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CHAPTER 9

Standard Costing:A Functional-Based Control Approach


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Describe how unit input standards are developed, and explain why standard costing systems are adopted. 2. Explain the purpose of a standard cost sheet. 3. Compute and journalize the direct materials and direct labor variances, and explain how they are used for control. 5. Compute overhead variances three different ways, and explain overhead accounting. 6. Calculate mix and yield variances for direct materials and direct labor.

C H A P T E R S U M M A RY
This chapter examines the functional-based standard costing systems in managing costs, improving planning and control, and facilitating decision making and product costing. It provides detailed discussion of cost variance analyses for all product cost elements and considers their behavioral implications. Mix and yield variance analyses are also presented when it is possible to make input substitutions.

CHAPTER REVIEW
I. Developing Unit Input Standards A. Decisions to Be Made 1. Price standards specify how much should be paid for the quantity of the input to be used. 2. Quantity standards specify how much of the input should be used per unit of output. 3. The unit standard cost for a particular input = Standard price Standard quantity. B. Establishing Standards 1. Potential sources of quantitative standards include historical experience, engineering studies, and input from operating personnel. 187 Learning Objective #1

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a. Historical experience should be used with caution because it may perpetuate operating inefficiencies. b. Engineering studies and input from operating personnel help determine the most efficient level of input quantities. The use of an engineering study approach by itself may produce standards that are too rigorous. 2. Responsibilities for establishing price standards a. Operations managers determine the quality of the inputs required. b. Personnel and purchasing have the responsibility to acquire the input quality at the lowest price that is limited by market forces and trade unions. Note that: Purchasing must consider discounts, freight, and quality. Personnel must consider payroll taxes, fringe benefits, and qualifications. c. Accounting is responsible for recording the price standards and for preparing reports. C. Types of Standards 1. Ideal standards are standards that demand maximum efficiency. Can only be achieved if everything operates perfectly. 2. Currently attainable standards can be achieved under efficient operating conditions. a. These standards are demanding but achievable. b. Allowance is made for normal breakdowns, interruptions, and differing skill levels. c. They offer more behavioral benefits than ideal standards. If standards are too tight, workers can become frustrated, and performance levels will decline. 3. Kaizen Standards are continuous improvement standards that reflect a planned improvement. Kaizen standards are currently attainable and have a cost reduction focus. 4. Activity-based Costing uses standards to: a. Facilitate cost assignment. An activitys cost is determined by the amount of resources consumed by each activity. b. Enhance cost control and reduction. Focus on eliminating or reducing nonvalue-added activities. Identify the ideal output level of each value-added activity and reduce activity production to that ideal level. D. Usage of Standard Costing Systems Standard costing systems are widely adopted for: 1. Managing costs.

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Standards help managers understand what needs to be done to improve current and future performance. Kaizen standards help firms implement continuous improvement and cost reduction. 2. Improving planning and control. a. Unit standards are a fundamental requirement for a flexible budgeting system. b. Budgetary control systems compare actual costs with budgeted costs by computing variances. (1) An overall variance can be decomposed into a price and a usage or efficiency variance. (2) In principle, the use of efficiency variances enhances operational control. Managers have more control over the usage of inputs than over their prices. 3. Facilitating decision making and product costing. a. Standard costing systems use standards for material, labor, and overhead. b. A normal costing system uses a predetermined rate for applying overhead but uses actual materials and labor costs. c. An actual costing system uses actual costs for all three of the manufacturing inputs. d. Advantages of a standard costing system: (1) Provides readily available unit cost information that can be used for pricing decisions. (2) Simplifies process costing. (a) No need to compute unit costs for materials, transferred-in, and conversion cost categories. (b) No need to distinguish between FIFO and weighted average. Equivalent units are calculated using FIFO. Review textbook Exhibit 9-1, which summarizes and compares the cost assignment approaches of actual costing, normal costing, and standard costing systems.

II.

Standard Cost Sheets A.

