is

of cooks'-boys in kitchens, of which he an old French nurse used to call them La Cigarette^ all prove his power.

— of which

so

fond

the famous

younger Frenchmen. 268

Georges Leon Dufrenoy is a brilliant painter amongst the Charles Lacoste of Bordeaux has national

OF PAINTING
vision.

The French-Canadian, Wilson James Morrice,
;

has learnt

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

he paints Canada his craft in Paris, and French he is in artistry as he sees Canada with the French vision of his race, and he has all the subtle colour-sense of France.

THROUGH
COLOURORCHES-

^ has given a voice to JNorth Africa in impressionism -pn AfTf-xxj Maxime Noire has bathed his senses in r-QvrQTjpnc through the art of Noire. of Tunis and Algiers and the desert until he pours 'pTrp^^' the atmosphere He hymns Morocco, up at i^ forth vigorous utterance of the sunlit land.
. .

^ ranee t

NOIRE ^^^^\^

the desert, Africa of the Mediterranean Sea. qP 'rpjp The impressionist movement has brought forth some very fine iiyrAriNA painters of the portrait, though the tendency is to be low in tone. tION Jacques Emile Blanche (i86i), strongly influenced by

Whistler and Besnard, has become not only an excellent portraitpainter, but a

good painter of

interiors.

Louis Anquetin paints good Manetesque portraiture. Antonio de la Gandara, founding on Velazquez, with the subtle vision for colour of Whistler, though he of late developed a somewhat brown and dry style, has painted portraits of remarkable power, and his landscapes of the years gone by were exquisitely sensed. Henri Caro-Delvaille is an interesting painter of Frenchwomen in their drawing-room life, and of nudes. Of his portraits of ladies with their children, the fine Grandmother and Little Girl has his style is akin to that of perhaps brought him widest repute Boldini and the other society painters of Paris, and inclined to be low in tone. His Madame Rostand is one of his successes. But the modern achievement in French art of most vital power
;

has arisen largely in illustration.

FORAIN
1852-

Jean Louis Forain, pupil to Degas, has brought forth a prodigious mass of social satire upon the middle-classes of France, chiefly in line-drawings for the press. The art of Forain is remarkable for its powerful shorthand of draughtsmanship. Forain employs a quick nervous line, used with the utmost selection and reticence of handling, sometimes adding a dash of wash with marvellous skill. But the larger qualities of the man are to be seen in his less-known paintings, in which he reveals himself a sombre follower of Degas. But Forain runs even here to exaggeration of type and consequent caricature. He has his master's taste for the wings of the theatre and the night cafes. His pictures of middle269

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
France, of financiers, deputies, and the like, will live but the impression received from them alone will give but a sordid estimate of his great country. Jeanniot is a powerful painter and illustrator of the life of the day.
class
;

VIERGE
1847-1882

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

Daniel Vierge, a Spaniard by origin, wrought his art under Impressionism in France, though that art chiefly concerned itself with the literature and habits and atmosphere of his own land. and great as he was as illustrator in line, Vierge was a superb artist His Turkeyhis wash-work and water-colours are even greater. Pig-Market are masterly impressionism. Market and
;

ACADEMISM INTO

LOUIS LEGRAND
1864

OUR OWN DAY

Louis Legrand, pupil to Felicien Rops, is an etcher and draughtsman as well as a painter, formed in the development of Legrand is an artist the mass-impressionism of Manet and Degas. His masses and his vigorous and tuneful line are of a of power.
personal utterance that set

him

in

a foremost place in the
in

modern

endeavour.

Dijon brought forth a master

Louis Legrand.

LEPERE
painter, pastellist, and wood-engraver, is most His one of the impressionist wood-engravers of our age. use of black and white to create contrast is of rare musical sense. Paul Renouard has given his career to the illustration of the Graphic. life of the day in the illustrated press, largely to the He is not only a fine draughtsman in chalk, but an etcher.

AuGUSTE Lepere,
as

famous

LAUTREC
1864- 1901

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa was born Comte de Toulouse-Lautrec, a wealthy scion of

at

the
;

Toulouse, one of the great historic families of France sporting father (a fine horseman, something of a sculptor), young Unfortunately, whilst an infant, he Lautrec inherited a wild spirit. had both his legs broken, and, the legs being badly set, he grew up The lad's high spirit and proud nature made a misshapen dwarf. him shy of being seen amongst his fellows. The family came to live in Paris in 1883, the young, fellow's nineteenth year, and Lautrec went first to Bonnat, then to Cormon's studio in 1884 for a year; then in 1885 he met Degas. His student work caused no

Albi to the Counts of and from the

270

OF PAINTING
but he was sketching the types of the street the while and Steinlen came to the front with his astounding studies of the when people and made his mark, Lautrec with a dwarfs bitterness would vow that Steinlen had stolen his ideas. A wide gulf separated the vision and the art of Steinlen and Lautrec the gulf that separates the great humanist and the bitter mocker. Lautrec had the fierce conceit and the bitter egoism of a stunted man. A witty fellow, caustic,. strident and shrill of voice, gesticulative, he was well liked by his fellows. He came to wide repute chiefly through his posters, which revealed an astonishingly original vision, a quaint unconventional arrangement clearly founded on the unsymmetrical symmetry of the Japanese genius, and always giving the strident and gesticulative essence of the man. Founding on Degas, above all influencing Ibels, the artist nearest akin to him, Lautrec's repute is constantly increasing and will increase. His decorative sense, his compelling use of line and mass, and his simplification of colourmasses have all created school. His famous poster of Aristide Bruant shows the poet-landlord of an artists' tavern in Montmartre. Lautrec found his most congenial field in the music-halls of Paris and for their singers of genius he created masterpiece after masterpiece of which were La Goulue (the dancer of the Moulin Rouge) the many fine caricature posters of Tvette Guilbert La Vache Enragee ; Babylone d' Allemagne L^ Artisan Moderne the fearsome At the Foot of the Scaffold^ and the like. Lautrec's wonderful use of the head of a great 'cello or of an orchestra beyond which the figure moves upon the stage, is most original and decorative, as in the famous monster hand that holds the head of a 'cello beyond which the slender Jane Avril performs a high-kick dance, or the as famous
stir,
;

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

;

;

;

Divan Japonais or La

Gitane.

the music-hall Lautrec caught the whole flare and glitter and racket, the strong scents and powder and paint, the gorgeous crudities. He saw that all that was vital in the dance had left the false toe-pirouetting of the ballet at the opera, and had flown to the far finer dancing of the music-halls. Lautrec journeyed
to Spain, to Holland, and to England, but his art wasever of Paris.

Of

In

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec

the flame of rare genius burnt

fervently in the body, ill-treated by Nature, afflicted with constant ailments. And Lautrec with fiery energy and restless wilfulness himself on Nature by revealing her in her vicious moods. revenged

His bitter spirit boldly charged her with her fantastic vulgarity. His masterly line and his powerful artistic utterance flaunted her grotesqueness. He delighted to show the painted faces and the
271

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

life of her underworld in her cafes and night haunts. Descended in vision from Daumier, mastering and adding force to the handling of Degas, Lautrec boldly proclaimed the vulgarity of the " women of pleasure " and all that with them frequent their crudities of conduct even when they paint their faces to strut it as their sloven habits and their untidy and disordered dwellings ladies the pathetic brutalities of the caress they endure and wayfaring their shabbiness and their shame. under the grim name of pleasure Lautrec never mistook Art for Beauty. He accused the whole social His inquisition fabric of civilisation through these poor women. was deep and penetrating. It was a bitter intent that made sordid, He, like Degas, confined vicious faces leer above splendid attire. his great powers to the portrayal of a narrow class in Paris that but like gives but a small and sorry impression of life as a whole Degas he came to supreme fulfilment and mastery in his chosen All he did was compact of genius. Free, his life long, realm. from all cares of bread, he could create what he willed. Proud and sensitive, shrinking from the stare of the curious at his strange body and disfigurement, Lautrec shrank into his den, making riot there with his boon companions and in that workshop he kept fiery spirits and liquors from which he mixed wondrous brews for the enterHis tainment of his friends, and drank deep when they were gone. body and nerves, already strained by his fiery energy, could not stand he began to show an undue interest in the gruesome, this devildom then madness fell upon him. to gloat in watching surgical operations He was taken to the ancient home of his race, the old castle of Albi, and there died and with him ended the long line of a great feudal French house. In portraiture he developed great power.

frenzied

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

Out of the brilliant group of men who forgathered at the old "Chat Noir," where Salis was artistic tavern-lord Guillaume, Leandre, and the rest stepped a man who was to be one of the Rodolphe Salis supreme geniuses of the age, his name Steinlen. had founded the tavern in 1882 from it emerged Caran D'Ache (i 858-1 909) as Emmanuel Poire christened himself, coming to fame with his silhouettes of Napoleon and the Grande Armee flung

;

upon the
tavern
;

circular white sheet of the

puppet-show

at

the end of the
;

here also

Willette's

delicate line invented his Pierrots

Riviere made his shadow-silhouettes.

STEINLEN
1859Just as

BouTET de Monvel

sings the children and people of

272

OF PAINTING
fashion of the parks and great houses, so the Swiss Protestant Steinlen, son of humble folk of Lausanne, hymns the poor and has created the immortal picture and record of the Paris of our age. The

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

grandson of

a painter, Steinlen

married

at

twenty, and came to Paris

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

to earn his livelihood.

