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DEPARTMENT OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CHULALONGKORN UNIVERSITY PHAYATHAI ROAD, BANGKOK 10330, THAILAND TEL: (662) 218-6772,

(662) 218-6784. FAX: (662) 218-6770 E-mail: fnegbr@eng.chula.ac.th

THAI - CANADIAN NUCLEAR HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT LINKAGE PROJECT

TRAINING PROGRAM

RADIATION PROTECTION
REFERENCE TEXT
written by J. U. BURNHAM formerly Director, Health and Safety Division, New Brunswick Power Corporation, Canada

SPONSORED BY ATOMIC ENERGY OF CANADA LIMITED CANADIAN INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AGENCY ELECTRICITY GENERATING AUTHORITY OF THAILAND OFFICE OF ATOMIC ENERGY FOR PEACE

FOR EW OR D

The ob jectiv es of o ur Ra diat ion Pr ot ect ion P ro gra m are: 1. 2. 3. 4. To pre ve nt rad iat io n fata lit ies; To pre ve nt rad iat io n inju rie s; To remain wit hin le ga l rad iat ion d ose li mits; To kee p rad iat ion d oses as lo w as r easo na bly ach ievab le.

This bo ok f or ms part of the Rad iat io n P ro tectio n Train in g Co urse f or the staf f of t he P oin t Leprea u CANDU- 6 Generating Stat ion. I t is des ign ed to g ive y ou an ap prec iat ion a nd un derstan ding of th e principle s of rad iat io n pro tection that yo u have t o f ollow, so tha t we ca n meet t he ob jec tives liste d a bo ve.

J. U. B ur nham D ire ct or , Hea lth & Sa fety Divis io n New Bru ns wick Po wer Co rp oration New Bru ns wick , Canad a Rev. 3 , Jan ua r y 19 92 NOTE (Jan uar y 20 05) : The c omp lete r efere nce tex t f or t his c ourse is availab le at the fo llo wing URL: ht tp ://can teach.ca nd u. or g/cata lo g. h tml# NBP OWER Rele va nt port ions o f t he refer ence te xt are co pied here for c on ve nie nt refe rence. Dan Menele y

CONTENTS
*CHA PTER 1 - T HE ATOM
ATO MIC S TRUCTURE The ato m; p rotons, neutro ns, electro ns; atomic numb er; elements; mass numb er; atomic size. IS OTO PES Separatio n o f isotop es; iso to pes o f hyd rogen and uranium; nuclides.

*CHA PTER 2 - RA DIA TIO N T HEORY


RADIOACTIVITY Stab le and radioactive nuclid es; alpha, beta, gamma and neutro n rad iation; energy, electro n volt. ION IZATIO N Io n p airs; ionizatio n by alp ha and beta p articles; io nization by p hotoelectric effect, Co mpto n scattering, p air prod uction; io nization b y neutro ns. PEN ETRATIN G ABILITY OF RADIATION Comparison of alp ha, b eta, gamma and neutron range; beta ranges in vario us materials; bremsstrahlung; half- value layer; neutro n range. DEC AY SC HEM ES Alpha, beta, po sitron and gamma decays; excited and gro und states; decay series. RATE OF DECAY Activity; half-life; decay curve; becq uerels. NEUTRO NS Fast, slow, thermal neutro ns; neutron so urces; fission; elastic and inelastic scattering; neutron activation; radiative cap ture; neutron reactions in tissue. RADIATION SO URC ES IN A NUCLEAR P LAN T Activation, contamination; radiatio n fro m the co re; fissio n pro ducts; fuel failure; activatio n pro ducts in mod erator and PHT systems.

CHAPTE R 3 - BI OLOGI CAL EFF ECTS OF RAD IAT ION


ION IZATIO N AND RADIATIO N DOS E Io nization and its effect on water mo lecules; direct and ind irect damage; ab so rb ed radiatio n d ose; the gray; q uality factors; equivalent d ose; the sievert. NATURAL BAC KGROUND RADIATION

Cosmic rays; radioactivity in the earth's crust; rado n daughters; external gamma radiatio n; natural radio activity in the b od y; areas of high natural radiation; man- mad e radiation; med ical expo sures; fallo ut; occupational do ses; nuclear p ower co ntrib ution. HEREDITARY EFF ECTS Cell division; mutatio n; risk from rad iation. LONG-TERM SOMATIC EF FECTS Cancer; human high expo sure d ata; extrap olatio n to low d oses; cancer risk. SHO RT- TERM S OMATIC EFF ECTS Acute and chro nic expo sures; effects o n the cell; rad iation sickness; rad iosensitivity; lethal do se; treatment of rad iatio n injury; effects o f exp osure to specific o rgans or tissues. RADIATION EF FECTS DURIN G PREGNANCY Effects of expo sure to embryo or foetus, 1 0- day rule.

CHAPTE R 4 - DOSE LI MI TS AND RI SK


DOS E EQUIVALENT LIM ITS The ICRP ; ICRP- 26 and IC RP -6 0; sto chastic and non-stochastic effects; o bjectives o f radiatio n protection; d ose limits. RISK Acute and chro nic risk; occupatio nal radiatio n risk ; hourly risk; lost life expectancy; comp arison o f vario us risks.

