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Coppers

Overview
The major uses of pure, unalloyed copper are based on its high electrical and thermal conductivity as well its good corrosion resistance. Almost all alloying elements are detrimental to the electrical conductivity of copper, making the purity of the mental an important issue. Commercially pure copper is represented by UNS numbers C10100 to C13000. The various grades of unalloyed copper differ in the amount of impurities and therefore do behave differently. Oxygen free coppers are used in applications requiring high conductivity and exceptional ductility. The pure copper or high copper alloys are made from copper ores that are obtained from the mines as sulfides, which contain zinc, lead and other sulfur. The ores are crushed and milled until they becomes a powder. A technique known as flotation separates the metal from the non-metal components of the powder. The next step is a concentrating stage where minerals are concentrated into a slurry that is about 15% copper. The copper is then melted and purified in several stages until it is 99% pure copper. At this point it is cast into anodes. Oxygen remains in the structure as cuprous oxide, Cu2O. The majority of the structure is pure copper. The copper metal solidifies from the liquid state by the growth of crystals. The crystals grow in preferred directions and form open, tree like structures called dendrites. The dendritic structure is very typical of cast metals. A lower melting point mixture of pure copper and cupprous oxide, called a eutectic, forms in the open spaces between the dendrites. The eutectic particles are usually dark, globular bodies dispersed in a copper background. The cuprous oxide particles form a network, outlining the dendritic cells. Pores, seen as dark spots in the microstructure, are also present in the as-cast material. The copper anodes are then refined electrolytically to 99.9% purity. Copper melted under non oxidizing conditions is called oxygen free copper. The most popular form of pure copper is the standard electrical wire grade of copper (C11000) contains 99.95% Cu, 0.03% O2, and less than 50 ppm metallic impurities. It has a high electrical conductivity, in excess of 100% IACS. In the as cast form it is called electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper. The structure of the as-cast material is similar to that described above. When the as-cast ETP copper is hot rolled the eutectic structure is completely destroyed. The microstructure of the hot rolled copper contains many small grains. Parallel straight lines extending across many of the grains are called annealing twins. They appear after a metal has been mechanically worked at a high temperature, called annealing, and deformed. The interdendritic network of cupprous oxide particles was destroyed by hot rolling. After hot rolling, cupprous oxide particles changed form, and are present as stringers or aligned rows of dark particles. The oxide particles are much larger and fewer in number than in the as cast microstructure.

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Coppers

Hot extruded Urquhart's Reagent ~ 250Microns

Copper University of Florida

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Description: Longitudinal section

Coppers Wire Continuous cast 5/16" dia rod, annealed 30 min at 700C drawn to .081" dia, annealed 2 hr at 200C, ~ 25Microns

Copper University of Florida

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Description: Transverse section

Coppers Wire Continuous cast, 5/16" dia, hot rolled rod, drawn to .081 dia, hard wire, not annealed ~ 25Microns

Copper University of Florida

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Coppers Wire Continuous cast hot rolled 5/16" diameter, hot rolled rod drawn to .081 d hard wire, not annealed ~ 25Microns

Copper University of Florida

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Description: Transverse section

Coppers Wire Continuous cast hot rolled rod, annealed 30 min at 700 C, drawn to .081 dia, annealed 2 hr at 200 c ~ 25Microns

Copper University of Florida

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Coppers Rod

~ 125Microns C10100 Copper OFHC University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.99

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Coppers Cast As cast ~ 125Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90

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Coppers

Embrittled ~ 125Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90

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Coppers Wire Hot rolled ~ 50Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90

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Coppers Wire Soft annealed ~ 50Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90

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Coppers Rod Continuous cast, 5/16" dia, hot rolled rod ~ 250Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90, .026% O2 Description: Transverse section at edge

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Coppers Rod Continuous cast, 5/16" dia, hot rolled rod ~ 250Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90, .026% O2 Description: Longitudinal section at edge

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Coppers Rod Continuous cast, 5/16" dia. hot rolled rod ~ 50Microns C11000 ETP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.90, .026% O2 Description: Longitudinal section at edge

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Coppers Cast As cast ~ 500Microns C12200 DHP University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.9

Cadmium Copper
Overview
Pure unalloyed copper is soft and ductile, and usually contains approximately 0.7% impurities. Cadmium copper alloys are considered high copper alloys, they contain approximately 98 - 99 % copper, 0.1 - 1.5% cadmium and sometimes minor amounts of other materials. When cadmium is added to copper the material becomes more resistant to softening at elevated temperatures. The more cadmium that is added the more heat resistant the material becomes. Small additions of cadmium do not affect the thermal and electrical conductivities, and room temperature mechanical properties of cadmium copper. Cadmium copper is used in applications such as trolley wire, heating pads, electric blanket elements, spring contacts, connectors, and high strength transmission lines. Cadmium copper is used for trolley wire because it is extremely resistant to arc erosion. An extremely heat resistant cadmium oxide forms on the surface of the wire during arcing and protects it from eroding. This enables the cadmium copper wire to retain its strength under the high temperature conditions of the electric trains. It is also used for soldering applications, particularly to join components in automobile and truck radiators and semi conductor packaging operations. The UNS alloy designations for cadmium copper alloys containing approximately 1% cadmium are C16200 and C16500. An alloy containing 0.1 to 0.2% cadmium is designated as C14300. There are no cast cadmium copper alloys. The microstructure of the cadmium copper is similar to the pure copper materials. The alloying elements are in very low concentrations and they remain in solid solution with the alpha copper. The cadmium coppers are single phase alloys with the alpha copper structure. Cadmium copper is easily cold work and hot formed. Microstructures of the worked materials would contain equiaxed, twinned grains. The structures may contain oxide inclusions throughout the grains.

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 125Microns C16200 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.7-1.2, Fe 0.02

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High copper alloys

Cold worked ~ 50Microns C16200 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.7-1.2, Fe 0.02

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High copper alloys Wire

~ 125Microns C16200 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.7-1.2, Fe 0.02 Description: Wire #10B&S

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High copper alloys Sheet Temper 1/2 HT ~ 125Microns C16500 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.6-1.0, Sn 0.5-0.7, Fe 0.02

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High copper alloys Sheet Temper AT ~ 25Microns C16500 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.6-1.0, Sn 0.5-0.7, Fe 0.02

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High copper alloys Sheet Temper 1/2HM ~ 250Microns C16500 Cadmium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cd 0.6-1.0, Sn 0.5-0.7, Fe 0.02

