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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)
ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013), pp. 141-151 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET
IAEME

NOMINAL DIAMETER, CLAMP LENGTH AND THREAD PITCH ANALYSIS FOR BOLT PRELOAD AUGMENTATION
Satish S. Kadam1, S. G. Joshi2
1

(Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department, BharatiVidyapeeth Deemed University College of Engineering, Pune 411043, Maharashtra (India) 2 (formerly Professor in Department of Mechanical Engineering, Walchand College of Engineering, Sangli, Maharashtra, India)

ABSTRACT Threaded fastening is used mainly for fastening together mechanical parts. Compared to other types of jointing methods such as adhesion, welding, brazing and pressure insertion, threaded fastening has a unique characteristic that elastic energy is built up inside the joint members. Tension in the bolt and compression in the fastened parts are created as a product of action and reaction. These forces can make the joint less susceptible to fatigue and loosening when external load is applied or internal pressure is increased. Since the torque applied to a fastener must overcome all friction before any loading takes place, the amount of friction present is important. It is seen that approximately 50% of the torque applied will be used to overcome bolt head-bearing friction and another 35% to overcome the thread friction and approximately 5% is consumed by prevailing torque. Thus only 10% torque is available to produce clamping force. In this paper, an analysis is presented to study the effect of various parameters such as clamp length, nominal diameter and thread pitch on the preload required for maintaining joint integrity. The suggested design guidelines are useful for proper selection of threaded fasteners used in different assemblies of structures, machine elements etc. Keywords : Bolted Joints, Preload Augmentation

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

I. INTRODUCTION A screw thread is an extension of one of the basic machines, the inclined plane, that has been wrapped around a shaft. When the thread is turned, it moves the mating part or nut up the inclined plane. When increased turning force or torque is applied to the shaft, the force exerted on the nut is increased. This force creates a tension in the bolt, which clamps the mating parts together. Preload is the technical term for the tension caused by tightening the fastener that holds the assembled parts together. Generating sufficient preload force is the key to strong and reliable bolted joints that will not loosen or break under load. Figure 1 shows the forces that act on a bolted joint. Bolted joint design is an iterative process. To make some design decisions the designer relies mostly on trial and error, past experience and personal judgment. The designer is able to make better judgments regarding the effect of certain design parameters and decisions with the increase in his experience and knowledge. However, regardless of the size, application or operating parameters of a joint, following some steps which are commonly followed in practice are: 1. Define the purpose of the joint: Define what the joint is designed to do, environmental conditions, cost targets, size and operating parameters, desired life, critical nature, potential failure modes etc. involved in the purpose of the joint. 2. Design the joint: Determine the layout of the joint, including joint members, size, shape and material(s). 3. Estimate service loads: The static and dynamic loads to be considered include weight, pressure, shock, inertial effects, thermal effects, etc. 4. Define bolts to be used: With the joint geometry and service loads established, the bolt size, number and strength can be determined. Bolt selection should include material, diameter, thread pitch, length, tensile strength, head style, drive style, thread style, hardness and plating. 5. Determine required bolt preload and clamping force: The minimum clamping force should be great enough to overcome vibration loosening, joint separation, slippage, fatigue, leakage and other similar type failures. Maximum clamp force should not be great enough to cause bolt yielding, joint crushing, stress cracking, fatigue failure, tensile failure or other similar failures in service. 6. Determine tightening methods and assembly line accuracy: During assembly, there are different fastener assembly methods and tightening strategies which must be considered. Among the potential tightening strategies and their preload accuracy are: Torque: 35 %, Torque-Angle: 15 %, Torque - to -Yield: 7 % 7. Finalize joint design: At this point, it may be necessary to make changes in joint material, bolt preload range, bolt selection, tightening methods, etc. depending upon what was determined during the other steps of the joint design process.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure 1 Bolted joint

II. TORQUE-TENSION RELATIONSHIP The torque required to turn the nut can be related to the axial load in the bolt by the following formula: [1]
T = Fi d K

(1)

Where, T = Torque required to develop desired bolt preload Fi = Bolt preload (Equivalent to clamping force FC) d = Bolt nominal diameter mm K = Nut Factor and, K = K 1 + K 2 + K 3
K1 = p 2 d ; K2 = rt t d cos ; K3 = rb b d

K1 = Factor for torque contribution towards Joint compression and Bolt elongation (also termed as geometric factor) K2 = Factor for torque contribution for overcoming thread friction K3 = Factor for torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head under head bearing friction
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
T = Fi d r r p t b + t + b 2 d d cos d

(2)

p = Thread pitch = Half thread flank angle (/6 for ISO thread) rt = Thread root radius rb = Effective bearing radius t = Coefficient of friction between male and female threads b = Coefficient of friction between the bearing surfaces under the turning fastener head or nut As we know; T = T1 + T2 + T3 (100% Torque) Where, T1 = Torque contribution towards Joint compression and Bolt elongation T2 = Torque contribution for overcoming thread friction N-m T3 = Torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head bearing friction
T1 = Fi d K 1 = Fi d

p 2 d

(3)

