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Masa Djordjevic First Annual Doctoral Conference of the Department of Political Science at CEU April 13-14, 2006
Systemic reforms from the socialist regime towards free-market democracies in the 1990s, produced a radically new context and challenges of collective action for the former socialist cities of Central Eastern Europe. New local public leaders, for the first time democratically elected, were lacking experience in running a fragmented capitalist city. The strategic planning paradigm and methodology entered the practice of city management in the Western European and American cities since the 1980s. It was transferred to the postsocialist cities by the international organisations assisting the reforms, and by the inter-city exchange of experience with Western city leaders and local administrators. One of the dominant aspects of the rationale for undergoing strategic planning is that, as an integrated policy making activity, it is an instrument for building effective local governance in order to overcome the collective action problem that cities face due to economic and political globalisation. The role of this paper is to explore the claim that strategic planning is an opportunity for transitional cities to move faster towards effective urban governance on the example of the city of Warsaw. The link between the institution building aspect of strategic planning and the effective institution building nature of governance processes will be explored through two dominant concerns of both the planning and urban governance literature: the ‘effectiveness’ concern and ‘public participation’ concern. The paper will explore the effects of political deliberations during the strategic planning process in Warsaw on the urban governing arrangement initially characterised as local government rather than governance. The main focus of the empirical research is on how implementation and public participation are dealt with and coordinated during the strategy elaboration. Three possible scenarios are suggested and tested.
Table of Contents
1 INTRODUCTION: STUDYING URBAN GOVERNANCE IN POST-SOCIALIST CITIES.....3 2 MAIN THESIS AND RESEARCH QUESTION...............................................................................5 3 CONTEXTUAL VARIABLES............................................................................................................8 3.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS AND INTERNATIONALISATION OF THE CITY’S ECONOMY.....................................8 3.2 INTERGOVERNMENTAL RELATIONS...........................................................................................................9 3.3 WORKINGS OF THE LOCAL POLITICAL SYSTEM.........................................................................................11 3.4 THE ROLE OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY..........................................................................................................12 4 CHRONOLOGY OF PLANNING EVENTS...................................................................................14 4.1 FIRST ELECTION PERIOD 1990-1994....................................................................................................14 4.2 SECOND ELECTION PERIOD 1994-1998.................................................................................................15 4.2.1 Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010............................................................16 4.2.2 The Study of Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Development of Warsaw Capital City ........................................................................................................................................................21 4.3 THIRD ELECTION PERIOD 1998-2002...................................................................................................29 4.4 FOURTH ELECTION PERIOD 2002-2006.................................................................................................32 4.4.1 Strategy for the Development of the Capital City of Warsaw until 2020.............................32 4.4.2 Preparation of the new Study of conditions and directions for spatial development of the City of Warsaw ..............................................................................................................................38 5 CONCLUSION: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POLITICAL PROCESS OF STRATEGIC PLANNING IN WARSAW...................................................................................................................39 5.1 THE NATURE OF THE STRATEGIC PLANNING PROCESSES IN WARSAW...........................................................39 5.2 EFFECTS OF THE STRATEGIC PLANNING ON THE LOCAL GOVERNING ARRANGEMENT........................................40 5.3 CONTRIBUTION OF STRATEGIC PLANNING TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF EFFECTIVE URBAN GOVERNANCE?..............43 REFERENCES......................................................................................................................................43
Introduction: Studying urban governance in post-socialist cities
Indeed, one of the key questions challenging students of governance is to clarify the role of government in the process of governance. Understanding this process requires an understanding of what drives institutional design and institutional change in the urban political milieu. (Pierre 1998: 6; emphasis is mine)
My basic interest behind undertaking research on the politics of urban planning in the post-socialist transitional city of Warsaw was to understand what drives institutional change in such an urban political milieu. Decentralisation and local democracy were introduced in Poland for the first time in 1990, and since then cities had to manage both the establishment and autonomous development of a local government system, and deal with immediate wider regional, European and global changes and challenges of operating in a constantly changing external environment. Being challenged on both fronts simultaneously – the first one more internal, local and national, the second more external and global – while learning the basic rules of the governing game was coupled with the challenge of managing policy transfer of discourses and methodologies brought about by international organisations and donors that entered Central Eastern Europe (CEE) in the beginning of the transition from the socialist regime. This radically new context of decentralisation of some government responsibilities to the local level and introduction of the free-market economy led to the fast proliferation of governmental and non governmental players in the everyday running and development decisions of cities. The growing body of literature in urban and local politics has been pointing at the development of local governance arrangements rather than local government in Western European and North American cities since the 1980s. The governance perspective stress the interdependence of a growing number of players in the process of governing cities, blurring the boundaries between the public and private sectors, and thus focuses on the continuous processes of interaction and coordination among actors operating at different institutional and sectoral levels in trying to meet economic, political and social challenges of cities (Rhodes 1997; Stoker 1998; Pierre 1998; Pierre 1999; John 2001; Denters and Rose 2004). My
starting assumption about the governing arrangements in post-socialist cities is that, contrary to this shift towards governance in Western Europe, the initial governing arrangement that was developing and expected to develop (by law-makers, local politicians and public at large) by mid-1990s in post-socialist cities of CEE was a local government arrangement rather than a form of local governance. The reason for this can be found in the strong emphasis on local democracy, local autonomy and values of decentralisation in the political discourse of initial democratic reforms in 1990 in CEE countries, in addition to the factors like no experience with the market economy and private sector actors at the city level, and weak organised interest representation of local social groups. Strategic planning paradigm was one among many new ideas, operating frameworks, methods and techniques promoted by international organisations taking part in the transformation processes in the region. Strategic planning, as a management technique used in the private sector since the 1960s, started being applied and adapted to the public sector in the 1980s for the purpose of envisioning development and guiding future actions of public institutions. It ca be defined as developing frames of reference for future action for the purpose of making the favourable development happen, contrary to being a blueprint for future product of development (Mastop 2000; see also Healey et al. 1997). It came as a reaction to the planning failures of the rational approach to planning, and to the challenges of economic competition and political fragmentation of cities. Due to the fact that so many cities around Europe and beyond have been undertaking strategic planning and management since the 1980s, strategic urban planning seemed to be a particularly useful and eventually indispensable tool for large and necessarily fragmented cities such as Warsaw to reconsider their position, problems and opportunities of development in the new national (intergovernmental), Central East European, European and global environment. Strategic planning paradigm brought about the awareness of the importance of institution-building, namely of the political aspect of urban planning for the purpose of achieving greater effectiveness of plans and greater participation of local stakeholders in the developmental interventions in the city. As such, it is widely viewed as a new policy arena and instrument for integrating policy-making at the city
These cities were simultaneously faced with the introduction of the local government system. which is 5 . various organised social and business interests in order to learn from them. and involve them in securing the implementation of those programs. Depending on how implementation possibilities and public participation are dealt with during the strategic deliberations and decision-making on developmental priorities. and development of the civil society independent from the government sector. fast proliferation of the new economic actors through the development of the business sector. As a policy tool it can help envisioning the city as a collective actor and in that respect deal with urban fragmentation. In this context. This can be explained by a combination of contextual factors that influence the effectiveness of city governing and development processes in the 1990s in former socialist cities of Central Eastern Europe. A strategic planning process can develop a greater degree of cooperation. 2 Main thesis and research question Having this in mind. new economic conditions of a free-market economy opened to the economic globalisation. strategic planning has a potential of increasing the internal institutional capacity of the local government system and building governance capacity of a network of local public and non-public actors. It can also help linking the city with the wider regional environment. and overcoming the collective action problem inherent to the processes of governing fragmented capitalist cities. the basic hypothesis is that strategic planning is an opportunity for transitional cities to move faster towards effective urban governance. In this text I would like to explore the claim that strategic planning can help the city and its local authorities to deal more effectively with these problems and the resulting collective action challenges.level. In the same manner it can be a tool for involving local citizens. and a sense of mutual accomplishment. collaboration. and strong local leadership for urban development. it has been difficult to build both effective local governance and government. involve them in the search for the best or most effective developmental programs that match strategic vision and goals. It can be a powerful exercise for accomplishing integration of the fragmented local public sector and its various policies.
i. and because of the widespread policy transfer of strategic planning ideas. and never used? In general. I suggest that strategic planning process can influence the local governing arrangement in three different ways: 1. A shift towards not only interest groups’ participation. How has the strategic planning process been organised and used? Has it been used to improve the capacity of the local public sector and local political leaders to deal with the wider society in steering urban development in a preferred direction? Has it involved changes in the institutional setting? Has it produced changes to the existing governing arrangement? Was the change directed towards improving governing capacity. 3.particularly significant in the wider European context where the EU policies become an important factor. and what are its intended and unintended outcomes? These are important questions because of the big influence of the strategic planning paradigm in the planning and urban policy literature. I will analyse the developments in city of Warsaw since the beginning of the 1990s.e. 2. 6 . presented to investors and visitors. how has the opportunity been used. improving local democracy. No change can be detected. not governance? Or rather the product is just another document to be used in city-promotion.e. To explore the effects of political deliberations and negotiations during the strategic planning process on the (development of) institutional relations of urban governance. i. The main research question of this paper is how strategic planning paradigm and methodology can affect the governing arrangement and governing capacity in a city. local public administration and planning experts within and beyond the local public sector. but also towards greater general public involvement and transparency of the process. towards a governance form? Or was it a step in a long learning process for local public authorities to strengthen the integration and institutional capacity of local government. or rather consolidation of the already existing governing arrangement through consolidation of the political elite consisting of local politicians. put on the website. A shift towards greater involvement of collective interest groups that can secure implementation of programs and projects due to their resources and capacity to influence various aspects of urban development.