His depth of

vision, his vast tragic powers,

a battery of great render his art and work of epic If you possess the reproductions of the large outvalue to France. put of Steinlen, you know your Paris and your France as no other artist can reveal Paris and France to you. His range is prodigious Paris, her streets, her colour, her allure, her people, her moods, from sunrise to sunset and through the night. His large humanity and his insight into the life of his day are uttered in a deep, tense, and haunting art. The passing sneer of the great satirists is not for him when he lashes his age his art takes on an anger that is Miltonic in its deep baying music. When he joys in the gaiety of life, he utters that joy in lyrical fashion. And he has produced this great art, not in elaborate " historical paintings," but in the pages of Gil Bias Illustre and other periodicals, in lithographs of which he is a supreme master, and in drawings, so that his art is within the reach of every man. The revelation of Degas would seem almost to have been but a guide to a vaster utterance in the hands of this great poet of the people. He catches something of Manet's grandeur and force, of the forthright draughtsmanship of Degas, of the intensity of Daumier but he has a range of human passion and emotion, a depth of pity, and an anger against injustice that leave the achievement of his great forerunners in a parish compared with his vast realm. Whilst the academic have been building their chilly canvases for public displays, this man has winged his flight through the vastnesses. Whilst the studios have been squabbling over this and that trick of thumb, and producing scant art with it all, this man has been building such an achievement as the coming years will realise to have been one of the greatest in all France. Whilst the dealers have been manipulating for the market this small achievement and that, there has been living and creating his profound art a man who stands head and shoulders above all their traffic. Mauclair gives a volume to the Impressionists and patronises paragraph. Steinlen in a Steinlen is one of the most lofty geniuses brought forth by mass-impressionism, which has produced no greater draughtsman, no finer grip on character, no deeper tragic poet.

and his marked pictorial sense are supported by
capacities in craftsmanship that

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

;

;

;

VOL. VIII

2

M

273

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

He who only knows Steinlen by his designs for Aristide Bruant's Dans la rue, or his book of cats, knows little of the genius The illustrations that of the man, realises its vast range still less. brought fame to the weekly Gil Bias Illustre, during the nineties, are enough to have made a supreme position for any artist in the
his age. The anger that he Steinlen realised that art was not Beauty. feels against tyranny, and injustice, and cant, rouses in him a mighty

achievement of

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

passion that his fingers have been gifted to utter with deep tragic power ; and the chalk and stone yield in answer to his call a dark and solemn wrath, as though a mighty voice sounded forth the

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

He lashes the military and clerical vices of his time, anger of God. the cant and vice of miscarried justice, and the black villainies of their sufferings have commerce. His heart is with the toilers blithe life of the students in found in him their august poet. The cafj and at carnival time sends his pencil jigging to a gayer refrain. The shop-girls, the milliners, he reveals in all their cheery wayThe streets of Paris give him an ever-shifting change of faring. Steinlen is the glorious scenery for his comedy and tragedy of life. her boulevards, her cafes, her home life, her of voice of Paris busses, her cabs, her cabmen, her big, powerful workmen, her girls, her harlots, her wastrels, her thieves and scoundrels, her rich and Paris in all times of the day, in all hours of the night her poor Paris sad, Paris gay, Paris sombre with threat of rebellion, Paris
;

laughing
;

carelessly.

His superb spiritual work has avoided the clap-trap of symHe is he has uttered the ideal through frankest realism. bolism No human emotion is beyond his reach. one of the great Rebels.
stands forth in his art one of the giants of his age, a man who has bettered the world, lifted his generation, and brought honour to

He

his great people.

the men who have taken up coloured etching, a few have avoided its unpleasant tintiness. One of the best of the Frenchmen is

Of

all

Then De Monvel, Michl, Godin, Ranft, Bejot, Maurice Taquoy, and others have also done fine work in this Robbe has made the immortal coloured-etching of the old realm. woman at the funeral Leheutre, Huard, the fine etcher Bernard

De Latenay.

;

DE Monvel, Lepere, Steinlen, Dupont, Lafitte, Bracquemond, have all come to fame. Of the etchers, Helleu is famous for his musical line in portraits

274

OF PAINTING
of beautiful women, Chahine
Parisian types.
is

best

known

for his etchings

of

WHEREIN

IMPRESRaf- SIONISM FAELLi, Ibels, Lautrec, Willette, Forain, Renouard, Sem, Grasset through the medievalist, Schwabe the mystic, Willette the wit, Boutet de COLOURIn pen-drawing, France has produced Vierge, Steinlen,

MoNVEL
d'Ache

the primitive humorist, Rivii-re the silhouettist, Caran the caricaturist and silhouettist, Huard, Gerbault a
;

ORCHES-

master of line, Renouard, Leloir, De Latenay all brilliant men. Roubille combines colour with line in fine decorative designs.

TRATION CONQUERS

THE
REALM qf the

IMPRESSIONIST COLOUR-ORCHESTRATION IN SPAIN
The
; :

Spaniards to-day are showing power and have taken the art where Velazquez laid it down Zuloaga, Cabas in Barcelona, Rusinol, Sorolla, and other remarkable men.

IMAGINATION up

ANGLADA
1872 -

An
utter

artist

Anglada employs the
life

of genius in Spain is Hermen Anglada y Camarasa. full orchestration of European painting, to

as

he sees
raise

it,

fearlessly,

nay

recklessly.

His

quick

magnetic
catches

gifts

the

desired

impression

the

passion,

however

subtle,

with force. He complex, or grim, of the

of his craft to state the essential elongate an arm or leg, to force all to utter the intention. gaunt-soul'd money-getting harlot Anglada catches passes into the street into the flare from the cafe the whole devilry of the thing in a wonderful pattern, quick with life, frank, fearless. From high treble to deep bass, he knows the His capacity to potentialities of his whole orchestra of painting. state movement, the flip of a skirt, a stealthy glance, the mad whirl of a dance, is consummate. He gives the flexible movements in dance and walk with rare skill. The riches of his palette splendidly serve his arrangement and his decorative sense. He

human. mood.

He bends every faculty A draughtsman, he will

A

;

catches the mystery and glamour of the night. And the same virile power that he displays in Dance of Cordova, Kis Dance ofAlicante, his Champs-Elysees, and Fleurs de Paris he reveals, in his torso of a man, to be founded on superb draughtsmanship.

ZULOAGA
1870loNACio Zuloaga,
a blunt,

has carved out a personal art of power.

rugged man, downright and fearless, Born of artistic stock at

275

A HISTORY
THE
TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

Elbar in the Basque country, he had to fight his way to fame through He came of folk, who for generations had been workers poverty. The father, Placidio Zuloaga, in gold and silver, sword-makers. rediscovered the secret craft of damascening, being decorated by the French Government for it. Young Zuloaga, after a visit to the his father denied him, Prado, hungered to become a painter desiring a business career for the son, who was then a lad in his the workshop. The young fellow stayed out his apprenticeship father, touched, gave him at eighteen some colours and allowed him Zuloaga had come under the glamour of to essay his hand in art. Velazquez and Goya and El Greco at the Prado they became his From some kink of the brain he denies impressionism but idols. he is to-day one of the his hand's skill makes no such mistake He began in open-air impresgreatest living mass-impressionists. Mere realism holds him no longer. he has discarded it. sionism "Art," he soon discovered, "is not the literal transcript of nature." The accurate painting of an apple he soon saw to be little better He realised that art was the interprethan coloured photography. He is moved by individual of the moods felt in life. tation by the the old grandeur, the rags, the splendour and the dust, the heroic He utters what he sees fearessence and the misery, of his people. paint a nude dancer, a landscape, or a subject Whether he lessly. from the life of the people, he reveals powerful dramatic gifts force, originality of vision, personal insight, passionate humanity. His Lady in Green^ his Mot Piquant, and his Dwarf of Eihar are well
; ; ;

;

;

known.

SOROLLA
1862 paints realism,

Sorolla

the play of sunlight on the figure or

object in

all

its fulness, realistically, faithfully

a far different art

from that of Zuloaga.

Sorolla shows the surface of life, without any Sorolla y Bastida began to make a mark deep dramatic insight. in Paris with his dazzling open-air paintings of the sea with large In 1905 he made a sensation with his Oxen pulling boats thereon. His First Communion^ and his Girls bathing in a Boat out of the Water. the Sea, prove him a marvellous interpreter of sunlight.

pen-work of Fortuny has had a wide influence both it is the employment of line like paint in Europe and America but is Vierge combines the two as distinct from line as line. Casanova y Estorach greatest of all in his superb wash drawings.
fine

The

;

is

a brilliant follower of Fortuny.

276

OF PAINTING
GERMANY'S AWAKENING GERMAN ROMANTICISM
With
the Impressionistic

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM
Romantic

movement

in

Germany
modern

ran a

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

intention, sometimes classical in subject but

in feeling.

KLINGER
1857 -

CONQUERS

Leipzig on the i8th of February 1857. nrr a t ivi He is a sculptor, a painter, an etcher, and a musician. In sculpture ^p, ^ttt? his promise is very remarkable, but with that we are not here con- ,...^,xta 1c I. J c IMAGINAcerned ; he shows therem a vision tor the modern revelation or t.t/-.vt TION J impressionism that is strangely lacking in his painting and etching, in which, like Bocklin, he founds his craftsmanship upon the past, and he relies on older methods, which, by sheer power, he bends to his will in remarkable fashion. In his etchings he comes to high emotional utterance, as in the unforgettable babe, with eyes of wonder, as it sits upon the breast of its dead mother, or the Prometheus borne by Mercury and the eagle over the far tide of the surging sea below. The Rivals who fight with daggers for the Spanish girl reveals his homage to Goya, and there is something strangely suggestive of Goya in the trousered legs and the feet of the dead man seen beyond the steps in the moonlight where the avenging husband has shot him from an upper window in Caught in the Act, whilst the guilty wife shrinks into hiding. The Christ on Olympus and the Crucifixion prove his limitations. He is at his best in painting when modern, in spite of his classicism, as in the pathetic and dignified Death.
at

Max

Klinger was born

THE

^j,,i_*.
.

,

.

Ill-

1

1

STUCK
1863has an imaginative and poetic artist, who, steeped in the classic vision of Bocklin and Klinger, whilst he revels in fauns and satyrs, has treated them in a modern and realistic He brings to his art spirit which almost makes them live things. a feeling for line, for decoration, and for colour, which he employs in mass-impressionism combined with broken colour in dramatic fashion. fine etcher, a very German in his power of pen line, he has a quaintly humorous imagination, and ranges through tragedy and comedy, as seen in his Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Paradise^ his Lucifer, his Sphinx, his Pieth. He joys in sending centaurs galloping

In

Franz Stuck, Germany

A

277

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN His three furies through the woods, and in showing fauns at play. Murder make a grim design and his Bacchanalians dancing on a low horizon with great trees to the side, massed into the heavens, is one of his masterpieces in movement, design, and colour.
in
;

COLOURORCHESTRATION

IMPRESSIONISM
LuDWiG VON HoFMAN (1861)

is

chiefly concerned

with

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

the nude in the sunlight, painting decorative realistic designs that give him free play in this realm. In Samberger, Germany has a portrait-painter of remarkable force, who is all too little known amongst us.

ACADEMISM INTO

ZUGEL
Born
year,
in 1850,

OUR OWN DAY

Heinrich von Zugel

early

with realistic power. He rapidly he had painted remarkable pictures of sheep. developed a forceful style of pastoral, moving towards breadth of handling and colour and ever-increasing interest in the play of
fine pastorals, painted

made a mark with his By 1870, his twentieth

sunlight.

