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The Politics of Egyptology and the History Kemet (Egypt

By Gregory M. Gordon, History Professor College of Lake County, Grayslake, Illinois, U.S.A. 12 September 1998 DO NOT QUOTE WITHOUT THE PERMISSION OF THE AUTHOR

Some 5 million years ago, the birthplace of human kind took place in east Africa around the Olduvai Gorge near modern day Kenya/Tanzania. British physical anthropologist Dr. Lewis Leakey successfully unearthed a skull and skeletal remains of an advanced primate who is connected to the modern day homo sapien sapien (humans). According to many scholars, the ramapapithicus (5 million years BCE) found in east Africa still stands as the oldest ascendant of the modern homo sapien sapien thus far. Many in the scientific community widely regard Africa as the birthplace of human kind, or east Africa as being the proverbial Garden of Eden. Generally speaking, the majority of scholars believe that during the past 5 million years of evolutionary history, the ramapapithicus evolved into more complex species, from the ramapapithicus, austalapithacus, homo habelius, homo erectus and eventually to the homo sapien some 300,000 years ago and to the homo sapien sapien some 12,000 years ago.. Between 300,000 years ago to 50,000 years ago, many of the homo sapiens began to migrate to other parts of the African continent and also those who migrated down the Nile river and crossed over into the Sinai peninsula and eventually over to Europe and Asia. Through natural selection, different populations began to adapt to their new environments and developed new physical features for their adjustment. Most scientists believe that racial features developed from this (natural selection and racial features) during the distant past, especially between 15,000BCE to 300,000BCE or more years (Davidson 1-20: Bennett 3-6; DuBois 1-14).

When it comes to using "race" as a classification, race is not a scientifically-precise term. Genetically speaking, there is less than a 1% difference between negroids, caucasoids and mongoloids. Humans of different races are more than 99% alike genetically. Race is more of a political and quasi-biological term, dating back to the late-European Renaissance and earlyEuropean Enlightenment/Scientific age (Shreeve 57-64; Jordan 3-86). There is a great deal of scientific hair splitting when it comes to the classification of human populations. There are distinctions made between geography, color, language, ethnicity, nationality and race. Egyptologists whose interpretations border on the Revised Aryan model (a term coined by Martin Bernal in his book Black Athena) may argue that the Egyptians were Africans (geography), but not negro (a race). Others will argue that they were black (color), but not negro (race). Some Egyptologists and others will argue that there are dark-skinned caucasians (such as Arabs or east Indians). At one time, even those from Nubia (modern Sudan), Abbysinia/Sheba (modern Ethiopia/Djoubuti), and Somolia were classified as dark-skinned caucasians (Bennett 6-19)! Although Semite or Semitic is a linguistic term, Semites (or middle easterners) are classified as caucasians. The term Semite, a derivative of the Greek prefix semi, means half. One must logically ask, half of what? Perhaps half caucasian and half negro, or half caucasian and half

whereas Eurocentric-minded scholars argue that it translates as the black land. Elamite. The United States has the one-drop rule (almost any percentage of negro ancestry. Cushitic. it does not logically follow that the ancient Egyptians were negro (a race). such as Arabic and Hebrew. Wolof and so on) belong to the AfroAsiatic language family. Tiger Woods. or Misr in Arabic or the biblical name Mizraim) in the Hamitic language means black. Chadic. in a paradoxical way. not negro (race). Many Euro-American and European Egyptologists frequently quote from the research of a very famous conservative African American Nubianologist (who is really a trained classicist. a negro population) but. ironically they would not be classified as such by modern Egyptologists if they were found in ancient Egypt. race must be used as a term to eliminate the theoretical hair splitting and to bring clarity to our modern quasi-biological/political understanding of race. Many Egyptologists would also argue that the Hamitic language spoken by the ancient Egyptians is closely related to Cushite (the ancient language of the Nubians. depending on which state in the union. Lena Horne. they would argue that Egyptians were dark-skinned or blackish caucasians (color). Therefore. for a long time until recently made one legally and socially a negro in the United States). the land of Kemet (the ancient name of the country we now call Egypt. most Egyptologists are not Americans and their understanding and perceptions of race greatly differs. Amharic. formerly of Howard University