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M. Hauskrecht

Course administrivia

Weekly homework assignments Assigned in class and posted on the course web page Due one week later at the beginning of the lecture No extension policy Collaboration policy: You may discuss the material covered in the course with your fellow students in order to understand it better However, homework assignments should be worked on and written up individually

M. Hauskrecht

Course administration

Midterm: Tuesday, October 6, 2009 Closed book, in-class Covers Chapters 1 and 2.1-2.3 of the textbook No Homework assignment this week Course web page: http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~milos/courses/cs441/

M. Hauskrecht

Midterm

Propositional logic Syntax/Logical connectives Truth values/tables Translation of English sentences Equivalences Predicate logic Syntax, quantified sentences Truth values for sentences in predicate logic Translations Rules of inference

M. Hauskrecht

Midterm

Proofs Formal proofs Informal proofs Types of proofs: direct, indirect, contradiction Sets Basics: Set subsets, power set Cardinality of the set N-tuples Cartesian products Set operators Representation of sets

CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS M. Hauskrecht

Midterm

Functions Basic definition Function properties: injection, surjection, bijection Function inverse Composition of functions

M. Hauskrecht

Midterm

Types of problems on midterm: Knowledge of definitions, concepts, methods E.g what is a proposition, what is a set Problems similar to homework assignments and exercises E.g. prove is n is even than 3n+2 is even If needed you will receive a list of logical equivalences and/or a list of inference rules

M. Hauskrecht

Sequences

Definition: A sequence is a function from a subset of the set of integers (typically {0,1,2,...} or {1,2,3,...} to a set S. We use the notation an to denote the image of the integer n. We call an a term of the sequence. Notation: {an} is used to represent the sequence (note {} is the same notation used for sets, so be careful). {an} represents the ordered list a1, a2, a3, ... . 1 2 3 4 5 6 .

a1

a2

a3

a4 {an}

a5

a6 .

M. Hauskrecht

Sequences

Examples: (1) an = n2, where n = 1,2,3... What are the elements of the sequence? 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, ... (2) an = (-1) n, where n=0,1,2,3,... Elements of the sequence? 1, -1, 1, -1, 1, ... 3) an = 2 n, where n=0,1,2,3,... Elements of the sequence? 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, ...

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic progression

Definition: An arithmetic progression is a sequence of the form a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd where a is the initial term and d is common difference, such that both belong to R. Example: sn= -1+4n for n=0,1,2,3, members: -1, 3, 7, 11,

M. Hauskrecht

Geometric progression

Definition A geometric progression is a sequence of the form: a, ar, ar2, ..., ark, where a is the initial term, and r is the common ratio. Both a and r belong to R. Example: an = ( )n for n = 0,1,2,3, members: 1,, , 1/8, ..

M. Hauskrecht

Sequences

Given a sequence finding a rule for generating the sequence is not always straightforward Example: Assume the sequence: 1,3,5,7,9, . What is the formula for the sequence? Each term is obtained by adding 2 to the previous term. 1, 1+2=3, 3+2=5, 5+2=7 It suggests an arithmetic progression: a+nd with a=1 and d=2 an=1+2n or an=1+2n

M. Hauskrecht

Sequences

Given a sequence finding a rule for generating the sequence is not always straightforward Example 2: Assume the sequence: 1, 1/3, 1/9, 1/27, What is the sequence? The denominators are powers of 3. 1, 1/3= 1/3, (1/3)/3=1/(3*3)=1/9, (1/9)/3=1/27 What type of progression this suggests?

M. Hauskrecht

Sequences

Given a sequence finding a rule for generating the sequence is not always straightforward Example 2: Assume the sequence: 1, 1/3, 1/9, 1/27, What is the sequence? The denominators are powers of 3. 1, 1/3= 1/3, (1/3)/3=1/(3*3)=1/9, (1/9)/3=1/27 This suggests a geometric progression: ark with a=1 and r=1/3 (1/3 )n

M. Hauskrecht

Summations

Summation of the terms of a sequence:

j=m

a j = a m + a m + 1 + ... + a n

The variable j is referred to as the index of summation. m is the lower limit and n is the upper limit of the summation.

M. Hauskrecht

Summations

Example: 1) Sum the first 7 terms of {n2} where n=1,2,3, ... . 7 7

j =1

aj =

j 2 = 1 + 4 + 16 + 25 + 36 + 49 = 140

j =1

k=4

aj =

( 1) j =1 + ( 1) + 1 + ( 1) + 1 = 1

k=4

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Definition: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is called an arithmetic series. Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

j =1 j =1 n n

n(n + 1) 2

Why?