political deliberations and negotiations. the case of the city of Warsaw will be presented.or project-driven) and that can lead towards a change in the existing governing arrangement (e. Attempts at securing implementation include looking for partners beyond the public sector. for building up governance. and final approval of the main strategic document(s) and other relevant planning documents. if at all. intergovernmental relations. It offers a possibility of building long-term coalitions (even if issue. I used two basic research techniques: analysis of various available written documents and semi-structured interviews with public officials and planning experts involved or observing the planning processes In the following sections.g.These three scenarios of how strategic planing process can influence local governing arrangements are based on the analysis of how implementation (the effectiveness concern or ‘making things done’) and public participation are dealt with and coordinated during the strategic deliberations and plan elaboration. elaboration. towards more business or non-profit sector involvement).e. and their role. I paid special attention to the identification of the actors involved in the strategic process. namely socio-economic indicators. This was also a method used to learn about the way effectiveness of the strategic plans was being understood and how implementation was being considered. during the elaboration phase. The main emphasis was put on the initiation. working of the local political system and the characteristics of the civil society. It starts with the information and explanation of the context in which the city has been operating since 1990. on the other hand. Greater participation of citizens. significance and expectations given to their involvement by those who initiated the process. Then the details of the ‘thick’ chronology of the planning and relevant political events and developments in the last fifteen years will be given. Important planning processes and 7 . i. and lead towards greater public ownership of the strategic plan and planned interventions. Considering implementation during the planing process can be a particularly effective activity in terms of extending the institutional capacity for the implementation of objectives beyond the public sector. The case study is designed around a chronology and analysis of urban planning and major political events affecting the local conditions and capacity for building effective governance. can improve the state of local democracy.
8 . 85% of the city was destroyed. In 2000.1 Socio-economic indicators and internationalisation of the city’s economy Warsaw is the centre of the agglomeration of more than 2.000 people have been coming from the surrounding areas daily to work in Warsaw. After 1945. a twodecade-long reconstruction process took place. According to the European Cites 1 Warsaw total area is 517 km2. main conclusions on the characteristics of the political processes of urban planning in the city will be presented.7 million inhabitants it is one of the three biggest and only cities (in addition to Budapest and Prague) above one million inhabitants in the post-socialist region usually called Central Eastern Europe. 4. and 12% in manufacturing. In 2005 about 18% of the workforce worked in industry. 98% of all companies registered in Warsaw are privately owned. GDP per capita is about 14. Among them. Finally.000 inhabitants. three times below the national average. a country that has a polycentric structure of cities (with 42 cities above 100. more than 30% of all companies in Poland with the foreign capital were located in Warsaw.documents will be analysed in depth. 23 % in banking and finance including business services. With its 1. It is about three times the national average. 3 Contextual variables Warsaw is the capital city of Poland. Embarking on a market economy has meant a severe shock for Warsaw’s industry. Number of passenger’s cars is 374 per 1000 city inhabitants. 44% were active in retail. 3.3% of the Polish population live within the city of Warsaw. It is also the capital of the biggest country in the region. It is situated both geographically and symbolically on the route between Berlin and Moscow. 1 Unemployment rate was 6.000 inhabitants). compared to over 30% in 1989. The city’s working age population is 75%. It has been slightly loosing population since 1991. including the historical Old Town. but the estimate is that about 600. More than 20 % of the city’s population has the university degree. In this polycentric national context. even 6 out of 42 above 500.5% in 2005.5 million people.000 EUR. In the Second World War.
Warsaw came 20th out of 30 European cities in 2005 (up from 26th rank in 2002) as the overall score calculated on the basis of 12 different location factors. The disputes on how to improve it had begun already a few months after the first local elections [in May 1990]” (Buczek 2001: 6). The City Council (of the Warsaw Union) was to elect the President of the Union (equivalent to the mayor) and 3 vice-presidents. the eighth). 3. The Union had no direct power over its seven municipalities. For all who were interested in the problems of Polish local democracy. The joint funds of their seven budgets were nearly as big as the budget of the City (in 1993). the richest one had more than six times the income per capita than the poorest one.2 Intergovernmental relations In March 1990 the newly elected Polish Parliament passed the Local Government Act that started the decentralisation reform by introducing the basic until of local government (gmina in Polish). All districts had their executive boards with mayors on the top. It created a large 2 The basic characteristics of this first local government system of Warsaw can be summarised quoting the words of a planning expert being the close observer and at one time participant in the City government. one more municipality was established achieving independence from the rest of the original municipality (the 1990 Warsaw Act allowed the separation). 2 In March 1994 the new Warsaw Act or the Law on the Organization of the Administrative System of Warsaw was passed by the Parliament. In the beginning of 1993. 9 . where municipalities kept all right and responsibilities as any other gmina in Poland. in addition to the Executive Board of the capital City of Warsaw. 4 of them constitute the Executive Board of the Union. In May 1990 the Law on the Administrative System of Warsaw or so-called Warsaw Act was passed after several much drafted versions. 28 (later 32) constituted the indirectly elected Council of Warsaw. “These districts were very much different from each other (regardless from the obvious differences in physical shape of their development): the most populated had nearly nine times more inhabitants than the smallest one. the structure of the Polish capital was obviously not a good one. and the Union consisted of eight municipalities until the end of the election term. an annual survey of senior managers and board directors of 500 Europe’s top companies on the best places to locate business. This new law on the capital city established Warsaw as the Union of seven municipalities of Warsaw. All together 345 councilmen were elected for seven district councils (with extra 28 for the additional one.Monitor 2005 by Cushman & Wakefield/ Healey & Baker.
The President of the Union is in the same time the mayor of the Centrum Gmina and as such is elected by the Council of the Centrum municipality and automatically becomes the President of the Union. and the least populated municipality less than 1% of the population of the whole city. in practice this meant that the city of Warsaw had three administrative levels. The new 1998 administrative reform of the country that introduced the regional level of government (voivodships). corresponding approximately to the pre-Second World War boundaries of the city of Warsaw (the land of this territory was nationalized in 1945). The smallest municipality had less than 2% of the territory of the city. of the city of Warsaw. These eleven municipalities constituted the Union of Municipalities of Warsaw. This is problematic. The new Act created ten municipalities around the Centrum Gmina. Warsaw’s municipalities have the same authority that all other Polish municipalities have.central Municipality (Gmina Centrum with approximately 960. and between the city and the Warsaw-Centrum Municipality. i. So. while municipalities became stronger (…) The main problem caused by such a structure of self-government was the lack of appreciation of common goals for the city as a whole. The Executive Board of the City consisted of the President of Warsaw and his three deputies.000 people or 58 % of the whole city population). as the city’s municipalities were established by partitioning a physically and functionally integrated entity. but with their own councils and budgets. The division was based on a noble assumption that municipalities would act as parts of a whole (caring for their own interests and the city’s interests).e. On the top of this. The total revenues of the City were equal to 60 % of the total revenues of all 11 municipalities (in 1996). Conflicts and jurisdictional disputes were generated mainly because the lack of a precise allocation of duties or financing principles. and introduce some changes at the county level (powiats) did not affect the internal structure of the city of Warsaw. “Planning of physical development and general development strategy created conflicts as the city authorities became weaker than during the first term. 10 . Conflicts also stem from the imprecisely defined scope of tasks to be performed by the City of Warsaw. but experience has shown that municipalities tend toward self-interest” (Buczek 2001: 9). Conflicts arise mainly between the City of Warsaw and the various municipalities. the Centrum municipality was divided in 7 districts with no legal personality.
the mayor of Warsaw was to be directly elected for the first time since the beginning of decentralisation in 1990. This new law came into force in October 2000. SLD (post-socialist Alliance of the Democratic Left) had 37 seats. an architect-planner as the first President of Warsaw or the city mayor.On March 15. Another big change came from the 2002 amendment to the Law on elections for municipal councillors that introduced direct elections for mayors (presidents of municipalities) and regional governors (voivod). According to the new law. the new mayor of Centrum Gmina was elected by the gmina council. the city is divided in 18 districts that have limited powers and resources. and Warsaw got the new.3 Workings of the local political system In May 1990 first democratic local elections took place. Marcin Swiecicki became automatically the President of Warsaw. and the new local elections immediately followed. Swiecicki stayed the city mayor until a short time after the third local elections in 1998. Thus. Instead. Pawel Piskorski from the centrist Freedom Union party (UW). 2002 newly elected national Parliament (elected in September 2001 after the fourth general elections since the systemic change) passed the new and radically different Act on the Structure of the Capital City of Warsaw. the new mayor of Centrum Gmina. 11 . For June 1994 local elections. The whole Warsaw became one municipality with the powers of the county (powiat). Internal division on municipalities as defined by the Polish Constitution ceased to exist. the new administrative structure was put in place: the city was divided on 11 municipalities with the Centrum Gmina as the biggest and wealthiest municipality. The indirectly elected Warsaw City Council elected Stanislaw Wyganowski. and in March 1999. 3. after a political crisis. and AWS (Electoral Action Solidarity. UW had 24. young and politically ambitious President. a coalition of rightist post-Solidarity parties) 40 seats in the City Council.