as evidence of their claim that black and negro are not synonymous (Snowden 112-128). That is why the Hamitic language has been linked to Semitic. Although people like Vanessa L. or even in most European or Latin American countries today! What is more comical is the fact that Euro-American Egyptologists understand light-complexioned blacks/negroes as being such in the United States. Scholars have debated the etymology of the Hamitic word kmt (Kemet) for years. Arabic. whereas other countries will define negro as someone who is more than 50% negro (Davis 3-25). or Mariah Carry are generally considered black or negro in the United States. The former infers the people (ostensibly a predominately black/negro population). .caucasian? Therefore. a parent language. Halle Berry. all of these languages (Hamitic. Adam Clayton Powell. In so far as nationality. Race as a term must be the standard to measure the true composition of the ancient Egyptian population. Frank Snowden. Williams. Today. Afrocentric-minded scholars argue that it translates as land of the blacks. Hebrew. not a trained Egyptologist). a predominately-caucasian language. and the latter infers the soil (black soot originating from the source of the Nile river during the inundation season). Many Egyptologists will argue that the ancient Egyptians were just another ethnic group within the caucasian race (ethnicity are the sub-divisions within a race). Remember.

One must logically ask.500BCE to 3. the farther one goes up the Nile river (south bound) in Egypt.E. Noted Egyptologist Martin Bernal argues that during the pre-dynastic (before 3. The nomes served as centers of manufacturing and trade. during the pre and proto-dynastic periods. At around 10. This emigrating population of pastoral Semites were not indigenous (original inhabitants) to the area of lower Egypt.400BCE. nor were they Africans (El Shammaa 8-9). they would definitely be forced to sit in the back of the bus! The lower banks of the Nile river. this Nilotic population near El Badari and Amratia (between modern Luxor to modern Abu Simbel in Egypt) in upper Egypt were the innovators of agriculture and other advanced developments. Most Egyptologists who gravitate to Martin Bernal's revised Ancient Model believe them (pre-dilluvian lower Egyptians) to be negroes.but. most now agree to a negro population in Nubia. These nomes were controlled by local monarchs. who emigrated to lower Egypt from southwest Asia (or the Middle East) as early as 8.B. upper Egypt (southern half) was a predominately black/negro population and lower Egypt (northern half) was a predominately nonblack/non-negro population. Although Egyptologists are split on the racial composition of this population. Woodson once exclaimed that if you were to take the ancient Egyptian population to the American South in the 1940s. Abydos in upper Egypt.000BCE. if not an exclusively black/negro population. but they either vanished or were absorbed into the arriving Semitic population. Egypt was divided into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Upper Egypt (southern half of modern Egypt) and the Kingdom of Lower Egypt (the northern half of modern Egypt).400BCE). the blacker or the more negroid the population (Bernal. as well as upper Egypt's Elephantine (now Aswan) near the . Around the 1st and 2nd cataracts of the Nile (between the border of ancient Egypt and Nubia) served as one of the birthplaces of agriculture. very characteristic of African Americans of many colors and features today (Bernal. but. if not the birthplace of agriculture (Diop 3-50). All of Nubia (Ta-Seti) was either a predominately. Egyptologists are reluctant to define the race of the pre-dilluvian lower Egyptian population. DuBois and Carter G. Although for years archeologists and anthropologists had argued that the Nubian population was not a negro population. what was the racial composition of the population in lower Egypt? Anthropological evidence suggests that the lower Egyptian population was a predominately Semitic (mainly caucasian) population. they mysteriously adopt a European definition (not the one drop rule) when it comes to defining the race of ancient Egyptians! W.400BCE) and proto-dynastic eras (3.000BCE. More than half of Egyptologists still argue that the far southern Egyptian populations were not negro (Drake 115-195).400BCE to 30BCE). Black Athena I 242). Generally speaking. Archeologists suggest the first of these nomes were Sais and Buto in lower Egypt. most of the Badarians and Amatrians had "negroid" features. between the fifth cataract in modern Sudan to the Delta in modern Egypt served as the birthplace of a number of advanced developments. Many Egyptologists believe that there was an indigenous predilluvian (before the flood) population. Black Athena I 242). During the predynastic period (before 3. Both lower Egypt and upper Egypt begin to develop nomes (city-states) between 5.