Learning Objective #2

Standard costing systems can be used in both manufacturing and service organizations. For example, consider the standard costing in a hospital, 1. A relative value unit (RVU) is used to measure the relative amount of time required to perform a procedure. 2. A standard cost per RVU is computed by dividing the variable direct labor costs of a hospital department by the number of RVUs performed by that department. 3. A standard direct labor cost for a given procedure can be computed by multiplying the RVUs of the procedure by the standard cost per RVU.

190 B.

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The standard cost sheet provides the standard costs and standard quantities of materials, labor, and overhead that should be applied to a single product or service, including: 1. A standard cost per unit is the per-unit cost that should be achieved given materials, labor, and overhead standards. It can be computed as follows:
Standard cost per unit = Standard price Standard usage

2. The quantity of each input that should be used to produce one unit of output is shown. a. Standard quantity of materials allowed (SQ) is computed as follows:
SQ = Unit quantity standard Actual output

b. Standard hours allowed (SH) is computed as follows:


SH = Unit quantity standard Actual output

Review textbook Exhibit 9-2, which provides an example of a standard cost sheet. III. Variance Analysis and Accounting: Direct Materials and Direct Labor A. Compute the Total Budget Variance. Learning Objective #3

1. The total budget variance is the difference between the actual cost of the input and its planned cost. a. The planned input cost (flexible budget amount) is SP SQ, where SP = Standard unit price of an input SQ = Standard quantity of inputs allowed for the actual output b. The actual input cost is AQ AP, where AP = Actual price per unit of the input AQ = Actual quantity of input used thus,
Total budget variance = (AP AQ ) (SP SQ )

B.

Calculate Direct Materials Price and Usage Variances 1. The total budget variance can be broken down into price and usage variances. a. Price (rate) variance is the difference between the actual and standard unit price of an input multiplied by the number of inputs used. b. Usage (efficiency) variance is the difference between the actual and standard quantity of inputs multiplied by the standard unit price of the input. c. Unfavorable (U) variances occur whenever the actual prices or usage are greater than the standard. d. Favorable (F) variances occur whenever the actual prices or usage are less than the standard. Review textbook Exhibit 9-4, which illustrates the three-pronged approach to analyzing the direct materials price and usage variances.

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2. Using formulas to compute direct materials price and usage variances. a. The direct materials price variance (MPV) measures the difference between what should have been paid for raw materials and what was actually paid.
MPV = (AP AQ ) (SP AQ )

or
MPV = (AP SP ) AQ

b. The direct materials usage variance (MUV) measures the difference between the direct materials actually used and the direct materials that should have been used for the actual output.
MUV = (SP AQ ) (SP SQ )

or
MUV = (AQ SQ ) SP

3. Timing of the direct materials price variance computation. a. The direct materials price variance can be calculated at one of two points: (1) When the raw materials are purchased. (2) When the raw materials are issued for usage. b. Computing the price variance at the point of purchase is preferable because it provides more timely the information that proper managerial action can be taken. c. If the direct materials price variance is computed at the point of purchase, the formulas will be revised as follows:
MPV = (AP AQ P ur c has ed) (SP AQ P ur c has ed )

or
MPV = (AP SP ) AQ Purchased

4. Timing of the computation of direct materials usage variance. a. The materials usage variance should be computed as materials are issued for production using the following three forms. (1) The standard bill of materials identifies the quantity of materials that should be used to produce a predetermined quantity of output. It acts as a requisition form. (2) The color-coded excess usage form is used to provide immediate feedback to the production manager that excess direct materials are being used. (3) The color-coded returned-materials form is used when the production manager returns leftover direct materials. 5. Accounting for direct materials price and usage variances. a. In a standard costing system, all inventories are carried at standard. b. In recording variances, (1) Unfavorable variances are always debits. (2) Favorable variances are always credits. c. Journal entry associated with the purchase of direct materials (assuming an unfavorable MPV): Materials SP AQ