Beryllium Copper
Overview
Copper beryllium alloys are used for their high strength and good electrical and thermal conductivities. There are two groups of copper beryllium alloys, high strength alloys and high conductivity alloys. The wrought high strength alloys contain 1.6 to 2.0% beryllium and approximately 0.3% cobalt. The cast, highstrength alloys have beryllium concentrations up to 2.7%. The high conductivity alloys contain 0.2-0.7% beryllium and higher amounts of nickel and cobalt. These alloys are used in applications such as electronic connector contacts, electrical equipment such as switch and relay blades, control bearings, housings for magnetic sensing devices, non sparking applications, small springs, high speed plastic molds and resistance welding systems. Cast beryllium coppers are frequently used for plastic injection molds. The cast materials have high fluidity and can reproduce fine details in master patterns. Their high conductivity enables high production speed, while their good corrosion and oxidation resistance promotes long die life. The UNS designations for the wrought alloys are C17200 through C17400 and the cast alloys are C82000 through C82800. The high strength of the copper beryllium alloys is attained by age hardening or precipitation hardening. The age or precipitation hardening results from the precipitation of a beryllium containing phase from a supersaturated solid solution of mostly pure copper. The precipitation occurs during the slow cooling of the alloys because the solubility of beryllium in alpha copper decreases with decreasing temperature. Typically the alloys are rapidly cooled from the annealing treatment, so the beryllium remains in solid solution with the copper. Then the alloy is given a precipitation or age hardening treatment for an hour or more at a temperature between 200 and 460 C. Upon tempering, the beryllium containing phases, called beryllides, precipitate out of solution. During the first stage of precipitation, there is the homogeneous nucleation of Guinier-Preston (G-P) zones. The G-P zones are small precipitation domains in a supersaturated alpha copper solid solution. The G-P zones have no well defined crystal structure of their own and they contain a high concentration of, in this case, beryllium atoms. The formation of G-P zones usually coincides with a change in properties. In the case of beryllium copper alloys, the property change is an increase in strength. As age hardening progresses, coherent metastable gamma double prime precipitates form from the G-P zones. Followed by the precipitation of gamma prime precipitates. The strength of these alloys increases as a result of the coherency strains that develop at the interface between the matrix and the growing precipitates. Over aging of the copper beryllium alloys is avoided because the equilibrium gamma phase forms and causes a decreases in strength. The precipitation of the equilibrium gamma phase depletes the metastable gamma prime precipitates, and softens the alloys. The cast copper beryllium alloys have the typical dendritic structure of alpha (pure) copper, with the addition of the beryllide phases. The general microstructural features of the beryllide phases are similar in the cast and wrought materials. The beryllides can be seen in the as polished condition, it is not necessary to etch the specimens to reveal their structure. Primary beryllides form blue gray intermetallic particles that can be up to 10 microns long. These beryllides form during solidification and have a Chinese script morphology. The secondary beryllides form after solidification and have a rod like morphology. In the high-strength alloy castings the inter dendritic network is composed of alpha and gamma. The gamma double prime and gamma prime precipitates, in both the high conductivity and high strength copper beryllium alloys, are too small to be resolved with an optical microscope, and therefore do not appear in the optical micrographs. The presence of the age hardening precipitates in the high strength alloys can be detected indirectly by the striations that appear through the grains. The striations result from the overlap of coherency strains at the interfaces between the precipitates and the matrix. There are striations on the polished surface of these alloys when the age hardening precipitates are present and the striations etch very dark. This dark etching is not seen in the high conductivity alloys, the aged and unaged microstructure appear very similar. The equilibrium gamma phase appears as dark nodules on a bright matrix in over aged copper beryllium alloys. These gamma precipitates are typically found at the grain boundaries and have a plate like morphology. The microstructure of the wrought material, after precipitation hardening, contains roughly equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha copper and a dispersion of nickel, cobalt or nickel and cobalt beryllide particles. The grain sizes are relatively fine due the dispersion of the beryllides. The beryllide particles are roughly spherical and blue gray in color. The beryllides are finer in the wrought material than the cast material because they are broken up during the thermomechanical processing. There is no transformed beta in microstructure of the wrought materials because it is dissolved during thermomechanical processing. The gamma double prime and gamma prime precipitates responsible for the age hardening are too small to be resolved directly with an optical microscope. Etching the sample reveals the dark striations associated with the age hardened precipitates.

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 500Microns C17000 Beryllium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.5, Be 1.6-1.79

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 50Microns C17000 Beryllium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.5, Be 1.6-1.79

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 125Microns C17000 Beryllium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.5, Be 1.6-1.79

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed and cold rolled 37% to Hard temper Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208(arnmonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 TD04 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 790 C (1450 F) and cold rolled 37% to full hard temper. Longitudinal section shows elongated grains of alpha phase and cobalt beryllides.

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High Copper Alloys Plate Cast, homogenized and hot worked Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 M20 (Hot worked) Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Cast, homogenized and hot worked. The microstructure shows nonuniform distribution of grain sizes, typical of hot worked product. Greater uniformity in grain size distribution may be achieved in the finished product by successive cold working and annealing operations.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, and solution annealed Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208(anmonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water. C17200 TB00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 790 C (1450 F), quenched to room temperature. Longitudinal section shows equiaxed grains of supersaturated alpha phase, solid solution of beryllium in copper. Cobalt beryllide particles which do not dissolve during solution annealing are observed.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed and age hardened to maximum hardness Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 TF00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 790 C (1450 F), subsequently precipitation hardened at 315 C (600 F) for 3 h to achieve maximum attainable hardness. Longitudinal section shows equiaxed alpha grains and the cobalt beryllide phase uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix. The strengthening precipitates which result from precipitation heat treatment are not resolved by optical microscopy. Small amounts of equilibrium gamma phase are present in the grain boundaries.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed and mill hardened to specific property ranges Ammonium persulfate/anmonium hydroxide, 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 TM00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Mill hardened to TMOO temper to achieve maximum formability at moderate strength. Longitudinal section shows roughly equiaxed grains of alpha copper-rich solid solution matrix phase. Small cobalt beryllide particles are uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix. Strengthening precipitates which form during precipitation heat treatment are not resolved by optical microscopy.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, age hardened beyond the maximum hardness condition Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 Overaged Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 790 C (1450 F), precipitation heat treated at 370 C (700 F) for 6 h to attain the soft overaged condition. The structure shows equiaxed grains of alpha phase and equilibrium gamma precipitates in the grain boundaries, which appear as dark nodules in a light matrix. Striations in alpha matrix are the result of concurrent metastable precipitate formation, not optically resolvable.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, cold rolled 37% to Hard temper, age hardened to maximum hardness Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 TH04 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Pb 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed, cold rolled 37% to Hard temper and precipitation hardened at 315 C (600 F) for 2 h to achieve maximum hardness. Longitudinal section shows elongated grains of alpha phase and cobalt beryllides. Striations are caused by metastable precipitates, not resolved by optical microscopy.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, rolled and mill hardened to specific property ranges Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C17200 TM08 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 1.80-2.00, Co + Ni 0.20 min, Co + Ni + Fe 0.6 max, Ph 0.02 max, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Mill hardened to TM08 temper for high strength and limited formability. Longitudinal section shows the alpha copper-rich solid solution phase with elongated grains as a result of cold working before precipitation hardening. Cobalt beryllide particles are observed uniformly dispersed throughout the matrix. Striations are caused by metastable precipitation within the alloy. The strengthening precipitates which form during precipitation heat treatment are not resolved by optical microscopy.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, and age hardened to maximum hardness Cyanide; 1 g KCN (potassium cyanide) and 100 ml. distilled water C17500 TF00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Be 0.4-0.7, Co 2.4-2.7, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 900 C (1650 F), and precipitation hardened at 480 C (900 F) for 3 h to achieve maximum hardness. Equiaxed fine grains of alpha phase are observed with small cobalt beryllide particles uniformly distributed throughout the matrix. The strengthening metastable precipitates are not resolved.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, cold rolled and age hardened to maximum hardness Cyanide; 1 g KCN (potassium cyanide) and 100 ml. distilled water C17500 TH04 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Be 0.4-0.7, Co 2.4-2.7, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 900 C (1650 F), cold rolled to Hard temper and precipitation hardened at 480 C (900 F) for 2 h to achieve maximum hardness. Structure consists of elongated fine grains of alpha phase and cobalt beryllide phase uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed and age hardened to maximum attainable hardness Cyanide; 1 g KCN (potassium cyanide) and 100 ml. distilled water C17510 TF00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Be 0.2-0.6, Ni 1.4-2.2, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 900 C (1650 F), and precipitation hardened at 480 C (900 F) for 3 h to achieve maximum hardness. Equiaxed grains of alpha phase are observed with small nickel beryllide particles uniformly distributed throughout the matrix.

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High Copper Alloys Strip Cast, hot rolled, intermediate annealed, cold rolled, solution annealed, cold rolled and age hardened to maximum hardness Cyanide / peroxide / hydroxide - 20 ml. KCN (potassium cyanide), 5 ml. H202 (hydrogen peroxide), and 1 to 2 ml. NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) C17510 TH01 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Etchant:

Nominal Composition: Be 0.2-0.6, Ni 1.4-2.2, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: Solution annealed at 900 C (I 650 F), cold rolled 11%, and precipitation hardened at 480 C (900 F) for 2 h to achieve maximum hardness. Structure consists of slightly elongated grains of alpha phase, and small nickel beryllide particles. The strengthening metastable precipitates are not resolved.