border of ancient Egypt and Nubia. negroes and mulattoes combined made up between 50% to 70% of the population of united Egypt. The technology of agriculture (perhaps the greatest invention in human history) spread from upper Egypt down to lower Egypt. The unification made Narmar the official monarch over upper and lower Egypt. In 3. Kerma also produced the most impressive pottery during the pre-dynastic and early dynastic era (Williams 90-104). Throughout most of the dynastic era. Lower Egypt traded with kingdoms and city states in the Middle East. named in honor of his majesty. the Kingdoms of Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt came into existence. a common African trait/practice. he transferred the capital to a newly created city in lower Egypt called Memphis (Menes). one of the first nation-states on earth. and rarely found anywhere else (DuBois 1-38). The earliest of these nomes begin to increase in number up and down the Nile and soon fell under the control of a larger kingdom.and protodynastic eras (Bennett 7-19). During the predynastic era in Egyptian history.B. Narmar (Menes) was the first Pharaoh (a political system borrowed from the Nubians).E. the ancient Greek historian also mentioned this in his book. Bruce . According to W. The caucasian and negro populations from both areas began to intermix. Many Egyptologists who gravitate toward Martin Bernal's revised Aryan Model believe that the technology of agriculture was an import via the lower Egyptian Semites originating from Mesopotamia (modern Iraq or the Middle East). based on anthropological verification by analyzing over 800 skeletal remains during the pre.200BCE in other history books). Metals became important for military purposes. The term Ta-Seti means Land of the Bow in the Cushitic/Nubian language (Williams 90-104). they begin to codify their writing system. DuBois. developed the first calendar. With the successful annexation. Egyptian history begins with the King of Upper Egypt. the dynastic or pharaonic era began. mastered and invented the science of astronomy. A pharaoh is a ruling family or ruling house/court. therefore. a noted Nubianologist from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago also argues that the Egyptian religious system of pantheism and polytheism were introduced to them by the Nubians. That moment marked the beginnings of the unified Kingdom of Egypt. As early as 4. Herodotus. Upon the success of Narmar's army and conquest over Lower Egypt. and smelted metals such as a copper and gold. and Upper Egypt traded with the Kingdom of Lower Ta-Seti (Nubia) as well as the less developed Kingdom of Upper TaSeti (Nubia). the notion of a God-King is an African invention. The term Nubia means gold in the Hamitic/Egyptian language. Narmar united the two kingdoms under one crown or political rule. gold and copper ore from the lower Nubians at the lower Nubian capital of Kerma (Qustul). Subjects considered the king/queen/pharaoh to be divine. creating a large mulatto (raciallymixed) population between the kingdoms. and his crown represented his new status. The Histories. These monarchs ruled over their respective nomes and begin to trade with each other and to other kingdoms nearby.000BCE.400BCE (sometimes 3. Bruce Williams. Upper Egypt held the initiative in this area because they received via trade. King Narmar (or King Menes) who decided to launch a military invasion into the Kingdom Lower Egypt and took it over.

