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# International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 141-151 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

NOMINAL DIAMETER, CLAMP LENGTH AND THREAD PITCH ANALYSIS FOR BOLT PRELOAD AUGMENTATION
Satish S. Kadam1, S. G. Joshi2
1

(Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, BharatiVidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune 411043, Maharashtra (India) 2 (formerly Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, India)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

## Figure 1 Bolted joint

II. TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP The torque required to turn the nut can be related to the axial load in the bolt by the following formula: [1]
T = Fi d K

(1)

Where, T = Torque required to develop desired bolt preload Fi = Bolt preload (Equivalent to clamping force FC) d = Bolt nominal diameter mm K = Nut Factor and, K = K 1 + K 2 + K 3
K1 = p 2 d ; K2 = rt t d cos ; K3 = rb b d

K1 = Factor for torque contribution towards Joint compression and Bolt elongation (also termed as geometric factor) K2 = Factor for torque contribution for overcoming thread friction K3 = Factor for torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head under head bearing friction
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
T = Fi d r r p t b + t + b 2 d d cos d

(2)

p = Thread pitch = Half thread flank angle (/6 for ISO thread) rt = Thread root radius rb = Effective bearing radius t = Coefficient of friction between male and female threads b = Coefficient of friction between the bearing surfaces under the turning fastener head or nut As we know; T = T1 + T2 + T3 (100% Torque) Where, T1 = Torque contribution towards Joint compression and Bolt elongation T2 = Torque contribution for overcoming thread friction N-m T3 = Torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head bearing friction
T1 = Fi d K 1 = Fi d

p 2 d

(3)

T2 = Fi d K 2 = Fi d

rt t d cos

(4)

T3 = Fi d K 3 = Fi d

rb b d

(5)

To get the values of rt and rb it is necessary to calculate thread stress area (AS) and Bearing area (AC) under nut or bolt head respectively.
AS = 4

(d 0.9382 p )2
2 d 1
2

(6)

d +d 2 AC = 3 2 4

(7)

d1 = Bolt hole diameter = d (for small clearance) d2 = Nut head diameter = 1.5 d (for standard hexagonal headed bolts) d3 = Fastener head outer bearing or bearing cone diameter = d2 + L tan 300 = 1.5 d + L tan 300 Where, L = Clamp length
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
AC = 16
2

[5d

+ 6 d L tan 30 + L tan 30
2

(8) For comparing the performance of different bolted joints, the analysis of the effect of various parameters such as coefficient of friction, clamp length, nominal bolt diameter, pitch etc. is important. So the calculations are made for M121.25 size bolts which are commonly used in number of engineering applications. On the basis of such an analysis the joint parameters were suggested to obtain desired preload.
A C d + 0.68 d L + 0.065 L

For M121.25 bolts, d = 12 mm; p = 1.25 mm; = 300 Assuming, Clamping length, L = 30 mm Putting above values in equations (6) and (8) one can get,
AS = = 4 4
2

2

mm

## from which rt = 5.4136 mm

A C d + 0.68 d L + 0.065 L
2

= rb2
2

## = 12 + (0.68 12 30 ) + 0.065 30 from which rb = 11.9323 mm

) = 447.3 mm

The most important parameter is preload (Fi) produced by tightening torque (T). The tightening torque (T) depends mainly upon thread friction and bearing friction. In the following sections, the bolt preload influencing factors such as friction, diameter, pitch and clamp length are discussed and analyzed in detail. III. FRICTION Lambert [6] states that the coefficient of friction depends on a number of factors such as the method of manufacture and surface finish of the threads, the degree of lubrication and nature of the lubricant and the number of times the bolt has been previously tightened. The change in the coefficient of friction, under different conditions, can have a very significant effect on the slope of the torque preload curve. Better the lubrication on the fastener the more of the torque energy will be converted into actual clamping force. The type of lubricant used has a definite effect on how much of the torque is needed to overcome friction. As such in this section, the effects of variation in coefficient of friction tand bare discussed. The values of T1, T2 and T3 based respectively on equations (3), (4) and (5) are obtained for M121.25 sizes as;
T1 0.2 Fi T2 = 6.2511 Fi t

(9) (10)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
T3 = 11 .9323 Fi b
T = Fi (0.2 + 6.2511 t + 11.9323 b )

(11) (12)

The equation (12) shows that to develop the desired bolt preload (Fi), torque (T) is required, which is taken as 100%. As s per VDI 2230, the values for tand brange between 0.1 and 0.18. To calculate the individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 to give total torque T, putting the average value of t= 0.14 and b= 0.14 in equation (12) one obtains;
T = Fi (0.2 + 0.8752 + 1.67 )

(13)

The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T are 7.28418%, 31.8739% and 60.8419% respectively. This shows that the bolt / nut underunder-head bearing friction has the significant share in the total torque T (Fig.2 shows the distribution of T3 for all the cases). Similarly for different combinations of tand bthe percentage contribution of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T have been calculated.