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High Copper Alloys Casting As-cast Cyanide - 1 g KCN (potassium cyanide) and 100 ml. distilled water C82200 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Nominal Composition: Be 0.60, Ni 1.5, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min Description: As-cast microstructure showing interdendritic networks of large primary beryllide phase that form during solidification in an alpha copper-rich solid solution matrix. Small needle-like secondary beryllides with preferred crystallographic orientation, which precipitate from solid solution during slow cooling after casting, are observed throughout.

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High Copper Alloys Casting Cast, solution annealed and aged Ammonium persulfate/ammonium hydroxide; 1 part NH40H (ammonium hydroxide) (conc) and 2 parts (NH4)2S208 (ammonium persulfate), 2.5% in distilled water C82500 TF00 Beryllium Copper Brush Wellman

Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Be 2.06, Co 0.50, Si 0.25, Cu + Sum of Named Elements 99.5 min. Description: Cast, solution annealed at 790 C (1450 F) and aged to peak hardness (Rockwell C38-43), at 315 C (600 F) for 3 h. Microstructure shows script beryllides, and angular beta phase, transformed to a lamellar aggregate of alpha and gamma phases, in an alpha copper-rich solid solution matrix. Striations are the result of metastable precipitation in the alloy.

Chromium Copper
Overview
Chromium copper alloys are high copper alloys, containing 0.6 to 1.2% Cr. The chromium copper alloys are used for their high strength, corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. The chromium copper alloys are age hardenable, which, in this case, means that a change in properties occurs at elevated temperature due to the precipitation of chromium out of the solid solution. The strength of fully aged chromium copper is nearly twice that of pure copper and its conductivity remains high at 85% IACS, or 85% that of pure copper. These high strength alloys retain their strength at elevated temperatures. The corrosion resistance of chromium copper alloys is better than that of pure copper because chromium improves the chemical properties of the protective oxide film. Chromium copper has excellent cold formability and good hot workability. It is used in applications such as resistance welding electrodes, seam welding wheels, switch gears, cable connectors, circuit breaker parts, molds, spot welding tips, and electrical and thermal conductors that require strength. Chromium copper alloys are designated as UNS C18050 through C18600, the cast alloys are C81400 through C81540. The age hardening reaction occurs because the solid solubility of chromium in copper decreases as the temperature decreases. The structure of slow cooled chromium copper is a two phase mixture of chromium and alpha copper. Superior mechanical properties are achieved by fast-cooling the chromium copper alloys from the annealing temperature, so the chromium remains in a supersaturated solid solution with the copper. Followed by an aging treatment where the chromium precipitates from the solid solution forming a very fine dispersion of precipitates in the matrix. The microstructure of a quenched or quickly cooled chromium copper alloy appears similar to that of the unalloyed copper. A fast cool prevents the chromium from precipitating out of the solid solution, so the resulting cast structure consists of a single phase alpha copper structure. The first material to solidify is pure copper, followed by a eutectic mixture of alpha and chromium. The alpha and chromium eutectic material forms a lamellar structure in the interdendritic regions. The microstructure of the wrought alloy consists of equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha copper solid solution. Typically the allow are cooled rapidly so the chromium remains in alpha copper solid solution. The tempering treatment allows the chromium to precipitate out of solution forming a dispersion of chromium precipitates throughout the matrix. The chromium precipitates, or hardening precipitates, can be very fine and may not be visible at low magnifications.

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High copper alloys

Age hardened and drawn 20% ~ 500Microns C18200 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.5, Cr 0.6-1.2, Si 0.10, Fe 0.10, Pb 0.05

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High copper alloys

Age hardened and drawn 20% ~ 250Microns C18200 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.5, Cr 0.6-1.2, Si 0.10, Fe 0.10, Pb 0.05

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High copper alloys

Age hardened and drawn 20% ~ 50Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

High copper alloys

Age hardened and drawn 20% ~ 50Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

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High copper alloys

Age hardened and drawn 20% ~ 25Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 125Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 50Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

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High copper alloys

As cast ~ 25Microns C18500 Chromium copper University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 99.8, Cr 0.4-1.0, Pb .015, P .04

Brasses
Overview
Brasses are copper zinc alloys. In general, they have good strength and corrosion resistance, although their structure and properties are a function of zinc content. Alloys containing up to approximately 35% zinc are single phase alloys, consisting of a solid solution of zinc and alpha copper. These brasses have good strength and ductility, and are easily cold worked. The strength and ductility of these alloys increases with increasing zinc content. The alpha alloys can be differentiated by a gradual change in color, from golden yellow to red, as the zinc content is increased up to 35%. Gilding 95%, Commercial Bronze, Jewelry Bronze, Red Brass and Cartridge Brass are in this category of brasses. These are known for their ease of fabrication by drawing, high cold worked strength and corrosion resistance. Increasing the zinc content up to 35 % produces a stronger, more elastic brass alloy with a moderate decrease in corrosion resistance. Brasses containing between 32 and 39% zinc have a two phase structure, composed of alpha and beta phases. Yellow brasses are in this intermediate category of brasses. Brasses containing more than 39% zinc, such as Muntz metal, have a predominantly beta structure. The beta phase is harder than the alpha phase. These materials have high strengths and lower ductility at room temperature than the alloys containing less zinc. The two phase brasses are easy to hot work and machine, but cold formability is limited. Brasses are used in applications such as blanking, coining, drawing, piercing, springs, fire extinguishers, jewelry, radiator cores, lamp fixtures, ammunition, flexible hose, and the base for gold plate. Brasses have excellent castability, and a good combination of strength and corrosion resistance. The cast brasses are used in applications such as plumbing fixtures, fittings and low pressure valves, gears, bearings, decorative hardware and architectural trim. The UNS designations for wrought brasses includes C20500 through C28580, and C83300 through C85800 for cast brasses. Certain brasses can corrode in various environments. Dezincification can be a problem in alloys containing more than 15% zinc in stagnant, acidic aqueous environments. Dezincification begins as the removal of zinc from the surface of the brass, leaving a relatively porous and weak layer of copper and copper oxide. The dezincification can progress through the brass and weaken the entire component. Stress corrosion cracking can also be a problem for brasses containing more than 15% zinc. Stress corrosion cracking of these brasses occurs when the components are subject to a tensile stress in environments containing moist ammonia, amines, and mercury compounds. If either the stress or chemical environment is removed the stress corrosion cracking will not occur. Sometimes a stress relieving treatment is sufficient to prevent stress corrosion cracking from occurring. The microstructure of the single phase brass alloys, with up to 32% zinc, consists of a solid solution of zinc and alpha copper. The as-cast structure of the low zinc brasses consists of alpha dendrites. The first material to solidify is almost pure copper, as the dendrites continue to solidify they become a mixture of copper and zinc. A composition gradient exists across the dendrite, with zero zinc content at the center and highest zinc content at the outer edge. The composition gradient is called coring, and it typically occurs with alloys that freeze over a wide temperature range. Subsequent working and annealing breaks up the dendritic structure. The resulting microstructure consists of twinned, equiaxed grains of alpha brass. The annealed microstructure is made up of equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha copper, similar to the structure of unalloyed copper. The grains appear in different shades due to their different orientations. The twins are parallel lines that extend across individual grains. The twins result from a fault in the staking sequence of the copper atoms, making it difficult to distinguish the individual grains. Alpha copper is the primary phase in cast alloys containing up to approximately 40% zinc. The beta phase,which is the high zinc phase, is the minor constituent filling in the areas between the alpha dendrites. The microstructure of brasses containing up to approximately 40% zinc consists of alpha dendrites with beta surrounding the dendrites. The wrought materials consist of grains of alpha and beta. Cast alloys with greater than 40% zinc contain primary dendrites of beta phase. If the material is fast-cooled, the structure consists entirely of beta phase. During a slower cool, the alpha precipitates out of solution at the crystal boundaries, forming a structure of beta dendrites surrounded by alpha. This structure is called a Widmanstatten structure, because a geometrical pattern of alpha is formed on the certain crystallographic orientations of the beta lattice. The wrought, two phase material consists of grains of beta and alpha. Hot rolling tends to elongate the grains in the rolling direction. Brasses frequently contain lead in order to improve machinability. The microstructure of the leaded brasses is similar to that of the unleaded brasses with the addition of almost pure lead particles found in the grain boundaries and inter-dendritic spacings. The lead is observed in the microstructure as discrete, globular particles because it is practically insoluble in solid copper. The number and size of the lead particles increases with increasing lead content.