the Greeks.200BCE) Throughout the 1st thru 4th dynasties (between 3. Throughout the dynastic era. they invented Physics. A dynasty can last from 40 years to 300 years. With Egypt being a society that stressed the importance of the society as opposed to the individual. Egypt embarked on its greatest achievements in high civilization. medicine and hospitals is Imhotep. 1st Intermediate Period (9th thru 12th dynasties). 19th. such as the 1st-4th dynasties. if not the vast majority of monarchs/pharaohs were negroes or mulattoes. and finally the Romans who ended the pharaonic system after 30BCE. such as Narmar were more Nubian than Egyptian (Williams 90-104) .400BCE to 2. Most . depending on the dynasty. who supposedly committed suicide after losing several battles with the Roman army in 30BCE. they built a dam that added to the Nile delta region. from 3. Medicine. the Nubians. Early New Kingdom (18th and 19th dynasties). the Syro-Palestinians. the 8th. the Persians. the god of wisdom is given most of the credit. They often give credit to various gods for such inventions. Egypt had one of the largest populations of any country in the world during antiquities. Astronomy and so on before the dynastic era. The first pharaoh/monarch was Narmar (3. which of course means black or carbon. Trigonometry and possibly Calculus. The dam enabled the Nile valley to become more productive agriculturally and Egypt became a proverbial breadbasket in the Near East. Once that family is replaced or die off. the Hospital. Chemistry. The last pharaoh/monarch was Cleopatra VII.600BCE). Likewise. such as the Anatolians. or Chemi. advanced architectural and civil engineering. Thoth. EARLY KINGDOM (1ST THRU 8TH DYNASTIES/3. many outsiders ruled over Egypt. Moreover. Throughout the time from 3. philosophy.400BCE to 30BCE. Early dynastic Egypt begin to embark on some of the most ambitious civil engineering projects in antiquities. the calendar. The Egyptian pharaonic/dynastic period is divided into 35 dynasties. rarely did they leave documents indicating the individuals who invented such things. perhaps as many as 2 million or more throughout the proto-dynastic era. and 25th dynasties. the 12th. during this time frame. and Late New Kingdom (20th thru 35th dynasties). After mastering irrigation.400BCE to 30BCE. During Narmar's dynasty (1st dynasty). writing. 2nd Intermediate Period (13th thru 17th dynasties). They also indulged in complex art.400BCE to 2. the Egyptians also ruled over the aforementioned groups and others during their glory days of old. an upper Egyptian and more than likely a negro.Williams also asserts that the pharaonic system is a Nubian invention and that many of the early rulers. Everything hinges on which family can stay in power. Negroes and mulattoes were very heavily represented during the greatest dynasties. many.400BCE). they invented Geometry. 18th. Denistry. the dramatic arts. more than likely a Ptolemaic Greek. than a new dynasty is created. and civics. the Libyans. One person whom the Egyptians cite as being the inventor of the pyramids. The dynasties are broadly divided into the Early Kingdom (1st thru 8th dynasties). The word Chemistry comes from the Hamitic word Kemet.