Figure 2 Torque distribution against bearing friction and thread friction coefficient For the case of minimum value of friction, i.e. t= 0.1 and b= 0.1; T = 2.01834 Fi and for the maximum friction value, i.e. t=0.18 and b= 0.18, T = 3.473012 Fi

(14)

(15)

From the catalogue of standard fasteners, the recommended torque (T) is 88 N N-m for Grade 8.8-M121.25. . By putting these value in equations (14) and (15) respectively one can get the extreme values of preload Fi, as 43600 N and 25360 N respectively, which shows the
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

variation of 18240 N (approximately 42%). The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T, for all the values of t and b in the range of 0.1 to 0.18 have been calculatedand its distributions are shown in Fig. 3.

ure 3 Individual torque distribution Figure Figure 3 exhibits the scatter of torque values required to overcome the friction and develop the desired clamping force in the joint. IV. NOMINAL DIAMETER To ensure a Tensile strength of a bolt is represented by the material and size. T The load carrying capacity of a bolt is proportional to the square of the bolt diameter.The diameter.The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3in the total torque T, for different values of nominal diameter are calculatedusing using equations (3), (4) and (5), and the results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 4. Table 1 Torque Contribution for Bolt Diameters Bolt Diameter (%) Torque Contribution % Change % Change (d) mm in Bolt in T1, T2 and T3 Diameter T1 T1 T2 T3 T2 T3 8 9.5376 26.46 64.01 33.33 24 17.02 4.90 10 8.2333 29.53 62.24 16.66 11.96 7.39 2.20 12 7.2484 31.88 60.86 0 0 0 0

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure 4 Torque contribution against bolt nominal diameter Figure 4 shows that, for smaller size bolts, increased capacity of torque T1 is available. Torque T1 is required to develop desired preload. V. CLAMP LENGTH From equation (8), it is seen that the clamp length L has the significant effect on the bearing radius rb, which ultimately affects the value of T3, i.e. Torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head bearing friction. For analyzing the role of clamp length in the tightening process, it has been varied from 20 to 50 mm in the step of 5 mm. Putting these values in equation (8), bearing radius rb is calculated. With the help of equations (3), (4) and (5), for t= 0.14 and b= 0.14; the torque contribution data of T1, T2 and T3 are calculated and the results are presented in Table 2 and displayed in Figure 5. Table 2 Torque Contribution for Clamp Length Clamp (%) Torque Contribution % Change % Change Length in Clamp Length in T1, T2 and T3 (L) mm T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 20 7.9461 34.77 57.28 0 0 0 0 25 7.5980 33.25 59.15 20 4.58 4.58 3.163 30 7.2842 31.87 60.84 33.33 9.08 9.08 5.8484 35 6.9989 30.63 62.37 42.85 13.53 13.53 8.16 40 6.7381 29.48 63.77 50 17.93 17.93 10.1821 45 6.4982 28.43 65.07 55.55 22.28 22.28 11.96 50 6.2765 27.46 66.26 60 26.6 26.6 13.55
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

## Figure 6 Torque contribution against pitch

VII. CONCLUSIONS (i) Controlling the friction between the mating surfaces must be the highest priority while assembling the joint. Section III of the paper highlights the scattered nature of the torquetension relationship arrived due to variation in the values of coefficient of friction. (ii) Bolt nominal diameter plays an important role in the strength consideration of the threaded fastener, for a given joint. More number of slender (small diameter) bolts are preferred, instead of a small number of large size bolts. (iii) With the increase in the joint length, the value of torque T1 (required for developing preload) increases and potential loss of preload is decreased. (iv) The proper selection of bolt diameter and grip length (d/L = aspect ratio) is desired to achieve the required preload. (v) It is seen that large pitch values help to achieve more clamping force due to lesser frictional resistance. However, the larger the pitch value, smaller is the effective tensile stress area. In general, both coarse and fine threads are capable of providing sufficient strength for most applications. REFERENCES [1] J. H. Bickford, Design and analysis of bolted joints (Marcel and Dekker, 1995). [2] E. Dragoni, Effect of thread pitch and frictional coefficient on the stress concentration in metric nut bolt connections, Transactions ASME Journal OMAE, 116(1), 1994, 21-27. [3] J. F. Ferrero et. al. Analysis of a dry friction under small displacements: applications to a bolted joint, Wear, 256, 2004, 1135-1143.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

[4] T. H. Lambert, Effect of variation in the screw thread coefficient of friction on the clamping force of bolted connections, Journal Mechanical Engineering Science, 4(4), 1962, 401-403. [5] A. F. Luscheret. al., Increasing abutment friction at bolted joint interfaces through particle enhanced sealants, International Journal of Vehicle Design, 29(3), 2002, 288306. [6] S. A. Nassaret. al., Bearing friction torque in bolted joints, STLE Tribology Transactions, 48, 2005, 69-75. [7] S. A. Nassaret. al., Thread friction torque in bolted joints, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 127, 2005, 387-393. [8] M. P. Oliver. (2003). Thread and under head friction. Fastener Technology. Available: http://www.delphi.com [9] W. G. Waltermire, Coarse or fine threads, Machine Design, 32(6), 1960, 134-140. [10] A. I. Yakushev, Effect of manufacturing technology and basic thread parameters on the strength of threaded connections (Pergamon Press, 1964). [11] Modelling design and control of flexible manipulator arms: A tutorial review, Proc. 29th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, San Francisco, CA, 1990, 500-506.

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