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My Love Affair Linus Pauling

with

Vitamin

Linus Pauling 440 Page Mill

Institute of Science and Medicine. Road, Palo Alto, California 94305

I had begun supplement, Allowances), that other RDAs. In a talk I took their stated I began vitamins

taking

an ordinary the It

vitamin-mineral

containing in 1941.

RDAs (Recommended Dietary was not until 1966, however, C and the

to develop taken in

an interest far larger

in vitamin amounts than

in New York about the

City

I mentioned

how much pleasure in and in order

in reading various that

discoveries of the live

made by scientists nature of the world,

investigations I hoped to have a letter that this from

I could pleasure.

another On my return

25 years

to continue I received He.wrote had just a Genetic of taking

to California the that talk. he

a biochemist me copies general if

who had been at of title some papers

that

he was sending with the

published, Disease," 3,000

"Hypoascorbemia, his recommendation acid, sodium live

and that

I followed

milligrams

of vitamin calcium probably

C .(ascorbic ascorbate) more. is of

ascorbate, not only

potassium 25 years per

ascorbate, longer, but

I would

The 3,000 the RDA, Each of

milligrams My wife us felt

day that

he recommended this amount

50 times the

and I began that we were

taking livelier

vitamin. In particular,

and healthier.

My Love Affair

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the all

severe

colds

that

I had suffered occurred. 100 times; mg per Irwin

from After then day).

several

times

a year I increased

of my life

no longer C to

a few years 200 times,

my intake 300 times

of vitamin the

and then

RDA (now 18,000 several the the

Among the his thesis that

arguments

Stone

presented

to

support C is me.

proper

physiological two that

intake especially by all

of vitamin impressed species of

50 or more times Most vitamins Presumably enough his ability is of are

RDA were

required animal, in

exogenously eating the

animals.

an early these

plants

as food,

was getting to loss satisfying of the C cats,

vitamins process

food

to come close led to the

needs,

and the

of evolution cells all

to manufacture

them in the Almost

of his

body.

Vitamin - dogs, to

an exception, horses,

however. elephants,

animal

species

cows,

and so on - have continued for than this plants reactions, reaction to collagen. animals, teeth, for is that animals

synthesize more ascorbate

ascorbate. ascorbate is required for

A likely

reason

require

good health for hydroxylation A most

do.

For one thing,

and is used up during of this sort for is the tissues, animals the blood whereas

these is the

reactions. conversion structural the skin,

important

of procollagen protein the bones, of

Collagen

principal vessels, plants do not collagen. plants this

strengthening and other this in order an animal result in

the

use a carbohydrate, need a large One might as a source vitamin. amount

cellulose, of ascorbate that for

purpose, to

and hence

synthesize upon of

conclude of vitamin

to depend a deficiency

C would

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The amount being is about

provided day, that

by an average the RDA.

diet

for

a human

60 mg per fact large

The second manufacture manufactured and, about that converted 2,0.00 to very is

impressed of

me is

that

animals

amounts

ascorbate.

The amount to the body weight, from concluded all in

approximately to the 20,000 with weight

proportional of

a human being, per diet day. are Irwin

ranges Stone

milligrams an average

human beings

accord,ingly of ascorbate

suffering the blood In

from hypoascorbemia, and tissues. 1967 I happened in

a deficiency

to read

a number of papers Canada, they Dr.

published

by two psychiatrists and Dr.

Saskatchewan, In these vitamin,

Abram Hoffer that or they

Humphry Osmond. that nicotinic

papers

reported B3 (niacin

had discovered niacinamide, value

another acid mental

vitamin

or nicotinamide) disease in patients, very to treat

had considerable especially I knew that patients, later, about to per day, and

in controlling

schizophrenia. there were drugs not have

I was at that very that

first-not

interested. schizophrenic in drugs.

were used

and I did however, their the which

much interest there giving

A few days

I realized

was something very large

extraordinary of niacin

work.

They were

amounts

schizophrenic is 1,000 with small

patients, times the the striking

as much as 17,000 RDA. I was astonished physiological death 1,000

milligrams that

niacin

ascorbate, in very should

property,

when given and scurvy, effective

amounts,

of preventing in toxicity that

from pellagra times the

be so lacking

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daily meant which than

intake that

could these

be taken substances given

by a person were quite

without different

harm. from not

This drugs,

are usually the lethal present deserved

to patients I thought human body,

in amounts that these

much smaller

dosages. in the

substances, for good health ordinary

normally and life,

and required

a name to distinguish and I decided to call

them from

pharmaceuticals, substances.

them "orthomolecular" one in Science on that

In 1968 I published Psychiatry" Somatic therapy by varying that are

two papers,

on "Orthomolecular "Orthomolecular orthomolecular of disease substances also

and one in another Medicine." prevention in the

journal I said

and Psychiatric consists the in the

and treatment human body of vitamins but

concentrations present,

normally

such as the

many other

substances. and there are

The adjective

"orthomolecular" physicians, Journal of

was accepted, also the

now many orthomolecular Association and the

Orthomolecular Medicine. several of Mt.