During the 4th dynasty. often resembling a 7 layer cake. the ancient Greek historian and geographer in his book The Histories visited these areas where the Sestrosises left their mark on everything. THE 1ST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD/THE 9TH THRU 12TH DYNASTIES/2. The Egyptian priesthood rebelled at times as well as the Egyptian people. especially with their conquest of Lower Nubia.900BCE (or 2. therefore "civilized" the Greeks and jump started Western civilization. just to the south of modern Cairo. Black Athena II 194-273). Imhotep was probably a negro/mulatto. The tallest of the pyramids stand at 210 feet in height. including his birthplace of Anatolia (Turkey). There were times when local rulers controlled their own nomes without taking orders from Memphis. The Sestrosises were warrior Kings who lead a number of military campaigns in the Middle East. He mentioned that these Colchis were from Egypt because they appeared to have black . The 8th dynasty had tremendous success. most of which are located in lower Egypt. This took place around 2. The pyramids at Saqqara are estimated to have been constructed around 3. and his adopted home of Greece.200BCE TO 1.Egyptologists believe that the god Thoth was a commemoration of Imhotep's life. The earliest evidence of pyramid building took place in the city of Saqqara. The 1st thru 4th dynasties were politically powerful and stable monarchies.800BCE This period in Egyptian history had mixed results. Martin Bernal strongly believes that the Sestrosises were negroes (Bernal. Members of the Egyptian armies (the Colchis) maintained an occupational presence near the Black Sea and Caspian Sea (Bernal 245-257). Herodotus.100BCE (or 2.700BCE in some history books). Given the time frame. During the 12th Dynasty. The Saqqara pyramids are called the step pyramids. who re-established dominance over Egypt and Lower Nubia.900BCE in some history books). The tallest pyramid at Giza stood at 510 feet tall (or half the height of the Sears tower in Chicago). the tallest of all the 94 pyramids found in Egypt. the dynastic capital at that time. or very close to Memphis. there were two pharaohs named Sestrosis I and Setrosis II. the area of former Soviet Georgia near the Caspian and Black seas as well as modern Turkey (ancient Anatolia) and the Aegean (Greece). Giza is a suburb in modern Cairo or about 35 kilometers from Memphis. the Great Pyramids and the Sphinx at Giza were constructed. The Egyptians and Phoenicians (ancient Canaanites/Philistines/Ugarites/Carthagian/Punics or modern Palestinians) of the Levant established a military outpost on the Greek mainland (Thebes) and the island of Crete. High taxes and food shortages caused civil discontent at times. but the 5th and 7th dynasties had some political difficulties.

2ND INTERMEDIATE PERIOD/13TH THRU 17TH DYNASTIES/1. as was the case in previous generations or dynasties (Diop 50-153). a Syro-Palestinian invention. Tyre. they transferred the capital of Egypt from Memphis to Luxor. Some say they were Anatolians from Turkey while others argue that they were Syro-Palestinians from the Levant. There were many Colchis who remained in (former Soviet) Georgia and sometimes mixed with the Georgian population over the centuries. As a result. EARLY NEW KINGDOM/18TH AND 19TH DYNASTIES/1.800BC TO 1. Other scholars would argue that since the Hyksos were also able to conquer the Egyptians by using the chariot. Egypt underwent a proverbial dark ages. the Hyksos were Syro-Palestinian from the Levant. organized an armed rebellion with the help of the Nubian army to chase the Hyksos out of Egypt.050BCE The family of the 18th Dynasty. There is a split among Egyptologists as to who these Hyksos were. the monarchs of the 18th dynasty were firmly back in power. The Egyptian monarchy and some Egyptian priests migrated to Nubia to escape Hyksos domination. in which there was very little intellectual and cultural developments taking place. they often made reference to these dark-looking Colchis (Bernal 245-257). than they were Anatolians. the conservative African American Nubianologist argues that Herodotus did not mean black as synonymous with negro in our modern racial understanding of the word (Snowden 112-128). Some scholars argue that since they (the Hyksos) were able to use iron weapons (an Anatolian invention) to conquer Egypt.585BCE This time frame represented the era of the Hyksos invasion and occupation. Frank Snowden. or from lower Egypt to upper Egypt. Monarchs during the 18th dynasty succeeded in conquering large . During Hyksos domination. with a great deal of Nubian and Egyptian anscestry. Most Egyptologists now believe that the 18th dynasty was ostensably a black/negro one. the queen mother of the 18th dynasty was of distinct Nubian ancestry.585BCE TO and wooly hair. The Egyptian population also rebelled against Hyksos domination. Even in old Georgian oral and written literature during the past few hundred years. When this occurred. Hyksos in the Egyptian language stood for foreigner. Members of the Egyptian monarchy really begin to intermixed with the Nubian monarchy.

