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2010-06-24

The Choral Music of Irish Composer Michael McGlynn


Stacie Lee Rossow
University of Miami, slrossow@me.com

Recommended Citation
Rossow, Stacie Lee, "The Choral Music of Irish Composer Michael McGlynn" (2010). Open Access Dissertations. Paper 438. http://scholarlyrepository.miami.edu/oa_dissertations/438

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UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

THE CHORAL MUSIC OF IRISH COMPOSER MICHAEL MCGLYNN

By Stacie Lee Rossow A DOCTORAL ESSAY

Submitted to the Faculty of the University of Miami in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts

Coral Gables, Florida June 2010

2010 Stacie Lee Rossow All Rights Reserved

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI

A doctoral essay submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Musical Arts

THE CHORAL MUSIC OF IRISH COMPOSER MICHAEL MCGLYNN

Stacie Lee Rossow

Approved: ________________ Donald Oglesby, D.M. Professor Vocal Performance ________________ Joshua Habermann, D.M.A. Associate Professor Vocal Performance _________________ Terri A. Scandura, Ph.D. Dean of the Graduate School

_________________ Melissa de Graaf, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Musicology

________________ Teresa Lesiuk, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Music Therapy

ROSSOW, STACIE LEE The Choral Music of Irish Composer Michael McGlynn. Abstract of a doctoral essay at the University of Miami. Doctoral essay supervised by Professor Donald Oglesby. No. of pages in text (271)

(D.M.A., Choral Conducting) (June 2010)

Michael McGlynn is predominantly known around the world for his choral music that reflects the traditional sounds of Ireland. The greater body of his compositions, however, fit into the contemporary choral genre and represent a sizable contribution to the choral music repertoire of Ireland. This essay begins with a discussion of McGlynns life and work. Extensive interviews and rehearsal comments with the composer regarding compositional process and performance practice were conducted and are included. The musical history of Ireland and details regarding the harmonic and rhythmic language specific to the vocal music of the country are included to provide background information for the reader. Song comparisons from various sources detail the living nature of Irelands traditional music. The Appendices contain a complete list of McGlynns works, a discography, IPA pronunciation guides for McGlynns Irish language compositions, reference scores for all compositions discussed, and programming details about Michael McGlynns most frequently performed choral compositions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Sincere gratitude to Michael McGlynn for his cooperation and invaluable assistance throughout this process. Thank you to the staff of the Irish Traditional Music Archive for their patience and guidance in securing research sources. Thank you to my mother, Kris Niehaus, and my grandmother, Mary Arline Hohlt, to Sue, Dave, and Pamela Rossow, and to Patricia Fleitas for their support and dedication to my education. Lastly, thank you to my husband, David, and my children, David and Emma, for their love, patience, and encouragement throughout my doctoral education.

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES ............................................................................ LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES ......................................................................... Chapter 1 MICHAEL MCGLYNN ................................................................................. Introduction .................................................................................................... Personal History ............................................................................................ Anna ............................................................................................................. Compositional Output and Style .................................................................... CULTURE AND MUSIC HISTORY OF IRELAND .................................. Irish Historical Overview .............................................................................. Music in Ireland ............................................................................................. IRISH VOCAL MUSIC ................................................................................. Language ......................................................................................................... Sean-ns........................................................................................................... Choral Music in Ireland ................................................................................... TRADITIONAL IRISH MUSICAL ELEMENTS ......................................... Harmonic Devices .......................................................................................... Rhythmic Devices............................................................................................ Instruments and Accompaniment ................................................................... TRADITIONAL SONGS OF IRELAND ....................................................... Collectors of Irish Music ................................................................................ Song Comparisons .......................................................................................... S do Mhaimeo ....................................................................................... Ardaigh Cuan ............................................................................................ Silent, OMoyle ......................................................................................... Siil, a Rin ............................................................................................... SELECTED CHORAL ARRANGEMENTS OF MICHAEL MCGLYNN ... Traditional Repertoire ..................................................................................... iv 1 1 3 6 10 12 12 15 20 21 25 29 32 33 42 43 49 49 52 53 58 60 63 66 67 vii xi

