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HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline

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Technical Report

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HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline


1003092

Final Report, October 2001

EPRI Project Manager M. Pugh

EPRI 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES


THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT EPRI

ORDERING INFORMATION
Requests for copies of this report should be directed to EPRI Customer Fulfillment, 1355 Willow Way, Suite 278, Concord, CA 94520, (800) 313-3774, press 2. Electric Power Research Institute and EPRI are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. EPRI. ELECTRIFY THE WORLD is a service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 2001 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by EPRI Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) 1300 W.T. Harris Blvd. Charlotte, NC 28262 This report describes research sponsored by EPRI. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guideline, EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2001. 1003092.

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REPORT SUMMARY
Background Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems serve a key function in nuclear power plants. Reliable operation and maintenance of these systems are crucial to sustained plant operation and availability. In many cases, these systems are required to be operable and functioning according to plant technical specifications. Maintenance and engineering personnel are often required to understand HVAC system operation and purpose, periodically test and maintain system components, and respond to problems. The ability of plant personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot HVAC problems quickly and accurately is vital to maintain plant availability. Objectives To provide guidance to nuclear plant personnel involved in the balancing of HVAC systems for nuclear power facilities To present an overview of the requirements for developing and performing air and hydronic systems balancing in order to optimize system performance and ensure that the system meets all heating, cooling, and flow requirements To provide guidance on nuclear power plant HVAC systems, which consist of many different components that function together as a dynamic system To provide inexperienced and experienced engineers with the background necessary to perform testing, adjusting, and balancing activities on HVAC systems

Approach In cooperation with the Nuclear HVAC Utility Group (NHUG) and interested Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center (NMAC) members, a task group of utility engineers and industry experts was formed. This group met several times during one year to identify and prepare the guidance found in this report. Experience-proven practices and techniques were identified and discussed during this effort and are summarized in this report for use by all power plant personnel. Results This report provides a practical approach that can be used by power plant personnel to diagnose and troubleshoot HVAC system and component performance problems. The guideline is valuable for both the component and system engineer and provides fundamental background and techniques for testing, adjusting, and balancing HVAC systems, including information on commonly used testing instruments and how they are used, flow measurement techniques, balancing processes and steps, and troubleshooting techniques. Additionally, commonly used HVAC equipment and systems are discussed, and useful reference information, including commonly used equations and airflow measurement methodologies, is provided. v

EPRI Perspective The information contained in this guide represents a significant collection of technical information (including techniques and good practices) related to the testing, adjusting, and balancing of HVAC systems in power plants. Assemblage of this information provides a single point of reference for power plant personnel, now and in the future. The intended audience of this guide includes component, maintenance, and system engineers involved in testing, maintaining, operating, and troubleshooting HVAC systems. This guide will be helpful in evaluating system problems, selecting new and replacement components, and understanding HVAC system performance and reliability. Keywords Design engineers Plant support engineering Plant maintenance Plant operations HVAC

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The following individuals participated on the task group for this report and provided valuable assistance and plant-specific information during its development: Ray Runowski, Chairman Peter Breglio, Vice-Chairman Lee Warnick Mike Pugh Dennis Adams Frank Johnston David Scott Eric Banks Erick Jun Mike Fraughton Clint Medlock John Cichello Ray Rosten Mike Tulay Deep Ghosh Bob Campbell Mark Schwan Mike Walker Sam Linginfelter Tim Parker Lenny Murphy Burt Copeland PSEG, Salem Proto-Power Corp Dominion Generation, North Anna EPRI NMAC Exelon, Quad Cities Niagara Mohawk, Nine Mile Point Nuclear Management Company, Monticello NUCON OPPD, Fort Calhoun Pacificorp, Naughton Power Generation Technologies PSEG, Hope Creek Sequoia Consulting Group Sequoia Consulting Group Southern Company TVA Corporate TVA, Browns Ferry TVA, Sequoyah TVA, Watts Bar TXU, Comanche Peak Vermont Yankee Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Company

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................. 1-1
1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose of the Report ............................................................................................... 1-1 Scope of the Report .................................................................................................. 1-1 Key Points................................................................................................................. 1-3

2 LIST OF ACRONYMS ......................................................................................................... 2-1 3 HVAC TESTING, ADJUSTING, AND BALANCING GUIDANCE ........................................ 3-1
3.1 Generic Process for Existing System Troubleshooting .............................................. 3-1 3.1.1.1 Communicating Issues at a Nuclear Power Plant.......................................... 3-3 3.1.1.2 Common Symptoms Observed/Measured in HVAC Systems........................ 3-4 3.1.2 Defining the Problem ............................................................................................ 3-4 3.1.2.1 General Guidance......................................................................................... 3-4 3.1.2.2 Common Ventilation System Problems ......................................................... 3-5 3.1.2.3 Common System Blockage Problems ........................................................... 3-5 3.1.2.4 Fan Degradation Problems ........................................................................... 3-6 3.1.3 Determining and Validating Operating Conditions................................................. 3-7 3.1.4 Comparing to Previous Conditions........................................................................ 3-8 3.1.4.1 Comparison to Design Requirements/Historical Performance ....................... 3-8 3.1.4.2 Sources of Design Information ...................................................................... 3-9 3.1.5 Determine If Symptoms Could Adversely Affect HVAC System Performance or Reliability ................................................................................................................. 3-10 3.1.6 Perform HVAC System Walkdown/Evaluation .................................................... 3-11 3.1.7 Develop Troubleshooting Plan............................................................................ 3-12 3.1.7.1 Determine What Measurements Are Appropriate ........................................ 3-13 3.1.7.2 Determine Who Will Perform the Measurements......................................... 3-13 3.1.7.3 Determine How Measurements Will Be Taken ............................................ 3-14 3.1.1 Identifying the Issue.............................................................................................. 3-3

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3.1.8 Perform Recommended Tests/Measurements.................................................... 3-14 3.1.9 Determine If Troubleshooting Plan Provides Adequate Indication of the Problem ....................................................................................................................... 3-14 3.1.9.1 Evaluating HVAC System Performance Problems ...................................... 3-14 3.1.9.2 Typical Causes of HVAC System Performance Problems........................... 3-15 3.1.10 Develop Corrective Actions ............................................................................. 3-16 3.1.10.1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC System Performance Problems ................. 3-17 3.1.10.2 Rebalancing HVAC Systems ..................................................................... 3-18 3.2 Generic Process for New/Existing Air System Balancing......................................... 3-18 3.2.1 Review Design and System Documentation ....................................................... 3-18 3.2.2 Perform System Walkdown ................................................................................ 3-19 3.2.3 Define Critical System Lineup............................................................................. 3-20 3.2.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow ........................................... 3-21 3.2.5 Measure Flow in Branch Ducts ........................................................................... 3-21 3.2.6 Measure/Adjust Each Terminal Device in Each Branch ...................................... 3-21 3.2.6.1 General Considerations .............................................................................. 3-21 3.2.6.2 Balancing by Ratio Method ......................................................................... 3-21 3.2.7 Re-Measure Total System Flow.......................................................................... 3-22 3.2.8 Simulate Dirty Filter and Wetted Coil Conditions................................................. 3-22 3.2.9 Final Balance or Adjustment in the Clean Mode ................................................. 3-22 3.3 Generic Process for Temporary Air System Balancing or Rebalancing ................... 3-23 3.3.1 Planning Steps ................................................................................................... 3-23 3.3.2 Execution............................................................................................................ 3-24 3.3.3 Review and Documentation................................................................................ 3-24 3.4 Generic Process for New/Existing Water System Balancing.................................... 3-25 3.4.1 Review Design and System Documentation ....................................................... 3-25 3.4.2 Perform Walkdown of the Water System ............................................................ 3-25 3.4.3 Prerequisites ...................................................................................................... 3-26 3.4.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow ........................................... 3-27 3.4.5 Water Balancing Process ................................................................................... 3-27 3.5 Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing .............. 3-28 3.5.1 Planning Steps ................................................................................................... 3-28 3.5.2 Execution............................................................................................................ 3-29 3.5.3 Review and Documentation................................................................................ 3-30

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4 INSTRUMENTATION .......................................................................................................... 4-1


4.1 Types of TAB Instrumentation ................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.1.1 U-Tube Manometer....................................................................................... 4-1 4.1.1.2 Inclined/Vertical Manometer.......................................................................... 4-2 4.1.1.3 Electronic (Digital) Manometer...................................................................... 4-3 4.1.1.4 Pitot Tube ..................................................................................................... 4-4 4.1.1.5 Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic)..................................................................... 4-8 4.1.1.6 Rotating Vane Anemometer (Mechanical Type) ............................................ 4-8 4.1.1.7 Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer.......................................................... 4-9 4.1.1.8 Deflecting Vane Anemometer ..................................................................... 4-10 4.1.1.9 Thermal Anemometer ................................................................................. 4-11 4.1.1.10 Flow Measuring Hood................................................................................ 4-12 4.1.1.11 Smoke Devices.......................................................................................... 4-12 4.1.2 Hydronic Instruments......................................................................................... 4-13 4.1.2.1 Pressure Test Gauge .................................................................................. 4-13 4.1.2.2 Differential Pressure Gauge ........................................................................ 4-14 4.1.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments ......................................................................... 4-14 4.1.3.1 Chronometric Tachometer........................................................................... 4-14 4.1.3.2 Contact Tachometer (Digital) ...................................................................... 4-14 4.1.3.3 Optical (Photo) Tachometer ........................................................................ 4-15 4.1.3.4 Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope) ......................................................... 4-15 4.1.3.5 Dual-Function Tachometer.......................................................................... 4-16 4.1.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments .................................................................. 4-17 4.1.4.1 Glass Tube Thermometers.......................................................................... 4-17 4.1.4.2 Dial Thermometers...................................................................................... 4-17 4.1.4.3 Thermocouple Thermometers ..................................................................... 4-18 4.1.4.4 Electronic Thermometers ............................................................................ 4-18 4.1.4.5 Portable Noncontact Thermometers............................................................ 4-18 4.1.4.6 Psychrometers ............................................................................................ 4-18 4.1.4.7 Electronic Thermohygrometers ................................................................... 4-19 4.1.4.8 Color Strip Temperature Indicators ............................................................. 4-20 4.1.5 Electrical Measuring Instruments ........................................................................ 4-20 4.1.5.1 Voltammeter ............................................................................................... 4-20 4.1.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments.............................................................................. 4-1

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4.1.6 Hydronic Flow Measuring Devices...................................................................... 4-21 4.1.6.1 Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate .................................................................... 4-21 4.1.6.2 Annular Flow Indicator ................................................................................ 4-21 4.1.6.3 Calibrated Balancing Valves ....................................................................... 4-22 4.1.6.4 Ultrasonic Flow Meters................................................................................ 4-22 4.1.6.5 V-Cone Flow Meters ................................................................................... 4-22 4.1.6.6 Coriolis Flow Meter ..................................................................................... 4-22 4.1.6.7 Vortex Shedding Flow Meter ....................................................................... 4-23 4.1.6.8 Location of Flow Devices ............................................................................ 4-23 4.2 Applications for TAB Instrumentation ...................................................................... 4-23 4.2.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments............................................................................ 4-23 4.2.2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments ........................................................................ 4-25 4.2.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments ......................................................................... 4-25 4.2.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments .................................................................. 4-26 4.3 Recommended Accuracy of TAB Instrumentation ................................................... 4-27

5 AIR AND WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES ................................................ 5-1


5.1 Airside Flow Measurement ........................................................................................ 5-1 5.1.1.1 Equal Area Method ....................................................................................... 5-2 5.1.1.2 Log Linear Method........................................................................................ 5-6 5.1.1.3 Tchebycheff Method.................................................................................... 5-10 5.1.1.4 Documentation of Traverse Data................................................................. 5-12 5.1.1.5 Airflow Traverse Qualification...................................................................... 5-12 5.1.1.6 Examples .................................................................................................... 5-13 5.2 Water Side Flow Measurement ............................................................................... 5-18 5.2.1 Background ........................................................................................................ 5-18 5.2.2 Differential Pressure Producers .......................................................................... 5-19 5.2.2.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-19 5.2.3 Multiport Averaging Pitots ................................................................................... 5-19 5.2.3.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-19 5.2.4 Pitot Tube Traverse ............................................................................................ 5-19 5.2.4.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-19 5.2.5 Ultrasonic Flow Meters ....................................................................................... 5-20 5.2.5.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-20 5.1.1 Pitot Tube Traverse Methods................................................................................ 5-1

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5.2.6 Magnetic Flow Meters........................................................................................ 5-20 5.2.6.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-20 5.2.7 Turbine Flow Meters ........................................................................................... 5-20 5.2.7.1 Principle of Measurement ........................................................................... 5-20

6 LESSONS LEARNED.......................................................................................................... 6-1


6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 How Abnormal Flow Alignment Affects Fan Performance ......................................... 6-2 Estimating Filter Pressure Gradients for Clean and Dirty Conditions ......................... 6-1 Typical Failure Mechanism for Duct Access Doors.................................................... 6-2 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Inlet Damper......................................................... 6-2 Typical Failure Mechanism for an Air-Handling Unit Fan ........................................... 6-2 Pitot Tube Employment and Failure Mechanisms...................................................... 6-3 Misuse of Measurement Equipment .......................................................................... 6-4 System and Component Interactions......................................................................... 6-5 How Flow Disturbances Can Affect Flow Measurement ............................................ 6-6

6.10 Proper Use of an Electronic Micromanometer ........................................................... 6-6 6.11 Consideration of System Operating Conditions ......................................................... 6-7 6.12 Low Airflow in the Auxiliary Building Ventilation System............................................ 6-7

7 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 7-1 A TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEMS..............................................................................................A-1


A.1 Generic HVAC Functions .......................................................................................... A-1 A.1.1 General Area Ventilation....................................................................................... A-1 A.1.2 Equipment/Area Cooling....................................................................................... A-1 A.1.3 Radioactivity Control Ventilation ........................................................................... A-2 A.1.3.1 Nuclear Air Cleanup ...................................................................................... A-2 A.2 Air Systems Designated by the Buildings Serviced................................................... A-2 A.2.1.1 General Description ...................................................................................... A-3 A.2.1.2 Standby Gas Treatment System ................................................................... A-3 A.2.1.3 Containment Cooling..................................................................................... A-4 A.2.1.4 Containment Power Access Purge or Minipurge ........................................... A-4 A.2.1.5 Containment Refueling Purge ....................................................................... A-4 A.2.1.6 Containment Combustible Gas Control ......................................................... A-4 A.2.1 Containment/Reactor Building .............................................................................. A-3

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A.2.2 Turbine Building.................................................................................................... A-5 A.2.3 Auxiliary Building .................................................................................................. A-5 A.2.4 Control Room ....................................................................................................... A-5 A.2.5 Emergency Electrical Switchgear Rooms ............................................................. A-6 A.2.6 Control Cable Spreading Room ............................................................................ A-6 A.2.7 Diesel Generator Building ..................................................................................... A-6 A.2.8 Battery Rooms...................................................................................................... A-6 A.2.9 Fuel-Handling Building.......................................................................................... A-6 A.2.10 Personnel Facilities............................................................................................. A-7 A.2.11 Pump Houses ..................................................................................................... A-7 A.2.12 Radwaste Building .............................................................................................. A-7 A.2.13 Technical Support Center ................................................................................... A-7 A.3 Types of Water Systems Supporting HVAC Systems ................................................ A-7 A.3.1 Hot Water Heating Systems.................................................................................. A-8 A.3.2 Chilled Water Systems ......................................................................................... A-8 A.3.3 Hot and Chilled Water Systems with Ethylene or Propylene Glycol ...................... A-8 A.3.4 Chiller Condenser Water Flow .............................................................................. A-9 A.3.5 Raw Water or Service Water Flow ........................................................................ A-9 A.3.6 Coil Performance Equations ................................................................................. A-9 A.4 Example of an HVAC System Diagram ..................................................................... A-9

B TYPES OF HVAC EQUIPMENT..........................................................................................B-1


B.1 Fans.......................................................................................................................... B-1 B.1.1.1 Centrifugal Fans .......................................................................................... B-4 B.1.1.2 Axial Fans.................................................................................................... B-5 B.1.1.3 Tubular Centrifugal Fans ............................................................................. B-8 B.1.1.4 Propeller Fans ............................................................................................. B-8 B.1.2 Types of Fan Drivers and Drives .......................................................................... B-8 B.1.2.1 Belt Drive..................................................................................................... B-8 B.1.2.2 Direct Drive.................................................................................................. B-9 B.1.2.3 Variable Speed Motor Drive......................................................................... B-9 B.2 Dampers ................................................................................................................... B-9 B.2.1.1 Isolation Dampers........................................................................................ B-9 B.2.1 Types of Dampers ................................................................................................ B-9 B.1.1 Types of Fans....................................................................................................... B-4

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B.2.1.2 Control Dampers ....................................................................................... B-10 B.2.1.3 Inlet Vane Dampers ................................................................................... B-13 B.2.1.4 Backdraft Dampers .................................................................................... B-13 B.2.1.5 Fire Dampers............................................................................................. B-14 B.2.1.6 Smoke Dampers ........................................................................................ B-14 B.2.1.7 Louvers...................................................................................................... B-14 B.2.2 Damper Actuators............................................................................................... B-14 B.3 Heating and Cooling Coils....................................................................................... B-15 B.3.1 Steam Coils ........................................................................................................ B-15 B.3.2 Hot Water Heating Coils ..................................................................................... B-15 B.3.3 Cooling Coils ...................................................................................................... B-15 B.3.3.1 Refrigerant/Direct Expansion Coils ............................................................ B-15 B.3.3.2 Chilled Water Cooling Coils ....................................................................... B-16 B.3.4 Electric Heating Coils.......................................................................................... B-17 B.4 Filters ...................................................................................................................... B-17 B.4.1 Dust Filters/Prefilters/Postfilters.......................................................................... B-17 B.4.2 HEPA Filters....................................................................................................... B-17 B.4.3 Charcoal Adsorbers............................................................................................ B-18 B.4.4 Sand Filters ........................................................................................................ B-18 B.5 Terminal Devices .................................................................................................... B-18 B.5.1 Single-Duct......................................................................................................... B-19 B.5.2 Dual-Duct, Nonmixing......................................................................................... B-19 B.5.3 Dual-Duct, Mixing ............................................................................................... B-20 B.5.4 Single-Duct with Heating Coil ............................................................................. B-20 B.5.5 Fan-Powered, Variable Volume (Parallel) ........................................................... B-21 B.5.6 Fan-Powered, Constant Volume (Series)............................................................ B-21 B.5.7 Low-Temperature Fan Terminals........................................................................ B-22 B.5.8 Fan-Powered, Quiet ........................................................................................... B-22 B.5.9 Fan-Powered, Low-Profile .................................................................................. B-23 B.6 Ductwork ................................................................................................................. B-23 B.6.1 General .............................................................................................................. B-23 B.6.2 Duct Leakage Classifications.............................................................................. B-24 B.6.2.1 Allowable Leakage by Radiological Control Criteria ................................... B-24 B.6.2.2 Additional Leakage Criteria........................................................................ B-25

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B.6.2.3 Air Cleaning System Configuration and Leakage Classes ......................... B-25 B.6.3 Duct Construction ............................................................................................... B-25 B.6.3.1 Materials.................................................................................................... B-25 B.6.3.2 Rectangular and Round Ducts................................................................... B-26 B.6.3.3 Flat Oval Ducts .......................................................................................... B-27 B.6.3.4 Fibrous Glass Ducts .................................................................................. B-27 B.6.3.5 Flexible Ducts ............................................................................................ B-27 B.6.3.6 Plenums and Apparatus Casings............................................................... B-27 B.6.3.7 Acoustical Treatment ................................................................................. B-27 B.6.3.8 Hangers..................................................................................................... B-27 B.7 B.8 Instrument Test Ports .............................................................................................. B-28 Airflow Measuring Stations...................................................................................... B-29

B.8.1 Multiport with Integral Air Straightener ................................................................ B-29 B.8.2 Traverse Probe................................................................................................... B-29 B.8.3 Pitot Traverse Station ......................................................................................... B-30 B.8.4 Hot Wire Sensor ................................................................................................. B-31 B.8.5 Orifice Plates ...................................................................................................... B-32 B.9 Humidifiers .............................................................................................................. B-32 B.9.1 Heated Pan Humidifiers...................................................................................... B-33 B.9.2 Direct Steam Injection Humidifiers...................................................................... B-33 B.9.3 Electrically Heated, Self-Contained Steam Humidifiers....................................... B-33 B.9.4 Atomizing Humidifiers ......................................................................................... B-33 B.9.5 Wetted Media Humidifiers................................................................................... B-34 B.10 Dehumidifiers ..................................................................................................... B-34 B.11 Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................................................. B-35

C TYPICAL HVAC TAB DOCUMENTATION .........................................................................C-1


C.1 C.2 Typical Documentation Requirements.......................................................................C-1 Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Forms ..................................................................C-1

D EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS..................................................................................D-1


D.1 D.2 D.3 D.4 Fundamental Equations ............................................................................................D-1 Conduit, Pipe, and Duct Friction Loss Equations.......................................................D-5 Airflow Equations ....................................................................................................D-10 Fan Equations.........................................................................................................D-13

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D.5 D.6 D.7 D.8 D.9

Pump Equations......................................................................................................D-18 Electrical Equations.................................................................................................D-20 Noise and Vibration Equations ................................................................................D-23 Drives, Belts, and Pulleys........................................................................................D-24 Areas and Circular Equivalents of Ducts .................................................................D-26

E ANALYTICAL METHODS ................................................................................................... E-1


E.1 E.2 Introduction ............................................................................................................... E-1 System Airflow and Pressure Loss Analysis.............................................................. E-1

E.2.1 System Diagram Development ............................................................................. E-2 E.2.2 Analysis Using Generic and Custom Computer Modeling Software...................... E-2 E.2.2.1 Generic Spreadsheet Software.................................................................... E-3 E.2.2.2 Computer Modeling Software ...................................................................... E-3 E.3 Thermal and Pressure Loss Analysis and Balancing of HVAC Water/Liquid Systems ................................................................................................................... E-4

E.3.1 HVAC Heat Exchanger Analysis........................................................................... E-4

F ALTERNATE FLOW MEASUREMENT USING TRACER GAS ........................................... F-1 G DEFINING ACFM AND SCFM WHEN PERFORMING TAB ACTIVITIES ...........................G-1
G.1 Effect of Temperature on CFM ..................................................................................G-1 G.2 Effect of Pressure on CFM ........................................................................................G-2 G.3 Effect of Moisture Variation on CFM..........................................................................G-3 G.4 Correction Formulas for ACFM and SCFM................................................................G-5

H LISTING OF KEY POINTS ..................................................................................................H-1

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Fundamental Elements of the HVAC TAB Process Addressed in this Report ........ 1-2 Figure 3-1 Preliminary Evaluation for Troubleshooting and Rebalancing HVAC Systems ....... 3-2 Figure 3-2 Operating Conditions Measured for HVAC System Troubleshooting ...................... 3-8 Figure 3-3 Factors Affecting the Need for Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting .............. 3-10 Figure 3-4 Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting and TAB Activities ................................ 3-11 Figure 4-1 Typical U-Tube Manometer.................................................................................... 4-2 Figure 4-2 Typical Inclined/Vertical Manometer....................................................................... 4-3 Figure 4-3 Typical Electronic (Digital) Manometer ................................................................... 4-4 Figure 4-4 Pitot Tube Details................................................................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-5 Typical Negative Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup ..................................................................................... 4-5 Figure 4-6 Typical Positive Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup ..................................................................................... 4-6 Figure 4-7 Typical Pressure Gauge......................................................................................... 4-8 Figure 4-8 Typical Mechanical Rotating Vane Anemometer .................................................... 4-9 Figure 4-9 Typical Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer .................................................... 4-10 Figure 4-10 Typical Thermal Anemometer ............................................................................ 4-11 Figure 4-11 Typical Flow Hood ............................................................................................. 4-12 Figure 4-12 Typical Smoke Gun............................................................................................ 4-13 Figure 4-13 Typical Contact Reflective Tachometer .............................................................. 4-15 Figure 4-14 Typical Electronic Tachometer ........................................................................... 4-16 Figure 4-15 Typical Sling Psychrometer................................................................................ 4-19 Figure 4-16 Typical Electronic Hygrometer ........................................................................... 4-20 Figure 5-1 Traverse Qualification .......................................................................................... 5-13 Figure A-1 Turbine Room Ventilation One-Line Diagram ..................................................... A-10 Figure B-1 Typical Fan Performance Curve ........................................................................... B-2 Figure B-2 Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles................................................................................... B-3 Figure B-3 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components....................................................... B-5 Figure B-4 Terminology for Axial and Tubular Centrifugal Fans ............................................ B-7 Figure B-5 Multiblade Volume Dampers............................................................................... B-12 Figure B-6 DX Coil ............................................................................................................... B-16 Figure B-7 Single-Duct Configuration ................................................................................... B-19

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Figure B-8 Dual-Duct, Nonmixing Configuration ................................................................... B-20 Figure B-9 Dual-Duct, Mixing Configuration ......................................................................... B-20 Figure B-10 Single-Duct with Heating Coil Configuration...................................................... B-21 Figure B-11 Fan-Powered, Variable Volume, Parallel Configuration .................................... B-21 Figure B-12 Fan-Powered, Constant Volume Series Configuration...................................... B-22 Figure B-13 Fan-Powered, Quiet Configuration.................................................................... B-22 Figure B-14 Fan-Powered, Low-Profile Configuration .......................................................... B-23 Figure B-15 Instrument Test Port ......................................................................................... B-28 Figure B-16 Multiport Air Measuring Station with an Integral Air Straightener....................... B-29 Figure B-17 Traverse Probe Air Measuring Station .............................................................. B-30 Figure B-18 Pitot Traverse Station ....................................................................................... B-31 Figure B-19 Multipoint Insertion Mass Flow Element............................................................ B-31 Figure B-20 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Single-Suction)................................................ B-36 Figure B-21 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Double-Suction) .............................................. B-36 Figure C-1 Fan Data ..............................................................................................................C-2 Figure C-2 Round Duct Traverse Data Sheet .........................................................................C-3 Figure C-3 Rectangular Duct Traverse Data Sheet ................................................................C-4 Figure C-4 Grille/Register Data Sheet ....................................................................................C-5 Figure F-1 Typical Schematic for Using Tracer Gas Testing Methods .................................... F-1 Figure F-2 Tracer Gases Exhausted into a Room with a Single Exhaust Point ....................... F-2 Figure G-1 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature ...........................................G-2 Figure G-2 Change in Air Volume as a Function of the Change in Absolute Pressure for a Constant Mass.................................................................................................G-3 Figure G-3 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature for Various Percentages of Moisture Content........................................................................G-4

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 3-1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Dampers ............................................................... 3-17 Table 3-2 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Fans ..................................................................... 3-18 Table 4-1 Airflow Measuring Instruments .............................................................................. 4-24 Table 4-2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments ........................................................................... 4-25 Table 4-3 Rotation Measuring Instruments............................................................................ 4-25 Table 4-4 Temperature Measuring Instruments..................................................................... 4-26 Table 4-5 Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments............................................................... 4-27 Table 5-1 Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct ............................................................. 5-3 Table 5-2 Equal Area Method for a Round Duct ...................................................................... 5-5 Table 5-3 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct.............................................................. 5-6 Table 5-4 Log Linear Method for a Round Duct....................................................................... 5-6 Table 5-5 Tchebycheff Method for a Rectangular Duct ......................................................... 5-10 Table 5-6 Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct .................................................................. 5-12 Table 5-7 Example of the Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct................................... 5-13 Table 5-8 Example of the Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct................................... 5-15 Table 5-9 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct............................................................ 5-16 Table 5-10 Weighting Values to Be Applied to Each Velocity ................................................ 5-16 Table 5-11 Velocities after the Weighting Values Are Applied ............................................... 5-17 Table B-1 General Fan Attributes ........................................................................................... B-6 Table B-2 Orifice Plate Characteristics................................................................................. B-32

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INTRODUCTION
1.1 Purpose of the Report

This report provides guidance to nuclear plant personnel involved in the balancing of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems for nuclear power facilities. The guide provides an overview of the requirements for developing and performing air and hydronic systems balancing to optimize system performance and ensure that the system meets all heating, cooling, and flow requirements. HVAC systems for nuclear power plants consist of many different components, which function together as a dynamic system. These systems are subject to changessome the result of intrusive modifications and some caused by gradual component changes, such as component wear and instrument driftthat require periodic system balancing to maintain optimum system performance. This guide will provide inexperienced and experienced engineers with the background necessary to develop testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB) procedures as well as an overview of testing instruments used, documentation of test data, troubleshooting guidelines, and references.

1.2

Scope of the Report

Figure 1-1 shows the scope of this report. The figure captures the fundamental elements of the HVAC TAB process and relates each major element to a section and/or appendix in this report. Figure 1-1 illustrates that the fundamental goal of HVAC TAB is to establish or restore system parameters to design conditions. System parameters can be air or water flow, heat removal rates, building air pressure, required temperatures, and humidity. To accomplish this restoration, the engineer should systematically proceed through each element so as not to adversely affect or further degrade system performance. Much of Section 3 is devoted to troubleshooting techniques that support TAB activities.

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EPRI Licensed Material Introduction

Figure 1-1 Fundamental Elements of the HVAC TAB Process Addressed in this Report

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EPRI Licensed Material Introduction

Section 3 first provides a schematic flow chart for troubleshooting existing plant systems with detailed implementation guidance. Section 3 then offers guidance on conducting HVAC TAB activities for balancing new or existing air and water plant systems as well as temporary balancing or rebalancing of air and water systems. Section 4 describes the various instrumentation used during HVAC TAB activities, and Section 5 provides air and water flow measurement techniques. These three sections constitute the core of the report and are supplemented with information that may be useful to experienced or newly assigned HVAC system engineers. Section 6 provides the reader with a compilation of lessons learned from the experiences of numerous utility personnel during HVAC system TAB and troubleshooting activities. Section 7 lists the references used to produce this report. Appendices A through D provide an excellent source of fundamental information regarding HVAC systems and components in nuclear power plants that may be beneficial to less experienced HVAC system engineering personnel. Appendix A describes various HVAC systems installed in nuclear power plants and provides an example of a typical HVAC system diagram. Appendix B describes numerous types of components that are installed in HVAC systems and provides fundamental background information on the different types and designs of HVAC components. Appendix C provides numerous examples of typical HVAC documentation used during the TAB processes. Appendices D and E provide guidance for calculating HVAC system parameters using standard equations and commercially available software. Section 5 is supplemented by Appendix F, which discusses an alternate method for airflow measurement. Appendix G provides guidance on defining actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) and standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) when performing TAB activities.

1.3

Key Points

Throughout this report, key information is summarized in Key Points. Key Points are bold lettered boxes that succinctly restate information covered in detail in the surrounding text, making the key point easier to locate. The primary intent of a Key Point is to emphasize information that will allow individuals to take action for the benefit of their plant. The information included in these Key Points was selected by NMAC personnel and the consultants and utility personnel who prepared and reviewed this guide. The Key Points are organized according to the three categories: O&M Costs, Technical, and Human Performance. Each category has an identifying icon, as shown below, to draw attention to it when quickly reviewing the guide.

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EPRI Licensed Material Introduction

Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will result in reduced purchase, operating, or maintenance costs.

Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.

Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task. Appendix H contains a listing of all key points in each category. The listing restates each key point and provides reference to its location in the body of the report. By reviewing this listing, users of this guide can determine if they have taken advantage of key information that the writers of this guide believe would benefit their plants.

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LIST OF ACRONYMS
AABC Associated Air Balance Council ABV auxiliary building ventilation ACFM actual cubic feet per minute ACU air control/conditioning/cleanup unit AHU air-handling unit ALARA as low as reasonably achievable AISC American Institute of Steel Construction AISI American International Supply Incorporated AMCA Air Movement and Control Association ANSI American National Standards Institute ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers ASTM American Standards for Testing and Materials BI backward inclined BWR boiling water reactor CEDM control element drive mechanism CFCU containment fan cooling unit CM corrective maintenance CREVS control room emergency ventilation system

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EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms

CRDM control rod drive mechanism DC direct current DDC direct digital controls/dual-duct configuration DI deionized DOP dioctyl phthalate DX direct expansion ECCS emergency core cooling system ESF engineered safety feature FSAR final safety analysis report gpm gallons per minute GRDs grilles, registers, and diffusers HELB high-energy line break HEPA high-efficiency particulate-air filter HVAC heating, ventilating, and air conditioning I&C instrumentation and control IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. IGV inlet guide vane INPO Institute of Nuclear Power Operation IST in-service testing JCO justification for continued operation LCO limited condition of operation LCD liquid crystal display LED light-emitting diode LEL lower explosive limit 2-2

EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms

LER licensee event report LOCA loss-of-coolant accident NC noise criteria NEBB National Environmental Balancing Bureau NFPA National Fire Protection Association NHUG Nuclear HVAC Utilities Group NMAC Nuclear Maintenance Applications Center NP nuclear power NPSH net positive suction head NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NSR non-safety-related O&M operation and maintenance OBD opposed blade dampers OEM original equipment manufacturer OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Association P&ID process and instrumentation drawing PM predictive or preventive maintenance PREACS pump room exhaust air cleanup system PWR pressurized water reactor RC room criteria RG regulatory guide RH relative humidity RO reverse osmosis rpm revolutions per minute 2-3

EPRI Licensed Material List of Acronyms

RTD resistance temperature detector SCFM standard cubic feet per minute (Note: SCFM is standard cubic feet per minute at 60 F (16C ) and 14.7 psia (101 kPa). Because not all countries convert SCFM to SI units in the same way, these measurements are not converted to SI units in this report.) SBGT standby gas treatment system (also noted as SGTS) SEF system effects factors SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association SR safety-related TAB testing, adjusting, and balancing TOB terminal opposed blade damper TR technical report TS technical specification TSC technical support center VAV variable air volume w.g. water gauge

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HVAC TESTING, ADJUSTING, AND BALANCING GUIDANCE

3.1

Generic Process for Existing System Troubleshooting

This section presents a generic process for troubleshooting HVAC performance problems that lead to TAB activities to rebalance the system. The generic process is divided into a Preliminary Evaluation (see Figure 3-1) and a detailed Troubleshooting Process (see Figure 3-4) that may lead to testing, adjusting, or balancing the HVAC system under evaluation.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Figure 3-1 Preliminary Evaluation for Troubleshooting and Rebalancing HVAC Systems

For the purposes of this report, the terms used in TAB are defined as follows: Testing The use of specialized and calibrated instruments to measure temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, electrical characteristics, velocities, and air and water quantities for an evaluation of equipment and system performance [1]. Adjusting The final setting of balancing devices (such as dampers and valves), adjusting fan speeds and pump impeller sizes, and setting automatic control devices (such as thermostats and pressure controllers) to achieve optimum system performance and efficiency during normal operation [1]. Balancing The methodical regulation of system fluid flows (air or water) through the use of acceptable procedures to achieve the desired or specified airflow or water flow [1]. 3-2

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

3.1.1 Identifying the Issue


3.1.1.1 Communicating Issues at a Nuclear Power Plant

A performance issue may be communicated to a system/component HVAC engineer in a number of ways. The issue could be a problem observed by maintenance personnel, a symptom of a more serious problem, or a management directive to take corrective action. In any case, the system/component HVAC engineer must gain a clear understanding of the issue before a root cause determination can be obtained or derived. It is a process of eliminating the non-issues and understanding and acting systematically on the remaining issues. A clear understanding of the issue is therefore essential for this process to be successful in the fewest number of iterations. HVAC system performance issues and component failures may be communicated to an HVAC system/component engineer in any of the following ways: Maintenance work order Failed in-service test Control room alarms Corrective action report Performance monitoring (condition monitoring reports) Telephone call Operations rounds or turnover sheets Vendor technical bulletins Institute of Nuclear Power Operation (INPO)/U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reported industry events Engineer walkdowns

Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting, TAB, and corrective action processes. In addition, plant-specific administrative interfaces should be coordinated in accordance with each plants existing procedures (that is, control room interface and operator interface). Key Human Performance Point Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting, TAB, and corrective action processes.