BARTELS
1856paints sunlit figures in water-colours and power, composing finely, and equally at home on He combines sea or land, on sand-dune or in the fields or garden. mass-impressionism and broken-colour impressionism.
oils

Hans von Bartels
with
realistic

Dachau men of the Munich Secession were Langhammer, and Koenig.
the

Of

Dill, Holzel,

DILL
1848-

By 1878 LuDwiG Dill, an officer in the war of 1870, trained by Piloty at Munich until 1874, was concerned with sunlight upon The nineties saw him painting his fine river barges in Venice.
landscapes,

broadly

impressionistic, decorative,

and rhythmical

woodlands by streams, and

villages amidst the trees.

HOLZEL
Adolf
costume
tion.
;

Holzel

in

the

late

eighties

was

still

playing

with

By 1890 he was
278

the seventies had seen him influenced by Menzel's intenpainting the life of the people realistically;

OF PAINTING
1891 he painted his fine Stacks of Corn in the field under Of the next year was his gUttering picture of a lady sunUght. seated at a breakfast-table in an open-air restaurant, which showed that impressionism was his aim, and his peasant and woman at a table was of the same year. His poetic landscapes are broadly handled and finely arranged. Arthur Langhammer's broad impressionistic style is given to the home life of the people and to fantasies. Art in Germany to-day is astoundingly alive restless inquisitive. It is shedding academic emptiness, and is becoming the weapon to reveal to the people higher aspirations and deeper emotions of life. It is in art to-day that Germany gives tongue to the call of duty of the Haves towards the Have-Nots. Young Germany has realised that street riots go to the ranked battalions working under a stern discipline. One shrewdly suspects that the German Emperor, amongst his other endowments, has a sense of that humour that was given to his great collateral Frederick the Great, who, on seeing a gross caricature of himself hung high in a shop in Berlin, walked into the place and told the frightened printseller to put it lower in the window that the crowd might see it better But there are fussy officials about the Court who do not share the family wit. There are seizures and prosecutions from time to time, and prison for the editor. The German, being a droll at heart, invented a Sitting Editor, whose business it was to go to

and

in

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUCiH COLOURORCHESTRATION CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

!

prison
far

when the Government struck The Germany that is created for different Germany from the land

at

the journal.

us by our morning papers is a that is revealed by her satirists

and artists. Behind their biting wit and trenchant humour lie vast problems that are as much our life-problems as theirs, and none utters a hoarser note of passionate resentment than that all-compelling indignation which is with us now, and looms large and dangerous in the immediate future the resentment of the toilers to

the tyrannies of capital. Of the two great satirical papers, Simplicissimus is the most daring the Sitting Editor has, I fancy, held no sinecure. Here the political satire is fierce, mordant, European it attacks the whole of modern civilisation ^what there is of it. The German workingclass families set up a boycott against the drinking of Schnaps (Hollands gin) and took to tea owing to the manufacturers increasing

A biting satire by the price to relieve themselves from taxation. ThOny shows the working class fretted by the new drink, tea and the gin-making plutocrat appeals to them " to be patriotic," and
;

279

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
pay the tax on gin, or he cannot afford to keep his son in the Guards Well, not so very far from home, after all. Heine
!

.

.

.

COLOURORCHESTRATION

another fine artist of this group. By far the most artistic paper in Europe to-day is Jugendy thanks largely to Dr. Hirth. his In the realm of imagination, Julius Diez stands out fantastic and picturesque mind rouses to any subject, and turns it into a whimsical form that is as remarkable for its decorative
is
;

pattern as for

its

innate poetic whimsy.

Take

his giant figure, that lies

AND THE
REACTION

like a vast incubus in the

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

moonlight upon the sleeping town, leaves In the pale moon's light that bathes the a haunting impression. drowsy world, the purple heavens a-glitter with a myriad blinking stars, the city amongst the mountains lies hushed in its many hundred beds, but not to sleep, or, if to sleep, to toss in restless disquietude a sleep, if indeed sleep it be, but neither ease nor oblivion whether half-sleeping or half-waking, a galling selfreviling and heavy self-contempt in which the vexed body tosses fretfully, unable to escape from the indictment of some unseen

accusing finger that ticks off, as mercilessly as every tick of some monotonous clock in the shadows, a long series of charges that bring back from the Past miserable pleas of guilty, which make the brow damp with the cold and clammy dew of a hundred vulgarities, meannesses, hideous mistakes, bitter humiliations, cheap snobberies,
petty unkindnesses, that bite into the soul with far

more

vitriolic

contempt
least

than any crime or heavy sin,

which

at least

had needed

And, it is not the of such a night that we cannot come to grips with the damnable accusing devildom. The accused thing lies like a mighty uncouth giant upon the silent bridge that, in sleep, parts our souls in diurnal death from our poor exhausted bodies lies with all its vast weight upon our thinking, careless that its oppression is a cruel burden of tyranny which irks us, half-bereft of sense, but wholly alive to our littleness separating us from what little pride and strength we have, and weighing us down under the clumsy until some god-sent chanticleer, shaking load of its galling incubus drowsiness from his handsome be-feathered body, arises a-tiptoe and with shrill voice announces that the night is dead and a new day is born. Perhaps amongst the best known of Diez's designs are the

some courage

or daring for their committing.

galling part

;

exquisitely

wrought Stage-Box of His Most Serene Highness, in which and the fine decoration. an old roue gazes down upon the stage He drew a series of The Favourite His Most Serene in His Garden. from the days of her questionable sway in the bed of kings to her 280
;

OF PAINTING
last

grim payment upon the

scaffold,

which hold an immemorial

WHEREIN
IMPRES-

truth.

EicHLER gives utterance to the pathos and joy of life in fine SIONISM designs, of which were the Girl ivith the Green Apples^ and the Cupid THROUGH and the Man with the Ladder and his joy in flowers, and in flower- COLOURsprent meads whereon folk lie gazing at the breezy heavens, and his ORCHESTRATION frolics of snow and winter games are best known. CONQUERS Engfls strikes the more grimly German lyre. THE Erler takes the more grandiose note, though he can employ a dainty and charming fancy and exquisite touch, as in his fine colour- REALM
;

harmony

in red

with the Roses ^

and gold of the Girl with the Geraniums, his Girl his Fran Anna, his Girl with the Candles, and his

OF THE
I

MAG IN A-

Toung Mother.

TION

Feldbauer and Jank are much concerned with the troops, the movement of horses, whether in camp or field, and with action. Both men, besides, have revealed a quaint and sometimes tragic Geigenberger will give you a drollery particularly Jank. fancy

or a poetic landscape with equal

skill.

concerned with the social " Miss," wealthy and fashionable and does
is
;

RiETH

satire
it

of

the
well.
;

pretty

wondrous

of the people or in such a haunting design as the two lovers in the moonlight under or in the grim humour of the tethered goat the chestnut tree which eats the funeral wreath that the mourner has left outside the tavern door whilst he enters to refresh himself. MuNZER, founding his craftsmanship on that of Steinlen, utters the charm of Germany that her artists have too long neglected. Through Miinzer we realise the gaiety of Germany, that she that does not always wear the spectacles of the professor she is not always ruining her eyesight with the philosophies that lovers kiss peered at under the light of the midnight oil because 'tis moonlight, and folk dance for the jollity of the thing. He catches the fascination of children, their whole-hearted He notes the grace and coquetries of women. joy in their games. PuTTNER paints landscape in poetic fashion as does Reisen. PuTz was gifted with a rare sense of colour, the joy in which he Leo Putz went from uttered with delightfully whimsical brush. He was one of the laughing grave to gay, from fantasy to fantasy. philosophers. His peacock-women created a vogue. He loved to He had his grim days. Preshun has frolic amongst sea-monsters. Salzmann is a a quaint imagination and good decorative sense. painter whose ranging fancy and decorative gifts have made him a 281 VOL. VIII 2 N
is

Georgi

at his best in

pictures of the

life

;

;


;

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
considerable reputation. Spiegel is another artist of fancy and colour-faculty with strong decorative sense, and a rich gift of irony. Weisgerber wields a poetic brush, and his Dream-Wife is a haunting
his poesy that design in which he has caught with genius the mystic hunger of youth for the ideal woman that is Nature's most compelling craving in man that desire, or as the cynics have it, that illusion, that makes youth glorify womanhood until he sheds from him all dross of selfishness and wills himself to sacrifice if need be, for the love of her, a dream-thing it may be, but a lamp to his stumbling feet, and a beacon-light to his virility. Weisgerber has also a brilliant gift of satire which Wilke shares Wilke turning his satire more upon the people. Kley's deft line loves the human figure and Prellar sends fauns skipping across

example of

;

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

;

ACADEMISM INTO

his design.

OUR OWN DAY

Fritz Mackensen connects the older German vision with the his paintings of the people have something of the old German severity. The two women drawing the harrow, along a low horizoned land, shows him in his best poetic vein. Otto Modersohn's landscapes and inhabited landscapes have something also of this old-world air. Hans am Ende's peaceful landscapes again

new

;

hold this old-world vision.

Heinrich
brought
forth
illustrator.

Vogeler's
quaint

weird and fantastic imagination has designs innumerable he is an exquisite
;

an artist of poetic utterance, his sombre tragic landscapes being grandly designed, his superb etching of the trees by the little wooden bridge lashed by the Storm being perhaps his best known work, rhythmical and sonorous. In etching the Germans can show the powerful work of LeistiKow, the somewhat dry art of Hans Thoma, the pastorals of Kalckreuth, the broad poetic handling of Graf, the fine fancy of Stuck, of Klinger, Ubbelohde, Wolff, Kathe Kollwitz, LieberMANN, the poetic Hegenbart, the rhythmic wind-filled landscapes of Overbeck, and the art of Fischer. In illustration remarkable work has been done by Hugo
is

Fritz Overbeck

Steiner-Prag, by Weisgerber, by Horst-Schulze, by Corinth Whilst with pen-work we (1858). ) and by Heine (1867have Schlittgen, Marold, Stuck, Vogel, the powerful Greiner, Klinger, Sattler, Oberlaender, Wilke, Hegenbart, ThOny, Caspari, and Bruno Paul (1872).

282

OF PAINTING
THE COMING OF THE MODERN
INTO AUSTRIA
Baroque. Rubens was lord of painting. Waldmuller (i 793-1 865), concerned with landscape and the hfe of the people, fell foul of the Academy by painting in the open air! and Romako (1832-1889) was also a rebel, as was the landscape painter HOrmann, who forestalls the Secession with his fight for " truth," and his realism as
Austria
risen

VISION
the

WHEREIN
impresSIONISM

THROUGH
under

had

to

artistic

utterance

COLOURORCHESTRATION

CONQUERS THE
R^IALM
C)F

against the studio.