T2 = Fi d K 2 = Fi d

rt t d cos

(4)

T3 = Fi d K 3 = Fi d

rb b d

(5)

To get the values of rt and rb it is necessary to calculate thread stress area (AS) and Bearing area (AC) under nut or bolt head respectively.
AS = 4

(d 0.9382 p )2
2 d 1
2

(6)

d +d 2 AC = 3 2 4

(7)

d1 = Bolt hole diameter = d (for small clearance) d2 = Nut head diameter = 1.5 d (for standard hexagonal headed bolts) d3 = Fastener head outer bearing or bearing cone diameter = d2 + L tan 300 = 1.5 d + L tan 300 Where, L = Clamp length
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
AC = 16
2

[5d

+ 6 d L tan 30 + L tan 30
2

(8) For comparing the performance of different bolted joints, the analysis of the effect of various parameters such as coefficient of friction, clamp length, nominal bolt diameter, pitch etc. is important. So the calculations are made for M121.25 size bolts which are commonly used in number of engineering applications. On the basis of such an analysis the joint parameters were suggested to obtain desired preload.
A C d + 0.68 d L + 0.065 L

For M121.25 bolts, d = 12 mm; p = 1.25 mm; = 300 Assuming, Clamping length, L = 30 mm Putting above values in equations (6) and (8) one can get,
AS = = 4 4
2

[d 0.9382 p ]2 = rt2 [12 0.9382 1.25]2 = 92.0717


2

mm

from which rt = 5.4136 mm

A C d + 0.68 d L + 0.065 L
2

= rb2
2

= 12 + (0.68 12 30 ) + 0.065 30 from which rb = 11.9323 mm

) = 447.3 mm

The most important parameter is preload (Fi) produced by tightening torque (T). The tightening torque (T) depends mainly upon thread friction and bearing friction. In the following sections, the bolt preload influencing factors such as friction, diameter, pitch and clamp length are discussed and analyzed in detail. III. FRICTION Lambert [6] states that the coefficient of friction depends on a number of factors such as the method of manufacture and surface finish of the threads, the degree of lubrication and nature of the lubricant and the number of times the bolt has been previously tightened. The change in the coefficient of friction, under different conditions, can have a very significant effect on the slope of the torque preload curve. Better the lubrication on the fastener the more of the torque energy will be converted into actual clamping force. The type of lubricant used has a definite effect on how much of the torque is needed to overcome friction. As such in this section, the effects of variation in coefficient of friction tand bare discussed. The values of T1, T2 and T3 based respectively on equations (3), (4) and (5) are obtained for M121.25 sizes as;
T1 0.2 Fi T2 = 6.2511 Fi t

(9) (10)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME
T3 = 11 .9323 Fi b
T = Fi (0.2 + 6.2511 t + 11.9323 b )

(11) (12)

The equation (12) shows that to develop the desired bolt preload (Fi), torque (T) is required, which is taken as 100%. As s per VDI 2230, the values for tand brange between 0.1 and 0.18. To calculate the individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 to give total torque T, putting the average value of t= 0.14 and b= 0.14 in equation (12) one obtains;
T = Fi (0.2 + 0.8752 + 1.67 )

(13)

The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T are 7.28418%, 31.8739% and 60.8419% respectively. This shows that the bolt / nut underunder-head bearing friction has the significant share in the total torque T (Fig.2 shows the distribution of T3 for all the cases). Similarly for different combinations of tand bthe percentage contribution of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T have been calculated.

Figure 2 Torque distribution against bearing friction and thread friction coefficient For the case of minimum value of friction, i.e. t= 0.1 and b= 0.1; T = 2.01834 Fi and for the maximum friction value, i.e. t=0.18 and b= 0.18, T = 3.473012 Fi

(14)

(15)

From the catalogue of standard fasteners, the recommended torque (T) is 88 N N-m for Grade 8.8-M121.25. . By putting these value in equations (14) and (15) respectively one can get the extreme values of preload Fi, as 43600 N and 25360 N respectively, which shows the
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

variation of 18240 N (approximately 42%). The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3 in the total torque T, for all the values of t and b in the range of 0.1 to 0.18 have been calculatedand its distributions are shown in Fig. 3.

ure 3 Individual torque distribution Figure Figure 3 exhibits the scatter of torque values required to overcome the friction and develop the desired clamping force in the joint. IV. NOMINAL DIAMETER To ensure a Tensile strength of a bolt is represented by the material and size. T The load carrying capacity of a bolt is proportional to the square of the bolt diameter.The diameter.The individual contributions of T1, T2 and T3in the total torque T, for different values of nominal diameter are calculatedusing using equations (3), (4) and (5), and the results are presented in Table 1 and Figure 4. Table 1 Torque Contribution for Bolt Diameters Bolt Diameter (%) Torque Contribution % Change % Change (d) mm in Bolt in T1, T2 and T3 Diameter T1 T1 T2 T3 T2 T3 8 9.5376 26.46 64.01 33.33 24 17.02 4.90 10 8.2333 29.53 62.24 16.66 11.96 7.39 2.20 12 7.2484 31.88 60.86 0 0 0 0