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3.1.1.2

Common Symptoms Observed/Measured in HVAC Systems

Insufficient airflow can be evidenced by direct velocity measurement performed as part of routine surveillance. Insufficient cooling or heating may indicate reduced system airflow or a change in branch airflow. These symptoms may also be attributed to either heat transfer problems with heating or cooling coils or temperature control system problems. These conditions are usually most evident during ambient temperature extremes. Changes to building/building zone pressure or differential pressure can be evidenced by directional airflow changes at the building or zone boundary. To troubleshoot this condition, a thorough knowledge of system design is required because many independent factors can affect structure pressures. Key O&M Cost Point The HVAC system may operate without an alarm; however, improperly maintained system balancing may increase energy costs of operation. Lack of attention to the system balancing can be indicated by insufficient cooling and/or heating in the building or by problems with areas that require positive or negative pressure.

3.1.2 Defining the Problem


3.1.2.1 General Guidance

As previously noted, the HVAC engineer should clearly define the problem before proceeding with system troubleshooting. The engineer should then identify the scope and nature of the issue to determine the severity of the problem and the extent to which the problem has been previously observed in the plant or operating system. To accomplish this, the HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications. The engineer should also attempt to validate the information (symptom) to ensure that it is reasonable, technically accurate, and representative of observed conditions. A face-to-face interview with the personnel communicating the HVAC system performance issue should be considered. Contacting outside sources, such as the National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB) web site, the original equipment manufacturer (OEM), or NRC Information Notices may also provide insight into whether the problem has occurred on other HVAC systems/components of the same design installed in similar applications. Key Human Performance Point The HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

3.1.2.2

Common Ventilation System Problems

An exhaust system for potentially contaminated areas typically discharges to the plant stack. Because a change in operation of any fan in such a system can affect the performance of other fans in the system, fan problems can significantly impact overall system operation. Depending on the station design basis, these systems might be considered variable volume systems. This is true if the station design allows for portions of the common exhaust system to be secured individually. Some ventilation exhaust systems installed in newer facilities may be designed with velocity control systems. These systems have been designed to maintain fan airflow at a constant rate or to vary airflow in order to maintain a structure or a boundary at a prescribed differential pressure. The velocity controls may be installed on the supply side, exhaust side, or both. Before acquiring field performance data for any variable volume system, it must first be determined in what system operating mode the data will be taken. For systems that control to a specific static pressure or differential pressure, data can be taken when the system is controlling at set point. System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems. This practice can allow for post-test evaluation of discrepancies and can eliminate the need for re-testing the system. Key O&M Cost Point System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems.

3.1.2.3

Common System Blockage Problems

Particulates - Particulates in the airstream travel through all ventilation systems. Over time, these particulates collect on obstructions in the system. Depending on the installed air filtering system (if any) and the nature of the collection points, accumulated dirt can have a serious impact on system performance. Typical collection points are coils, velocity diffusers, turning vanes, dampers, filters, air monitoring devices, and some fan blades. Insulation - In some cases, defective or improperly installed duct lining (insulation) breaks down with time and may cause system performance problems by plugging coils and reducing system airflow. Coils - Coils act as an unintended filter in many systems. Most standard filters have limited efficiency and some bypass flow. System dirt can build up on coils, possibly compromising system performance. Routine preventive maintenance (PM) may include inspecting and cleaning package unit coils or large system coils; however, branch system coils are not often inspected on a regular basis.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Velocity Diffusers - Velocity diffusers are obstructions (typically perforated metal plates or screens) usually installed in package equipment or terminal boxes. They ensure uniform airflow across coils or velocity sensors. For diffusers installed in package equipment, routine PM may include periodic inspection and cleaning, but for diffusers installed in terminal devices (such as variable air volume [VAV] boxes or constant velocity boxes), internal inspections are not typically part of the PM program. Over time, debris buildup can cause significant degradation in system performance. Turning Vanes - Most systems with rectangular ductwork have turning vanes at elbows throughout the system. The clearance between the vanes is usually sufficiently wide (typically more than 4 inches [10 cm]) to prevent obstruction by dirt and debris. Occasionally, turning vanes may become blocked with foreign material or debris, adversely affecting system performance. In some cases, turning vane blades have been found detached and lodged against internal duct components, causing airflow restriction. Dampers - The clearance between damper blades is typically wide enough to prevent system blockage caused by dirt or debris. However, many terminal registers are equipped with terminal opposed blade dampers (TOBs). These dampers are installed to facilitate terminal balance in most systems. The open blade clearance for this type of damper is typically about 1 inch (2.5 cm). If previous balancing work has left the TOBs in the nearly closed position, the effective free area of the damper can, over time, be seriously affected by the buildup of dirt on the damper blades. The failure of volume damper linkage has been known to cause a restriction in system airflow. Typically, when splitter damper linkage fails, the damper blade will fail to one side of the Y or branch fitting. This condition can result in a significant out-of-balance condition. Multiblade volume dampers and control dampers can experience total or partial linkage failure, resulting in an out-of-balance condition. Drive axle slippage on control dampers can also result in incomplete opening or closing of the damper. 3.1.2.4 Fan Degradation Problems

Belt Drives - Belt drive fans are subject to performance degradation caused by a reduction in fan speed. Slipping belts can reduce fan speed significantly; however, in severe cases, the condition is usually detected promptly because of the noise generated. Sheave wear can also reduce fan speed slightly. Variable pitch sheaves are factory installed on many fans to allow for field balance during startup. Variable pitch sheaves tend to wear faster than fixed sheaves. Sheave wear is typically more severe on smaller sheaves installed on the drive motor, effectively reducing the fan speed. If the replacement fixed sheave is sized based on revolutions per minute (rpm) data taken from a drive operating with a severely worn sheave, the result can be a permanent reduction in fan rpm.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Dirty Fan Blades - Most fan designs are not subject to severe performance degradation as a result of dirt or debris collection on the blades. Backward inclined (BI) blade designs are typically self-cleaning. However, BI fans that operate at low speed with high particulates have been found with significant buildup of debris on the blades near the hub. Virtually any centrifugal fan design is subject to fouling from large objects. Forward curve fan designs are susceptible to significant performance degradation as a result of debris caught in the blades. The blade shape for this fan is ideally suited to capture any particulatefrom fine dust to larger pieces of debris. If repeated problems with loaded fan blades are identified, consideration should be given to improve filtration for supply fans or changing fan design for exhaust systems. In some cases, an out-of-balance condition indicated by fan vibration data may be caused by debris accumulation on fan wheels. Fan Wheel Clearance - Wheel clearance and centering are critical parameters in some centrifugal fans. Excess wheel clearance increases bypass flow and reduces discharge airflow. Wheel clearance can be inadvertently changed by maintenance activities, such as bearing replacement. Refer to the manufacturers recommendation for setting wheel clearance. Rotation - Incorrect rotation is routinely found to be the cause of fan performance problems. A routine precaution to check fan rotation when work is performed that disconnects three-phase power supplies is recommended. For many smaller, single-phase fan motors, rotation can be changed at the junction box. Care should be taken to ensure that the as-left rotation is correct. Different fan designs result in different symptoms when rotating backwards. Tubeaxial and propeller fans move air in the wrong direction. The output of most centrifugal fans is significantly reduced when the fan operates in the wrong direction. However, reverse rotation of a BI fan in centrifugal tubular and power roof ventilators can result in near-design flow, masking the incorrect rotation.

3.1.3 Determining and Validating Operating Conditions


After the issue is clearly defined, the next step in the troubleshooting process is to determine which operating conditions should be measured or additional information collected as well as how that information will be validated. Typically, the engineer should consider measuring any of the plant, system, or component parameters noted in Figure 3-2.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Figure 3-2 Operating Conditions Measured for HVAC System Troubleshooting

Measurements should be taken using calibrated instruments and reviewed for consistency against system design basis documents or outputs.

3.1.4 Comparing to Previous Conditions


3.1.4.1 Comparison to Design Requirements/Historical Performance

The next step in troubleshooting is to compare the measured parameter(s) against the most recent or historical operating conditions. The engineer should attempt to detect trends in performance. If only one isolated parameter changed since the previous conditions were monitored, the first action might be to validate the calibration of the instrumentation used to take the most recent measurement. However, if the comparison reveals that a number of parameters have changed or that the changes are following a trend and are degrading over time, further investigation is warranted. The measured data should be compared against maintenance history and design requirements that can be found in documents such as the following: Fan curve Nameplate data

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Fan configuration drawings In-service testing (IST) baseline data Fan and motor data sheets System pressure curve Vendor technical manuals Parts and materials list Recommended replacement parts list

The engineer should consider reviewing equipment history and examining the data trends from the computer monitoring systems to determine if the change has been sudden or gradual. A review of recent preventive and corrective work orders for conditions and work performed (including filter changes and vibration readings) should also be considered. A review of recent performance testing results on related pieces of equipment may also be helpful. Consideration of industry-wide historical operating conditions of the fan and components, either at other nuclear sites or at other utilities, should be considered an option at this stage of the troubleshooting process. 3.1.4.2 Sources of Design Information

The design documents noted in Section 3.1.4.1 might not provide all of the design information related to the HVAC system in which the fan and other components are installed. As such, the following sources of design information should also be considered: HVAC system design calculations HVAC system descriptions Design basis documents System process and instrumentation drawings (P&IDs) HVAC duct/piping drawings and layouts Materials management information system Component/system technical specifications Component procurement specifications Final safety analysis report (FSAR) Component assembly drawings

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

3.1.5 Determine If Symptoms Could Adversely Affect HVAC System Performance or Reliability
The engineer should make this determination considering the factors shown in Figure 3-3.

Figure 3-3 Factors Affecting the Need for Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting

Figure 3-3 illustrates that this determination is subjective and varies depending on the level of conservatism of each engineer and possibly on the work processes and scheduling controls in place. If the conditions warrant further investigation and more detailed troubleshooting, the engineer should refer to the detailed troubleshooting guidance provided in Sections 3.1.6 through 3.1.9. If the conditions do not warrant detailed troubleshooting, the engineer should consider continued or increased monitoring of the HVAC system performance parameters, including the test parameters. Experience and conservatism may result in performing increased monitoring and detailed troubleshooting to a reasonable extent. The person performing the troubleshooting should also ensure that the identifier of the issue is made aware of the actions taken to that point as well as the justification for not performing any further troubleshooting activities at that time. This feedback is denoted on Figure 3-1 with a dotted line.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

3.1.6 Perform HVAC System Walkdown/Evaluation

Figure 3-4 Detailed HVAC System Troubleshooting and TAB Activities

Figure 3-4 is a continuation of Figure 3-1 and shows the steps associated with the more detailed aspects of troubleshooting at both the HVAC system and component levels. The engineer should then perform an eyewitness, hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point. After these actions are taken, the engineer should be able to understand the issue that was initially communicated, identify the actual symptom(s) of the HVAC system performance, and begin to focus the scope of further troubleshooting efforts (including measurement of operating conditions). Key Technical Point The engineer should perform an eyewitness, hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point. 3-11

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

As a result of the walkdown, the following types of information should be determined and documented: System lineup Damper indications and positions Overall system configuration Component configuration Evidence of damaged or broken equipment

3.1.7 Develop Troubleshooting Plan


Key O&M Cost Point Development of a detailed troubleshooting plan can save money and time by reducing repetitive efforts and providing a structured approach to determining the problem. Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system, a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed, taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation. Primarily, the troubleshooting plan should address the following issues to ensure that the troubleshooting effort will not adversely affect or jeopardize system performance: Technically correct problem statement Troubleshooting tools to be used Personnel assignments for implementers and verifiers Actions needed Expected results of each troubleshooting step The process used during troubleshooting Anticipated alarms and actuations Acceptance criteria for each test/inspection/measurement The awareness of possible consequences of initial intrusion into equipment (for example, attaching test equipment, lifting leads, and applying power) Contingency actions based on the actual readings/measured results Documentation requirements Personnel safety and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) issues Component/system configuration controls Clear definition of work area boundaries and scope of equipment Appropriate reference material (including drawings, technical manuals, procedures, and visual aids)

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Provisions for the preservation of evidence Communication and work hold-points Degree to which technical measurements and test results are quantified and documented How the system/component will be restored to design conditions Reference to administrative controls to define and manage risk Reference to the appropriate postmaintenance testing procedures Appropriate levels of review/approval in accordance with plant administrative procedures Consideration of plant-specific criteria for performing root cause analysis as well as how the analysis will be handled

Typically, the level of detail of the plan and the approval authority depend on the risk and complexity of the troubleshooting activities and the significance of the failure. Key Technical Point Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system, a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed, taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation.

3.1.7.1

Determine What Measurements Are Appropriate

Typically, the following four critical parameters are measured when troubleshooting an HVAC system that is not performing in accordance with its original design basis. These asfound/baseline readings need only be recorded if they were not already taken during system troubleshooting or if they have changed since the initial measurements were taken. Fan measurements, including pressure, power, speed, and rotation direction Flow Temperature Static pressure Determine Who Will Perform the Measurements

3.1.7.2

Test/measurement personnel should meet the qualification and certification requirements stipulated by each nuclear utility. Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Key Human Performance Point Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment.

3.1.7.3

Determine How Measurements Will Be Taken

Section 4 provides guidance on the various types of instrumentation available to measure HVAC system parameters. Instrumentation should be selected considering such factors as instrument accuracy, type of system parameter being measured, physical constraints regarding the measurement, cost, and schedule.

3.1.8 Perform Recommended Tests/Measurements


Section 5 provides guidance on numerous air and water flow measurement techniques. The tests/measurements should follow the troubleshooting plan and should be taken in a methodical and structured manner.

3.1.9 Determine If Troubleshooting Plan Provides Adequate Indication of the Problem


3.1.9.1 Evaluating HVAC System Performance Problems

If the troubleshooting plan does not provide an adequate indication of the performance problem, the HVAC engineer should first consider revising the plan. Through an iterative effort, an appropriate set of tests/measurements should be developed to enable the identification of the root cause of the performance problem. The information collected and/or measured should be evaluated to determine if the root cause(s) of the system performance problems can be identified. This is performed by taking any of the following actions: Comparing static pressures Comparing actual flow to the design flow noted on the fan curve Comparing all measured data to any previous TAB reports

If the troubleshooting plan provides an adequate indication of the performance problem, the HVAC engineer should develop the necessary corrective actions to restore the system to design conditions.

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3.1.9.2

Typical Causes of HVAC System Performance Problems

A few of the most common causes of HVAC system performance problems are noted in this section. The following list is for illustrative purposes only and does not necessarily include all causes of system performance degradation: Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn, damaged, or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is, inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions

Multiple causes may exist for a given system. In these cases, system adjustments should be performed methodically and documented in order to provide a clear indication of the effect each parameter has on the overall system performance. The actual determination of root cause is an iterative process.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Key Technical Point The most common causes of HVAC system performance problems include the following: Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn, damaged, or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is, inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions

3.1.10 Develop Corrective Actions


The resulting corrective actions may encompass HVAC adjusting and rebalancing. A list of corrective action options follows: Perform component maintenance and/or repair Reconfigure the system Adjust system parameters (See Section 3.1.10.1) Rebalance the HVAC system (See Section 3.1.10.2)

The following activities are inherent to most utility corrective actions and should not be overlooked when developing a corrective action plan for an HVAC system: Perform cause analysis (root cause analysis may take place after the HVAC system performance has been restored) Take the necessary actions to prevent recurrence

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3.1.10.1

Typical Adjustments for HVAC System Performance Problems Key O&M Cost Point Adjustments to dampers are generally less expensive to perform; modifications to fans generally involve modifications that can become costly.

Adjustments of HVAC systems typically involve adjusting parameters associated with fans and dampers. In most cases, the HVAC engineer should first ensure that dampers are in adjustment before changing any fan parameters. Table 3-1 describes typical adjustments that may be considered for dampers.
Table 3-1 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Dampers Type of Damper Type of Adjustment Isolation Blade position/alignment Spring position Counterweight position Shaft locks/quadrant locks Linkage Actuator adjustment Yes Yes N/A N/A Yes Yes Balancing Yes N/A N/A Yes Yes Yes Backdraft Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes N/A Modulating Yes N/A N/A N/A Yes Yes

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Table 3-2 describes typical adjustments that may be considered for fans.
Table 3-2 Typical Adjustments for HVAC Fans Type of Fan Type of Adjustment Centrifugal Adjust speed (sheave) Inlet guide vane adjustment Blade pitch Belt tension Re-center fan wheel Drive alignment Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes Yes Axial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

3.1.10.2

Rebalancing HVAC Systems

The HVAC system/component engineer should consider retaking the readings as a first option if the corrective actions taken have not alleviated the performance problems. The data should then be evaluated to determine whether the resulting system/component performance is acceptable. These actions can be repeated as necessary in an iterative fashion until design requirements are met. The engineer should then document the final data and configuration. Sections 3.2 through 3.5 provide additional guidance on balancing new or existing air and/or water systems and on temporary balancing/rebalancing of these systems.

3.2

Generic Process for New/Existing Air System Balancing

For additional or supporting information regarding the process presented in this report, see Section 5 of NEBB Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Environmental Systems [1].

3.2.1 Review Design and System Documentation


The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. This requires the engineer to review the reference design documents (such as airflow diagrams, ductwork physical drawings, P&IDs, control logic drawings and details, electrical schematics, system descriptions, operating procedures, and reference specifications). The system design requirements, such as total fan flow, main line and branch flows, individual terminal flows, and general area pressures, should be documented prior to performing any system balancing to establish the appropriate acceptance criteria.

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Key Technical Point The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. In order to provide a complete plan of the system balancing, a markup of the plant physical drawings and/or the P&IDs should be prepared, depicting the locations of airflow measurements. All test locations should be labeled on the drawing. Appendix A provides information on various HVAC systems commonly found at nuclear power plants. Appendix B provides an overview of the various system components often installed in these systems.

3.2.2 Perform System Walkdown


Prior to starting each systems TAB work, a walkdown of the system should be made to determine testability. A general walkdown of major system components, such as fans and filter housings, should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed. The following items should be evaluated at a minimum: Identify test port locations (that is, review for adequacy, number, and location); install new test ports as necessary Ensure that scaffolding and ladders are available for access to test ports and/or balancing devices Inspect the condition of the components (including balancing damper locking devices, as-left position indication, and installation of test ports) Ensure that communications equipment is available (for example, radios and sound-powered phones) Verify that adequate lighting is available at the flow measurement and adjustment locations Inspect the HVAC system room/envelope walls, penetration seals, floors, and ceilings; confirm that all doors, windows, and other penetrations are positioned as required Verify that test equipment is available, in working condition, and possesses current calibration certificates Inspect damper positions Ensure that filters are installed or, if not installed, simulate their pressure gradients Key Technical Point Prior to starting each systems TAB work, a walkdown of the system should be made to determine testability. A general walkdown of major system components, such as fans and filter housings, should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed. 3-19

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) Publication 201-90 [2] provides additional information, if warranted by the HVAC engineer. System effects are pressure losses that may not be initially accounted for in the initial fan selection and may result from undesirable fan inlet and discharge conditions, such as the following: Improper inlet and/or outlet connections or configuration Nonuniform inlet flow Swirl at the fan inlet

System effects are normally introduced because of space or economic restrictions. For example, because of a fans location in relation to other equipment, it may be necessary to install an elbow close to the fan discharge. This adds a system effect whose magnitude needs to be determined for the particular configuration, based on the system effect curves found in AMCA 201-90 [2]. System effects can be accounted for by pressure drop calculations through the use of system effect factors (SEFs). Guidance for use and determination of SEFs for various fan configurations is provided in AMCA 201-90 [2]. SEFs are given in terms of pressure loss value in units of inches of water gauge ( w.g.). The SEF is added directly to other calculated system losses to determine the system resistance and is used to predict the fan performance when connected to the system. When performing air balancing, system effects can cause low flow (high-pressure drops). The HVAC engineer needs to be aware that this may occur. To account for low system flows, the HVAC engineer should observe the inlet and outlet conditions of the system fan and determine whether any system effect may have been introduced. For troubleshooting purposes, refer to AMCA Publication 202-98 [3] for initial symptom/cause diagnosis. System effects are normally associated with low airflow or a high-pressure drop in a system. Other causes, such as closed dampers or dirty filters, may also be attributed to low airflow and high-pressure drops in a system. Refer to the fan/ductwork configurations provided in AMCA 201-90 [2] or other design books to determine whether system effects are affecting system airflow.

3.2.3 Define Critical System Lineup


The following actions should be taken to properly define the critical system lineup: Identify the condition of any filter in the system. If the system has multiple modes of operation, identify and balance the system to the critical mode of operation. Check air and/or water flows with the system configured for the other modes of operation, and initiate design changes as necessary to document any deviation. Define air/water flow parameters. Establish room/envelope differential pressure requirements.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

3.2.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow


The following are key actions necessary to determine overall system flow: Begin air balancing with the supply system and repeat for the exhaust/return system. Obtain the total system flow. The HVAC engineer should select the flow measurement location, which could be at the fan suction or discharge or at multiple branch locations. Verify fan flow, pressure (total or static), and motor performance with the fan curve. Adjust flow as needed to approximately 120% of design flow (within system limitations). To accomplish this, the following actions may be considered: Adjust the inlet and outlet flow control dampers Change the fan blade pitch Adjust the inlet fan vanes (if present) Adjust or replace the fan/motor sheave

3.2.5 Measure Flow in Branch Ducts


Typically, the measurement should begin with the supply system and be repeated for the exhaust side. The HVAC engineer should adjust flow in branches to achieve approximately 10% additional flow using volume dampers for each branch.

3.2.6 Measure/Adjust Each Terminal Device in Each Branch


3.2.6.1 General Considerations

Flow should be adjusted to achieve approximately 20% for each grille, if zone flow remains acceptable. Plant-specific acceptance criteria should be referenced to ensure that design conditions are being considered. 3.2.6.2 Balancing by Ratio Method

The ratio method is commonly used to measure/adjust flow at terminal devices in branch lines. The following is a summary of this method: 1. Obtain the airflow at the last outlet on a branch. 2. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point. 3. Obtain the next outlet flow upstream. 4. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point.

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

5. Compare the percentages of the two points measured. If the percentages are within 10% of one another, do not make adjustments. If they are not within 10%, make an adjustment to the most upstream outlet to bring the percentages closer together. 6. Obtain the next outlet flow upstream. 7. Calculate the percentage of outlet flow to design flow at this point. 8. Compare the percentages of the two points measured. If the percentages are within 10% of one another, do not make adjustments. If they are not within 10%, make an adjustment to the most upstream outlet to bring the percentages closer together. 9. Repeat the process until all the outlets on the branch are proportioned. 10. Move to the next branch and repeat the process. 11. When the individual outlets have been adequately adjusted on the branches, the branch line volume dampers can be proportioned using the same process. 12. If the resulting total airflow requires adjustment, make a fan speed or blade adjustment, or readjust the volume dampers and splitters and repeat the process. 13. Perform a final readout of the system.

3.2.7 Re-Measure Total System Flow


Adjustments should be made to total flow to the upper limit of plant-specific design requirements. This can be accomplished by adjusting the fan or the main flow control damper.

3.2.8 Simulate Dirty Filter and Wetted Coil Conditions


Certain ventilation systems are needed to maintain credited design conditions, and these systems should be capable of generating design flows even with a dirty filter condition. Thus, it is necessary to balance such systems with simulated dirty filter and wetted coil conditions. Dirty filter and wetted coil conditions should be simulated on both the supply and exhaust portions of the system. Total flow should again be measured. Adjustments should be performed in an iterative manner to maintain total flow within the design tolerances of the system.

3.2.9 Final Balance or Adjustment in the Clean Mode


A final balance or adjustment should be made in the clean mode, considering plant-specific zone differential pressure gradients, zone temperatures, and humidity requirements.

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3.3

Generic Process for Temporary Air System Balancing or Rebalancing

Temporary balancing of a buildings ventilation system may be required when performing maintenance on ventilation system components or while structural boundaries for the system (that is, walls and ceilings) are breached for other activities. Usually activities that could disrupt a buildings ventilation system(s) are of short duration, the consequences of the disruption are not significant, and upsetting the system balance can be tolerated for a short period. However, licensed nuclear facilities have to maintain their ventilation systems in order to comply with their licensing. When system conditions arise that are not explicitly addressed by the facilitys license, the licensee should evaluate the proposed configuration for compliance with the applicable license requirements. Most nuclear facilities have to maintain their ventilation systems to enhance the movement of air from areas of low contamination toward areas of higher contamination. A basic corollary to this requirement is for the facilities to maintain a boundary and pressure differential or pressure gradient (P) between the environment and facility components with radioactive materials. The boundary is usually a building structure, and the pressure differential is created by the buildings ventilation system. If a specific pressure gradient is required to be maintained, the ventilation system or portions of it may have to be temporarily balanced while any equipment used to maintain that buildings pressure gradient is removed from service for maintenance. Temporary balancing uses the same techniques as initial balancing, except that the process begins based on the as-found system balance. The basic steps for temporary balancing are addressed in Sections 3.3.1 through 3.3.3.

3.3.1 Planning Steps


The following preliminary steps should be performed for temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1. Determine system design requirements and objectives. 2. Determine system licensing requirements (for example, FSARs and technical specifications [TSs]). 3. Verify system performance under the current configuration. 4. Determine the effect of the temporary condition on system performance. 5. Determine the system configuration necessary to maintain license requirements and design objectives during the temporary condition. 6. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to transition from the current configuration to the temporary configuration, including changes in the condition (that is, breaching a wall).

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EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

7. Determine which system parameters to monitor during the transition to the temporary condition. 8. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to restore the system to its original configuration and which system parameters to monitor during the transition. 9. Prepare work documents as required by the facilitys license and administrative controls, including a back-out provision for situations in which monitored parameters indicate conditions adverse to license requirements. Use standard balancing forms whenever possible; however, facility- and activity-specific forms may be desirable to consolidate data and facilitate review and evaluation.

3.3.2 Execution
The following are the steps in executing temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1. If required, pre-brief the personnel involved or affected by the proposed change. 2. Document the initial configuration and critical parameters. 3. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations. 4. Sequence through the manipulations toward the temporary configuration. 5. Adjust controls to compensate for the actual system performance for the temporary balance. (This is similar to a final balance in an initial test and balance.) 6. Document the temporary configuration and critical parameters. 7. Verify that the work that required temporary balance has been completed. 8. Document the post-work temporary configuration and critical parameters. 9. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations for restoration. 10. Sequence through manipulations toward the initial configuration. 11. Adjust controls to compensate for actual system performance to achieve a final balance. 12. Document the final configuration and critical parameters. 13. Verify that the overall system performance is not affected.

3.3.3 Review and Documentation


The following steps describe reviewing and documenting temporary air system balancing or rebalancing: 1. Evaluate the data collected during the manipulations and temporary balancing described in Section 3.3.2. 3-24

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2. Determine the minimum critical activities and monitoring parameters for the possibility of future similar work. 3. Document the entire evolution for future reference, and create actions for any lessons learned.

3.4

Generic Process for New/Existing Water System Balancing

3.4.1 Review Design and System Documentation


The first step in the water balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation. This requires the engineer to review the reference design documents, including the water flow diagrams, piping layout drawing, P&IDs, valve lineup, system descriptions, operating procedures, and component design requirements. The system design flow requirements (such as pump flow, system head pressure, branch flows, and flows to various coolers and heat exchangers) should be documented and appropriate acceptance criteria established prior to performing any system adjustments. In order to understand the scope of the balancing effort, the piping layout drawing should be used in conjunction with the water flow diagram and the P&IDs to depict the locations of flow measurements. The location of the balancing valves in the system should be noted. Appendix A is provided to familiarize the reader with various HVAC systems commonly found at nuclear power plants. Appendix B provides an overview of the various system components often installed in these systems. The water systems commonly used in HVAC systems are closed-loop chilled-water systems, closed-loop hot-water systems, open-loop chiller-condenser water systems, and the plant service/river/raw water system. Balancing of the plant service water system will not be addressed in this document. The closed-loop water system is the most prevalent design employed at nuclear power plants in support of HVAC systems; Section 3.5, Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing, considers this type of water system in the description. The processes are provided for an initial balance of the water system, and some of the steps may not be applicable to or recommended for rebalancing.

3.4.2 Perform Walkdown of the Water System


Prior to starting of the water balancing work, a walkdown of the system is recommended. The following items should be evaluated at a minimum: Identify the adequacy of any existing flow measurement stations, such as installed orifice plates. If water flow measurements are taken with the ultrasonic flow meter, identify flow measurement locations. The piping systems used in HVAC applications are usually insulated. Initiate a work order for insulation removal as deemed necessary according to plant procedure. 3-25

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

Ensure that scaffolding and ladders are available for access to flow measurement stations and balancing valves. Inspect the lineup of the various components in the system (including pump, balancing valves, and pressure gauges). Verify that all required pressure and temperature gauges are calibrated. Ensure that communications equipment is available (for example, radios and sound-powered phones). Verify that adequate lighting is available at the flow measurement and adjustment locations. Verify that test equipment is available and in working condition and properly calibrated. Ensure that the pump suction strainer is flushed and/or clean. Key Technical Point Prior to starting the water balancing work, a walkdown of the system is recommended.

3.4.3 Prerequisites
The following actions should be taken prior to starting any system adjustments to properly define the critical system lineup: 1. On the recirculation pump curve, note the design point. 2. Note the design features of the various components in the system. 3. Open all isolation and balancing valves to the full-open position. 4. For cooling or heating systems with three-way (thermostatically controlled) mixing valves, close the valve port to the bypass line and open the valve port to the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger. 5. Clean all strainers (and remove startup strainers, if present). 6. Verify that the system has been flushed and the water is clean. 7. Check the pump rotation. 8. Check the expansion tank for proper charge. 9. Verify that the system has been adequately vented and the air vent valves are closed. 10. Verify that the system makeup water valve is fully open and the pressure reducing valve is correctly set. In addition, verify the correct setting of any relief valve, if one is present in the system. 11. Check the operation of all three-way mixing valves. 3-26

EPRI Licensed Material HVAC Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Guidance

12. Check and set the operating temperature of the chiller or the boiler. 13. Ensure that applicable sections of the system air balancing are complete. If the system has multiple modes of operation, identify and balance the system to its critical mode of operation. Check the flows with the system aligned for the other modes of operation, and initiate design changes as necessary to document any deviation.

3.4.4 Operate System to Determine Overall System Flow


Perform the following steps to determine overall system flow: Start the recirculating water pump and adjust the balancing valve at the discharge of the recirculating pump to obtain system design water flow. Verify that the operating point is on the pump curve. Adjust flow as needed to approximately 110120% of the design flow without overloading the pump motor. To accomplish this, the following actions may be considered: Adjust the main system balancing valve Change the pump impeller size (personnel may need to procure a new impeller if a larger size is needed or grind off the impeller to obtain a smaller size)

3.4.5 Water Balancing Process


A reverse-return system is characterized by water that flows through similar components (that is, those components with the same pressure drops) and is configured so that the flow to the first component is the last one out to the return loop. The system is self-balancing, and it is not necessary to adjust the flow through those similar components. The following items should be considered in the water balancing process: In a multiple chiller or boiler system, adjust flow through each unit, starting with the one at the farthest location. Make adjustments as necessary to obtain about +110% of the design flow. Each coil/terminal unit should have a balancing valve for flow adjustments. Adjust the balancing valve to obtain design flow (-0, +10%) through the coil/terminal units while verifying and maintaining pump design flow. For systems with three-way (thermostatically controlled) mixing valves, adjust the balancing valve in the coil/terminal unit bypass piping. With the three-way mixing valve open to the coil/terminal unit and closed to the bypass line, note the pressure drop through the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger. With the three-way mixing valve open to the bypass line and closed to the coil/terminal unit/heat exchanger, adjust the balancing valve in the bypass line to obtain the same pressure drop as previously recorded through the coil/terminal unit/ heat exchanger.

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In systems with two-way (thermostatically controlled) valves, the pump usually has a pump bypass or minimum system flow line with a modulating valve. With the two-way valves closed, adjust the pump bypass valve to obtain the necessary minimum flow for maintaining pump stability. Use information from the pump curve if it is not provided in the design documents. Allow the system to operate for 4 to 12 hours to let it equalize, and record the following data: Pump and pump motor data: nameplate data, flow, inlet and outlet pressures, and volt amps Chiller or boiler: nameplate data, flow, inlet and outlet temperatures and pressures, volt amps, and P Coil/terminal units: flow, inlet and outlet temperature and pressures, volt amps, and P

3.5

Generic Process for Temporary Water System Balancing or Rebalancing

A temporary water system is often installed to facilitate maintenance activities or replacement of a component in the permanent system. For example, if a chiller(s) in a vital system (system necessary for plant operation) must be replaced while the plant is online, a temporary system consisting of a temporary chiller(s) with a pump may be installed to provide chilled water to the permanent system. If such a system is installed, it will be necessary to balance it. Temporary balancing requires the same techniques that initial balancing does; however, the permanent system may not need any adjustments. The basic steps for temporary balancing are addressed in the Sections 3.5.1 through 3.5.3.

