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A Systematic Approach to Wind Turbine Prognostics & Health Management (PHM)


Mohamed AbuAli, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Center for Intelligent Maintenance Systems (IMS) University of Cincinnati
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Outline
Introduction and Background Smart Wind Turbine PHM Platform
Overall Approach Global Health Estimator Local Damage Estimator Turbine-to-Turbine Prognostics Technique for Wind Farms

Case Study IMS Wind Turbine Fact Sheet

Survey of Wind Energy in the US


By the end of 2010, the cumulative installed capacity has risen to 40,180 MW [AWEA].
This represents 0.38% of the potential wind capacity of 10,459 GW from the contiguous states of the USA [DOE].

Market Share of Wind Turbine Manufacturers in 2009

Wind Turbine Criticality Analysis


4-Quadrant Chart

Probability of Failure

Rotor Blades Gearbox Generator

Downtime Distribution

GEARBOX

Bearing Faults Gear Abrasion Gear Eccentricity Axle Misalignment


Stator Faults Rotor Misalignment Bearing Faults Shorted Winding Coil Short Circuit Rotor Unbalance Bearing Faults Mass Imbalance Aerodynamic Asymmetries Surface Roughness Overload Thermo-mechanical Fatigue

ANN, BPNN STFT / FFT / Envelope Fuzzy Logic + PMP Wavelet Analysis
Time Domain Analysis Wavelet + FFT Radial Basis NN Time Series Tech. Time Domain Analysis Fuzzy Logic Spectral Analysis Order Analysis

SURVEY OF CRITICAL WIND TURBINE COMPONENTS

GENERATOR

ROTOR

ELECTRONICS

Time-Domain Analysis Thermal Analysis

COMPONENT

FAULT TYPE
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ANALYSIS

Issues & Unmet Needs


ISSUE 1: Lack of a performance metrics that compels maintenance activities.

Traditional CBM can track feature progression, but does not offer definitive information when to initiate repair/replacement.

ISSUE 2: Dynamic wind turbine operating conditions and behavior.


Various operating states of wind turbine components, their environmental conditions, and their effect on system reliability need to be well studied. Dynamic prognostics is needed for rotating wind turbine components working under dynamic loads.

NEEDS - Reconfigurable and systematic PHM platforms are required to improve overall wind turbine reliability.

Need for system-level (global) and component-level (local) prognostics.

Smart Wind Turbine PHM Platform


Operating Regime Identification

GLOBAL HEALTH ESTIMATOR


Performance Prediction

Output Variable:
Actual Output Power

R2

R1
R2 R1

Operating Conditions:
Wind Speed Wind Direction Pitch Angle Load etc.

R1

R2

Performance Assessment

Initiate Maintenance Work Order

Regime Density Estimation

Turbine Revenue Prediction

LOCAL DAMAGE ESTIMATOR

SCADA CMS

Condition Data:
Acceleration Acoustic Emission Temperature Oil Analysis etc. Signal Processing & Feature Extraction Fault Localization Fault Type Identification

Global Health Estimator (GHE)


It is based on the wind generation performance of a wind turbine. The health information can be directly correlated with the wind production revenue. The IMS approach is based on a multi-regime modeling health assessment that considers the wind turbines dynamic operating conditions.

Local Damage Estimator (LDE)


CRITICAL COMPONENTS

FILTERING & SIGNAL PROCESSING


9 8 7
Feature 2

PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS/ FEATURES


Baseline Current Data

6 5 4 3 2

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FAULT DIAGNOSIS

FAULT LOCALIZATION

HEALTH ASSESSMENT

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PHM Data Challenge 2009 Gearbox Monitoring


Challenge: to determine for each mechanical component, whether it is in the healthy or fault state, and if it is in the fault state, what problem is it experiencing.
IMS Researchers won first and second place. First place in both student and professional division.

Method 1
A Systematic Approach for Gearbox Health Assessment and Fault Classification

Method 2
Information Reconstruction Method

Student Division Winning Technique

Professional Division Winning Technique

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Gearbox Schematic and Description

Gear Components (4 Gears): 4 states (healthy, chipped tooth, manufacturing error, or broken tooth) Bearing Components (6 Bearings): 4 states (healthy, inner race, outer race, ball defect) Input Shaft: 3 states (healthy, imbalance, bent shaft) Output Shaft: 2 States (healthy or bad key)

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Method 1 - Introduction
PHM Approach
Signal Processing & Feature Extraction

Feature List
1. Features related to Overall Health:

Regime Segmentation

Mean and sum of spectral kurtosis features RMS value from raw time signal (input and output accelerometer). Peak-to-peak level from TSA signal (input and output accelerometer). Energy operator from TSA signal (input and output accelerometer). Peaks for shaft related problems (10X, 15X, 20X).

2. Features related to Shaft Problems:

Peak at 5X from input and output accelerometer from TSA FFT.

3. Features related to Gear Problems:

Health Assessment

Mean, max and sum of a set of features related to


peaks corresponding to sidebands around gear mesh frequency. Mean and sum of the set of features related to sideband index and sideband level.

