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# SETS Set Notation A set is a collection of objects. At home you may have a set of dishes or a set of steak knives.

In algebra we generally discuss sets of numbers. For example, we refer to the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on as the set of counting numbers or natural numbers. The objects or numbers in a set are called elements or members of the set. To describe sets with convenient notation, we use braces, { }, and name the set with capital letters. For example: A = {1,2,3} means that set A is the set whose elements are the natural numbers 1,2, and 3. The letter N is used to represent the entire set of natural numbers. N = {1,2,3,.}. A set that has a fixed number of elements such as {1,2,3} is a finite set and set without a fixed number of elements such as the set of natural numbers is an infinite set. Set Builder Notation is another method of describing sets. In this notation we use a variable to represent the numbers in the set. A Variable is a letter that is used to stand for some numbers. For example: B = { x / x is a natural number less than 50} B = { 1,2,3,,49} which 1 to 49 are elements of B and 50 is not an element of B. Equal Sets two sets are equal if they contain exactly the same elements. For example: 1) {3,4,7} = {3,4,7) 2) {2,4,1} = {1,2,4} 3) {3,5,6} {3,5,7} Union of Sets Any two sets, A and B can be combined to form a new set called their union that consists of all elements of A together with all elements of B. if A and B are sets, the union of A and B, denoted as A B, is the set of all elements that are either in A, in B, or in both. In symbols: A B = {x / x A or x B}. Examples: Let A = {0,2,3}, B = {2,3,7}, and C = {7,8} a) A B = {0,2,3,7} Intersection of Sets If A and B are sets, the intersection of A and B, denoted A B, is the set of all elements that are in both A and B. in symbols: A B = {x / x A and x B} Examples: Let A = {0,2,3}, B = {2,3,7}, and C = {7,8} a) A B = {2,3} b) B C = {7} c) A C = b) A C = {0,2,3,7,8}

It is possible for two sets to have no elements in common. A set with no elements is called Empty Set denoted by the symbol The set {0} is not an empty set. The set {0} has one element the number zero (0). Do not used the number zero to represent empty set.

Subsets If every element of set A is also an element of set B, then we write A C subset of B. subset of C denoted by: A C C Combining Three or More Sets Operations with three sets Let A = {1,2,3,4}, B = {2,5,6,8}, and C = {4,5,7} a) (A B) C = {4,5} THE REAL NUMBERS The set of real numbers is the basic set of numbers used in algebra. There are many different types of real numbers. To understand better the set of real numbers, we will study some of the subsets of numbers that make up this set. Natural or Counting Numbers (N) are numbers used in counting denoted by N = {1,2,3,4,5} Even Numbers (E) are numbers that are exactly divisible by 2 denoted by E = {2,4,6,8,10,.} Odd Numbers (O) are numbers that are not exactly divisible by 2 denoted by O = {1,3,5,7,9,11,..} Fractions (F) are in the form of a/b, where a and b are integers and b 0. Examples: 1/2, 2/3, 5/6, 0/3, -2/-5, 8/3,. b) A (B C) = {1,2,3,4,5} B and say that A is a

Example: Let A = {2,3} and B = {1,2,3,4}, and C = {5,6,7}, then A is a subset of B and A is not a

Whole Numbers (W) composed of natural numbers and zero denoted by W = {0,1,2,3,4,5,..} Integers (J ) composed of the negative natural numbers and whole numbers denoted by J = {.,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,..} Rational Numbers (Q) are numbers that are written as ratios or as quotients of two integers denoted by: Q = {a/b / a and b are integers, with b 0} Examples of rational numbers: 7, 9/4, -17/10, 0, 0/4, 3/1, -47/3 and -1/-3

Another way to describe rational numbers is by using their decimal form. Examples: 26/100 = 0.26 terminating decimal