3.5.1 Planning Steps


The following steps compose the planning phase of temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1. Determine makeup water requirements. 2. Determine the process to hydrostatically test any temporary piping installation prior to putting the temporary section in service. 3. Determine the process to functionally test the temporary system. 4. Determine the effect of the temporary system on the permanent system design requirements and objectives. 5. Determine system licensing requirements (for example, FSAR and TSs). 6. Verify system performance under the current configuration. 3-28

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7. Determine the effect of the temporary system on the permanent system performance. 8. Determine the system configuration necessary to maintain license requirements and design objectives during the temporary condition. 9. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to transition from the current configuration to the temporary configuration and vice versa. 10. Determine which system parameters to monitor during the transition to the temporary condition. 11. Determine the sequence of component manipulations required to restore the system to its original configuration and which system parameters to monitor during the transition.

3.5.2 Execution
The following are the steps in executing temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1. If required, pre-brief the personnel involved or affected by the proposed change. 2. Document the initial configuration and critical parameters. 3. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations. 4. Sequence through the manipulations toward temporary configuration. 5. Adjust or install controls to allow the system to perform adequately in the temporary balance configuration. 6. Document the temporary configuration and critical parameters. 7. Verify that the work that required temporary balance has been completed. 8. Document the post-work temporary configuration and critical parameters. 9. Verify that the configuration is compatible with the planned manipulations for restoration. 10. Sequence through the manipulations toward initial configuration. 11. Adjust controls to compensate for actual system performance to achieve a final balance. 12. Document the final configuration and critical parameters. 13. Verify that the overall system performance is not affected.

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3.5.3 Review and Documentation


The following steps describe reviewing and documenting temporary water system balancing or rebalancing: 1. Evaluate the data collected during the manipulations and temporary balancing described in Section 3.5.2. 2. Determine the minimum critical activities and monitoring parameters for the possibility of performing similar work in the future. 3. Document the entire evolution for future reference, and create actions for any lessons learned.

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4
INSTRUMENTATION
Section 4.1 presents various types of TAB instrumentation commonly used to measure the system or component parameters presented in this report. Section 4.2 provides several tables that illustrate the proper application of many of these instruments. Section 4.3 provides a table that illustrates recommended ranges, accuracy, and calibration schedules for different types of TAB instrumentation.

4.1

Types of TAB Instrumentation

4.1.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments


4.1.1.1 U-Tube Manometer

The manometer is a simple and useful means of measuring partial vacuum and pressure for air and hydronic systems. It is so universally used that both the inch (mm) of water and inch (mm) of mercury have become accepted units of pressure measurements. In its simplest form, a manometer consists of a U-shaped glass tube partially filled with a liquid, such as tinted water or oil. The difference in height between the two fluid columns denotes the pressure differential. U-tube manometers are made in different sizes and are recommended for measuring pressure drops above 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pascals [Pa]) across filters, coils, fans, terminal devices, and sections of ductwork; they are not recommended for readings less than 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pa). Key Technical Points Manometer tubes should be chemically clean to be accurate and filled with the correct fluid. Mercury is not an acceptable fluid for HVAC TAB work because of its potential hazardous effects on personnel and on plant equipment. Figure 4-1 illustrates a typical U-tube manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-1 Typical U-Tube Manometer (Courtesy of Meriam, Inc.)

4.1.1.2

Inclined/Vertical Manometer

The inclined and/or vertical manometer for airflow pressure reading is usually constructed from a solid, transparent block of plastic. It has an inclined scale that provides accurate air pressure readings below 1.0 inch w.g. (250 Pa) and a vertical scale for reading greater pressures. Instead of water, this instrument uses colored oil that is lighter than water. This means that although the scale reads in inches (mm) of water, it is longer than a standard rule measurement. Whenever a manometer is used, the oil must be at the same temperature as the environment in which the manometer will be used and of the correct specific gravity; otherwise, the reading will not be correct. The manometer must be set level and mounted so that it does not vibrate. Key Technical Point When air pressures are extremely low, a micromanometer (hook gauge) or some other more sensitive instrument should be used to ensure accuracy. Figure 4-2 illustrates a typical inclined/vertical manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-2 Typical Inclined/Vertical Manometer (Courtesy of Meriam, Inc.)

4.1.1.3

Electronic (Digital) Manometer

The electronic manometer is designed to provide accurate readings at very low differential pressures. Some multimeters measure an extremely wide range of pressures from 0.0001 to 60.00 inches w.g. (0.025 to 15,000 Pa). Airflow and velocity are automatically corrected for the density effect of barometric pressure and temperature if the appropriate sensors are attached. Readings can be stored and recalled with average and total functions. A specially designed grid enables the reading of face velocities at filter outlets, coil face velocities, and exhaust hood openings. Some multimeters provide additional functions, such as temperature measurements. Because the meter uses a time-weighted average for each reading, it is often difficult to measure and identify the pulsations in pressure. For this reason, it may be difficult to repeat single-point readings, especially at lower velocities. Key Technical Point The technical manual for the electronic manometer should be referenced to determine if it provides results in ACFM, SCFM, or both. If the temperature sensor is not used, the instrument reading on at least one electronic manometer should be adjusted by calculation to either actual or standard conditions (ACFM or SCFM).

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Figure 4-3 illustrates a typical electronic (digital) manometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-3 Typical Electronic (Digital) Manometer (Courtesy of Shortridge, Inc.)

4.1.1.4

Pitot Tube

The standard pitot tube, which is used in conjunction with a suitable pressure measuring device, provides a simple method of determining the air velocity in a duct. The pitot tube is of double concentric tube construction, consisting of a 1/8-inch (3.2-mm) outside diameter inner tube (total pressure) which is concentrically located inside of a 5/16-inch (8.0-mm) outside diameter outer tube (static pressure). The outer static tube has eight equally spaced, 0.04-inch (1-mm) diameter holes around the circumference of the outer tube, located 2-1/4 inches (57 mm) back from the nose or open end of the pitot tube tip. Figure 4-4 illustrates typical details of a pitot tube. Figures 4-5 and 4-6 illustrate typical configurations of pitot tubes.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-4 Pitot Tube Details

Figure 4-5 Typical Negative Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup

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Figure 4-6 Typical Positive Static Pressure Pitot Tube and Manometer or Micromanometer Hookup

Smaller pitot tubes, commonly referred to as micro tubes, are available for use in smaller ducting. They are designed to maintain the ratio of the hole spacing for both the total pressure and static pressure sensors but can not, by design, maintain the actual dimensions. These tubes are typically used when the cross-sectional area of the pitot tube is greater than 1/30 of the crosssectional area of the ducting, with the pitot tube in the fully inserted position. At the base end, or tube connection end, the inner tube is open ended as at the head, and the outer tube has a side outlet tube connector perpendicular to the outer tube and directly parallel with and pointing in the same direction as the head end of the pitot tube. Both tubes have a 90 radius bend in them, located near the measuring end. This bend allows the open end of the inner impact tube to be positioned so that it faces directly into the airstream when 1) the main shaft of the pitot tube is perpendicular to the duct and 2) the side outlet static pressure tube outlet connector is pointed in a parallel direction, with airflow (10) facing upstream. Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream total pressure is achieved by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. If measuring a positive pressure, the pitot tube is connected to the high-pressure side of the pressure measuring device.

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Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream static pressure is achieved by connecting the outer tube side outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. If measuring a negative pressure, the pitot tube is connected to the low-pressure side of the pressure measuring device. Key Technical Point Measurement of airstream velocity pressure is achieved by connecting both the inner and the outer tube connectors to opposite sides of a manometer or gauge. The total pressure line is connected to the high-pressure port of the test instrument, and the static pressure line is connected to the low-pressure side. Accuracy of the measurements depends on the uniformity of flow and completeness of traverse. Several shapes and sizes of pitot tubes are available for different applications. A reasonably large space is required, adjacent to the duct penetration, for maneuvering the instrument. Care should be taken to avoid pinching the instrument tubing. If static pressure, velocity pressure, and total pressure are to be measured simultaneously, three draft gauges can be connecteddepending on the specific application. In any case, the three values measured will then fulfill the equation: TP = SP + VP, where TP = total pressure, SP = static pressure, and VP = velocity pressure. In conducting tests, it is often sufficient to measure only two of these three pressures because the third can be obtained by simple addition or subtraction. Care should be taken, however, that the signs of the pressures monitored are correct. If measuring velocity pressure, regardless of whether the ducting is at a positive or negative pressure, the pitot tube is connected to the pressure sensing instrument the same way. The total pressure side is always connected to the high-pressure side of the instrument, and the static pressure side is always connected to the low-pressure side of the instrument. If measuring static pressures within the duct is required, the pitot-tube-to-instrument connection will be affected. If measuring a negative pressure duct, the static pressure port from the pitot tube must be connected to the low-pressure side of the instrument. If the static pressure in the duct is at a positive pressure, the pitot tube must be connected to the high-pressure side of the instrument. The various connections between the pitot tube and gauge are frequently made with a good grade of clear surgical tubing. Precaution must be taken so that all passages and connections are dry, clean, and free of leaks, sharp bends, and other obstructions. The branching out of the rubber hose can be accomplished by the use of a T-fitting or a two-stem nipple adapter. The lines and various connections should be periodically tested for leaks. This leak check should be performed as an integrated test to ensure that no one component may be attributing to erroneous readings.

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4.1.1.5

Pressure Gauge (Magnehelic)

The Magnehelic pressure gauge is operated by magnetic field linkage only, which makes it extremely sensitive and accurate. However, the construction of the gauge makes it resistant to shock and vibration. A zero calibration screw is located on the plastic cover. There are approximately 30 available pressure ranges for this instrument. Measurements should be made in midrange of the scale. The gauge should not be mounted on a vibrating surface. The gauge should be held in the same position as when it is zeroed and should be checked against a known pressure source with each use (some models are designed for vertical use only). Figure 4-7 illustrates a typical Magnehelic pressure gauge commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-7 Typical Pressure Gauge (Courtesy of Dwyer, Inc.)

4.1.1.6

Rotating Vane Anemometer (Mechanical Type)

The basic propeller or rotating vane anemometer consists of a lightweight, wind-driven wheel connected through a gear train to a set of recording dials that read the linear feet (meters) of air passing through the wheel in a measured length of time. At low velocities, the friction drag of the mechanism is considerable. To compensate for this, a gear train that overspeeds is commonly used. For this reason, the correction is often additive at the lower range and subtractive at the upper range, with the least correction in the middle of the 2002000 feet per minute (ft/min) (110 meters per second [m/s]) ranges. Most older instruments are not sensitive enough for use below 200 ft/min (1 m/s). Newer instruments can read velocities as low as 30 ft/min (0.15 m/s). Because other instruments read in feet (meters), a timing instrument must be used to determine velocity. Readings are usually timed for one minute, in which case the anemometer reading (when corrected according to a calibration curve) will give the result in feet per minute or meters per minute. For moderate velocities, it may be satisfactory to use a one-half minute timed interval, repeated as a check.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

In the case of coils or filters, an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification. These variations are taken into account by moving the instrument in a fixed pattern traverse to cover the entire surface so that the varying velocities may be added and averaged. NEBB Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Environmental Systems [1] provides additional guidance on how these instruments may be used. Figure 4-8 illustrates a typical mechanical rotating vane anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems. Key Technical Point In the case of coils or filters, an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification.

Figure 4-8 Typical Mechanical Rotating Vane Anemometer

4.1.1.7

Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer

The electronic rotating vane anemometer is a battery-operated, direct digital or analog readout anemometer. Some have interchangeable remote rotating vane heads. The digital readout of the velocity is automatically averaged for a fixed period, depending on the measured velocity and the type of instrument. Analog instruments are direct readout with a choice of velocity scales. Figure 4-9 illustrates a typical electronic rotating vane anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation

Figure 4-9 Typical Electronic Rotating Vane Anemometer

4.1.1.8

Deflecting Vane Anemometer

The deflecting vane anemometer operates by having pressure exerted on a vane that causes a pointer to indicate that measured value. It does not depend on air density because of the sensing of pressure differential to indicate velocities. The instrument is provided and always used with a dual-hose connection between the meter and the probes, except as noted in the following paragraph. One type of deflecting vane anemometer uses three interchangeable velocity probes: the lo-flow, diffuser, and pitot probes. The lo-flow probe is used in conjunction with the 0300 ft/min (01.5 m/s) scale for measuring terminal air velocities in rooms or open spaces and for measuring face velocities at ventilating hoods, spray booths, and fume hoods. The lo-flow probe is directly mounted to the anemometer without the use of hoses. The pitot probe is used to measure airstream velocities in ducts. The diffuser probe is used to measure air velocity through both supply and return air terminals, using the proper air terminal K or A k factor (effective area) for the airflow calculation. This will return a result in cubic feet per minute (ft 3/min).

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4.1.1.9

Thermal Anemometer

The operation of the thermal anemometer depends on the fact that the resistance of a heated wire will change with its temperature. The probe of this instrument is provided with a special type of wire element that is supplied with current from batteries contained in the instrument case. As air flows over the element in the probe, the temperature of the element is changed from those that exist in still air, and the resistance change is indicated as velocity on the indicating scale of the instrument. This instrument is used to measure very low air velocities (such as a filter velocity), room velocity, and the velocity of hood openings. Figure 4-10 illustrates a typical thermal anemometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-10 Typical Thermal Anemometer (Courtesy of TSI, Inc.)

The probe that is used with this instrument is directional and must be located at the proper point on the diffuser, grille, or traverse, as indicated by the manufacturer. Probes are subject to fouling by dust and corrosive air. Because this type of instrument displays data for standard conditions, corrections must be made if actual feet per minute are to be recorded.

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4.1.1.10

Flow Measuring Hood

The flow measuring hood is a device that covers the terminal air outlet device to facilitate taking air velocity or airflow. The conical or pyramid shaped hood can be used to collect all of the air supplied to or returned from an air terminal and guide it over flow measuring instrumentation. Hoods are generally constructed so that the outlet tapers down to an effective area of 1 ft 2 (0.09 m2). A velocity measuring grid and calibrated manometer in the hood will read the airflow in cubic feet per minute. The balancing cone or hood should be tailored for the particular job. The large end of the cone should be sized to fit over the complete diffuser and should have a gasket around the perimeter to prevent leakage. Some digital instruments have memory, averaging, and printing capabilities. Flow measuring hoods should not be used where the discharge velocities of the terminal device are excessive or severely stratified. The best results are obtained when the flow measuring hood has repeat readings on similar terminals in the same direction. Figure 4-11 illustrates a typical flow hood commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-11 Typical Flow Hood

4.1.1.11

Smoke Devices

Smoke devices generally are used to study airflow and detect leaks. These devices come in various sizes with different durations of burning time. Smoke devices employ a chemical reaction from which highly visible, nontoxic smoke readily mixes with air, simplifying the observation of flow patterns. When testing for leaks, sufficient smoke should be used to fill a volume 15 to 20 times larger than the duct or enclosure volume to be tested. Air motion rates below 10 ft/min (0.5 m/s) can be measured with a stopwatch and distance determinations.

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Smoke sticks conveniently come in different sizes and provide an indicating stream of smoke. Some produce a single puff of smoke, and others smoke continuously for a few minutes to a maximum of 10 minutes. Smoke guns are valuable in tracing air currents and determining the direction and velocity of airflow and the general behavior of either warm or cold air in conditioned rooms. Figure 4-12 illustrates a typical smoke gun commonly used in HVAC systems.

Figure 4-12 Typical Smoke Gun

Aspirated fine powders, such as zinc sterate, may also be used in locating drafts, determining the velocity of slow moving currents in a room, and obtaining a better understanding of air motion. The fine powders suspend in air for a significant time and float with the air currents. The powder can be used to mark leakage points on doors with gaskets because it tends to stick to the surface at the leak. Zinc sterate and other powders are usually chemically inert and may often be used where chemical smoke is prohibited.

4.1.2
4.1.2.1

Hydronic Instruments
Pressure Test Gauge

The calibrated pressure test gauge should be of a minimum Grade A quality; have a Bourdon tube assembly made of stainless steel, alloy steel, Monel, or bronze; and a nonreflecting white face with black letter graduations conforming to ANSI/ASME Specification B40.1 [4]. Test gauges are usually 3-1/2 to 6 inches (8.9 to 15.2 cm) in diameter, with bottom or back connections. Dials are available with pressure, vacuum, or compound ranges. Dial gauges are used primarily for checking pump pressure; coil, chiller, and condenser pressure drops; and pressure drops across orifice plates, valves, and other flow calibrated devices. Pressure ranges should be selected so that the pressures to be measured fall in the middle twothirds of the scale range. The gauge should not be exposed to pressures greater than the maximum dial reading. Similarly, a compound gauge should be used where it could be exposed to negative pressure (vacuum). Pressure pulsations can be reduced or eliminated by installing a needle valve between the gauge and the system equipment or piping. Under extreme pulsating conditions, a pulsation dampener or snubber may be installed. 4-13

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4.1.2.2

Differential Pressure Gauge

A differential pressure gauge is a dual-inlet, Grade A dual Bourdon tube pressure gauge with a single indicating pointer on the dial face, indicating the pressure differential between the two measured pressures. The gauge can be calibrated in psi, inches w.g., or inches mercury. The differential pressure gauge will automatically read the difference between two pressures. Using a single test gauge, the gauge is alternately valved to the high-pressure side and the lowpressure side to determine the pressure differential. Such an arrangement eliminates any problem concerning gauge elevations and virtually eliminates errors as a result of gauge calibration.

4.1.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments


Key Human Performance Point Care should be taken when using any rotating measuring instrument in order to avoid personal injury caused by inadvertent contact with the rotating equipment.

4.1.3.1

Chronometric Tachometer

The chronometric tachometer is considered by some to be obsolete; however, it is still used. It combines a revolution counter and a stopwatch in one instrument. In using this instrument, its tip is placed in contact with the rotating shaft. Care should be taken to avoid personal injury when in proximity to the rotating element. The tachometer spindle will then turn with the shaft, although the instrument will not indicate. To take a reading, the push button is pressed and then quickly released. This sets the meter hand to zero, winds the stopwatch movement, and simultaneously starts both the revolution counter and the stopwatch. Because the timing is automatically synchronized with the operation of the revolution counter, the human error that can occur when a revolution counter and separate stopwatch are used is eliminated. In general, the chronometric tachometer is the preferred type of instrument when the shaft end is accessible and has a countersunk hole. Newer hand tachometers are available, capable of producing instantaneous rpm measurement readings on a dial face (eddy current type); solid-state instruments with digital readouts are also available. 4.1.3.2 Contact Tachometer (Digital)

Contact tachometers are available in either liquid crystal display (LCD) or light-emitting diode (LED) displays in multi-ranges. Some have a memory feature to recall the last reading as well as maximum and minimum readings. In addition, most have a measuring wheel for linear speeds. Figure 4-13 illustrates a typical contact reflective tachometer commonly used in HVAC systems. 4-14

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Figure 4-13 Typical Contact Reflective Tachometer

4.1.3.3

Optical (Photo) Tachometer

The optical or photo tachometer uses a photocell that counts the pulses as the object rotates. Then, by use of a transistorized computer circuit, the tachometer produces a direct rpm reading (either digital or analog) on the instrument dial. Several features make it adaptable for use in measuring fan speeds. It is completely portable and is equipped with long-life batteries as its light and power source. It has good accuracy, and any error can be reduced by using more than one reflective marker at a different location on the rotating device. Its calibration can be continually checked on most jobs by directing its beam to a fluorescent light and comparing the indicated reading against 7,200 on the rpm scale (at 60 Hz). The optical tachometer does not have to be in contact with the rotating device. It indicates instantaneous speeds using a contrasting mark on the rotating device or reflective tape. It is a good instrument to use on in-line fans and other equipment where shaft ends are not accessible. It also may be used on equipment rotating at high speed. 4.1.3.4 Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope)

The stroboscope is an electronic tachometer that uses an electrically flashing light. The frequency of the flashing light is electronically controlled and adjustable, and when it is adjusted to equal the frequency of the rotating machine, the machine will appear to stand still. Figure 4-14 illustrates a typical stroboscope commonly used in HVAC systems.

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Figure 4-14 Typical Electronic Tachometer (Stroboscope)

The stroboscope does not need to make contact with the machine being checked. Rather, the stroboscope light needs to be pointed toward the machine to illuminate a moving part for the operator. The light flashes are of extremely short duration, and their frequency is adjustable by turning a knob on the stroboscope. When the frequency of the light flashes is the same as the speed of the moving part being viewed, the part will be seen distantly only once each cycle, and the moving part will appear to stand still. The corresponding frequency, or rpm, can be read from an analog or digital scale on the instrument. Care should be taken to avoid reading multiples (or harmonics) of the actual rpm. Readings should be started at the lower end of the scale. The number of flashes per second should be slowly increased until a single image is obtained. To ensure that the reading is not a harmonic of the actual rotational speed, increase the number of flashes per minute by twice the current value. If a double image is observed, the original reading was the true rpm of the equipment. What is being observed is that the strobe is operating at twice the speed of the true rpm. If, on the other hand, a single image is obtained after doubling the number of flashes per minute, the strobe was set at a subharmonic of the actual rpm. This process should be repeated until the first double image is obtained. The last reading before the double image appears will be the actual rpm of the rotating equipment. The best results are obtained when the strobe is shined on a rotating object having one unique mark, such as a keyway on the end of a shaft. 4.1.3.5 Dual-Function Tachometer

The dual-function tachometer provides both optical and contact measurements of rotation and linear motions. Many allow a choice of up to 19 ranges, depending on the application. A digital display always indicates the unit of measurement to identify the operating range. The memory feature may often be used to recall the last, maximum, minimum, and/or average readings. This tachometers compact size and light weight allow easy one-handed operation. 4-16

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4.1.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments


4.1.4.1 Glass Tube Thermometers

Mercury-filled glass tube thermometers have a useful temperature range from -40F (-40C) to over 400F (204C). They are available in a variety of standard temperature ranges, scale graduations, and lengths. Mineral spirits thermometers have a typical useful range of -40F to 200F (-40F to 93C). The complete stem immersion calibrated thermometer, as the name implies, must be used with the stem completely immersed in the fluid in which the temperature is to be measured. If complete immersion of the thermometer stem is not possible or practical, a correction must be made for the amount of emergent liquid column. Thermometers calibrated for partial stem immersion are more commonly used in conjunction with thermometer test wells designed to receive them. No emergent stem correction is required for the partial stem immersion type. When the temperatures of the surrounding surfaces are substantially different from the measured fluid, there is considerable radiation effect upon the thermometer reading if the thermometer is left unshielded or otherwise unprotected. Proper shielding or aspiration of the thermometer bulb and stem can minimize these radiation effects. Thermometer wells are used to house the test thermometer at the desired location and permit the removal and insertion of a thermometer without requiring the removal or loss of the fluid in the system. 4.1.4.2 Dial Thermometers

Dial thermometers have either a rigid stem or a flexible capillary. They are constructed with various size dial heads, 1-3/4 to 5 inches (4.5 to 12.7 cm), with a stainless steel encapsulated temperature sensing element. Hermetically sealed, dial thermometers are rust-, dust-, and leakproof and are actuated by sensitive bimetallic helix coils. Some can be field calibrated. Sensing elements range in length from 2-1/2 to 24 inches (6.4 to 61 cm) and are available in many temperature ranges, with and without thermometer wells. Dial thermometers are more rugged and more easily read than are glass tube thermometers, and they are fairly inexpensive. Small dial thermometers usually use a bimetallic temperature sensing element in the stem. The flexible capillary dial thermometer has a large temperature sensing bulb connected to the instrument with a capillary tube. The instrument contains a Bourdon tube, as with pressure gauges. The temperature sensing system consisting of the bulb, capillary tube, and Bourdon tube and is charged with either a liquid or a gas. Temperature changes at the bulb cause the contained liquid or gas to expand or contract, causing a pointer to move over a graduated scale. In using a dial thermometer, the stem or bulb must be immersed a sufficient distance to allow this part of the thermometer to reach the temperature being measured. Because dial thermometers have a relatively long time lag, enough time must be allowed for the thermometer to reach a steady temperature measurement. 4-17

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4.1.4.3

Thermocouple Thermometers

Thermocouple thermometers and analog or digital pyrometers, normally used in measurements of surface temperatures in heating and air conditioning applications, use a thermocouple as a sensing device and a scale calibrated for direct reading of temperatures. Thermocouple temperature sensing elements are remote from the instrument case and connected to it by wire or cables. In piping and duct applications, note that the surface temperature of the conduit is not equal to the gas or fluid temperature and that a relative comparison is more reliable than an absolute reliance on readings at a single circuit or terminal unit. 4.1.4.4 Electronic Thermometers

There are many types of rugged, lightweight, battery powered digital electronic thermometers that are highly accurate with interchangeable probes and/or sensors. Types include resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), thermistors, thermocouples, and diode sensors with either LCD or LED displays. Response time and ease of use vary among models and types. Electronic thermometers may be used to check air or liquid temperatures, either immersed in the fluid stream or from surfaces. Resistance thermometers have longer response times than the thermocouple type. Electronic thermometers have the advantages of remote reading, good precision, and a flexible temperature range. Additionally, some electronic thermometers have multiple connection points on the instrument case and a selector switch, enabling the use of a number of temperature sensors placed in different locations and read one at a time by use of the selector switch. 4.1.4.5 Portable Noncontact Thermometers

These devices are rugged and simple to use. Most are equipped with a laser pointer to facilitate determining the location of the temperature measuring point. These devices work on the principle of infrared energy (which all objects above absolute zero radiate), rapidly respond to temperature changes, and, at close ranges, are useful for determining hot spots. The average effective range depends on the size of the object being measured and the clarity of the air between the object and the detector. 4.1.4.6 Psychrometers

The sling psychrometer consists of two liquid-filled thermometers, one of which has a cloth wick or sock around its bulb. The two thermometers are mounted side-by-side on a frame fitted with a handle by which the device can be whirled with a steady motion through the surrounding air. The whirling motion is periodically stopped to permit readings of the wet and dry bulb thermometers (in that order) to be taken until consecutive readings become steady. Because of evaporation, the wet bulb thermometer indicates a lower temperature than the dry bulb thermometer does (unless the airstream is at 100% relative humidity [RH]; then both the wet bulb and dry bulb temperatures are the same). The difference is known as the wet bulb depression. Figure 4-15 illustrates a typical sling psychrometer commonly used in HVAC systems. 4-18

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Figure 4-15 Typical Sling Psychrometer

Accurate wet bulb readings require an air velocity of 10001500 ft/min (57.5 m/s) across the wick; otherwise, a correction must be made. Therefore, an instrument with an 18-inch (46-cm) radius should be whirled at a rate of two revolutions per second. Significant errors will result if the wick becomes dirty or dry; therefore, a constant supply of distilled water should be used. Temperatures below 32F (0C) require special handling conditions. Digital battery powered versions of the sling psychrometer are available that blow the ambient air over the wetted wick. These instruments are accurate and can be placed into confined areas where there is insufficient room to whirl a sling psychrometer. 4.1.4.7 Electronic Thermohygrometers

Unlike the psychrometer, the thermohygrometer does not use the cooling effect of the wet bulb to determine the moisture content in the air. Instead, a thin film capacitance sensor is used as a sensing element in many instruments. As the moisture content and temperature change, the resistance in the sensor changes proportionally. The readout is normally in percent RH. Because the instruments do not rely upon evaporation for measurement, the need for airflow across the wetted wick or sock is eliminated. The sensing element needs only to be held in the sampled air. Typical measuring rate is 1098% RH, 32140F (060C). Figure 4-16 illustrates a typical electronic hygrometer commonly used in HVAC systems.

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Figure 4-16 Typical Electronic Hygrometer

The thermohygrometer can be used to determine the psychrometric properties of air in much the same way as the sling psychrometer. The reading can be plotted on a standard psychrometric chart from which all other psychrometric properties of the air can be determined. At RHs above 90%, the accuracy of the sensor is decreased because of swelling of the sensing element. 4.1.4.8 Color Strip Temperature Indicators

These simple devices employ a temperature sensitive, chemically treated spot on a strip that changes color at certain specified temperatures. There are no moving parts, and employment is usually specified by the manufacturer.

4.1.5 Electrical Measuring Instruments


Key Human Performance Point Care should be used when working around energized electrical equipment.

4.1.5.1

Voltammeter

The clamp-on voltammeter, with digital or analog readout, is used for taking field electrical measurements. This voltammeter often has trigger operated, clamp-on transformer jaws that permit the taking of current readings without interrupting electrical service. Most meters have several scale ranges in amperes and volts. Two voltage test leads are furnished, which may be quick-connected into the voltammeter. 4-20

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When using the voltammeter, the proper range should first be selected. When in doubt, the user should begin with the highest range for both voltage and amperage scales. Readings may be taken at the motor leads or from the load terminals of the starter. To determine the amperages of single-phase motors, the clamp should be placed around one wire after the motor has been started. When involved with three-phase current, readings should be taken on each of the three wires and averaged. If the average voltage delivered to the motor varies by more than a few volts from the nameplate rating of the motor, several things can occur. A rise in voltage may damage the motor and cause a drop in the amperage reading. A drop in the voltage will cause a rise in the amperage and may cause the overload protectors on the starter to trip. In either case, it is advisable to document and report high- or low-voltage situations. To measure voltage with portable test instruments, the meter should be set to the most suitable range and the test lead probes connected firmly against the terminals or other surfaces of the line under test.

4.1.6 Hydronic Flow Measuring Devices


4.1.6.1 Venturi Tube and Orifice Plate

The venturi tube or orifice plate is a specific, fixed area reduction in the path of fluid flow, installed to produce a flow restriction and a pressure drop. The pressure differential (the upstream pressure minus the downstream pressure) is related to the velocity of the fluid. The pressure differential also is equated to the flow in gallons per minute (gpm) (cubic meters per second); however, the pressure drop is not equal to the velocity pressure drop. By accurate measurement of the pressure drop with a manometer at flow rates from zero fluid velocity to a maximum fluid velocity, established by a maximum practical pressure drop, a calibrated flow range may be established. The flow range may then be plotted on a graph that reads pressure drop versus flow rate, or the manometer scale may be graduated directly in the flow rate values. The venturi tube, because of the streamlining effect of both the entrance and the recovery cone, produces a lower pressure loss for the same flow rate. Although the full venturi tube can be extremely accurate with no appreciable system pressure loss, it must then be extremely long. Unless such accuracy is required, a modified version with a shortened entrance and recovery cones may be employed. The modified tube generally provides adequate accuracy with acceptable system pressure losses for environmental systems. 4.1.6.2 Annular Flow Indicator

The annular flow indicator is a flow sensing and indicating system that is an adaptation of the principle of the pitot tube. The upstream sensing tube has a number of holes that face the flow and so are subjected to the total pressure (velocity pressure plus static pressure). The holes are spaced to be representative of equal annular areas of the pipe, in the manner of selecting pitot tube traverse points. An equalizing tube arrangement within the upstream tube averages the pressures sensed at the various holes, and this pressure is transmitted to a pressure gauge. The downstream tube is similar to a reversed impact tube and senses a pressure equal to the static pressure with minimum velocity pressure; this pressure is also transmitted to a gauge. The difference between the two pressures will indicate flow in gallons per minute. A differential pressure gauge is used to directly read the pressure differential.

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4.1.6.3

Calibrated Balancing Valves

Calibrated balancing valves perform dual duty as flow measuring devices and as balancing valves. They are similar to ordinary balancing valves; however, the manufacturer has 1) provided pressure taps into the inlet and outlet and 2) calibrated the device by setting up known flow quantities while measuring the resistance that results from the different valve positions. These positions usually are graduated on the valve body (as a dial), and the handle has a pointer to indicate the reading. The manufacturer typically provides a chart or graph that illustrates the percentage open to the valve (the dial settings), the pressure drop, and the resulting flow. 4.1.6.4 Ultrasonic Flow Meters

Ultrasonic flow meters are nonintrusive devices that measure fluid flow using ultrasonic sound waves transmitted across the direction of flow within the pipe. When faced with a system flow balance or when questions of adequate flow arise, these instruments may be significant when there are no system-installed flow orifices, which is normally the case. These ultrasonic flow measuring devices have been found to be as labor-saving at balancing a hydronic system as an air data multimeter is in balancing a ventilation system. However, because there is an element of uncertainty regarding the application and the resulting accuracy of these devices, the user should consider referring to the guidance found in EPRI TR-109634, Flow Meter Guideline [5]. 4.1.6.5 V-Cone Flow Meters

The v-cone flow meter is a differential pressure flow measurement device, somewhat similar to the venturi tube or orifice plate. A cone is positioned in the center of the pipe to increase the velocity of the flowing fluid and create a differential flow rate. Two taps are provided to allow sensing the high and low pressures. Compared to other techniques, this device generally provides accurate results with shorter lengths of straight pipe upstream and downstream of the measuring element. 4.1.6.6 Coriolis Flow Meter

The principle of measurement for the Coriolis mass flow meter is based on the concept of an element of fluid traveling at constant velocity in a pipe. This element of fluid exhibits zero acceleration because the velocity is constant. If the pipe were rotated at the same time that the element of fluid passes through, a Coriolis acceleration component would be produced on the fluid. The Coriolis acceleration component produces a force on the pipe that is proportional to the mass flow rate and, as such, is the measured value in this type of flow meter. The Coriolis force is induced by sinusoidally vibrating the tube in which the fluid is flowing about an axis formed between the inlet and the outlet sides of the tube, at the natural frequency of the device. On the inlet side of the tube, the fluid flows away from the axis of rotation while on the outlet side, the flow is toward the axis of rotation. At any time, each half of the tube has a Coriolis acceleration force that is equal but opposite in direction.

