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Aptitude

Contents
Chapters Chapter-1 Topic Introduction
Theory at a glance 1. Local Value 2. Place Value 3. Absolute Value Number Types in Numerical Aptitude Tests 1. Even Numbers 2. Odd Numbers 3. Natural Numbers 4. Rational Numbers 5. Irrational Numbers 6. Real Numbers 7. Complex Numbers 8. Whole Numbers 9. Prime Numbers 10. Composite Numbers Prime Numbers Properties of Prime Numbers Process to Check A Number is Prime or not Example 239 is prime or not? Composite Numbers Co-Primes Face value Tests of Divisibility Basic Formulae Division Algorithm Multiplication by Short Cut Methods Progression Problems

Page No. 1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5

Chapter-2

Ratio and Proportion


Theory at a glance Problem

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11 11

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Aptitude

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Chapters Chapter-3 Topic Partnership
Theory at a glance Ratio of Division of Gains: Formulae Short cuts Solved Problems Problems on Partnership

Contents
Page No. 15
15 15 15 15 16 17

Chapter-4

Percentages
Theory at a glance Profit and Loss Formulae: Solved Problems

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23 30 30 30

Chapter-5

Simple Interest
Theory at a glance Important Facts and Formulae: Compound Interest Formulae: Solved Examples More solved problem

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37 37 42 42 42 44

Chapter-6

Time & Work


Theory at a glance 1. General Rules Solved Problems More Solved Problems 2. Pipes and Cisterns Important Facts Complex Problems Problems on Time and Work Answers Key Exercise on Pipes and Cisterns Answers Key

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49 49 49 51 60 60 61 64 67 68 70

Chapter-7

Time Speed and Distance


Theory at a glance Solved Problems 1. Boats & Streams Important Points Solved problems 2. Trains General Concepts Solved Examples More Solved Problems Problems Answers Problems on Boats and Streams Answers Problems on Trains Answers

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71 71 74 74 74 75 75 76 77 80 86 87 89 90 94

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Chapter-8 Geometry
Theory at a glance Areas in Geometry Volumes in Geometry Surface area in Geometry Properties of Triangles Solved Examples Problems related to Area

Contents
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95 95 97 99 99 100 102

Chapter-9

Permutation and Combination


Theory at a glance Permutation Examples Circular Permutations Restricted Permutations Restricted Combinations Restricted Permutations Restricted Combinations

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109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116

Chapter-10

Probability
Theory at a glance Basic Concepts Part (1) : Foundation Level Important types of Events: Category - B Category - C Part (2) : (Total Probability) Examples

119
119 119 120 121 126 130 131 132

Chapter-11

Reasoning
Theory at a glance Classification Type Comparison Type Questions Selection Based on Given Conditions Family Based Problems Coding Decoding Letter and Numerical Coding Problems Answers

135
135 135 137 138 140 144 146 147 150

Chapter-12 Chapter-13

Calendar
Theory at a glance

151
151

Clocks
Theory at a glance General Concepts Important points Solved Problems Simple Problems

159
159 159 159 159 160

Chapter-14

Puzzles
Theory at a glance

165
165

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Contents

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Numbers

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Chapter 1

1.

Numbers
Theory at a Glance (For GATE & PSU)

Introduction 1. Local Value


A local value of a number is the face value of that number. For example the local value of 4 in 3248 is 4.

2. Place Value
A place value of a number is the value of the place it occupies times its local value. For example the place of 4 in 3248 is forty.

3. Absolute Value
The absolute value of a number is the number that remains after neglecting the sign of the given number. Absolute value of a number x is denoted by |x|. So, |x|= x if x is positive |x|= - x if x is negative For example |35| = 35 and |- 35| = + 35

Number Types in Numerical Aptitude Tests


There are ten types of number generally used in numerical aptitude tests. They are:

1. Even Numbers
All numbers which can be divided by 2 are called even numbers. For example 2, 4, 6, 8 are even numbers.

2. Odd Numbers
All numbers which cant be divided by 2 are called odd numbers, e.g. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, are called odd numbers.

3. Natural Numbers
The natural flow of numbers starting from 1 are called natural numbers e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4 and so on.

4. Rational Numbers
Any number in the form of p/q, where p and q are integers and q 0 and p & q are in lowest terms, is called a rational number. The set of all rational numbers is denoted by Q. Q = {x:x = p/q; p, q 1, q 0} Every integer becomes a rational when we write it in the form of p/q. For example 3 = 3/1, - 8 = - 8/1 www.iesacademy.com E-mail: iesacademy@yahoo.com Page-1 ________________________________________________________________________ 25, 1st Floor, Jia Sarai, Near IIT Delhi. New Delhi-110016 Ph: (011)-26537570, (M) 9810958290

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5. Irrational Numbers

Chapter 1

A number which can not be expressed in the form of p/q is called an irrational number. Numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 etc are examples of the irrational numbers.