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Brasses

As cast ~ 500Microns C21000 Guilding, 95% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.0-98.0, Zn 1.9-3.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.02

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Brasses Wrought

~ 125Microns C21000 Guilding, 95% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.0-98.0, Zn 1.9-3.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.02

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Brasses Wrought

~ 25Microns C21000 Guilding, 95% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.0-98.0, Zn 1.9-3.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.02

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Brasses

As cast ~ 50Microns C22000 Commercial bronze, 90% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 89.0-90.0, Zn 8.9-11.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.05

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Brasses

As cast ~ 500Microns C22000 Commercial bronze, 90% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 89.0-90.0, Zn 8.9-11.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.05

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Brasses Wrought

~ 125Microns C22000 Commercial bronze, 90% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 89.0-90.0, Zn 8.9-11.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.05

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Brasses Wrought

~ 25Microns C23000 Red brass, 85% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 84.0-86.0, Zn 13.9-16.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.05

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Brasses Wrought

~ 250Microns C23000 Red brass, 85% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 84.0-86.0, Zn 13.9-16.0, Fe 0.05, Pb 0.05

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Brasses Wrought

~ 125Microns C26000 Cartridge brass, 70% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 68.5-71.5, Zn 28.38-31.38, Pb 0.07, Fe 0.05

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Brasses Wrought

~ 25Microns C26000 Cartridge brass, 70% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 68.5-71.5, Zn 28.38-31.38, Pb 0.07, Fe 0.05

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High strength yellow brasses Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C86300 Manganese bronze University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 60-66, Zn 22-28, Al 5.0-7.5, Mn 2.5-5.0, Fe 2.0-4.0, Ni 1.0, Pb 0.20 , Sn 0.20

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High strength yellow brasses Cast ingot

~ 125Microns C86300 Manganese bronze University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 60-66, Zn 22-28, Al 5.0-7.5, Mn 2.5-5.0, Fe 2.0-4.0, Ni 1.0, Pb 0.20 , Sn 0.20

Silicon Brasses
Overview
Silicon brasses are part of the subgroup of high strength brasses. These materials contain less than 20% zinc and less than 6% silicon. The silicon brasses are solid solution strengthened. These silicon brasses are typically chosen because of their high strength and moderately high corrosion resistance. The conductivity of the silicon brasses is much less than that of unalloyed copper. The silicon red brasses are used for valve stems where corrosion and high strength are critical. The wrought silicon red brasses are designated as UNS C69400 through C69710. Included in this category are the silicon red bronzes. These alloys are similar to the silicon red brasses except they contain very low concentrations of zinc. The silicon red bronze alloys are designated UNS C47000 through C66100. The cast silicon red brasses are C87300 to C87900. Silicon brass castings exhibit moderate strength and very good aqueous and atmospheric corrosion resistance. They are used in applications such as bearings, gears, and intricately shaped pump and valve components. The silicon red brasses are single phase alloys. The zinc and silicon contents of the silicon brasses and bronzes are low enough that the alloying elements remain in solid solution. The microstructure of the cast material contains cored dendrites of alpha copper solid solution containing zinc and silicon. The coring occurs because the alloys solidify over a wide temperature range, which allows segregation of the alloying elements. The zinc and silicon composition varies form zero at the center of the dendrite to a maximum at the outer edge. The subsequent working and annealing breaks up the dendrites and results in a structure consisting of equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha solid solution. The microstructure of the wrought materials consists of equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha copper solid solution. The microstructure of leaded silicon red brass is similar to the unleaded alloys with exception of lead particles distributed in the grain boundaries and inter dendritic areas. The lead solidifies as globules in the grain boundaries because it is practically insoluble in solid copper.

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Silicon brasses Wrought

~ 50Microns C69400 Silicon red brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 80.0-83.0, Si 3.4-5.4, Zn 12.0-13.0, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.30

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Silicon brasses Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C69430 Silicon red brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 80.0-83.0, Si 3.4-5.4, Zn 12.0-13.0, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.30, As 0.03-0.06

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Silicon brasses Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C69430 Silicon red brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 80.0-83.0, Si 3.4-5.4, Zn 12.0-13.0, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.30, As 0.03-0.06

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Silicon brasses Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C69710 Silicon brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 75.0-80.0, Si 2.5-3.5, Zn 14.0-21.4, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.51.5, Mn 0.4

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Silicon brasses Wrought

~ 25Microns C69710 Silicon brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 75.0-80.0, Si 2.5-3.5, Zn 14.0-21.4, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.51.5, Mn 0.4

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Silicon brasses Wrought

~ 50Microns C69710 Silicon brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 75.0-80.0, Si 2.5-3.5, Zn 14.0-21.4, Fe 0.20, Pb 0.51.5, Mn 0.4

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Silicon bronzes Cast As cast ~ 500Microns C65500 High silicon bronze A University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 94.8, Si 2.8-3.8, Zn 1.5, Mn 0.50-1.3, Fe 0.8, Ni 0.6, Pb 0.05

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Silicon bronzes Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C65500 High silicon bronze A University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 94.8, Si 2.8-3.8, Zn 1.5, Mn 0.50-1.3, Fe 0.8, Ni 0.6, Pb 0.05

Tin Brasses
Overview
Tin brass is used for its increased corrosion resistance and somewhat higher strength than straight brass. This family of alloys is made with zinc contents ranging form 2 to 40% zinc, and 0.2 to 3.0% tin. Tin reduces susceptibility of the high zinc brass to dezincification. Dezincification is the selective leaching of zinc from the brass leaving a porous copper structure. Arsenic, antimony and phosphorus also reduce the susceptibility of brasses to dezincification. The tin brasses are economical and have slightly better properties than the straight brasses. They have good hot forgeability and reasonably good cold formability. The tin brasses are used in applications such as high strength fasteners, electrical connectors, springs, corrosion resistant mechanical products, marine hardware, pump shafts, and corrosion resistant screw machine parts. This category of brasses includes admiralty brasses, naval brasses and free machining tin brasses. The cast tin brasses are called cast red brasses. Alloys that contain less than 8% zinc are a red copper like color, and hence the name red brass. Semi red brasses contain up to 15% zinc and are lighter in color than the red brasses. They have reduced corrosion resistance, but retain their good strength. These materials have moderate strength, high atmospheric and aqueous corrosion resistance, and excellent electrical conductivity. Cast red brasses are also made containing lead which increases their machinability and pressure tightness. The wrought tin brasses are designated by UNS C40400 through C48600. The cast red brasses are labeled UNS C83300 through C83810 and the cast semi red brasses are UNS C84200 through C84800. The microstructure of the tin brasses is dependent on the zinc and tin content of the alloy. Tin brasses with low zinc and low tin contents are single phase alloys. The structure consists of alpha copper solid solution containing zinc and tin. The cast structures contain cored dendrites, the zinc and tin content of the dendrites increasing from the center to the edge of the dendrites. The wrought microstructure contains twinned grains of alpha solid solution. Alloys with higher zinc contents have multi phase structures, made up of alpha and beta. The wrought microstructure contains twinned grains of alpha copper solid solution and beta grains. The cast red brasses have less than 12% zinc and less than 7% tin. While the semi red cast brasses have up to 17% zinc and less than 6% tin. These alloys have a wide freezing range and segregation of the alloying elements occurs during solidification. The formation of zinc rich and tin rich beta occurs during solidification. The tin rich phase transforms to alpha plus delta, which fills the areas between the alpha dendrite arms. The wrought structure consists of grains of alpha solid solution and grains of zinc and tin rich alpha and delta phases.

