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'1 Elt1JUwtWuj aJt, Empowered Na:tio~

Table 1.1

Approximate Innovation! Consequencel


time (years breakthrough reason
preceding 2002)
1,00,000 Making and using Extending human
stone gear for hunting capabilities
40,000 Making aIld using Extending human
weapons capabilities
3,500 Boats and sailboats Extending human
capabilities
800 Clock, cOIIlpass,and Reduced and/or simplified
other measurement manual work
instiitments
360 Mechanical calculators Replacing human
computation
190 Railways (using coal Facilitating and/or making
apd oil for eIlergy) mental wotk easier
160 Electricity Improving quality of life
140 ImageaIld sound Providing entertainIIleIlt
reproduction and spread of knowledge
100 Telecommunications Improving comfort and/or
and X-rays speed of communication
95 Automobiles and Increased speed and/or
roads availability of
telecommunications
80 Aircraft Faster travel
70 Mass-p~oduced cheIIlicals Improving quality of
treatment and other allied areas
55 Nuclear weapons/energy Extending human
capabilities
50 Computers IIIlProving the quality of
life
45 Mass-produced home Improving the material
appliances quality of life
40 Fertilisers and oral IIIlProving quality of life
contraceptives
35 Lasers Extending human
capabilities
30 The moon landing, Extending human
tissues, and organ capabilities
transplants
20 The CT (CAT or Body) Improvement in
scan diagnostic tools
10 Genetically engineered Increased knowledge base
plants, Internet

Adapted fram "Forecastingl Planning and Strategy, for the 21st Centurylll
Makrindakis Sprays G., (@Penguin Books India Pvt. Ltd.)

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