4/1 = 4.0 terminating decimal 1/4 = 0.25 terminating decimal 2/3 = 0.66666. the single digit 6 repeats non terminating and repeating decimal 25/99 = 0.252525 the pair of digits 25 repeats

4,177 / 990 = 4.2191919 the pair of digits 19 repeats When we draw a number line, we might label only the integers. But every point on the number line corresponds to a number. The set of all these numbers is called the set of Real Numbers (R). Irrational Numbers (I ) are those real numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers. Examples: 2 = 1.41421356237non repeating / non terminating decimal 5 = 2.23606797749979.. non repeating / non terminating decimal 7 = 2.645751311064591.. non repeating / non terminating decimal = 3.141592654. non repeating / non terminating decimal Absolute Value the real numbers are the coordinates of the points on the number line. However, we often refer to the points as numbers. For example, the numbers 5 and -5 are both five units away from 0 on the number line. A numbers distance away from 0 on the number line is called Absolute Value of the number. We write /a / for the absolute value of a. therefore, /5/ = 5 and /-5/ = 5. Operations with Signed Numbers Sum of Two Numbers with Like signs RULE: to find the sum of two numbers with like signs, add their absolute values and prefix the common sign. Examples: a) (-12) + (-6) = -18 b) (12) + (6) = 18

Sum of Two Numbers with Unlike signs RULE: to find the sum of two numbers with unlike signs, subtract their absolute values and prefix the sign of the larger absolute value. Examples: a) (-21) + (6) = -15 Subtraction of Signed Numbers RULE: to find the difference of signed numbers, change the sign of the subtrahend and proceed to addition denoted by a b = a + (-b). Examples: a) (-21) (8) (-21) + (-8) = -29 c) (21) (-8) (21) + (8) = 29 Multiplying two Numbers with like Signs RULE: to find the product of two numbers with like signs, multiply their absolute values and the sign of the product is always positive. Examples: a) (-7)(-5) = 35 b) (7)(5) = 35 b) (-21) (-8) (-21) + (8) = -13 d) (-8) (-21) (-8) + (21) = 13 b) (21) + (-6) = 15

Multiplying two Numbers with unlike Signs RULE: to find the product of two numbers with unlike signs, multiply their absolute values and the sign of the product is always product is always negative.

## Examples: a) (-7)(5) = -35

b) (7)(-5) = -35

Dividing two Numbers with Like Signs RULE: to find the quotient of two numbers with like signs, divide their absolute values and the sign of the quotient is always positive. Examples: a) (-20)/(-5) = 4 b) (20)/(5) = 4

Dividing two Numbers with unlike Signs RULE: to find the quotient of two numbers with unlike signs, divide their absolute values and the sign of the quotient is always negative. Examples: a) (-20)/(5) = -4 ARITHMETIC EXPRESSIONS The result of writing numbers in a meaningful combination with the ordinary operations of arithmetic is called arithmetic expression. An expression that involves more than one operation is called sum, difference, product, or quotient if the last operation to be performed is addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division respectively. Parentheses are used as grouping symbols to indicate which operations are to be performed first. The expression 5 + (2 3) 5 + 6 = 11 Examples: a) 5 [(23) 8] 5 [6 8] 5 [-2] = -10 2 [20 3] 2  = 34 b) (20)/(-5) = -4

b) 2 [(45) - /3 6/]

2 [20 - /-3/]

EXPONENTIAL EXPRESSIONS We use the notation of exponents to simplify the writing of repeated multiplication. The product 5555 = 54. The number 4 in 54 is called exponent and the number 5 is called base. The exponent indicates the number of times the base will be multiplied. SQUARE ROOT If a2 = b, then a is called the square root of b. if a 0, then a is called the principal square root of b and we write b = a. The radical symbol is a grouping symbol. We perform all operations within the radical symbol before the square is found. Evaluating Square Roots a) 64 = 8 b) 9+16 25 = 5 c) 3(17-5) 3(12) 36 = 6