192 Materials Price Variance Accounts Payable (AP SP) AQ

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AP AQ

d. Journal entry associated with the use of direct materials (assuming an unfavorable MUV): Work in Process Materials Usage Variance Materials C. Calculating Direct Labor Variances 1. Using formulas to compute direct labor rate and efficiency variances. a. The labor rate variance measures the difference between what was paid to direct laborers and what should have been paid.
LRV = (AR AH) (SR AH)

SQ SP (AQ SQ) SP AQ SP

or
LRV = (AR SR) AH

b. The labor efficiency variance measures the difference between the labor hours that were actually used and the labor hours that should have been used.
LEV = (AH SR) (SH SR)

or
LEV = (AH SH) SR

Review textbook Exhibit 9-6, which illustrates the three-pronged approach to analyzing direct labor rate and efficiency variances. 2. Accounting for direct labor rate and efficiency variances. a. The journal entry for both variances is recorded simultaneously. (It assumes a favorable direct labor rate variance and an unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance.) Work in Process Labor Efficiency Variance Labor Rate Variance Payroll SH SR (AH SH) SR (AR SR) AH AH AR

b. Notice that only standard hours and standard rates are used to assign direct labor costs to Work in Process because all inventories are carried at standard. c. If the variance is unfavorable, it will be a debit; if it is favorable, it will be a credit. D. Decision Criteria for Investigating Variances 1. An investigation should be undertaken only if: a. The variance is material, i.e., it falls outside an acceptable range. b. The anticipated benefits are greater than the expected costs. 2. An acceptable range is the standard, plus or minus an allowable deviation. Control limits indicate how large a variance must be before it is judged to be material. They are the top and bottom measures of the allowable range as follows: The upper control limit is the standard plus the allowable deviation.

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The lower control limit is the standard minus the allowable deviation. 3. Control limits can be expressed both as a percentage of the standard and as an absolute dollar amount. E. Determining Responsibility for the Direct Materials Variances 1. The responsibility for controlling the materials price variance is usually the purchasing agents because he/she can influence controllable factors such as quality, quantity discounts, distance of the source from the plant, etc. 2. The production manager is generally responsible for direct materials usage because he/she can minimize scrap, waste, rework and other ways to ensure that the standard is met. F. Determining Responsibility for the Direct Labor Variances 1. The direct labor rate variances occur when: a. An average wage rate is used for the rate standard. b. More skilled and more highly paid workers are used for less skilled tasks. 2. The production managers are responsible for the productive use of direct labor and, thus, responsible for the direct labor rate variance and efficiency variance. G. Limitations of Using Variances to Evaluate Performance 1. The cause of the variance may be attributable to other departments. Frequent breakdown of machinery may cause interruptions and nonproductive use of direct labor. But these breakdowns are attributable to faulty maintenance by the maintenance department, not production departments. 2. Note that too much emphasis on meeting standards can lead to dysfunctional behavior/outcomes. a. Focusing on the price variance for performance evaluation may cause Poor quality goods to be purchased. Too many goods to be purchased in order to obtain quantity discounts. b. Focusing on the direct material usage variance and/or direct labor variances to evaluate performance can tempt the manager to allow defective units to be transferred to avoid using additional materials and/or hours because of rework. These defective units may create customer-relation problems once a customer gets stuck with the bad product. H. Disposition of Materials and Labor Variances 1. Most companies dispose of variances at the end of the year. 2. If the variances are not material, they simply are closed out to Cost of Goods Sold. 3. If the variances are material, they are prorated to Work in Process, Finished Goods, and Cost of Goods Sold. a. GAAP requires that inventories be reported at actual costs. b. But it is hard to justify carrying costs of inefficiency as an asset. IV. Variance Analysis:Overhead Costs Learning Objective #4

