You are on page 1of 5

# Understanding By Design Unit Template Title of Unit Curriculum Area Developed By Sequences and Series Honors Algebra II Kelly

## Identify Desired Results (Stage 1) Content Standards

A-SSE.4. Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. F-IF.3. Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. F-BF.2. Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. F-LE.1b. Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. F-LE.1c. Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. F-LE.2. Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

Understandings
Overarching Understanding Students will see linear patterns in arithmetic sequences and geometric sequences as the sequence increases by a constant difference or ratio. Students will understand how to create formulas based off of arithmetic and geometric sequences in order to find the nth term of the sequence. Students will then find the sum of an arithmetic and geometric series using summation notation, as well as build a series in summation notation based off of given information. Students will also be introduced to the idea of convergence and divergence as far as infinite geometric series. Related Misconceptions Sequences and series contain multiple formulas needed to find a specific term in the sequence for arithmetic sequences and geometric sequences, as well as formulas to find the sum of an arithmetic and geometric series. Students may confuse what constitutes anything arithmetic versus anything that is geometric. Students may also confuse when an infinite geometric series converges or diverges.

Essential Questions
Overarching -Given a real life situation, how do you determine if the information given is arithmetic or geometric? -Given a real life situation how do you determine if given information needs a specific term in a sequence or the sum of the information? -When else is summation notation needed outside of sequences and series? -How can we relate infinite sums to other mathematics topics? Topical -Given a sequence of numbers, how can you determine if it is arithmetic, geometric, or neither? -What are the strategies for finding an arithmetic or geometric series? -Given an arithmetic or geometric sequence, what information is needed to find the nth term?

Objectives

Knowledge
Students will know -The difference between arithmetic and geometric sequences and series. -That an arithmetic sequence has a common difference, and a geometric sequence has a common ratio. -Summation notation refers to finding the sum of the 1st-nth term in a series. -Infinite geometric series converge when r<1 and diverge otherwise. -How to determine information in real life situations based off of sequences and series.

Skills
Students will be able to -Determine if a sequence is arithmetic or geometric by determining the difference or ratio. -Find the nth term in a sequence based off other given information. -Determine missing terms in a sequence based off other given information. -Use the formulas for sequences and series to find the sum. -Solve real life situations based off of information related to sequences and series. -Determine if an infinite geometric series converges or diverges.

## Assessment Evidence (Stage 2) Performance Task Description

Goal Role Audience Situation

Product/Performance Standards

To assess student understanding of sequences and series by providing a unit test to look at which skills students are proficient in, and which skills are the lacking proficiency. To conclude the unit on sequences and series, and allow students to show their proficiency in the topics covered over the time span spent learning the subject material. Students will perform the tasks given on the unit test, and will be given to the teacher for grading. An hour long unit test given at the end of the unit where students will be working individually. Once completed students will turn in for credit. Unit Test on sequences and series. Students will complete a unit test for sequences and series. Students will receive a short answer test with questions consisting of arithmetic sequences and series, geometric sequences and series, infinite geometric series, and word problems related to these topics. A-SSE.4. Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems. F-IF.3. Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. F-BF.2. Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. F-LE.1b. Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. F-LE.1c. Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another.

F-LE.2. Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

Other Evidence
Students will be assessed throughout the unit with quizzes on each of the topics covered. These quizzes will allow students to see what they understand and what they are struggling with. Students will also complete a variety of homework assignments, and those will be turned in on quiz days for points.

## Learning Plan (Stage 3)

Day in Unit
Day 1

Lesson Topic
Intro to sequence s and series

## Lesson Learning Objective

The purpose of an introduction is for students to see patterns in the sequences they encounter. They will work with recursive and explicit formulas to create sequences, and they will be reintroduced to the idea of summation notation, and how to find the sum of a fixed amount of terms. Students will need to notice patterns displayed by various arithmetic sequences. They will notice that there is a common difference between terms. From there they will derive a formula used to find the nth term of an arithmetic sequence. Once students know the formula for arithmetic sequences, they will face questions such as find the 10th term, or find the arithmetic means given specific information. Students will discover that an arithmetic series is the sum of the terms in an arithmetic sequence. Students will derive the formula for finding the sum

## Description of how lesson contributes to unit-level objectives

Students will understand the difference between an explicit formula and a recursive formula. An explicit formula will provide an nth term, whereas a recursive formula will not. Students will also be reminded about summation notation and examples of how to find the sum of a set of numbers. Students will recognize that arithmetic sequences increase or decrease by a constant term. They will notice that when creating a formula for arithmetic sequences that it has a linear feel, due to the constant increase/decrease. Students will be familiar with recursive and explicit formulas when regarding arithmetic sequences. They will also have real life models where they need to use arithmetic series to determine the answer. When working with arithmetic series, students will recognize that there is still a common difference in the patterns they encounter. However, now they