ORDER OF OPERATIONS To simplify the writing of expressions, we often omit some grouping symbols. If we saw the expression 5+23 written without parentheses. RULES: evaluate inside any grouping symbols first. When grouping symbols are missing use the following order. 1. Evaluate each exponential expression (in order from left to right) 2. Perform multiplication and division (in order from left to right) 3. Perform addition and subtraction (in order from left to right)

## Examples: Evaluate each expression. a) 5 + 2 3 5 + 6 = 11 b) 9 23 9 8 = 72 2 2 2 2 c) (6 4 ) (6 16) (-10) = 100 d) 40 8 2 5 3 5 2 53 1053 23 = 6

Scientific Notation = shorthand way to write very large or very small numbers. As its name suggests, scientific notation is commonly used by scientists, who often deal with numbers so large or so small that it would be inconvenient to write out the numbers and difficult to read them once written. Scientific notation is written as a number between 1 and 10 multiplied by a specific power of 10. A power of 10 is 10 multiplied by itself a certain number of times. For example, 10 10 10 is 10 to the third power, or 103. The number 3 in this notation is an exponent and indicates the number of times 10 should be multiplied by itself. Writing numbers in scientific notation allows scientists to leave out a number of zeros while still retaining some indication that the zeros exist. The number 71,000, for example, is the same as 7.1 multiplied by 10,000 (104) and is written 7.1 104 in scientific notation. Numbers smaller than 1 have negative exponents in scientific notation. The number 0.00523, for instance, is the same as 5.23 times 0.001 (10-3) and is written 5.23 10-3. 10-3 means 1 divided by (10 10 10). Scientific notation is especially useful in writing or reading extremely large or small numbers. The weight of a single atom of hydrogen, for example, is about 1.7 10 -24 or 0.0000000000000000000000017 grams. ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS The result of combining numbers and variables with the ordinary operations of arithmetic is called algebraic expression. For example: 2x 5y, 5x2, x 3, b2 4ac, 5, and x/2 are algebraic expressions, or simply expressions. An expression such as 2x 5y has no definite value unless we assign values for x and y. For example, if x = 3 and y = 4, then the value of 2x 5y is found by replacing x with 3 and y with 4 and evaluating: 2x 5y 2(3) 5(4) 6 20 = -14

## Evaluate each expression for a = -2, b = 3, and c = 7. a) a c2 b) a b2 c) b2 4ac 2 16 = -14 d) (a b)/(c b)

Solutions: a) a c2 2 42

b) a b2 2 (-3)2 2 9 = -7 c) b2 4ac (-3)2 4(2)(4) 9 32 = -23 d) (a b)/(c b) 2 (-3) 4 (-3) 2+3 4+3 =5 7

PROPERTIES OF THE REAL NUMBERS Commutative Property of Addition for any real numbers a and b, Example: 7 + 3 = 3 + 7 Commutative Property of Multiplication for any real numbers a and b, Example: 7 3 = 3 7 Associative Property for Addition for any real numbers a, b and c, Example: (7 + 3) + 4 = 7 + (3 + 4) (a + b) + c = a + (b + c) ab = ba a+b=b+a

Associative Property for Multiplication for any real numbers a, b and c, Example: (7 3) 4 = 7 (3 4) Distributive Property for any real numbers a, b and c, Example: 7 (3 + 4) = 73 + 74 Additive Identity Property for any real number a, a(b + c) = ab + ac 7 (3 - 4) = 73 - 74 a+0=0+a=a

(ab)c = a(bc)

a(b - c) = ab - ac

Example: 7 + 0 = 7 or 0 + 7 = 7 then 0 is called the additive identity Multiplicative Identity Property for any real number a, a 1 = 1 a = a Example: 7 1 = 7 or 1 7 = 7 then 1 is called the multiplicative identity Additive Inverse Property for any real number a, a + (-a) = (-a) + a = 0