Rogers. she expresses anxiety with these scholars asserting that Egypt was a predominately-black population. and so on. ruled over Egypt for 22 years. his son. demotic and hieractic. the 18th dynasty had some of the most famous pharaohs in Egyptian history. Lefkowitz points out that there is a resurging popularity of books written by unlettered scholars. than other assertions advanced by African American writers and their supporters on the subject also lack scholarly credibility (Lefkowitz 12-52)." even though she is not a trained Egyptologist nor has ever visited Egypt. James and lettered scholars such as W. drama. Hatshepsut. Egyptian philosophers began to expouse the ideas of democracy. Tutankhamen. dance. Political reforms were instituted. She points out that these men were never trained scholars and lack any valid perspective on the subject. Among them were Tuthmoses I (Ahmose I). Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. Tuthmoses II established the expansion of the Egyptian empire and continued with the reforms set in motion. Hatshepsut. Lefkowitz.B.E.M. experimental architecture. There was a . music. Demotic and hieractic were a cursive-style writing system designed for priests and the general public. She labels Bernal's scholarship as "amateurish. Moreover. Although still debatable. She spends most of her book pointing out the African American myth of Cleopatra VII being black or of negro ancestry. there were revivals in literature. temples. After Tuthmoses II's death. a classicist from Wellesley College vociferously disagrees with the argument that democracy and philosophy were Egyptian inventions and Egyptians had virtually no influence on Hellenistic (Greek) culture. borrowed many of their philosophical precepts from Egyptian philosophy. and died at the age of 19. ascended to the throne at age 9. she infers that if this black Cleopatra myth lacks validity. both of whom spent years in Egypt and studied in the Egyptian priesthood. Akenaton.A. monuments and expanded infrastructure. by default. There was a revival that led to the construction of new of the Middle East. Tuthmoses II. Although Rogers and James published their books over 40 years ago. George G. After king "Tut's" death. Thuthmoses III. Mary Lefkowitz. DuBois and Cheika Anta Diop. Tut's sister came to power under controversial circumstances. and transformed Egyptian society from the dark ages into a renaissance. Although she gives very impressive evidence arguing that Cleopatra was a pure Greek. Tutankhamen. art. Centuries later. she argues that the recent popularity of their books among African American readers is a dangerous trend. There was political unrest and revolts from the Egyptian priesthood during the Tutankhamen's reign. including the abolition of the death penalty. Nevertheless. and the development of a less complicated writing system for the general public. such as J. such as James and Rogers in African American bookstores as well as in mainstream bookstores. and not native Egyptian or black. Tuthmoses I firmly established control over Egypt and reserected the old Egyptian institutions. as well as lettered white scholars like as Martin Bernal for advancing the paradigm that Egypt influenced Greek civilization. especially democracy and ethics (James 83-130). whereas hyrogliphics was a sacred writing system reserved for only priests and scribes/scholars. although Egypt had always been a monarchial political system. the author of Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History (1996) is a passionate attack on unlettered African American scholars. Moreover. a queen who came to power by virtue of ruling as a male king.