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A. The total overhead variance is the difference between the actual and the applied overhead. The four-variance method breaks down the total overhead variance into 1. Variable overhead variances including a. the variable overhead spending variance, and b. the variable overhead efficiency variance. 2. Fixed overhead variances including a. the fixed overhead spending variance, and b. the fixed overhead volume variance. B. Analyzing Variable Overhead Variances 1. The total variable overhead variance is the difference between the actual and the applied variable overhead. Can be split into a spending and efficiency variance. 2. The variable overhead spending variance (VOSV) measures the aggregate effect of differences in the actual variable overhead rate and the standard variable overhead rate.
VOSV = (AVOR AH) (SVOR AH)

or
VOSV = (AVOR SVOR) AH

a. Variable overhead is not a homogeneous input and, thus, the standard variable overhead rate represents a weighted average for all of the variable overhead items. b. A spending variance is affected by price changes and by how efficiently overhead is used. Waste or inefficient use of variable overhead causes an unfavorable variable overhead spending variance. c. To the extent that the consumption of variable overhead can be traced, responsibility can be assigned. Controllability is a prerequisite for assigning responsibility. 3. The variable overhead efficiency variance (VOEV) measures the change in variable overhead consumption that occurs because of efficient (or inefficient) usage of the activity.
VOEV = (AH SH) SVOR

a. The variable overhead efficiency variance is directly related to the direct labor efficiency variance if the variable overhead cost driver is direct labor hours. b. The causes of variable overhead efficiency variance are generally the same as those for the direct labor usage variance. Review textbook Exhibit 9-7, which summarizes the variable overhead spending and efficiency variance computations. C. Analyzing Fixed Overhead Variances

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1. The total fixed overhead variance is the difference between actual fixed overhead and applied fixed overhead.
Applied fixed overhead = Standard fixed overhead rate Standard hours

2. The fixed overhead spending variance (FOSV) is the difference between the actual fixed overhead (AFOH) and the budgeted fixed overhead (BFOH).
FOSV = AFOH BFOH

3. The fixed overhead volume variance (FOVV) is the difference between budgeted fixed overhead and applied fixed overhead.
FOVV = Budgeted fixed overhead Applied fixed overhead FOVV = [Standard fixed overhead rate SH(D) ] (Standard fixed overhead rate SH)

where SH(D) = Standard hours allowed for the denominator output volume used to compute the predetermined standard fixed overhead rate SH = Standard hours allowed for the actual output volume achieved 4. The fixed overhead volume variance occurs whenever the actual output differs from the denominator output volume. a. The volume variance measures the effect of the actual output differing from the output used to determine the standard fixed overhead rate. b. The volume variance occurs because the actual output differs from the predicted output volume. It may represent (1) A prediction errora measure of inability of management to select the correct volume over which to spread fixed overhead. (2) A measure of capacity utilization Review textbook Exhibit 9-10, which summarizes the fixed overhead spending and volume variance computations. 5. Accounting for overhead variances: a. To assign overhead to production: Work in Process Variable Overhead Control Fixed Overhead Control b. To recognize actual overhead: Variable Overhead Control Fixed Overhead Control Miscellaneous Accounts xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx xxx

c. Variances will be debited or credited as necessary to balance the variable and fixed overhead control accounts. D. Two- and Three-Variance Analyses 1. These variances do not require knowledge of actual variable and actual fixed overhead. a. They are simply combined into actual overhead. b. These methods provide less detail and, thus, less useful information.

196 2. The two-variance analysis computes two variances: budget and volume.