Example: 7 + (-7) = 0 or (-7) + 7 = 0 Multiplicative Inverse Property for any real number a, a 1/a = 1/a a = 1 Example: 7 1/7 = 1 or 1/7 7 = 1 Multiplication Property of Zero for any real number a, a0=0a=0

Example: 7 0 = 0 or 0 7 = 0 Division Property Involving Zero for any real number a, a) 0 a = 0 b) a 0 = undefined c) 0 0 = indeterminate a + real number = real number

## Closure Property for Addition for any real number a,

Example: 7 + 5 = 12 Closure Property for Multiplication for any real number a, Example: 7 5 = 35 a real number = real number

RULES/LAWS OF EXPONENTS Let a, b, and c be any real numbers and the variables m & n are any integers to discuss on rules/laws of exponents. Product Law (am)(an) = am+n Example: (42)(43) = 42+3 = 45 = 1,024 Quotient Law am / an = am - n Example: (45)/(43) = 45 - 3 = 42 = 16 Power of a Product Law (ab)n = anbn Example: (4x)3 = 43x3 = 64x3 Power of a Quotient Law (a/b)n = an / bn Example: (4/5)3 = 43 / 53 = 64/125 Power Raised to a Power Law (am)n = amn Example: (42)3 = 4(2)(3) = 46 = 4,096 Negative Exponent Law (a)-n = 1/an Example: (4)-3 = 1/43 = 1/64 Zero Exponent Law (a)0 = 1 Example: a) 40 = 1 b) -40 = -1 c) (-4)0 = 1 d) 4x0 = 4 e) 4x0y = 4y

TERMS the properties of the real numbers are used also with algebraic expressions. Simple algebraic expressions such as: -2, 4x, -5x2y, b, & -abc are called terms. A Term is a single number or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to powers. The number preceding the variables in a term is called the numerical coefficient. The letter/s raised to a power is called Literal Coefficient. Example: Term 4x -5x2y B -abc Numerical Coefficient 4 -5 1 -1 Literal Coefficient x x2y b abc

Like Terms two or more terms that contain the same literal coefficients Examples: a) 2x & 3x b) -3yz, 7yz, & 23yz c) 2x2 & -3x2

Unlike Terms two or more terms that contain different literal coefficients Examples: a) 3x & 3y b) -3xy, 7yz, & 23y2z c) 2x2 & -3x3

COMBINING LIKE TERMS We can combine any two or more like terms using addition and subtraction. Examples: a) 2x + 5x (2 + 5)x = 7x b) -3xy (-2xy) [-3 (-2)]xy -1xy = -xy c) b + 3b (1 + 3)b = 4b d) 5x2 7x2 (5 7)x2 = -2x2 Multiplication a) 3(x/3) (3 1/3)x 1 x = x b) (3x)(5x) (3 5)(x x) 15x1+1 = 15x2 c) (-3)(5x) (-3 5)x -15x d) (-3x)(-8x2) (-3 -8)(x x2) 24x1+2 = 24x3 e) (-5a)(b/5) (-5 1/5)(a b) -1ab = -ab Division a) 5x/5 5/5 (x) 1x = x b) 4x + 8 2 4 (x) + 8 2 2 2x + 4

c) 9y 9 (y) = 3y 3 3 REMOVING GROUPING SYMBOLS (parentheses or braces) RULE 1: when a grouping symbols is preceded by a plus sign (+) or no sign, remove the grouping symbol and copy the term/s inside and simplify if necessary. Examples: simplify each expression a) (-5x + 7) + (2x 9) -5x + 7 + 2x 9 -5x + 2x + 7 9 = -3x -2 b) 5 + (3y + 2) 5 + 3y + 2 5 + 2 + 3y = 7 + 3y RULE 2: when a grouping symbols is preceded by a minus sign (-), remove the grouping symbol and change the sign of all the terms inside and simplify if necessary. Examples: simplify each expression a) -(-5x + 7) - (2x 9) 5x - 7 - 2x + 9 5x - 2x - 7 + 9 = 3x + 2 b) 5 - (3y + 2) 5 - 3y - 2 5 - 2 - 3y = 3 - 3y or -3y + 3