The situation in Warsaw was extremely radicalised after the numerous scandals. Wojciech Kozak was chosen by the City Council as the new President of Warsaw until the next local elections in the fall 2002. especially in Centrum Gmina. and the Centrum Municipal Council elected a new Mayor for the central municipality. by the amendment of the Warsaw Act.3% (Swianiewicz and Klimska 2003). LPR (League of Polish Families) 10. he stepped down as the President of Warsaw in January 2002.1% and in 2002 41. Political fragmentation of the City Council increased from 1998 to 2002 local elections (Swianiewicz and Klimska 2003). in November 2002 for the first time a new mayor of Warsaw was directly elected in local elections.1%. in 1998 42. It was confirmed by the election results: the new elected mayor was Lech Kaczynski. one of the vice-mayors. In terms of the turnout at local elections for the Warsaw City Council. the fifth city mayor in four terms. PO 13. SLD has 33 seats. PiS 40. the Polish Parliament separated the roles of the Mayor of the Centrum municipality and the President of the City of Warsaw. In the fall 2005.4 The role of the civil society 12 . run by post-socialist SLD and centrist UW in the third election period. After the new radical administrative reform for Warsaw. 3. and Selfdefence party 2 seats in the City Council. In December 2005. Kaczynski run in the presidential elections. and won in the second round. Piskorski stood for the national parliament in the general elections in 2001 on the list of the newly formed Civic Platform party (PO). populist right-wing leader of the newly formed and controversial Law and Justice Party (PiS). central government appointed a commissioner to be at the top of the City administration until the new local elections in 2006.In 2001. in 1994 local elections turnout was 28. Being elected for the National Parliament. On the same day. when Kaczynski became the President of Poland. and Warsaw citizens punished national parties that were running the city and its municipalities throughout the 1990s. and the City Council was run by PiS and centrist PO. Piskorski chose to stay the President of Warsaw.
and in 25% only small influence (Pop 2005). The growing number of NGOs does not directly translate into better representation of citizen interests in dealing with local authorities. and prefer to stay almost entirely uninvolved” (Swianiewicz 2001: 219). In the same study. In his research on the public perception of local government in Poland in general. there is very little systematic research done on this aspect of the civil society and its capacity to engage in local politics. only “about 44 per cent of Polish local governments contracted NGOs to provide some local services. but do not care very much about local governments. but rather on the existence and quality of local interest representation in the urban setting. in only 4% of larger municipalities in Poland respondents considered that citizens had a big influence in local decision-making. especially at the local level. As Swianiewicz pointed out in the recent cross-national study of the complementarily of urban leadership and community involvement. CAOs in the Polish municipalities over 50. Furthermore. in 69% there were requests for direct meetings between local officials and group of citizens.4 As an illustration of the general Polish experience of the role of NGOs in local service delivery. Swianiewicz pointed out that “this picture might be summarised as an sympathetic disengagement – most people like decentralisation. where 88 per cent of local governments declared contracts with NGOs. in 5. This is even more evident in Hungary. do not think of it as very important for their everyday lives. it does not directly lead to better communication between citizens and local authorities. let alone the city of Warsaw. the issue here is not the strength of civil society as such.3 So. However. the representation of collective interests of various segments of the civil society is still weakly developed. This is related to the extremely weak tradition of civil involvement in the public affairs in the socialist time. in 43% there were citizen’s petitions on various local issues. 4 In a study based on the survey of chief administrative officials. 3 13 .In spite of the fact that the number of NGOs in the CEE countries is growing. in 60% of municipalities local government decisions were challenged in a court or at a higher administrative authority. while 37 per cent of Hungarian municipalities also engaged in consultation with NGOs during local decision making” (Pawel 2005: 120. including Poland. emphasis is mine). and it cannot be fast overcome.000 inhabitants (larger municipalities) reported than in about 41% of those municipalities there were public demonstrations concerning local matters. and in 63% municipalities civil society organisations submitted proposals on some questions of public interest. practical experience in community involvement is extremely limited in CEE countries (2005: 123). or even a step further to community involvement into the local decision-making processes.3% of larger municipalities citizens had moderate influence.
though not formalised along any legally binding procedures. As a result. The 1984 Physical Planning Act was still effective until the new act in mid-1994 was passed. the public discussions and elements of participation were considerable. the Draft Development Strategy of the Warsaw Metropolis was elaborated by the end of May 1994. an urban planning agency Warsaw XXI) were established to produce extensive studies on the development of the city. 8 municipalities). It meant that the basic logic and methods of planning kept in planning regulations remained the same as in the centrally planned economy after the initial introduction of the market economy. the Transportation Policy for the Capital City of Warsaw was prepared in the first election period under the leadership of the same deputy-mayor and approved by the new City Council in 1995. it was not formally accepted by any official resolution. 5 14 .g. and in the resolution adopting the plan pointed out at the necessity of the strategic planning for Warsaw. The Warsaw leaders of the day were however aware to some extent of the weaknesses of this master plan. In September 1992 the Warsaw Council approved the General Development Plan for Warsaw: Warsaw XXI (or the master plan) which development was initiated in the autumn 1991. Initiated by the city’s deputy-mayor for urban development. and the representatives of all municipalities (i.5 Contrary to the fate of the first general strategic document. social and cultural organisations. few new bodies independent from the city administration (e. As the document was drafted shortly before the first local democratic government’s term ended. The outcomes of this very first strategic thinking process were “presented during a series of meetings involving the representatives of various political. (…) In relation to any previous experience concerning socio-economic planning.e. in addition to the Council of Warsaw.4 4.1 Chronology of planning events First election period 1990-1994 The regulations for spatial planning – in the form of the law on spatial planning – did not change in Poland in the first four years of transition from the socialist system. professional associations and nongovernmental bodies. either of the Warsaw Executive Board or the Warsaw City Council” (Buczek 2001: 7-8).
lacking any interest in such an endeavour.4. Preparing the city development strategy has not been a legally required activity for municipalities in Poland. In March 1996 the competition for the Study for Warsaw was announced.2 Second election period 1994-1998 In July 1994. In the same time. however. In May 1998 the Warsaw City Council approved the Warsaw Development Strategy. and the final version of the Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010 has been approved and put into force by the Warsaw City Council about two weeks before the approval of the final version of the Study of the Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Development of Warsaw Capital 15 . In mid-1996. between the announcement of the competition for the Study and the beginning of the planning work. the final preparatory works came about at the same time (during 1997 and early 1998). More importantly in the long-run.e. the Study for Warsaw. Warsaw city authorities decided to initiate the preparation of the new planning document defining a spatial development policy of the city as required by the new 1994 Planning Act and called the Study of Conditions and Directions of Urban Development of Warsaw. 6 6 In terms of a logically expected sequencing of planning works. When the expert team responsible for the design of the Study for Warsaw started their work. in terms of the sequencing having took place in reality. at the time when city authorities started thinking again about the preparation of the strategy. the story about the Strategy preparation should come first. The only exception in term of legal requirements was the City of Warsaw where the 1994 Act on the administrative organisation of Warsaw introduced the requirement to prepare a development strategy for the whole city. i. In the meantime. city authorities decided to start the strategic planning for the city once again. Regardless of this. the first post-socialist Spatial Planning Act and the Building Act were passed by the Parliament. aborted all work on developing a strategic document for Warsaw. In May 1997 the preparation of the Warsaw Development Strategy until the year of 2010 started. Eventually. the preparatory works on the city spatial development policy. and in June the Study for Warsaw. the preparation of legally-required document of the Study for Warsaw started before a clear decision on whether or not a Warsaw Development Strategy is needed. have already started. Nevertheless. until 1996 the new City council (elected in 1994). the two documents had been coordinated during the preparation. it was still not known who would be the designers of the Warsaw Development Strategy. the Warsaw mayor Swiecicki independently published and promoted his own strategy for Warsaw called Seven Priorities of Warsaw.
The City authorities finally agreed with these conditions. Marek Ziolkowski from Warsaw . the process of the preparation of the Strategy will be presented first. the fourth attempt was successful.2. of the fast approaching next local elections. Three different teams. were unsuccessfully asked to undertake the work.e. there was no competition organised for selecting the expert team who would do the work on the Warsaw Development Strategy. it was clear that there was not enough time and that the final City Council discussion and approval must have been made before the end of the term. Each of them took some time to decide.1.done by experts.and not negotiated with Warsaw municipalities. Two experts started the work in the beginning of City. Although in January 1997 it was set up that officially the Warsaw City council should have been presented with the final version of the Strategy by the end of 1997. the potential choices were made internally. and two future general designers of the Strategy – Prof.4.2. though one should keep in mind that the commitment to the formulation of a city development strategy came after the preparatory process on the Study for Warsaw started. 16 . Therefore. Finally. i. until the end of the first half of 1998. Instead. and knowing well the conflict-ridden situation in the Warsaw local political arena. made initial inquiry.agreed in February 1997 to undertake the preparatory work.1 Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010 4. the future designers put some conditions before accepting the offer.1 Pre-Preparatory Stage: selecting the chief planners In contrast to the selection of the expert team to prepare the Study for Warsaw. Alojzy Zalewski and Prof. not politicians . negotiating with the authorities of each and every Warsaw municipality (knowing the tendency of a number of them towards independence from the City of Warsaw) during the preparatory phase would make the process troublesome and the finalisation impossible. The reason behind these conditions was that given the extremely short time remaining for the preparation of the Strategy. one by one. being aware of the previous failed attempts. They required that the Warsaw Development Strategy they were to prepare be an expert document . on the basis of personal knowledge of available experts and personal connections of the City Board members and officials in the Land Development Department. and finally gave up. However.