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a. The budget variance is the sum of the four-variance spending and efficiency variances. b. The volume variance is the same as the fixed overhead volume variance of the four-variance method. Review textbook Exhibit 9-13, which summarizes the two-variance method. 3. The three-variance analysis computes the spending variance, the efficiency variance, and the volume variance. a. The spending variance is the sum of the variable and fixed overhead spending variances. b. The efficiency variance is the same as the variable overhead efficiency variance of the four-variance method. c. The volume variance is the same as the fixed overhead volume variance of the four-variance method. Review textbook Exhibit 9-14, which summarizes the three-variance method. V. Mix and Yield Variances:Materials and Labor A. General Concept 1. If it is possible to substitute one direct material input for another or one type of direct labor for another, variances can occur. a. A mix variance results whenever the actual mix of inputs differs from the standard mix. b. A yield variance results whenever the actual yield (output) differs from the standard yield. 2. For direct materials, the sum of the mix and yield variances equals the material usage variance; for direct labor, the sum is the labor efficiency variance. B. Direct Materials Mix and Yield Variances 1. The direct materials mix variance is the difference between the standard cost of the actual mix of inputs used and the standard cost of the mix of inputs that should have been used.
Materials mix variance for each input = (AQ SM ) SP

Learning Objective #5

where SM = Standard mix proportion Total actual input quantity Standard mix quantity (SM) is the quantity of each input that should have been used given the total actual input quantity. Thus, the materials mix variance for all input materials = (AQi SMi ) Spi 2. The direct materials yield variance is the difference between the standard cost of the actual yield of output units and the standard cost of the yield of output that should have been produced. Steps to compute the yield variance are as follows:

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a. Identify the total standard input units and the expected standard yield units. Use the standard input-output relationship to compute the standard yield ratio.
Standard yield ratio = Standard yield units Standard input units

b. Compute the standard cost of yield per unit (SPy ).


SPy = Total input standard cost Standard yield units

c. Compute the standard yield.


Standard yield = Standard yield ratio Total actual input quantity

d. Compute the yield variance.


Yield variance = (Standard yield Actual yield) SPy

C.

Labor Mix and Yield Variances Labor mix and yield variances are computed in the same way as those for the materials mix and yield variances.

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KEY TERMS TEST


From the list that follows, select the term that best completes each statement and write it in the space provided.

control limit currently attainable standard direct labor efficiency variance (LEV) direct labor rate variance (LRV) direct materials price variance (MPV) direct materials usage variance (MUV) favorable (F) variance fixed overhead spending variance fixed overhead volume variance ideal standard kaizen standards mix variance price standard price (rate) variance

quantity standard relative value unit (RVU) standard bill of materials standard cost per unit standard cost sheet standard hours allowed standard quantity of materials allowed total budget variance unfavorable (U) variance unit standard cost usage (efficiency) variance variable overhead efficiency variance variable overhead spending variance yield variance

1. The difference between actual fixed overhead and budgeted fixed overhead is the ___________________________________________________. 2. The difference between what was paid and what should have been paid for actual inputs is called the ______________________ or the ______________________. 3. The difference between the direct materials actually used and the direct materials allowed for actual output multiplied by the standard price is the ________________________________. 4. A(n) _________________________________ is produced whenever the actual dollars spent are greater than the standard allowance. 5. The ____________________________ is the price that should have been paid per unit of input; the quantity of input allowed per unit of output is the _____________________________. 6. The difference between the actual payroll and what should have been paid for the actual hours worked is the _______________________________________. 7. The __________________________________________________ is a measure of capacity utilization. 8. The difference between the actual labor hours worked and the standard hours allowed multiplied by the variable overhead rate is the _____________________________________________ ______________; the difference between what was spent and what should have been spent for variable overhead at actual hours is the ____________________________ _______________________________.