Akenaton. a semitic population. His son (Ramses II) had less negro anscestry. Turkey (Anatolia). Akenaten was married to queen Nefertiti. The successor to the 18th dynasty was Ramses I . The priests destroyed most of the monuments. she stablized Egyptian society and she launched very aggressive overseas trade expiditions to far away places such as the land of Punt (modern Somalia or the biblical name Put). The Egyptian priesthood was furious and rebelled at times. in which he appeared to have had a protruding stomach. a former Nubian princess (and regarded as one of the most beautiful women in antiquity). Among them were the elimination of polytheism and replacing it with the newly created religion of ethical monotheism. After Tuthmoses III's reign/death was his successor. as well as on his African neighbors. Was it suppose to be King Tuthmoses II's daughter (Hatshepsut). Therefore. Tuthmoses III had all of his aunt's monuments and writings destroyed (most of it) and he launched military invasions all over the Middle East. Akenaten instituted a number of important religious. migrated from Mesopotamia into Egypt during the 2nd intermediate period (1800BCE to 1580BCE) and either became guess/migrant workers or slaves (there is a split among Egyptologists over the exact employment status of these Hebrew tribes). Tuthmoses III had her dethroned and he enthroned himself . During her tenure on the throne. Ramses I had a great deal of Nubian and black Egyptian anscestry.recognized God during Akenaten's reign. Akenaton's ideas of monotheism had to have had an influence on Moses's theology. adopted at birth by a wealthy Egyptian women. because his mother was a caucasian. the inventor of monotheism. Hebrews begin to practice monotheism around 1200BCE upon the encouragement of Moses. a limited form of democracy.dispute as to who was the legitimate successor to the throne. The monument of Abu Simbel was the most prominent example. political and artistic reforms. does not always receive the credit in theological circles for this invention. His predecessors were portrayed in highly exaggerated and muscular form (larger than life form). temples and writings associated with Amon-Ra (monotheism) and Akenaton. a tribute to Ramses II's Nubian wife . or Tuthmoses II's nephew (Tuthmoses III)? Some scholars assert that they could have been siblings and/or possibly husband and wife! She won the struggle by making herself a man through divine manipulation (basically intimidating the priests). Under his tenure on the throne. and Syro-Palestinians. Greece. Moses became part of the Egyptian aristocracy and he studied in the Egyptian priesthood. Libyans. Akenaton allowed greater popular input in local government affairs. the priesthood eliminated monotheism and reistituted polytheism and re-opened many of the polytheistic temples. the founder of the 19th dynasty. Akenaton also abolished capital punishment. Her nephew. Both Ramses I and Ramses II launched numerous military campaigns against the Nubians. He was portrayed in realistic form in all the art work. Nevertheless. Tuthmoses IV (Akenaten). The ancient Hebrews (later Israelites or Jews) frequently receive the credit for this invention. he mandated that artists must strive for realistic and not abstract representations in their works. She also launched military campaigns into neighboring Libya and Nubia. After Akenaten's death. the Hebrew tribes. The Sun God (Amon-Ra) was the only officially. They both strengthened political control over Egypt and launched numerous civil engineering projects. However. Moreover. Egyptian influence over other countries were at its height during Tuthmoses III's domain.

Egypt fell into political and military decline. LATE NEW KINGDOM/20TH TO 35TH DYNASTIES/1050BCE TO 30BCE For most of the Late New Kingdom era. Bruce Williams of the Oriental Institute. Moses. a Hebrew who was adopted into a wealthy Egyptian family. The Libyans invaded and generally ruled over Egypt between 1050BCE to 800BCE (from the 20th thru 24th dynasties). or else! It served as a border marker between Egypt and Nubia. Abu Simbel served as a giant billboard warning the Nubian army not to advance north of Abu Simbel. perhaps King Ramses II was the pharaoh who issued a law mandating that the first born of Hebrew parents be killed as part of the Egyptian government's anti-Semitic policies. After years of fighting with the Syro-Palestinians. which later became Israel.and queen. King Ramses II lived to the age of 92 and had dozens of wives and perhaps over 100 children. Their capital was Jerusalem. upon the leadership of Moses. This was the establishment of the 25th dynasty. Circa 800BCE. Because of the oppressive policies of the Egyptian government against the Hebrew Egyptians. The first of these invaders were the Libyans. The Hebrews then went to the Sinai desert and remained for over 40 years. Moses's mother hid her infant son in a river bed to prevent her son from being murdered. the Hebrews worked on many civil engineering projects and were perhaps forced laborers/slaves (Egyptologists are split on whether the ancient Hebrews were slaves or guest workers). renounced his Egyptian upbringing and became the leader of the Hebrew tribes in Egypt. Noted Nubianologist. However. the Hebrews were able to created a nation-state. these outside invaders kept Egyptian institutions in existence and rarely interfered with local laws and customs. Egyptologists and others argue that the basis of Judaism had strong Egyptian influence. the Nubians under the leadership of King Kashta lauched a military campaign to conquer Egypt from the Libyans. Nefertari. University of Chicago argues that the 21st dynasty was a Nubian dynasty. . The Hebrew tribes (12 of them) refined their monotheistic religion. According to the Old Testament in the Bible. as well as the conquest of the Hittite (Turkey) and Assyria/SyroPalestine (Bennett 11). A rich Egyptian woman found young Moses and adopted him. Egypt's western neighbor. the Hebrews. Outside invaders even went so far as to make themselves pharaohs and conducted themselves in that manner. decided to leave Egypt (the Exodus and the Passover). Even though scholars disagree. which became the basis of Judaism. Between 1200BCE to 1050BCE. outside invaders ruled over Egypt for the most part. Prior to circa 1225BCE. Nefertari was his main wife and the most adored by Ramses II. then migrated to the Levant. after a succession of almost a dozen Ramses.