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

j =1 j =1 n n

n(n + 1) 2

n

Proof:

S = (a + jd ) = a + jd = na + d j

j =1 j =1 j =1 j =1 n n n

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

j =1 j =1 n n

n(n + 1) 2

n

Proof:

S = (a + jd ) = a + jd = na + d j

j =1 j =1 j =1 j =1 n n n

j = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + (n 2) + (n 1) + n

j =1

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

n n

Proof:

j =1

j =1

n(n + 1) 2

n

S = (a + jd ) = a + jd = na + d j

j =1 j =1 j =1 j =1

j = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + (n 2) + (n 1) + n

j =1

1+(n-1)=n

CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

n n

Proof:

j =1

j =1

n(n + 1) 2

n

S = (a + jd ) = a + jd = na + d j

j =1 j =1 j =1 j =1

j = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + (n 2) + (n 1) + n

j =1

1+(n-1)=n

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of the arithmetic progression a, a+d,a+2d, , a+nd is

S = (a + jd ) = na + d j = na + d

j =1 n j =1 n n n

n(n + 1) 2

n

Proof:

S = (a + jd ) = a + jd = na + d j

j =1 j =1 j =1 j =1

j = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + .... + (n 2) + (n 1) + n

j =1

1+(n-1)=n

(n + 1) *n 2

CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Example:

S = (2 + j 3) = = 2 + j3 =

j =1 j =1 j =1 5 5 5

= 21 + 3 j =

j =1 j =1 5

= 2 * 5 + 3 j =

j =1

= 10 + 3

(5 + 1) *5 = 2

= 10 + 45 = 55

M. Hauskrecht

Arithmetic series

Example 2:

S = (2 + j 3) =

j =3 5

2 = (2 + j 3) (2 + j3) j =1 j =1

5 5 5 = 21 + 3 j =1 j =1 2 2 j 21 + 3 j =1 j =1

Trick

j

= 55 13 = 42

M. Hauskrecht

Double summations

Example: S = (2i j ) =

i =1 j =1 2 2 = 2i j = i =1 j =1 j =1 4 2 2 = 2i 1 j = i =1 j =1 j =1 4 2 = 2i * 2 j = i =1 j =1 4 4 2

= [2i * 2 3] = = 4i 3 = = 4 i 31 = 4 *10 3 * 4 = 28

i =1 i =1

CS 441 Discrete mathematics for CS M. Hauskrecht

i =1 4

i =1 4

i =1 4

Geometric series

Definition: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, ar2, ..., ark is called a geometric series. Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, ar2, ..., arn is

n n r n +1 1 S = (ar j ) = a r j =a j =0 j =0 r 1

M. Hauskrecht

Geometric series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, n n ar2, ..., arn is r n +1 1 j j Proof:

S = (ar ) = a r =a j =0 j =0 r 1 S = ar j = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n

j =0 n

M. Hauskrecht

Geometric series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, n n ar2, ..., arn is r n +1 1 j j Proof:

S = (ar ) = a r =a j =0 j =0 r 1 S = ar j = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n

j =0 n

multiply S by r

rS = r ar j = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1

j =0 n

M. Hauskrecht

Geometric series

Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, n n ar2, ..., arn is r n +1 1 j j Proof:

S = (ar ) = a r =a j =0 j =0 r 1 S = ar j = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n

j =0 n

multiply S by r

rS = r ar j = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1

j =0 n

M. Hauskrecht

Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, n n ar2, ..., arn is r n +1 1 j j Proof:

S = (ar ) = a r =a j =0 j =0 r 1 S = ar j = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n

j =0 n

multiply S by r

rS = r ar j = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1

j =0 n

= ar n +1 a

M. Hauskrecht

Theorem: The sum of the terms of a geometric progression a, ar, n n ar2, ..., arn is r n +1 1 j j Proof:

S = (ar ) = a r =a j =0 j =0 r 1 S = ar j = a + ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n

j =0 n

multiply S by r

rS = r ar j = ar + ar 2 + ar 3 + ... + ar n +1

j =0 n

= ar n +1 a S= r n +1 1 ar n +1 a = a r 1 r 1

M. Hauskrecht

Geometric series

Example:

S = 2(5) j =

j =0 3

General formula:

n n r n +1 1 S = (ar j ) = a r j =a j =0 j =0 r 1

S = 2(5) j =2 *

j =0

54 1 = 5 1

= 2*

M. Hauskrecht

Infinite geometric series can be computed in the closed form for x<1 How?

x n = lim k x n = lim k

n=0 n =0

x k +1 1 1 1 = = x 1 x 1 1 x

Thus:

xn =

n=0

1 1 x

M. Hauskrecht

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