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4.1.6.7

Vortex Shedding Flow Meter

The principle of measurement for a vortex flow meter is based on a phenomenon first explained by von Krmn in 1912. This phenomenon can be produced when a bluff body is immersed in a steady stream of fluid. As the flow approaches the bluff body, the flow is split into two streams. The instability of the shear layer as a result of this splitting of the flow causes the fluid to roll up into a well-defined vortex. After formation, the vortex sheds, and a second vortex begins to form on the opposite side of the bluff body. Under steady flow, the time required for the formation of the first and second vortexes is the same, and the formation time is proportional to the velocity of the fluid stream. 4.1.6.8 Location of Flow Devices

Flow measuring devices, including the orifice, venturi, and other types described in this section, give accurate and reliable readings only when fluid flow in the line is uniform and free of turbulence. Because pipe fittings, such as elbows and valves, create turbulence and nonuniformity of flow, flow measuring elements must be installed far enough away from elbows, valves, and other sources of flow disturbance to permit both turbulence to subside and flow to regain uniformity. Key Technical Point Flow measuring elements should be installed far enough from elbows, valves, and other sources of flow disturbances. This rule applies particularly to conditions upstream of the measuring element and, to a lesser extent, to conditions downstream. The manufacturers of flow measuring devices usually specify the lengths of straight pipe required upstream and downstream of the measuring element. Lengths are specified in numbers of pipe diameters, so that the actual required lengths depend on the size of the pipe. Requirements vary with the type of element and the types of fittings at the ends of the straight pipe runs, ranging from about 5 to 25 pipe diameters upstream and 2 to 5 pipe diameters downstream.

4.2

Applications for TAB Instrumentation

4.2.1 Airflow Measuring Instruments


Table 4-1 lists the commonly employed airflow measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations. Section B.8 describes different types of permanently installed airflow measuring devices.

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EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Table 4-1 Airflow Measuring Instruments Instrument U-tube manometer Recommended Uses Measurement of pressure of air and gas above 1.0 w.g. (250 Pa) and measuring low manifold gas pressures. Measurement of pressure of air and gas above 0.02 inch w.g. (50 Pa). Normally used with a pitot tube or a static probe for the determination of static, total, and velocity pressures in duct systems. Micromanometer (electronic) Measurement of very low pressures or velocities. Used for the calibration of other instrumentation. Pitot tube Used with a manometer for the determination of total, static, and velocity pressures. Used with static probes for the determination of static pressure or static pressure differential. Measurement of velocities at air terminals, air inlets, and filters or coil banks. Measurement of velocities at air terminals and air inlets. Measurement of low velocities such as room air currents and airflow at hoods, troffers, and other low-velocity applications. Direct measurement (in cubic feet per minute [cubic meters per second]) of air distribution devices. Limitations The manometer should be clean and used with the correct fluid. It should not be used for readings under 1 inch (2.5 cm) of differential pressure. Field calibration and leveling are required before each use. For extremely low pressures, a micromanometer or some other sensitive instrument should be used to ensure maximum accuracy.

Vertical inclined manometer

Because some instruments use a timeweighted average for each reading, it is difficult to measure pressure with pulsations.

Its accuracy depends on the uniformity of flow and completeness of duct traverse. The pitot tube and tubing must be dry, clean, and free of leaks and sharp bends or obstructions. Readings should be made in midrange of scale, zeroed and held in the same position, and checked against a known pressure source with each use. The total inlet area of the rotating vane must be in measured airflow. Correction factors may apply. Instruments should not be used in extreme temperatures or contaminated conditions. Care should be taken to endure the proper use of the instrument probe. Probes are subject to fouling by dust and corrosive air. Should not be used in a flammable or explosive atmosphere. Temperature corrections may apply. Flow measuring hoods should not be used where the velocities of the terminal devices are excessive. Flow measuring hoods redirect the normal pattern of air diffusion that creates a slight, artificially imposed pressure drop in the duct branch at the terminal device. Some manufacturers make provisions to correct for this pressure drop. The capture hood used should provide a uniform velocity profile at the sensing grid or device.

Pressure gauge (Magnehelic )

Anemometer rotating vane (mechanical and electronic) Anemometer deflecting vane Anemometer thermal

Flow measuring hood

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4.2.2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments


Table 4-2 lists the commonly employed hydronic measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations.
Table 4-2 Hydronic Measuring Instruments Instrument Pressure test gauge (calibrated) Recommended Uses Static pressure measurements of system equipment and/or piping. Limitations Pressure gauges should be selected so that the pressures to be measured fall in the middle two-thirds of the scale. The gauge should not be exposed to a pressure greater or less than the dial range. Pressures should be applied slowly in order to prevent severe strain and possible loss of accuracy of the gauge. Same limitations as the pressure test gauge. Must be used in accordance with the recommendations of the equipment manufacturer.

Pressure gauge (differential) Flow measuring devices

Differential pressure measurements of system equipment and/or piping. Used to obtain highly accurate measurement of volume flow rates in fluid systems.

4.2.3 Rotation Measuring Instruments


Table 4-3 lists the commonly employed rotation measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations.
Table 4-3 Rotation Measuring Instruments Instrument Revolution counter Chronometric tachometer Contact tachometer Electronic tachometer (stroboscope) Optical tachometer Dual-function tachometer Recommended Uses Contact measurement of rotating equipment speed. Contact measurement of rotating equipment speed. Contact measurement of rotating and linear speeds. Noncontact measurement of rotating equipment. Noncontact measurement of rotating equipment. Contact or noncontact measurement of rotating equipment and linear speeds. Limitations Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft. Must be used in conjunction with accurate timing devices. Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft. Requires direct contact of the rotating shaft or device to be measured. Readings must be started at the lower end of the scale in order to avoid reading multiples (or harmonics) of the actual rpm. Must be held close to the object and at the correct angle. The rotating device must use reflective markings. Same limitations as the optical tachometer.

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4.2.4 Temperature Measuring Instruments


Table 4-4 lists the commonly employed temperature measuring instruments along with their recommended uses and limitations.
Table 4-4 Temperature Measuring Instruments Instrument Glass tube thermometers Recommended Uses Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids. Limitations Ambient conditions may impact the measurement of fluid temperature. Glass tube thermometers require immersion in fluid or adequate test wells. Some applications prohibit the use within the work area of instruments containing mercury. Ambient conditions may impact the measurement of fluid temperature. The stem or bulb must be immersed a sufficient distance in the fluid in order to record an accurate measurement. The time lag of measurement is relatively long. Surface temperatures of pipes and ducts may not equal the fluid temperature within because of the thermal conductivity of the material. Use this instrument within the recommended range. Use thermal probes in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer. Does not work effectively in dusty or smoky atmospheres. The size of the measuring spot is a function of the thermometers distance from the object. Accurate wet bulb measurements require an air velocity between 1000 and 1500 ft/min (5 and 7.5 m/s) across the wick, or a correction must be made. Dirty or dry wicks will result in significant error. The accuracy of measurement above 90% RH is decreased as a result of swelling of the sensing element.

Dial thermometers

Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids.

Thermocouple thermometers

Measurement of surface temperatures of pipes and ducts.

Electronic thermometers

Measurement of temperatures of air and fluids. Measurement of surface temperatures of pipes and ducts.

Portable noncontact thermometers

Identification of hot spots on equipment, general area temperature measurement, and checking the temperature of uninsulated ducts. Measurement of dry and wet bulb air temperatures.

Psychrometers

Electronic thermohygrometer

Measurement of dry and wet bulb air temperatures and direct reading of RH.

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4.3

Recommended Accuracy of TAB Instrumentation

Table 4-5 provides recommended ranges, accuracy, and calibration schedules for different types of TAB instrumentation and is presented for illustrative purposes only. Licensees typically have plant- or site-specific measuring and test equipment calibration and accuracy requirements, which should always be used in lieu of the values listed in Table 4-5.
Table 4-5 Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments Function Range Minimum Accuracy Typical Calibration Schedule 24 months 12 months

Rotation measuring instrument Temperature measuring (immersion) instrument

0 to 5000 rpm -40 to -120F (-40 to -84C) 0 to 220F (-18 to 104C)

2% Within 1/2 of scale division

Within 1/2 of scale division

12 months

Temperature measuring (air) instrument

-40 to -120F (-40 to -84C) 0 to 220F (-18 to 104C)

Within 1/2 of scale division

12 months

Within 1/2 of scale division

12 months

Electrical measuring instrument

0 to 6000 Vac 0 to 100 amperes 0 to 30 Vdc

3% of full scale 3% of full scale 3% of full scale 0.01 inches w.g. (2.5 Pa) 0.02 inches w.g. (5 Pa)

12 months 12 months 12 months 12 months

Air pressure measuring instrument

0 to 0.5 inch w.g. (0 to 125 Pa) 0 to 1 inch w.g. (0 to 250 Pa) 0 to 5 inches w.g. (0 to 1250 Pa) 0 to 18 inches w.g. (0 to 4500 Pa)

0.20 inches w.g. (50 Pa) 0.50 inches w.g. (125 Pa)

4-27

EPRI Licensed Material Instrumentation Table 4-5 (cont.) Air and Hydronic Measuring Instruments Function Range Minimum Accuracy Typical Calibration Schedule Not applicable

Pitot tube

18 inches (45 cm) or longer 36 inches (90 cm)

Not applicable

Air velocity measuring instrument

Minimum range of 100 to 3000 ft/min (0.5 to 15 m/s)

10% when used in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations 2% RH range 5% when used in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations 1% of full scale

12 months

Humidity measuring instrument Air volume measuring instrument (direct reading flow hood)

0 to 90% RH Minimum range 50 to 2500 CFM (typical)

12 months 12 months

Temperature measuring instrument (contact)

Minimum range of 0 to 240F (-18 to 115C) 0 to 30 psi (0 to 207 kPa) 0 to 60 psi (0 to 414 kPa) 0 to 200 psi (0 to 1.38 MPa) 30 in. Hg to 30 psi (101 to 207 kPa) 30 in. Hg to 60 psi (101 to 414 kPa)

12 months

Hydronic pressure measuring instrument

1% of full scale 1% of full scale 1% of full scale 1% of full scale 1% of full scale

12 months

Hydronic differential pressure instrument

Minimum range of 0 to 36 in. Hg (0 to 121 kPa)

1% of full scale

12 months

4-28

EPRI Licensed Material

5
AIR AND WATER FLOW MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES
5.1 Airside Flow Measurement

Airside flow measurement is normally accomplished in an air distribution system by first establishing the fan performance per AMCA-203 [6]. Ducted airflow measurements are typically determined using the pitot traverse measurement technique. The pitot traverse measures flowing air velocity pressures and static pressures across a traverse plane in a duct location where airflow is as close to uniform flow as possible. The pitot traverse readings are tabulated, and air density is determined. The pitot traverse data are used to determine the average velocity of the airflow. The density is determined in order to convert the airflow to standard volumetric airflow in SCFM or ACFM. For coil face measurement techniques, refer to American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Flow Measurements at Coil Faces with Vane Anemometers: Statistical Correlation and Recommended Field Measurement Procedure [7]. In cases where traverse readings cannot be obtained, anemometers can be used to measure the air velocity at terminal locations; alternate flow measurement techniques (such as the tracer gas technique described in Appendix F) can also be used.

5.1.1 Pitot Tube Traverse Methods


The volumetric flow rate through a cross-sectional area of ducting can be determined by measuring the local velocities at enough points to establish the average velocity at the traverse location. The flow rate is calculated by taking the average of all velocity readings at predetermined traverse points (depending on the method) and multiplying this average by the cross-sectional area of the duct. As a rule, based on the equal area rectangular duct method, the traverse should consist of a minimum of 16 readingsbut need not be more than 64 readings. The minimum and maximum number of readings is different for the three methods (that is, the equal area, log linear, and log Tchebycheff methods) described in Sections 5.1.1.1 through 5.1.1.3. The location of the traverse in a duct is very important. Ideally, airflow should be fully developed and uniform at the traverse location; the only exception is lower velocities nearer to the duct edge. The pitot tube must be held within 10 of the airstream direction to ensure the accuracy of this method. For the most accurate results, the traverse location should be at least

5-1

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

eight duct diameters (the larger of the two values for rectangular ducts when the two sides are not equal) downstream of any disturbances and a minimum of two diameters upstream of any disturbances. When this is not possible (in many existing duct systems), the accuracy of the traverse location should be evaluated when obtaining flow rates. Currently, three methods can be used to determine the layout of a traverse: equal area, log linear, and log Tchebycheff (the original spelling is Chebyshev). Sections 5.1.1.1 through 5.1.1.3 provide illustrations of these methods, which are also used to determine the location of the test ports to be installed in the ducting. All three methods will return almost identical results for round ducts. However, substantial differences between the log linear and the log Tchebycheff methods can exist when compared to the equal area method results for rectangular ducts. This difference results in part from the equal area method not taking into account the lower velocities near the duct wall. In most cases, a positive error (that is, overestimated flow rate compared to the other two methods) nearly always results when the equal area method is used. Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated because overestimation is nonconservative when flow is near required minimum values. The evaluation of flow measurement method, adjacent flow disturbances, the instrument type, the variation among test personnel, and nonstandard air conditions are all factors that should be considered. Key Technical Point Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated if they are near minimum acceptance values. 5.1.1.1 Equal Area Method

Rectangular Ducts The most common method used in the United States is the equal area method. For a rectangular duct, this method divides the traverse plane into equal areas with the centers of each area no greater than 6 inches (15.2 cm) from the center of an adjacent area. The exception to this is in very large ducts where the total number of velocity readings would exceed 64. Under these circumstances, the distance between points may be greater than 6 inches (15.2 cm). The equal area method does not take into account the reduced airflow at the perimeter of the duct as do the other two methods. Each velocity reading is given equal weight in the averaging process. For rectangular ducts, to determine the number of points that the pitot tube is to be positioned inside the duct or where the test ports are to be located on the duct, take either the L (x) axis or the M (y) axis, in inches, and divide by six. If this number has a remainder, round up to the next higher integer with no remainder. This is the minimum number of points to be used on this axis.

5-2

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Example: Assume a duct that has a dimension of 19 inches in the M ( y) axis and 30 inches in the L ( x) axis. To calculate the minimum numbers of points at which the pitot tube is to be positioned inside the duct when traversing the 19-inch (M) axis, perform the following: N = M( y)/6 N = 19/6 = 3.17 (This is rounded up to 4.)

This means the minimum number of points at which the pitot tube will be positioned is four. Using a mathematical method: Pitot Position 1 (PP1): (M/N)/2 = (19/4)/2 = 2.375 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 2: M/N + PP1 = 19/4 + 2.375 = 7.125 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 3: M/N + PP2 = 19/4 + 7.125 = 11.875 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 4: M/N + PP3 = 19/4 + 11.875 = 16.625 from the edge of the duct.
Table 5-1 Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Number of Points Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct dimension that the pitot tube is to traverse across by the numbers below, based on the number of points per test port. This distance is how far the pitot tube will be from the edge of the duct for each point.) 1 4 5 6 7 8 0.125 0.100 0.083 0.071 0.063 2 0.375 0.300 0.250 0.214 0.188 3 0.625 0.500 0.417 0.357 0.313 4 0.875 0.700 0.583 0.500 0.438 0.900 0.750 0.643 0.563 0.917 0.786 0.688 0.929 0.813 0.938 5 6 7 8

The position points can also be determined using Table 5-1: Pitot Position 1: 19 x 0.125 = 2.375 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 19 x 0.375 = 7.125 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 19 x 0.625 = 11.875 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 19 x 0.875 = 16.625 from the edge of the duct. 5-3

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

If we desire to traverse the 30 (L) side, to calculate the position of the test ports that will need to be installed on the duct, perform the following: Total number of test ports to be installed: N = 30/6 = 5.0 (This is the minimum number of test ports that will need to be installed.) Using a mathematical method: Test Port Position 1: (L/N)/2 = (30/5)/2 = 3.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 2: (L/N) + TTP1 = (30/5) + 3.0 = 9.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 3: (L/N) + TTP2 = (30/5) + 9.0 = 15.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 4: (L/N) + TTP3 = (30/5) + 15.0 = 21.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 5: (L/N) + TTP4 = (30/5) + 21.0 = 27.0 from the edge of the duct. Calculate the position of each test port with regard to the edge of the duct using Table 5-1: Test Port Position 1: 30 x 0.10 = 3.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 2: 30 x 0.30 = 9.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 3: 30 x 0.50 = 15.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 4: 30 x 0.70 = 21.0 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 5: 30 x 0.90 = 27.0 from the edge of the duct. Round Ducts The equal area method can also be applied for round ducts. It divides the cross-sectional area of the traverse plane into equal area doughnuts. Typically, two traverse planes are established 90 apart. The distance between each velocity measurement point increases as the traverse progresses from the edge of the duct (lower velocity) toward the center of the duct (higher velocity). Conversely, the distance between points decreases as the traverse passes the center of the duct and progresses to the opposite edge. No velocity readings are taken in the center of the duct. The minimum number of readings can be 12 for very small ducts or up to 40 for very large ducts. Standard practice suggests ducts that are 8 inches (20.3 cm) in diameter or smaller should use 12 points (6 in each plane); ducts between 8 and 12 inches (20.3 and 30.4 cm) should use 16 points (8 in each plane); and ducts larger than 12 inches (30.4 cm) should use a total of 20 or 40 points (10 or 20 in each plane). For ducts smaller than 12 (30.4 cm) inches, a micro pitot tube should be used. In all cases, each velocity reading is given equal weight in the averaging process.

5-4

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Table 5-2 Equal Area Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter (Traverse) 1 16 18 110 120 0.043 0.032 0.026 1 and 11 0.013 0.612 2 0.146 0.105 0.082 2 and 12 0.039 0.694 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.296 0.194 0.146 3 and 13 0.067 0.750 4 0.704 0.323 0.226 4 and 14 0.097 0.796 5 0.854 0.677 0.342 5 and 15 0.129 0.835 6 0.957 0.806 0.658 6 and 16 0.165 0.871 0.895 0.774 7 and 17 0.204 0.903 0.968 0.854 8 and 18 0.250 0.933 0.918 9 and 19 0.306 0.961 0.974 10 and 20 0.388 0.987 7 8 9 10

110 1120

Example: Assume a round duct that has a diameter of 18 inches. Using Table 5-2, calculate the pitot tube position in each plane: Pitot Position 1: 18 x 0.026 = 0.47 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 18 x 0.082 = 1.48 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 18 x 0.146 = 2.63 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 18 x 0.226 = 4.07 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 5: 18 x 0.342 = 6.16 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 6: 18 x 0.658 = 11.84 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 7: 18 x 0.774 = 13.93 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 8: 18 x 0.854 = 15.37 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 9: 18 x 0.918 = 16.52 from the edge of the duct. Pitot Position 10: 18 x 0.974 = 17.53 from the edge of the duct.

5-5

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

5.1.1.2

Log Linear Method

The second method is known as the log linear method and is based on the Nikuradse formula for fully developed flow. This is not a common method and is more complex than the other two methods. Each velocity measurement point is based on a logarithmic distribution in one plane. The pitot tube position for each test port location uses a logarithmic value. This method is further complicated by the weighting values applied to each velocity reading for a rectangular duct, as opposed to a round duct, where all velocity readings are weighted equally. For a rectangular duct, each velocity reading is multiplied by a weighting value (for example, 2/96, 3/96, 5/96, or 6/96); all of these weighted values are then added to arrive at the average air velocity. This method differs from the equal area for a round duct in that it uses three test port penetrations that are 60 apart, as opposed to the two duct penetrations that are 90 apart. Tables 5-3 and 5-4 illustrate the log linear method. The minimum number of points for a rectangular duct is 26 and can be anywhere from 18 to 30 for a round duct. Twenty-six total points are shown.
Table 5-3 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Point Number 1 Distance from the Center of the Duct ( x or L) or (y or M) 2 0.408 0.408 2/96 3 0.408 0.250 5/96 4 0.408 0 6/96 5 0.132 0.466 3/96 6 0.132 0.250 3/96 7 0.132 0.132 6/96

x or L y or M
F

0.408 0.466 2/96

Three diameters are shown, with each diameter having six points.
Table 5-4 Log Linear Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter 1 6 8 10 0.032 0.021 0.019 2 0.135 0.117 0.077 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.321 0.184 0.153 4 0.679 0.345 0.217 5 0.865 0.655 0.362 6 0.968 0.816 0.638 0.883 0.783 0.979 0.847 0.923 0.981 7 8 9 10

5-6

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Example: Assume a rectangular duct that has a dimension of 17 x 17 and that there is a transition to a round duct with a diameter of 18. For the rectangular duct, the test ports are to be added to the bottom of the duct. According to Table 5-3, this would be along the L (x) axis. Test ports need to be installed at the 1 and 5 positions relative to the duct centerline. Test Port Position 1(1): 17 x 0.408 = 6.94 away from the center of the duct. Because it is not always practical to mark the duct using the center as the reference point, the edge of the duct should be used. Because the center of the duct is 8.5 from the edge, subtracting 6.94 from 8.5 will give the location relative to the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 1(1): 8.5 6.94 = 1.56 from the edge of the duct. Perform the same operation to determine the position of the second test port (number 5 on Table 5-3): Test Port Position 2(5): 17 x 0.132 = 2.24 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 2(5): 8.5 2.24 = 6.26 from the edge of the duct. Once the duct center has been reached, the 8.5 will now be additive and not subtractive. Test Port Position 3(5): 17 x 0.132 = 2.24 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3(5): 8.5 + 2.24 = 10.74 from the edge of the duct. Test Port Position 4(1): 17 x 0.408 = 6.94 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 4(1): 8.5 + 6.94 = 15.44 from the edge of the duct. After the test port position has been determined, the ports would be drilled out and test port covers installed. The next step will be to determine the pitot tube position at each duct test port penetration. According to Table 5-3, it is determined that the pitot tube will traverse along the M (y) axis. Test ports one and four will have the same pitot tube spacing but differ from test ports two and three, which are also the same. Likewise, test ports one and two and test ports three and four have several pitot positions that are the same: position one and five and positions three and six. To calculate pitot positions 1, 2, 3, and 4 below the center of the duct, for test ports 1 and 4 perform the following: Pitot Position 1: 17 x 0.466 = 7.92 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 1: 8.5 7.92 = 0.58 from the edge of the duct. 5-7

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Pitot Position 2: 17 x 0.408 = 6.94 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 8.5 6.94 = 1.56 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 3: 17 x 0.250 = 4.25 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 8.5 4.25 = 4.25 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 4: 17 x 0.0 = 0.0 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 8.5 0.0 = 8.5 from the edge of the duct. To calculate the pitot positions that are above the centerline of the duct, perform the following: Pitot Position 1: 17 x 0.466 = 7.92 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 1: 8.5 + 7.92 = 16.42 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 2: 17 x 0.408 = 6.94 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 2: 8.5 + 6.94 = 15.44 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 3: 17 x 0.25 = 4.25 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 3: 8.5 + 4.25 = 12.75 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 4: 17 x 0.0 = 0.0 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 4: 8.5 0.0 = 8.5 from the edge of the duct. To calculate the pitot tube positions below the duct centerline for points 5, 6, and 7, at test ports 2 and 3, perform the following: Pitot Position 5: 17 x 0.466 = 7.92 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 5: 8.5 7.92 = 0.58 from the edge of the duct.

5-8

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Pitot Position 6: 17 x 0.25 = 4.25 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 6: 8.5 4.25 = 4.25 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 7: 17 x 0.132 = 2.24 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 7: 8.5 2.24 = 6.26 from the edge of the duct.

The calculation for those points above the centerline of the duct is as follows:

Pitot Position 5: 17 x 0.466 = 7.92 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 5: 8.5 + 7.92 = 16.42 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 6: 17 x 0.25 = 4.25 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 6: 8.5 + 4.25 = 12.75 from the edge of the duct.

Pitot Position 7: 17 x 0.132 = 2.24 from the center of the duct. Pitot Position 7: 8.5 + 2.24 = 10.74 from the edge of the duct.

The round duct is calculated in the same was as the equal area method; however, the values from Table 5-4 are used. To calculate the test port location, first calculate the circumference of the duct using the following formula:

C=2r where: C= = r= circumference (inches) 3.14159 radius (inches) 5-9

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Divide the circumference by 360 (because there are 360 degrees in a circle), and multiply this number by 60 (because the test ports are 60 degrees apart). This will give the distance between the test ports. 2 x x 9 = 56.55

56.55/360 = 0.1571 x 60 = 9.42

(This is how far apart the test ports will be from one another.)

5.1.1.3

Tchebycheff Method

The third method is known as the log Tchebycheff method. It is similar to the log linear method for both the rectangular and round ducts; however, it is less complicated. This method uses a logarithmic distribution of velocities near the wall of the duct and polynomial distribution elsewhere. Tables 5-5 and 5-6 describe this method. All velocities are weighted equally. Five rows are shown, with each row having six points.
Table 5-5 Tchebycheff Method for a Rectangular Duct Rows or Points per Row 5 6 7 0 0.063 0 Distance from Centerline (x or L) or (y or M) 0.212 0.265 0.134 0.426 0.439 0.297 0.447

Example: Using Table 5-5, assume a duct that has a dimension of 30 in the L ( x) axis and 19 in the M ( y) axis. To determine the location of the test ports that are to be installed on the bottom of the duct, perform the following: Test Port Position 1: 30 x 0.439 = 13.17 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 1: 15 13.17 = 1.83 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 2: 30 x 0.265 = 7.95 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 2: 15 7.95 = 7.05 from the edge of the duct.

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EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Test Port Position 3: 30 x 0.063 = 1.89 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3: 15 1.89 = 13.11 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 4: 30 x 0.063 = 1.89 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 4: 15 + 1.89 = 16.89 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 5: 30 x 0.265 = 7.95 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 5: 15 + 7.95 = 22.95 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 6: 30 x 0.439 = 13.17 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 6: 15 + 13.17 = 28.17 from the edge of the duct.

To calculate the pitot tube position for each test port, use the 5-point section from Table 5-5 as follows: Test Port Position 1: 19 x 0.426 = 8.09 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 1: 9.5 8.09 = 1.41 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 2: 19 x 0.212 = 4.03 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 2: 9.5 4.03 = 5.47 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 3: 19 x 0.0 = 0.0 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 3: 9.5 0.0 = 9.50 from the edge of the duct.

Test Port Position 4: 19 x 0.212 = 4.03 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 4: 9.5 + 4.03 = 13.53 from the edge of the duct.

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EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Test Port Position 5: 19 x 0.426 = 8.09 from the center of the duct. Test Port Position 5: 9.5 + 8.09 = 17.59 from the edge of the duct. Two diameters are shown, with each radius having four points.
Table 5-6 Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct Points per Diameter 1 6 8 10 0.032 0.024 0.019 2 0.138 0.100 0.076 Distance from the Edge of the Duct (Multiply the duct diameter by the number below) 3 0.312 0.194 0.155 4 0.688 0.334 0.205 5 0.862 0.666 0.357 6 0.968 0.806 0.643 0.900 0.795 0.976 0.845 0.924 0.981 7 8 9 10

The round duct is calculated in the same way as the equal area method; however, the values from Table 5-6 are used. 5.1.1.4 Documentation of Traverse Data

Figures C-2 and C-3 illustrate the documenting of traverse data for round and rectangular ducts, respectively. 5.1.1.5 Airflow Traverse Qualification

To determine if a traverse is located at a qualified position, apply the following from Figure 5-1. For any given traverse, round or rectangular, first find either the highest velocity in feet per minute or velocity pressure in inches of water. Divide this number by 10. Of all the readings combined, 75% or greater must be equal to or greater than this number. If the traverse does not meet these criteria, the traverse must not be used and will need to be relocated. Relocation of the traverse may require that more than one traverse will need to be located at various branch lines servicing the system. As of this writing, this qualification standard is currently under review. The new proposal is as follows: A total of 8090% of the velocity measurements is greater than 10% of the maximum velocity for any given traverse. Airflow should be at right angles to the traverse plane.

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EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Figure 5-1 Traverse Qualification (Courtesy of AMCA 203)

5.1.1.6

Examples

The following examples are for use in calculating the airflow from a traverse and determining if it is in a qualified location: The equal area method for a rectangular duct The log Tchebycheff method for a round duct The log linear method for a rectangular duct Traverse qualification method

Example: Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Given a 17 x 17 duct with a design flow rate of 4500 SCFM and a velocity profile shown in Table 5-7, calculate the airflow using the equal area method.
Table 5-7 Example of the Equal Area Method for a Rectangular Duct Position 1 2 3 4 Subtotal * 1 inch = 2.5 cm ft/min ft/min ft/min ft/min ft/min 2-1/8* 2078 2184 2259 2326 8847 6-3/8 2164 2091 2193 2371 8819 10-5/8 2235 2162 2199 2423 9019 14-7/8 2107 2125 2341 2432 9005

5-13

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Total ft/min = 8847 + 8819 + 9019 + 9005 = 35,690 ft/min Average ft/min = 35,690/16 = 2231 ft/min
2 2 Duct area, in square feet = 17 x 17/144 = 289 in /144 = 2.01 ft

Airflow in ft3/min = 2.01 ft2 x 2231 ft/min = 4484 ft3/min Percent of design = 4484/4500 x 100 = 99.6% of design

5-14

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Example: Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct For round duct of 18 that has a design of 4500 ft 3/min and the velocity profile shown in Table 5-8, calculate the airflow using the log Tchebycheff method.
Table 5-8 Example of the Log Tchebycheff Method for a Round Duct Position Vertical Horizontal * 1 inch = 2.5 cm 0.34* 2,113 2,549 1.37 2,123 2,605 2.79 2,192 2,588 3.69 2,178 2,492 6.43 2,192 2,349 11.57 2,626 2,525 14.31 2,738 2,818 15.21 2,749 2,808 16.63 2,522 2,616 17.66 2,231 2,197 Subtotal 23,664 25,547

Total ft/min = 23664 + 25547 = 49,211 ft/min Average ft/min = 49,211/20 = 2461 ft/min
2 2 2 2 Duct area in square feet = r /144 = 3.14159 x 9 /144 = 254.47 in /144 = 1.77 ft

Airflow in ft3/min = 1.77 ft2 x 2461 ft/min = 4356 ft3/min Percent of design = 4356/4500 x 100 = 96.8% of design Example: Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Given a 17 x 17 duct with a design flow rate of 4500 SCFM and a velocity profile shown in Table 5-9, calculate the airflow using the log linear method.

5-15

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques Table 5-9 Log Linear Method for a Rectangular Duct Position 0.58* (1 and 5) 1848 1867 2332 1716 1847 1.56 (2) 1818 4.25 (3 and 6) 2059 2088 2303 2410 2206 2224 2472 6.26 (7) 8.50 (4) 2161 2172 2265 10.74 (7) 12.75 (3 and 6) 2048 2197 2290 2423 2373 15.44 (2) 1907 16.42 (1 and 5) 1826 1930 2111 2223

1.56 (1) 6.26 (5) 10.74 (5) 15.44 (1) * 1 inch = 2.5 cm

Table 5-10 shows the weighting values to be applied to each velocity.


Table 5-10 Weighting Values to Be Applied to Each Velocity Position 0.58* (1 and 5) 2/96 3/96 3/96 2/96 2/96 1.56 (2) 2/96 4.25 (3 and 6) 5/96 3/96 3/96 5/96 6/96 6/96 6/96 6.26 (7) 8.50 (4) 6/96 6/96 6/96 10.74 (7) 12.75 (3 and 6) 5/96 3/96 3/96 5/96 2/96 15.44 (2) 2/96 16.42 (1 and 5) 2/96 3/96 3/96 2/96

1.56 (1) 6.26 (5) 10.74 (5) 15.44 (1) * 1 inch = 2.5 cm

5-16

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

Table 5-11 shows the velocities after the weighting values are applied.
Table 5-11 Velocities after the Weighting Values Are Applied Position 0.58* (1 and 5) 38.5 58.3 72.9 35.7 205.4 38.5 76.4 1.56 (2) 37.9 4.25 (3 and 6) 107.2 65.3 72.0 125.5 370.0 276.9 137.9 139.0 154.5 289.6 277.4 6.26 (7) 8.50 (4) 135.1 135.8 141.6 10.74 (7) 12.75 (3 and 6) 106.7 68.7 71.6 126.2 373.2 49.4 89.1 15.44 (2) 39.7 16.42 (1 and 5) 38.0 60.3 66.0 46.3 210.6

1.56 (1) 6.26 (5) 10.74 (5) 15.44 (1) Subtotal * 1 inch = 2.5 cm

ft/min = 205.4 + 76.4 + 370.0 + 276.9 + 289.6 + 277.4 + 373.2 + 89.1 + 210.6 = 2168.6 ft/min Duct area in square feet = 17 x 17/144 = 289 in 2/144 = 2.01 ft2 Airflow in CFM = 2.01 ft 2 x 2168.6 FPM = 4359 ft 3/min Percent of design = 4359/4500 x 100 = 96.9% of design Example: Traverse Qualification Method Using the previous example, determine if the traverse location is qualified.

5-17

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

First, identify the velocity that is the highest and the total number of points that compose the traverse. The highest velocity is 2472 ft/min, located at the center of the duct at positions 8.5 inches and 15.44 inches, and the total number of traverse points is 26. The highest velocity value is then divided by 10. 2472/10 = 247.2 For any traverse, 75% of the total number of points must be larger than this calculated number. Therefore: 26 x 0.75 = 19.5 (At least 20 of the 26 velocity readings must be above the value of 247.2 ft/min.)

Because there are no readings less than 247 ft/min, this is a qualified traverse. If, however, there had been more than six velocity readings that were less then 247, this traverse would need to be relocated or other methods would need to be applied.

5.2

Water Side Flow Measurement

5.2.1 Background
The TAB process for water systems is described in Sections 3.4 and 3.5. In general, water side flow measurement normally consists of direct measurement of a pressure drop across an orifice or ultrasonic measurement techniques that directly measure water flow rate. Section 2 of EPRI TR-109634 [5] provides a detailed description of flow measurement principles along with information on the following: Continuity of flow equation Bernoullis equation of energy Reynolds number

Section 2.12 of EPRI TR-109634 [5] provides a table comparing the relative costs of employing various types of flow meters for measuring water flow. Sections 5.2.2 through 5.2.8 are excerpts from EPRI TR-109634 [5] that are provided as an overview of the various methods available to measure the flow of incompressible fluids. EPRI TR-109634 [5] should be consulted for additional information on mathematical equations used to calculate flow using each type of measuring device.

5-18

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

5.2.2 Differential Pressure Producers


5.2.2.1 Principle of Measurement

The principle of measurement is based on the introduction of a differential pressure device (such as orifice, nozzle, and venturi) into a flow stream for which a fluid is measured. The introduction of the differential pressure device creates a dynamic pressure difference between the upstream and downstream sides of the device. The square root of the differential pressure is proportional to the velocity of the fluid. Differential-pressure-producing flow meters determine an area-averaged throat velocity from the measured pressure differential.