S do Mhaimeo ....................................................................................... Siil, a Rin ............................................................................................... Medieval Chant Source .................................................................................. Cormacus Scripsit...................................................................................... 7

67 74 75 75

SELECTED ORIGINAL CHORAL WORKS OF MICHAEL MCGLYNN . 81 Traditional Works ........................................................................................... 82 Dlamn .................................................................................................... 82 Natural Works ................................................................................................. 86 Wind on Sea............................................................................................... 87 Island ......... ............................................................................................... 92 Spiritual Works ............................................................................................... 95 Sanctus ....................................................................................................... 96 Incantations................................................................................................ 99 Agnus Dei (2008)....................................................................................... 105

GLOSSARY................................................................................................................. 116 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..................................................................................................... APPENDIX A: Works List ........................................................................................ Alphabetical Listing by Title ........................................................................... Chronological Listing of Works ...................................................................... List of Works by Commission......................................................................... Works by Voicing............................................................................................ Arrangements................................................................................................... Original Compositions..................................................................................... 118 125 125 129 132 133 136 137

APPENDIX B: Discography ...................................................................................... 140 APPENDIX C: IPA Transcriptions ............................................................................. Agnus Dei (2008)............................................................................................. An Oche .......................................................................................................... Cnnla ............................................................................................................ Dlamn .......................................................................................................... Incantations .................................................................................................... Salve Rex ........................................................................................................ S do Mhaimeo ............................................................................................. APPENDIX D: Complete Musical Examples ............................................................. S do Mhaimeo ............................................................................................. Ardaigh Cuan .................................................................................................. Silent, OMoyle ............................................................................................... Siil, a Rin ..................................................................................................... 145 146 146 147 148 149 150 150 152 152 158 160 163

APPENDIX E: Michael McGlynn Selected Scores .................................................... Agnus Dei ........................................................................................................ Cormacus Scripsit............................................................................................ Dlamn .......................................................................................................... Incantations...................................................................................................... Invocation ........................................................................................................ Island ............................................................................................................. Sanctus ............................................................................................................. S do Mhaimeo ............................................................................................. Siil, a Rin ..................................................................................................... Wind on Sea.....................................................................................................

167 169 177 181 185 190 194 203 209 218 224

APPENDIX F: Survey of Suggested Choral Works of Michael McGlynn................. 231

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LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES

Example 3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 Amhrnaocht meter in 9/8 ................................................................. Amhrnaocht meter in 3/4 .................................................................. Doh mode (F Doh) ............................................................................... Doh Mode, Cailleacha Chige Uladh ................................................. Re Mode (C Doh) ................................................................................ Re Mode, Tiagharna Mhaighe-eo ....................................................... Mi mode (F Doh) ................................................................................. Mi Mode, The Campbells are Coming ............................................ Fa Mode (C Doh) ................................................................................. Fa Mode, The Last Time I Came Thro the Muire .......................... Sol Mode (G Doh) ................................................................................ Sol Mode, Bn-Chnoic ireann ...................................................... La Mode (G Doh) ................................................................................ La Mode, Ardaidh Cuain .................................................................... Pentatonic Scale .................................................................................. Hexatonic Scale................................................................................... Uilleann Pipes, chanter range ............................................................. Uilleann pipes, Drones ....................................................................... vii 22 23 36 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 47 47

4.17 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 6.1 6.2 6.3

Uilleann Pipes, regulator chords ......................................................... Cailleach an Airgid, Canainn, mm. 1-2 ......................................... Cailleacha Chige Uladh, Petrie, mm. 1-2 ....................................... Cailleacha Chige Uladh, Petrie .......................................................... Cailleach an Airgid, Canainn ........................................................... Cailleach an Airgid, Heaney, mm. 1-4 ................................................ 'S Do Mhaimeo , hEidhin, mm. 1-4 .............................................. 'S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, mm. 1-4 ................................................. S Do Mham , McLaughlin, mm. 1-5 ................................................. 'S Do Mhaimeo , hEidhin, mm. 9-12 ............................................. 'S do Mhaimeo - McGlynn, mm. 10-13 ..............................................

