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chemistry lab 2

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Purpose / Objective: The accurate determination of measurements is one of the most fundamental techniques for students of experimental chemistry. Obtaining measurements is the purpose of this experiment; therefore there should be a clear understanding of measurements and how to obtain them. In this experiment, length, volume, mass, and density will be measured using various methods. The purpose of this experiment is to perform measurements on matter by the use of various techniques. These measurements will include the following: Linear measurements with the use of a metric ruler; volumetric measurements with the use of metric and graduated containers; mass with the use of scales or triple beam balance; and density with the use of a combination of the above mentioned. Discussion, Results, Conclusion: The world in which we live in is made up of matter; matter is ubiquitous. Therefore, it is essential for students studying chemistry to be familiar with matter. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Mass is the measure of the amount of matter in any sample. Volume is the amount of space taken up by the sample. Density is the mass per unit volume of a sample. In this experiment, we will measure mass, volume, height, length, width, diameter, radius, and determine the density of certain objects. In general, chemistry uses the metric system as basis when measurements are performed. Grams, liters, meters, centigrade, and their derivatives will be used. It is important to realize that the accuracy of the equipment we use to obtain our measurements must be validated so that accurate results will be obtained. Great care must be exercised by the student as well to yield precise results. With some care, accurate measurements will be obtained after conducting this experiment, and the density of specific items will be precisely calculated. In part A, the accuracy of liquid measurements was explored. It was determined that the measurement obtained is directly related to the person interpreting it. The deviation between a beaker and graduated cylinder, and deviation between a flask and graduated was obtained by transferring the water from one instrument to another. The results were 4.0 ml and 0.0 ml, respectively. These differences indicate that even specialty calibrated instruments have errors when attempting to measure precisely. Next, a five inch test tube was filled to the top with water, and the contents transferred to the graduated cylinder, showing the volume as 19.6 ml. A gas bottle was measured in the same manner, showing a volume of 132.7 ml. In part B, the density of water and an unknown liquid were calculated by obtaining the weight of the fluid while having a known volume. A clean, dry graduated cylinder with the capacity of 100 ml was weighed, showing 133.0g. 90ml of water were added, and it should be noted that extreme care was taken to have a correct amount of water. The meniscus was closely observed, and noted on the report sheet. The graduated cylinder was then weighed, reading 221.3g. The difference was 88.3g, and this was recorded as the mass of the water. The density of the water was calculated by dividing the mass over the volume, indicating 0.981g/ml. The unknown liquid was measured in the same manner, showing total mass of cylinder and liquid as 239.2g, and the difference of 106.2g, which was recorded as the mass of the liquid. The density for the unknown liquid was calculated with the same formula, showing 1.18g/ml. The density of an irregular shaped object was found for part C using the displacement method. A rubber stopper was obtained, and the mass was 12.45g. A graduated cylinder filled

to the 70.0ml mark showed 78.8ml after immersion of the stopper, showing the volume to be 8.8ml. The density was obtained by dividing the mass over the volume, showing 1.4g/ml. Great care was and should be taken to assure accurate measurement readings, as previously discussed. In part D, the density of regularly shaped objects was determined. A square board end and two wooden cylinders of different sizes were used. The mass of each object was obtained, then each object was measured with a metric ruler, and the results recorded on the report sheet. Be sure to refer to the examples in the discussion section, as it will detail the procedure of doing this. The density for each sample was obtained. The results were as follows: For cube 4, the length, width, and height were multiplied, and a volume of 209.5992cm^3 was obtained. The mass of 100.68g was divided by the volume, and the final calculation for density was 0.480g/cm^3. For cylinder 1, the height, diameter, and radius was obtained, the formula used and a volume of 36.1253232cm^3 was calculated with the mass of 17.99g to obtain a density of 0.498g/cm^3. With cylinder 2, the volume of 59.075646cm^3 was obtained using the same method as previous, and was calculated with the mass of 30.70g to obtain a density of 0.520g/cm^3. This was recorded on the report sheet. The formulas used for this experiment included: Density = mass / volume, m / density x volume (mdv triangle), volume = H x W x L, volume = 3.14 x r^2 x H. These formulas were used throughout the experiment, and the details of the use of each formula can be found in the example section of the lab book, and in the report sheet. This experiment proved to be very helpful in orienting the student with measurement methods for chemistry. The experiment can be improved by using samples that are easier to measure and handle, e.g. clean cut edges, regular shaped objects with minimal deviances. Overall, the experiment was a success. Accurate measurements were obtained for all samples, and great care was used by the students to obtain and interpret the results. This experiment was a great way to show how precise measurements are required to have accurate results. It allowed the students to calculate different measurements to obtain the density of the samples, and it allowed the use of different formulas to obtain these calculations. The length, volume, mass, and density were all measured using various techniques, and the supervision and guidance of Mr. Flores allowed the information obtained and the procedures completed to top off the great learning experience this experiment concluded to be. References: Richard L. Wheet. Chemical Reactions and Practice, 8th Edition. Texas State Technical College, 2010, 13 20. American Chemical Society. 2012. 09 June, 2012. < www.acs.org/ >. Linda D. Williams. Chemistry Demystified. New York. McGraw-Hill, 2003. 13 25.

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