After each stage. Since the consultation process for the Warsaw Strategy was not defined in the 1994 Act on Warsaw. The outcome of this phase was published in the form of a report A Report on the State of Warsaw (Raport o stanie Warszawy) in November 1997.April 1997.2 Preparation of the Strategy. namely the Study spelling out spatial development policy. and not being legally required for other Polish municipalities. The planning work itself. Strategic and Operational realizacyjne). This process can be divided in two phases: the planning works undertaken by two chief designers.1. It has been also published in a separate report The Conditions. An in-house team from the Department of Land Development was set to assist the chief designers in their work. The second stage consisted of “analysing and assessing the environment for Warsaw’s development. done primarily by two chief designers. the reports were sent to various institutions asking for written opinions. The first stage consisted of “assessing the existing situation. cele strategiczne i operacyjne rozwoju Warszawy oraz zadania . the designers and city officials involved in the preparatory process decided to follow the logic of the formally required procedure of public consultations when the preparation of similar documents is in question. which included analysing and assessing the structural transformations and tendencies in Warsaw’s socio-economic development between 1990 and 1996” (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 18).2. Consultations took a form of the legally defined 17 Goals of Warsaw Development and Implementation Tasks (Uwarunkowania. preparing scenarios and forecasts of the city’s economic development. and defining the needs and investment priorities regarding technical infrastructure and potential financial sources” (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 18). 4. was divided in two stages. and consultations though the opinion-giving process concerning the final version of the document to be presented for approval to the Warsaw City Council. forecasting fiscal revenues available to local authorities. defining strategic and operational goals and implementation tasks. consultation phase and final approval Since April 1997 until mid-May 1998 the elaboration of the Warsaw Strategy took place.
Different municipal agencies. the members of the Council of Ministers. and at the municipal level. the opinion-giving stage came about in April 1998. administrative.procedure of formal opinion-giving. In addition to written opinions. spatial. public companies. the Chancellery of the Polish President. and one meeting with the members of the Committee on Land Development of the Polish Academy of Science. The final document of the Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010 is a synthesis of the outcomes of the two planning stages together with corrections made after the opinion-giving stage. As such the document went to the Warsaw City Council for approval on 25 May 1998. chambers of commerce (Warsaw City Hall 1999: Introduction). In the case of the second document produced in the preparation of the Warsaw Development Strategy. the members of the Parliament and the Senat coming from Warsaw. There is no motto. infrastructural and ecological potentials and weaknesses. social. 4. from Warsaw municipalities and districts of the Warsaw Centrum municipality. one meeting with representatives of social and professional organisations and scientific institutions. when the draft of the document is sent to prelisted institutions and their written opinion is asked for. The opinion was also asked from the Warsaw Voivodeship administration. the City Council approved the strategic document.1. higher education and scientific institutions also received the draft document. The council chairman demanded a personal vote by council members in order to push for the document’s approval. the committees of the Parliament and the Senat dealing with local government and land development issues. then professional associations. The document was sent to and written opinion expected from. in the same time giving directions for the future preferable overall development of the city. Strategic and Operational Goals of Warsaw Development and Implementation Tasks.2. several meeting were organised to discuss the drafts of two documents: meetings with municipal council chairmen.3 Structure and characteristics of the urban development strategy The Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010 is a comprehensive attempt at exploring economic. mayors and officials of Warsaw municipalities and districts. Eventually. at the central state level. no catch-phrase used to express 18 . The Conditions.
’ The general directional goal is then followed by five main strategic goals. 8 Without giving priority to any of them. 8 Main strategic goals were further operationalised into sixteen operational goals. further implementation efforts’ (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 126). reads as ‘Warsaw as a European metropolis with a rapidly growing economy and a steadily increasing standard of living. ‘which develop more detailed assumptions of the main directional goal’ (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 123) and are ‘the basic guidelines for future planning efforts and. ‘expressing statements of local governments’ intent regarding the city’s development’ (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 123).’ 7 A two-level set of strategic goals for future development of the city of Warsaw was formulated. except to become ‘a true European metropolis. the Strategy sets up the following strategic goals (without ranking them): (1) Improving residential environment and the city’s attractiveness. which will strengthen integration of the metropolitan area. However.the vision of the future city...) Warsaw’s position in various rankings mainly reflects the city’s potential. (..’ As for implementation tasks. (4) Creating a proper environment for international economic. and the latter then operationalised further into seventy five implementation tasks. scientific and cultural organisations and institutions. economic. (3) Creating conditions that would stimulate economic growth. (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 125-6) 19 . The city is not expected to become this or that particular type of a city. Its goal is to strengthen Warsaw’s (and its surrounding areas’) diversity and multifunctionality” (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 121). the improvement perceptions stem more from foreign experts’ positive assessments of Poland’s economic transformations than on concrete socio-economic development in the city itself (despite clear progress in recent years). Warsaw is classified among cities that may very well become first-class European centres (Prague and Budapest are other examples). It is probably because these goals were already defined as ‘priority’ goals and ‘the most urgent of all urgent goals.. It was stated that all operational goals are equally important and no prioritisation was offered.) no one expects Warsaw to soon become a European or world financial. and expected to be the first step towards implementation efforts as the next stage to follow up the preparation and approval of the Strategy document. The general directional goal. were specific 7 The authors honestly point out that “Warsaw’s image abroad has improved in recent years. consequently. they were formulated as the last conceptual step made in the planning work on the Warsaw Development Strategy. and (5) Achieving harmonious development within the city as a whole. the authors stated. scientific or cultural centre. (. The Warsaw Development Strategy Until the year 2010 is not searching for a new role for the city. as illustrated by the city’s progress in recent rankings of European cities. What comes next. (2) Developing and improving the city’s transportation system and ensuring efficient communications links to elsewhere in Poland and points abroad.
developing concrete programmes for implementing specific tasks. publicprivate partnerships). initiating and coordinating cooperation among the City of Warsaw. 4.1. initiating cooperation not only within the City of Warsaw. should involve: improving the efficiency of the city-wide administration. state bodies. economic and social conditions for encouraging selectively defined municipal [city] development” (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 154). the transportation system development is called for with the greatest urge. Creating right conditions for implementation of the Warsaw development strategy. organisational. as such. the authors emphasised. adopting an effective information policy outlining the development strategy’s goals and methods. NGOs and local residents.programmes and an integrated programme for implementing various implementation tasks.4 Giving directions for improving coordination of implementation efforts The authors of the Strategy until 2010 clearly pointed out that the market alone cannot achieve strategic goals of city’s development. Improving municipal administration and city-wide development management. “Local and central government bodies will have to coordinate efforts to create the right institutional. as most needed interventions towards improving the institutional capacity for implementation. Warsaw municipalities and neighbouring municipalities belonging to the Warsaw Metropolitan Area. and targeted at all interested parties. creating a (longer-term) financial policy that promotes development and also use external sources of project finance (including loans.2. 9 20 . the strategic document called for creating conditions for cooperation and coordination of development activities. selecting strategic solutions to certain development issues after conducting specific studies to assess proposed solutions’ effectiveness. The Strategy designers asserted that ‘investments in technical infrastructure should be the top investment priority’ (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 139). In order to ‘make up for the past investment delays’ and to ‘eliminate development disparities’ in Warsaw. reactivating the role of the central state in helping city development . Warsaw Metropolitan Area).were all listed as missing conditions that hinder effective development of the city and.9 Among the mentioned implementation directions. but also within the Warsaw agglomeration (i.e. especially the improvements in the city’s transportation system. bonds.
The lack of clear definition and division of responsibilities between the City of Warsaw authorities and Warsaw municipalities. It prevents the city from fulfilling basic administrative functions. 4. most probably because of the fact that the whole methodology applied was focused on the experts’ generated evaluations.2 The Study of Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Development of Warsaw Capital City According to the first post-socialist Physical Planning Law which came into force on 1 January 1995. coordination and supervision’ (Warsaw City Hall 1999: 92).The functioning of the Warsaw administrative structure as introduced by the 1994 Warsaw Act is recognised as ‘a major hindrance to Warsaw’s development. the lack of coordination in planning and implementation efforts. each and every local municipality was required to produce and enact a document defining the spatial development policy of the municipality.2. Therefore. and on coordination of municipal and sectoral development plans to enable an effective city-wide development.5 An expert development strategy The Warsaw Strategy is clearly an expert-driven document engaging other expert agents and politicians only as much as it was needed and possible in the given circumstances. or any serious public discussion on the Strategy visible.1. As one of the main close observers of the planning policy processes and a planning expert in Warsaw noticed. self-interested behaviour of Warsaw municipalities that has led towards fragmentation in territorial management. That document was to be legally binding and to represent the basis on which detailed local 21 .2. the new administrative structure must be based on much greater cooperation of its various parts. 4. are all serious obstacles to effective development of the city towards a European metropolis status in future. especially planning. there was not much of the expected feedback observed. “regardless of the efforts of the authors of the strategy and of the city authorities. expertise and goals rather than a wide public participation in an early stage of the planning action. The other reason was that the Strategy was drafted on the basis of the expectation that the administrative structure of Warsaw will be improved rather sooner than later” (Buczek 2001: 17).