THE

Rudolf von Alt (1812-1905) fought
was a great
inspirer

was the painter thoroughly original and native artist he was at his best in watercolours, and developed with each great European movement, ever interested in luminosity, in the sun, and the play of light. He was the recorder of the Vienna of his age. Hans Canon (1829-1885) founded on Rubens; then Hans Makart (1840- 1 8 84) more influenced by Paolo Veronese, burst into gorgeous colour. These old " gallery artists " lived into the great modern endeavour, and were to see the painters going to
;

— he

sternly for nature, and IMAGINAand a TION of street scenes

nature.

Pettenkofen (1822-1889) saw Hungary as a sort of sunlit East; whilst Schindler (1842-1892) essayed the lyrical landscape of Barbizon vision. have seen Munkacsy (1846- 1900), the Hungarian, bring Realism into the land from Paris. Horovitz (1843) were the old type of portrait) ^"^ Angeli (1840-

We

painter.

Krausz is a frank realist. Ress is a landscape painter who has caught the poetic vision of Segantini. John Quincy Adams has thrown in his lot with Austria. Of the impressionists are Simon; Stretti, who painted a fine Amsterdam ; Preisler ; Svabinsky ; Baar ; Roth and the like.

HAMPEL
Walter Hampel of Vienna employs colour orchestration, and his lyrical painting, whether of an interior as in his Quiet Corner^ or of a Dancer, or a fantasy in the meadows, is one of the most exquisite His picture of The achievements amongst the Europeans to-day. Dancer (Miss Tanquay) was painted with rare sense of rhythm, of movement, and of colour. CzoK (I am not sure even of the spelling of the name) was to 283

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
me, however, a revelation of a modern painter of remarkable power. His sense of values, his colour-harmonics, and his masterly brushing, His Vampire are as powerful and subtle as the work of Manet. should belong to the State as an example to our youth as regards
flesh-painting.
(i 858-1 899) I do not know whether Austria claims Segantini if so, she has a from Arco in the Southern Tyrol as Austrian He was a right to claim one of the supreme painters of the age. power at any rate in the Secession.
;

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
DAY

Engelhart (1864) is a brilliant artist interested in the life But the large group of Austrian painters of about him in Vienna. Nowak, the Secession in Vienna it is impossible to describe here Hofman, Offner, the vibrant art of Stoitzner, Wacik, Roox, Talaga, Grom-Rottmayer, Wieden, Kruis, Zerlacher, Eck, ScHMOLL, Lenz, Tichy, Freidrich, Muller, List, Myrbach, Kasparides, Mediz, Emilie Mediz-Pelikan, Schwaiger, Uprka, Delug, and the rest. Andri's woodcuts are as fine as his brilliant Carl Moll paintings of the peasants in their handsome apparel. Kramer is the idealist (1861) is an excellent landscape-painter. of the group, painting religious subjects in the open air. The Pole Josef Mehoffer (1869a powerful colourist, ) is who has developed from broad impressionistic portraiture, giving himself up to gorgeous harmonies of colour. After Schindler came Jettel (1845-1901), in landscape influenced by the men of Barbizon. Stohr (1865is best ) by his romances of the night, above all by the beautiful nude known asleep in the Moonlight. Graf (1868returning from France, ) brought back broken colour Hejda (1868) affects simplicity Lefler (1863) and Urban are best known for their illustrations of fairy tales Germela paints the life of the cafe and the parks. Marold (1865-1898) made his mark in painting the home-life; Much A (i860) is famous for his arty posters. Of the portrait-painters are Koppay, Ferraris, Stauffer, Canon, Temple, Schmid, Joannovits, Schattenstein, John Quincy Adams, the Whistleresque Scharff, and the Hungarian Laszld.

;

;

;

lAszlo
1869Philip Laszlo
portrait-painters.
is

to-day one of the most famous of European
at
first

Employing painting

stroke,

without in-

which

termingling the brush strokes, he has evolved a quick vibrant method leaves his whole attention free to concentrate on the character

284

:

OF PAINTING
Psychic in vision, he seeks out the soul of his sitters, of his sitter. about whom he weaves the atmosphere of their rank and calling and manner of life with remarkable force. The princess needs no label of her rank any more than the soldier, the man of action. From the Pontiff, and the subtle diplomatic Cardinal, to the Society Beauty, the Courtier or the blufF Admiral, the personality is marked Whether he paint a state-portrait of the with unerring brush. German Emperor, the dignified age of an aristocratic old lady such as his fine Lady Wantage; whether he limn the beauty of a Lady Ancaster, or the handsome Lady Northcliffe, Laszl(5 shows himself His famous Comte de always a consummate painter of the portrait. Caste/lane in the splendid uniform of the Cuirassiers of the French Garde, his haunting Baroness Dierghardt, his portrait of his own Wife playing the violin, are amongst the deftest, most masterly works He has been fortunate in his that his gifted fingers have produced. subjects, since the greatest celebrities of the age have sat to him. His sitters have been equally fortunate in their painter. Of the remarkable etchings and drawings of Jettmar, of Hohenberger's " Chinese Woman," of Engelhart, of Liebenwein, of the etcher Schmutzer, of the pointillist Stohr, of Tichy, of KoNOPA, of Germela, of Zoff's landscapes, of Ethofer's somewhat photographic realism, and the several brilliant women-painters I have no space here to speak. In etching and in pen-drawing and illustration, Austria has besides Unger, Cossmann, Wierusz-Kowalski and Orlik. Hungary has Olgyai, Rauscher, Aranyossy and Szekely,

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

MODERN IMPRESSIONISM IN BELGIUM AND HOLLAND
Rops has influenced Rassenfosse. Impressionism has brought in Belgium a remarkable group of painters, eager, poetic, daring, close at grips with life Henri Evenepoel, best known for his Spaniard in Paris and Ball at the Moulin Rouge; Rodolphe Wytsman and Juliette Wytsman in landscape Baertsoen in street scenes; Fernand Khnopff (1858), who utters haunting art of mystical power; and Ensor, who is a powerful mass-impressionist whose stillforth
;

life has a force no whit less remarkable than his figure-subjects. The character-painting of Wagemans, the decorative painting of the old

market-women by Opsomer, the vibrant pulsing
all

art

of

Morren

are

to be reckoned to the

honour of Belgium. CiAMBERLANi represents the modern classical decorative intention. 285

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
Cassiers has painted scenes from ; another lover of canals and harbours ; and Holland. Marcette of the sea-shore and its life. Eeckhoudt is one of the most vivid and virile painters of the play of light upon meadow and

Emile Claus we have seen
Gilsoul
is

orchard.

He

is

a force in

modern

art.

Donnay and Delaunois
;

are

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

Delaunois' for their dramatic sense of landscape Church has brought him repute. Charles de Groux painted the humble; Henri de Braekeleer was master of vibrant light Leon Frederic (1856) is wholly concerned with the people, with their swarming, teeming life ; he sees abundance, and he joys in the abundance.

well-known
Interior of a

;

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

LAERMANS
Eugene Laermans
and
is

ACADEMISM INTO

has an even earlier simplicity than Frederic,
impressionist.
in
its

realist

rather than

Even

OUR OWN DAY

Strike

has something medieval

atmosphere.

his Evening of the hits the

He

tragic note.

Cassiers with his windmills, the realism of Wauters, Gaillard, Romberg, Meunier, Wytsman the fine Baertsoen ; work, of the great limner of the houses on canals
In etching,
;

we have

Khnopff and Laermans.
In pen-drawing Belgium can show Khnopff, Middeleer, and Gaillard. In Holland, besides Rever's water-colours, and Mesdag van Houten's paintings of flowers and still-life, there has been the fine art of Breitner, and the masterly painting and etching of Bauer. In etching also Holland has brought forth Zwart, the decorative canal scenes of Witsen, the superb romantic etchings of Bauer, the
spacious designs of Nieuwenkamp nervous intense work of Toorop ;
interiors of
;

Van Houten,

Reicher, the

Koster, Becht, the sombre

Van Gravesande, and the art of Bosch. I know not whether Pietschmann, the remarkable mezzotinter of the famous
Bather, be

Dutch or German or Belgian. In pen-drawing Holland has Nieuwenkamp, and

Wenckebach,

and Morel, and

Van Papendrecht,

and Koster.

MODERN

ITALY

In the north, Giani, Ciardi, Bezzi, Mariani, Alebardi, Alciati, Selvatico, Angelo dall'oca-Bianca, Laurenti, Carozzi, Gignous, Chiesa, Delleani, Grosso, Maggi, Zanetti-Zilla, Scattola, and others reveal the new vision whilst of the more southern artists, Majani, Discovolo, Lori, Lionne, Casciaro, 286
;

OF PAINTING
Caputo, Miti-Zanktti, Graziosi, De Maria, Gioli, Tommasi, WHEREIN NoMELLiNi, Nocci, Innocenti, Migliaro, to say nothing of IMPRESMancini, nearly all are moved by the new inspiration. But the SIONISM supreme genius of Italy of modern times was Giovanni Segantini. THROUGH
1826 - IQOI
,;r

Morelli brought a rorcerul realism to Italy, of which his powerroNOUERS fully lit Temptation of St. Anthony remains the most brilliant example. -pHE In etching Italy can boast Chessa, Vegetti, Zanetti, reaLM NoMELLiNi, Fattori, and the younger Fortuny. In pen-drawing Qp THE Raffaelli is really a Frenchman but Italy has produced a good imaGINApen-draughtsman in Fabres, whom I gather to be an Italian. Rico tioN has penned good street-scenes, and trained Tito.
;

„•

r^

,

r

r

1

,•

x

,

r

.

,

.

TRATION

MODERN PAINTING
To
idea

IN

SCANDINAVIA AND

RUSSIA

SWEDEN
the north the aesthetic-academism
in the

came

as

an impetus.