5.2.3 Multiport Averaging Pitots


5.2.3.1 Principle of Measurement

The principle of measurement is based on a determination of the area-averaged velocity of the flow in a pipe through which fluid is running full. The multiport averaging pitot allows the measurement of differential pressure between the high upstream pressure (also called the impact or stagnation pressure) and the lower downstream pressure (also called the suction pressure because it is lower than the pipe static pressure). The multiport averaging pitot operates like a classical pitot tube, with the following exceptions: Instead of a static wall tap, an averaging pitot senses low pressure on the downstream side of the tube, increasing the net differential pressure measured by the flow element. The multiport averaging pitot has multiple ports (some types have multiple ports on both the upstream and downstream sides), which are located so that if weighted equally, the ports are representative of the average flow in the pipe. Certain types of multiport averaging pitot tubes have a noncircular shape in order to negate boundary layer separation problems associated with cylindrical-shaped averaging pitot tubes. This design tends to provide a consistent point of separation over a large range of Reynolds numbers.

5.2.4 Pitot Tube Traverse


5.2.4.1 Principle of Measurement

The principle of measurement for a pitot tube traverse is based on the integration of equal annular area point velocities over the flow area. As a result, this method provides the average flow through the pipe (if the pipe is full). The pitot tube traverse method is used extensively in the cooling tower industry to accurately determine the flow of water in the riser pipes of both natural and mechanical draft cooling towers. The pitot tube traverse is based on a minimum of two perpendicular traverses of the pipe diameter. This methodology is intended to accurately provide an average fluid velocity profile at the measurement plane. 5-19

EPRI Licensed Material Air and Water Flow Measurement Techniques

5.2.5 Ultrasonic Flow Meters


5.2.5.1 Principle of Measurement

Ultrasonic flow meters operate by transmitting an ultrasonic signal into a flow stream to determine the velocity of the fluid. The velocity is then converted to a volumetric flow measurement, using the flow area dimensions and flow profile coefficient. The following types of ultrasonic flow meters are used for measurement of flow in closed conduits: Transit-time Doppler Cross-correlation

Although all methods provide a viable means of measuring fluid flow, the transit-time and crosscorrelation methods are the most applicable for measuring fluid flow.

5.2.6 Magnetic Flow Meters


5.2.6.1 Principle of Measurement

The magnetic flow meter is based on Faradays law of electromagnetic induction. When a conductive fluid passes through an applied magnetic field, a voltage is generated at right angles to the axis of fluid flow and the applied magnetic field. The generated output voltage is a summation of individual voltages generated by differential volumes moving at discrete velocities across the plane of the pipe. In 1961, Shercliff demonstrated that the voltage output signal represents the average velocity for an asymmetric velocity profile. If the magnetic field is constant and the distance between the electrodes is fixed, the induced voltage is directly proportional to the average velocity of the fluid.

5.2.7 Turbine Flow Meters


5.2.7.1 Principle of Measurement

The principle of measurement for a turbine flow meter is based on a rotating element, which is positioned in the flow stream such that the rotational speed of the rotor is proportional to the fluid stream velocity and, therefore, the flow through the measurement plane. A turbine flow meter (the primary element) typically outputs a low-amplitude frequency signal, which is input into a signal conditioner (the secondary element). The signal conditioner converts the meter output to an analog signal proportional to the flow. Each meter has a characteristic K-factor, which relates output frequency to a volumetric unit (for example, pulses per gallon). These types of flow devices are generically categorized as linear flow meters.

5-20

EPRI Licensed Material

6
LESSONS LEARNED
6.1 How Abnormal Flow Alignment Affects Fan Performance

Situation: Within 12 hours of placing an air-handling unit (AHU) in an abnormal flow alignment, the fan experienced catastrophic failure. Subsequent review identified the abnormal flow path that had resulted in the operation of the fan at a point on its curve outside of its associated operating class limits. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: When setting up a fan, the operating class limits for that fan must not be exceeded. Operating a fan outside its associated limits may lead to catastrophic failure.

6.2

Estimating Filter Pressure Gradients for Clean and Dirty Conditions

Situation: The initial balancing of a nuclear air cleanup system was performed using a simulated filter differential pressure for clean and dirty conditions to protect the air cleanup components. A subsequent system flow check after installation of the permanent filters identified flows higher than expected. A review of filter pressure drop identified that the actual clean filter condition was less than the design values, which are based on the manufacturers nominal values. The associated fan was slowed down to achieve its design airflow. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: The manufacturers data for nominal pressure drop may be higher than the actual pressure drop and may result in airflow that is greater than design.

6-1

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

6.3

Typical Failure Mechanism for Duct Access Doors

Situation: During a control room isolation, it was identified that the main control room pressures were less than required. Subsequent system troubleshooting identified an access door, open in a common duct, which penetrated the pressure boundary. The access door had apparently opened from duct vibration and years of system startups and shutdowns. The access door and similar critical duct access doors were secured closed using screws. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Duct access doors should have a positive closing mechanism that is not subject to opening as a result of vibration and system starts and stops.

6.4

Typical Failure Mechanism for an Inlet Damper

Situation: During a system engineer walkdown, the normal main control room pressure was identified lower than expected. A subsequent walkdown of the equipment identified that the inlet damper to the operating AHU was not fully open. The damper was helped open, and the operating AHU was left in service until maintenance could be performed. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Periodic monitoring of building pressures can identify equipment problems prior to failure and avoid potentially detrimental system effects.

6.5

Typical Failure Mechanism for an Air-Handling Unit Fan

Situation: During a system engineer walkdown, the normal main control room pressure was identified lower than expected. A strobotach was used and identified an operating AHU fan speed that was less than the latest performance data. Although no sounds were audible, the belts were found to be loose and slipping, resulting in a fan flow rate of approximately 70% of design. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Slipping belts are not always audible, and a strobotach should be used to verify fan speed when fan flows are in question.

6-2

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

6.6

Pitot Tube Employment and Failure Mechanisms

Situation: During routine performance of standby gas treatment system (SBGT) testing, problems were encountered while verifying the train flow prior to performing the in-place filter leak test. Train flow data are obtained by performing 20-point pitot traverses in the two SBGT system exhaust ducts. These ducts are located in the base of the plant vent stack and are constructed of 30-inch (76-cm) steel pipe. The traverse is located in a vertical section of pipe approximately seven diameters downstream of any restriction. Flow for the north pipe was stable and reasonable; however, data taken for the south pipe yielded results that were inconsistent with expected values. The surveillance test was suspended and troubleshooting commenced. The flow test was re-performed with a different pair of technicians collecting the data, and similar results were obtained. The results of the flow data for the north and south pipes were significantly below the SBGT train design flow. Train design flow is 9000 ft3/min, and the results 3 indicated flow in the 4000-ft /min range. To confirm train flow, a vane anemometer was used to measure the average velocity at the SBGT suction grille on the refueling floor. These results yielded a flow of slightly more than 9000 ft 3/min. Based on the data obtained from the suction grille face traverse, the technicians attention was focused on the test equipment used on the south pipe pitot traverse. The pitot tube was closely inspected and found to be in good condition. The 0- to 0.5-inch (0- to 13-mm) inclined manometer was then inspected. This manometer is fitted with integral shutoff valves at the highand low-pressure connections, which allowed the device to be transported without fear of losing the measuring fluid. A small leak on the high-pressure shutoff valve was discovered. Both valves were replaced and the flow test repeated. Results of the test were acceptable, and the surveillance test was resumed.

Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Pitot tubes should be closely inspected prior to each use. During subsequent checks of pitot tubes, one was discovered with an internal crack in the impact velocity sensing line. A simple way to check the impact pressure line is to connect the pitot tube to a pressure measuring device and pressurize the impact line, block the sensing port, and observe the pressure measuring device for any pressure decay.

Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Inclined manometers with integral shut-off valves should be checked for leaks in these valves. These valves contain two O-rings and may close off tightly but leak when opened for use. In addition, these valves should never be opened more than three-fourths of a turn: opening them more than this can result in the failure of the sealing O-ring to make contact with the sealing surface in the valve body. 6-3

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

Key Technical Point Lesson learned: The tubing used to connect the pitot tube to the pressure measuring device should be verified to ensure that it is in good condition and free of any leaks. The tightness of the impact line can be verified by pressurizing it and blocking the impact port on the pitot tube. However, the static sensing line cannot be tested in this manner. A visual inspection is the best method of verifying the connecting tubing.

6.7

Misuse of Measurement Equipment

Situation: During a routine surveillance test to perform airflow measurements, airflows were incorrectly recorded because of instrument misuse. Technicians were to perform an airflow measurement on a safety-related AHU. They were using a standard pitot tube that was attached to a 0- to 10-inch (0- to 25.4-cm) vertical inclined manometer. The instruments were obtained from the instrumentation and control (I&C) shop, which has a temperature controlled environment. The test instruments were taken to the job location and set up. The ambient temperature of the job location was lower than that in the I&C shop. The manometer uses a liquid as its indicating medium. Setup of the manometer consisted of leveling the instrument, attaching the pressure sensing lines, and zeroing the display. After this was accomplished, the technicians took a break before returning to the job site. After they returned, they began to perform the required surveillance test. After all of the data points were obtained, the airflow was calculated. The calculated airflow was found to be below the lower limit of the technical specification (TS) limits, which required the licensee to enter into a limited condition of operation (LCO) of 24 hours. After further evaluation, it was determined that the fluid in the manometer may have shrunk as a result of the cooler environment in which the instrument was being used. Because the manometer had not been re-zeroed after it had been introduced into the new temperature environment, the zero point had shifted to below the actual indicating zero point of the instrument. After re-zeroing the manometer in the new environment, airflow measurements were performed again. The test results indicated that the airflow was within the acceptable limits of the TS, and the LCO was exited. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: The technicians likely did not understand the limitations of their instrumentation. When moving a fluid-based instrument from one environment to another, ample time should be allotted for the liquid to come to equilibrium, or frequent checks should be made to ensure that the base point has not changed.

6-4

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

6.8

System and Component Interactions

Situation: The original task was to replace the adjustable sheaves on all six exhaust fans and two supply fans with a fixed sheave assembly. The modification documents were prepared by design engineering to accomplish this task. A maintenance contractor working with the licensee discussed this modification with maintenance management and suggested that this modification would be a candidate for using a timing belt arrangement with a cogged wheel in lieu of using fixed sheaves. Maintenance selected an arrangement for using a cogged wheel and a timing belt. This change caused the fan speed to increase, and design engineering recalculated the resulting airflow as ~4% increase (which was within the 10% tolerance of the airflow requirements of the system). The modification was completed and the fans returned to service. After the fans were returned to operation, the fan breakers tripped. It was determined that the originally 60-Hp (4.5-W) fan motors had been rewound to provide 75 Hp (5.6 W); however, the electrical motor cables were never replaced. A review of the cable design determined that it was adequate for 100-amp service. The breaker setting was 105 amps. Because the breakers can take ~25% over the rating, they were reset for 110 amps. This additional load was then given to the electrical engineering department to revise the diesel loading calculation. However, the calculation determined that the diesels could not support the increase in load. The mechanical engineering department then determined that the inlet guide vanes (IGV) on the fans could be throttled closed ~15% to decrease the load and still be able to maintain the proper cable load and breaker set point. The airflow for the fans was measured and found to be too low (~15% below the required amount). The airflow requirement was further reviewed to determine if the lower airflows were sufficient for this application. New (75-Hp) fan motors were also ordered for this application. During this time, the fans operated for approximately five days when both the inboard and outboard bearings failed. New bearings were ordered by maintenance without coordinating with design engineering. After receipt, it was discovered that the bearings would not fit into the bearing housing, which then had to be modified. A calculation also was required to ensure the suitability of the new bearings for this application. During the final step, it was discovered that the fan guard would not fit back over the new belts and bearings. A new fan guard was then specified and procured. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: Postulate system effects prior to proceeding with what appears to be a minor design modification.

6-5

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

6.9

How Flow Disturbances Can Affect Flow Measurement

Situation: This plant has four control room emergency ventilation system (CREVS) fans; each fan is rated at 1000 ACFM and tested every 18 months to be within 9001100 ACFM. Three of the four CREVS fans have two sets of test ports in the fan suction ductwork: one at ground level in a short section of duct between the filter heater and filter housing and one in a straight section of duct in the overhead. The overhead test port location is not easily accessible; however, there are many diameters of straight duct before and after the test ports. Both locations are 12-inch (30.5-cm) round duct. Prior testing had been done using a hot-wire anemometer at the ground level test ports. The next surveillance test was performed with an electronic air data multimeter at the overhead test ports. The individual CREVS unit was declared inoperable as a result of a flow measurement of 794 ACFM (the previous surveillance test had measured 917 ACFM). The throttling valve on the fan suction was adjusted to increase the fan flow rate. Testing of the other two units with test ports in straight duct resulted in similar out-of-specification low measurements. A licensee event report (LER) was submitted. Test results showed that although the two different instruments provided slightly different results, using the same instrument at the two locations provided results differing by over 10%. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Flow measurement in a duct at a location with flow disturbances can be significantly different (in this case over 10% greater) than at a location of long straight duct.

6.10 Proper Use of an Electronic Micromanometer


Situation: During a training class, an electronic micromanometer was used that had a temperature probe for automatically converting velocity measurements to standard conditions (that is, flow result was SCFM). Station personnel then purchased two electronic micromanometers of different models by the same manufacturer. During system testing by two individuals, conflicting flow results were obtained. One person did not use the temperature probe and instead used the temperature correction calculation to convert the instrument reading to SCFM. The other person used the temperature probe and assumed that the velocity reading was automatically converted to standard conditions for SCFM results. Closer review of the instruction manuals determined that using the temperature probe converts to actual conditions (that is, flow results in ACFM) and that these models do not have the option for converting the velocity reading to standard conditions. If the temperature probe is not used, the instrument reading must be converted by calculation to either ACFM or SCFM results. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: Some electronic micromanometers provide a velocity reading that automatically converts to actual flow results (that is, ACFM) by using the temperature probe. If the temperature probe is not used, the instrument reading corresponds to neither SCFM nor ACFM.

6-6

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

6.11 Consideration of System Operating Conditions


Situation: The stations emergency core cooling system (ECCS) pump room exhaust air cleanup 3 system (PREACS) fans consist of two redundant standby fans, each rated at 36,000 ft /min. The fan flow rate (fan inlet damper position) was controlled by suction vacuum. A plant modification was performed, which changed the flow control method from a suction vacuum signal to a fan discharge flow signal. The controls for each fan were modified and individually functionally tested. Functional testing did not include simultaneous start of both fans. A few months later, during emergency bus functional testing, both ECCS PREACS fans automatically started as designed in response to a simulated safety injection signalbut then both fans tripped. Investigation concluded that the fans had tripped when suction vacuum exceeded a trip point. The high-suction vacuum trip had not been modified and was still required in the controls. When fans were started individually, the trip point was not exceeded. A justification for continued operation (JCO) was written, and controls were put in place to have the fans start at 18,000 3 ft /min (one-half the flow rate), with administrative controls to manually adjust one fan to full flow if only one fan is available. Six months later, during functional testing on a different emergency bus, both ECCS PREACS fans automatically started as designed in response to a simulated safety injection signal, and then both fans again tripped. Investigation concluded that the testing following the previous recovery effort had not actually performed a complete system functional test, with dampers in the unfiltered lineup. That testing had pre-positioned all of the affected dampers, and then manually started the fansboth individually and simultaneously. An attempt was made to provide a timedelay to allow for damper repositioning prior to fan start; however, this did not resolve the problem. Extensive troubleshooting was performed, with round-the-clock engineering and technician coverage for over two weeks as the system was studied and tested. System controls were adjusted and modified, and the previous JCO and administrative controls were revised to allow the system to be declared operable. Several plant modifications were initiated in order to correct the design concerns. Key Technical Point Lesson learned: All possible system operating conditions need to be fully considered during the design and functional test phases.

6.12 Low Airflow in the Auxiliary Building Ventilation System


Situation: Because of low airflow conditions in the auxiliary building ventilation (ABV) system, a team of engineers from design, testing, and systems was assembled to troubleshoot the cause of the low-flow condition. The team was divided into smaller teams as follows. Some were to prepare the necessary documents to submit to the U.S. NRC to assure them that the plant could be operated safely even though the airflow through the ABV system was lower than the minimum specified in the TSs. Others prepared documents to realign the system for optimum conditions, and still others reviewed drawings of the building and the system to determine other possible corrective actions.

6-7

EPRI Licensed Material Lessons Learned

One engineer was assigned the task of performing a system walkdown for proper damper alignments. The result of the walkdown was the identification of a fire damper that was only partially closed (it did not drop properly and hung up in mid-position). If the fire damper had been completely closed, an alarm would have sounded in the control room. The reduced airflow through that duct section caused higher airflow through another duct section that contained a high-energy line break (HELB) damper. The HELB damper closed, as it should have with an increase of more than 25% airflow through it. This closure caused the reduction in the overall system airflow rate and is the reason that the TS airflow through the filters was inadequate (below 10% of nominal flow). When the fire damper was repositioned, the HELB damper reopenedand the system flow rate returned to normal. Key O&M Cost Point Lesson learned: The most important part of the TAB work occurs prior to the start of the work: understanding how the system works and performing the walkdown.

6-8

EPRI Licensed Material

7
REFERENCES
In-Text References 1. National Environmental Balancing Bureau (NEBB), Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Environmental Systems. Sixth Edition, 1998. 2. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 201-90, Fans and Systems, 1990. 3. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 202-98, Troubleshooting, 1998. 4. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) Specification B40.1, Gauges, Pressure Indicating, Dial Type, Elastic Element, 1991. 5. Flow Meter Guideline. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR-109634. 6. Air Movement and Control Association (AMCA) 203-95, Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems, 1995. 7. H. J. Sauerer and R. H. Howell, Flow Measurements at Coil Faces with Vane Anemometers: Statistical Correlation and Recommended Field Measurement Procedure. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Transaction. Vol. 96 (1990). 8. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Nuclear Facilities, Applications Handbook. 1999. 9. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide 1.140, Design, Testing and Maintenance Criteria for Normal Ventilation Exhaust System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-WaterCooled Nuclear Power Plants. (Revision 1, 1979; Revision 2, 2001). 10. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Part 20, Standards for Protection Against Radiation. 11. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide 1.52 dated March 1,1978, Design, Testing, and Maintenance Criteria for Post Accident Engineered Safety Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-WaterCooled Nuclear Power Plants. June 1973. (Revision 1, 1976; Revision 2, 1978; Revision 3, 2001).

7-1

EPRI Licensed Material References

12. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Part 100, Revocation, Suspension, and Modification of Licenses and Construction Permits for Cause. 13. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Part 50, Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants. 14. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) N509, Nuclear Power Plant Air Cleaning Units and Components, 1989. 15. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ANSI/ASME) AG-1, Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment, 1997. 16. American National Standards Institute/American Society of Mechanical Engineers, (ANSI/ASME) N510, Testing of Nuclear Air Treatment Systems. 1995. 17. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., IEEE 484, Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Vented Lead-Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications, 1996. 18. HVAC Fans and Dampers Maintenance Guide. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 1999. TR-112170. 19. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Chapter 18, HVAC Systems and Equipment Manual. 20. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Chapter 41, Applications Manual. 21. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 90A, Standard for the Installation of Air Conditioning and Ventilating Systems, 1999. 22. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 181, Factory-Made Air Ducts and Air Connectors. 23. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 91, Standard for Exhaust Systems for Air Conveying of Vapors, Gases, Mists, and Noncombustible Particulate Solids, 1999. 24. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA), HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible, 1995. 25. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA), Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards, 1980. 26. American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC), Manual of Steel Construction, 1989. 27. American International Supply, Inc. (AISI), Cold Formed Steel Design Manual, 1989. 28. USNRC Generic Letter 89-13, Service Water System Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment, July 18, 1989. 7-2

EPRI Licensed Material References

29. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) E 2029-99, Standard Test Method for Volumetric and Mass Flow Rate Measurement in a Duct Using Tracer Gas Dilution, 1999. 30. American National Standards Institute/American Society for Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE) 111-88, Practices for Measurement, Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Building Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems, 1988. Other References Associated Air Balance Council (AABC), Procedures for Testing, Adjusting and Balancing. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Industrial Ventilation. 24th Edition, 2001. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing, HVAC Applications. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1997 Fundamentals, Inch-Pound Edition, 1997. Hydramotor Actuator Application and Maintenance Guide . EPRI, Palo Alto, CA: 2000. TR-112181. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA), HVAC Systems - Testing, Adjusting and Balancing. Second Edition, July 1993.

7-3

EPRI Licensed Material

A
TYPES OF HVAC SYSTEMS
This appendix describes the various types of HVAC systems that are commonly installed in a nuclear power plant. Much of the information contained in this appendix has been presented generically in several industry-wide standards; ASHRAE 1999 Applications Handbook Chapter 25 Nuclear Facilities [8] provides additional information on HVAC system design. There are two types of commercial nuclear power plants currently in operation in the United States: the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and the boiling water reactor (BWR). The systems described in this appendix are typical of these two types of nuclear power plants but are not representative of any particular plant design. Furthermore, a system described here may be applicable to one type of nuclear power plant and not to the other. As such, users should consult their own plant-specific system design documents to determine system design parameters and configurations. This appendix also provides an example of a typical nuclear HVAC process airflow diagram.

A.1

Generic HVAC Functions

An HVAC system at a nuclear power plant will typically perform one of the following functions: Ventilation Equipment/area cooling Filtration (radioactivity control ventilation)

A.1.1 General Area Ventilation


These applications are common for the main plant areas and individual buildings (for example, the radwaste building and the turbine building). The ventilation systems normally used in these applications include large supply and exhaust fans. Heating coils are installed on the supply side. In addition, the ventilation requirements consider the relative building pressure requirements with respect to adjacent buildings and the outside atmosphere.

A.1.2 Equipment/Area Cooling


These systems are designed to provide cooling to essential components necessary for safe shutdown or mitigation of an accident. The building exhaust and supply are sized to maintain the building temperatures in a range that maximizes equipment life by keeping ambient temperatures reasonably low (usually less than 104 F [40C] for unoccupied spaces and less than 80F [27C] for occupied spaces). A-1

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

These systems may be in the form of a simple ventilation system, consisting of a supply and/or exhaust fan; an area/room cooler; or cooling coils installed on the normal ventilation supply units for the building. Equipment area/cooling systems are normally maintained in normal alignment and are automatically actuated during an accident event. Other systems are used only during an accident event, such as those used for cooling the diesel generator units, emergency service water pumps, and ECCS/engineered safety feature (ESF) pump rooms. A room cooler consists of fan coil units supplied by a safety-related cooling water source from either the plant service water or an ESF chilled water system.

A.1.3 Radioactivity Control Ventilation


Ventilation systems may control the flow of potentially radioactive effluent by 1) maintaining the building or area at a negative (or positive) pressure relative to adjacent buildings and the outside atmosphere and/or 2) using a nuclear air cleanup unit. A.1.3.1 Nuclear Air Cleanup

The air cleanup unit usually consists of a demister, an electric heater, a prefilter, a highefficiency particulate-air (HEPA) filter, and a charcoal adsorber followed by a second HEPA filter or a final filter. The non-safety-related units are used for filtering air from exhaust systems prior to release into the atmosphere and may be governed by Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.140 [9]. This ensures that the plant maintains off-site radioactive releases within the limits required by 10CFR20 [10] for normal operations. These units are typically found on ventilation exhaust systems within buildings housing radioactive or potentially radioactive materials. They may also be found on vent headers, such as waste gas disposal or condenser vacuum exhaust. The safety-related units are used for filtering air in the event of a design basis accident and may be governed by RG 1.52 [11]. These units may be used for filtering exhaust air or for filtering supply or recirculation air for habitability zones, such as the main control room and/or technical support center (TSC). For exhaust units, the system is used for maintaining the associated building pressure at a slight negative pressure, typically -0.25 inch w.g. (-63 Pa), to ensure that all leakage is into the building and properly filtered prior to being exhausted. This ensures that the off-site radioactive release is within the limits required by 10CFR100 [12] for accident mitigation. The supply/recirculation filter unit is typically a component of the associated habitability zones ventilation system. This system maintains the habitability zone at a slight positive pressure, typically 0.125 inch w.g. (32 Pa), to ensure that all leakage is directed outward. This ensures that the operator and TSC staff dose is maintained within the limits required by 10CFR50, Appendix A [13]. These safety-related systems are typically designed to ANSI N509 [14] or the AG-1 Code [15] and are tested in accordance with ASME N510 [16].

A.2

Air Systems Designated by the Buildings Serviced

The buildings in which heating and cooling services are installed can also designate HVAC systems at nuclear power plants.

A-2

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

A.2.1 Containment/Reactor Building


A.2.1.1 General Description

The containment/reactor building completely encloses the primary containment, auxiliary equipment, and refueling areas. Under normal conditions, the reactor building HVAC system maintains the design space conditions and minimizes the release of radioactivity to the environment. The HVAC system consists of a 100% outside air ventilation system. Outside air is filtered, heated, or cooled as required prior to being distributed throughout the various building areas. Supplemental cooling in localized areas is provided by area/room coolers. The exhaust air flows from areas with the least contamination to the areas with higher levels of contamination. Prior to its exhaust to the environment, potentially contaminated air is filtered. All exhaust air locations are monitored for radioactivity prior to discharging air into the environment. To ensure that no unmonitored exfiltration occurs during normal operations, the ventilation systems maintain the reactor building at a negative pressure relative to the atmosphere. A.2.1.2 Standby Gas Treatment System

Upon detection of abnormal plant conditions (such as high radiation in the exhaust air path) or upon loss of negative pressure, the normal HVAC system is deactivated and the reactor building isolated. After it is isolated using fast-closing, low-leakage isolation dampers, the reactor building serves as a secondary containment boundary. This boundary is designed to contain any leakage from the primary containment or refueling area following an accident. After the secondary containment is isolated, the standby gas treatment system (SGTS) is started to draw down the secondary containment and maintain the building at a negative pressure relative to the environment. The SGTS exhausts air from the secondary containment to the environment through a safety-related filtration system. The capacity of the SGTS is based on the amount of exhaust air needed to reduce the pressure in the secondary containment in about 120 seconds and maintain it at a negative pressure for the duration of the accident event. In addition to the SGTS, some designs include safety-related recirculating air systems within the secondary containment to mix, cool, and/or treat the air during accident conditions. These recirculation systems use portions of the normal ventilation system ductwork. Safe shutdown components are usually located in the secondary containment and, if the isolated secondary containment area is not cooled during accident conditions, it is often necessary to determine the maximum temperatures that could be reached during the accident event. All safety-related components in the secondary containment must be environmentally qualified to operate at these temperatures. In most plant designs, safety-related unit area/room coolers provide the necessary cooling for the ECCS pumps.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

A.2.1.3

Containment Cooling

The following systems are typical for containment cooling in a PWR plant. Reactor Containment Coolers - These units remove most of the heat load. Distribution of the air supply depends on the containment layout and the location of the major heat sources. Reactor Cavity AHUs or Fans - These units are usually transfer fans without coils that provide cool air to the reactor cavity. Control Rod or Control Element Drive Mechanism (CRDM or CEDM) AHUs - The CRDM and CEDM are usually cooled by an induced-draft system using exhaust fans. Because the flow rates, pressure drops, and heat loads are generally high, it is desirable to cool the air before it is returned to the containment atmosphere. Essential Reactor Containment Cooling Units - The containment air cooling system (or a part of it) is normally designed to provide cooling after a postulated accident. The system is capable of performing at high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, and a high level of radioactivity. Cooling coils can be provided with chilled water and/or raw service water. System design must accommodate both normal and accident conditions. The ductwork is designed to endure the rapid pressure buildup associated with accident conditions. Fan motors are sized to handle the high-density air associated with accident conditions. A.2.1.4 Containment Power Access Purge or Minipurge

This system usually consists of a supply and filtered exhaust system. At some plants, these systems are licensed to operate continuously and at others, they are operated as needed for preaccess into the containment. A.2.1.5 Containment Refueling Purge

Ventilation is required to control the level of airborne radioactivity during refueling operation. Because the reactor is not under pressure during refueling, there are no restrictions on the size of the penetrations through the containment boundary. Large openings of 42 to 48 inches (106 to 122 cm), each protected by double containment isolation valves, may be provided. The required ventilation rate is typically based on one air change per hour. The system consists of a supply AHU, double containment isolation valves at each supply and exhaust containment penetration, and an exhaust fan. As a minimum, HEPA filtration is recommended. A.2.1.6 Containment Combustible Gas Control

In case of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), when a strong solution of sodium hydroxide or boric acid is sprayed into the containment, various metals react and produce hydrogen. In addition, if some of the fuel rods are not covered with water, the fuel rod cladding can react with A-4

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

steam at elevated temperatures to release hydrogen into the containment. Therefore, redundant hydrogen recombiners are needed to remove the air from the containment atmosphere, recombine the hydrogen with the oxygen, and return the air to the containment. The recombiners may be backed up by special exhaust filtration trains.

A.2.2 Turbine Building


The HVAC system in the turbine building typically provides both general ventilation and heat removal. In a BWR plant, radioactive steam is directly supplied to the main turbine, and a leak in the general area could cause a release of airborne radioactivity. Release of airborne radioactivity is a possibility in turbine buildings, and thus the buildings are typically maintained at a negative pressure. The exhaust air from the turbine building is exhausted to the environment using nonsafety-related filtration systems. Filtration requirements are based on the plant and site configuration. In a PWR plant, the air is typically exhausted to the outside without filtration, and no radiation detection equipment is required.

A.2.3 Auxiliary Building


The auxiliary building contains a large amount of support equipment, much of which handles potentially radioactive material. The building is usually air conditioned for equipment protection, and the exhaust air is filtered prior to its discharge into the environment to minimize the release of radioactivity. The HVAC system is a once-through ventilation system. Localized cooling systems (that is, area/room coolers) augment the ventilation system as needed. The building is maintained at negative pressure relative to the environment. Sometimes, the normal and essential cooling functions may be provided by an area/room cooler that has 1) normal and essential cooling coils and 2) a safety-related fan powered from a Class 1E bus. The normal coil is served by the normal chilled water system and the essential coil from the ESF chilled water system or the plant service water system.

A.2.4 Control Room


The control room HVAC system serves the control room habitability zone, that is, those spaces that must be maintained habitable following a postulated accident to allow the orderly shutdown of the reactor. The control room HVAC system performs the following functions: Controls the environmental conditions in the main control room Pressurizes or isolates the control room to prevent infiltration Reduces the radioactivity level in the room Protects the area from hazardous chemical fume intrusion Protects the area from noxious fumes, such as smoke from surrounding or outside areas A-5

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

A.2.5 Emergency Electrical Switchgear Rooms


These rooms house the electrical switchgear that operates essential or safety-related equipment. The switchgear rooms are usually cooled in order to ensure that useful life of the electrical component in the room is maintained and to prevent the loss of power circuits as a result of temperature-related problems.

A.2.6 Control Cable Spreading Room


These rooms are located directly above and/or directly below the main control room. They may be cooled by the same AHUs that serve the switchgear rooms or the main control room or independently cooled and/or ventilated with a dedicated system.

A.2.7 Diesel Generator Building


The diesel generator building is usually ventilated with 100% outside air. The ventilation system consists of a combination of a supply fan and an exhaust fan or one of the two fans with exhaust or inlet louvers.

A.2.8 Battery Rooms


Batteries produce the necessary dc control power for use during loss of off-site power. In safetyrelated systems, battery rooms are normally maintained in standby status. Batteries generate hydrogen during charging and are temperature dependent for prolonging service life or maintaining adequate capacity. Different types of batteries are available, and the optimum temperature for all batteries is 77 F (25C) for maintaining service life and capacity. Older plants may not meet this temperature requirement because the battery room may be ventilated simply to control the amount of hydrogen. In these cases, the minimum room design temperature should be factored into the capacity sizing of the batteries. Higher room temperatures should be considered in evaluating the service life of the batteries and determining the hydrogen evolution rate. The exhaust system is designed to limit the hydrogen concentration to about 2% of the room volume or the lowest of the levels specified by IEEE 484 [17], Occupational Safety and Health Association (OSHA), and the lower explosive limit (LEL). If the ventilation rate is not determined based on the hydrogen generation rate, it can be established at a minimum rate of one air change per hour.

A.2.9 Fuel-Handling Building


New and spent fuel is stored in the fuel-handling building. The building is air conditioned for equipment protection and ventilated with a once-through air system to control airborne radioactivity. Normally, the level of airborne radioactivity is so low that the normal exhaust may not be filtered, although it is typically monitored. If significant airborne radioactivity is detected, the building is isolated and a safety-related exhaust system activated to maintain the area at a negative pressure.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

A.2.10

Personnel Facilities

For nuclear power plants, this area usually includes decontamination facilities, laboratories, and medical treatment rooms.

A.2.11

Pump Houses

Cooling water pumps are protected by houses that are often ventilated by fans to remove the heat from the pump motors. If the pumps are essential or safety-related, the ventilation equipment is also classified as safety-related.

A.2.12

Radwaste Building

Radioactive waste other than spent fuel is stored, shredded, baled, or packaged for disposal in this building. The building is air conditioned for equipment protection and ventilated to control potential airborne radioactivity. The air may require filtration through HEPA filters and/or carbon adsorbers prior to release to the atmosphere.

A.2.13

Technical Support Center

The TSC is a facility located close to or within the control room complex and is designed for use by plant management and technical support personnel to provide assistance to control room operators during accident conditions. In case of an accident, the TSC HVAC system must provide the same comfort and radiological habitability conditions maintained in the control room. The system is generally designed to commercial HVAC standards. An outside air filtration system (composed of HEPA-charcoalHEPA) pressurizes the facility with filtered outside air during emergency conditions. The TSC HVAC system is not typically designed to safety-related standards.