the Warsaw City Board decided to organise first a competition for the best Concept for the Study. Zygmund Ziobrowski was the winner. i. will be presented widely in various circles to ensure that the professionals are joined in full participation by the city’s inhabitants. The Warsaw City Council decided in June 1995 that the elaboration of such a legal document should start. by the end of the term of the local government holding the office at that time The 1994 Physical Planning Act did not say anything on the choice of a team who was to prepare the Study. i.physical plans were to be prepared. In the case of Warsaw it was clear that the preparatory work had to be commissioned to an external group of experts since there was no in-house planners who would do the work themselves. and a team from Krakow led by Prof. by the professional association of Polish urban planners called the Society of Polish Town Planners (TUP). who will make needs. The study concept.e.2. In the words of the mayor Marcin Swecicki. hopes and areas of conflict known through the organisations active in their midst.1 The Preparation of the Study The process of elaboration of the Study and consultations concerning the final version of policy proposals and implementation tools lasted from the beginning of 1997 until May 1998.e. and to entrust the winning team further elaboration of the Study itself. In the beginning of the elaboration of the Study the City Board expressed their intention to organise the work on a model of wide participation. and required from the City Board to complete the task by the end of the first half of 1998. it was announced that: “[t]he work on the study will see the widest possible participation of the gmina authorities and those of Warsaw as a whole. The document in question is called the Study of the Conditions and Directions of Physical Development of the given municipality. 4.2. The Board decided that the competition will be organised and run by planning experts. The final decision was announced in December 1996. as well as of social and commercial organisations.” (The Office of the Warsaw Capital City Board 1997: 109) 22 . By the end of 1995. and later the successive stages of the study.
enabling further information exchange and preliminary formulation of planning proposals. associations of urban planners and architects.In the very beginning of the work on the Study document. however.was planned to involve five main groups: environmental associations.was in charge of the expert work.11 In the second phase. The main designer of the Study . Only after this formally required stage. the last draft could be finalised and sent to the Warsaw City Council for approval. The third phase was. and voivodeship level). Warsaw municipalities level.10 The division of responsibilities of the main agents/parties involved in the preparatory work was drawn up. The task of the first phase was to make the Study concept done by the team who won the competition discussed in detail with other governmental units and agencies (at the city government level. the wide participation .e. 11 The steering committee consisted of the following members: a member of the Warsaw City Board (i. representatives of Warsaw municipalities and districts of the Centrum municipality. the rules for the organisation of the work were set up. before the final approval vote by the Warsaw City Board and the City Council. The third phase was to collect opinions on the final draft. the chairman of the Warsaw City Council commission dealing with urban development. during the negotiations on proposals and problems. the director of the Department of Land Management. the so-called City Workshop for Spatial Planning and Development Strategy (a body of in-house planners helping the exchange of information between the external expert team under the main designer of the Study and different departments belonging to the Office of the City Board). The task of the second phase was the negotiation of problems during the consultation with various agencies. 10 23 . based on a legally prescribed procedure of asking different institutions for written opinion on the draft of the Study. the political and overall coordination and management of the preparatory work was put into the hands of a special steering committee established only for this purpose. and the main designer of the Study (Mijeska Pracownia Planowania Przestrzennego i Strategii Rozwoju 1997). one of the vice-presidents of Warsaw) acting as the chairman of the committee. agencies dealing with the conservation of historic monuments. and economic organisation/business associations. It was agreed that the work would be divided in three general phases with regard to the cooperation with various governmental units and non-governmental agencies. Technical coordination was the responsibility of a special body under the Department of Land Development of the Warsaw City Board.the leader of the team which won the competition . municipalities belonging to the Warsaw Voivodeship.meaning consultative meetings with non-governmental agencies . However.
numerous meeting were held concerning the preparation of the Study. etc) that was to be recommended by the Study. especially the neighbouring municipalities of the City of Warsaw. a particularly important type of stakeholders in Warsaw development is represented by eleven Warsaw municipalities (gminas). sometimes in smaller groups of two or three municipalities.4. and electricity supply. The existing country-wide sectoral plans were discussed inasmuch as they were to affect the metropolitan area of Warsaw and help ease or solve the problems of the capital city. and negotiated the final proposals (concerning the road system. Taking into account the administrative structure of Warsaw. NGOs and institutions dealing with environmental protection were consulted at one meeting. depending on the infrastructure problem. the consultations were held with the representatives of the Office of the Warsaw Voivodeship (regional level of public administration). Furthermore.2. sometimes on the one by one basis. water.2. few meetings with their representatives were held only in the final stage of the Study preparation. As far as the consultations with civil sector. the sewage system. gas. The designers and city authorities discussed the alternative solutions to the capital city structural weaknesses. and then a group discussion 24 . In addition. At the city-wide level numerous agencies (often in the form of public communal companies) dealing with technical infrastructure and communal services were consulted and in several rounds. railway system.2 Consultations/negotiations Throughout 1997 and the first half of 1998. public transportation. Numerous meeting between the designers and the representatives of municipalities were held. Warsaw municipalities were involved in the negotiation process from the very beginning and up to the very end of the consultations on the final draft. the municipalities of the (at that time still existing) Warsaw Voivodeship were also invited for discussion. The designers consulted central government ministries and offices. scientific institutions and the business sector are concerned. Additional consultations were made with the planners working on the local physical plans being already in preparation by that time and commissioned by Warsaw municipalities.
2. 25 .3 Policy Instruments The authors of the Study identified two main types of the spatial policy instruments standing at disposal of the Warsaw authorities. Throughout the whole process of simultaneous expert work on the elaboration of the Study proposals and consultations/negotiations with various stakeholders external to the City authorities. A few meeting between the team working on the Study and the team working on the Strategy for Warsaw until 2010 took place. the Warsaw City Council approved the Study. especially of the city-owned land. and in the selection of the main developmental interventions proposed by experts.was organised with the representatives of the scientific and research institutions. The discussions were focused both on particular issues and proposals. the decision-making process at the city level included numerous meetings with the City Board. 3.especially the Department of Land Development . based on statutory regulations and led by the need for development management. Cooperation with the authorities at other levels. primarily central government authorities. and on the draft version of the document when the preparatory process was approaching the end. there was some coordination of the two documents in the selection of strategic objectives for future city development. 4. and 4. The Study recognises four main groups of instruments belonging to this type: 1.especially the Commission for Strategy and Development. Land management. Though the preparation of two documents was done as two separate processes. business associations and foundations for regional development. Urban marketing.and few commissions of the Warsaw City Council . The first consists of those instruments that belong to the domain of responsibilities of the Warsaw City authorities. The later discussion focused on the second working version of the Study and the participants were asked for their opinion (Zarzad Miasta Stolecznego Warszawy 1998: Appendix 1).2. in June 1998. departments of the Office of the City Board . Finally. Further planning and making of concrete programmes for city development. authorities of the Warsaw municipalities and municipalities outside the city borders. 2.
As such the Study is a comprehensive set of proposals concerning the improvements in the spatial structure of the city and its functioning. i. the Spatial Development Plan for the Capital City of Warsaw. and were supposed to consist of guidelines for municipal authorities to follow in the process of preparation of local physical plans (as being the obligatory responsibility of municipal authorities).e. The second type of policy instruments is represented by binding provisions for Warsaw municipalities.12 4. and as such existed only in the Warsaw spatial planning system. all further specification and operationalisation of proposals made in the Study were expected to be made in the time after its formal approved by the Warsaw City Council. binding provisions were to form a (dominant) part of the city master plan. and all other large town in Poland have only one level of government. Thus. financial schemes and action plans for implementation of public investments. Binding provisions represented an instrument of influence of the City of Warsaw authorities on the spatial policy of Warsaw municipalities. and further operational programmes determining investment priorities in various sectors of activity. Binding provisions have been introduced in the 1994 Act on Warsaw as a tool of coordination of development throughout the city and a tool of city-wide control on the planning activities of Warsaw municipalities 26 .2. a phase to follow the approval of the plan.2.The above mentioned first group of instruments includes the preparation of the Spatial Development Plan for the Capital City of Warsaw (which preparation was expected to follow immediately after the Study had been approved). It meant that thinking and planning the implementation of proposed interventions was understood as a separate phase from the plan elaboration. According to the then valid law. It is so because only Warsaw has been the Union of municipalities (gminas). 12 This second type of policy instruments came out of the 1994 Act on the Administrative Structure of Warsaw. the Study for the city of Warsaw was meant to be “a set of guidelines encompassing the spatial policy of the city authorities with respect to the area of the Capital City of Warsaw and is considered an act of internal management” (Krajobraz Warszawski 1999: 20).4 Priority proposals for future city development As it was already indicated above.