6. Real Numbers
When rational and irrational numbers are combined together, the numbers in the series are called real numbers.

7. Complex Numbers
When you do square root of negative numbers, the resulting numbers are not real numbers. Such numbers are called imaginary numbers. You can devote -1 by I then: -5 = -1 5 = i5 -64 = -1 64 = 8i A number of the form a + ib where i = -1 and a and b are real numbers, is called a complex number. The a is known as its real part and ib as its imaginary part. Thus, 2-3i is a complex number where real part is 2 and imaginary part is -3i.

8. Whole Numbers
The whole numbers are all numbers in series starting from 0 as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and so on.

9. Prime Numbers
The natural numbers which can be divided by either 1 or themselves only, are called prime number. For example the numbers 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 17, 19, 23, and so on are called prime numbers.

10. Composite Numbers


The numbers which are not prime and are divisible by at least one smaller natural number other than 1 are called composite numbers. For examples the composite numbers include 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12 and so on.

Prime Numbers
A natural number larger than unity is a prime number if it does not have other divisors except for itself and unity. Note:- Unity i.e. 1 is not a prime number.

Properties of Prime Numbers


The lowest prime number is 2. 2 is also the only even prime number. The lowest odd prime number is 3. The remainder when a prime number p 5 s divided by 6 is 1 or 5. However, if a number on being divided by 6 gives a remainder 1 or 5 need not be prime. The remainder of division of the square of a prime number p 5 divide by 24 is 1. For prime numbers p>3, p-1 is divided by 24. If a and b are any 2 odd primes then a-b is composite. Also a+bis composite. The remainder of the division of the square of a prime number p 5 divided by 12 is 1.

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Process to Check A Number is Prime or not

Chapter 1

Take the square root of the number. Round of the square root to the next highest integer call this number as Z. Check for divisibility of the number N by all prime numbers below Z. If there is no numbers below the value of Z which divides N then the number will be prime.

Example 239 is prime or not?


239 lies between 15 or 16.Hence take the value of Z = 16. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 13. 239 is not divisible by any of these. Hence we can conclude that 239 is a prime number.

Composite Numbers
The numbers which are not prime are known as composite numbers.

Co-Primes
Two numbers a an b are said to be Co-primes, if their H.C.F is 1. Example: (2,3), (4,5), (7,9), (8,11)..... Place value or Local value of a digit in a Number:

Place value
Example : 689745132 Place value of 2 is (2 1) = 2 Place value of 3 is (3 10) = 30 and so on.

Face value
It is the value of the digit itself at whatever place it may be. Example : 689745132 Face value of 2 is 2. Face value of 3 is 3 and so on.

Tests of Divisibility
Divisibility by 2:- A number is divisible by 2, if its units digit is any of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8. Example: 84932 is divisible by 2, while 65935 is not. Divisibility by 3:- A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3. Example1. 592482 is divisible by 3, since sum of its digit 5 + 9 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 2 = 30 which is divisible by 3. Example 2. 864329 is not divisible by 3, since sum of its digits 8 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 9 = 32 which is not divisible by 3. Divisibility by 4:- A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by last two digits is divisible by 4.

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Chapter 1

Example1. 892648 is divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last two digits is 48 divisible by 4. Example 2. But 749282 is not divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last two digits is 82 is not divisible by 4. Divisibility by 5:- A number divisible by 5,if its units digit is either 0 or 5. Example : 20820, 50345 Divisibility by 6:- If the number is divisible by both 2 and 3. Example: 35256 is clearly divisible by 2 sum of digits by 6. =3 + 5 + 2 + 5 + 21, which is divisible by 3 Thus the given number is divisible. Divisibility by 8:- A number is divisible by 8 if the last 3 digits of the number are divisible by 8. Divisibility by 11:- If the difference of the sum of the digits in the odd places and the sum of the digits in the even places is zero or divisible by 11. Example : 4832718 (8 + 7 + 3 + 4) - (1 + 2 + 8) =11 which is divisible by 11. Divisibility by 12:- All numbers divisible by 3 and 4 are divisible by 12. Divisibility by 7, 11, and 13:- The difference of the number of its thousand and the remainder of its division by 1000 is divisible by 7, 11, and 13.