A.3

Types of Water Systems Supporting HVAC Systems

Two types of water systems are commonly used in HVAC systems for temperature control: the hot water heating system and the chilled water cooling system. For a hot water system, a hot water or a steam boiler is used as the heat source. If a steam boiler is used as the heat source, a steam-to-water heat exchanger is used to generate hot water. For a chilled water system, a water chiller is used as the cooling source. The chiller may be air-cooled or water-cooled. In the case of a water-cooled system, a condenser water system is used to reject chiller condenser heat.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

A.3.1 Hot Water Heating Systems


The hot water system consists of a boiler (electric, natural or propane gas, or fuel oil fired), a recirculating water pump, and piping network interconnecting various heating coils. The hot water heating coils are used to heat air as needed for temperature control of various areas. The flow to each heating coil is controlled by a two- or three-way control valve that modulates or opens and closes to control the flow of hot water to the heating coils. The control valves are usually thermostatically controlled. The flow rate of the hot water to the heating coil is based on the temperature drop across the inlet and outlet of the heating coil. The total system flow is based on the average temperature differential across the various heating coils. System flow (gpm) = Total Heating Load (Btu/hr)/(T x 500) where: T is the average temperature differential across the various heating coils 500 is a constant, based on the specific heat and density of the water

A.3.2 Chilled Water Systems


The chilled water system consists of a chiller (centrifugal, reciprocating, screw, or absorption type), a recirculating water pump, and a piping network interconnecting various cooling coils. The chilled water-cooling coils are used to cool air as needed for space temperature or humidity control of various areas. The chilled water flow to each cooling coil is usually controlled with a two- or three-way control valve that modulates or opens and closes to control the flow of chilled water to the cooling coils. The control valves are usually thermostatically controlled. Chilled water flow to the cooling coil is based on the temperature rise in the chilled water flow across the inlet and outlet of the cooling coil. The total system flow is based on the average temperature differential across the various cooling coils. System flow (gpm) = Total Sensible Heat Load (Btu/hr)/(T x 500) where: T is the average temperature differential across the various cooling coils 500 is a constant, based on the specific heat and density of the water

A.3.3 Hot and Chilled Water Systems with Ethylene or Propylene Glycol
The user should be aware that the addition of glycol in the system affects the selection criteria of the heat transfer source (that is, chiller or boiler), the size of the cooling or heating coils, the performance of the recirculating water pump, and the pressure loss in the piping system. For example, a 20% glycol/80% water mixture in a heating or cooling system reduces the heat transfer capacity by as much as 10% and the pump efficiency by about 5% and increases the system pressure drop by about 25% at 50 F (10C). A-8

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

The constant of 500 used in the flow rate calculation needs to be corrected for systems with glycol because the amount of glycol in the system affects the heat transfer rate. Correction factor: 500 (/w) Cp where: = Fluid density, lb/ft
3

w = Density of water at 60 F, lb/ft3 Cp = Specific heat of fluid, Btu/lb F

A.3.4 Chiller Condenser Water Flow


The condenser water system consists of a water-cooled chiller, a recirculating water pump, and an open- or closed-loop heat sink. Often a heat sink is used to reject the compression heat of a chiller. The condenser water flow is sized based on the chiller selection, and the chiller manufacturer usually furnishes the condenser water flow rate.

A.3.5 Raw Water or Service Water Flow


Raw water or service water may be used as a source of cooling water in heat exchangers installed in HVAC systems.

A.3.6 Coil Performance Equations


The following equations are provided to assist the user when determining coil performance, ensuring that temperature and pressure corrections are made as needed: Total heat load, q (Btu/h) = 4.5 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x h (change in air enthalpy) Sensible heat load, q (Btu/h) = 1.1 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x T (change in air temperature) Latent heat load, q (Btu/h) = 4840 x Airflow (ft 3/min) x W (change in air humidity ratio)

A.4

Example of an HVAC System Diagram

Figure A-1 illustrates a typical HVAC system diagram. It is provided for illustrative purposes only and should not be used to perform plant-specific evaluations or analyses.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Systems

Figure A-1 Turbine Room Ventilation One-Line Diagram

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EPRI Licensed Material

B
TYPES OF HVAC EQUIPMENT
The information provided in Sections B.1 and B.2 is extracted from EPRI TR-112170, HVAC Fans and Dampers Maintenance Guide [18]. TR-112170 [18] provides additional information on fan and motor condition assessment as well as fan and damper maintenance issues and recommendations.

B.1

Fans

The primary mechanical component in a ventilation system is the fan. Some industrial applications require fans to move not only air, but also dispersed quantities of solid materials. In nuclear power plant applications, fan systems are typically designed for clean-air service. This allows the system designer to select from almost any of the basic fan types. Table 18.2 of ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Manual [19] describes the essential characteristics of various fan types. A suitable type of fan can be selected so that the conditions and requirements unique to a given application can usually be accommodated. Four types of fans are available for selection by the designer: Centrifugal Axial Propeller Tubular centrifugal

Regardless of the type of fan, performance and selection criteria are described by the airflow quantity and developed pressure. For a given fan speed and size, the airflow quantity delivered is directly related to the pressure loss imparted between the fan inlet and outlet. These performance parameters are plotted on a graph and result in a curve that describes the amount of flow that fans can deliver at a given pressure (see Figure B-1). Additional information available on typical fan curves can include required horsepower and efficiency throughout the operational range of flows and pressures described by the curve.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-1 Typical Fan Performance Curve (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90)

In addition to methods directly related to the fan, dampers in ducted systems can also be adjusted to effectively increase or decrease flow within the limits of the fan curve. This adjustment can be accomplished automatically or manually. Many ducted systems incorporate flow sensing devices that provide a control signal to a damper actuator that adjusts damper position as required to deliver the desired flow. In addition, manual balancing dampers are positioned to establish the initial system flow conditions and are adjusted as necessary to selectively deliver flow to the various areas served by the ducted fan system. In either case, damper adjustments alter the systems pressure characteristics, defining the operational point on the fan curve.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Ventilation systems most frequently include ductwork to distribute and direct airflow throughout the desired spaces and areas that they serve. Ducted systems also provide the designer with additional flow control options because the systems accommodate modulating or manual balancing dampers. System design should include an evaluation of the length of straight duct sections connected directly to the discharge of the fan. If insufficient straight duct is installed on the fans discharge, performance is compromised because of the additional pressure losses imparted. This system effect results from the flow profile at various distances from the discharge of each type of fan (see Figure B-2). For axial fans, the minimum effective duct length is determined by the fan diameter and the resulting air velocity at design flow. For centrifugal fans, the minimum effective duct length is determined by the ratio of blast area and outlet area in conjunction with the orientation of the first fitting attached to the straight duct. The longer the straight section attached to the fan discharge, the less the resulting pressure loss. For proper application of SEFs to a specific ducted configuration, see AMCA 201-90 [2].

Figure B-2 Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90)

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Although nuclear power plant facilities have large equipment rooms and service areas, the primary ventilation system fans are typically large and, therefore, require long straight discharge ducts to minimize system effect pressure loss and maximize performance. This requirement is frequently difficult to accommodate, resulting in flow patterns that tax the prescribed capabilities of the specified fan. Un-ducted ventilation systems (for example, wall-mounted propeller fans and roof-mounted propeller or centrifugal fans) are used in applications designed to transfer air between two spaces.

B.1.1 Types of Fans


B.1.1.1 Centrifugal Fans

Centrifugal fans are the most widely used because of their efficiency in moving both large and small quantities of air over a wide pressure range (see Figures B-3 and B-4a). The fan operates by using a rotating impeller mounted inside of a scroll-type housing to impart energy to the air. For a given set of performance requirements (such as airflow quantity and developed pressure), centrifugal fans are typically larger than their vaneaxial counterparts. Flexibility in performance characteristics can be achieved in part by selecting from the available impeller styles. The impeller blades can be forward curved, backward curved, airfoil, or radial. For greatest efficiency, backward curved airfoil-shaped blades are usually preferred. Some space saving might be realized with forward curved impeller wheel design. Standard configurations also include single- or double-width impellers and inlets. There is one drawback to a double-width, dual-inlet centrifugal fan. In dual-inlet systems with inlet vane damper control, potential implications exist for bearing damage if one of the inlet dampers fails to open or close. In this case, with one inlet damper open and the other closed, there is an unbalanced force on the impeller of the fan. This will cause excess thrust wear on the impeller bearings. This thrust wear can limit bearing life and result in unnecessary maintenance or equipment unavailability if the problem goes unresolved. The consequences of this maintenance issue are normally taken into consideration during the design of the system. Available drive types include direct and belt drive. Airflow quantity delivered by centrifugal fans can be adjusted by means of inlet vanes positioned in line with the air inlet. By adjusting the position of these vanes (partially open and closed), pressure loss is imparted to the airstream, altering the operating point on the fan head-flow curve. As pressure is induced to the airstream by the inlet vanes, flow decreases as described by the fan curve (see Figure B-1). The speed of the impeller wheel can also be altered on belt-driven fans by changing the sheave sizes. This alters the speed of the wheel and, therefore, the performance characteristics of the fan. The maximum impeller speed is limited by design and should not be exceeded. However, with this type of alteration, the fan produces new flow and pressure characteristics and operates at flow and pressure conditions different from those described by the original fan curve. As can be seen in Figure B-3, the discharge of a centrifugal fan can be slightly obstructed by the lip of the scroll housing. The reduced cross-sectional area of the discharge that results from this obstruction is called the blast area and is considered when determining the configuration of ductwork attached to the discharge of a centrifugal fan. B-4

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-3 Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90)

B.1.1.2

Axial Fans

In general, fans in the axial flow category tend to be smaller and less expensive than a centrifugal fan with comparable capacity. However, a unique characteristic of an axial fan is an increased level of noise. Silencers can be installed to compensate for this effect; however, an additional resistance is imparted to the system with this device. In this fan, as in all axial flow fans, air flows parallel to the fan shaft. Additionally, the fan hub and propeller blades are placed within a cylindrical housing. Guide vanes are used before and/or after the blades to reduce airstream rotation. The hub ratio in these types of fans is typically high, with fairly large hub diameters. The blades extend radially from the hub outward toward the housing, with the blade tips in fairly close tolerance with the inside of the housing surface. Flow in axial fans can be controlled by B-5

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

adjusting the pitch of the blades. Stamped marks are provided on the blade shafts, which can be rotated to produce different performance characteristics. In addition, templates can be obtained from the fan manufacturer that result in more accurate positioning of the blades. As with centrifugal fans, axial fans can be configured with either direct or belt drives. For belt drives, sheave sizes can be changed to alter the fans performance characteristics. Table B-1 provides a general characterization of fan types; Figure B-4 presents commonly used terminology for axial and tubular centrifugal fans.
Table B-1 General Fan Attributes Fan Attribute Cost Volumetric flow Static pressure rise Size vs. flow capacity Design complexity Axial Less expensive Higher Lower Smaller Simpler Centrifugal More expensive Lower Higher Larger More complex

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-4 Terminology for Axial and Tubular Centrifugal Fans (Courtesy of AMCA 201-90)

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.1.1.3

Tubular Centrifugal Fans

Tubular centrifugal fans generally consist of a single-width airfoil wheel arranged in a cylinder to discharge air radially against the inside of the cylinder. Air is then deflected parallel with the fan shaft to provide straight-through flow. Vanes are sometimes used to recover static pressure and to straighten the airflow. The selection range is generally about the same as the scroll-type, BI or airfoil bladed wheel: approximately 5085% of wide-open volume. However, because there is no housing of the turbulent airflow path through the fan, static efficiency is reduced to a maximum of about 72%, and the noise level is increased. Frequently, the straight-through flow results in significant space saving, which is the main advantage of using tubular centrifugal fans. B.1.1.4 Propeller Fans

Propeller fans are usually backward curved blade-type and can also be categorized as axial flow. However, these fans are distinguishable by their small hub ratios and lack of any substantial housing and are used in applications that require air to be transferredun-ductedbetween spaces. Large-diameter propeller fans can be applied to move significant quantities of air, but developed pressures are lower than those available with centrifugal or axial fans. They can often be found in roof and wall exhaust applications. Control is possible with belt drive configurations but is usually not required because pressure variances across the fan do not occur in un-ducted applications.

B.1.2 Types of Fan Drivers and Drives


Multiple options are available for the type of drive system used for fan applications; the two primary methods used are belt drive and direct drive. For nuclear installations, fans with external drives have a potential to allow air infiltration through the drive shaft opening and bearing. Care should be exercised when applying this arrangement to potentially contaminated areas. Special attention should be paid in sealing the seams of a drive belt tube in belt drive systems and in checking for and repairing seal, shaft, and/or bearing leakage in direct drive systems during regular maintenance. B.1.2.1 Belt Drive

The most widely used drive method is the belt drive. This application is the most economical and provides for good flexibility in range of application. With this system, the fan-to-motor connection is established with a drive pulley (sheave) on the motor, a drive belt (V or cog), and a fan pulley. Fan speeds are determined by both the motor speed and the ratio of the pulleys on the motor and fan, allowing the fan and motor combination to be closely tuned to the service application. Furthermore, if future system changes alter the ventilation demand, a new sheave or pulley can be installed that will change the performance characteristics of the fan. Note that installing a new sheave or pulley effectively produces a different fan performance curve. Prior to implementing this type of change, a new system curve should be established and plotted with the new fan curve to ensure that operation will not occur in an unstable region of the fan curve.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.1.2.2

Direct Drive

Direct drive systems typically require less maintenance than belt drive systems because of the lack of replaceable belts and pulleys. In addition, fewer losses are expected in the power transmission between the fan and motor. However, the disadvantage with this type of system is the limited range of delivery flows and pressures available with the standard model fan and motor combination. Speeds are limited to available motor speeds. When used with standard model fans, the range of resulting performance curves might not allow for optimum application to the subject system characteristics. B.1.2.3 Variable Speed Motor Drive

This system incorporates an electronic control that sends a variable signal to the motor, which modulates the speed in accordance with the requirements of the system. This type of application is useful when consistent flows must be maintained in systems that have variable conditions. Sensors are placed at critical points in the ventilation system to monitor flow. As conditions change (for example, filters load and fume hoods are placed in service), the sensors generate a signal and relay the change to the controller, which in turn modulates the fan speed to reestablish the design flow. These applications are sensitive to the associated installation parameters recommended by the manufacturers and should not be used unless the minimum requirements for the location of sensors can be met. In addition, the variable speed drive systems are far more expensive than the conventional drives.

B.2

Dampers

Dampers are used in ventilation systems to control environment pressures, temperatures, and flow rates. The types of dampers that are most commonly used in the nuclear industry are the isolation, control, backdraft, and fire damper. Dampers can be constructed with parallel or opposed blades, which can be flat or airfoil-shaped. Parallel blade dampers are better suited for isolation applications because of the undesirable flow pattern through the blades at partially open positions. Either type of damper will benefit from an airfoil blade design, which will improve performance of the system by reducing pressure loss associated with an open damper blade obstructing the airstream.

B.2.1 Types of Dampers


B.2.1.1 Isolation Dampers

Isolation dampers are used to prevent the flow of air from one area to another and to contain metallic, silicone, or other types of seals (such as rubber and plastic). The seals are provided to ensure that a leak tight seal exists when the damper is in the closed position. Frequently, two isolation dampers are provided in series to ensure adequate protection for the area served. These dampers can be designed in both parallel and opposed blade configurations. Parallel blade isolation damper design should be carefully constructed and installed with an appropriate actuator to ensure that the blades are positioned exactly parallel to the airstream when in the open position. This will minimize the obstruction in the airstream and result in an optimized (that is, low) pressure drop associated with the open damper under full-flow conditions.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Parallel blade dampers are generally more rugged, less expensive, and simpler in design than opposed blade dampers. Parallel blade dampers should not be used in modulating applications because of their nonlinear flow characteristics (differences are described in detail in ASHRAE Applications Manual [20]). The flow characteristics of an opposed blade damper are more linear than those of parallel blade dampers. A further specialized type of isolation damper is the bubble tight damper. The bubble tight damper provides the optimum effectiveness in airflow isolation between spaces. Whereas most isolation dampers are rated for various amounts of leakage (based on the area of the damper), bubble tight dampers can provide zero leakage at reasonable differential pressures. These dampers often resemble valves in appearance and bulk, with a single blade providing a positive seal. A heavy-duty actuator that will produce sufficient closing torque to the sealing surfaces is also required. The cost of these dampers is high, and enhanced structural support is often required. B.2.1.2 Control Dampers

Control dampers are used to balance ventilation system flow rates and pressures. Control dampers include two-position and modulating dampers. Specialty isolation dampers used in the nuclear industry vary in design while most control dampers are either parallel blade or opposed blade. The control damper can be operated automatically (using an actuator) to modulate the damper and to allow an appropriate amount of airflow to achieve the desired operating parameter (that is, flow rate or temperature). As in the isolation damper, the actuator can be driven by pressurized air, an electric motor, or a motor-hydraulic unit (that is, electrohydraulic). The damper can also be operated manually and secured at the desired position based on similar operating conditions. The control flexibility of a manual damper is limited because it is set infrequently, usually during a system balance. Opposed blade configurations are normally the preferred option because these dampers are usually positioned at some point between fully open and fully closed. This positioning eliminates the directionally deflected downstream flow characteristic of the parallel blade damper. In addition, the flow characteristics of an opposed blade damper are more linear than those of parallel blade dampers. Most ventilation systems include manual balancing dampers. These dampers are usually manipulated only during the initial terminal air balance or subsequent balance verification efforts. The following are the four primary types of manual balancing dampers: Terminal opposed blade dampers (OBDs or TOBs) are part of the supply, return, or exhaust termination device. These termination devices are commonly called diffusers, grilles, outlets, or registers; however, each has a specific function-related definition. Duct restricting volume dampers, usually referred to simply as volume dampers, can be 1) single or multiple blade and 2) parallel or opposed blade. These dampers are designed to restrict the flow through the duct by reducing the free area (see Figure B-5).

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Splitter dampers are installed at duct branch fittings or Y fittings. These dampers are usually made from a single sheet of metal hinged at the neck of the fitting, with one or more adjusting rods at the movable end. The dampers control the flow through the branch duct by controlling the effective cross-section of the branch and main duct. Scoop dampers are similar to splitter dampers but are used only with supply air outlets that are installed on the main supply or trunk ducts. These dampers can be constructed from a single sheet or multiple curved blades attached to rails. The damper movable end is extended into the airstream to direct the required airflow out of the outlet.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-5 Multiblade Volume Dampers (Courtesy of SMACNA)

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.2.1.3

Inlet Vane Dampers

In some applications, dampers are added at the inlet of a fan. In many cases, this is done to control the fans output characteristics or inlet swirl of the flow. In other cases, it is done to control other system characteristics, such as system resistance. These inlet vane dampers often have radially mounted blades. The movement of the blades can be used to induce variable direction swirl or to reduce flow to a fan, which will affect the operating point on the fan curve. Inlet vane dampers with fixed vanes are called inlet guide vanes (IGVs). IGVs are used to enhance the performance characteristics of a fan. The need for IGVs is determined during the design of a particular system. IGVs are often used with axial flow fans and compressors. They provide direction to the flow before it enters the rotating blades. Inlet vane dampers and IGVs should be maintained similarly to the other dampers and turning vanes. For variable vane dampers, the seals should be inspected to ensure that no damage has occurred and that the seal is sufficiently leak tight. The dampers should be inspected to ensure that no debris is or could be caught in them. Debris in the dampers or ductwork could get caught in the fan, causing damage. The dampers should be operated at a reasonable frequency, both manually and with any associated actuators. This operation will allow for the identification of any inappropriate wear or mechanism damage. Finally, the components of the damper and the actuator should be visually inspected for signs of wear and/or damage. In dual inlet systems with inlet vane damper control, potential implications exist for bearing damage if one of the inlet dampers fails to open or close. In this case, with one inlet damper open and the other closed, there is an unbalanced force on the impeller of the fan. This unbalanced force will cause excess thrust wear on the impeller bearings, illustrating the importance of proper inspection of these dampers. B.2.1.4 Backdraft Dampers

Backdraft dampers are used to allow the flow of air in one direction only. They also prevent backflow through nonoperating fans. This type of damper is useful in preventing the spread of contamination during times of unwanted reverse airflow (which could occur when a ventilation system is intentionally or unintentionally shut down). The backdraft damper is designed so that the damper blades will open when there is a differential pressure across the damper in the correct airflow direction. The damper blade linkage might have counterweights attached so that only a small differential pressure will force open the damper. If the differential pressure across the damper is eliminated or if a reverse differential pressure is created, the damper will close preventing the flow of air in the reverse direction. There are drawbacks to backdraft dampers, however. There is an increased head loss associated with forcing the damper open and, because of the relatively small differential pressure that is needed to manipulate the damper, friction losses can alter the damper performance and even prevent its operation.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.2.1.5

Fire Dampers

Fire protection dampers are used to mitigate the spread of fire from one location to another by providing a barrier between areas that would otherwise share a pathway through which a fire could spread. As with many large commercial structures, nuclear plants have partitions, floors, and ceilings capable of confining a fire to a given area for some specified time. When an air duct passes through one of these fire barriers, a fire damper is generally required. Some of these dampers are held open by fusible links, and others are actuated by smoke detectors or similar devices. B.2.1.6 Smoke Dampers

Smoke dampers are used to control the spread of smoke through a ventilation system. These dampers might have actuators or be self-actuated and activated in a manner similar to fire dampers. Although fire dampers are rated by hours of fire resistance, smoke dampers are rated by leakage at pressure. B.2.1.7 Louvers

Louvers are bladed assemblies designed for installation at interfaces between HVAC systems and the outdoors. Louvers prevent weather (that is, precipitation) and large airborne objects (for example, birds and leaves) from entering the system. Adjustable louvers operate like parallel blade dampers; however, they do not travel 90 degrees to full-openrather, travel is limited to ensure that a downward-sloped surface is presented to the outside of the building. Depending on climate, louvers might be required to isolate freeze-sensitive components (that is, steam coils or chilled water coils) from freezing temperatures when the ventilation system is not operating.

B.2.2 Damper Actuators


Damper actuators are used to control the position of the dampers based on given input signals. These actuators could modulate the damper to any number of positions, or they could control the damper to only the open or closed positions. The input signals are typically sent from a controller that monitors specific parameters. When a monitored parameter travels outside of a specified range, the controller sends a signal to the actuator, which then adjusts the damper to bring the parameter back into the specified range. The typical monitored parameters are temperature, flow rate, and pressure. Actuators primarily used in the nuclear power industry are the electric, electrohydraulic, and pneumatic. The electric actuator is a motor connected to the damper and uses gears to adjust the damper. The electrohydraulic actuator uses a motor to pressurize a hydraulic system. The input signals are sent to the hydraulic system that controls the position of a piston, connected to the damper linkage. The pneumatic actuator uses pressurized air and a manifold to control the damper position. Pneumatic actuators are typically pneumatic piston actuators. Compressed air acts on a flexible diaphragm to position a shaft connected to the damper.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.3

Heating and Cooling Coils

Air heating and cooling coils are used to heat or cool the air under forced convection. The total coil surface may consist of a single coil section or several coil sections assembled into a bank. The coils described in this section apply primarily to comfort heating and cooling for personnel and equipment.

B.3.1 Steam Coils


Steam coils can be categorized as basic steam, steam distributing, or face-and-bypass. Basic steam coils generally have smooth tubes with fins on the airside. The steam supply connection is at one end, and the tubes are pitched toward the condensate return, which is usually at the opposite end. Steam distributing coils most often incorporate perforated inner tubes that distribute steam evenly along the entire coil. The perforations perform like small steam ejector jets that, when angle positioned in the inner tube, assist in removing condensate from inside the outer tube. Face-and-bypass steam coils have short sections of steam coils separated by air bypass openings. Airflow through the coil section or the bypass section is controlled by coil-andbypass dampers that are linked together. As a freeze protection measure, large installations use face-and-bypass steam coils with vertical tubes.

B.3.2 Hot Water Heating Coils


Normal temperature hot water heating coils can be categorized as booster coils or standard heating coils. Booster coils (duct-mounted or reheat) are commonly found in variable air volume systems. Standard heating coils are used in run-around systems, makeup air units, and heating and ventilation systems. Most use the standard construction materials of copper tube and aluminum fins.

B.3.3 Cooling Coils


Fin and tube coils for cooling and dehumidifying air are made in two general classes: direct expansion and chilled water. B.3.3.1 Refrigerant/Direct Expansion Coils

Direct expansion (DX) coils, as illustrated in Figure B-6, are commonly used in air conditioning refrigeration applications as well as many types of commercial refrigeration systems. To be cooled or dehumidified, air is circulated through the finned surface. In these coils, refrigerant evaporates inside the tubes, while air flows over the fins. Multiple rows and various tube patterns are used to achieve the desired heat transfer from the air to the circulating refrigerant. Copper tubes with copper or aluminum fins are most commonly used for efficient heat transfer.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-6 DX Coil (Courtesy of RAE Corporation)

Air conditioning systems need to operate efficiently at maximum design loads and partial load conditions. Many types of system capacity controls are used to match the load requirement with system capacity. With refrigerant evaporator coils, this generally takes place in the form of surface reduction and/or one of the following: Single circuit Face split circuits Row split circuits Intertwined circuits

VAV systems use buildup coil banks or large AHUs with one refrigeration system. To balance system-capacity-to-load requirements, some form of face or row control is required. During the time of reduced capacity, it is imperative to maintain a fully active dehumidification process at the heat transfer coil. This is best accomplished by row control on standard DX coils or by use of intertwined refrigerant circuits. Row control is used for partial load surface balance. Whichever circuit is deactivated first results in full-face area operation of the remaining circuit, keeping the full volume of air in contact with active coil surfaces. B.3.3.2 Chilled Water Cooling Coils

In this type of coil, chilled water or brine circulates through the tubes to the coil, and air flows over the fins attached to the outside surface of the tubes. In most coils that use water as the cooling medium, the flow of water and air through the coil is in the opposite direction of each other. Such an arrangement is known as counterflow. Parallel flow, in which the water and air flow through the coil in the same direction, is seldom used in commercial applications because of the additional surface required for a given set of conditions. In the counterflow design, the cold water enters the coil where the coldest air is leaving the coil. In parallel flow, the cold water enters the coil at the end the warm air is entering.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Inlet water connections to chilled water cooling coils are usually made at the bottom tapping so that the water flow is up through the coil and out the top tapping. There are two reasons for connecting water coils in this manner. First, all of the air in the coil will be pushed ahead of the water and accumulate in the top part of the coil, where it can be vented easily. Second, the coil will remain completely filled with chilled water even though the control valve is closed.

B.3.4 Electric Heating Coils


An electric heating coil consists of a length of resistance wire (commonly nickel/chromium) to which a voltage is applied. The resistance wire may be bare or sheathed.

B.4

Filters

HVAC filtration systems can be designed to remove either radioactive particles and/or radioactive gaseous iodine from the airstream. These systems filter potentially contaminated exhaust air prior to discharge to the environment and may also filter potentially contaminated makeup air for power plant control rooms and TSCs. The composition of the filter train is dictated by the type and concentration of the contaminant, the process air conditions, and the filtration levels required by the applicable regulations (for example, RG 1.52 [11], RG 1.140 [9], ASME AG-1 [15], ASME N509 [14], 10CFR20 [10], and 10CFR100 [12] [for the United States]). Filter trains may consist of one or more of the following components: prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal filters (adsorbers), sand filters, heaters, and demisters.

B.4.1 Dust Filters/Prefilters/Postfilters


Dust filters are selected for the efficiency required by the particular application and according to ASHRAE. They are often used as prefilters for the special filters (listed in Sections B.4.2 through B.4.4) to prevent them from being loaded with atmospheric dust and to minimize replacement costs. Dust filters are also often used as postfilters downstream of the carbon filter in lieu of downstream HEPAs. In addition, these filters are used in supply side inlet applications to minimize dust entry into the plant.

B.4.2 HEPA Filters


Nuclear HEPA filters are used where there is a risk of particulate airborne radioactivity. The construction and pre-use quality assurance (QA) testing of HEPA filters is specified in DOE standards. The construction and QA testing of HEPA filters for use in nuclear power plants is specified in ASME Standards AG-1 [15], N509 [14], and N510 [16]. Filter performance requirements are based on penetration at a specified airflow and static pressure. For a 0.3-m particle, the penetration at rated airflow must not exceed 0.03%. HEPA filters are in-place tested and inspected when first installed and tested periodically thereafter. One or both of the following methods may be used for in-place testing of a stage of filtration: 1) mass flow testing of the stage as a whole or 2) testing of the individual filters and frame that make up the stage. In pre-use and in-place tests, an approved challenge agent, such as the aerosol dioctyl phthalate (DOP), must be used. B-17

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.4.3 Charcoal Adsorbers


Activated charcoal adsorbers are used mainly to remove radioactive iodine in its vapor or gaseous state. Bed depths are typically 2 or 4 inches (25 or 50 mm) but may be deeper. These filters typically have an efficiency of 99.9% for elemental iodine and 9599% for organic iodine. Charcoal filters lose efficiency rapidly as RH increases. They are often preceded by a heating element to keep the RH of the entering air below 70%. Electric heating coils and/or demisters may be used to meet the RH conditions required for charcoal filters. For safety-class systems, electric heating coils should be connected to the emergency power supply. Interlocks should be provided to prevent heater operation when the exhaust fan is de-energized. Demisters (mist eliminators) are required to protect HEPA and charcoal filters if entrained moisture droplets are expected in the airstream. Demisters should be fire resistant.

B.4.4 Sand Filters


Sand filters consist of multiple beds of sand and gravel through which air is drawn. The air enters an inlet tunnel that runs the entire length of the filter. Smaller cross-sectional laterals running perpendicular to the inlet tunnel distribute the air across the base of the sand. The air rises through several layers of various sizes of sand and gravel, typically at a rate of 5 ft/min (25 mm/s). It is then collected in the outlet tunnel for discharge to the atmosphere.

B.5

Terminal Devices

A terminal is defined as a point where the controlled medium (fluid or energy) enters or leaves the distribution system. In air systems, these terminals may be variable air or constant volume boxes, registers, grilles, diffusers, louvers, and hoods. In water systems, these may be heat transfer coils, fan coil units, convectors, or finned-tube radiation or radiant panels. Air terminals are the most noise-sensitive of all HVAC products because they are almost always mounted in or directly over occupied spaces. They usually determine the residual background noise level from 125 to 2,000 Hz. The term air terminals has historically been used to describe a number of devices that control airflows into occupied spaces at the zone (or individual temperature control area) level. There are two types: those that control the amount of airflow to a temperature zone (air control units [ACUs] or, more commonly, boxes) and those that distribute or collect the flow of air (grilles, registers, and diffusers [GRDs]). On some occasions, the two functions are combined. Because these two elements are both the final components in many built-up air delivery systems and the components closest to the building occupants, both elements are critical components in the acoustical design of a space. A critical interplay also exists between acoustics and the primary function of these devices, providing a proper quantity of well-mixed air to the building occupants.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Diffusers are commonly specified and reported in noise criteria (NC), rather than room criteria (RC). In most cases, there is no difference between NC and RC for diffusers because they usually peak in the 5002,000 Hz region, and the resultant numerical specification is the same for both NC and RC. Different types of terminal devices and physical configurations are described in Sections B.5.1 through B.5.9.

B.5.1 Single-Duct
This basic terminal consists of casing, a damper, a damper actuator, and associated controls. In response to control signals from a thermostat or other source, the terminal varies the airflow through a single-duct handling hot or cold air (see Figure B-7). In some applications, the same terminal is used for both heating and cooling; a dual-function thermostat, together with the necessary changeover circuitry, makes this possible. Controls can be pneumatic, electric, analogelectronic, or direct digital electronic. Accessories such as round outlets, multiple outlets, and sound attenuators may be added. The single-duct terminal is most often used in an interior zone of the building for cooling only.

Figure B-7 Single-Duct Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.2 Dual-Duct, Nonmixing


Essentially the same as two single-duct terminals side-by-side, this terminal modulates the flow of hot and cold air in two separate streams supplied by a dual-duct central AHU (see Figure B-8). Because there is no provision for mixing the two airstreams, this terminal should not be used for simultaneous heating and cooling, which would result in stratification in the discharge duct. (When stratification occurs, the several outlets served by the terminal may deliver air at noticeably different temperatures.) The nonmixing dual-duct terminal is best used in an exterior zone, in which zero-to-low airflow can be tolerated as the temperature requirement shifts from cooling to heating.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-8 Dual-Duct, Nonmixing Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.3 Dual-Duct, Mixing


Here the terminal is designed specifically for mixing hot (or tempered ventilation) and cold air in any proportion (see Figure B-9). When the terminal is equipped with pneumatic controls, there is a velocity sensor in the hot air inlet but none in the cold air inlet. A velocity sensor at the discharge measures the total flow of air and sends the signal to the cold air controller. In the mixing cycle, the hot airflow changes first, and a change in cold airflow follows in order to maintain a constant total (mixed) volume. When equipped with direct digital controls (DDCs), both hot and cold inlets have velocity sensors, with the summation of flows computed by the microprocessor. No discharge velocity sensor is used. This dual-duct terminal is often used in an exterior zone of a building or to ensure proper ventilation rates.

Figure B-9 Dual-Duct, Mixing Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.4 Single-Duct with Heating Coil


Figure B-10 shows a single-duct terminal with a heating coil (either the hot water or the electric type) added. The hot water coil is usually modulated by a proportioning valve controlled by the same thermostat that controls the terminal. Control for the electric coil is either 100% on/off or in steps of capacity, energized by contactors in response to the room thermostat working through a multiple-step relay. The single-duct terminal with heating coil is most often used in an exterior zone with moderate heating requirements because the terminal normally handles its minimum cubic feet per minute in the heating mode. A dual minimum cubic feet per minute or flip-flop control can be added for increased heating airflow. B-20

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-10 Single-Duct with Heating Coil Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.5 Fan-Powered Variable Volume (Parallel)


Figure B-11 illustrates a fan-powered, variable volume, parallel terminal. In this terminal, a fan is added to recirculate plenum air for heating only. The heating cycle occurs generally when the primary air is off or at minimum flow. Heat is picked up as the recirculated air is drawn from the ceiling space and the fan motor. Additional heat can be provided by a hot water or electric coil on the terminal. Because the fan handles only the heating airflow (which is usually less than that for cooling), the fan can be sized smaller than in the series flow terminal. During the cooling cycle, the fan is off, and cool primary air is supplied from the central system. A backdraft damper prevents reverse flow through the fan. The flow of the primary air is regulated by variable air volume controls. This type of terminal is used in exterior zones.

Figure B-11 Fan-Powered, Variable Volume, Parallel Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.6 Fan-Powered, Constant Volume (Series)


Figure B-12 illustrates a fan-powered, constant volume, series terminal. The fan runs continuously, fed by a mixture of primary and plenum air. The more primary air is forced in, the less plenum air is drawn in. The result is variable volume from the central system and constant volume (and sound) to the room. Because the central system needs only to deliver air as far as the fan, the inlet static pressure can be lower than in the parallel flow terminal. The fan, however, is sized to handle the total airflow. These terminals are often used in applications where constant background sound and continuous airflow are desired.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-12 Fan-Powered, Constant Volume Series Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.5.7 Low-Temperature Fan Terminals


The fan terminal, with its inherent mixing, is well suited to handle the very cold air delivered by systems designed for air much colder than with conventional 55F (13C) supply systems. In order to use standard diffusers, the primary air must be raised to a conventional supply temperature before it enters the room. A common solution is to mix the primary air with recirculated air with a fan-powered terminal. Although the most common application uses a series flow unit, many applications have been used with parallel units with a constantly running fan. The low-temperature terminal has a special casing and insulation.