For the further analysis I will select the first issue and present it in more detail. There is no vision-driven image of the future city expressed in a short sentence. a mix of functions (Studium 1998: 35. (2) the city’s transportation system.1 Strategic areas: concentrating development efforts A novelty that the Study brought about lies in the way the elements of the spatial structure of the city are defined. and consequently of the whole city. if attractively developed. (3) technical infrastructure of the city. done previously under the same expert leadership as the Study for Warsaw. 41-46). The Study designers introduced new spatial categories that explicitly recognise and select spatial elements with pro-development potential.The general goal and five main strategic goals are the same as stated in the Warsaw Development Strategy Until the Year 2010. i. 13 27 . To mention only the first element.e. The idea was new in the Polish context of urban planning. These focal issues and proposals which follow define the developmental agenda set up by the Study for Warsaw. There areas would become key areas for private investment activities. The reasoning behind was that a limited number of areas throughout the city. the Study focuses on five main issues: (1) improvements in the city spatial structure. though some of them might also incorporate light production buildings. The Warsaw City leadership accepted the idea.4. The aim was to improve “basic proportions of the spatial structure of the city as a whole” (Krajobraz Warszawski 1999: 22).13 Since different Warsaw municipalities were characterised by a different mix of development potentials and problems. strategic areas were planned to be primarily the areas of concentration of services.2.2. set up monitoring and special conditions to help investment process. would provoke faster development of the city zones they belong to. or rather when they were presented with the idea. Instead. (4) protection of the Warsaw Nature System. and (5) protection of cultural and landscape values. Their development would require area-based management capacity. The importance attached is based on the principle of concentration of pro-development activities in a limited number of areas throughout the city. multifunctional belts and city gateways. the areas finally selected have different sources of The idea of recognising and selecting strategic areas came from the main designer of the Study. no serious objections were put forward. The authors name three types of such spatial elements or areas: strategic areas. in translating these goals into spatial development policy terms. establishing a developmental agency. 4. It was first introduced in the Study for the city of Krakow. housing and cultural functions.
14 4. after being ratified. This was believed to be the best guarantee that the further development of areas chosen for strategic areas would comply with the original idea of such areas. the Study authors urged and consequently expected the fast preparation of the city-wide master plan which would include binding provisions for Warsaw municipalities to follow in the preparation of local physical plans. This policy instrument was to cover rather management-related aspects of the development of these areas.2 From an idea to political commitment? What has been done during the process of planning for the Study to secure the realisation of the idea of strategic areas? How was implementation considered. Praga Centre. and Targowek Przemyslowy . starting with the specification of investment priorities. It was also stressed that “Strategic areas and multifunctional belts should be the sites of mutual action on the part of [central] government authorities. the Siekierkowska Arch. However. the Study document offered proposals for binding provisions to guide Warsaw municipalities in establishing local land-use or zoning regulations concerning each and every strategic area (Studium 1998: 84-90). Since local physical plans. and how? As it was already stated. Lopuszanska. In order to complement this instrument of securing the realisation of the planned strategic areas. and not be taken over by ad hoc development attempts. represent a law on local spatial development. Wilanow Centre. Zeran Harbour. Skocznia. 14 28 . if at all. binding provisions.attractiveness and were seen as being able to develop a different mix of socioeconomic functions and architectural values. i.e. then they ultimately determined what can be and what cannot be built on a site. Warsaw City. 15 The expectation was that preparation and ratification of the master plan would secure the fast translation of the planned features for chosen strategic areas into the form of the local regulations of investment activities. Studium 1998: 84).2.15 Based on this expectation. Poznan Gateway. the authorities of the Capital City of Warsaw and the Warsaw municipalities” (Krajobraz Warszawski 1999: 26. how much does all this show political commitment to developing strategic areas as conceived by the Study authors? To have binding provisions proposed for The following choice of strategic areas was made: Warsaw’s New Salon. Poludniowy (South) Railway Station.4. the Study also urged the preparation of action plans for strategic areas.2. Gdansk Railway Station. All together twelve of them.
16 16 The Centrum municipality was created by the 1994 Warsaw Act with the intention to avoid the effects of administrative fragmentation of this historically important are. the representatives of investors or real estate agents were not consulted on this during the preparation of the Study document. the new municipality’s border covered the area that belonged to Warsaw of 1939. local physical plans for these areas have already been in preparation. regarding other areas . However. Apart from some research done on the development potentials of these areas. In this manner of neglecting the policy work done by the previous government.these areas still does not guarantee the commitment to the idea of those who are and will be responsible for its realisation: city and municipal authorities and private investors alike. When it was announced in October 2000. there was no wider consultation. Namely. “The first one was the draft of the so-called Warsaw Master Plan.3 Third election period 1998-2002 After the 1998 local elections. new Warsaw mayor (and the mayor of the Centrum municipality) Pawel Piskorski announced the New Spatial Policy (NPP). primarily with potential stakeholders other than municipal authorities. The 1992 Warsaw master plan.those beyond prime locations. in order 29 . especially because it was rather a draft and no legal procedure for the discussion and its approval existed. 4. For the areas with central locations. Warsaw municipal authorities were informed about the proposal. it was based on two other drafted planning documents. and the selection of areas for strategic areas was done in consultation with them. and the interest of private developers was visible. the same area being nationalised by decree in 1945 after destruction of Warsaw in the Second World War. new city authorities hardly paid any attention to the Strategy for Warsaw and its goals. Nobody at first knew what this attempt was about.’ The other one was [at that time still] the draft of the Study of Conditions and Directions of Urban Development of the Centrum Municipality” (Buczek 2001: 17). though amended in numerous occasions. it may have not appear necessary because these areas have been treated as having strategic importance since the beginning of the 1990s. was still used as the key policy document for issuing planning and building permits. which was some kind of a followup on the selectively enriched ideas of the General Development Plan for Warsaw [master plan] of 1992 transformed into so-called ‘binding guidelines for the local physical development plans of Warsaw municipalities.
the power to influence gminas in their spatial development decisions through the Study was lost as soon as the Study was approved by the city Council. the City of Warsaw lost the power to make legally binding spatial policy in the form of the Study. For the city level authorities. “It is important to notice that municipalities of Warsaw were conducting their own works on their studies (…) quite frequently without paying much attention to the content of the Study of the City. municipalities of the Warsaw Union were also entrusted to develop their own spatial development policies in the form of a Study of Conditions and Directions of Urban Development. Because of this situation. accounted for 25% of the territory of modern Warsaw of the 1990s. 30 . minimal interest of the national authorities in the development of the capital city was also stated. This change was introduced by the Polish Parliament’s amendment on the 1994 Planning law that was prepared almost simultaneously with the approval of the 1998 Study. had a legal power to influence the spatial decisions of gminas. It was approved in mid-2000. and treated them as law. This area. According to this amendment done by the national parliament. and they started doing it on their own. 17 Although the city of Warsaw now had a strategic development document and the document presenting its spatial development policy.1998 Study for Warsaw could not act as the spatial development policy document because of the administrative structure of Warsaw that required and favoured gmina’s studies.17 Only city-developed binding provisions for gminas. 57% of Warsaw inhabitants lived in this municipality while 72% of all jobs in Warsaw were located there. in the period of 1994-2002 belonging to the Centrum municipality. as a possibility prescribed by from the Warsaw Act. despite the serious discrepancies between two documents” (Buczek 2001: 12). So. This Warsaw Development Plan Including Obligatory Guidelines for the Warsaw Municipalities in Preparing Local Spatial Development Plans was approved in the City Council July 2001. The specific example of such approach is the work on the Study for Gmina Centrum. only the Strategy was required. The document also called for the modification of the legislation related to the system of local government in Warsaw. which was much more favoured later by the authorities of Warsaw during the third term than the Study for Warsaw. In an act of almost perverse change.18 This document to enable its reconstruction. 18 Among the most important problems of the spatial development policy for Warsaw that were asserted in the Warsaw Development Plan containing binding provisions. city authorities under the leadership of the Mayor Piskorski decided to prepare a document stating the binding provisions for the gminas in deciding on their spatial policy. For instance. between the end of 1997-2000 the Centrum gmina undertook the preparation of the Study of Conditions and Directions of Urban Development until 2020 of the Centrum municipality. it was pointed out that the lack of participation of government funds in the building of the necessary bypass routes and the metro system is affecting the likelihood of these development being implemented in the needed pace.
no public consultation process took place. 31 . His deputymayor Mr. It means that until the beginning of 2006. mayor Piskorski’s New Spatial Policy (NPP) remained a political vision for city-wide development with little real power over the investment and planning decisions of Warsaw municipalities Although used by Piskorski for his political ambitions aimed towards national politics rather than staying at the level of Warsaw city politics. though the document was never publicly discussed. it still shows the constant interest of the city leadership then in office to do something favouring overall city development contrary to the fragmented actions of municipalities that were interested mostly in what happened within their borders irrespective of how it affected other Warsaw neighbourhoods. after his experience as the Mayor of Warsaw.containing binding provisions became officially the new Study for the city of Warsaw as soon as the new Act on Warsaw was put in force (October 2002) abolishing old gminas. namely binding provisions. document has been used in making planning and building decisions. Due to the system of legal obstacles that finally blocked almost any initiative coming from the City to influence developments at the level of Warsaw municipalities. even in terms of the officially preferred consultation process. Kozak was appointed as the new Warsaw Mayor. since the new Study has not been officially approved yet. the old Study. by the end of the third term. Piskorski push the initiative in the national parliament to change the Warsaw Act. and making Warsaw one municipality for the first time since 1990. Finally. Before the binding provisions for gminas were originally approved in 2001. Piskorski went to the national parliament after 2001 national elections. drafted and finally approved in March 2002 – all in a few months since the new national Parliament started its work. finally the structure of forces in the new Parliament enabled the new Act on Warsaw to be initiated. most of the development ideas of the city authorities remained as acts of good will only. After a long period of anti-Warsaw sentiments in the Parliament that were responsible for the lack of support for a radical reform of the Warsaw administrative system.