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9. The per-unit cost that should be achieved given materials, labor, and overhead standards is the _____________________________________ or _______________________________. 10. A listing of the standard costs and standard quantities of materials, labor, and overhead that should apply to a single product is the ________________________________. 11. The maximum allowable deviation from a standard is called the _____________________. 12. A(n) ________________________ reflects perfect operating conditions. 13. The difference between the actual cost of an input and its planned cost is the _________ _________________________. 14. The difference between standard quantities and actual quantities multiplied by the standard price is the _____________________________. 15. The difference between the standard material cost of the standard yield and the standard material cost of the actual yield is the _______________________. 16. The difference between the standard cost of the mix of actual material inputs and the standard cost of the material input mix that should have been used is the ______________________. 17. A(n) ______________________________________________ reflects an efficient operating state. 18. A(n) ______________________________ is produced whenever the actual dollars spent are less than the standard allowances. 19. A detailed listing of the type and quantity of materials allowed for a given level of output is called the ________________________________. 20. The difference between what was paid for materials purchased and what should have been paid is the _____________________________________. 21. The direct labor hours that should have been used to produce the actual output is the _____________________________________; the quantity of materials that should have been used to produce the actual output is the _________________________________ ____________________________. 22. The difference between the actual direct labor hours used and the standard labor hours allowed multiplied by the standard hourly wage rate is the _______________________ ______________. 23. Hospital standard costing systems often use a homogeneous work unit called a ________ _________________ to measure the relative amount of time required to perform a procedure.

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M U LT I P L E - C H O I C E Q U I Z
Complete each of the following statements by circling the letter of the best answer.

1. If more direct materials were used for production than were allowed for the output, then the: a. direct labor efficiency variance will be unfavorable. b. direct labor rate variance will be favorable. c. direct materials price variance will be favorable. d. direct materials usage variance will be unfavorable. e. overhead budget variance will be unfavorable. 2. The direct labor rate variance is computed as: a. (Actual labor hours worked Standard labor hours allowed) Actual labor rate. b. (Actual labor hours worked Standard labor hours allowed) Standard labor rate. c. (Actual labor rate Standard labor rate) Standard hours allowed. d. (Actual labor rate Standard labor rate) Actual hours worked. e. none of the above. 3. Which of the following variances would be least likely if the materials used were of much poorer quality than the standard? a. unfavorable direct materials price variance b. unfavorable direct materials efficiency variance c. unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance d. unfavorable variable overhead efficiency variance e. All of the above would be equally likely to occur. 4. If the direct labor force is poorly trained, which of the following variances is most likely to occur? a. unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance b. unfavorable direct labor rate variance c. favorable direct materials efficiency variance d. favorable fixed overhead spending variance e. unfavorable variable overhead spending variance 5. Which of the following circumstances is least likely to cause a direct materials usage variance? a. inexperienced workers b. lack of regular maintenance of automated production machinery c. materials of poorer than expected quality d. price increases by suppliers e. unanticipated changes in the design of the product 6. Which of the following would accompany an unfavorable direct labor efficiency variance? a. favorable direct materials usage variance b. unfavorable direct materials price variance c. unfavorable direct labor rate variance d. unfavorable variable overhead efficiency variance e. unfavorable fixed overhead spending variance

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7. The overhead spending variance computed using a three-variance analysis: a. consists only of fixed costs; no variable costs are included. b. consists only of variable costs; no fixed costs are included. c. consists of both variable and fixed costs. d. is favorable when the direct materials price variance is favorable. e. None of the above are true. 8. The overhead efficiency variance computed using a three-variance analysis: a. is (Flexible budget for actual hours worked Flexible budget for standard hours allowed). b. consists only of variable costs; no fixed costs are included. c. is [(Actual hours worked Standard hours allowed) Standard variable overhead rate]. d. is unfavorable when the direct labor efficiency is unfavorable. e. All of the above are true. 9. The direct materials standard for XYZ Company is 10 pounds of input at $4.00 per pound. XYZ purchased 25,000 pounds of material for $97,600. The company used 22,000 pounds of material to produce 2,250 units of output. The direct materials price variance is: a. $2,000 unfavorable. b. $2,400 favorable. c. $7,600 unfavorable. d. $9,600 unfavorable. e. none of the above. 10. Assume the same information as in Question 9 above. The direct materials usage variance is: a. $2,000 unfavorable. b. $2,400 favorable. c. $7,600 unfavorable. d. $9,600 unfavorable. e. none of the above. 11. The direct labor standard for XYZ Company is 2 hours per unit of output at a standard rate of $15 per hour. During August, 2,250 units were produced using 4,760 hours. Direct labor payroll totaled $73,675. The direct labor rate variance is: a. $2,275 favorable. b. $2,275 unfavorable. c. $3,900 favorable. d. $6,175 unfavorable. e. none of the above. 12. Assume the same information as in Question 11 above. The direct labor efficiency variance is: a. $2,275 favorable. b. $2,275 unfavorable. c. $3,900 favorable. d. $6,175 unfavorable. e. none of the above.