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Tin brasses

Cast and hot rolled ~ 50Microns C46400 Naval brass, unihibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-62.0, Zn 36.7-40.0, Sn 0.5-1.0, Pb 0.20, Fe 0.10

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Tin brasses

Hot rolled ~ 500Microns C46400 Naval brass, unihibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-62.0, Zn 36.7-40.0, Sn 0.5-1.0, Pb 0.20, Fe 0.10

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Tin brasses Cast as cast ~ 250Microns C46400 Naval brass, unihibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-62.0, Zn 36.7-40.0, Sn 0.5-1.0, Pb 0.20, Fe 0.10

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Tin brasses Cast As cast ~ 500Microns C46400 Naval brass, unihibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-62.0, Zn 36.7-40.0, Sn 0.5-1.0, Pb 0.20, Fe 0.10

Leaded Brasses
Overview
Lead brasses are used for their high machinability and atmospheric corrosion resistance. The machinability of brass is increased by the addition of lead because it acts as a microscopic chip breaker and tool lubricant. The leaded brasses are used for copper base screw machine material. The alloys have excellent machinability, good strength and corrosion resistance. Lead can be added to any brass to increase machinability and provide pressure tightness by sealing the shrinkage pores. There are low, medium and high leaded brasses, with lead contents up to 3.5%. The lead brasses are used for architectural hardware, general purpose screw machine parts, screws, valves, fittings, bearings and specialty fasteners. The wrought lead brasses are designated by UNS C31200 through C38500. The cast lead brasses are grouped with their unleaded counter parts, and fall in the range of alloys between C83600 through C97300. The microstructure of the leaded brasses is similar to that of the unleaded brasses. The microstructure of the leaded brasses contain discrete lead particles primarily in the grain boundaries or inter-dendritic regions. Lead is practically insoluble in solid copper and is present in the cast and wrought materials as discrete particles that appear dark in the structure. The microstructure of the as cast lead brasses is a function of the zinc content. The lower zinc containing alloys are single phase solid solution alpha dendrites, with lead particles dispersed throughout the interdendritic regions. Those with a higher zinc content have a two phase structure, consisting of alpha and beta. The higher zinc containing alloys have a microstructure of all beta. The lead appears as discrete particles, appearing dark in the microstructure. The microstructure of the wrought low zinc leaded brasses consists of twinned grains of alpha with lead particles throughout the matrix. The higher zinc containing alloys contain a mixture of alpha and beta phases and lead particles. Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Leaded brass Cast As cast ~ 125Microns C35000 Medium leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.0, Zn 34.5-40.0, Pb 0.8-1.4, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C35000 Medium leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.0, Zn 34.5-40.0, Pb 0.8-1.4, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 250Microns C35000 Medium leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.0, Zn 34.5-40.0, Pb 0.8-1.4, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 50Microns C35000 Medium leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.0, Zn 34.5-40.0, Pb 0.8-1.4, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Cast As cast ~ 250Microns C35300 High leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.5, Zn 33.2-40.0, Pb 1.3-2.3, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C35300 High leaded brass, 62% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 59.0-64.5, Zn 33.2-40.0, Pb 1.3-2.3, Fe 0.10

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Leaded brass Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C36000 Free machining brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 60.0-63.0, Zn 33.0-37.0, Pb 2.5-3.7, Fe 0.35

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 25Microns C36000 Free machining brass University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 60.0-63.0, Zn 33.0-37.0, Pb 2.5-3.7, Fe 0.35

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 250Microns C36500 Leaded Muntz metal, inhibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 58.0-61.0, Zn 38.0-41.0, Pb 0.40-0.9, Sn 0.25, Fe 0.15

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 50Microns C36500 Leaded Muntz metal, inhibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 58.0-61.0, Zn 38.0-41.0, Pb 0.40-0.9, Sn 0.25, Fe 0.15

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Leaded brass Wrought

~ 25Microns C36500 Leaded Muntz metal, inhibited University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 58.0-61.0, Zn 38.0-41.0, Pb 0.40-0.9, Sn 0.25, Fe 0.15

Phosphor Bronze
Overview
Phosphor Bronzes, or tin bronzes, are alloys containing copper, tin and phosphorous. The phosphor bronzes contain between 0.5 and 11% tin and 0.01 to 0.35 % phosphorous. The addition of tin increases the corrosion resistance and strength of the alloy. The phosphorous increases the wear resistance and stiffness of the alloy. The phosphor bronzes have superb spring qualities, high fatigue resistance, excellent formability and solderability, and high corrosion resistance. They are primarily used for electrical products, other uses include corrosion resistant bellows, diaphragms, and spring washers. The phosphor bronzes are designated as UNS C50100 through C54200. Leaded phosphor bronzes combine good strength and fatigue resistance with good machinability, high wear resistance and corrosion resistance. They are used in applications such as sleeve bearings, thrust washers, and cam followers. They are designated as UNS C53400 through C54400. The microstructure of wrought phosphor bronzes contain the twinned grains typical of copper alloys. The tin remains in the alpha copper solid solution. The phosphorus forms a copper phosphide phase. The phosphor bronzes have a wide freezing range and extensive segregation of the alloying occurs on cooling. The material that cools first are dendrites of the copper rich alpha phase. The dendrites are heavily cored, or contain a range of compositions over their thickness. The second phase to form is tin rich, initially transforming to beta, and finally to a mix of alpha and delta. The alpha and delta phases form in between the dendrites. The phosphor rich phase solidifies last as the eutectic composition of copper phosphide. The dendrites are broken up during working and annealing, the resulting structure consists of grains of alpha copper and are of the alpha and tin rich delta phases, and copper phosphide.

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Phosphor bronzes

Gate MRL ~ 125Microns C50500 Phosphor bronze, 1.25% E University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.5-98.5, Sn 1.0-1.7, P 0.03-0.35, Zn 0.30, Fe 0.10, Pb, 0.05

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Phosphor bronzes

Gate MRL ~ 500Microns C50500 Phosphor bronze, 1.25% E University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.5-98.5, Sn 1.0-1.7, P 0.03-0.35, Zn 0.30, Fe 0.10, Pb, 0.05

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Phosphor bronzes Wrought Wrought MRL ~ 125Microns C50500 Phosphor bronze, 1.25% E University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 97.5-98.5, Sn 1.0-1.7, P 0.03-0.35, Zn 0.30, Fe 0.10, Pb, 0.05

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Phosphor bronzes Cast As Cast ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 110Microns C51000 As Cast Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 4.2-5.8, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.30 max, Cu remainder Description: Horizontally, continuous cast bar. The as cast structure is a coarse grained structure containing alpha solid solution dendrites surrounded by globules of alpha solid solution.

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Phosphor bronzes Strip Hard rolled and annealed to 0.0350.040 mm average Grain Size ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 440Microns C51000 Annealed Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 4.2-5.8, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.30 max, Cu remainder Description: Cold rolled and annealed metal. A re-crystallized alpha grain with annealing twins structure.

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Phosphor bronzes Strip Hard rolled and annealed to 0.005 mm average Grain Size. ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 440Microns C51000 Annealed Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 4.2-5.8, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.30 max, Cu remainder Description: Cold rolled and annealed metal. Structure consists of small equated grains of alpha solid solution.