and Mark Anthony were the most instrumental in their proverbial conquest of the world. Nubia had in excess of 180 pyramids compared to Egypt's 94 pyramids! Both countries influenced each other for thousands of years. and not Greeks. an Assyrian dynasty. such as the Egyptians priesthood and the polytheistic religion (Harris 53-111). but also Libya. In 667BCE. the Ptolemies and Cleopatras reigned as pharaohs over Egypt. revived declining Egyptians institutions. the Assyrians invaded Egypt and forced the Nubians out of Egypt (Bennett 11). they regarded their nationality to be Egyptian. she did not want to undergo the dishonor of surrendering her country to the Romans. because Egypt and Nubia were more similar in development than dissimilar. the Roman armies invading her country. and so on. The Persians. Julius Ceaser. He ruled from Egypt's capital. under their king Xerxes. The most famous Cleopatra was Cleopatra VII. and the less successful conquest of Assyria and Hittite. Piankhy's son Shabaka. Roman conquerers Augustus Ceaser. and were treated by the Egyptian people as such. including Egypt. The Greek Ptolemaic rulers adopted Egyptian sensibilities and often considered themselves to be Egyptians. the Macedonian (Greek) conqueror invaded not only Egypt. the murder of Julius Ceaser. to persuade them not to conquer her country. The Romans abolished the pharaonic system and their institutions. Because of all these events. Luxor. as oppose to the capital of Nubia.With the successful conquest of Egypt. even dating back to before the pre-dynastic era (before 3400BCE). Asia Minor (Turkey). southeastern Europe and other parts of the Middle East. the Levant. Therefore. forced the Assyrians out of Egypt. The Assyrians kept most of the institutions in tact until they were attacked and forced out of Egypt. Around 324BCE. Cleopatra VII supposedly had an affair with both Mark Anthony and Julius Ceaser. continued with the military occupation and began to consolidate power under his command. The Romans were on the verge of conquering all the territories formerly under Greek rule. Piankhy made himself the sole pharaoh of Egypt and Nubian (Taylor 23-46). Kashta's son Piankhy. All of these Nubian-led institutional revivals and reconstruction projects involved a strong knowledge of Egyptian society. . Cleopatra VII was distraught over her unsuccessful naval battles against the Romans. and ultimately made Egypt a province of Rome. All these events marked the end of pharaonic/dynastic Egyptian history. she supposedly committed suicide. Shabaka also embarked on new pyramid building in both Egypt and Nubia. the Nubians transferred its capital to the island city (in the middle of the Nile river) of Moroe in upper Nubia. the Roman armies successfully invaded and conquered Egypt. Alexander the Great. With Egypt under Greek domination between 324BCE to 30BCE. which was Napata. The Persians ruled over Egypt until 324BCE. Because of the Greek invasion of Lower Nubia and the sack of its capital Napata. That invasion marked the beginnings of the 26th dynasty. The Greeks borrowed heavily from Egyptian ideas and did a great job in assimilating Egyptian ideas into their own culture. After her supposed suicide. Lower Nubia. In fact. Although the Cleopatras were proud of their Greek ancestry.


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