48 55 55 56 56 56 57 57 58 58 58

Airdi Cuan, Baoill, mm. 16-22 .......................................................... 59 Airde Cuan, MacEoin, mm. 16-22 ........................................................ 59

Ardaigh Cuan, McGlynn, mm. 1-4 ....................................................... 60 The Song of Fionnuala- Moore, m. 1-2 ................................................. 61 Arah My Dear Ev'Leen- Fleischmann (4521), m. 1-2 ............................ 61 Silent O Moyle, be the Roar of the Water, Page, mm. 1-2 ...................... 62 Silent, O Moyle- McGlynn, m. 13-16 ..................................................... 62 Song of Fionnaula- Moore, mm. 13-16 .................................................. 62 Alone in Crowds: Shule Aroon, Moore, mm. 9-13 ................................. 64 Cailleach an Airgid, Heaney .................................................................. 68 S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn ................................................................... 69 S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, mm. 1-5 .................................................... 70

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6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 7.12 7.13 7.14

S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, mm.11-12 .................................................. 71 S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, mm. 16-19 ................................................. 72 S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, mm. 9-12 .................................................. 74 Cormacus Scripsit, mm. 2-5, Theme A ................................................... 78 Cormacus Scripsit, mm. 10-13, Theme B ............................................... 78 Cormacus Scripsit, m. 18, Theme C ....................................................... 78 Cormacus Scripsit, mm. 23, Theme A doubled ..................................... 79 Cormacus Scripsit, mm. 28-30, Themes B and C variations ................... 79 Cormacus Scripsit, mm. 28-30, Sliding between notes ........................... 80 Dlamn, Amhrin Chige Uladh, traditional tune ................................ 83 Dlamn, mm. 1-5, solo ......................................................................... 83 Dlamn, mm. 6-9, refrain .................................................................... 84 Dlamn, mm. 26-27, chorus ................................................................. 86 Wind on Sea, mm. 9-12, choral passage ................................................. 89 Wind on Sea, mm. 17-20, violin and solo .............................................. 90 Wind on Sea, mm. 17-20, part b ............................................................. 91 Island, mm. 1-4, chorus and harp contrast ............................................. 92 Island, mm. 29-32, choral stasis ............................................................. 93 Sanctus, mm. 2-5, Theme A .................................................................. 98

Sanctus, mm. 9-12, Theme B ................................................................. 98 Sanctus, mm. 51- 57, final section ......................................................... 99 Incantations, mm. 1-4, ostinato ............................................................ 101 Incantations, mm. 8-11, Theme A ......................................................... 102

ix

7.15 7.16 7.17 7.18 7.19 7.20 7.21 7.22 7.23 7.24 7.25 7.26 7.27 7.28 7.29 7.30 7.31

Incantations, mm. 20-25, Theme B ....................................................... 102 Incantations, mm. 33-36, Theme C ....................................................... 103 Incantations, mm. 37-40, Theme C ....................................................... 103 Incantations, mm. 50-54, ostinato and hemiola ..................................... 103 Incantations, mm. 13-16, ostinato ......................................................... 104 Incantations, mm. 33-36, parallel motion .............................................. 105 Incantations, mm. 43-48, chromatic alternation .................................... 105 Agnus Dei, McGlynn, mm.1-5, solo ...................................................... 107 Agnus Dei, Riada, mm. 1-6, solo ....................................................... 108 Agnus Dei, McGlynn, m. 6, choral harmony ......................................... 109 Agnus Dei, mm. 15-19, tenor entry Theme A ........................................ 110 Agnus Dei, mm. 19-23, baritone entry Theme A .................................. 110 Agnus Dei, mm. 23-24, parallel and inverted statements ..................... 111 Agnus Dei, mm. 28-31, solo................................................................... 112 Agnus Dei, mm. 28-31, harmonic superimposition .............................. 112 Agnus Dei, mm. 42-44, Themes A and B ............................................. 113 Agnus Dei, m. 79, final chords ............................................................. 114

LIST OF FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 3.1 3. 2. 4.1 4.2 4.3 6.1 Map of Gaeltacht areas of Ireland ........................................................ Cross of Muireadach, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland ............ Drawing of Brian Boru Harp ................................................................ Maedoc book cover from Ireland (circa 1000 A.D.) ............................ 26 30 34 45

Uilleann pipes ........................................................................................ 46 Facsimile of Psalter, final page ............................................................. 76