failed to meet the new planning requirements. In the words of a few interviewed experts.4. New circumstances – new unified city administration. the new Law on spatial planning and management was put in force. That was the argument put forward by the leadership around the new mayor Kaczynski. new mayor. Kaczynski’s attitude when elected was “all before me was inappropriate.1 Preparation of the Strategy until 2020 At first. and joining the EU in just a few months – required a brand new strategic document for the city that was soon to become a new EU metropolis. 4. According to this new spatial planning law.1 Strategy for the Development of the Capital City of Warsaw until 2020 4.4 Fourth election period 2002-2006 According to the 2002 Act on Warsaw. including local area plans. Under the management of the Office for Development Strategy and European 32 . corrupt.4. and gaining the weak status of – have no planning power. The new law did not require the preparation of a general strategic document. it looked as if the city did not really know how to go on with the preparation process. In July 2003. simply wrong”. the 2001 binding provisions document turned into the Study for Warsaw after the introduction of the new administrative structure for Warsaw in 2002. Old 1998 Strategy until 2010 was not taken into any consideration when deciding on this new endeavour. Only in the beginning of 2004. The new Warsaw authorities were obliged to start the preparation of the new spatial policy document. The Warsaw City authorities are responsible for all planning documents. contrary to the previous 1994 law. and for their implementation. 18 newly established districts – loosing the status of Warsaw gminas. did the new City Council of the finally unified city government decided to initiate the development of the new strategic document.1.4.
8 groups were initiated to do different work on the drafting of the strategic document. All together these groups included about 20 city departments and 80 external experts contributing to different aspects of the preparation of new strategy. but not realised). and spatial structure of the city. an urban planner by his background. The formation and coordination of the expert team was entrusted to Roman Dziekonski.20 The reports were made after these 19 Dziekonski. mostly various chambers of commerce and some sectoral organisations. and six interdepartmental groups dealing with different issues such as technical infrastructure. started with the presentation of some visions and projects coming from city 20 33 . Those early meetings. environment protection and tourism (consulting other sectors was initially planned. sport activities. the responsible office organised three seminars between June and October 2004 in order to collect opinions and learn further about the needs of social groups outside to the city hall. including the state of technical infrastructure and the financial resources available to the city authorities. He started the first strategic planning process in Warsaw that ended with no strategic document approved before the second local elections.Integration. and political life of the city. established Warsawa XXI team of planners independent from the City. and over a period of 6 months the team came up with an strategic document based on expert knowledge. seeking their ideas about the city development. cultural life. The task of another group was to do the groundwork on the diagnosis of the current situation in Warsaw called the Report on the state of city of Warsaw. Another seminar was organised with the non-governmental organisations from the spheres of culture. and was also responsible for the initiation and coordination of the preparatory work on the first transport strategy for the city approved in 1995 after the second local elections. The management control was in the hands of the Office for Development Strategy. was the deputy mayor in the first city government in 1990-1994 period. One seminar was organised with the representatives of business organisations. environmental protection. education. housing and other social issues. transport. especially the first two with the business representatives and selected NGOs.19 He gathered a team of five experts from different fields. Parallel to the work of these eight groups. economic. They included an expert team from outside of city administration. but much of the work was also contracted to external experts in order to analyse different aspect of the social. Yet another seminar was organised with students from different universities in Warsaw. a group working on the Report on the state of the city of Warsaw.
Directors of two departments and representatives of two teams responsible for the preparation of these two documents met a few times in order to synchronise the content of two drafts and the proposed interventions. followed by the request for opinions from the invited audience. Another set of meetings followed with city councillors (in several groupings of the various committees of the City Council). At one point this was a rather long. being used as another input into the final drafting of the strategy. two meetings were organised for directors of all departments and some staff with the Warsaw Vice-Presidents. This exhibition Warsaw of the Future was intended to show the strategy for city development to the wider public.1. selecting the vision. Draft of the Strategy until 2020 was checked against the draft of the new Study document being in preparation.three meetings with the representatives of various social groups.21 After this initial selection. All those materials were put together. operational goals. Presentations prepared by departments were based on the on-going work of six inter-departmental groups working towards the strategic document. 4. strategy. In the words of a participant in this process. other interested organisations and interested public. and some input from the project proposals being prepared for the application for the EU structural funds. By spring 2005.2 Approval stage: Formal process of opinion-giving and the final vote Until May 2005 the draft of the new strategic document was ready and a shorter version with many illustrations of proposed interventions was prepared for the public exhibition in the early summer. and goals for Warsaw until 2020. and to serve as a consultation process with citizens. The purpose of those inter-departmental meetings with city political leader was to discuss what was more and what less important for the city and for various city departments. A survey on the opinion to the new strategic document for Warsaw was conducted during the one-month and a 34 . in order to make the final selection of goals. 21 Until 2020 in order to cover two programming periods for distribution of EU fund: 20072013 and 2013-2020. city councillors.22 departments. incoherent document of 3000 pages.” Discussions started within this office on the SWOT analysis. all eight groups finished their work. 22 18.000 copies of the summary version of the draft document were distributes to the city districts. programmes and finally implementation tasks.4. it looked as “all sectoral strategies different departments submitted were put together. and submitted it to the Office for Development Strategy.
No materials were given in advance so participants could not really prepare their reaction and make systematic and most important comments from their perspective. The interested public was asked for written opinions.4. on 24 November 2005. 35 .23 In the meanwhile. This move was seen by many people as a self-promotional gesture in the Kaczynski’s campaign for the Polish President – using the Warsaw strategic document for his personal publicity. 23 No consultation meeting was organised with the representatives from the district councils. This document. and was elected the new Polish President in the second round. two meetings were organised: one with the representatives of the business sector. contrary to the 1998 Strategy until 2010.000 copies and distributed as a special supplement of the daily newspapers Gazeta Wyborcza. but we didn’t plan another meeting with them because they wanted to put many details [into the city’s strategic document]. “some people from districts were involved in six interdepartmental groups [working on a selection of sectoral issues]. this time including the health care NGOs. 4. As one city official put it. Warsaw mayor Lech Kaczynski run for the Presidential election in the fall 2005. The meetings were scheduled in the way that first the representatives from the city authorities gave presentations on a selection of issue.24 Finally. the final version of the strategic document was approved by the Warsaw City Council. and these changes came as the result of the consultation process. In the same time.As part of the further consultation process. another summary version of the Warsaw Strategy until 2020 was reprinted in 120. all until the final approval of the document.3 Structure and characteristics of the urban development strategy This second strategic document – Strategy for Warsaw until 2020 – contains all the standard elements of a strategic document. and then comments were asked from the invited audience. starts with a mission of city authorities and their vision for the half of the exhibition.” 24 In October. and one with non-governmental organisations participating in the special meeting of the regular “Forum for Social Dialogue”.1. Written opinions for the general public were coming to the City Hall throughout the summer and fall 2005. and formed a minority central government. the third time that the approval of the Strategy until 2020 was on the City Council agenda. his party PiS won most of the seats in the national parliament. The final version included some changes into the spring version of the strategy.
” The vision is followed by five strategic goals25. The mission of the City of Warsaw. but rather kept by departments. the city of rich tradition. a city with the high quality of life. 36 . the expected financial sources listed. the financial centre of Central Europe. an important centre of European culture with well-organised public spaces . The city administration claimed that some prioritisation was done at the level of tasks. and (5) to achieve lasting spatial order in Warsaw. outside observers of the preparatory process were rather convinced that in fact ”the Strategy is not related to financial planning of the city” and that “no prioritisation of programmes and tasks was made” in the final stage. is to achieve the highest possible level of satisfaction of residents’ needs and to place Warsaw among the most important European metropolises.1. broken down to twenty-one operational goals and seventy programmes for implementation. (2) to consolidate the residents’ sense of identity by preserving tradition. 4. this was not published as a part of the strategic document.next fifteen years of city development.4. and the best time for implementation estimated. infrastructure projects like metro construction and tram lines reconstruction and further expansion. in words of a city official.g.4 Coordination of implementation efforts The city administration claims that financial forecast was done for all tasks. national and European level. However. 25 (1) to improve the quality of life and safety of the residents of Warsaw. “the capital of the Republic of Poland. not at the level of operational goals and programmes. the city of significant standing among the most important European capitals. (4) to develop modern economy based on scientific knowledge research.” The vision for the city is that “Warsaw of 2020 is an attractive. However. Multiyear financial plan was ready before the strategic document was finalised “so the parameters were known for the strategy”. dynamically developing metropolis with a knowledge-base economy. modern. developing culture and stimulating social activity.a city with the soul. The list of tasks for the implementation of the strategic objectives includes many projects intended for EU funding that had already been in the process of preparation by different city departments during the drafting of the Strategy (e. Warsaw of our vision is an open and accessible community. (3) to develop metropolitan functions strengthening Warsaw’s position on the regional.