Its

rugged ideals of the Norsemen. The pastellist Lundberg (1695-1786), the portraitist Roslin (1718-1793), the painter of social life Nikolaus Lafrensen (1737- 1807), better known as Lavreince, the famous miniaturist Peter Adolf Hall

was rooted

(1739-1793), the painter of social life called Hillestroms (17321816), and the fine Nattieresque portrait-painter Pilo (1711-1793), had all wrought in the French vision with rare skill. Von Breda (1759-18 1 8), painted the portrait in a Reynoldsesque style. Then the Swedes had gone to Germany, and Morner (1794-1837) and the portraitist Troili (18 15-1875) followed, with men of the type of Fagerlin (1825-1907), and Hockert (i 826-1 866), creating the home-life anecdote in the German style. With the landscapist Wahlberg (1834the French romantic landscape painters ), and Norstedt (1843influence a fine design proves that he ) Then Realism brought has seen the work of the men of Munich. forth the vigorous portrait-painter Von Rosen (1843whilst ) ; Munich trained Kronberg (1850Carl Larssons (1853). ), the decorative poet of the home-life, continues the movement. Bastien-Lepage brought forth Sac.mson (1834- 1894). Realism created Birgers (i 854-1 887) and Josephson (i 851-1906), a strong painter, and the portraitists Bjorck (i860and ) Bergh (1858The royal house produced an artist in ).
;

287

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
Prince Eugene Jansson (1862-

COLOURORCHESTRATION

Landscape found a poet in (1865). and birds in landscape another in Liljefors ) Then stepped forth the great Swedish master (i860). Sager-Nelson (1868-1896) ; the Anders Zorn (i860) painter of the people Wilhelmson (i860), and a clever group fantasies. Nor should the ending with Arosenius the painter of remarkable work of Anna Boberg of Norse vision be passed by, nor the haunting imagination of Olaf Lange.
;

;

AND THE
REACTION

Z

O R N
is

1860-

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

The Swede Anders Zorn
trained in Paris.

a

powerful

mass-impressionist

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
DAY

of genius. but as a European he stands in the foremost rank to-day. allowed
;

Not only a painter of genius, he is also an etcher His art is more Parisian than Scandinavian, it must be
DIRIKS

I remember a picture of boats at anchor tossing restlessly on the incoming tide by Edouard Diriks, which caught the action and atmosphere of the thing so truly that one listened for the creak of

the boats straining at their cordage. And this kind of epic simplicity runs through all his art. In Norway the Germanic art of Tidemand (18 14- 1876) made place for the poetic art of Fritz Thaulow (i 847-1 906), and the romance and realism of Peterssen (1852), of Werenskiold

(1855-

)

and

Munch

(1863) and others.

DENMARK
has evolved a style that fulfils itself in the hauntThe painters of ). ing and spacious art of Hammershoj (1864the home-life are Marstrand (1810-1873), KObke (1810-1848),

Denmark

KrOyer
(i860-

(1851-1909),
)

JoHANSEN

(1851-

)

and

Paulsen

FINLAND
In Finland her
art

culminates in a superb master Gaixen (1865-

I recall a painting of a boat on a great ) or Gallen-Kallela. lake in which the stillness of night is uttered with compelling force.

RUSSIA
Verestschagin (1842- 1 904) created a realistic impression of and it warfare in his detestation of war, that was without restraint 288
;

OF PAINTING
him at Port Arthur. All that is Russian painting to-day is due to impressionism. Boris KusTODiEFF produces remarkably fine portrait groups. Maliavine paints the women of his race in decorative schemes. (1869) Seroff (1865) known best to us by his portrait of the Czar in the Uniform of the Scots Greys, is one of the finest portrait-painters, as his portraits of Korovine and Count Sumarokoff-Elston prove. Juon
was
a strange destiny that slew
in
vital

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

(1875-

)

is

a mass-impressionist.

CONQUERS

GRABAR
1871 -

still-life, as seen in his Breakfast Table, pulsing and jMapiMfl under the sun's flood that breaks through the leafage of the rjQvr shade from the trees under which the table is set, reveals him one of the most lyrical masters of broken-colour impressionism of the age. Korovine's fine Cafe in the Crimea is a powerful modern piece of painting that pronounces the complete triumph of mass-impresThe realist Riabuskine is best known for the sionism in Russia. Russian family at Tea. Of the romantic school is Somoff. And the most modern problems of Impressionism are tackled by

Grabar's

THE REALM OF THE

glittering

Tarkhoff.

TARKHOFF
Nicolas Tarkhoff's paintings of mothers and babes in their impressionism are fragrant of life, as is his vigorous and masterly work of the gathering of The Harvest. Coming to Paris he caught The fetes, carnivals, and streets the allure of the city and the land. of Paris brought out his innate sense of colour, which is joyous and
blithe.

Prince Paul Trubetskoj (1863portraitist best

)

is

a fine impressionist

known

for his sculpture.

In etching, Scandinavia has brought forth the Danes Kroyer, the Fnns Miss, the great Swede Zorn Niss, and Monsted
; ;

Flo DIN, Sparre, Gallen, and Edelfelt. In Scandinavia, pen-drawing has produced De Josselin de Jong Hans Tegner, a master of line the Danish Hansen the poetic Finn Blomstedt the powerful Finns Gebhard and Jarnefelt, and
; ;
;

;

Sparre.

Switzerland has

Burnand and Estoppey.

AMERICA
America was born under astounding promise of greatness her people were founded in greatness, for she drew to her shores the vol. VIII 2 o 289
;

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

a people must walk in a sublime And and create a vast art as inevitable. holds for America holds for the colonial born. Stuart, and what JooETT (1788-1827) who came of famous fighting stock, fought founded on pure English against Britain, then became pupil to Stuart Thereafter painting in America passed through waves of art. but a strong native art has persisted, above all in foreign fashion the genius of Howard Pyle and the illustrators. In the mid-century Diisseldorf was the Mecca of the American

freeborn and

virile.

That such

wayfaring

is

inevitable,

;

AND THE
REACTION

student;

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

accounts for a certain German vision difficult to This " brown " school loved candle-light understand otherwise. moonlight scenes. There was a trying-back at the same and hard and a native landscape school time to Flemish and Italian tradition
this
;

ACADEMISM INTO

arose, if of

OUR OWN DAY

Pre-Raphaelite Some ten years thereafter a group of trend manifested itself. students returned from Europe, and figure-painting and atmosphere Up to this, George Inness and in landscape began to dawn. Eastman Johnson had alone shown high gifts in landscape. Inness was a man of genius and made a great mark. The men of 'seventy seceded and formed the Society of American Artists; and Shirlaw, Chase, Eaton, Thayer, George Inness, La Faroe, Lathrop, Dewing, Low, Daveneck, Fuller of Boston, Whistler, J. S. Sargent, and Weir made their mark. The Philadelphia Exhibition For the most part, Munich was of 1876 enlarged interest in art. the Mecca, but French art began to struggle for the American
a

no great power. In 1863 the Century Club was formed, and

Meanwhile the Water-Colour Society brought forth homage. Abbey, Hopkinson Smith, Coffin, Bricher, Beckwith, Charles Parsons, Farrer, Fenn, Edwards, Palmer, Hamilton Gibson, Dielman, Childe Hassam, Jones, Kappes, Lippincott, the MoRANs, Miss Nicholls, Platt, Smedley, Sterner, Colman, The Art Students' Tiffany, Wood, Wyant, and Gifford.
League, founded in 1875, brought excellent leaders to the front Shirlaw, Chase, Freer, Brush, Kenyon Cox, Weir, Beckwith, Mowbray, Metcalf, and others.
Besides Inness, a truly native painter is Winslow Homer, whose impressionist before the word was coined. art is racy of the soil Brush came from La Faroe has painted religious pictures. Shirlaw came from Gerome, and painted the Red Indians. Munich. Chase flung aside his Munich manner and rapidly

developed a mass-impressionism which places him amongst the F. D. Millet has kept his Antwerp foremost artists of his time.

290

OF PAINTING
training and Belgian old-master's vision.

Blashfield came under

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

the glamour of the mediaeval seafaring folk and in decoration
;

compositions Kappes beggars Blum is famous for his pen-line
tive
;

has interested himself in the Kenyon Cox is given to imaginapainted the negro folk and New York
;

Low

THROUGH
COLOURORCHESTRATION

;

;

Picknell

is

a

realist

landscapist, as

is

Ward.

Of the great portrait-painter J. S. Sargent I speak elsewhere. William Dannat, whose fine Lady in Red is at the Luxembourg, CONQUERS Thayer makes portraits in lower key. Butler THE is a good painter. and Weir and Chase treat the portrait with distinction, as does REALM Beckwith. J. W. Alexander has made a decorative style of OF THE portraiture all his own. IMAGINAFrom their early grey habit, Weir and Twachtman developed TION
into the impressionist
things.

movement, seeking

Ochtman
it.

also

light and colour above all and Robinson and Allen became prominent

interpreters of

Elihu Vedder and Ryder and Church have ranged into the land Boughton wrought his charming art in of mysticism and faery. England. Bridgman came to fame in painting Algerian subjects of Arab women. Childe Hassam came from Boston, worked at Paris, mastered broken colour-impressionism in fine fashion, and went back to America to develop ^a rare art which has given us such masterpieces as the seated nude called Pomona^ the pulsing Sunlight on the Lake, and his well-known painting of Children seated at a table in a luminous room the windows of which are hung across with sunlit muslin curtains. He has caught the glow and glitter of the streets
Avenue. Alexander Harrison, like Whistler, began his artistic efforts He worked in Florida for four on the United States Coast Survey. made for Paris went years got to dabbling in water-colours under Gerome sent his Castles in Spain a boy lying on the sands dreaming to the Salon spent ten years painting the nude in the open air, greatly under the influence of his friend and companion Bastien-Lepage and thus settled in France, and developed the French vision, under the glamour of Manet and Besnard. His In Arcady, nudes in a sunlit orchard, and his poetic sea-pieces are typical of his art. In Arcady belongs to the French State, which has honoured him he wears the ribbon oi the Legion. George Hitchcock has created idylls of Holland in such masterpieces as The Annunciation (or Our Lady of the Lilies). Mosler, Reinhart, Pearce, Melchers, Walter Gay, Knight,
of
as in his Seventh
;

New

York,

;

;

;

;

;

291

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

have painted figure-subjects, and Davis landscapes, of alien peoples. Stewart has painted remarkable portraits, as in his The Baronne B. Maxwell Armfield creates dramatic scenes. Of every forward movement American artists take advantage. Besides Whistler and Sargent, J. J. Shannon has come to European fame as a portrait-painter. Remington, Zogbaum, and Thulstrup went straight to the frontier life, and painted Red Indians, cowboys, and the soldier folk.

AND THE
REACTION

HOWARD PYLE
In Howard Pyle America brought forth her greatest illustrator Pyle with unerring instinct and one of her truest and purest artists. founded his art in the British genius. The Revolt of the American an act Colonies was the most British act since Cromwell died struck against the parent state when the parent forgot her mighty Whilst other American destiny, her significance, and her majesty. artists of remarkable gifts have sought alien inspiration, Pyle has made no such mistake; he is a son of the great Revolution. His His whole vision is art breathes the triumph and the glory of it. concerned with his race, from its island home to its great adventure He hymns the Buccaneers and old Sea-Dogs, the across the seas. tea-ships, the crackle of musketry at Lexington, the old New Boston York taverns, the frontiersman at grips with the Red Indian, the beyond her island vs^hole splendid adventure of Britain grown
;

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
DAY

beginnings.