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure 4 Torque contribution against bolt nominal diameter Figure 4 shows that, for smaller size bolts, increased capacity of torque T1 is available. Torque T1 is required to develop desired preload. V. CLAMP LENGTH From equation (8), it is seen that the clamp length L has the significant effect on the bearing radius rb, which ultimately affects the value of T3, i.e. Torque contribution for overcoming bolt / nut under-head bearing friction. For analyzing the role of clamp length in the tightening process, it has been varied from 20 to 50 mm in the step of 5 mm. Putting these values in equation (8), bearing radius rb is calculated. With the help of equations (3), (4) and (5), for t= 0.14 and b= 0.14; the torque contribution data of T1, T2 and T3 are calculated and the results are presented in Table 2 and displayed in Figure 5. Table 2 Torque Contribution for Clamp Length Clamp (%) Torque Contribution % Change % Change Length in Clamp Length in T1, T2 and T3 (L) mm T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 20 7.9461 34.77 57.28 0 0 0 0 25 7.5980 33.25 59.15 20 4.58 4.58 3.163 30 7.2842 31.87 60.84 33.33 9.08 9.08 5.8484 35 6.9989 30.63 62.37 42.85 13.53 13.53 8.16 40 6.7381 29.48 63.77 50 17.93 17.93 10.1821 45 6.4982 28.43 65.07 55.55 22.28 22.28 11.96 50 6.2765 27.46 66.26 60 26.6 26.6 13.55
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure 5 Torque contribution against clamp length VI. PITCH The thread pitch is linked with the stress induced in the bolt. The cross-sectional area used for stress calculations is the thread tensile stress area which is different for coarse and fine threads. The torque recommendations, therefore, are slightly higher for fine threads than for coarse threads to induce the same stress. Choice between coarse or fine screw threads requires a compromise or balancing of the advantages and disadvantages of each thread series for the specific application. M121.25, 1.5 and 1.75 bolt sizes are taken for calculation. Corresponding values of pitch p are used in equations (3), (4) and (5), and with t= 0.14 and b= 0.14; the torque contributions T1, T2 and T3 are obtained. The results are given in Table 3 and displayed in Figure.6. Table 3 Torque Contribution for Thread Pitch Pitch (%) Torque Contribution % Change % Change in T1, T2 and T3 (p) mm in Pitch T1 T2 T3 T1 T2 T3 1.25 7.2484 31.88 60.86 0 0 0 0 1.5 8.6326 30.96 60.41 16.66 16.03 2.90 0.75 1.75 9.9961 30.05 59.95 28.57 27.48 5.76 1.49

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

Figure 6 Torque contribution against pitch

VII. CONCLUSIONS (i) Controlling the friction between the mating surfaces must be the highest priority while assembling the joint. Section III of the paper highlights the scattered nature of the torquetension relationship arrived due to variation in the values of coefficient of friction. (ii) Bolt nominal diameter plays an important role in the strength consideration of the threaded fastener, for a given joint. More number of slender (small diameter) bolts are preferred, instead of a small number of large size bolts. (iii) With the increase in the joint length, the value of torque T1 (required for developing preload) increases and potential loss of preload is decreased. (iv) The proper selection of bolt diameter and grip length (d/L = aspect ratio) is desired to achieve the required preload. (v) It is seen that large pitch values help to achieve more clamping force due to lesser frictional resistance. However, the larger the pitch value, smaller is the effective tensile stress area. In general, both coarse and fine threads are capable of providing sufficient strength for most applications. REFERENCES [1] J. H. Bickford, Design and analysis of bolted joints (Marcel and Dekker, 1995). [2] E. Dragoni, Effect of thread pitch and frictional coefficient on the stress concentration in metric nut bolt connections, Transactions ASME Journal OMAE, 116(1), 1994, 21-27. [3] J. F. Ferrero et. al. Analysis of a dry friction under small displacements: applications to a bolted joint, Wear, 256, 2004, 1135-1143.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March - April (2013) IAEME

[4] T. H. Lambert, Effect of variation in the screw thread coefficient of friction on the clamping force of bolted connections, Journal Mechanical Engineering Science, 4(4), 1962, 401-403. [5] A. F. Luscheret. al., Increasing abutment friction at bolted joint interfaces through particle enhanced sealants, International Journal of Vehicle Design, 29(3), 2002, 288306. [6] S. A. Nassaret. al., Bearing friction torque in bolted joints, STLE Tribology Transactions, 48, 2005, 69-75. [7] S. A. Nassaret. al., Thread friction torque in bolted joints, ASME Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, 127, 2005, 387-393. [8] M. P. Oliver. (2003). Thread and under head friction. Fastener Technology. Available: http://www.delphi.com [9] W. G. Waltermire, Coarse or fine threads, Machine Design, 32(6), 1960, 134-140. [10] A. I. Yakushev, Effect of manufacturing technology and basic thread parameters on the strength of threaded connections (Pergamon Press, 1964). [11] Modelling design and control of flexible manipulator arms: A tutorial review, Proc. 29th IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, San Francisco, CA, 1990, 500-506.

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