1. but will be prepared later. but rather belong to the central government (e. “with a longer perspective of the strategic document. only needs to be updated and the full proposal developed. PKW railway tracks and land in Warsaw). Expert team’s document contained a list of investments for every task they suggested. A list of indicators for monitoring the change was not prepared together with the strategic document. Contrary to the expert document for the new strategic document for Warsaw.” 26 It also included projects like urban regeneration in the Praga district on the right side of Wistula river that is waiting for the EU funding some time in the future if that type of regeneration projects become eligible for the EU Structural funds. and more items in the basket. and introduced indicators for monitoring implementation. 4. Their intention is to revise the Strategy every year. The Office for Development Strategy is responsible for monitoring the implementation efforts under the supervision of the Warsaw City President. The implementation of the Strategy rests with the individual city departments. or to the resources of the business sector. programmes or tasks. the final document did not include any prioritisation of either operational goals.revitalisation of the Krakowskie Przedmiescie street). but they expected that final financial feasibility and political feasibility will be done afterwards in the City Hall. but maybe in the future. As an external planner told me. “No EU funds for that [type of intervention] now. The rationale for including all these tasks into the city authorities’ strategic document was that “this is not the city government’s strategy but the strategy for the whole city”.5 Remarks The final document was about sixty percent based on the expert’s strategy document.” 37 . in the words of an official involved with the document through the preparation process.4. They made a prioritisation of operational goals and tasks.g. So we’ll be able to show that it’s already in our Strategy.26 Implementation of some listed tasks is not in the power of city authorities. more people can be satisfied – in the shortterm. assessed the expected impact of the implementation of the projects. It looks rather as a comprehensive list of all projects already in preparation and those vaguely planned for.
asking for their opinion of what the Study should contain from their particular perspective. Simultaneously with the preparation of the first draft. First. the first full draft of the Study was sent to all units of the city administration. Then. the City Council made the decision to start the preparation of the new Study. Since then. consultations with the general public are held. the document can pass to the next phase when the written opinion of different organisations is required. All opinions and complains were put together. as the third phase. Second draft of September 2005 incorporated the comments on the first draft. The planning office needs to make a report on rejected opinions explaining why they were rejected. and participating at the public debates organised by the Chief Architect’s Office (all in 21 working day). Public enterprises and general public were asked to comment existing developments in their area/sphere of interest. The response was good. as required by the new spatial planning law. including sending written opinions. Some sectoral elements of the Study were done by the sectoral experts. but in general there was no contracting out of work outside of the City’s public sector. the work on the elaboration of the new Study was done by the Department for Spatial Development of the Chief Architect’s Office. and only if all required opinions are positive. The expected approval time was postponed several times.4. and associated City Planning Workshop.2 Preparation of the new Study of conditions and directions for spatial development of the City of Warsaw In September 2003. and to all districts in order to check the facts and correct mistakes. information about the preparation of the new Study was sent out to all local and regional public bodies. because all consulted parties were well-informed of the purpose of the document and its obligatory nature for the local area plans in preparation. The latest announcement put the expected time is May 2006. have three main phases. that report goes as a supplement to the Study when it is passed to the City Council for approval.4. 38 . Public consultations. and their significance for the preparation of the new Study was assessed. according to the new Planning law. In April 2005. five public bodies (including the regional governor and the marshal at the regional level) are legally required to give written opinion on the Study.
1 The nature of the strategic planning processes in Warsaw In the period from 1990 to the end of 2005. each of them started as completely new endeavour. and the third waiting to be approved in 2006. neither considering nor revising the product of the previous process. These three strategic processes were unrelated to each other. there has been three strategic planning processes focusing on the spatial development policy for the entire city (1997-98. started being developed anew. there has been a tendency to imitate the procedures for spatial development strategic documents. 2000-01. and 2004-06). The first strategic document for spatial development had been mostly forgotten. Public participation in the strategic decisionmaking processes was confused with consultations in the form of opinion-giving by a 39 . Understanding participation of other public bodies. and consultations with actors outside of the strictly speaking city authorities. especially in the consultation phase coming at the end of the preparation process. The Strategy until 2020 adopted in 2005. 1997-98. and 2004-05) with two of these attempts leading all the way towards the official approval of a strategic document. In the same period. completely neglecting to reflect on the previous 1998 document Strategy until 2010. Warsaw authorities undertook about three general strategic planning processes (1992-94. citizens and organised interests through the framework of the official consultation process limited the involvement of the actors outside of the City Hall and the circles of contracted external experts in the preparation of strategic documents. while the second had an unexpected fate due to the radical change in the administrative structure of Warsaw and resulting political change in 2002. nor building up on it.5 Conclusion: Characteristics of the political process of strategic planning in Warsaw 5. Because of this. There were no legal guidelines on how to organise the process of preparation of general strategic documents. the first two ended with the adopted official document.
2 Effects of the strategic planning on the local governing arrangement 40 . Their involvement was limited to the sporadic meetings in the consultation phase. Elaboration of strategies during the preparation of strategic documents has been separated from the implementation phase: considering implementation was left for the phase after the official approval of the strategic documents by the City Council. Regional authorities were consulted only in the very last stage when almost final document was sent for their opinion. There was no direct participation of the business representatives and NGOs. Potential private investors were hardly ever consulted in relation to particular implementation aims and suggested programs during the deliberations on strategic interventions in particular areas. The national authorities were not directly involved in any way. The Warsaw case demonstrates weak internal public sector integration. The findings on the participation of different actors directly correspond with the evidence suggesting very limited consideration of the implementation prospect of the strategic goals and interventions during the planning process. The empirical evidence shows that the strategic processes in Warsaw have been limited to city authorities. Assessments of the investors’ interests were hardly ever made. deputy-mayors responsible for strategic development.certain number of public bodies external to the City Hall administration and by interested citizens after the strategic directions have been almost fully decided upon. It is especially poignant with respect to estimating real investment interests of private businesses that have control over much of the resources that can be invested in city development. in the best case they were only assumed. The main actors in the general strategic planning processes and in spatial development planning were the two departments of the City Hall (Department for Development Strategy and European Integration and the Land Management Department. later the Chief-Architect’s Office). mostly urban planners. The involvement of the municipal authorities (Warsaw gminas) existing before 2002 and Warsaw districts after 2002 was very limited. and a limited involvement of external experts. and a small number of contracted external experts. 5.
Only in 2002. In terms of the three scenarios of how strategic planning processes can influence the institutional setting of the local governing arrangement – offered in the second section of this paper – my research findings suggest that strategic planning exercises in Warsaw brought about a limited consolidation of the local public sector and expert elite without any significant involvement either from collective interest groups or citizens. The administrative structure directly influenced the instability of political leadership. and practically no support for the other two. Presented evidence shows empirical support for the first scenario. were the main obstacles as far as the organisation of the public sector is concerned. Warsaw had a particularly damaging administrative structure since the first Warsaw Act in 1990 over several new adaptations until a radically new administrative structure was introduced in the 2002 Warsaw Act. and associated instability of local political leadership. was elected by the City Council. As contextual variables show. and since 1994 it practically meant that the mayor of the biggest and central 41 . and from the internal context of the existing institutional capacity of the local public sector to steer urban development in an integrated way. as the consequence of the radical administrative reform for the city of Warsaw. Obstacles to making a shift towards greater involvement of collective interest groups – both from the business and non-profit sectors – and towards greater involvement of citizens seems to be coming both from the general context of urban governance in this post-socialist city. It meant that local responsibilities were divided between two levels of government with unclear and often conflicting division of responsibilities and resources. with strong independence tendencies of the outer city municipalities (gminas) and weak coordination capacity of the city to set up and enforce an integrated set of policies and rules for the overall development of the whole city.A general conclusion on the effects of strategic planning processes on the local governing arrangement in Warsaw is that there is a limited effect up to now. The President of Warsaw. which ended chaotic administrative divisions and frequent paralysing conflicts. the whole city became one municipality and county. equivalent to the city mayor. a high degree of administrative and political fragmentation characterising intergovernmental relations between different level of government until the radical reform in 2002.
On the one side. were undertaken in such unstable and fragmented political conditions. As for the civil society. There is also evidence suggesting the sensitivity of the public opinion when it comes to close relations between local authorities and the business sector. associations of business interests are still developing. especially from the business sector. Communication. On the other side. to be more closely involved in the development of the general policies for city development. there has been only limited development of organised interest groups or NGOs capable of representing in a well-informed and constructive way different social interests. In this manner. individually or through business associations. The mayor. remaining disinterested in taking part in general policy development. leading to the lack of capable partners on the side of civil society. On the other side. not to mention cooperation. Though the number and variety of business actors dramatically increased since the introduction of the market economy and opening up of the Polish markets to the global competition. including strategic planning. therefore. the lack of understanding of the benefits of having societal actors involved 42 . general strategic planning and spatial development policies being the case in point. Investors. and low genuine interest on the side of existing organised interests. Cooperation of any kind is very easily interpreted by citizens in post-socialist countries of CEE as corruption or clientelism (Swianiewicz 2001). seem to communicate with city authorities only concerning particular development opportunities. did not have the loyalty to the city as a whole.city district – Centrum Gmina – automatically became the President of Warsaw once he was elected by the Centrum Gmina Council. there is evidence suggesting still low collective interest representation in the non-governmental sectors. City-wide planning activities and development policies. between the Warsaw city authorities and existing NGOs is still very weak. and the problem lies on both sides. four of which were indirectly elected between 1990 – 2002 before the new administrative reform introduced the position of the directly elected mayor of the City of Warsaw in addition to the new unified administrative structure. Warsaw has had five mayors in fifteen years. but rather to the political structures of the central district that elected him. there has been weak organised representation of social interests.
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