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Phosphor bronzes Cast As Cast ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 110Microns C52100 As Cast Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 7.0-9.0, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.02 max, Cu remainder Description: Horizontally, continuous cast bar. The as cast structure is coarse grained structure containing alpha solid solution dendrites surrounded by alpha solid solution.

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Phosphor bronzes Strip Hard rolled and annealed to 0.0350.040 mm average Grain Size ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 440Microns C52100 Annealed Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 7.0-9.0, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.02 max, Cu remainder Description: Cold rolled and annealed metal. A re-crystallized alpha grain with annealing twins structure.

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Phosphor bronzes Strip Hard rolled and annealed to 0.005 mm average Grain Size. ASTM E407 Etchant #44 - 50 ML NH40H, 50ML h2o2 (3%), 50ML water ~ 440Microns C52100 Annealed Phosphor bronzes The Miller Company

Nominal Composition: Sn 7.0-9.0, P 0.03-0.35, Fe 0.10 max, Pb 0.05 max, Zn 0.02 max, Cu remainder Description: Cold rolled and annealed metal. Structure consists of small equated grains of alpha solid solution.

Aluminum Bronzes
Overview
Aluminum bronzes are used for their combination of high strength, excellent corrosion and wear resistance. Aluminum bronze alloys typically contain 9-12% aluminum and up to 6% iron and nickel. Alloys in these composition limits are hardened by a combination of solid solution strengthening, cold work, and precipitation of an iron rich phase. High aluminum alloys are quenched and tempered. Aluminum bronzes are used in marine hardware, shafts and pump and valve components for handling seawater, sour mine waters, nonoxidizing acids, and industrial process fluids. They are also used in applications such as heavy duty sleeve bearings, and machine tool ways. They are designated by UNS C60800 through C64210. Aluminum bronze castings have exceptional corrosion resistance, high strength, toughness and wear resistance and good casting and welding characteristics. Aluminum bronze castings are designated as UNS C95200 to C95900. The microstructure of the aluminum bronzes with less than 11% aluminum consist of alpha solid solution and the iron and nickel rich kappa phase. The kappa phase absorbs aluminum from the alpha solid solution preventing the formation of the beta phase unless the aluminum content is above 11%. The kappa phase increases the mechanical strength of the aluminum bronzes, with no decrease in ductility. The decrease in ductility of the aluminum bronzes occurs when the beta phase forms. The beta phase is harder and more brittle than the alpha phase. Beta is formed if the material is quenched or fast cooled, which then transforms into a hard, acicular martensite structure. Tempering the martensite results in a structure of alpha with kappa precipitates. The tempered structure is very desirable, it has high strength and hardness. The slow cooled, as cast structures consist of alpha and kappa phases. Kappa is present in the lamellar form and finely divided in all the alpha areas. The addition of iron and nickel also suppress the formation of the gamma double prime phase which has deleterious effects on the properties of aluminum copper alloys.

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Aluminum bronzes Plate Hot rolled ~ 125Microns C61300 Aluminum bronze, 6-7.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 90.83, Al 6.5, Fe 2.4, Sn 0.27

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Aluminum bronzes Rod Extruded and cold drawn ~ 125Microns C61300 Aluminum bronze, 6-7.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 90.83, Al 6.5, Fe 2.4, Sn 0.27

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Rod Extruded and cold drawn 10% ~ 25Microns C62400 Aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 87.1, Al 9.3, Fe 3.6

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Rod Extruded ~ 50Microns C62500 Aluminum bronze, 12.5-13.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 83.8, Al 12.0, Fe 4.2

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes

As quenched from 857C ~ 25Microns C63000 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 9.0-11.0 Al, 4.0-5.5 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 82.5, Al 9.7, Ni 4.9, Fe 2.9

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Rod Extruded and cold drawn ~ 125Microns C63000 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 9.0-11.0 Al, 4.0-5.5 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 82.5, Al 9.7, Ni 4.9, Fe 2.9

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes

Extruded ~ 125Microns C63200 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 8.7-9.5 Al , 4.0-4.8 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 80.4, Al 8.9, Ni 5.0, Fe 4.7, Mn 1.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Nominal Composition: Cu 80.4, Al 8.9, Ni 5.0, Fe 4.7, Mn 1.0

Aluminum bronzes

Quenched from 927C and tempered at 705C ~ 500Microns C63200 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 8.7-9.5 Al , 4.0-4.8 Ni University of Florida

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Cast, annealed at 621C and water quenched ~ 500Microns C95400 Aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.8, Al 10.2, Fe 4.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Annealed and furnace cooled ~ 50Microns C95400 Aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.8, Al 10.2, Fe 4.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Annealed at 621C and water quenched ~ 25Microns C95400 Aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.8, Al 10.2, Fe 4.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Cast and quenched from 913C ~ 125Microns C95400 Aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.8, Al 10.2, Fe 4.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Cast and heat treated ~ 250Microns C95500 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 10-11.5 Al, 3-5.5 Ni, Mn 3.5 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 78 min, Al 10.0-11.5, Ni 3.0-5.5, Fe 3.0-5.0, Mn 3.5

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Annealed at 621C and air cooled ~ 25Microns C95800 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 9 Al, 4.5 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 81.4, Al 8.9.5, Ni 4.7, Fe 4.0, Mn 1.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Cast and quenched from 857C ~ 25Microns C95800 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 9 Al, 4.5 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 81.4, Al 8.9.5, Ni 4.7, Fe 4.0, Mn 1.0

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Aluminum bronzes Cast Cast and quenched from 857C ~ 125Microns C95800 Nickel-aluminum bronze, 9 Al, 4.5 Ni University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 81.4, Al 8.9.5, Ni 4.7, Fe 4.0, Mn 1.0

Copper Nickels
Overview
Copper nickel alloys are very corrosion resistant and thermally stable. The copper nickel alloys contain from 2 to 30% nickel depending upon the application. These alloys usually have additions of iron, chromium, niobium, and or manganese to improve the strength and corrosion resistance. They are virtually immune to stress corrosion cracking and exhibit high oxidation resistance in steam and moist air. The copper nickel alloys have moderate strength even at elevated temperatures. The higher nickel alloys are well known for their corrosion resistance in sea water and their resistance to marine biofouling. The copper nickel alloys are used in applications such as electrical and electronic products, tubes for condensers in ships and power plants, various marine products including valves, pumps, fittings and sheathing for ship hulls. The wrought alloys are designated as UNS C70100 through C72950. The cast alloys are C96200 to C96900. Cast copper nickel alloys are typically used aboard ships, on offshore platforms and in coastal power plants. Copper nickel alloys are single phase alpha structures because nickel is completely soluble in copper. The as cast dendrites are heavily cored, they contain a composition gradient, because the alloys freeze over a wide temperature range. The as cast structures consist of alpha dendrites, that have an increasing nickel content from the center to the edge of the dendrite. The interdendritic regions, being the last liquid to solidify are high in nickel too. Mechanical treatments break up the dendritic structure, but even repeated mechanical and thermal treatments do not homogenize the alloying elements. Segregation of the alloying elements, which starts out as coring of the dendrites, is seen as banding in the wrought microstructures. The microstructure of the wrought materials is similar to that of unalloyed copper, it consists of twinned grains of alpha copper. The banding of the alloying elements shows up as dark rows or stripes across the grains.