Table 3.1 4.1 4.2 6. 1 6. 2 6. 3 6. 4 7. 1 7. 2 7. 3 7. 4 7. 5 7. 6 Siil, a Rin, mixed English and Irish text and translation .................. Modes found in Irish Traditional Music ............................................... Dance Forms and Structure .................................................................. S do Mhaimeo , Text and Translation ............................................... Siil a Rin, form .................................................................................. Cormacus Scripsit, Text and Translation ............................................. Cormacus Scripsit, form ....................................................................... Dlamn, text and translation .............................................................. Wind on Sea, form ............................................................................... Wind on Sea, translation ...................................................................... Island, text and translation ................................................................... 24 35 43 73 75 77 78 85 88 91 94

Island, Form .......................................................................................... 95 Sanctus, formal structure ...................................................................... xi 97

7. 7 7. 8 7. 9 7.10

Incantations, text and translation .......................................................... 100 Incantations, form ................................................................................. 101 Agnus Dei, text and translation ........................................................... 105 Agnus Dei, form .................................................................................. 106

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CHAPTER 1 MICHAEL MCGLYNN

Introduction Since 1987, Michael McGlynn has been trying to create a choral sound native to his country. Ireland was long controlled by Great Britain and was only released from British domination in the last century. A Dublin-born composer, Michael McGlynn has fought to capture in his compositions something that is uniquely Irish. Through this process McGlynn has become a highly successful composer and choral director in Ireland. Through the recordings, performances, and arrangements for Anna, a professional ensemble directed by the composer, his music has reached millions of people and has been performed by hundreds of choruses worldwide. It is important to understand the context in which McGlynns music was written. The traditional music of Ireland has a long history influenced by the cultural and social heritage of its people, the language of the songs, and the instruments used for accompaniments and companion music. Although he does not claim these musical elements as primary influences, there are commonalities between his choral compositions and Irish traditional music. These are his use of modal harmonies, drones, and texts from the traditional Irish repertoire. McGlynn cannot separate his music from his cultural heritage; it is part of the world in which his music exists. 1

2 In addition to traditional Irish music, McGlynn is also influenced by Western European Medieval styles, reflected in his use of parallel motion and chant. It was during the Medieval period that the music of Ireland was last free from foreign influence. Therefore it is logical that McGlynn would turn to this music to discover a compositional voice that is truly Irish. Because of foreign domination after the eleventh century, choral music with an Irish identity was not permitted to develop. All aspects of cultural life came under control of England, and native musical ideas were stifled. The only forms of Irish music that survived this oppression were solo songs and a limited selection of instrumental music. Since these forms did not require large numbers of performers and could exist within individual homes, they succeeded in evading the ruling entities. McGlynns compositional style combines the sounds and forms of Irish traditional and Medieval music. Craig Harris writes that McGlynns music ...combines songs in middle English, Scots Gaelic, Irish, Breton, Medieval Irish, Latin, and Greek in [the] examination of ancient and contemporary Irish music.1 He has gone beyond the mere creation of choral arrangements from existing solo songs; he has combined the musical elements of his country to create a choral compositional voice that has assimilated past traditions into a new style worthy of Irelands musical heritage. It is for these reasons that Michael McGlynns music is deserving of study as representing the choral music of Ireland.

Craig Harris, All-Music Guide, Craig Harris, All-Music Guide: Anna, 1995, http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll (accessed November 28, 2009).

3 A Personal History Michael McGlynn was born in Dublin, Ireland, in May 1964. His mother, Clare, and father, Andrew, worked in the hotel industry, though his father later turned to photography. Michael has two brothers: Tom, the youngest, and a twin, John. All three boys were musically inclined. When they were young they enjoyed singing in three-part harmonies. Clare and Andrew, while not classically trained musicians themselves, saw the value of music in their familys life. McGlynns first musical training was through piano lessons, but much of his early musical influence was from rock musicians such as the Beatles and David Bowie. He was introduced to large-scale orchestral and choral classical music in secondary school and was particularly attracted to the works of Debussy and Britten. During his teen years, Ligetis contribution to the soundtrack to 2001: A Space Odyssey made a significant impression on him.2 Clare and Andrew sought to instill within their children a sense of pride in their heritage. Though the family were not native Irish speakers, at the age of nine and ten John, Tom, and Michael lived as boarders for a year at the Irish-speaking college of Coliste na Rinne in Dn Garbhn (Dungarvan), County Waterford. This Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking community) is where McGlynn gained fluency in the Irish language. More importantly, it provided his first exposure to traditional Irish song.3 When the time came to enter college in 1982, McGlynn elected to study music and English literature at University College, Dublin (UCD). It was at UCD that he first