Basic Formulae
(a + b) = a + b + 2ab (a - b) = a + b - 2ab (a + b) - (a - b) = 4ab (a + b) + (a - b) = 2(a + b) a - b = (a + b)(a - b) (a - + b + c) = a + b + c + 2(ab + bc + ca) a + b = (a + b)(a+ b - ab) a - b = (a - b)(a + b + ab) a + b + c - 3a bc = (a + b + c)(a + b + c - ab - bc - ca) If a + b + c = 0 then a + b + c = 3abc

Division Algorithm
If we divide a number by another number, then Dividend = (Divisor quotient) + Remainder

Multiplication by Short Cut Methods


1. Multiplication by distributive law: a) a (b + c) = ab + ac b) a (b - c) = ab - ac

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2.

Chapter 1

Multiplication of a number by 5n:- Put n zeros to the right of the multiplicand and divide the number so formed by 2n.

Progression
A succession of numbers formed and arranged in a definite order according to certain definite rule is called a progression. 1. Arithmetic Progression If each term of a progression differs from its preceding term by a constant. This constant difference is called the common difference of the A.P. The n th term of this A.P is Tn = a(n - 1) + d. The sum of n terms of A.P is Sn = n/2[2a + (n - 1)d]. Important Results: a. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5...................... = n (n + 1)/2. b. 12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + 52......................=n(n + 1)(2n + 1)/6. c. 13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53......................=n2(n + 1)2/4
Geometric Progression

2.

A progression of numbers in which every term bears a constant ratio with its preceding term. i.e. a, a r,ar2,ar3............... In G.P Tn = arn-1 Sum of n terms Sn=a(1-rn)/1-r

Problems
1. What could be the maximum value of Q in the following equation? 5PQ + 3R7 + 2Q8 = 1114 Solution: 5 P Q 3 R 7 2 Q 8 11 1 4 2 + P + Q + R = 11 Maximum value of Q = 11 2 = 9 (P = 0, R = 0) C. 391

2.

Which of the following is a prime number? A. 241 B. 337

Solution: A. 241 16 >241. Hence take the value of Z = 16. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11 and 13. 241 is not divisible by any of these. Hence we can conclude that 241 is a prime number. B. 337 19 > 337. Hence take the value of Z = 19. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13 and 17. 337 is not divisible by any of these. Hence we can conclude that 337 is a prime number.

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Chapter 1

C. 391 20 > 391. Hence take the value of Z = 20. Prime numbers less than 16 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 and 19. 391 is divisible by 17. Hence we can conclude that 391 is not a prime number. 3. Find the units digit n the product 2467 153 * 34172 ? Solution: Units digit in the given product = Units digit in 7 153 * 172 Now 7 4 gives unit digit 1 7 152 gives unit digit 1 7 153 gives 1*7 = 7. Also 172 gives 1 Hence units digit in the product = 7*1 = 7.

4.

Find the total number of prime factors in 411 *7 5 *112? Solution: 411 7 5 112 = (2*2) 11 *7 5 *112 = 222 *7 5 *112 Total number of prime factors = 22 + 5 + 2 = 29

5.

What least value must be assigned to * so that that number 197*5462 is divisible by 9? Solution: Let the missing digit be x Sum of digits = (1 + 9 + 7 + x + 5 + 4 + 6 + 2) = 34 + x For 34 + x to be divisible by 9, x must be replaced by 2 The digit in place of x must be 2.

6.

What least number must be added to 3000 to obtain a number exactly divisible by 19? Solution: On dividing 3000 by 19 we get 17 as remainder Therefore number to be added = 19 17 = 2.

7.

Find the smallest number of 6 digits which is exactly divisible by 111? Solution: Smallest number of 6 digits is 100000 On dividing 10000 by 111 we get 100 as remainder Number to be added = 111-100 =11. Hence, required number = 10011.

8.

On dividing 15968 by a certain number the quotient is 89 and the remainder is 37. Find the divisor? Solution: Divisor = (Dividend-Remainder)/Quotient = (15968 - 37)/89 = 179.

9.

A number when divided by 342 gives a remainder 47. When the same number is divided by 19 what would be the remainder? Solution: Number = 342K + 47 = 19*18K + 19*2 + 9 = 19(18K + 2) + 9. The given number when divided by 19 gives 18 K + 2 as quotient and 9 as remainder.

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10. Find the remainder when 231 is divided by 5? Solution: 210 = 1024.unit digit of 210 * 210 * 210 is 4 as 4*4*4 gives unit digit 4 unit digit of 231 is 8. Now 8 when divided by 5 gives 3 as remainder. 231 when divided by 5 gives 3 as remainder.

Chapter 1

11.