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PRACTICE TEST
EXERCISE 1
ABC Company produced 25,000 units of Product XP-1 during 2000. Each product required 6 pounds of material at $11 per pound and 2 hours of direct labor at $15 per hour. During 2003, 160,000 pounds of material were purchased and used for $1,750,000; payroll totaled $743,900 for 49,000 hours.
Required:

Calculate the direct materials price and usage variances and the direct labor rate and efficiency variances.

EXERCISE 2
Acme Corp. applies overhead to production using a rate of $75 per machine hour ($35 variable, $40 fixed). Acme produced 15,000 units and incurred overhead of $3,710,000 (of which $1,495,000 was variable overhead) while using 43,500 machine hours. The overhead standards assumed each product would use 3 machine hours. The practical capacity of 18,000 units was used as the denominator activity.
Required:

Calculate the overhead variances using a four-variance analysis.

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EXERCISE 3
XYZ Company produces a compound by mixing 3 gallons of AB-5 (costing $2.25 per gallon) and 4 gallons of CR-3 (costing $7.50 per gallon). The output is 5 gallons of the compound. During August, 21,000 gallons of AB-5, costing $46,500, were purchased and used; 26,000 gallons of CR-3, costing $198,000, were purchased and used. A total of 37,000 gallons of output were obtained.
Required:

1. Calculate the direct materials price and usage variances.

2. Calculate the direct materials mix and yield variances.

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EXERCISE 4
Scooter Company has the following standard cost sheet using an expected capacity of 120,000 units: Direct materials..................... 25 pounds@$1.20 Direct labor............................ 2 hours@12.50 Overhead: Variable............................. 3 machine hours@8.00 Fixed................................. 3 machine hours@12.00 Total...................................... $30.00 25.00 24.00 36.00 $115.00

During the year, 125,000 units were produced. Actual costs included the following: Direct materials..................... Direct labor............................ Overhead.............................. Machine hours......................
Required:

3,200,000 pounds purchased for $3,725,000. 3,110,000 pounds were used in production. 260,000 hours worked; payroll totaled $3,320,000. Variable:$3,025,000 Fixed:$4,275,000 378,000 actually used

Calculate as many variances as possible.

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C A N YO U ? C H E C K L I S T

Can you identify potential sources of quantitative standards and the personnel responsible for establishing price standards? Can you explain the difference between ideal standards and currently attainable standards? Can you explain the difference between an actual costing system, a normal costing system, and a standard costing system? Can you compute the price (rate) and usage (efficiency) variances for direct materials (direct labor)? Can you prepare the journal entries for these variances? Can you prepare overhead variances using the two-variance, three-variance, and four-variance methods? Can you compute mix and yield variances for both direct materials and direct labor?

ANSWERS
KEY TERMS TEST
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. fixed overhead spending variance price variance, rate variance direct materials usage variance unfavorable variance price standard, quantity standard direct labor rate variance fixed overhead volume variance variable overhead efficiency variance, variable overhead spending variance standard cost per unit, unit standard cost standard cost sheet control limit ideal standard 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. total budget variance usage variance yield variance mix variance currently attainable standard favorable variance standard bill of materials direct materials price variance standard hours allowed, standard quantity of materials allowed 22. direct labor efficiency variance 23. relative value unit (RVU)

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUIZ
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. d d a a d d 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. c e b e b e $97,600 (25,000 $4) = $97,600 $100,000 = $2,400 Favorable [22,000 (2,250 10)] $4 = (22,000 22,500) $4 = 500 $4 = $2,000 Favorable $73,675 (4,760 $15) = $73,675 $71,400 = $2,275 Unfavorable [4,760 (2,250 2)] $15 = (4,760 4,500) $15 = 260 $15 = $3,900 Unfavorable

