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24 COPPER ALLOYS, CAST COPPER ALLOYS

Table 11. Properties of High Strength Yellow Brass


a

NonleadedP r o p e r t y L e a d e d C 8 6 4 0 0 C 8 6 2 0 0 C 8 6 5 0 0 C 8 6 3 0 0 melting point,

C 8 6 0 8 8 0 8 9 9 9 2 7 8 6 2 8 8 0 8 8 5 9 2 3 pouring temperature,

Cl i g h t c a s t i n g s 1 0 3 8 1121 10661177 1038 1093 10661177h e a v y c a s t i n gs 9 54 1 0 38 9 8 2 1 0 6 6 9 5 4 1 0 3 8 9 8 2 1 0 6 6s p e c i c

g r a v i t y 8 . 0 8 . 4 7 . 9 8 . 0 8 . 5 7 . 7 8 . 0 d r o s s g e n e r a t i o n h i g h h i g h h i g h h i g h g a s s i n g l o w l o w l o w l o w c a s t y i e l d l o w l o w l o w l o w pattern makers shrinkage, cm/m 1.822.08 2.082.60 1.822.34 2.08 2.60


a

Manganesebronze alloys.

Table 12. Properties of Aluminum Bronze Alloys

P 9 9 9

r 5 5 5

o 2 4 5

p 0 0 0

e r t y C 0 C 9 5 3 0 0 0 C 0 melting point,

C 1 0 3 8 1 0 4 3 1 0 3 8 1 0 5 2 1 0 2 7 1 0 3 8 1 0 3 8 1 0 5 4 pouring temperature,

Cl i g h t c a s t i n g s 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 4 1 2 6 0 1 2 3 2 h e a v y c a s t i n g s 1 0 9 3 1 1 4 9 1 0 6 6 1 1 4 9 1 7 7 7 1 0 6 6 s p e c i c g r a v i t y 7 . 3 7 . 5 7 . 3 7 . 6 5 7 . 5 0 7 . 4 9 7 . 6 6 d r o s s g e n e r a t i o n

h h m m m
a

i i o o o

g g d d d

h h e e e

h g a r a t r a t r a t

i g h h i g h s s i n g e m o d e r a t e e e shrinkage,

c m / m 2 . 6 0 2 . 8 6 1 . 8 2 2 . 6 0 1 . 8 2 2 . 6 0 2 . 0 8
a

Pattern makers shrinkage.

6.5. Aluminum Bronze Alloys

The melting precautions for aluminum bronzes are basically the same as those for the other copper-base alloys.Thedangerofgasabsorpti onisnotasgreataswithtinbronze

alloysbecauseoftheprotective lmofaluminumoxide on the surface of the melt. Nevertheless, the alloys do dissolve gas and therefore precautions must betaken to prevent this. Although pouring temperatures are not as critical, temperature control is needed. Thepouring range is 10651260

C, depending on casting size and section; ladle surfaces should be kept wellskimmed during pouring, and the melt should be exposed to air as little

as possible. The shortest distance fromthe pouring ladle to the mold should be used to hold turbulence to an absolute minimum. Every precaution toeliminate dross should be taken.The gating and risering system for cast aluminum bronze is extremely important and must be arrangedto introduce the metal quietly at the lowest portion of the mold. The alloys shrink well; hence the gating andrisering must be well adapted to the particular casting. See Table 12 for

properties of these alloys. Alloys C95300, C 95400, and C 95500 are heat-treatable for increased mechanical properties and the last two shouldbe temper-annealed if used in a corrosive environment. Aluminum bronze alloys have been successfully cast in the centrifugal, continuous, permanent, plaster,and sand molding methods. Depending on the alloy, the minimum tensile strengths of sand-cast test bars

are448620 MPa (65,000 90,000 psi).