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-nickels

Annealed ~ 125Microns C70600 Copper-nickel, 10% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 86.5, Ni 9.0-11.0, Fe 1.0-1.8, Zn 1.0, Mn 1.0, Pb 0.05

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-nickels

Annealed ~ 25Microns C70600 Copper-nickel, 10% University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 86.5, Ni 9.0-11.0, Fe 1.0-1.8, Zn 1.0, Mn 1.0, Pb 0.05

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-nickels Wrought

~ 25Microns C72500 Copper-nickel, 10% Ni, 2% Sn University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.35-88.35, Ni 8.5-10.5, Sn 1.2-2.8, Fe 0.6, Zn 0.50, Pb 0.05

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-nickels Wrought

~ 125Microns C72500 Copper-nickel, 10% Ni, 2% Sn University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 85.35-88.35, Ni 8.5-10.5, Sn 1.2-2.8, Fe 0.6, Zn 0.50, Pb 0.05

Nickel Silvers
Overview
Nickel silvers are alloys that contain copper, nickel, and zinc. They are also called nickel brasses, the silver refers to their attractive silver luster. The nickel silvers have moderately high strength and good corrosion resistance. The cast nickel silvers are copper, tin, lead, zinc, nickel alloys. They too are named for their silvery luster. They have low to moderate strength and good aqueous corrosion resistance. They are used in the food and beverage handling equipment, decorative hardware, electroplated table ware, optical and photographic equipment and musical instruments. The copper silvers are designated as UNS C73500 through C79800, the cast alloys are UNS C97300 to C97800. The microstructures of the nickel silvers are predominantly single phase solid solution alloys. The wrought nickel silvers contain between 7 and 20% nickel, and 14 and 46% zinc. The structure of the higher zinc alloys is a two phase structure, similar to that of the high zinc brasses. The nickel is soluble in copper, so it remains in solid solution with the copper. Zinc has limited solubility in copper. Alloys with more than approximately 32% zinc consist of alpha and beta phases. These alloys solidify over a wide range of temperatures, the resulting cast microstructure contains cored dendrites, or dendrites with a composition gradient across the thickness. The composition of the material in between the dendrite arms is rich in zinc and nickel. The wrought structures of the alloys with less than 32% zinc are single phase equiaxed, twinned grains of alpha copper. The two phase alloys contain a mix of alpha and beta grains.

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Nickel-silvers Wrought

~ 125Microns C73500 Nickel-silver, 72-18 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 70.5-73.5, Ni 16.5-19.5, Zn 6.15-9.15, Mn 0.50, Fe 0.25, Pb 0.10

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Nickel-silvers Wrought

~ 25Microns C76200 Nickel-silver, 59-12 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 57.0- 61.0, Ni 11.0-13.5, Zn 24.65-31.15, Mn 0.50, Fe 0.25, Pb 0.10

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Nickel-silvers Wrought

~ 125Microns C76200 Nickel-silver, 59-12 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 57.0- 61.0, Ni 11.0-13.5, Zn 24.65-31.15, Mn 0.50, Fe 0.25, Pb 0.10

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Nickel-silvers Cast As cast ~ 250Microns C97600 Nickel-silver, 20-6 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 63-67, Ni 19.0-21.5, Zn 3-9, Sn 3.5-4.5, Pb 3-5, Fe 1.5, Mn 1.0, Sb 0.25, S 0.08

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Nickel-silvers Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C97600 Nickel-silver, 20-6 University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 63-67, Ni 19.0-21.5, Zn 3-9, Sn 3.5-4.5, Pb 3-5, Fe 1.5, Mn 1.0, Sb 0.25, S 0.08

Titanium Coppers
Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Copper-titanium alloys Cast As cast ~ 25Microns

Copper-4 Ti University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 4Ti

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-titanium alloys Cast Cold worked and aged ~ 50Microns

Copper-4 Ti University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 4Ti

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-titanium alloys Cast Cold worked and aged ~ 500Microns

Copper-4 Ti University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 4Ti

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-titanium alloys Cast Cold worked and aged ~ 25Microns

Copper-5 Ni-2.5 Ti University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 5 Ni, 2.5 Ti

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-titanium alloys Cast Cold worked and aged ~ 125Microns

Copper-5 Ni-2.5 Ti University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 5 Ni, 2.5 Ti

Copper Tin Alloys


Overview
Copper tin alloys or tin bronzes are known for their corrosion resistance. Tin bronzes are stronger and more ductile than red and semi red brasses. They have high wear resistance and low friction coefficient against steel. Tin bronzes, with up 15.8% tin, retain the structure of alpha copper. The tin is a solid solution strengthener in copper, even though tin has a low solubility in copper at room temperature. The room temperature phase transformations are slow and usually do not occur, therefore these alloys are single phase alloys. The tin bronzes are used in bearings, gears, piston rings, valves and fittings. The cast tin bronzes are designated by UNS C90200 through C91700. Lead is added to tin bronzes in order to improve machinability and pressure tightness. Lead decreases the tensile strength and ductility of the tin bronzes, but the composition can be adjusted to balance machinability and strength requirements. High leaded tin bronzes are primarily used for sleeve bearings. These alloys have a slow fail mechanism that temporarily prevents galling and seizing. The slow fail mechanism works by lead seeping out of the alloy and smearing over the surface of the journal. The cast leaded tin bronzes are designated as UNS C92200 through C94500. The microstructure of the cast tin bronzes consists of cored dendrites, they have a composition gradient of increasing tin as they grow. The last liquid to solidify is enriched with tin upon cooling, and forms alpha and delta phases. The alpha and delta phases fill in the areas between the dendrite arms. the microstructure of the leaded tin bronzes are similar to the nonleaded materials with the addition of lead particles in the inter-dendritic boundaries. The lead is practically insoluble in solid copper and it solidifies last as almost pure lead in the grain boundaries. Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Copper-tin alloys Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C90700 Tin bronze University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 88-90, Sn 10-12, Pb .50, Zn .50, Ni .50, P .30, Sb .20, Fe .15, S .05, Al .005

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Cast As cast ~ 50Microns C90700 Tin bronze University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 88-90, Sn 10-12, Pb .50, Zn .50, Ni .50, P .30, Sb .20, Fe .15, S .05, Al .005

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C93200 High leaded tin bronze, 6-8 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 81-85, Pb 6-8, Sn 6.3-7.5, Zn 2-4, Ni 1.0, Sb .35, Fe .2, P .15, Al .15, Si .005

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Cast As cast ~ 125Microns C93200 High leaded tin bronze, 6-8 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 81-85, Pb 6-8, Sn 6.3-7.5, Zn 2-4, Ni 1.0, Sb .35, Fe .2, P .15, Al .15, Si .005

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Cast As cast ~ 25Microns C93700 High leaded tin bronze, 8-11 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 78-82, Pb 8-11, Sn 9-11, Zn 0.8, Ni 1.0, Sb .55, Fe .15, P .15, Al .15, S 0.8

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Continous cast

~ 250Microns C93700 High leaded tin bronze, 8-11 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 78-82, Pb 8-11, Sn 9-11, Zn 0.8, Ni 1.0, Sb .55, Fe .15, P .15, Al .15, S 0.8

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-tin alloys Continous cast

~ 25Microns C93700 High leaded tin bronze, 8-11 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 78-82, Pb 8-11, Sn 9-11, Zn 0.8, Ni 1.0, Sb .55, Fe .15, P .15, Al .15, S 0.8

Leaded Coppers
Overview
Lead is frequently added to copper alloys to increase their machinability. The role of lead in copper alloys is two fold, it acts as a lubricant and, in the free machining grades, the lead assists in chip break up. Lead is added to many copper alloys, making all types of free machining alloys. Lead does not affect the structure and properties of copper because it is practically insoluble in solid copper. The pure copper solidifies first, leaving the lead to solidify last as almost pure lead globules at the grain boundaries or in the inter dendritic regions. The size and concentration of lead particles depends upon the concentration of lead in the alloy. Leaded coppers are categorized as low lead alloys, or free machining alloys and high lead alloys. In the free machining alloys, the lead acts as chip breaker and lubricant making these alloys easier to machine than their non leaded counter parts. The high leaded copper alloys are used in bearing applications. In the bearing materials, the lead acts as a solid lubricant and the copper is the load bearing support. Lead is added to many of the copper alloys producing free machining brasses, bronzes and other copper alloys. The free machining brasses and other alloys are presented in the sections with the specific alloy types. The cast, high leaded copper alloys used for bearings are presented in this section. They are designated by UNS C98200 through C98840. The microstructure of the leaded copper alloys is similar to the structure of the unalloyed copper materials with the addition of almost pure lead particles in the grain boundaries. The size and amount of lead particles in the structures depends on the concentration of lead in the alloy. The microstructure of the as cast copper lead alloys consists of pure alpha copper dendrites, with lead globules in the boundaries between the dendrites. The higher the lead content of the alloy the more lead globules present in the structure. In the wrought structures, the lead is present as discrete particles between the alpha copper grains. Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source: Copper-lead alloys Cast As cast ~ 500Microns