Medical

Orthomolecular talk, at the one of

In 1969 I was invited talks

to give

a short Beadle, in of a

other the Sinai

such as one by George of a new medical I tried ten

ceremony the subject if

dedication Medical

school to think

New York, medical to

School. in

that

I could were

present to take

minutes,

and decided C and severity wrote me a

say that

a person

3 grams of vitamin the incidence of then

regularly, of the

he or she could common cold. letter, denying

decrease

A professor the truth

of medicine

scathing

of my statement,

and asking

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if

I could

refer

him to any randomized I searched which Dr.

double-blind the literature,

control finding to him. simply It

trials papers

supporting describing turned out

my statement. four that that such trials, this

I communicated Victor Herbert,

physician, studies that

refused

to recognize of the

these I found studies

had any value. the medical

During

my search had either as showing

literature these

textbooks

disregarded that vitamin

or reported against

them incorrectly the common cold

C had no value By the first scurvy thought

or any other

disease. in the

of August and the that

1970 I had become so interested discovery I might of vitamin be able C and so the in the

history

of by the

exhilarated suffering way that completing in November "Vitamin who suffer gave the the cold) best opinion

to decrease severe colds a book,

of millions

of people years

who developed that

I had in earlier it of on the last

I began writing

day of August.

The book was published This with book, people

1970 by W. H. Freeman and Company. Common Cold," (a recent 78% of the was quite survey people a success

C and the from result that

colds that

by Prevention in the survey

magazine expressed the for common the

vitamin

C has value the year.

in controlling

and the scientific

book was given book of the

Phi Beta I was, journals,

Kappa award however, and for to say that

immediately twenty large doses or

attacked years

by physicians medical authorities

and medical

have continued in controlling have their vitamin

of vitamin any other somewhat:

C have no value disease. Often it Only is

the

common cold

recently said that

statements C might

been revised somewhat

decrease

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the

severity Irwin

of a cold, Stone

even if

it out

does not in his

decrease papers,

its

incidence. in a lead In

had pointed Factor: of vitamin against 1972,

and again that well

his

book

"The Healing in intake

Vitamin

C Against

Disease" might

deficiency

C by human beings essentially the all

to a decreased his about about book, the

resistance in

diseases.

published value of

he discussed intake infectious

published

evidence to

an increased including

of vitamin diseases,

C in relation cancer, up on vitamin and C

100 diseases,

cardiovascular and the about cancer. of

disease in

and stroke.

In checking

common cold value

1969 and 1970 I had read of vitamin the

a number of reports A in controlling at the dedication Research, Director, of

the

of megadoses to give for School, the

C and vitamin address

I was invited

banquet

a new laboratory Medical

Ben May Laboratory of I stated California, that

of Cancer by the

Pritzker Dr.

University

Charles

Huggins. studies

In my talk

from my analysis such as those of

published by Irwin from vitamin therapy. Cameron, Scotland, cancer published that vitamin for

and from

general that

arguments the

presented

Stone,

I had concluded could

incidence

and mqrtality proper use of

cancer

probably

be decreased as an adjunct

by 10% by the to appropriate

C, in megadoses, A newspaper Chief Surgeon

conventional Ewan

account of Vale

of my statement of Leven for

was seen by Dr.

Hospital,

Loch Lomondside, treatment for subject

who had been searching a number of years in 1966. C might He had'just have

an alternative

and had written

a book on this in the

become interested in controlling

possibility and he

some value

cancer,

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wrote During confer

to me to ask my opinion the with following Dr. during years

about I went to

how much should Scotland Institute "Cancer several

be administered. times to Alto C," and Science for

Cameron. which

He came to our we wrote our book post Linus

in Palo

one year, and later

and Vitamin Hospital of

he retired Director

from in

his the

in Vale Pauling

of Leven Institute

became Medical and Medicine. with ten me, on the

He published results

a number of paper,

some of

them jointly given lives.

obtained C per day,

by him in cancer taken for patients in the the rest

patients of their

grams of vitamin with

His observations them experienced in survival time.

a few hundred increase

showed that quality of

most of life and

a pronounced Recently

some negative

reports

have been C to cancer strong intake patient, of once

published patients

by physicians for limited

who gave periods of

10 grams of vitamin time, ignoring the the

recommendation megadoses that this

made by Dr. C never

Cameron and me that be stopped

of vitamin vitamin

by a cancer

has been begun I remain large amounts

as an adjunct convinced of vitamin that

to appropriate every cancer patient

conventional should in the begin course

therapy. taking of his therapy. chemotherapy, effects to get of the

C as early to appropriate is that

as possible

diesease,

as an adjunct

conventional along of the with side

One important it the prevents

observation to a large

when taken the misery that

extent

chemotherapeutic Cancer

drugs.