RULE 3: when a grouping symbols is preceded by a term, multiply the term to each of the term inside the grouping symbol and simplify if necessary. Examples: simplify each expression a) 2(-5x + 7) + 3(2x 9) -10x + 14 + 6x 27 -10x + 6x + 14 27 = -4x - 13 b) 5 - 2(3y + 2) 5 - 6y 4 5 - 4 - 6y = 1 - 6y or -6y + 1 NOTE: when a grouping symbol is enclosed by another grouping symbol, remove first the innermost grouping symbol following the rules. Translating Words Into Algebraic Expressions. Write algebraic expressions to represent each verbal expression. 1) Two numbers differ by 12 x and x12 2) Two consecutive even integers x and x+2 3) Three consecutive even integers x, x+2 and x+4 4) Two consecutive odd integers x and x+1 5) Three consecutive odd integers x, x+1 and x+3 6) The perimeter of a rectangle is twice its length plus twice its width P = 2L + 2W Verbal Phrase The sum of a number and 8 Five is added to a number Two more than a number A number increased by 3 The sum of twice a number and 8 Five is added to a thrice a number The product of two different numbers Seven times a number One half a number Algebraic Expression x+8 5+x 2+x x+3 2x +8 5 + 3x Xy 7x x Verbal Phrase The difference of a number and 8 Five is subtracted by a number Two minus a number A number decreased by 3 The difference of twice a number and 8 Five is subtracted by thrice a number The ratio of a number to 6 The quotient of 5 and a number Three divided by a number Algebraic Expression x-8 5x 2x x3 2x - 8 5 3x x/6 5/x 3/x

LINEAR EQUATION IN ONE VARIABLE An equation is a sentence that expresses the equality of two algebraic expressions. Examples: a) 2x + 1 = 7 b) 3y 2 = y + 4 c) x/3 = 9 d) 5/y = 15

Solution Set The set of all solutions to an equation is called the solution set to the equation. The solution set to 2x + 1 = 7 is 3. To determine whether a number is in the solution set to an equation, we simply replace the variable by the number and see whether the equation is correct.

Solving Equations To solve an equation means to find its solution set. One way of solving an equation is to use the method of transposition. Transposition is the method of grouping like terms on one side of the equation and another like terms on the other side. In doing so, we are transferring term/s from one side of the equation to other side with its sign changed. Example: solve the equation 6 + 3x = 16 2x Solution: 3x + 2x = 16 6 5x = 10, divide both sides by 5 we get x=2 Checking: substitute the value of x to the equation: 6 + 3x = 16 2x 6 + 3(2) = 16 2(2) 6 + 6 = 16 4 12 = 12 means that the answer is correct because the equation is correct when x = 2 Solve the following equations: 1) 3x 9 = 0 2) 7 z = -9 3) 2 x = 1 4) 5x + 10(x + 2) = 110 5) x + 1 = 7 3 2 3 2 6 POLYNOMIALS A polynomial is a particular type of algebraic expression that serves as a fundamental building block in algebra. We discussed polynomials in previous topics but we did not identify them as polynomials. Example: 3x3 15x2 + 7x 2 A term of a polynomial is a single number or the product of a number and one or more variables raised to whole number powers. The number preceding the variable in each term is called coefficient of that variable. In 3x3 15x2 + 7x 2 the coefficient of x3 is 3, the coefficient of x2 is -15, and the coefficient of x is 7. The last term is -2 is called the constant term. A polynomial is defined as a single term or a sum of a finite number of terms. Classifications of Polynomials Polynomials classification Number of terms -3 Monomial 1 2x Monomial 1 2x 4 Binomial 2 3x2 + 2 Binomial 2 2 2x 4x + 5 Trinomial 3 2 3x + 2x 9 Trinomial 3 6 3 2 3x - 5x + 2x 4x + 5 Polynomial/Multinomial More than 3 4 2 -9x + 3x + 2x 9 Polynomial/Multinomial More than 3