B.5.8 Fan-Powered, Quiet


This constant volume terminal uses special design and construction features that provide unusually quiet operation (see Figure B-13). The primary air section is enclosed in a soundattenuating chamber. Instead of the usual primary air butterfly damper, there is a specially designed damper assembly mounted in the primary air section enclosure. This air valve reduces noise-producing turbulence. Other quiet performance features are a more rigid casing, special baffling, and a fan specially selected for low noise levels. Terminals of this type are used in broadcast studios, libraries, and other applications where a minimum-noise, premium-quality terminal is required.

Figure B-13 Fan-Powered, Quiet Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.5.9 Fan-Powered, Low-Profile


Figure B-14 illustrates a fan-powered, low-profile terminal. This constant or variable volume terminal has a vertical dimension of only 10.5 inches (27 cm) for all sizes in order to minimize the depth of ceiling space required. Often the recirculating fan is laid flat on its side with its shaft vertical. In localities where building heights are limited, the low-profile terminal saves enough space to allow extra floors to be included in a high-rise structure. Ceiling space can be as little as 1214 inches (30.435.5 cm) deep. The low-profile terminal is also useful in buildings constructed with precast concrete channel floors. The terminal can fit into the channel space with no extra depth required.

Figure B-14 Fan-Powered, Low-Profile Configuration (Courtesy of Titus, Inc.)

B.6

Ductwork

B.6.1 General
Ducts are the means by which air is transported from the fan to the terminal devices. Ducts are available in numerous configurations but most commonly have rectangular, circular, or oval cross-sectional configurations, are constructed of single or double walls, and can vary in the degree of allowable leakage (airtightness). Typical materials used to fabricate ducts are galvanized, galvaneal, aluminized steel, stainless steel, fiberglass, PVC-coated, brass, copper, and bronze. In ASHRAE standards, duct construction is generally classified by application and pressure. HVAC systems in administrative, training, or off-site buildings are usually designed as commercial systems. In addition, some buildings that contain HVAC systems are built to industrial designs, and some that are built to nuclear-unique design requirements exceed the ASHRAE standard for industrial designs.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

The following duct fittings are most commonly employed in a commercial or industrial application: Crosses conical, lateral, with or without reducers Elbows stamped, standing seam, or welded gore Laterals with or without reducers Offsets Reducers concentric or eccentric Saddles 90 conical saddle, 90 saddle, or 45 saddle Takeoffs 90 shoe takeoff or register box takeoff Tees bull-nose, conical with or without reducers, 90 tee with or without reducer Wye branches

B.6.2 Duct Leakage Classifications


Section SA-4500 of ASME AG-1 [15] provides pressure boundary leakage guidance. The section references a nonmandatory Appendix SA-B, which describes procedures to determine allowable leakage for ductwork. The referenced Appendix SA-B provides additional guidance on determining the allowable leakage for air cleaning, air conditioning, and ventilation systems. This guidance can be used to determine duct construction, installation, and test requirements. The appendix presents a method for determining allowable leakage based on health physics requirements (such as the radioactivity concentration, the maximum permissible concentration, and the iodine protection factor) and provides typical sample problems. Optional guidance is also provided for determining alternate leakage criteria based on air cleaning and air cooling system effectiveness and expected system installation qualities. B.6.2.1 Allowable Leakage by Radiological Control Criteria

For normal plant operating conditions, 10CFR20 [10] sets limits on the airborne radioactive material concentrations in areas of nuclear facilities in which plant personnel may be present. These limits are given by 10CFR20, Appendix B, Table 1. Section B-1200 of Appendix SA-B provides procedures for determining the maximum duct out-leakage based on the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) as determined by 10CFR20.103, paragraphs a and b. Under accident conditions, 10CFR100 [12] establishes the limits for airborne radioactive material.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.6.2.2

Additional Leakage Criteria

Additional leakage criteria may be developed to meet plant-specific ALARA criteria. Additional criteria may take the form of specifying air cleaning system effectiveness or system quality parameters. It is recommend that the basis for any additional criteria be documented to allow the future evaluation of test data. The following examples of criteria, which have been previously established in industry standards, are identified in Section B 1300 of Appendix SA-B: Air cleaning system effectiveness Air cooling effectiveness System quality Air Cleaning System Configuration and Leakage Classes

B.6.2.3

An air cleaning system can be defined schematically in terms of three spaces and two components. The three spaces may be either exterior or interior and are 1) the contaminated space, 2) the protected space, and 3) the interspace. The interspace may be contaminated or clean in relation to the air cleaning system located within the interspace. The two components are the fan and the air cleaning unit. The three spaces represent the possible locations for different parts of the air cleaning system. The contaminated and protected spaces also include the points of system origin and termination, respectively. The interspace refers to all other spaces contaminated or cleanwhere the air cleaning system or its parts may be located. Section B 1400 of Appendix SA-B defines leakage classes. Leakage Class II indicates that, because of system configuration and location, a higher leakage rate may be allowable. Leakage Class I indicates that a more stringent leakage rate is required.

B.6.3 Duct Construction


B.6.3.1 Materials

For commercial materials, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 90A [21] is used as a guide standard by many building code agencies. NFPA Standard 90A [21] invokes Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 181 [22], which classifies ducts as follows: Class 0 Air ducts and air connectors having surface burning charateristics of zero Class 1 Air ducts and air connectors having a flame-spread index of less than 25 (without evidence of continued progressive combustion) and a smoke-developed index of less than 50.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

For industrial materials, NFPA Standard 91 [23] is widely used for duct systems conveying particulates and removing flammable vapors (including paint-spraying residue) and corrosive fumes. Particulate-conveying duct systems are generally classified as follows: Class 1 covers nonparticulate applications, including makeup air, general ventilation, and gaseous emission control Class 2 is imposed on moderately abrasive particulate in light concentration, such as that produced by buffing and polishing Class 3 consists of highly abrasive material in low concentration, such as that produced from abrasive cleaning, dryers and kilns, and boiler breeching Class 4 is composed of highly abrasive particulates in high concentration Class 5 applies to corrosive applications, such as acid fumes

Galvanized steel, uncoated carbon steel, or aluminum are most frequently used for industrial air handling. Aluminum ductwork is not used for systems conveying abrasive materials and, when temperatures exceed 400F (204C), galvanized steel is not recommended. Ductwork material for systems handling corrosive gases, vapors, or mists must be selected carefully. B.6.3.2 Rectangular and Round Ducts

For commercial design, Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association (SMACNA) HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible [24] lists construction requirements for rectangular steel ducts and includes combinations of duct thicknesses, reinforcement, and maximum distance between reinforcements. Round ducts are inherently strong and rigid and are generally the most efficient and economical ducts for air systems. The dominant factor in round duct construction is the ability of the material to withstand the physical damage caused by installation and negative pressure requirements. For industrial design, SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible [24] gives information for the selection of material thickness and reinforcement members for spiral and nonspiral industrial round ducts. SMACNA Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards [25] is available for selecting material thickness and reinforcement members for industrial ducts. The data contained in this manual give the duct construction for any pressure class and panel width. Each side of a rectangular duct is considered a panel. Usually, the four sides of a rectangular duct are built of material with the same thickness. Ducts are sometimes built with the bottom plate thicker than the other three sides. The designer often selects a combination of panel thickness, reinforcement, and reinforcement member spacing to limit the deflection of the duct panel to a design maximum. Any shape of transverse joint or intermediate reinforcement member that meets the minimum requirement of both section modulus and the moment of inertia may be selected.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.6.3.3

Flat Oval Ducts

For commercial applications, seams and transverse joints are generally the same as those permitted for round ducts. Flat oval ducts are typically used for positive pressure applications unless special designs are used. Hanger designs and installation details for rectangular ducts generally apply to flat oval ducts. B.6.3.4 Fibrous Glass Ducts

Fibrous glass ducts are a composite of rigid fiberglass and a factory-applied facing (typically aluminum or reinforced aluminum), which serves as a finish and vapor barrier. This material is available in molded round sections or in board form for fabrication into rectangular or polygonal shapes. Duct systems of round and rectangular fibrous glass are generally limited to 2400 ft/min (12 m/s) and 2 inches (500 Pa) of water. Molded round ducts are available in higher pressure ratings than are board form ducts. B.6.3.5 Flexible Ducts

Flexible ducts typically connect mixing boxes, light troffers, diffusers, and other terminals to the air distribution system. Because unnecessary length, offsetting, and compression of these ducts significantly increase airflow resistance, flexible ducts should be kept as short and straight as possible, fully extended, and supported to minimize sagging. B.6.3.6 Plenums and Apparatus Casings

SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible [24] shows details on field-fabricated plenum and apparatus casings. Sheet metal thicknesses and reinforcement for plenum and casing pressure outside the range of -3 to +1 inches (-750 to +250 Pa) of water can be based on SMACNA Rectangular Industrial Duct Construction Standards [25]. B.6.3.7 Acoustical Treatment

Metal ducts are frequently lined with acoustically absorbent materials to reduce aerodynamic noise. Although many materials are acoustically absorbent, duct liners must also be resistant to erosion and fire and have properties compatible with the ductwork fabrication and erection processes. For higher velocity ducts, double-wall construction using a perforated metal liner is frequently specified. B.6.3.8 Hangers

For commercial applications, SMACNA HVAC Duct Construction Standards Metal and Flexible [24] describes commercial HVAC system hangers for rectangular, round, and flat oval ducts. When special analysis is required for larger ducts or loads or for other hanger configurations, American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction [26] and AISI Cold Formed Steel Design Manual [27] should be used. B-27

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

For industrial applications, the AISC Manual of Steel Construction [26] and the AISC Cold Formed Steel Design Manual [27] give design information for industrial duct hangers and supports. The SMACNA standards for round and rectangular industrial ducts [24, 25] as well as manufacturers schedules include duct design information for supporting ducts at intervals of up to 35 feet (8.9 m).

B.7

Instrument Test Ports

Instrument test ports make it easy and economical to provide openings for pitot tubes and other test instruments in order to measure static pressures and air velocities. The hole is sealed off with a heavy screw cap and gasket, as shown in Figure B-15. Unless otherwise specified, a flat gasket is supplied to prevent air leakage around the base; however, in some cases, the test port can be configured with a curved base and a special gasket to accommodate a curved duct.

Figure B-15 Instrument Test Port (Courtesy of Ventfabrics, Inc.)

Key Technical Point Instrument test ports attached with rivets and sealed with gaskets may not be suitable for nuclear plant applications requiring zero-leakage. Instrument test ports are typically available in a variety of sizes, with total heights varying to accommodate different thicknesses of insulation. The most common heights are 1-3/8 inches (3.5 cm), which will accommodate 1 inch (2.5 cm) of duct insulation, and 2-3/8 inches (6 cm), which will accommodate 2 inches (5 cm) of duct insulation.

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EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.8

Airflow Measuring Stations

Airflow measuring stations are permanent devices installed in an appropriate length of duct in order to measure attributes about the airflow at that given location. Several types of stations are described in Sections B.8.1 through B.8.5.

B.8.1 Multiport with Integral Air Straightener


Figure B-16 shows a multiport, self-averaging pitot traverse station with an integral air straightener-equalizer honeycomb cell. Many of these types of stations are capable of continuously measuring fan discharges or ducted airflow with an accuracy of 2% or better. A multiport pitot tube traverse station offers its high degree of measuring accuracy by virtue of precisely located sensors, honeycomb airflow processing, and instantaneous pneumatic averaging of multiple pressure values. Some airflow measuring stations use a process known as symmetrical averaging, which requires that all stages in the averaging process occur at a point where there is a balanced array of sensors present, ensuring that each sensed pressure is given the same equal weight in the averaging process.

Figure B-16 Multiport Air Measuring Station with an Integral Air Straightener (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.2 Traverse Probe


Figure B-17 shows an airflow traverse station that uses one or more traverse probes (factory mounted in a rigid welded galvanized casing) to sense and average separate total and static pressure traverses of an airstream. Multiple sets of total and static pressure sensing points, positioned along the length of each probe, traverse the airstream in single lines across the duct B-29

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

and average the sensed pressures in separate internal manifolds. Factory-installed static and total pressure signal tubing connects the individual probes, terminating at the galvanized casing for field connection. These types of air measuring stations are suited for installations in ductwork, fan inlets, and other configurations operating at temperatures ranging from -20F to 400F (-29C to 204C).

Figure B-17 Traverse Probe Air Measuring Station (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.3 Pitot Traverse Station


The pitot traverse station is a flow traverse station that combines a honeycomb air straightenerequalizer with proven multipoint, self-averaging pitot technology. As shown in Figure B-18, these types of air measuring stations provide the means to measure low air volumes of 20 to 1700 ft3/min in small-diameter round ducts within 2% of actual airflow.

B-30

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-18 Pitot Traverse Station (Courtesy of Air Monitoring Corp.)

B.8.4 Hot Wire Sensor


One or more mass flow measuring devices (for example, a hot wire sensor) measure the instantaneous average mass velocity. Figure B-19 provides typical illustrations of one of these devices.

Figure B-19 Multipoint Insertion Mass Flow Element (Courtesy of Kurz Instruments, Inc.)

B-31

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

In some models, each sensor uses a unique sensor circuit that eliminates output changes caused by temperature variations. The circuit also allows the sensor cable to be shortened or lengthened without affecting the calibration. This is especially useful for sensors having remote sensor electronics.

B.8.5 Orifice Plates


The measurement of fluid (water) flow is necessary to permit the intelligent, safe, and efficient operation of equipment used in nuclear power facilities. This includes measurement of air, gas, water, and steam flows. An orifice plate is commonly used for these measurements because it provides a measurable pressure drop based on a given flow and velocity. An orifice plate can be considered a type of flow meter that typically exhibits the characteristics shown in Table B-2.
Table B-2 Orifice Plate Characteristics Characteristic Accuracy Range of control Pressure loss Straight piping requirements (upstream) Straight piping requirements (downstream) 1% to 5% full scale 3:1 to 5:1 High (typically >5 psi [34.5 kPa] for water applications) 1040 pipe diameters Value

26 pipe diameters

An orifice provides flow metering in the following manner. As a compressible fluid passes through a nozzle, a drop in pressure and a simultaneous increase in velocity result. By assuming the type of flow (for example, adiabatic), it is possible to calculate, from the properties of the fluid, the required area for the cross-section of the nozzle so that the flowing fluid may just fill the provided space. This calculation indicates that for all compressible fluids, the nozzle form must first be convergingbut eventually, if the pressure drops sufficiently, the nozzle form must become diverging to accommodate the increased volume caused by the expansion. The smallest cross-section of the nozzle is called the throat, and the pressure at the throat is the critical flow pressure.

B.9

Humidifiers

Humidifiers should be installed where the air can absorb the vapor. The temperature of the air being humidified must exceed the dew point of the space being humidified. When fresh or mixed air is humidified, the air may need to be preheated to allow absorption to take place.

B-32

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.9.1 Heated Pan Humidifiers


These units offer a broad range of capacities and may be heated by a heat exchanger supplied with either steam or hot water. They may be installed directly under the duct, or they may be installed remotely and feed vapor through a hose. In either case, a distribution manifold should be used. Steam heat exchangers are commonly used in heated pan humidifiers, with steam pressures ranging from 5 to 15 psig (34.5 to 103.4 kPa). Hot water heat exchangers are also used in pan humidifiers, generally at a water temperature higher than 240 F (116C). All pan humidifiers should have water regulation and some form of drain or flush system. When raw water is used, periodic cleaning is required to remove the buildup of minerals. Care should be taken to ensure that all water is drained off when the system is not in use to avoid the possibility of bacterial growth in the stagnant water.

B.9.2 Direct Steam Injection Humidifiers


These units cover a wide range of designs and capacities. Because steam is water vapor under pressure and at high temperature, the process of humidification can be simplified by adding steam directly into the air. This is an isothermal process because the temperature of the air remains almost constant as the moisture is added. For this type of humidification system, the steam source is usually a central steam boiler at low pressure. When steam is supplied from a source at a constant supply pressure, humidification responds quickly to system demand. A control valve may be modulating or two-position in response to a humidity sensor/controller. Steam can be introduced into the airstream through one of the following devices: Single or multiple steam-jacketed manifold Non-jacketed manifold or panel distribution system

B.9.3 Electrically Heated, Self-Contained Steam Humidifiers


These units convert ordinary tap water to steam by electrical energy using either electrodes or resistance heater elements. The steam is generated at atmospheric pressure and discharged into the duct system through dispersion manifolds. If the humidifier is a freestanding unit, the steam is discharged directly into the air through a fan. Some units allow the use of softened or demineralized water, which greatly extends the time between cleanings.

B.9.4 Atomizing Humidifiers


Water treatment should be considered if mineral fallout from hard water is a problem. Optional filters may be required to remove the mineral dust from the humidified air. Depending on the application and the water condition, atomizing humidifiers may require a reverse osmosis (RO) or a deionized (DI) water treatment system to remove the minerals. Wetted parts should be able to resist the corrosive effects of DI and RO water.

B-33

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

The following are the three main categories of atomizing humidifiers: Ultrasonic humidifiers use a piezoelectric transducer submerged in demineralized water Centrifugal humidifiers use a high-speed disk that slings water to its rim Compressed-air nozzle humidifiers

B.9.5 Wetted Media Humidifiers


Rigid media humidifiers use a porous core. Water is circulated over the media while air is blown through the openings. These humidifiers are adiabatic, cooling the air as it is humidified. Rigid media cores are often used for the dual purposes of winter humidification and summer cooling. They depend on the airflow for evaporation, and the rate of evaporation varies with air temperature, humidity, and velocity. Wetted media humidifiers have inherent filtration and scrubbing properties as a result of the water-washing effect in the filter-like channels. Because only pure water is evaporated, contaminants collected from the air and water must be flushed from the system. A continuous bleed or regular pan flushing is recommended to minimize the accumulation of contaminants in the pan and on the media.

B.10 Dehumidifiers
Dehumidification systems are typically employed where control of humidity and moisture is critical. Technologically advanced dehumidification coils can extract maximum amounts of moisture under difficult conditions. With the addition of a remote condenser, some dehumidification systems can provide cool, dry air to the conditioned space. An automatic changeover thermostat allows the system to maintain the desired room temperature in both summer and winter. The operation of most dehumidifiers is completely automatic. A humidistat starts the dehumidifier upon a buildup of humidity in the room and stops when the set point is reached. An optional water-heating coil may be added to a dehumidifier to provide hot water for industrial processes. Some computer-designed dehumidification systems take moisture-laden air from the conditioned space and pass it over the deep row dehumidification coil. The temperature of this air is lowered to its dew point temperature, and water is condensed from the air. This air is immediately passed through a re-heat coil, raising the temperature equal to a combination of sensible and latent heat from the refrigeration cycle. The air leaving the dehumidifier is 10 to 15 degrees warmer than the air entering. This warmer air adds room heating and is beneficial during cold months.

B-34

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

B.11 Centrifugal Pumps


Centrifugal or kinetic pumps are typically used to provide fluid flow to HVAC systems for heating or cooling. Typically, centrifugal pumps are classified by one of two casing configurations: volute or diffuser. A volute is a spiral-like form; as the liquid is discharged from the impeller into the volute casing, 1) the volute areas increase at a rate proportional to the discharge of liquid from the impeller and 2) a constant velocity exists around the periphery of the impeller. This velocity is then diffused in the casing nozzle. The other common casing classification is diffuser construction. A diffuser is actually a series of vanes surrounding the impeller that accept the discharge of liquid from the impeller. The vanes efficiently reduce the velocity in order to increase pump head and, in the case of a multistage pump, direct this lower velocity fluid into vaned return channels that guide the liquid to the inlet or eye of the next stage impeller. In the case of single-stage pumps, the discharge from the diffuser is collected in a surrounding casing, which guides the liquid out of the pump through the discharge nozzle. The single-stage centrifugal pump is often installed in HVAC systems. A design feature of single-stage pumps is the configuration of the inlet of the impeller. The two major types of suction configurations are single-suction and double-suction. A single-suction configuration is often employed with a radially split casing to achieve higher design pressures and temperatures. The disadvantage of the single-suction configuration is that it typically requires higher net positive suction head (NPSH) than a double-suction configuration. In a double-suction pump, the flow comes from a single source and splitsdoubling the inlet area. The doubling of the inlet area subsequently lowers the inlet velocity and thus the NPSH required. Figures B-20 and B-21 illustrate the differences between the single-suction and double-suction horizontal pumps.

B-35

EPRI Licensed Material Types of HVAC Equipment

Figure B-20 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Single-Suction)

Figure B-21 Single-Stage Horizontal Pump (Double-Suction)

B-36

EPRI Licensed Material

C
TYPICAL HVAC TAB DOCUMENTATION
C.1 Typical Documentation Requirements

As noted in Section 1, the documentation used to record HVAC system parameters is often customized by each plant. In some cases, the documentation is a hard-copy form that the engineer/technician uses to manually record data. In other cases, the data entry may be performed electronically. In most cases, these forms are then used as input for performing calculations, either using the equations noted in Appendix D or using computer programs (that is, a spreadsheet or commercially available software). Some documentation is designed to allow for data entry and calculation. In these cases, the form records the data measured and is structured to allow the engineer/technician to perform the necessary calculations on the same document. The examples and methods of documenting/calculating HVAC system parameters are provided for illustrative purposes only. Documentation requirements and calculation procedures vary from plant to plant, and the information provided in this report should not be used in lieu of plantspecific procedures.

C.2

Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing Forms

Figures C-1 through C-4 illustrate means by which HVAC TAB information may be documented. The forms are examples provided for illustrative purposes only.

C-1

EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation

MOTOR: Full Load Current, amps Full Load Voltage, volts Speed, rpm MISCELLANEOUS: Locked Rotor Current, amps Model No. Service Factor Frame Drive sheave size, in. Dia. Manufacturer Motor Frame Adjustment FAN: Rotation From Outlet Belt Tension Drive Sheave size, in. Dia. Description

Nameplate

Fan Data As Found Measured Data (Avg.)

As Left Measured Data (Avg.)

Initial/Date

Horsepower Serial No. Power Factor Efficiency Fan to Motor Shaft Centerline

Belt Size No. of Belt Design As Found Measured Data As Left Measured Data Initial/Date

Inlet Total Press., in. H2O, Discharge Total Press., in. H2O Fan Total Press., in. H2O Measured Flow, cfm Inlet Air Temperature Air Flow (Fan Curves) MOTOR MISCELLANEOUS INFORMATION Description As Found Measured Data As Left Measured Data Avg. Full Load Current, amps A B C Avg. A B C Full Load Voltage, volts Motor Speed, rpm
Figure C-1 Fan Data

AB

BC

AC

Avg.

AB

BC

AC

Avg.

C-2

EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation

ROUND DUCT TRAVERSE DATA SHEET Date: System: Pitot #: Time: Test Location: (Elev) Duct Dia.: in. Duct Area: Number of readings in Traverse (n): Area Served: Sum of Readings: fpm/n = fpm (Vt ) Avg, Velocity Actual Velocity: fpm (Vt ) X ft2 (Dt ) = acfm System Mode of Operation: Pre Temperature = Post Temperature = Avg Temperature = Pre Static Pressure = Post Static Pressure = Avg Static Pressure = Altitude Correction Factor = Temperature Correction Factor = Total Correction Factor X Air Flow Reading = Corrected Air Flow

Barometric Pressure =
Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total FPM = Required Flow =

SCFM =
Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Total FPM = Actual Flow = Traverse Readings Points VP FPM 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Total FPM = % Difference Flow =

Figure C-2 Round Duct Traverse Data Sheet

C-3

EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation

RECTANGULAR DUCT TRAVERSE DATA SHEET Date: System: Pitot #: Time: Test Location: (Elev) Duct Dim. X = in Duct Area: in2. / 144 in2 = ft2 Duct Cross Section Area Number of readings in (Trav) Traverse (n): Sum of Readings: fpm/n = fpm (Vt ) Avg, Velocity Actual Velocity: fpm (Vt ) X ft2 (Duct Area ) = acfm System Mode of Operation: Pre Temperature = Post Temperature = Avg Temperature = Pre Static Pressure = Post Static Pressure = Avg Static Pressure = Altitude Correction Factor = Temperature Correction Factor = Total Correction Factor X Air Flow Reading = Corrected Air Flow Required Flow = Actual Flow = % Difference Flow = Barometric Pressure = SCFM = Trav Reading 1 Reading 2 Reading 3 Reading 4 Reading 5 Reading 6 Points V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Trav Reading 7 Reading 8 Reading 9 Reading 10 Reading 11 Reading 12 Points V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM V.P. FPM 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Figure C-3 Rectangular Duct Traverse Data Sheet

C-4

EPRI Licensed Material Typical HVAC TAB Documentation

System: Location: Date Grille/Register Outlet Room Area Served ID #

Operating Mode: Size AK Design VEL CFM As Found VEL CFM As Left VEL CFM Initial

Total = Air Balance Engineer: Figure C-4 Grille/Register Data Sheet Date: % Diff.

Total = % Diff.

Total =

C-5

EPRI Licensed Material

D
EQUATIONS AND CALCULATIONS
Note: In some cases, dimensional constants have been added to ensure proper units. Because this is not always the case, a dimensional analysis is highly recommended.

D.1

Fundamental Equations

Ideal gas law P = RT (PV = mRT) P1V1 P2V2 = T1 T2 where: P = absolute pressure of the gas (lbf/ft2) = gas density (lbm/ft 3) R = gas constant (ft-lbf/lbm Rankine [ R]) T = absolute temperature of the gas (R)
3 V = gas volume (ft )

Eq. D-1 Eq. D-2

m = mass of the gas (lbm)

Continuity equation
& = A V m

Eq. D-3

where:
& = mass flow rate across (lbm/min) m

= fluid density (lbm/ft3) A = area (ft 2) V = fluid velocity (ft/min) D-1

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Q = AV where: Air Q = volumetric flow rate A = cross-sectional area of the duct V = fluid velocity (ft3/min) (ft2) (ft/min) Water (gpm) (ft2) (ft/s)

Eq. D-4

Kinematic viscosity


Eq. D-5

where: = kinematic viscosity (ft 2/s) = absolute viscosity (lbm/ft s) = fluid density (lbm/ft )
3

Reynolds number Re = VDh 720


Eq. D-6

Re = 8.56 D hV for standard air

Eq. D-7

D-2

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Dh =

4 A for noncircular pipes P

Eq. D-8

where: Re = Reynolds number V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Dh = hydraulic diameter (inches) = fluid kinematic viscosity (ft /s)
2

A = cross-sectional area (ft 2) P = wetted perimeter (ft)

Bernoullis equation p1 V p V + 1 + z1 = 2 + 2 + z 2 + H loss g 2g g 2g where: p = static pressure (lbf/ft 2) V= velocity (ft/s) z = elevation (ft) Hloss = head loss (ft) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2) = fluid density (lbm/ft )
3

Eq. D-9

D-3

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Total pressure Pt = P v + P s where: Pt = total pressure (in. w.g.) Pv = velocity pressure (in. w.g.) Ps = static pressure (in. w.g.)
Eq. D-10

Sensible heat ratio SHR = q sensible (q sensible + q latent ) 0.24 TdB q total
Eq. D-11

SHR =

Eq. D-12

where: SHR = sensible heat ratio qsensible = sensible heat (Btu/h) qlatent = latent heat (Btu/h) TdB = dry bulb temperature difference of the air ( F) qtotal = change in total heat content of the supply air (Btu/lbm)

Humidity ratio
= 0.62198

pw p pw

Eq. D-13

where: = humidity ratio (lbm of moisture/lbm of dry air) pw = partial pressure of water vapor (psia) p = total mixture pressure (psia) D-4

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

D.2

Conduit, Pipe, and Duct Friction Loss Equations

Darcy-Weisbach equation
2 L v hl = f D 2 g

Eq. D-14

where: f = friction factor (as defined below) L = pipe length (ft) D = pipe diameter (ft) v = fluid velocity (ft/s ) g = 32.2 Fanning friction factor: f 4 64 Re
2

For fully developed laminar flow: f =

For smooth conduit walls with turbulent flow: f = 0.3164 Re<105 Re 0.25
Eq. D-15

where: Re = Reynolds number

f = 0.0032 +

0.221 105< Re < 3 106 0.237 Re

Eq. D-16

Fully rough flow: 1 D = 1.14 + 2 log f


Eq. D-17

D-5

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Colebrook equation for turbulent flow regime: 1 2 18.7 = 1.74 2 log + D Re f f


Eq. D-18

where: = material absolute roughness factor (ft) Churchills friction factor correlation (valid for the entire range of laminar, critical, and turbulent flows):
3 12 8 12 f = 8 + (A + B ) 2 Re 1

Eq. D-19

where: 7 0.9 k A = 2.457 ln + Re 3 . 7 D 37530 B= Re


16 16

Hazen-Williams equation v hl = 3.022 L C where: hl = head loss (ft ) L = pipe length (ft) v = average velocity (ft/s) C = roughness factor {140 for new steel pipe, 130 for new cast iron pipe, and 110 for riveted pipe} D = pipe internal diameter (ft)
1.852

1 D

1.167

Eq. D-20

D-6

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Valve and fitting losses in pipes V 2 hl = K 2g L K = f D


& =C Q v p

Eq. D-21

Eq. D-22

Eq. D-23

where: hl = head loss (ft ) K= geometry and size dependent loss coefficient f = friction factor L D = equivalent length in pipe diameters
& Q = volumetric flow rate (gpm)

Cv = valve coefficient, gpm at p = 1 psi p = pressure drop (psi) Resistance coefficient for sudden and gradual enlargements in pipe K = 2.6 sin K = (1-2)2

(1-2)2 2

for 45 for 45< 180

Eq. D-24

Eq. D-25

The value of resistance coefficients K is based on the velocity in the small pipe. To obtain the K values in terms of the larger pipe, divide the equations by 4, where: = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the small pipe (in.) d2 = diameter of the large pipe (in.) D-7

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Resistance coefficient for sudden and gradual contractions in pipe K = 0.8 sin

(1-2) 2 (1-2) 2

for 45

Eq. D-26

K = 0.5 sin

for 45< 180

Eq. D-27

The value of resistance coefficients K is based on the velocity in the small pipe. To obtain the K values in terms of the larger pipe, divide the equations by 4, where: = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the small pipe (in.) d2 = diameter of the large pipe (in.)

Equivalent of resistance coefficient and flow coefficient: Cv = 29.9 d 4 K


Eq. D-28

where: Cv = flow coefficient d = nominal pipe diameter (in.) K = resistance coefficient

Flow-through nozzles, orifices, and venturis


& = (60 7.48052)YC A Q d 1

2(144) gp g / g c

Eq. D-29

Cd =

C 1 4
Eq. D-30

D-8

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

where:
& = volumetric flow rate (gpm) Q

Y = expansion factor of fluid (value = 1 for incompressible fluids) Cd = discharge coefficient C = flow coefficient A1 = cross-sectional area of the device (ft2) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2)
2 p = pressure drop across the device (lbf/in )

= fluid density at upstream conditions (lbm/ft 3) gc = gravitational constant (32.174 lbm ft/lbf s2) = d1/d2 d1 = diameter of the device (in.) d2 = diameter of the pipe (in.)

Duct fitting losses Tp = C Vp


Eq. D-31

where: Tp = total pressure drop (in. w.g.) C = fitting loss coefficient Vp = velocity pressure (in. w.g.)

D-9

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

D.3

Airflow Equations

Note: In these equations, standard air is defined as dry air (0% RH) at 59F and 14.696 psia. Flow-through orifice Airflow for a sharp-edged orifice with pipe taps located 1 inch on either side of the orifice (for duct diameters 214 inches):
& = 6 K d Q o
2

Eq. D-32

& = 21.8 K d h for standard air Q o

Eq. D-33

where:
& = volumetric flow rate (ft3/min) Q

K = coefficient of airflow do = diameter of the orifice (in.) = air density (lbm/ft )


3

h = pressure drop across the orifice (in. w.g.)

Converting velocity pressure to velocity (for standard air):

V = 4005 Pv
where: V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Pv = velocity pressure (in. w.g.)