I regret and the

our efforts

National

Institute

American

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Cancer 1973, Cancer

Society remained Institute It

interested unsuccessful sponsored is

in vitamin until

C, which two years

we initiated ago, when the

in National C

an international accepted

symposium that

on vitamin intake

and cancer. of vitamin have value Dr.

now generally

an increased

C, niacin, in controlling

and beta-carotene cancer, but yet

(a precursor large-scale been carried Dr.

of vitamin trials out. Abram Hoffer, psychiatric referred from

A)

to check

Cameron's

observations

have not the

For a number now in Victoria, patients because about

of years

psychiatrist

British

Columbia, cancer

has had among his patients perhaps who were resulting

a good number of of depression the seriousness for his

to him learning

or anxiety, of their

disease. patients day,

For many years large amounts of

Dr. of

Hoffer

has prescribed vitamin

psychiatric

C, usually day,

12 grams per

a good amount of cancer several patients usually

niacin,l.S vitamins not follow

or 3 grams per and certain his after kinds of

and mega-amounts Some of his They died

other did only

minerals.

recommendation. having of

of cancer with his him. regimen, therapy,

a few months with for various some far than

been registered who followed

Those patients in addition, have

cancer

them,

to receiving on the Dr. Dr. average

conventional about patients possibly vitamins larger

survived rather

longer, months. more than large as well

16 times

as long,

years

Hoffer's Cameron's, of other

seem to have benefitted because and certain amount of the value

considerably of taken the by them, 12 grams

amounts

minerals

as a somewhat

of vitamin

C (average

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rather cancer rather

than

10 grams per follow taking recent disease. in

day).

I now recommend prescribed of vitamin

strongly

that

patients than just

the

regimen

by Dr. C.

Hoffer,

megadoses years

During cardiovascular of ten about years

I have become much interested disease United coronary rate and stroke States. vascular strokes to are the the

in cause last has

He.art the from

50% of deaths the death rate

During

disease

decreased by the

by 30% and the .death

from

has decreased that intake these of

same amount. are the C by people is no direct Dr.

I have been tempted result in of the the United to large

surmise in

decreases vitamin but there

increase during this

States support

this

period,

evidence

conclusion. recently and strokes of the

My associate reached is the

Matthias that

Rath and I have, cardiovascular which to leads

however, disease

conclusion

a deficiency because

in ascorbate, of the failure

to weakness enough

arteries

synthesize

collagen

to strengthen

them properly. Rath medical six years for nearly studies 10 years. and then I to carry of the

I have known Matthias encouraged on medical the heart. pulished lipoprotein, it is a minor nature him to research. finish his About

ago he began in the arteries

a study near

of atherosclerotic associates The discovery that is laid of

plaques

He and his in 1989. LDL,

made a remarkable was that down in the blood, the it is

discovery, not low-density but instead which is

plaques,

constituent

lipoprotein(a),

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usually

ignored

when blood particle is

analyses larger protein lipid core.

are than

carried the

out.

The

lipoprotein(a) because surface it

LDL particle, in the Rath It by investigators The

has an additional around the

constituent Two years

layer

ago Dr.

and I formulated incorporates

a theory the

of cardiovascular ideas but generally

disease. accepted

many of

of cardiovascular primary resulting of increased cause from is

disease, the

has some novel of lesions in

features. the arteries

occurrence

a deficiency

in vitamin high

C, occurring pressure close Various deposition groups

in regions to the heart are

stress,

such as the join

and turbulence taken to control

when arteries these lesions,

together. including

steps of that this

fibrin react

and fibrinogen. with haptenic is the This ways in which the from intake forming

Lipoprotein(a) groups on fibrin in the

has combining and fibrinogen, plaques. Other

so that efforts

lipoprotein to control

deposited situation. of

are made

theory the

cardiovascular might

disease

suggests One is the primary

several to increase lesions of lipo-

disease

be controlled. to prevent the rate of

of vitamin and also and increase

C, in order to decrease the rate

synthesis

protein(a) which

of destruction requiring interfere

of cholesterol, vitamin with the C. binding of

involves there

hydroxylation are inhibitors

reactions that

Moreover,

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lipoprotein(a) is the amino

to the acid

vascular

wall.

One of

these agent,

inhibitors which, the taken

L-lysine, cooperate

an orthomolecular with vitamin

regularly, incidence existing that to these the

might

C in decreasing

of cardiovascular disease. Dr.

disease

and in helping at the in present

to control time hopeful way

Rath and I are will

new discoveries

contribute disease States

a significant

control

of cardiovascular in the United

and to the

improvement

of health

of people

and elsewhere.