206 PRACTICE TEST EXERCISE 1(ABC Company)


MPV: $1,750,000 (160,000 $11) = $1,750,000 $1,760,000 = $10,000 Favorable MUV: (160,000 $11) (25,000 6 $11) = $1,760,000 $1,650,000 = $110,000 Unfavorable LRV: $743,900 (49,000 $15) = $743,900 $735,000 = $8,900 Unfavorable LEV: (49,000 $15) (25,000 2 $15) = $735,000 $750,000 = $15,000 Favorable

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EXERCISE 2(Acme Corp.)


VOH spending: Actual VOH Budgeted VOH $1,495,000 (43,500 $35) = $1,495,000 $1,522,500 = $27,500 Favorable VOH efficiency: Budgeted VOH Applied VOH (43,500 $35) (15,000 3 $35) = $1,522,500 $1,575,000 = $52,500 Favorable FOH spending: Actual FOH Budgeted FOH $2,215,000 (18,000 3 $40) = $2,215,000 $2,160,000 = $55,000 Unfavorable FOH volume: Budgeted FOH Applied FOH $2,160,000 (15,000 3 $40) = $2,160,000 $1,800,000 = $360,000 Unfavorable

EXERCISE 3(XYZ Company)


1. MPV: MUV: AB-5: $46,500 (21,000 $2.25) = $46,500 $47,250 = $750 Favorable CR-3: $198,000 (26,000 $7.50) = $198,000 $195,000 = $3,000 Unfavorable Total standard input = Actual yield / Yield ratio = 37,000 / [5/(3 + 4)] = 37,000 / .714 = 51,800* SQ(AB-5) = 51,800 3/7 = 22,200 SQ(CR-3) = 51,800 4/7 = 29,600 AQ 21,000 26,000 2. Mix variance AQ 21,000 26,000
a b

*rounded SQ 22,200 29,600 AQ SQ 1,200 3,600 (AQ SQ)SP $2,700 27,000 $29,700 Favorable SP $2.25 $7.50 (AQ SQ)SP $1,928.25 6,427.50 $4,499.25 Favorable

SQ 20,143 26,857

a b

AQ SQ 857 857

(21,000 + 26,000) 3/(3 + 4) = 20,143 (21,000 + 26,000) 4/(3 + 4) = 26,857

Yield variance = (Standard yield Actual yield) SPy = (33,571 37,000) $7.35 = 3,429 $7.35 = $25,203.15 Favorable where Standard yield = (21,000 + 26,000) 5/7 = 33,571 SPy = [(3 $2.25) + (4 $7.50)] / 5 gallons = $36.75 / 5 = $7.35

EXERCISE 4(Scooter Company)


MPV: MUV: LRV: LEV: able $3,725,000 (3,200,000 $1.20) = $3,725,000 $3,840,000 = $115,000 Favorable [3,110,000 (125,000 25)] $1.20 = (3,110,000 3,125,000) $1.20 = 15,000 $1.20 = $18,000 Favorable $3,320,000 (260,000 $12.50) = $3,320,000 $3,250,000 = $70,000 Unfavorable [260,000 (125,000 2)] $12.50 = (260,000 250,000) $12.50 = 10,000 $12.50 = $125,000 Unfavor-

VOSV: $3,025,000 (378,000 $8) = $3,025,000 $3,024,000 = $1,000 Unfavorable VOEV: [378,000 (125,000 3)] $8 = (378,000 375,000) $8 = 3,000 $8 = $24,000 Unfavorable FOSV: $4,275,000 (120,000 $36) = $4,275,000 $4,320,000 = $45,000 Favorable FOVV: $4,320,000 (125,000 $36) = $4,320,000 $4,500,000 = $180,000 Favorable