Assessment activities
This introduction to sequences and series will provide a basic understanding of what students will see throughout the remainder of the unit. They will have a surface level of information provided in class, and a homework assignment following up on basic knowledge of sequences and series. Students will see patterns of shapes, and will find out what the pattern is, and what the nth term of the object would be. Students will need to create and arithmetic sequence formula in order to determine the nth term of the pattern. Students will work with a partner to determine how to find out this information. A homework assignment will follow up on activities in class. In class students will see a sequence of numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. They will be asked to find the sum of these numbers. From there they will work on creating

Day 2

Arithmeti c Sequenc es

Day 3

Arithmeti c Series

Day 4

Geometri c Sequenc es

Day 5

Geometri c Series

by noticing to add the first and last number of the series, multiply by the total number of terms and divide by two. From there they will see the arithmetic series in summation notation form, where they will also have to create a series in summation notation based off of a specific pattern. Lastly, students will see real life problems where they need to find the sum. Students will start off by graphing terms in a geometric sequence to notice that the graph looks exponential, which they were exposed to previously. From there students will make observations, and come to a conclusion that geometric sequences a multiplied by a constant term, the common ratio. Like arithmetic sequences, in geometric sequences students will need to find specific terms in the sequences as well as the geometric means. Students will discover that a geometric series is the sum of a geometric sequence. Students will receive the formula needed to find the sum of n terms in a geometric sequence. Students will also see geometric series in summation notation.

must find the sum of the sequence. Reasoning skills will allow the students to notice to add the first and last term then multiply by the number of terms and divide by two. Students will relate this process to where they will see it later in summation notation. Students will notice that it is asking the same information of them, but in a different format. Students will recognize that geometric sequences increase/decrease by a common ratio. Geometric sequences have an exponential feel to them, in which students will notice the previous term is multiplied by a constant. Students will be familiar with explicit and recursive formulas for geometric sequences. They will also have real life models of situations where geometric sequences are needed. When working with a geometric series, students will notice that a common ratio is still needed in order to determine the sum of the sequence. Students will notice that the same processes occur when trying to find the sum, but just a slightly different format. When working with infinite geometric series, students will notice that they will only be able

a shortcut in adding up the terms. Once students provide that, they will be given series in summation notation to find the sum. Lastly, students will model real life situations in which an arithmetic series is needed. A homework assignment will follow up on activities in class. A quiz on arithmetic sequences and series will assess learning later in the week. Students will work on graphing a geometric sequence where the x-axis is the term number, and the y-axis is the value of that term number. Students will notice that geometric series are exponential graphs. From there they will try to find the nth term, geometric means given different pieces of information. A homework assignment will follow up on the class activity and lecture.

Day 6

## Infinite Geometri c Series

Students will create a value table of a series 20,10,5,2.5,1.25 and find the

Students will see a sequence 1,2,4,8,16 and based off of the formulas received determine how to find the sum of the first 20 terms, then the first n terms. Students will also be able to create a series in summation notation based off of a pattern that they discover. A homework assignment will cover the material covered in class. In class students will create a value table for an infinite geometric series, and they will

sum of the first 2 terms, then 3, then 4 then 10, and 15 and notice that the sum is getting closer and closer to a number. Definitions of convergence and divergence will be provided as well. Students will see infinite geometric series in summation notation and will know when a series converges or diverges. Lastly, students will see a repeating decimal, and from there create an equation for an infinite geometric series in summation notation. Day 7 Review for Unit Test

to find the sum of the series if the rate is less than one. They will understand the terms converge and diverge and when to use them. Students will create expressions in summation notation representing a repeating decimal that represents an infinite geometric series.

discover that this series gets closer and closer to a number. They will discuss in groups what they think this means, and how we could relate it to the unit. Students will receive a formula that will produce the sum for an infinite geometric series where the r<1. Students will receive a homework assignment on geometric and infinite geometric series, as well as a review packet for the unit test.

Students will receive a packet of review material to work as a whole group, individually and with a partner to clear up any questions. Students will test on all the topics covered in the past class periods.

This meets the unit goals by giving a comprehensive review of all the topics covered in the unit on sequences and series. The test will contain a variety of questions on arithmetic and geometric sequences and series, summation notation, and infinite geometric series.

Day 8

## Unit Test on Sequenc es and Series

Students will have the entirety of the hour to work on their review packets and get any questions answered. The solutions to the packet questions will be given at the end of the hour. Students will have the entirety of the hour to complete the Unit test on Sequences and Series.