Copper-4.5 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 4.5Pb

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-lead alloys Cast As cast ~ 50Microns

Copper-4.5 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 4.5Pb

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-lead alloys Cast As cast ~ 50Microns

Copper-6.8 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu, 6.83Pb

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-lead alloys Cast As cast ~ 250Microns

Copper-35 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 35.2Pb Description: Unetched

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Copper-lead alloys Cast As cast ~ 50Microns

Copper-35 Pb University of Florida

Nominal Composition: Cu 35.2Pb

Grain Size Comparisons


Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.010 mm ~ 500Microns

University of Florida

Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.020 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.025 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.030 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.035 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.045 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.055 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.060 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.080 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.090 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.120 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.135 mm ~ 500Microns

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Alloy Family: Product Form: Processing: Etchant: Scale Line Length: Alloy: Temper: Material: Source:

Grain size 0.175 mm ~ 500Microns

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General, Atomic and Crystallographic Properties and Features of Copper


Source: "Properties of Copper and Copper Alloys at Cryogenic Temperatures" by N.J. Simon, E.S. Drexler, and R.P. Reed ( NIST MN 177)

General and Atomic Properties of Copper


Atomic Number Atomic Weight Atomic Diameter Melting Point Boiling Point Density at 293 K Electronic Structure Valence States Fermi Energy Fermi Surface Hall Coefficient Magnetic State Heat of Fusion Heat of Vaporization Heat of Sublimation @ 1299 K 29 63.546 2.551 x 10-10m 1356 K 2868 K 8.94 x 103 kg/m3 3d104s 2,1 7.0 eV spherical, necks at [111] -5.12 x 10-11 m3/(A.S) diamagnetic 134 J/g 3630 J/g 3730 J/g

Crystallographic Features of Copper


Type of Structure Space Group Crystal Structure Number of Atoms per Unit Cell Lattice Parameters at 293 K Distance of Closest Atomic Approach (Burgers vector) at 293 Goldschmidt Atomic Radii (12-fold coordination) Atomic Volume A1 Oh5 - Fm3m face-centered cubic 4 3.6147 x 10-10 m 2.556 x 10-10m 1.28 x 10-10m 1.182 10-29m3

European 'CEN' Standard Designations


In this document: The CEN standards being produced for European materials are being adopted without modification by all European countries. They are being dual numbered and published in each country by the relevant national standards organisation. Conflicting national standards must be withdrawn within six months. The standards include all materials already in common use in Europe and have a new designation system to give a common terminology in all countries. Describing materials by a recognised designation system is very important in order that orders can be placed with a clear understanding that correct materials will be procured. Such systems are an essential part of material standardisation common to all countries. There are, however, many different systems in use throughout the world. There are three basic types of designations based either on terms, symbols or numbers. For European CEN standards, a numbering system has been developed that can be easily understood by personnel with or without computers and that has a common meaning across all countries and all languages. This systems does not conflict with any others in use elsewhere in the world.

Historical
There are many numbering systems in existence of recognised significance throughout the world. Many of these are the subject of extensive trade references and have been based on carefully conceived concepts. Many other designations are also well established and, by virtue of their long history of usage, have become very well known to the individuals and areas of commerce in which they are employed. Some confusion can be caused when they are used outside the usual sphere of influence. One of the biggest, most well-known, systems is the Unified Numbering System developed by the National Bureau of Standards in the USA. This predominates throughout most ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Standards used extensively through North America and significantly in other parts of the world by organisations with North American connections. The administration of this system is based in North America. It has proved impossible to adopt it to a system suitable for other national and international preferences. Similar considerations apply to other national systems. A common designation system used within International Standards Organisation (ISO) is a compositional system described in ISO 1190 Pt 1, based on the element symbols and the descending order of magnitude of alloying elements. For example, a leaded brass containing 60% copper and 2% lead is designated CuZn38Pb2. This system is easy to use by humans but can be unwieldy when used to describe complex alloys with many alloying elements. It can be difficult to sort and index using computer programs. It has, however, been widely adopted throughout Europe during the last 20 years or so as many countries have been adapting ISO Standards with modifications for use as national standards. It is also now common practice in European technical meetings for materials to be referred to by this compositional designation. The use of common names or trade names causes confusion to those unfamiliar with them. Some time ago the International Standards Organisation (ISO) published Technical Report No TR 7003 "International Numbering System for Metals". This gave a very logical system by which designations could be established with an alpha-numerical series of numbers easily understood by computers. For ISO purposes, there was not much impetus towards its adoption. With the onset of the mandatory nature of the European CEN standards, this attitude has changed. This has resulted in discussions to formulate a European Numbering System.

Designation Requirements
During discussions in working groups and committees preparing the standards, it became obvious that agreement on a computer-friendly numbering system was essential. It was agreed that there was a need to keep a designation simple, and to be able to define the material as closely as possible including, if achievable, composition, form (type of wrought product or casting) and main mandatory properties (such as tensile strength, hardness or proof stress). The possibility of using a simple numbering system was considered but proved impractical because of the limited number of variations possible. It was agreed, therefore, that an alpha-numerical system would be used. In a six digit system there is a possibility of only one million variations in an all-numerical system, whereas in an alpha-numerical system of three letters and three digits, not only can the letters appear to be more meaningful but over 12 million combinations are possible.

CEN numbering system for copper and copper alloys


Having agreed to use a basic six-digit system, CEN/TC 132 agreed to use C as the first letter to indicate a copper alloy. A second letter was introduced to indicate the material state (i.e. W for a wrought material, B for ingots, C for castings and M for master alloys). Three numbers are then used to identify the material and a final third letter is used to identify the classification of individual copper material groups and to enlarge the capacity. This also prevents confusion with the existing BSI designations and the old C/three-digit CDA numbers administered by Copper Development Association, New York. This system will cater for both CEN materials and other non-standardised materials, but initial allocations have been made for the numbers to ensure a minimum of confusion within CEN preferred materials. This means that not every material sub-group starts at number '1'. As an example, while coppers do commence at 001, miscellaneous copper alloys start at 100, copper aluminium alloys start at 300, copper zinc alloys at 500 and so on, as shown in Table 1, below.

The lack of overlap in preferred number series ensures that common materials in differently lettered material groups will not normally share the same number. There will, however, be many spare numbers available in reserve.

Temper Designations
For temper designations CEN TC 133 covering copper and copper alloys has agreed to use a system similar to that already established by DIN indicating the minimum value of specified properties. For example, tensile strength R 250 indicates the minimum of 250 N/mm while a hardness of H090 indicates a value of 90 (Vickers for wrought materials and Brinell for cast) and Y140 indicates a minimum 0.2% proof stress of 140 N/mm. This meets the requirements of the wide variety of customers who have individual needs for special properties to ensure fitness for purpose but do not need to know the way in which a temper was originally produced. Table 3: Letter Symbols for property designations

A B G H M R

Elongation Spring bending limit Grain size Hardness (Brinell for castings, Vickers for wrought products) (as) Manufactured, i.e. without specified mechanical properties Tensile strength Y 0.2% proof stress