6.5.1. Uses

Aluminum bronze alloy UNS C 95200 is used as acid-resistant pumps, pump rods, bushings, and gears; alloyUNS C 95300, as pickling baskets, gears, and marine equipment; alloy UNS C 95400, as bearings, gears, valve

COPPER ALLOYS, CAST COPPER ALLOYS 25


Table 13. Properties of Silicon Bronze and Silicon Brass Alloys
SiliconbrassPropertySiliconbronze C8 7 2 0 0 C 8 7 4 0 0 C 8 7 5 0 0 melting point,

C 8 6 0 9 7 1 8 2 1 9 1 6 8 2 1 9 1 7 pouring temperature,

Cl i g h t c a s t i n g s 1 0 9 3 1 1 7 7 1 0 9 3 1 1 7 7 1 0 9 3 1 1 7 7 h e a v y c a s t i n g s 1 0 3 8 1 0 6 6 1 0 3 8 1 0 6 6 1 0 3 8 1 0 6 6 s p e c i c g r a v i t y 8 . 3 0 8 . 4 4 8 . 3 0 8 . 4 4 8 . 3 0 8 . 4 4 d r o s s g e n e r a t i o n l o w l o w l o w g a s s i n g h i g h m o d e r a t e t o h i g h m o d e r a t e t o

h i g h c a s t i n g y i e l d m o d e r a t e m o d e r a t e m o d e r a t e p a t t e r n m a k e r s s h r i n k a g e , c m / m 1 . 8 2 1 . 8 2 1 . 8 2

seats, valve guides, and pickling hooks; and alloy UNS C 95500, as valve guides and seats, corrosion-resistantparts, bushings, gears, and worms.
6.6. Silicon Bronze and Silicon Brass Alloys

For silicon-containing alloys best casting results are obtained if the melting is accomplished

using slightlyoxidizing conditions. Rapid heating to the melting point is required to control dissolved gases in the melt.Superheating the melt to ca 85

C above the pouring temperature is desired. Undisturbed cooling to thepouring temperature allows the dross to oat on the melt surface. Both melting and pouring temperatures areimportant and should be

measured. Pouring temperatures for these alloys are 10401175

C, depending on sizeand section thickness of the casting. Prolonged holding of the melt at pouring temperature should be avoided.Molds should be ready to receive the melt as soon as it is at the proper temperature. Melting oily scrap shouldbe avoided. Silicon is a powerful deoxidizing element and can easily be lost from the melt in the form of dross.Covers for the melt can be used. Preburned

charcoal has been successfully used as a cover and is appliedhot directly from the preburner. Fluxing and deoxidation is not necessary because of the strong afnity siliconhas for oxygen. Siliconbearing scrap must be kept segregated from other scrap, because silicon as an impurityin other alloys can promote a very coarse dendritic structure and weak porous castings.If gas has been absorbed, some degassing treatment is necessary. The melt may be ushed using

drynitrogen or a degassing ux may be used. Coppersilicon alloys shrink less than manganese bronze andaluminum bronze but more than tin bronze. Good gating and risering systems are required. The properties of these alloys are listed in Table 13.The alloys in the coppersilicon group have been cast using centrifugal, investment, die, permanent,plaster, and sand molding methods. The minimum tensile strengths for

sand-cast test bars are 310413 MPa(45,00060,000 psi).


6.6.1. Uses

Usesforcopper siliconalloysaresiliconbronze, UNSC87200,asbearings,pumps ,valveparts,marinettings,and corrosion-resistant castings; silicon brass UNS C 87400 as bearings, gears, impellers, valve stems, andclamps; and silicon brass UNS C 87500 as small propellers, valve stems, gears, and bearings.

26 COPPER ALLOYS, CAST COPPER ALLOYS


Table 14. Properties of Copper Nickel Alloys and Leaded Nickel Bronze and Brass
Coppernickel Leaded nickel bronzeP r o p e r t y C 9 6 2 0 0 C 9 6 4 0 0 C 9 7 6 0 0 C 9 7 8 0 0 Leaded nickelbrass C 97300melting point,

C 10991149 11711238 11081143 11401180 1 0 1 0 1 0 4 0 pouring temperature,

Cl i g h t c a s t i n g s 1 3 1 6 1 4 2 7 13711483 12601427

13161427 1204 1316heavy castings 1204 1316 13161399 1232 1316 12601316 1993 1204s p e c i c g r a v i t y 8 . 9 4 8 . 9 4 8 . 8 8 . 9 8 . 8 8 . 9 8 . 9 8 . 9 5 dross generation low moderate moderate to high moderate to high highg a s s i n g h i g h h i g h moderate to high moderate to high moderatec a s t y i e l d l o w l o w m o d e r a t e m o d e r a t e m o d e r a t e pattern makers shrinkage, cm/m 1.56 1.82 1.56 1.56 1.041.56