Mastering

a fine craft,

with the pen-line and

in

painting, Pyle

The has uttered the romance of the race as no man has sung it. illustrated magazine has carried the splendour of his achievement to His art has been an inspiration in the four ends of the eart'i.
Meier-Graefe has poured himself forth like a pump upon modern art as far as I remember, Howard Pyle's name does not once occur in his work But Howard Pyle has been content to be a remarkable and original artist, and a man of genius.
scores of studios.

!

EDWIN ABBEY
1852
vision also

-

1911
;

Edwin Abbey founded his pen-line on Fortuny but his native drew him to the art of the people that bred him. Abbey later came under Sargent's glamour, and developed a style of
painting
in

Though one

which delicacy takes the place of Sargent's force. or two of his huge decorations for the Arthurian

legends were of distinction, he has not achieved his greatest art in his larger decorative work, which lacks something of those majestic

292

OF PAINTING
qualities so

abundant

in the art of

Brangwyn.

a school that stands

of whom the pen-line Abbey has qualities of poetic intensity, and in his easelpictures he produced an art to which his rare gifts were better suited than to his larger decorations, which are really elaborate illustrations.

midway between him and Englishman Frank Craig is

But he has created the Pre-Raphaelites, With the a type.

WHEREIN
IMPRESSIONISM

THROUGH

LAUGHLAN,

Stephen Parrish, Pennell, Hovenden, Daveneck, Platt, Hacker, Moran, Lathrop and Stetson are all men of mark. America has produced marvellously fine pen-draughtsmen in Blum, Edwin Abbey, Howard Pyle, Sterner, Reinhart, Smedley; the the humourists Frost, Kemble, Newell, Maxfield Parrish social satirist Dana Gibson, Hutt, Reinhart, Church, Pennell,
In etching, Whistler, Bauer,
;

COLOURORCHESShaw Mac- TRATION

CONQUERS

THE REALM OF THE
IMAGINATION

Drake.
I have surveyed and Cecilia Beaux already and now go to the three ladies of pure native gifts who paint the American Sarah Stilwell, Elizabeth child with consummate power. Shippen Green, and Jessie Wilcox Smith, are amongst the foremost American artists of our day.

Of other

genius, thoroughly native to America,

the art of

Mary Cassatt

;

CANADA
The
painting.
after training

British Colonies are

showing remarkable

artistic vitality in

the portrait-painter Wyatt Eaton (i 849-1 896), under Gerome in Paris in 1870, spent his summer at Barbizon, where he became the friend of Millet, and showed at the Morrice Salon fine paintings of Harvesters and the like subjects. Blair Bruce and Gagnon came under the glamour of Whistler. (i 859-1 906) worked under Julien in Paris, and became a strong Paul Peel (1860realistic painter interested in light and action. Taking up the 1892), made his mark in painting the nude. ideals and developing towards the latest movements in Barbizon Homer impressionism, the Canadian painters reveal poetic gifts. Watson paints the landscape of Canada with power Williamson Browne is a also, as well as painting the portrait with distinction. poetic landscapist of lyrical gifts of the portrait-painters are Harris, Wyly Grier (who may also be claimed as an Australian), Dyonnet, Patterson.
In
;

CANADA

;

In landscape
also,

Brownell has painted some
;

fine pieces

;

Brymner

Edmund Morris, who has also painted the and Gagnon types of Indians, has revealed a sense of the moods of Nature.
293

PAINTING
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
Hope, Atkinson who are all good painters.
SHANK,
is

loves

Dutch

scenes,

Cullen and Beatty,

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

Cruikshank's grand-nephew, W. Cruickan illustrator and painter; Russell is a figure-painter; Walker has done remarkable pastorals ; and Brownell's Winnower Challoner has done a good deal of decorative was a fine work. work. Jeffreys and George Bridgman are both Canadians. The Canadian Art Club has done much to create a strong The Canadian painter Mrs. Stanhope brotherhood of painters. Forbes is one of the most poetic women-artists of our time she

AND THE
REACTION

paints in

all

mediums, and has mastered

all.

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

AUSTRALIA A
Australia promises as fine achievement in painting as in song. virile breed, her people seem to be thrilled with a virile sense of

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

art.

Rupert Bunny
QuiN, of mark.
;

in his sea-idylls
;

;

Streeton

in his

impres-

sionistic

poetic landscapes

Lambert

in

mass-impressionistic por-

traiture

and Minns, are all In illustration Australia has brought forth the artists of Norman Lindsay, who ranks with the best living masterly art illustrators, and has achieved a memorable work in his fine edition of Petronius^ which stands out as one of the most prominent works in modern illustration. Lindsay is also an exquisite writer of prose. His sister, Ruby Lindsay, is one of the most remarkable womenartists with the pen-line now living ; and Dyson, his brother-in-

FuLLwooD,

Tom

Roberts,

law, has lately

come

to the front.

294

CHAPTER XXXII
WHEREIN WE SEE THE ESTHETES MAKING THE STYLES OF THE DEAD THEIR GOD, AND CREATING THE NEW ACADEMISM
The
second main stream in painting that has flown alongside the Colour-Orchestration of Impressionism is a development of the English iEstheticism into the European L'Art Nouveau the medieval-academism becoming an academism of all ages and climes

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

essaying to

fit

a Style.

ESTHETES MAKING

The
as

basic falsity of all

academism

is

that

it

looks upon Style

THE
STYLES

the tradition of the dead. Style being just the reverse of this, a vital personal quality whereby to utter art, the most Jit employment of
the craftsmanship -whereby to utter the impression desired by the artist^
is
it

oF THE

DEAD
THEIR

therefore the personal utterance of the

alone,

which only brain-thieves
artist

steal

— and
the

artist,
it

is

and of the nothing but

artist

that.
!

GOD AND
CREATING

Yet

it is

precisely this theft that critics and professors call Style

The academic

He

therefore puts the cart before the horse. takes a style, say of Michelangelo or Botticelli or the Egyptians

THE NEW
ACADEMJSM

or the Primitives,
artists created,

which superbly
tries to

fitted

work of

art

that these

and he

set

up

a

work of

art so that it shall

look like that style. Perhaps if I take a man of fantastic genius in letters as a parallel, Oscar Wilde is I can explain this better to the man in the street. typical of the school. In the years gone by, we were chaffing about artistic movements. I accused the esthetes of academism and he was genuinely shocked. I pointed out that to play with pretty words and quaint ideas was not art, and had no relation to art that pomegranates and peacocks' feathers and " feet twinkling like doves, like silvery doves " were not necessarily artistic utterance, and I asked him bluntly why men of real artistic power did not cease from milking unicorns ? He brooded long in his delightful way upon the sudden attack, but so inherent was his stylistic academism that he proceeded to play with the phrase " milking the unicorn," until This was typical of him. I reminded him that he was " at it again." Salome is typical academic-stylism even the sentries talk pomegranate and milk the unicorn. But Wilde, with cynical instinct,

295

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

knew

that that the critics

they did

—and

would mistake

this for

" poetry," and

do.

THE iESTHETIC MOVEMENT CREATES LART NOUVEAU
This academic-stylistic aim of Morris and his group has created All a wide industry on the Continent called " L'Art Nouveau." relation to modern life, and all attempt to develop the arts and crafts Where the have been overwhelmed by a mimicry of mediasvalism. home is not a museum, it is a quaint effort to provide a stiff medieval background to trousers. In PARIS sstheticism was set up by Bing, who added to it the We have here Eastern element which gave it an increased range. no space to survey the contorted and restless lines which were applied to architecture, sculpture, painting, illustration, and all the crafts, from jewellery to the fire-irons. The nearest painter to the intention, though not wholly of it, was the delightful illustrator of the life of children treated in an old-world manner, Boutet de Monvel. Indeed several illustrators, such as Grasset, wrought their art in
this

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN
DAY

old-world

spirit.

BOUTET DE MONVEL
1850
primitive artist emerged as an exquisite illustrator in the Born at Orleans in 1850 of person of Maurice Boutet de Monvel. the old French noblesse, and of artistic forefathers (the grandfather was an officer in the army of the American Colonies in the War of Independence), in 1870 the young fellow joined Cabanel's studio in had to shoulder a musket instead of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts

A

war went to Julien's studio. In 1875 he went on to Carolus-Duran. His marriage in 1876 sent him to bookillustration for a living, and he " found himself" in that quaint and The eighties saw him fascinating art that has made him famous. Boutet de Monvel has had a wide influence, especially in famous. American illustration.
painting
after the

— and

In

HOLLAND

the Reaction has brought forth brilliant works.

TOOROP
i860 Into Holland
creating

came Toorops or Jan Toorop, born in Java, and amongst the Dutch an Eastern vision, brought from her

296

OF PAINTING
which has had a wide effect upon her modern art, and with that of Segantini largely influencing the craftsmanship of a whole School. TooRop, coming from Borneo, began in Realism at the end of the eighties he left dark Realism for brilliant Impressionism he followed Seurat into Pointillism and thence made for a sort of
far possessions
;
;

WHEREIN

WE
THE

SEE

i^STHETES

MAKING

;

THE
STYLES OF THE

Eastern intention.

Joan Thorn Prikker, born in 1870, appeared in 1892 as an Impressionist rapidly made for Symbolism and went back to the Primitives he revels in hideous martyrdoms in confused masses
; ;
;

DEAD
THEIR

without perspective. The art of both Der Kinderen and Dijsselhof are
In

men

steeped in the East. also affected by the East.
is

GOD AND
CREATING

BELGIUM
;

THE NEW
the English ^Esthetic

movement

settled.

FiNCH and Van de Velde and Lemmen decoration soon whole aim of art that is to say that craftsmanship became the aim. Van Gogh and Gaugain had a wide influence, and created a school of primitivism. Cezanne has become a god. Van de Velde is Art Nouveau in its most restless form. The nomenclature of all this school betrays its academism. Decoration is Neo-Gothic, Neo-Japanese, Neo-Assyrian, NeoImpressionism, Neo-everything.