Addition and Subtraction of Polynomials To add or subtract polynomials, we simply add or subtract the like or similar terms. Examples: Find the sums or add the polynomials. a) (x2 5x - 7) + (7x2 4x + 10) b) (3x3 5x2 - 7) + (4x2 2x + 3) Solutions: a) = x2 5x - 7 7x2 4x +10 8x2 9x + 3 = 3x3 - 5x2 -7 4x2 - 2x + 3 3x3 - x2 - 2x - 4

a)

SOLVING FOR A VARIABLE A formula or literal equation is an equation involving two or more variables. Examples: Ar = LW C = 5(F 32) 9 Pr = 2L + 2W As = S 2 Ps = 4S

Solving equations involving x and y to solve equations involving x and y, Substitution Method will be used. Substitute values for x to solve for y. Example: solve the equation 2x + 3y = 8, we substitute -1, 0 and 1 for x then solve for y. When x = -1, y = ? 2x+ 3y = 8 2(-1) + 3y = 8 -2 + 3y = 8 3y = 8 + 2 3y = 10 y = 10/3 When x = 0, y = ? 2x+ 3y = 8 2(0) + 3y = 8 0 + 3y = 8 3y = 8 y = 8/3 When x = 1, y = ? 2x+ 3y = 8 2(1) + 3y = 8 2 + 3y = 8 3y = 8 - 2 3y = 6 y=2

ORDERED PAIRS An equation in two variables, such as y = 2x + 3, is satisfied only if we find a value for x and a value for y that make it true. For example, if x = 4 then y = 11, we write x = 4 and y = 11 as the ordered pair (4, 11). Graphing a Linear Equation two or more ordered pairs can be used to graph the given equation. Example: graph the equation y = 2x + 3, if we assign values for x to solve for values of y, X -1 0 1 Y 1 3 5 From the table, the following ordered pairs are (-1, 1), (0, 3) and (1, 5)

SLOPE OF A LINE (m) The slope of a line is the ratio of the change in y-coordinate, or the rise, to the change in xcoordiante, or the run, between two points on the line. Slope = change in y-coordinate = rise m = y2 y1 change in x-coordinate run x2 x1 Finding the slope using the coordinates Find the slope of each line. a) (2, 5) and (6, 3)

## Solutions: a) m = y2 y1 m = 3 5 m = -2 m = -1 x2 x1 62 4 2 b) m = y2 y1 m = -1 3 x2 x1 -5 (-2) c) m = y2 y1 m = 0 4 x2 x1 0 (-6) m = -4 m = 4 -3 3 m = -4 m = -2 6 3

The slope of horizontal line is always zero (0) The slope of vertical line is always undefined

PARALLEL AND PERPENDICULAR LINES Non vertical parallel lines have equal slopes Two lines with slopes m1 and m2 are perpendicular if only if m1 = - 1 m2 POINT-SLOPE FORM is used to find the equation of a line given the slope (m) and a point (x,y) is y y1 = m(x x1) Example: Find the equation of the line that passes through (-2, 5) with the slope -3 = = = = = = y y1 = m(x x1) y 5 = -3[x (-2)] y 5 = -3[x + 2] y 5 = -3x -6 y = -3x 6 + 5 y = -3x 1 is the equation of the line.

SLOPE-INTERCEPT FORM is used to find the equation of the line given the slope (m) and the yintercept (o,b) is y = mx + b, where m is the slope and (0, b) is the y-intercept. Example: Find the equation of line with slope -2/3 and y-intercept of (0, 3) = y = mx + b = y = -2x + 3 3