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# EEK 471 LAB 2

Universiti Sains Malaysia Electrical Engineering Department Advanced Power Electronic Laboratory EEK471

## The Single-Phase Full-wave Rectifier And The Two-Phase Rectifier (Centre-tapped)

OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the operation of a single-phase bridge rectifier and a full-wave rectifier using two diodes and a centre-tapped transformer.

INTRODUCTION Single-phase bridge rectifier With full-wave rectification, current flow is maintained for both the positive and the negative halfcycles of the source voltage. This can be accomplished using a bridge rectifier. To understand the operation of this circuit we'll apply the rules of operation for diodes to the circuit and waveforms of ES and EO shown in Figure 1. The average voltage of EO can be calculated with the equation: EO = 0.9 ES Where ES = voltage of the source (Vac)

## EEK 471 LAB 2

Two-phase half-wave rectifier Figure 2 shows a two-phase half-wave rectifier and some voltage and current waveforms related to this circuit. The ac source connected between A and N, diode D1, and the resistor from a single-phase half-wave rectifier which is identical to that shown in Figure 2. A second singlephase half-wave rectifier, consisting of another ac source and diode D2, is added to obtain a twophase half-wave rectifier.

Figure 2: Operation of a two-phase half-wave rectifier The voltage waveforms EAN and EBN show that the two ac sources have the same voltage and are 180 out of phase. As a result, the two single-phase half-wave rectifiers conduct current in turn. The voltage waveform across the resistor (EO) is identical to that obtain with the single-phase fullwave rectifier shown in Figure 1. Therefore, the average output voltage of the two phase halfwave rectifier is equal to that of a single-phase full-wave rectifier when ac sources having the same voltage ES are used in each rectifier. Figure 3 shows a two-phase half-wave rectifier implemented with a single ac source and a centretapped transformer. The instantaneous voltage A-N and B-N at the secondary winding of the transformer are equal but of opposite polarity. In other words, these voltages are 180 out of phase. Note that a centre-tapped step-up transformer with a 2:1 turn ratio is required so that the voltages A-N and B-N are equal to the voltage ES of the ac source connected to the transformer primary. In such a case, the average output voltage of the two-phase half-wave rectifier is equal to that of a single-phase full-wave rectifier connected to an ac source having the same voltage ES.

## EEK 471 LAB 2

Figure 3: Two-phase half-wave rectifier implemented with a single source EQUIPMENTS EMS 8821 Enclosure Power Supply EMS 8840-0A PE Power Supply EMS 8842-1A Power Diodes EMS 8412-05 Lab-Volt DC Voltmeter/Ammeter EMS 8311 Variable Resistance EMS 8325 Smoothing Inductor EMS 8341 Single-Phase Transformer EMS 9056-15 and EMS 9056-05 Voltage/Current Isolator Textronic Oscilloscope Connection Leads

WARNINGS The voltages and currents that are used during this lab are larger and rated at 240VAC Line-toNeutral with current as high as 20 amps (or higher if circuits are improperly connected). Please take the proper precautions and use your head before touching any circuitry. NEVER change any circuit connections while the power supply is turned on. Ask the demonstrator to check your connections before turning on the switches. And follow the rating of voltmeters and ammeters given to prevent equipments from damaged.

## EEK 471 LAB 2

Experiment: Part I Single phase full-wave rectifier circuit 1. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0 %. Make sure that the toggle switches on the Resistive and Inductive Load are all set to the O (open) position. 2. In this part, you will build a combination of 4 bridge diodes to create a full-wave rectifier circuit as shown in Figure 1a. Set up the circuit using both resistive and inductive load. Use the similar setting for parameters as in Table 1a. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON), and set the voltage control knob to 90(%). Fill in Table 1b.

## Line Voltage (V) 0 - 240

I1 dc (A) 1.5

Table 1a: Parameters setting i1 (A) E1 dc (V) e1, e2 (V) 5 300 600

Z1(a) R=240

## Z1(b) R=240 L=0.8 H

3. To determine the diode conduction angle, connect the Current Isolator in series with diode D1. Before changing any connections, set the voltage control knob on the Power Supply to 0 %, then set the main power switch to O (OFF). Table 1b: Results I1 dc (A) PO = E1 X I1 (watt)

## Load Z1 (a) Resistive (b) Inductive

E1 dc (V)

Conduction Angle ()

4. Sketch the voltage and current waveforms displayed on the oscilloscope as in Figure 1b. 5. Set the voltage control knob to 0 % then set the main power switch to O (OFF). 6. Change the load in the circuit to the inductive load Z 1(b) as in Figure 1b. Repeat the procedure steps necessary to complete Table 1b and Figure 1c.

## EEK 471 LAB 2

Figure 1b: Z1(b) connection. 7. Set the voltage control knob to the 0 % position then set the main power switch to the O position. 8. What is the effect of the inductive load on the operation of the circuit? Compare the characteristics of a single-phase bridge rectifier to those of a single-phase half-wave rectifier in terms of diode conduction angle, ripple frequency and average output voltage and power.

## EEK 471 LAB 2

Experiment: Part II Two-phase rectifier circuit 1. Make sure that the main power switch of the Power Supply is set to the O (OFF) position. Set the voltage control knob to 0 %. Make sure that the toggle switches on the Resistive and Inductive Load are all set to the O (open) position. 2. In this part, you will set up different rectifier circuits other using two diodes and a centretapped transformer as shown in Figure 2a. Set up the circuit using resistive load. Use the following setting for parameters as in Table 2a. Set the main power switch to 1 (ON), and set the voltage control knob to 90(%).

Figure 2a: Two-phase half-wave rectifier implemented with two diodes and a centre-tapped transformer.

## Line Voltage (V) 0 - 240

I1 dc (A) 1.5

Table 2a: Parameters setting i1 (A) E1 dc (V) e1, e2 (V) 5 300 600

R1 R=240

3. In this part, Observe the voltage and current waveforms as displayed on the oscilloscope. Explain the operation of this circuit. 4. Measure the average output voltage E1. Average output voltage E1 = ___________ V 5. Compare this to the output voltage of the full-wave bridge rectifier and explain the difference. 6. Set the voltage control knob to 0 % then set the main power switch to O (OFF).

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Give two differences between a full-wave rectifier and a half-ware rectifier.
2.

What will be the ripple frequency of a full-wave rectifier when the ac source frequency is 100 Hz?