How many numbers between 11 and 90 are divisible by 7? Solution: The required numbers are 14, 21, 28,..........., 84 This is an A.P with a = 14, d = 7. Let it contain n terms then T = 84 = a + (n - 1)d = 14 + (n - 1)7 = 7 + 7n 7n = 77 = > n =11.

12.

Find the sum of all odd numbers up to 100? Solution: The given numbers are 1, 3, 5.........99. This is an A.P with a = 1, d = 2. Let it contain n terms 1+ (n - 1)2 = 99 = > n = 50 Then required sum = n/2(first term +last term) = 50/2(1 + 99) = 2500

13.

How many terms are there in 2, 4, 6, 8.........., 1024? Solution: Clearly 2, 4, 6........1024 form a G.P with a = 2, r = 2 Let the number of terms be n then 2 2n - 1 = 1024 2n - 1 = 512 = 29 n-1=9 n = 10.

14.

2 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25.......... + 28 = ? Solution: Given series is a G.P with a = 2,r = 2 and n = 8. Sum Sn = a(1 - rn)/1 r = Sn = 2(1 - 28)/1 - 2. = 2 255 = 510.

15.

A positive number which when added to 1000 gives a sum, which is greater than when it is multiplied by 1000. The positive integer is? (a) 1 (b) 3 (c) 5 (d) 7 Solution: 1000 + N > 1000N Clearly N = 1.

16.

The sum of all possible two digit numbers formed from three different one digit natural numbers when divided by the sum of the original three numbers is equal to? (a) 18 (b) 22 (c) 36 (d) none Solution: Let the one digit numbers x,y,z Sum of all possible two digit numbers

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Chapter 1

= 22(x + y + z) Therefore sum of all possible two digit numbers when divide by sum of one digit numbers gives 22. 17. The sum of three prime numbers is 100. If one of them exceeds another by 36 then one of the numbers is? (a) 7 (b) 29 (c) 41 (d) 67 Solution: x + (x + 36) + y = 100 2x + y = 64 Therefore y must be even prime which is 2 2x + 2 = 64 = > x = 31. Third prime number = x + 36 = 31 + 36 = 67.

18.

A number when divided by the sum of 555 and 445 gives two times their difference as quotient and 30 as remainder. The number is? (a) 1220 (b) 1250 (c) 22030 (d) 220030 Solution: Number = (555 + 445) (555 - 445) 2 + 30 = (555 + 445) 2 110 + 30 = 220000 + 30 = 220030.

19.

The difference between two numbers s 1365. When the larger number is divided by the smaller one the quotient is 6 and the remainder is 15. The smaller number is? (a) 240 (b) 270 (c) 295 (d) 360 Solution: Let the smaller number be x, then larger number = 1365 + x Therefore 1365 + x = 6x + 15 5x =1350 = > x = 270 Required number is 270.

20.

In doing a division of a question with zero remainder, a candidate took 12 as divisor instead of 21. The quotient obtained by him was 35. The correct quotient is? (a) 0 (b) 12 (c) 13 (d) 20 Solution: Dividend = 12 35 = 420. Now dividend = 420 and divisor = 21. Therefore correct quotient = 420/21 = 20.

In a garden, there are some trees arranged in certain number of rows. ist row has i trees and each tree of that row has i2 flowers. The total number of flowers in the garden is 55 times the total number of trees in it. Find the number of rows in the garden. (a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 11 (d) 12 Ans. (b) 22. A total of 1540 steel balls are stacked in a pile. The top layer has 1 ball. The layer below it has 3 balls. The layer below it has 6 balls. The layer below it has 10 balls and so on. How many horizontal layers are there in the pile? (a) 18 (b) 20 (c) 22 (d) 24 Ans. (b)

21.

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Indias No. 1

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23.

Chapter 1

A number between 100 and 5000 has the sum of its distinct prime factors equal to 10. It has an odd number of factors. If it can be expressed as a product of two numbers co-prime to each other in the minimum number of ways. How many values can it assume? (a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4 Ans. (b) 24. A group of 105 childrens are standing in N rows for a group photograph. Each row had three children less than the row in front of it. Which of the following cannot be a possible value of N? (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 (d) 6 Ans. (b) 25. The cost of 10 biscuits, 12 chocolates and 15 ice creams is Rs. 315. The cost of 12 biscuits, 15 chocolates, 19 ice creams is Rs. 389. The cost of 56 biscuits and x ice creams is Rs. 1797. Find the value of x for which a unique value for the cost of each item cannot be determined. (a) 68 (b) 77 (c) 81 (d) 87 Ans. (d)

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Indias No. 1

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Students Notes

Chapter 1

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