*CHA PTER 5 - I NST RUMENT S


GEN ERAL Features o f rad iation instrumentation; id entification o f radiatio n typ e; measurements mad e with radiatio n instruments. ION IZATIO N CHAM BERS Princip les of op eratio n; io n chamb er gamma survey meters; tritium-in-air monito rs; DRD. PRO PORTIONAL AND GEIGER COUNTERS Gas amplificatio n; prop ortional co unters fo r beta/gamma and alpha contaminatio n and neutro n measurements; Geiger counters as p article d etecto rs and gamma survey meters. PRACTICAL CON SIDERATIO NS Id entification o f radiatio n typ e; instrument design; special o perating techniq ues; energy d ep endence; scalers and ratemeters; respo nse time; efficiency; dead time; instrument checks. SCINTILLATION COUNTERS Functio ns of phosphor, phototube, amp lifier and d iscriminato r; alp ha scintillation counter; p ulse height analysis; whole- b od y co unter; liq uid scintillatio n counters (b ioassay and p ortal mo nitor). EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY Descrip tio n and p erformance o f o ur TLD system; neutron respo nse; op eratio nal p roced ures; TLD-DRD d iscrepancies.

CHAPTE R 6 -PROT ECTI ON FROM EXT ERNAL RA DIA TIO N


TIME, DEC AY AN D DISTANC E Method s using time, decay, distance; inverse sq uare law; po int, line and p lane sources. SHIELDING Alpha, beta, gamma and neutro n shield ing; d esign of permanent shielding. ACCESS CONTROL Safety precedence seq uence; access co ntrol system.

CHAPTE R 7 - EXTE RNAL RAD IAT ION HA ZARDS


REC OGNIZIN G HAZARDS Hazard s o f major statio n systems; hazard assessment; typ ical gamma and neutro n fields at Po int Lepreau; anticipating changes in hazard s. RADIATION SURVEYS Routine and job surveys; signpo sting; gamma, b eta and neutron surveys. ALARMING AREA GAMMA MO NITORS Fixed alarming area gamma mo nitors. USING S UITABLE DOSIMETRY Use of TLDs, DRDs, p ersonal alarming d osimeters and neutron survey meters.

CHAPTE R 8 - INTERNA L RADI ATI ON HAZAR DS


BEHAVIOUR OF INTERN AL SO URC ES Entry o f radionuclides into the b od y; distributio n in the b od y; target tissue; biolo gical and effective half- lives; physical fo rm o f radio nuclides. ANNUAL LIMIT O N INTAKE, DERIVED AIR CO NCENTRATION Intak e and uptake; Reference Man; ALI; DAC ; internal exp osure and committed do se. TRITIUM Prod uctio n; physical fo rm; b ehaviour in the b od y; expo sure and co mmitted d ose; bio assay; d ose calculations; infinity d ose; Bioassay Up date Rep orts; systems containing tritium. RADIOIODIN ES 3 39 Impo rtant iso to pes; sources; behavio ur in the b od y; do se co mmitment; thyro id blo ck ing. PARTICULATES Short- lived and lo ng- lived ; transp ortab le and no n- transpo rtable; DAC for unidentified p articulates; so urces and locations o f p articulates, carb on-1 4. BIOAS SAY Excretion analysis; who le bo dy co unting.

CHAPTE R 9 - CONTA MINA TI ON C ONTROL


SURFAC E CON TAM IN ATION

Sources; loo se and fixed contamination; C ontamination Contro l Limits (CCL); direct and ind irect measurements; surveys. AIRBO RNE C ONTAMINATIO N Particulates; co ntinuo us air monito r; spo t sampler; no ble gases; radio iod ine; tritium; tritium- in- air monito r; b ub bler; airbo rne areas.

CONTAMINATION CON TRO L DESIGN F EATURES Zoning; Rub ber Areas; Change Roo m; design and o peration of ventilation systems; heavy water vapo ur reco very systems; lo cal ventilation systems. PRO TEC TIVE C LOTHING Browns; d isp osab le co veralls; glo ves; foo twear; p lastic suit and ho od ; p ro tectio n factors. RES PIRATORS Air p urifying, air- sup plied and self-co ntained resp irators; protection facto rs; resp iratory hazard s; respirator fit testing; respirato r maintenance. DEC ONTAMINATIO N Chemical and p hysical metho ds; general p rincip les; Decontamination Centre; deco ntaminatio n o f eq uipment, wo rk areas, heavy water sp ills, clothing, skin.

*CHA PTER 10 - DOSE RECOR DS


External d ose; internal do se; Monito ring P eriod Dose Rep ort; Bio assay Upd ate Rep ort; Dose Check Po int; O ccup ational Do se Repo rt; mSv/MW- y perfo rmance. *CHA PTER 11 - WA STE MANA GEMENT SOLID WASTE Types of solid waste; S olid Rad io active Waste Management Facility (S RWMF ); waste hand ling. DERIVED EMIS SION LIMITS Critical group; DELs fo r airb orne emissions; DELs fo r liquid emissio ns; past perfo rmance. LIQUID WAS TE M ANAGEMENT Sources, sto rage, samp ling, dispersal; liquid effluent mo nitoring; the LEM. GAS EOUS WAS TE MANAGEMENT Ventilatio n flows exhausting to the stack ; gaseo us effluent mo nitoring system; GEM and no ble gas sp ectro meter; C- 1 4 samp ler. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING Objectives; atmospheric mo nito ring; terrestrial mo nitoring; ocean mo nitoring.

*CHA PTER 12 - WO RK PLANNING


Work Co ntrol at Po int Lepreau G.S ., Job Safety Analysis; work p ro cess interfaces (the S afety Wheel); work p lanning sp ecifics; wo rk planning examp les.

*CHA PTER 13 - EMERGENCY PLANNING


Point Lep reau G.S. Co ntingency Plan; Alert and Emergency Emergency Centre. alarms; Resp onse Team; Off-S ite

Note: * CHAPTERs marked with * are no t included in this issue.