6.7. CopperNickel and Leaded Nickel Bronze and Brass Alloys

High pouring temperatures cause most casting troubles with this group. The temperatures make a sand moldof low permeability practically unusable because the steam generated may exceed the venting power of thesand. Gases dissolve more readily at the higher temperatures and should be removed before pouring the melt.Degasiers are used as a matter of standard practice. Coppernickel alloys should be melted under slightlyoxidizing

conditions. Scrap must be clean. Cutting oils or compounds or other organic matter must be removedbefore melting to control dissolved gases in the melt that can lead to inferior castings.Time must be allowed for the degasier to be effective, and the treated melt should be tested with asocalled pitch test to determine the condition of the melt. An accurate and rapid method for evaluating the gas content of melts has been developed. The methodconsists of solidifying a

sample of the melt in a vacuum and measuring the degree of swelling in the solidiedsample. Melting and pouring temperatures must be controlled by measurement and the melt poured at 10951425

C,dependingonthealloy,casting size,andsectionthickness.Gatin gandriseringareespeciallyimpo rtant,and careful consideration of the particular casting must be made.Properties of copper nickel alloys are listed in Table 14. The alloys in the copper

nickel group have beensuccessfully cast using the centrifugal, investment, permanent, and sand molding methods. The minimumtensile strengths on test bars cast in sand molds are 207310 MPa (30,00045,000 psi).
6.7.1. Uses

Coppernickeliron alloys, UNS C 96200 (90:10 copper:nickel) and UNS C 96400 (70:30 copper:nickel), areusedincorrosion-resistant marine(seawater)applications. UNSC96400isusedforcorrosion

-resistant marineelbows,anges,valves,a ndpumps.Leadednickel brass,UNSC97300(12%nickel silver),isusedforhardwaretting s, valves, and statuary and ornamental castings.Theleaded nickel bronzes, UNS97600 (20%nickelsilver) andUNSC97800 (25%nickel silver),are usedfor marine, ornamental, and sanitary castings, and valves and pumps, and for ornamental hardware, sanitarycastings, valves, and

musical instrument parts, respectively.

COPPER ALLOYS, CAST COPPER ALLOYS 27

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Cast Copper Alloys under Copper Alloys in ECT 1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 458467, by G. P. Halliwell, H. Kramer & Co.; in ECT 2nd ed., Vol. 6, pp. 244265, by R. E. Ricksecker, Chase Brass & Copper Co.; in

ECT 3rd ed., Vol. 7, pp. 6996, R. E.Ricksecker, Chase Brass & Copper, Inc. Cited Publications 1. Casting Copper-Base Alloys , American Foundrymens Society, Des Plaines, Ill., 1984, 232233. General References 2. P. R. Beeley, Foundry Technology , Halsted Press, New York, 1972.3. Casting Defects Handbook , American Foundrymens Society, Des Plaines, Ill., 1972.4. Casting Design

, American Foundrymens Society, Des Plaines, Ill., 1987.5. G. J. Cook, Engineered Castings , McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York, 1961.6. Copper and Copper Alloys , ASTM Standards Book, vol. 2.01 , American Society for Testing Materials, Philadelphia,1989.7. F. Dunlevey, Casting Beryllium Copper Alloys, Modern Casting Magazine (Nov. 1991).8. C. J. Evans, Foundry Trade J. , 143 (Dec. 22, 1977).9.

Gating and Risering of Copper-Base Alloys, American Foundrymens Society, Des Plaines, Ill., 1986.10. R. W. Heine and P. C. Rosenthal, Principles of Metal Casting , McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York, 1955.11. A. W. Hudd, Development of Continuous Casting of Copper Slab and Billet at IMI Reners Limited, Metall. Mater.Technol. 9 (11), (1977).12. Metals handbook

, 9th ed., vol. 2, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, Ohio, 1979.13. J. L. Morris, Metal Castings , Prentice-Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1957.14. D. G. Schmidt, The Challenge of Copper Alloy Castings in the 21st Century, Transactions AFS , 1991.15. I. D. Simpson and N. Standish, Metallography 10 (4), 433 (Oct. 1977).16. Unied Numbering System for Metals and Alloys

, SAE HS 1086a or ASTM DS-56a, 2nd ed., 1977.

D
ANIEL

L. T
WAROG

American Foundrymens Society

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