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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 3

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 4

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 5

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 6

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 7

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 8

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 9

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 10

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 11

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:52 PM Page 12

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:56 PM Page 13

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:56 PM Page 14

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:56 PM Page 15

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:57 PM Page 16

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:57 PM Page 17

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:57 PM Page 18

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:57 PM Page 19

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:57 PM Page 20

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:46 PM Page 21

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:46 PM Page 23

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:46 PM Page 24

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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c08.qxd 1/27/09 2:46 PM Page 25

© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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© 2009 by John J. Bertin and Russ Cummings. Published by Pearson Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.
All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this
material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher.

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