Fault Diagnosis

4. Features related to Bearing Problems:


frequency peaks.

Mean of a set of features related to bearing fault

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Sample Diagnosis with Method 1


Vibration Time Synchronous Signal Input Accelerometer 0.06 0.05 0.04
Input Accelerometer (g)

File # 155 (Bent Shaft)

0.03 0.02 0.01 0 -0.01 -0.02 -0.03 -0.04

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100

150 200 250 300 Ouput Shaft Rotation (degree)

350

400

Signature of Bent Shaft

Signature of Broken Gear Tooth

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Method 2 - Introduction

Information Reconstruction Method


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Scheme of Reconstructing FFT spectrum

FFT spectrum of File-29


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Reconstructed FFT spectrum of File-29

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Definition and Selection of Filter Functions

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Holo-coefficients Radar Chart


A holo-coefficients radar chart consists of all the energy coefficients. In the map, the contribution rate of each coefficient can be revealed very clearly along with its variation with operating conditions.

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Turbine-to-Turbine Prognostics for Wind Farms (1)


Patent filed on May 13, 2011 (International Application # PCT/US11/36402) Inventors: Edzel Lapira, Hassan Al-Atat & Jay Lee

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Clustering

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Selection of Best & Suspect Units

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Peer-to-Peer Comparison

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Output Variable
Best Unit(s) Selection

Selection of Best Unit

Similarity to Best Unit

Model Identification

Peer-to-Peer Comparison: Degradation Assessment Modeling

Training Working Conditions


Clustering

Partitioning of Operating Regimes

Similarity of Operating Regimes

Peer Aggregation

Feature Set

Testing

Distance Measurement & Health Estimation

Model Prep for Peers

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Turbine-to-Turbine Prognostics for Wind Farms (2)


Global Health Estimator
Suspect Unit

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Selection of Best & Suspect Units
Baseline Units

Suspect Unit

Local Damage Estimator

Fault Localization & Diagnosis

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Clustering
Baseline Units

Peer-to-Peer Comparison

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Case Study - Power Performance Assessment


Data was sampled every 10 minutes from a large scale, On-shore Wind Turbine. The collected data spanned approximately 26 months (Jan. 1, 2008 to March 2, 2010). Within the duration of the data collection, there are four downtime events (gray-shaded regions). Data Description:

Temperature (gearbox oil, gearbox bearing, gen slip ring, etc.) Environmental Conditions (wind speed, wind direction, ambient temp, etc.) Turbine Output Power (active power, reactive power, etc.)

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Data Pre-processing
Instance Filtering
Data instances were removed when active power is below 0 W Sample points (blue dots), when wind turbines pitch control mechanism is engaged, are removed (red asterisks).

Data Segmentation

Test data was divided into week long intervals.

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Health Assessment - SOM vs. GMM (1)


SelfOrganizing Maps
Status 1 Faulty Status 2 Normal

Status 3 Critical

Classification
Method No. 1 2 3

Health Assessment
Baseline Comparison Minimum Quantization Error (MQE) 2 Distance Analysis of Residues
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Multi-regime Modeling Self-organizing Map (SOM) Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) Neural Network

Health Assessment - SOM vs. GMM (2)


In feature space

Gaussian Mixture Models

Normal Behavior

Most Recent Behavior

0.8

H ( x)

G ( x)

0.6

0.4 Gaussian 1 0.2 Gaussian 2

Gaussian 3

-0.2

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200

300

400

500

600

Calculate Health CV based on the overlap of two distributions

CV

H ( x) G ( x) H ( x)
L2

L2 L2

G ( x)

Method No. 1 2 3

Multi-regime Modeling Self-organizing Map (SOM) Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) Neural Network

Baseline Comparison Minimum Quantization Error (MQE) 2 Distance Analysis of Residues


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Results
Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)

GMM-L2 (upper) shows a more gradual degradation trend. More suitable for degradation modeling.

SelfOrganizing Map (SOM)

SOM-MQE (lower) shows an abrupt increase of MQE distance. More suitable for anomaly detection.

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Wind Turbine PHM Platform - Simulation

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IMS Wind Turbine PHM - Factsheet


1. Wind Turbine PHM Simulator

IMS has developed an NI LabVIEW-based wind turbine health monitoring simulator , based on a real 2-MW onshore turbine http://www.imscenter.net/windturbinephm/WTPHMDemo
Global Health Estimator (GHE) and Local Damage Estimator (LDE) approach is going to be validated using a fleet of off-shore wind turbines from a new IMS member company.

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PHM Platform Validation on Off-shore Wind Farm

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PHM Data Challenge 2011

IMS researchers places 1st, 3rd and 4th in the 2011 PHM Data Challenge Competition. The task is anemometer health assessment for wind resource evaluation.
IMS Center is one of only 19 partners (NI included) worldwide that participated in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) round robin with high ranking.

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NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC)

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Turbine-to-Turbine (T2T) Intellectual Property

IMS has filed a non-provisional patent on Turbine-to-Turbine Prognostics for Wind Farms.

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