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Work and the Dot Product

Dot Product
A scalar quantity Magnitude:
r r r r A " B = A B cos !

The dot product can be positive, zero, or negative Two types of projections: the dot product is the parallel component of one vector with respect to the second vector times the magnitude of the second vector

r r r r r A " B = A (cos ! ) B = A B

r r r r r A " B = A (cos ! ) B = A B

Dot Product Properties


r r r r A!B = B!A r r r r cA ! B = c( A ! B) r r r r r r r ( A + B) ! C = A ! C + B ! C

Dot Product in Cartesian Coordinates


With unit vectors i, j and k

!k =1 i ! i = j! j=k = =0 i ! j= i !k j!k
Example:

i " i =| i || i | cos(0) = 1 i " j =| i || j |cos(! /2) = 0

r r j + B k , B= B A = Ax i + Ayj + Az k i + B x y z r r A ! B = Ax Bx + Ay By + Az Bz

Kinetic Energy
Velocity
r v = vx i + vy j + vz k

Kinetic Energy:

1 r r 1 2 2 K = m( v ! v ) = m( vx + v2 + v )"0 y z 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 r r 1 r r mv f " mv0 = m( v f # v f ) " m( v 0 # v 0 ) 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 m( vx + v + v ) " m ( v + v + v ) ,f y, f z, f x ,0 y ,0 z ,0 2 2

Change in kinetic energy:


!K =

Work Done by a Constant Force


Definition: Work
r The work done by a constant force F on an object is equal to the
component of the force in the direction of the displacement times the magnitude of the displacement:

r r r r r r r W = F " #r = F #r cos ! = F cos ! #r = F #r


Note that the component of the force in the direction of the displacement can be positive, zero, or negative so the work may be positive, zero, or negative

Work as a Dot Product


Let the force exerted on an object be r F=F i+F j
x y

Fx = F cos ! Fy = F sin ! r Displacement: !r = !x i r r W = F " #r = F #x cos !

= ( Fx i + Fy j) " (#x i ) = Fx #x

Checkpoint Problem: Is Kinetic


Energy Constant Part 1?

A tetherball of mass m is attached to a post of radius by a string. Initially it is a distance r0 from the center of the post and it is moving tangentially with a speed v0 . The string passes through a hole in the center of the post at the top. The string is gradually shortened by drawing it through the hole. Ignore gravity and any dissipative forces. Until the ball hits the post, does the kinetic energy of the ball change or remains constant. Explain your answer.

Checkpoint Problem: Is Kinetic


Energy Constant Part 2?

A tetherball of mass m is attached to a post of radius R by a string. Initially it is a distance r0 from the center of the post and it is moving tangentially with a speed v0. The string wraps around the outside of the post. Ignore gravity and any dissipative forces. Until the ball hits the post, does the kinetic energy of the ball change or remains constant. Explain your answer.

Work Done Along an Arbitrary Path


r r !Wi = Fi " !ri

r r f r r W = lim % Fi $ #ri = & F $ dr


i=N Nr !" #ri ! 0 i =1 0

Work in Three Dimensions


Let the force acting on an object be given by r F=F i+F j+ F k
x y z

The displacement vector for an infinitesimal displacement is


r dr = dx i + dy j + dy k The work done by the force for this infinitesimal displacement is
r r ) ! (dx ) dW = F ! dr = ( Fx i + Fy j + Fz k i + dy j + dy k

dW = Fx dx + Fy dy + Fz dz

Integrate to find the total work


f f r r f W = " F ! dr = " Fx dx + " Fy dy + " Fz dz 0 0 0 0 f

Checkpoint Problem: Work


Done by the Inverse Square
Gravitational Force

Consider a magnetic rail gun that shoots an object of mass m radially away from the surface of the earth (mass me). When the object leaves the rail gun it is at a distance ri from the center of the earth moving with speed vi . What speed of the object as a function of distance from the center of the earth?

Checkpoint Problem: Work


Done by by the Inverse Square
Gravitational Force

Consider an object of mass m moving towards the sun (mass ms). Initially the object is at a distance r0 from the center of the sun. The object moves to a final distance rf from the center of the sun. How much work does the gravitational force between the sun and the object do on the object during this motion?

Work-Energy Theorem in Three-Dimensions


Newtons Second Law:

Fx = max , Fy = ma y , Fz = maz
Total work:
W=
r r r =r f r r r = r0 r r r =r f r r r = r0

"

r r F ! dr =

r r r =r f r r r = r0

"

r r r =r f

Fx dx +

r r r = r0

"

r r r =r f

Fy dy +
r r r =r f

r r r = r0

"

Fz dz

becomes
W=

r r r =r f

max dx +

r r r = r0

ma y dy +

r r r = r0

maz dz

Work-Energy Theorem in Three-Dimensions


Recall
vx , f dx 1 2 1 2 ma dx = m dx = m dv = mv dv = mv " !x0 x !x0 dt !x0 dt x !vx ,0 x x 2 x , f 2 mvx ,0 Repeat argument for y- and z-direction yf 1 2 1 2 z 1 2 1 2 ma dx = mv " mv ! y0 y 2 y , f 2 y ,0 !z maz dx = 2 mvz , f " 2 mvz ,0 Adding these three results xf xf xf
f 0

dvx

W = " (max dx + ma y dy + maz dz )dx


z0

zf

1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 W = m(vx , f + v y , f + vz , f ) ! m(vx ,0 + v y ,0 + vz ,0 ) = mv f ! mv0 2 2 2 2

W = !K

Instantaneous Power

For an applied constant force the instantaneous power is

r r r r dW d
d
r
r r F
! d
P =
=
(
r
) =
F
!
=
F
!
v
dt dt
dt

the time rate of change of the kinetic energy for a body

dK 1 d
r r r r r r " d
r %
r =
m
(
v
!
v
) = m
$
v
' !
v
= m
a
!
v
=
F
!
v
= P
# dt
&
dt
2 dt

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8.01SC Physics I: Classical Mechanics

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