Eq. D-34

D-10

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fluid flow equation V = 2 gh where: V = velocity (ft/s)


2 g = acceleration due to gravity (32.2 ft/s )

Eq. D-35

h = head (ft w.g.) Calculating air density P 1.325 Pb + s 13.6 = T

Eq. D-36

where: = air density (lbm/ft3) Pb = barometric pressure (in. Hg) Ps = static pressure (in. w.g.) T = absolute temperature (R)

Calculating the correction factor for velocity with a change in density 0.075 CF = where: CF = correction factor 0.075 = density of standard air (lbm/ft 3) = new calculated density(lbm/ft 3)

Eq. D-37

D-11

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Calculating the average velocity corrected for density Vc = Vm CF where: Vc = corrected velocity (ft/min) Vm = measured velocity (ft/min) CF = correction factor for new density
Eq. D-38

Calculating air volume with a correction for density Q = A Vc where: Q = quantity of airflow (ft3/min) A = area in (ft 2) Vc = corrected velocity (ft/min)
Eq. D-39

Calculating actual (local or true) velocity when flows are taken with a heated wire anemometer 29.92 T Vactual = Vmeasured P b 530 where: V = fluid velocity (ft/min) Pb = barometric pressure (in. Hg) T = dry bulb temperature (R)
Eq. D-40

D-12

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Calculating corrected velocity to standard conditions when using a manometer PS PB + 13.6 529.69 ACFM = SCFM 29 . 921 T + 459 . 69 DB where: TDB = temperature, dry bulb (F) PB = pressure, barometric (in. Hg) PS = pressure, static (in. w.g.) ACFM = actual cubic feet per minute SCFM = standard cubic feet per minute Air changes per hour and cubic feet per minute from air changes per hour ACH =
&) (60 Q Room Volume

Eq. D-41

Eq. D-42

where: ACH= air changes per hour


& = quantity of airflow (ft3/min) Q

Room Volume = room volume (ft3)

D.4

Fan Equations
Eq. D-43

Fan total pressure = P t1-Pt2 Pt1= 0 if the fan draws directly from the atmosphere Pt2 = pv1 if the fan discharges directly to the atmosphere

D-13

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fan static pressure = Pt-Pv = Ps2-Pt1 Fan velocity pressure V Pv = 1097


2 2

Eq. D-44

Eq. D-45

V Pv = for standard air 4005 where: Ps = static pressure (in. w.g.) Pt = total pressure (in. w.g.) Pv = velocity pressure (in. w.g.) = density (lbm/ft3 ) V = duct air velocity (ft/min) Subscripts 1, 2 = upstream and downstream of the fan, respectively

Eq. D-46

Fan total efficiency

t =

&P Q t PFi

Eq. D-47

where: PFi = Fan input power (HP) Fan static efficiency

s =
where:

t Ps Pt

Eq. D-48

Ps = static pressure (in. w.g.) D-14

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fan system effect pressure loss V SEF = C o o 1097 where: SEF = fan-system-effect pressure loss, in. w.g. (Pa) Co = fan-system-effect loss coefficient, dimensionless
3 = density (lbm/ft )

Eq. D-49

and for centrifugal fans, where: Vo = inlet velocity based on area at the inlet collar, or outlet velocity based on the outlet area (ft/min) and for axial fans, where: Vo = inlet or outlet velocity based on the area calculated from the fan diameter (ft/min)

Fan output power or air horsepower PFo = where: PFo = Fan output power (HP) Pt = total pressure rise (in. w.g.)
&P Q t for a compressibility factor of 1 6356

Eq. D-50

Fan motor power or fan brake horsepower PMo = PFi D


Eq. D-51

where: PMo = Motor output power (HP) PFi = Fan input power (HP) D = Motor drive efficiency D-15

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fan motor efficiency

M =

PMo 1.341 PMi

Eq. D-52

where: M = Fan motor efficiency PMo = Motor output power (HP) PMi = Motor input power (HP)

Fan energy consumption PMi =


& P Q 8520 F M

Eq. D-53

where: PMi = Fan motor power (kW)


& = airflow volume (ft 3) Q

P = fan pressure (in. w.g.) F = fan efficiency (%) M = motor efficiency (%)

Temperature rise through the fan (motor out of the airstream) T = 0.371 Ps F
Eq. D-54

where: T = temperature rise through the fan ( F) Ps = static pressure rise through the fan (in. w.g.) F= fan efficiency (%) D-16

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fan Law No. 1


& Q N Pd 2 2 = 2 = & N 1 Pd1 Q 1

Eq. D-55

Fan Law No. 2 Ps2 N2 = Ps1 N1


& Q Pd 2 2 = = Pd Q & 1 1
2 2 2

Eq. D-56

Fan Law No. 3: Power varies with the cube of the fan speed (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger)
& Pd 2 BHP2 N 2 Q 2 = = = N Q Pd & BHP 1 1 1 1
3 3 3

Eq. D-57

Fan Law No. 3: Amperage varies as the cube of the air volume (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger)
& Pd 2 I2 N2 Q 2 = = = & I1 N1 Q1 Pd1
3 3 3

Eq. D-58

Fan Law No. 3: Brake horsepower varies as the square root of the static pressures cubed BHP2 BHP 1 where:
& = new volume of airflow (cubic feet per minute) Q 2 & = original volume of airflow (cubic feet per minute) Q 1

Ps2 =P s 1
2

Eq. D-59

N2 = new fan speed (rpm) N1 = original fan speed (rpm) Pd2 = new pitch diameter of the motor sheave Pd1 = original pitch diameter of the motor sheave PS2 = new static pressure (in. w.g) PS1 = original static pressure (in. w.g.) BHP2 = new brake horsepower (hp) BHP1 = original brake horsepower (hp) I2 = new amperage (amps) I1 = original amperage (amps) D-17

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Fan Laws and Density Air volume remains constant with changes in air density. A fan is a constant volume machine and will handle the same airflow, regardless of air density. It must be remembered, however, that many instruments are calibrated for standard air density (70 F at 29.92 in Hg) and any change in air density will require a correction factor for the instrument. Static pressure and brake horsepower vary in direct proportion to density Ps2 BHP2 = Ps1 BHP1 2 = 1
Eq. D-60

where: 1 = original density (lbm/ft )


3

2 = new density (lbm/ft 3) Air velocity pressure for pitot traverse n Pv = Pv ,i n i =1 where: Pv = velocity pressure (in. w.g.) i = nth reading n = total number of readings
2

Eq. D-61

D.5

Pump Equations

Pump efficiency and power equations WHP = BHP =


& H Q 3960 & H Q 3960 p
2

Eq. D-62

Eq. D-63

& P2 Q 2 = & P1 Q 1

Eq. D-64

D-18

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

where: WHP = water horsepower H = head (ft) = specific weight (ft 3/lbm) BHP = brake horsepower p = pump efficiency (%) P = pressure difference (psi)
& = volumetric flow rate (gpm) Q 1

Cavitation Index

2( p o p v )

Vo

Eq. D-65

where: po = pressure at reference point o pv = vapor pressure Vo = velocity at reference point o

Pump NPSH NPSHA =

(P + Pa Pv )(2.31)
SG

V2 + S B L + 2g

Eq. D-66

where: NPSHA = net positive suction head available (ft w.g.) P = pressure above liquid (psig) Pa = atmospheric pressure (psia) D-19

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Pv = vapor pressure of liquid at pumping temperature (psia) SG = specific gravity at pumping temperature (ft 3/lbm) S = static height of liquid above (+) or below (-) grade (varies per pump type) (ft) B = distance above grade from pump centerline (ft) L = suction system friction losses (ft) V = velocity of fluid at pump inlet nozzle (ft/s) g = local acceleration due to gravity (ft/s 2)

D.6

Electrical Equations

Brake horsepower, single-phase circuit BHP = V A PF 746


Eq. D-67

Brake horsepower, three-phase circuit BHP = 1.732 V A PF 746


Eq. D-68

where: BHP = brake horsepower V = volts (for three-phase circuits, this is average volts) A = amps (for three-phase circuits, this is average amps) = motor efficiency PF = power factor 1.732 = constant ( 3 ) for three-phase circuits

D-20

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Calculating brake horsepower using no-load amps (for motors of 10 horsepower and larger) BHP = HPn (RLA 0.5 NLA) (FLA c 0.5 NLA)
Eq. D-69

Calculating field corrected full load amps FLAc = Vn FLAn / Vm where: HPn = nameplate horsepower RLA = running load amps, field measured NLA = no-load amps (motor sheave in place and belts removed) FLAc = full load amps, field corrected Vn = nameplate volts FLAn = nameplate full load amps Vm = volts, field measured
Eq. D-70

Single-phase power factor PF = W V A


Eq. D-71

D-21

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Three-phase power factor PF = W 1.732 V A


Eq. D-72

where: PF = power factor W = power (watts) V = voltage (volts) A = amperage (amps) 1.732 = constant ( 3 ) for three-phase circuits

Voltage unbalance equation %V = D max /Vavg 100 where: %V = % voltage unbalance (should not exceed 2%) D max = maximum deviation from average voltage Vavg = average voltage (volts)
Eq. D-73

Current unbalance equation %C = D max / Cavg 100 where: %C = % current unbalance (should not exceed 10%) D max = maximum deviation from average amps Cavg = average amperage (amps)
Eq. D-74

D-22

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Percent of slip of induction motors and synchronous speed % = (NS Nr) / NS 100 Ns = 120 f/p where: % = percent of slip NS = synchronous speed (rpm) Nr = rotor speed (rpm) f = frequency (Hz) p = number of poles (not pairs of poles)
Eq. D-75

D.7

Noise and Vibration Equations

Fan sound power level W Lw = 10 log 2 10 where: Lw = fan sound power level (dB) Log = logarithm to base 10 W = power (kW)
Eq. D-76

Blade passage frequency BPF = nN 60


Eq. D-77

where: BPF = blade passage frequency (Hz) N = fan speed (rpm) n = number of blades D-23

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Strouhal number N Strouhal = where: N Strouhal = Strouhal number f = vortex shedding frequency (Hz) V = velocity (ft/s) D = characteristic dimension (ft) 5f D V
Eq. D-78

D.8

Drives, Belts, and Pulleys

Drive equation Nm Dm = Nf Df where: Nm = speed of the motor shaft (rpm) Dm = pitch diameter of the motor sheave (ft) Nf = speed of the fan sheave (rpm) Df = pitch diameter of the fan sheave (ft)
Eq. D-79

Blade tip speed N Tip = where: NTip = blade tip speed (in/min) = 3.14 D = blade diameter (in.) N = rotational speed (rpm) D-24

D N 12

Eq. D-80

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Belt length L = 2C +

(D - d) 2 (D + d) + 2 4C

Eq. D-81

where: L = belt pitch length C = center-to-center distance of the shafts


= 3.14

D = pitch diameter of the large sheave d = pitch diameter of the small sheave

Drive-belt losses for V-belt drives LD = 9.4 4.65127 ln PM for fractional power motors LD = 9.4 1.86747 ln PM for motors from 1 to 10 horsepower LD = 6.2 0.477724 ln PM for motors from 10 to 100 horsepower LD = 4.0 for motors over 100 horsepower D = 1.0 LD/100 where: LD = drive belt losses PM = motor power (kW) D = drive efficiency (%)
Eq. D-82 Eq. D-83 Eq. D-84 Eq. D-85 Eq. D-86

D-25

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

D.9

Areas and Circular Equivalents of Ducts

Rectangular duct A = ab/144 where: A = area of the duct (ft 2) a = length of one side of rectangular duct (in.) b = length of adjacent side of rectangular duct (in.) Round duct A = R /144
2

Eq. D-87

Eq. D-88

where:
2 A = area of the duct (ft )

= 3.14

R = radius (in.) Flat oval duct Area of the rectangle plus the area of the circle Segment of a circle A = R2N/360 where: A = area (ft 2)
R = area of the circle (ft )
2 2

Eq. D-89

R = radius of circle (ft) N = number of degrees in the arc 360 = constant, degrees in a circle

D-26

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

Triangle A = bh/2 where: A = area (ft 2) b = base of the triangle (ft) h = height of the triangle (ft)
Eq. D-90

Circular equivalent for a rectangular duct


De = 4ab /
Eq. D-91

Circular equivalent for a rectangular duct for equal friction and capacity
De = 1.30 ab 0.625 (a + b) 0.25
Eq. D-92

where: De = equivalent duct diameter (in.) a = length of one side of rectangular duct (in.) b = length of adjacent side of rectangular duct (in.)

Circular equivalent for a flat oval duct for equal friction and capacity
A 0.625 De = 1.55 0.25 P
Eq. D-93

where: area A = (b2/4) + b (a b) perimeter P = b + 2 (a b) a = major dimension of flat oval duct (in.) b = major dimension of flat oval duct (in.) D-27

EPRI Licensed Material Equations and Calculations

References American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Industrial Ventilation A Manual of Recommended Practice. 2001. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals. 1997. E. A. Avallone and T. Baumeister III, Marks Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers. McGraw Hill. 1997. Crane Co., Technical Paper No. 410. Flow of Fluids through Valves, Fittings, and Pipe, 1985. R. G. Culham, Fans Reference Guide . Ontario Power Generation. 2001. F. C. McQuiston and J. D. Parker, Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditionin g. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1994. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc. (SMACNA), HVAC Systems Testing, Adjusting and Balancing. 1986.

D-28

EPRI Licensed Material

E
ANALYTICAL METHODS
E.1 Introduction

In situ TAB of nuclear HVAC systems can be difficult and expensive for several reasons, including required system operability (safety and licensing concerns), interference/distraction to normal plant operation, and radiological exposure. For these reasons, the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a first cut approach in accomplishing a full system balance. Preliminary analytical analyses will help in determining initial positions and sizes for various flow balancing components (such as dampers, restrictors, orifice plates, and valves) and the effect that identified system changes will have on overall airflow quantities and distribution. This type of approach will also help to reduce the amount of time required for temporary field construction and measurement activities along with system inoperability during the TAB process. Key O&M Cost Point Because of required system operability (safety and licensing concerns), interference/distraction to normal plant operation, and radiological exposure, the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a first cut approach in accomplishing a full system balance. This appendix addresses several analytical methods that may be used as tools in troubleshooting and determining system modification effects and best guess positions of components (such as dampers and valves) as an efficient initial method in the nuclear HVAC TAB process.

E.2

System Airflow and Pressure Loss Analysis

Historically, the design of duct distribution systems has followed several basic methods, including the equal friction method and the static regain method. The equal friction method determines duct size based on the assumption of a constant pressure loss per unit length of the system. The static regain method is based on the objective of sizing each branch-to-main-duct section to obtain a constant static driving pressure for the supply of air to the corresponding branch outlets. More recently, additional methods of duct distribution optimization (for example, the T method) have been developed and are more focused on initial system costs and the present worth of energy.

E-1

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

E.2.1 System Diagram Development


To understand the dynamics of the HVAC system being analyzed, the engineer should first develop a system one-line or nodal diagram that represents the ductwork and associated components to the degree of detail required. The diagram should be set up by duct/fitting sections and sufficiently detailed in order to evaluate the conditions at branches, major equipment (including fan system effects), and balancing locations (such as fans, dampers, and flow measurement locations). After the system diagram is developed, any available test and balance information that exists for the current as-built system configuration may be used to assist the engineer in a baseline evaluation of the major plenum and branch flows. Hand calculations may then be performed to verify expected pressure and airflow measurement values based on observed conditions or changes. System effects based on fan placement in relation to system ductwork size, transitions, and fittings should also be evaluated to determine the possible magnitude of the resultant pressure losses. Analytical methods supported by computer analyses may also be applied and are further described in Sections E.2.2 through E.2.2.2. If significant disparity exists between analytical calculations and existing test data, the identified locations in question should be further tested. Using this initial analytical approach should save significant time and the associated expense after a full system test and balance effort. This effort will also help to enhance the engineers knowledge of the operation and dynamics of the subject HVAC system.

E.2.2 Analysis Using Generic and Custom Computer Modeling Software


Regardless of the design method chosen, using a hand calculation approach in solving for pressure loss in each section of a distribution system can become laborious because of the iterative nature of the solution process. A variety of companies, including the major HVAC equipment vendors (for example, Carrier and Trane), offer generic computer design software for initial design and sizing of HVAC distribution systems. These programs are primarily structured to permit the HVAC design engineer to input a proposed system configuration while allowing the user to size the ductwork plenums and branch distribution. Most nuclear HVAC engineers, however, are not required to design completely new ventilation systems based on the pre-existing facilities and systems they support. Therefore, analysis is more focused on operation and flow evaluation/balancing of existing HVAC systems. Methods for calculating airflow and associated pressure loss of these systems are suitable for computer programs that can provide iterative analysis capability and data tracking. Several of these methods and programs are discussed in Sections E.2.2.1 and E.2.2.2.

E-2

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

E.2.2.1

Generic Spreadsheet Software

HVAC engineers have taken advantage of generic software (for example, Microsoft, Lotus and Corel) to formulate simple to complex spreadsheet programs that will calculate and update the flow and pressure in a defined duct network system. The calculation algorithms are programmed into the spreadsheet, allowing the program to calculate current airflow and pressure values for each duct section on an iterative, cascading basis. This type of programming method, however, is somewhat limited in its rigor of analysis, based on the complexity of the assumed convergence criteria and the inflexibility of defining dynamic system variables (including fan performance, system effects, and damper and component variable position). E.2.2.2 Computer Modeling Software

Various architect/engineering (A/E) and engineering analysis organizations have developed specific computer modeling programs to analyze nuclear HVAC systems. These models have been used to determine the margins and existing conditions of the plants current design and licensing basis. Also, a benchmarked system model can be used to support JCO in lieu of full system airflow test and measurement. Some of these thermal-hydraulic software-modeling programs, available for use by the HVAC nuclear engineer in a generic format (for example, PROTO-HVACTM), meet nuclear-grade quality assurance program requirements. There are many advantages to using these types of analysis programs for more accurately determining key operating and balancing conditions. Depending on the complexity of the modeling input developed and the software used, the following output capabilities can be provided: Calculation of steady pressures, temperatures, and airflows throughout complex HVAC duct distribution systems Change in alignment of flow paths or selection of predefined specific system operating modes Selection of fan operating status and fan performance curves (that is, design, actual, degraded, or new) Evaluation of system effects based on the subject HVAC system configuration Determination of balancing/volume damper throttle position (manually or automatically) as a function of flow or pressure set point Specification of leak tightness of dampers or components as a function of pressure conditions Various component pressure losses as a function of a fixed or variable flow parameter Duct friction factor adjustment Specification of local airflow conditions (for example, temperature, pressure, elevations, and psychrometric conditions) Flags to alert the user of abnormal conditions (for example, reverse flow, excessive leakage, less than minimum specified flow, and fan runout) Flexibility in output report information and formatting E-3

EPRI Licensed Material Analytical Methods

A significant reduction in the time required to final balance the subject HVAC system is one of the benefits of developing a detailed computer simulation model. In addition, once this model is developed and benchmarked, it can be used to support JCOs or proposed system modifications in lieu of in situ testing.

E.3 Thermal and Pressure Loss Analysis and Balancing of HVAC Water/Liquid Systems
Analytical methods for assisting the engineer in the TAB of the water/liquid side of the HVAC system are similar to those discussed in Section E.2 for the air/gas side. Because of the larger tolerance in analytical inaccuracy of these hydraulic systems, liquid systems are by nature normally less difficult to analyze. In most nuclear plants, HVAC system engineers do not have direct responsibility for the liquid side of their subject systems. For that reason, this guideline does not further describe specific analysis methods used to evaluate the complexity of these supporting systems (which include service water, emergency service water, chilled water, and closed cooling water).

E.3.1 HVAC Heat Exchanger Analysis


The major component that provides the thermal interface between the air/gas and liquid side of the HVAC system is the fan or duct coil. Many devices are used in the various HVAC plant systems, including containment fan coil units (CFCUs), room unit coolers, in-duct DX coils, induct chilled water and service water coils, in-duct steam and hot water heating coils, and preheat glycol coils. Many of these heat exchange devices must be balanced periodically on both the air/gas and water/liquid sides to satisfy licensing basis performance requirements (that is, those found in USNRC Generic Letter 89-13 [28]). Numerous analytical methods, including hand calculations, generic software spreadsheets, and computer modeling software, are used in conjunction with in situ testing to verify thermal performance. In addition, various A/Es and engineering analysis organizations have developed specific heat exchanger, fan coil, service water and chilled water, and refrigerant chiller computer modeling programs to analyze these systems and components. Some of these thermalhydraulic software-modeling programs, available for use by the nuclear engineer or technician in a generic format (for example, PROTO-HX TM and PROTO-FLOTM), meet nuclear-grade quality assurance program requirements.

E-4

EPRI Licensed Material

F
ALTERNATE FLOW MEASUREMENT USING TRACER GAS
Sulfur hexafluoride has been used as a tracer gas to test control room envelope in-leakage and to measure the airflow rate in ducting. ASTM E 2029-99 [29] is used as a standard for this method. Using the standard alone is insufficient without the experience and technique of trained individuals. Not all duct configurations are capable of delivering an accurate pitot tube traverse. Systems in which turbulence and twisted configurations detract from good pitot tube results tend to be suited for the tracer gas technique. Applications range from the unit vent on a PWR to turbine building exhaust in a BWR. Figure F-1 illustrates a typical schematic for using tracer gas testing methods.

Figure F-1 Typical Schematic for Using Tracer Gas Testing Methods

Tracer gas is injected at a known concentration at a known flow rate. After being fully mixed, it is sampled to measure the change in concentration that is commensurate with the flow rate in the system. Regardless of the application, the injection gas and mass flow meter should be calibrated for the expected flow rate application. Typical equipment used in the process consists of the following: Mass flow meter Mass flow control valve Calibration gas Injection gas F-1

EPRI Licensed Material Alternate Flow Measurement Using Tracer Gas

Injection manifold Sample pump Sample manifold Sample analyzer

Typical applications include not only airflow measurement in a ducting system but also damper leakage or fan flow rate measurement. The fan flow rate may be ducted or may be an application where the un-ducted fan exhausts into a room with a single exhaust point. In any case, re-entrainment of exhausted tracer gas should be accounted for. This application is shown in Figure F-2.

Figure F-2 Tracer Gases Exhausted into a Room with a Single Exhaust Point

F-2

EPRI Licensed Material

G
DEFINING ACFM AND SCFM WHEN PERFORMING TAB ACTIVITIES
When referring to airflow in HVAC systems, the convention is cubic feet per minute (CFM) or 3 ft /min. However, when considering the change in air density for varying conditions of temperature, pressure, and RH (moisture content), the term CFM becomes unclear. More appropriate units are actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) and standard cubic feet per minute (SCFM) when performing specific airflow measurements and associated calculations for HVAC systems. ACFM is defined as the flow rate measured under stated operating conditions corrected for local effects (for example, true air density). ACFM is the actual operating volumetric flow rate condition for a specific HVAC system at the specific location of observation. SCFM is the actual flow rate converted back to standard reference conditions. This conversion can be attained analytically by using the relationship presented in the ideal gas law (described further in this appendix). The only time that ACFM and SCFM have the same value is at the established standard reference conditions. One of the most commonly used standard reference conditions is dry air (0% RH) at a pressure of 14.7 psia and temperature of 70F, as documented by ASHRAE in ANSI/ASHRAE 111-1988 [30]. The Nuclear HVAC Utility Group (NHUG) also endorses these standard reference conditions.

G.1

Effect of Temperature on CFM

Throughout the ranges of pressure and temperature applicable to most HVAC systems, air can be treated as an ideal gas. Therefore, the ideal gas relationship PV=mRT or P= RT (see Appendix D for definitions of terms) can be applied to various analyses when determining the effect that variations in temperature, pressure, and moisture content have on air volume and density. As illustrated in Figure G-1, as the temperature of a fixed mass of dry air increases, the volume it occupies also increases. The curve in Figure G-1 is based on the mass of dry air that would occupy 100 cubic feet of volume at standard conditions. The figure shows that if airflow were measured at the temperature extreme of 10F, an 11% difference would be realized between this ACFM value and the standard condition at 70F. This also reflects a total volumetric difference of 18%, which the same air mass would occupy over the temperature range (10110F) indicated

G-1

EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities

in Figure G-1. Based on this effect, a significant under-prediction of airflow at low temperatures or over-prediction at higher temperatures could occur if measurements are not corrected back to standard conditions. In addition, for many calculations requiring the rigor and accuracy warranted in the operation of nuclear power plants, this level of change would not be acceptable if left uncorrected.

Figure G-1 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature

G.2

Effect of Pressure on CFM

Applying the ideal gas law relationship for variations in absolute pressure at a constant temperature for dry air provides for the associated change in volume. For most HVAC systems, this change is not very significant, based on the small changes in differential operating pressure (015 in. w.g.) realized through the system (supply-to-return ducting). However, these changesin conjunction with local atmospheric pressure conditions during the time of measurementcould be more significant and should be evaluated. The curve in Figure G-2 is based on the mass of dry air that would occupy 100 cubic feet of volume at standard conditions of 14.696 psia. Figure G-2 reflects the change in volume that would be realized from conditions associated with a change in absolute (total) pressure between 11.75 psia and 15.25 psia. This range of conditions could be realized, based on various combinations of weather (high or low barometric pressure), altitude (for example, Denver, Colorado vs. Miami, Florida), and system operating pressure variations applicable to the specific TAB performed.

G-2

EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities

Figure G-2 Change in Air Volume as a Function of the Change in Absolute Pressure for a Constant Mass

Therefore, a TAB engineer/technician measuring ACFM on an HVAC system located in Denver, Colorado (with an atmospheric pressure of 11.75 psia) could realize as much as a 25% difference in airflow versus the same system located and tested in Miami, Florida (with an atmospheric pressure of 14.696 psia).

G.3

Effect of Moisture Variation on CFM

The difference as a result of moisture between ACFM and SCFM becomes more significant as the air becomes more saturated. The behavior of the dry air and water vapor mixture is based on the principle defined by Daltons law of partial pressures, as shown in Equation G-1. (Pa + Pw)V = (na + nw)RT where: Pa = partial pressure of the air Pw = partial pressure of the water vapor V = total volume of the mixture na = number of moles of the air nw = number of moles of the water vapor R = universal gas constant T = temperature G-3
Eq. G-1

EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities

Each constituent (water vapor and air) exerts part of the total pressure of the gas mixture and shares a proportional part of the total volume. For dry air, the partial pressure ( Pw) and the number of moles (nw) of water vapor are equal to zero; therefore, the air mass occupies the entire volume. As the dry air begins to combine with and retain water vapor, the value of nw (number of moles) increases. In addition, the value of Pw is based on the temperature of the mixture. It can be seen by Equation G-1 that as moisture percentage increases, a larger volume of air and its equivalent mass are displaced by the water vapor. Figure G-3 illustrates the effect that moisture content has on the change in air volume for the temperature range above and below standard conditions. The curve for dry air (shown in Figure G-1) is compared to the curve for saturated air (having a moisture content of 100% RH). Figure G-3 shows that at low temperatures, the volumetric differences are not significant because the partial pressure value of the water vapor (Pa) is small. However, as temperature increases, the partial pressure value of the water vapor becomes significant, occupying a greater amount of the total mixtures volume and displacing that portion of dry air mass associated with the original volume.

Figure G-3 Change in Air Volume as a Function of Temperature for Various Percentages of Moisture Content

G-4

EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities

G.4

Correction Formulas for ACFM and SCFM

As described in Section G.3, local effects of temperature, pressure, and moisture content can significantly affect air density (the amount of air mass for a given volume) and the resultant HVAC systems airflow measured by the TAB engineer/technician. Equation G-2 provides a means to calculate the local air density ( ) based on the defined variables of temperature, pressure, and RH (for wet and dry bulb temperatures):
P PB + S 0 . 378 13 . 6 = 70 . 73

( 0.296

TWB

P T TWB 0 . 159 1 TWB + 0 .41 PB + S DB 13 .6 2700 {53 .35 ( T DB + 459 .69 ) }


2

Eq. G-2

where: PB = pressure, barometric (in. Hg) at the measurement location PS = pressure, static (in.w.g.) at the measurement location TWB = temperature, wet bulb (F) at the measurement location TDB = temperature, dry bulb (F) at the measurement location Airflow values measured by the TAB engineer/technician depending on the measurement device, may be corrected for density effects (based on air velocity) by using Equation G-3. ACFM = 0.075 MCFM
Eq. G-3

where: ACFM = actual CFM = density of air (lbs/ ft )


3

MCFM = measured CFM

G-5

EPRI Licensed Material Defining ACFM and SCFM When Performing Tab Activities

ACFM can be converted to standard reference conditions of SCFM by using Equation G-4: PS PB + 13.6 529.69 SCFM = ACFM 29.921 TDB + 459.69
Eq. G-4

where: SCFM = standard CFM PB = pressure, barometric (in. Hg) at the measurement location PS = pressure, static (in.w.g.) at the measurement location TDB = temperature, dry bulb (F) at the measurement location ACFM = actual CFM

G-6

EPRI Licensed Material

H
LISTING OF KEY POINTS
The following list provides the location of Key Point information in this report. Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will reduce purchase, operating, or maintenance costs.
Referenced Section 3.1.1.2 Page Number Key Point

3-4

The HVAC system may operate without an alarm; however, improperly maintained system balancing may increase energy costs of operation. Lack of attention to the system balancing can be indicated by insufficient cooling and/or heating in the building or by problems with areas that require positive or negative pressure. System lineup should be recorded when acquiring air balance data on systems or subsystems that can be affected by other ventilation systems. Development of a detailed troubleshooting plan can save money and time by reducing repetitive efforts and providing a structured approach to determining the problem. Adjustments to dampers are generally less expensive to perform; modifications to fans generally involve modifications that can become costly. Lesson learned: When setting up a fan, the operating class limits for that fan must not be exceeded. Operating a fan outside its associated limits may lead to catastrophic failure. Lesson learned: The technicians likely did not understand the limitations of their instrumentation. When moving a fluid-based instrument from one environment to another, ample time should be allotted for the liquid to come to equilibrium, or frequent checks should be made to ensure that the base point has not changed. Lesson learned: Postulate system effects prior to proceeding with what appears to be a minor design modification

3.1.2.2

3-5

3.1.7

3-12

3.1.10.1

3-17

6.1

6-1

6.7

6-4

6.8

6-5

H-1

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key O&M Cost Point Emphasizes information that will reduce purchase, operating, or maintenance costs.
6.12 6-8 Lesson learned: The most important part of the TAB work occurs prior to the start of the work: understanding how the system works and performing the walkdown. Because of required system operability (safety and licensing concerns), interference/distraction to normal plant operation, and radiological exposure, the nuclear HVAC engineer may consider alternative analytical methods as a first cut approach in accomplishing a full system balance.

E.1

E-1

H-2

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.
Referenced Section 3.1.6 Page Number Key Point

3-11

The engineer should perform an eyewitness, hands-on inspection of the equipment to validate the issue and subsequently define the actual problem. A field walkdown of the HVAC system/component(s) is recommended at this point. Prior to making any physical adjustments to the system, a detailed troubleshooting plan should be developed, taking into consideration all of the data collected thus far in the evaluation. The most common causes of HVAC system performance problems include the following:

3.1.7

3-13

3.1.9.2

3-16

Inadequate fan performance Worn or damaged turning vanes Worn, damaged, or missing flow straighteners Improper damper performance or adjustment Loss of pressure boundary (duct leakage) Plugged coils (airside or water side) Improper performance (that is, inadvertent closing) of fire dampers Airflow monitoring station plugging Dirty/damaged/missing/obstructed air distribution grilles Excessively dirty filters Damaged flex connections Inadvertent changes to system configuration Adverse ambient and environmental conditions

3.2.1

3-19

The first step in the balancing procedure is to become familiar with the complete system operation.

H-3

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.
3.2.2 3-19 Prior to starting each systems TAB work, a walkdown of the system shall be made to determine testability. A general walkdown of major system components, such as fans and filter housings, should be performed to ensure that maintenance activities are not underway or needed. Prior to starting the water balancing work, a walkdown of the system is recommended. Manometer tubes should be chemically clean to be accurate and filled with the correct fluid. Mercury is not an acceptable fluid for HVAC TAB work because of its potential hazardous effects on personnel and on plant equipment. 4.1.1.2 4-2 When air pressures are extremely low, a micromanometer (hook gauge) or some other more sensitive instrument should be used to ensure accuracy. The technical manual for the electronic manometer should be referenced to determine if it provides results in ACFM, SCFM, or both. If the temperature sensor is not used, the instrument reading on at least one electronic manometer should be adjusted by calculation to either actual or standard conditions (ACFM or SCFM). Measurement of airstream total pressure is achieved by connecting the inner tube outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. If measuring a positive pressure, the pitot tube is connected to the highpressure side of the pressure measuring device. Measurement of airstream static pressure is achieved by connecting the outer tube side outlet connector to one side of a manometer or gauge. If measuring a negative pressure, the pitot tube is connected to the low-pressure side of the pressure measuring device. Measurement of airstream velocity pressure is achieved by connecting both the inner and the outer tube connectors to opposite sides of a manometer or gauge. The total pressure line is connected to the highpressure port of the test instrument, and the static pressure line is connected to the low-pressure side. In the case of coils or filters, an uneven airflow is frequently found because of entrance or exit conditions and/or stratification.

3.4.2

3-26

4.1.1.1

4-1

4.1.1.3

4-3

4.1.1.4

4-6

4.1.1.4

4-7

4.1.1.4

4-7

4.1.1.6

4-9

H-4

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.
4.1.6.8 4-23 Flow measuring elements should be installed far enough from elbows, valves, and other sources of flow disturbances. Results using the equal area method should be closely evaluated if they are near minimum acceptance values. Lesson learned: The manufacturers data for nominal pressure drop may be higher than the actual pressure drop and may result in airflow that is greater than design. Lesson learned: Duct access doors should have a positive closing mechanism that is not subject to opening as a result of vibration and system starts and stops. Lesson learned: Periodic monitoring of building pressures can identify equipment problems prior to failure and avoid potentially detrimental system effects. Lesson learned: Slipping belts are not always audible, and a strobotach should be used to verify fan speed when fan flows are in question. Lesson learned: Pitot tubes should be closely inspected prior to each use. During subsequent checks of pitot tubes, one was discovered with an internal crack in the impact velocity sensing line. A simple way to check the impact pressure line is to connect the pitot tube to a pressure measuring device and pressurize the impact line, block the sensing port, and observe the pressure measuring device for any pressure decay. Lesson learned: Inclined manometers with integral shut-off valves should be checked for leaks in these valves. These valves contain two O-rings and may close off tightly but leak when opened for use. In addition, these valves should never be opened more than threefourths of a turn: opening them more than this can result in the failure of the sealing O-ring to make contact with the sealing surface in the valve body. Lesson learned: The tubing used to connect the pitot tube to the pressure measuring device should be verified to ensure that it is in good condition and free of any leaks. The tightness of the impact line can be verified by pressurizing it and blocking the impact port on the pitot tube. However, the static sensing line cannot be tested in this manner. A visual inspection is the best method of verifying the connecting tubing. Lesson learned: Flow measurement in a duct at a location with flow disturbances can be significantly different (in this case over 10% greater) than at a location of long straight duct.

5.1.1

5-2

6.2

6-1

6.3

6-2

6.4

6-2

6.5

6-2

6.6

6-3

6.6

6-3

6.6

6-4

6.9

6-6

H-5

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key Technical Point Targets information that will lead to improved equipment reliability.
6.10 6-6 Lesson learned: Some electronic micromanometers provide a velocity reading that automatically converts to actual flow results (that is, ACFM) by using the temperature probe. If the temperature probe is not used, the instrument reading corresponds to neither SCFM nor ACFM. Lesson learned: All possible system operating conditions need to be fully considered during the design and functional test phases. Instrument test ports attached with rivets and sealed with gaskets may not be suitable for nuclear plant applications requiring zero-leakage.

6.11

6-7

B.7

B-28

H-6

EPRI Licensed Material Listing of Key Points

Key Human Performance Point Denotes information that requires personnel action or consideration in order to prevent injury or damage or ease completion of the task.
Referenced Section 3.1.1.1 Page Number Key Point

3-3

Key to addressing any issue is understanding that the plant-specific design/licensing bases need to be maintained throughout the troubleshooting, TAB, and corrective action processes. The HVAC engineer should understand how the problem could apply to other systems/HVAC components of similar design and applications. Personnel should be familiar with the design of the subject HVAC system and the operation of the test equipment. Care should be taken when using any rotating measuring instrument in order to avoid personal injury caused by inadvertent contact with the rotating equipment. Care should be used when working around energized electrical equipment.

3.1.2.1

3-4

3.1.7.2

3-14

4.1.3

4-14

4.1.5

4-20

H-7

Target: Nuclear Power

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