With ACADEMbecame the iSM

AUSTRIA
In

VIENNA

the ^Esthetic

movement

created quite a

marked

L'Art Nouveau. a new Hoffmann and Loos and house for the Viennese to live in. Roller became the vogue. On the 3rd of April 1897, nineteen young artists founded the Vienna Secession, and Alt was chosen as their leader. The Secession broke the embargo on foreign artists. The Glasgow School was welcomed and soon Segantini and Dettmann appeared The applied Arts arose in the land. And in the city's displays. the genius of Gustav Klimt dominated the movement, creating a force in Austrian art unknown since Makart. The stylists of Austria so often essay impressionism that they are difficult to classify. A freshness In Austria the vitality in painting is remarkable. of vision, mated with a rich colour-sense, is at conflict with an uncertainty as to how to utter the modern spirit, and Primitiveacademism is incongruously rampant hand in hand with modern Klimt, Jettmar, and impressionism and colour-orchestration. Arpad Basch seem to be the most famous men of this phase.
;

Klimt and Oldbrich and Moser evolved

vol. VIII

2 p

297

PAINTING
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
an artist of large range; his imagination is limitless and in spite of an archaic craftsmanship he creates poems His consummate and exquisite gifts are the of haunting power. handmaid to a poetic utterance, such as it is difficult to find elsewhere in Europe. His sense of rhythmic line is like music. The tenseness and vitality of his vision produce a pulsing, nervous impresis
;

K L
GusTAV Klimt

I

M T

1862 -

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

sion.

He

is

essentially a decorative painter.

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

J

ETTM A R
richly

1869 -

ACADEMISM INTO

Rudolf Jettmar

is

a

endowed

artist,

whose

slightest

OUR OWN DAY

drawings, flung off for almanacks or any decoration desired, reveal a Like large design, fitted to be carried out in vast wall-decorations. His mastery Klimt, his imagination ranges free and without limit. of form and his gift of arrangement are coupled with a superb draughtsmanship and grip of form which, added to his beautiful line, set Jettmar amongst the most notable of the Austrians. initiated by Runge, the movement went ahead. In The Greek intention was carried on by Stuck; whilst the primitivism of EcKMANN, Heine, Von Hofmann, Strathmann, LeistiKow, and others, did various work. The superb woodcut-work of Sattler was founded on Diirer. In Scandinavia the ^Esthetic-academism of Morris turned back There at least it rid the native design to early Norse traditions.

GERMANY,

art

from southern bastard designs, and Primitive-academism is the vogue.

is

more

fittingly

employed.

whilst Werenskiold brought back ImpresIn sionism, and Gunner Berg painted the sea-folk, Gerhard Munthe created a tapestry-like art. Willumsen is master of a rugged rude art in In sculpture and painting of primitive Egyptian intention. like the rest of the Scandinavian countries, the In movement is all towards a rugged national primitivism, if we new

NORWAY,

DENMARK

SWEDEN,

omit ZoRN.

Lafarge and Tiffany made the In cathedrals, and a religious air was diffused. corners of there were many conversions.

AMERICA

home

into

Probably

298

CHAPTER XXXIII
WHEREIN WE WALK WITH THOSE WHO WOULD HAVE US BELIEVE THAT TO THE INFANCY OF THE WORLD WAS GRANTED THE FINAL REVELATION
To-day, whilst
Colour-orchestration advances Impressionism to a fuller and ever-increasing utterance, and whilst (2) alongside of it the i^sthetic-academism seeks for the fantasies of style, there has
(i)

WHEREIN

WE WALK
WITH
THOSE

also arisen (3) reaction

from Impressionism which seeks to combine these two antagonistic aims in what is suspiciously called " Post "Its essential basis
;

WHO
WOULD
HAVE US BELIEVE

being Primitive-academism, it is difficult to see how it can be " new " or " post " but the critics, in their confusion, have so labelled it, whilst the artists themselves are frantically trying to invent a new name every month. Let us call it what it is, and be done with it Primal-academism. Its aim is to go back to the art of very early peoples and bring back their simplicity, their " innocence," their crudity. To judge an activity that is in a state of confusion and creation were impossible. But such achievement as has so far been reached has as yet brought forth no wide-ranging genius.
impressionism.
:

THAT TO THE
INFANCY OF THE

WORLD
WAS GRANTED THE FINAL
REVELATION

Cezanne,
the world.

as

we have

seen,

on the one hand, and Gaugain on the

other, largely turned Impressionism towards the rude childhood of

THE INDEPENDENTS
Of the men whom we may account in some measure of Cezanne's school are Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard, and Roussel, who, born in the mid-sixties, emerged in the nineties. These men have been drawn towards Japanese art. Vuillard paints interiors and still-life. Bonnard is wider ranging, and his racecourses and nudes show mastery of colour and design. Both men make fine lithographs. Bonnard is a born decorator ; and his master was rather Lautrec than any one. K. X. Roussel, brother-in-law to Vuillard, has won repute with his poetic landscapes with nymphs bathing.
Charles Guerin is a brilliant another promising young painter.
colourist.

Pierre Laprade

is

299

;

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

PRIMAL-ACADEMISM, OR SO-CALLED
"

POST-IMPRESSIONISM
his

"

COLOURORCHESTRATION

AND THE
REACTION

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

school at Pont-Aven to use only indigo, to avoid black or grey, since nothing is black, yellow, and red nothing grey to have a model but never to paint from it, always never to seek contrast of colours but painting from memory harmonies to paint from light to dark, not from dark to light never finish, never always to use an outline only to paint repose never to use broken paint by instinct, not by theory use details to The school brought forth a group of artists. There is no colour. maddest prophet who will not find disciples just as sincere as the disciples of a great genius ; so we had best not accept a school simply because it has disciples, until the school creates great art nor condemn a school merely because our ears are deaf to its artistry. But to leap to homage of any fool because great prophets have been aforetime stoned is to be drunk with the milk of asses. he joined !|6mile Bernard had found Gaugain in Paris in 1886 with him to Cormon awhile. Van Gogh the same year, and went

Gaugain trained

— —

;

Pont-Aven in 1888, paying his way by making and bed Gaugain refused him as pupil, fearing Van Gogh's brother brought the two men the Paris taint in him. together a couple of years thereafter, Bernard being then about His facile gifts soon made him an imitator of Gaugain, as twenty. So he he was an imitator of Cezanne and Seurat and others. became primitive-academic. Then about 1893 ^^ rnade for the East, and painted his water-colours of Constantinople, getting away completely from " scientific painting." Laval went with Gaugain to Martinique Moret, the landscapist, also, and Paul Serusier. Paul Serusier, born in Paris in 1864, came of well-to-do folk. Beginning to show art leanings, he gave them up at twenty to go into business. But at twenty-four he declared boldly for art went to Julien's academy where were Denis, Bonnard, Ibels, and Valloton, Showing at the whilst at Boulanger's were Vuillard and Roussel. Serusier then went to Port-Aven and saw Gaugain Salon of 1888, But on going back to Paris at work, and did not like the work. he was bored with the conventional picture-making, and came under the glamour of the planes, strong lines, and intention of Gaugain. He carried the revolt to Julien's. Then Pont-Aven becoming fashionable, the group made in 1889 for Pouldu, where they were joined by the Dutchman Verkade, 300
Bernard footed
it

to

portraits for food

;

;

;

a

OF PAINTING
FiLiGER, Seguin, and others. Then they began to look to religion them motives, because the early Renaissance men had so done. With Denis, Seguin and Verkade became religious painters. They all w^ore romantic brigand dress, red cloaks were donned. Most are dead or scattered, or have gone to other idols Their detestation of Monet has vanished. Valloton, the Swiss, has turned to remarkably fine woodcuts since 1891.
to give
!

WHEREIN

WE WALK
WITH THOSE

WHO
WOULD
HAVE US
BELIEVE

Now
essential

let us

make no
;

mistake.
several are

Several

men

of this school are

THAT TO THE
INFANCY OF THE

impressionists

most

skilful

draughtsmen.

If

they think that by deliberately debasing their fine craftsmanship and drawing as crudely and badly as they can, and by striving to make their colour mimic crude essays in the vision of children and savages, they thereby advance the art utterance of the race and come into more spiritual communion with their age, they are as feeble and childish as they are ridiculous in the delusion that they can capture again the savage and infantile vision. Such must be at best an affectation and an affectation is a lie. It is vain for a brilliant draughtsman like Henri Matisse to try and hoodwink himself into the delusion that he can return to the infancy of the world even if that return increased the genius of modern life. The very gifts of such men forbid it; they have mastered modern craftsmanship, have learned to speak a modern tongue a door has been opened to them by which they may never return their eyes have looked upon modern life and upon Impressionism. To essay to speak like a little child or primal man were a vain thing, wholly without relation to art mere academism. To give to art the aim of science, and to essay adventures in geometry like Picasso, is to bemuddle art with science, and art has nothing in common with science. It is for art to reveal the soul of man through the senses a prodigious and eagle flight next to the wide adventure of life itself. By what means we reach to the utterance of this mighty revelation matters nothing, so that the artist create majestic art. But one thing is sure he who would utter the vast and complex life of our age will not do so by going back to outworn instruments, nor by essaying to dissect the brains of infants or

WORLD WAS GRANTED THE FINAL
REVELA-

— TION

;

;

savages.

301

CHA PTER XXXIV
WHEREIN WE STEP ON TO THE HIGHWAY AND PART

THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRES-

I

HAVE

increases

tried

to

show

that

the

gamut of
interpret

artistic

utterance
It

ever

that the realm interpreted by art ever widens.

follows

that an artist to-day, if he

would

SIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHES-

conquest of art at its last forward tide, if Mimicry is the signal of distress be content with mere mimicry. But and here is art. All academism is mimicry. of all bastard /'/ is just the threat to art to-day as it has been through all time

must take up the he would advance and not
life,

as

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION

ape Primitive art as to ape Michelangelo or Phidias. of the essential significance of art being the sensed It is a part communion of life that art can only be rendered by the personality What the artist can alone give is life seen of a temperament.
to
;

much mimicry

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

all else that he essays to give from the through his temperament temperaments of others is a lie, a falsity, a deliberate deceit he becomes a brain-thief. To-day the brain-thief abounds, as he has the filcher of the robes of the mastery of others. always abounded To-day he thinks to hide his theft by avoiding filching from the classics, filching instead from the earlier than classics, from the rude barbarians of the childhood of man. The overrating of craftsmanship was bound to lead to disillusion. But it is obvious that the complex and more profound emotions of developed man must be uttered in the art of developed man, and not in the accents of infancy. The gurgling and cooing of infancy are fitting and right for infancy, they become the dribble of idiots in man. It follows that art, to go forward, must proceed from the points where great art has left off not go back to points before developit is incapable of Primitive art was great art for its day ment.

;

uttering the vast significance of

modern

life.

Impressionism, mass and broken colour, having developed a full This orchestral power, created, as was inevitable, a reaction. reaction was due to the fact that the lesser impressionists found the orchestra so vast a thing to handle, that it looked to them like a

302

PAINTING
life-work to master
it.

So they, not greatly gifted enough to utter
colour-orchestration,
yet

mighty

song

upon

desiring

to

find

"WHEREIN WE STEP

" originality," have turned back, beyond Renaissance Italy, beyond classic Greece, and have tried to win back to the infancy of the
world.

They They are

call this vile insincerity Sincerity.

trying to deceive themselves into

speaking

of the

ON TO THE HIGHWAY AND
PART

These artists deliberately try to "virginal simplicity of infancy." draw badly, because children draw badly. They think that this is They stand off and discover something " mystical " in sincerity. this endeavour. Others who are not " infancy-academics " are trying " Primitive-Egyptian-academics," others " Chinese-academics." to be But they are all intensely "sincere," intensely "virginal," intensely " original."
very essence, is always a generation behind artistic intention. By the time that Criticism has refreshed its statutes and written its new book of the law, to keep up with the latest achievement, art has moved forward. Criticism Yet the tyranny never led, nor will ever lead, to artistic fulfilment. and power of Criticism to-day is a threat to all art. The schoolmaster's work is done the day we pass out of the school gates. I therefore say to the student, to the lover of art, and to the man in the street, never approach a work of art through criticism. Yield yourself to the work of art if it communicate its significance if it fail to communicate to you, by so much are you the richer its significance, it is outside your sensing, and no amount of outside explanation will aid you to its communion. Be sincere by no other road shall you enter the garden of the arts no man may forge you the key to it. I realise to the full that these volumes must have taxed the patience of many who have written upon Painting their lives long. I have ruthlessly flung down the laws and the authorities upon which they have founded their standards. I have been deeply moved by the sincerity and honesty of a large body of men who have given their full and deliberate hearing to what must have been to many a harsh uprooting. But I myself had to go through that uprooting. And if I have brought them towards the truth at last, or even to doubt false laws if I have brought them closer to the soul of the artist my reward is a rich one. That several pompous dullards have refused to understand, and cling to that intellectual snobbery that bows them flunkeywise to the great dead, right or wrong, I foresaw and forestalled. They
its

Now

Criticism, from

;

;

303

A HISTORY
THE TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN

COLOURORCHESTRATION

But, a twelvemonth after I began this huge task, matter nothing. and had wellnigh completed the bulk, of it, there came to London town a display of a jumbled collection of works by the later men and, like bolt alongside of whom I was working in the nineties from blue, this bewildering thing fell amongst the critics and as Whistler baffled them some thirty years ago. scattered them The would-be Up-to-Dates rushed to embrace the New Thing flinging into the gutter the laws that they had been teaching during
;

their

whole

AND THE
REACTION

taken.

And

TOWARDS
PRIMAL-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

magazines. what I here publish. The researches I here put into print cover this ground and, so far as I have been able to test it, all the arts. They were originally for my own guidance I give them to youth to save youth wandering in the desert, whether pasteboard or arid desert of false aims. By pompous academic men, I say, I have been flouted, as I was bound to be flouted. But there are men of eager sincerity who One of these accepts, then assails hesitate and linger upon the edge. my friend Lewis Hind has written a book in which he denies my Let us close with him, since he is a fine type and a definitions. worth convincing. Lewis Hind boldly rejects my definition of type Art as "the emotional or sensed communion of Life." At the same time he as frankly rejects his former law, and admits that Art is not Well we are getting on. Art, says he, is Expression. Beauty. Well, 'tis clear one could not create Art unless one could express it. But are Euclid and Blue-books therefore Art ? I can imagine no more egregious statement than that all Expression is Art. However, But at once comes doubt, and let us grant that Art is Expression. Hind qualifies. Expression, it would appear, is always decorative and Hoho we come nearer. But quite apart from the emotional absolute falsity of this statement, it will be noticed that Art has now become " emotional expression " plus decoration. Hamlet it would Then comes a somersault. "Art is the appear is "decorative" Well Art cannot be uttered except expression of personality." through a personality this is implicit in " Art being the sensed communion of life." But Art is not by any means merely the "expression A personality might utter a thousand expressions of personality." But Hind soon suspects that the expression that would not be Art. need not create Art suspects there is some essential of personality so, even whilst he denies me, he adds lacking in the definition " an emotional personal expression " plus decoration. Now " an
;

Sides were violently up to the month before already they are rushing to write books, and to publish That display has not caused me to blot a line of
lives
!

;

!

!

!

;

;

304

OF PAINTING
emotional personal expression " sounds not unlike " a sensed or emotional communion of life," somewhat lamely put, since it does However, having practically acknownot say what is expressed. ledged what he started by denying, except that he adds " Decoration," which by the way has no essential part in Art whatsoever, Hind, having denied with me that Art is Beauty, proceeds to say that

WHEREIN

WE

STEP

which really does In other words, there is Beauty in Lack of Beauty But thereafter comes complete surrender " The world that hfelt is " greater than the world that is seen" (he clearly forgets that " seeing
Beauty
is

in everything, particularly in Ugliness, "
I

ON TO THE HIGHWAY AND PART

not exist "

!

:

is

a part of feeling).

Hind

profound than the Reason

which is an essential part of my teaching. Hind has really thought out what he does mean. He proceeds and mark you, he has written a whole book upon this business; it is not after-dinner smoke he proceeds to vow that Art is what an artist does. But if an artist fall down a well, or commit
But
I

really

means that the

senses are

more

wonder

if

bigamy, or talk like a fool, how in the doing does he differ thereby from one who is no artist yet guilty of these things ? Hind has caught the catchpenny about " rhetoric " too he abhors rhetoric. I tell him that the greatest masters have employed rhetoric, Shakespeare without hesitation. But what is this ? " That avenue of Freedom, opening out, inviting the pilgrim who is casting off the burdens of mere representation, and of tradition when it becomes sapless ... it seeks synthesis in the soul of man, and in the substance of things; it lifts mere craftsmanship into the region of mysticism, and proclaims that Art may be a stimulation as well as a solace ... it is as old as ecstasy ... it has been called by many names ... it informed the work of Botticelli when he expressed the gaiety of spring, Rembrandt when he expressed the solemnity of a Mill and it would have glided {N.B. before they cleaned the Mill !)

.

.

.

on,

coming unconsciously

Gogh, and Gaugain flamed its So that, though "the principals abroad," and so on and so forth. founders of Post-Impressionism were Cezanne, Van Gogh, and
Gaugain," they really were not the founders, but Botticelli and Rembrandt and Cozens and Swan. Then Hind proceeds to belittle Art by saying that it is " but an episode in life." If Art were what the critics take it to be, that would be so. But I tell him here and now that life without Art would be a madman's realm, a blind man's parish. He seems to demand of Art that " its profound vision " shall be " clothed in cheerfulness and gaiety." But he who looks upon the Christ crucified or
VOL. VIII

had not three men

— Cezanne, Van

to the initiate, uncatalogued, unrecorded,

2 Q

305

A HISTORY
THE
TRIUMPH
OF
IMPRESSIONISM
IN
upon the
is

and gaiety," himself before his essential need of Art that it shall be Gaugain's Wayside Christ " clothed in cheerfulness and gaiety " departs and " it brings tears " Yet I have read somewhere that he vows that painting " never moves

tragic emotions of life only " with cheerfulness
stuff.

made of strange

Ah, yes
;

— suddenly Hind

finds

!

to tears."

Then Hind
"
:

COLOURORCHES-

TRATION

AND THE
REACTION OF
PRIMITIVE-

ACADEMISM INTO

OUR OWN DAY

impressionism. " They desired to express the sensation an object prehe answers So he accepts, after blunt rejection, my definition sented to them." "Art is the emotional comat the opening of these eight volumes munion of life." Hind holds that Art should go back to the virginal yet he denies to the People the understanding utterance of infancy of it; and he confesses that he himself had "to educate himself to But I will hint to him that what he really did was to be led it" I prefer Hind's own to it by reading the suggestions of others. To reconcile bookish falsities on art is an impossible impressions.

exults over the three great founders of PostWhat did these three men do ? " he asks. And

!

task.

Now I ask in all solemnity, what can the ordinary man learn from contradictions ? I ask this eager and sincere searcher after life, I ask Hind, what good can come of all this vague talk about Art, that is founded on mere tradition, without sense, without cohesion, without foundation
critic,
.?

If

Hind (who has mastered
can

the art of

literature) stands thus bewildered,

we wonder

that the average

who
I

falsities

is without his and " laws " ?

artistic gifts in literature, clings to

bookish

done with Be done with this approach to Art all this intellectual snobbery. Go straight to the works of Art themselves, through books And if these whether painting, or literature, or the drama, or music enter into the communion of your soul, they have been created for the enlargement of your experience and the enrichment of your life. If they do not, then to you it has not been granted to feel their essence and their significance, and by so much are you the poorer.

No.

say to

Hind what

I

say to every

man. Let

us be

!

!

And
many

before
as

I

blot the last line of this labour of
last

my

hands,

I

would add

my
:

teachers the craftsmanship at the will's ordering, so that the will can concentrate upon the achievement of its desire, unshackled by hesitations of craft, then be rid of the studio squabbles as to this school or that school, as to this method or that method ; and fearlessly use every tool of

youth as youth stands perplexed before Once you have won to the facile hand that creates
to

word

craftsmanship that will create or enhance the impression you would achieve. The road to fulfilment in the creation of the masterpiece
-^06

OF PAINTING
The whole vast realm of life is for the is lonely and harsh enough. conquering; and the artist, once he has done with his pupilage, must walk the splendid wayfaring alone. No man may give him aid. Sincerity must be his weapon, and fearless truth his whetstone. Take of the vast gamut of craftsmanship just precisely the vastest instrument that your strength can handle and if that strength be limited, take the lesser instrument. But we are weary of this eternal tinkering with the instrument. Be done with the rattle of the workshop, and get you on to the high road of Art. It leads to the immensities and if you have not the courage for the heights and a wide conquest, at least there are pleasant places by the roadside where fainter hearts may gather flowers. It is time to burst into song. await the singer. are weary of the chips of the workshop of rhythm, and this and that. 'Tis time for the song. The poet achieves by his song. Are there singers amongst you? If so, for the love of heaven, sing
;

WHEREIN

WE

STEP

ON TO THE HIGHWAY AND
PART

;

We

We
I

THE END

307

;

I

"'--rM'liwilfl'

5

000 192 708

6

iwim^

•m