2 3

Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Dublin, Ireland, October 2009. Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, February 2010

4 received an introduction to early Western Medieval music. He began studies in both English and music, and after receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in English (1985) he continued and completed his Bachelor of Music degree (1986). Musical forms and the structure of music were most intriguing him. During his time at UCD, at age nineteen, he first sang in a choir. He entered the field of music from a non-classical perspective, and this choral ensemble introduced him to the choral music of the great master composers. McGlynn stated in a 2010 interview: One of the things that has put me in a unique position among professional choral directors is that I took up choral music quite late. I had never sung in a choir before the age of nineteen. I first sang in college in a chamber choir, the UCD Chamber Choir, which I went on to conduct. I later went on to conduct the Trinity College Singers as well. This has allowed me to look at choral music as a completely fresh and new form.4 Soon after graduation from UCD he composed his earliest formal work, a setting of four Rimbaud poems for soprano and piano. After completing this composition he felt compelled to make his living as a composer.5 By the completion of his collegiate choral experiences, he was completely captured with the choral medium. In 1987 McGlynn founded the small Irish choral ensemble An Uaithne, renamed Anna in 1991. In the twenty-two years that McGlynn has been the director of Anna, he has become an advocate for change within the choral infrastructure of Ireland. In 2006, McGlynn wrote for The Irish Times: On the surface choral music in Ireland appears to be healthy, but the reality is very different. I dread auditioning new singers for Anna. Virtually none of them can read music adequately, or have more than the basic musical skills or even general [musical] knowledge. Even those that do have vocal training have come

4 5

Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Ft. Lauderdale, February 2010 Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Dublin, Ireland, October 2009.

5 through music schools and colleges that appear to believe that there is only one form of classical singing, and that is opera. Choral music transmits the poetry and the language of a nation through song in a unique manner, something that should be of particular interest and importance in a country that prides itself in its literary heroes.6 He further explains that promoting a unique identity for Irish choral music is difficult, as much of the repertoire performed is related to schools and traditions of other nations, in particular the United Kingdom. While McGlynn has gained prominence in the choral community as the director of Anna, he has also become an internationally recognized composer. His compositions have been commissioned, performed, and recorded by some of the worlds best choral ensembles including The Dale Warland Singers, Rajaton, The BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation) Singers, The National Youth Choir of Great Britain, Conspirare, the Phoenix Chorale, and Chanticleer. In 2007, the RT (Radio Telefs ireann) Concert Orchestra, one of the national orchestras of Ireland, commissioned a large-scale work for SSAA chorus and symphony orchestra, which resulted in the four-movement cantata St. Francis. Also in 2007, the award-winning choral ensemble Chanticleer commissioned McGlynn to compose the Agnus Dei for the multi-composer work And On Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass. In July 2009, the RT National Symphony Orchestra of Ireland programmed a retrospective of McGlynns compositions for a major concert in Dublins National Concert Hall that also featured Anna.7 This program resulted in a large number of new adaptations and original works scored for symphony orchestra and chorus.

Michael McGlynn, A Way to Find Different Voices in this Multi-Ethnic Age, The Irish Times. June 5, 2006, http://www.anuna.ie/IT2006.htm (accessed 10 October 2009).
7

Michael McGlynn, Biography, www.anuna.ie/MichaelBiography.html (accessed 11 August

2009).

6 McGlynn uses a unique and highly successful method of publication and distribution of his compositions which has contributed to his success. While mechanical and performance rights are held by Warner Chappell, he self-publishes his sheet music through his website, www.michaelmcglynn.com. This method of distribution makes his music both accessible and affordable for choral directors worldwide. When directors purchase a composition to perform they are also sent an audio recording of the text, a translation, and in some cases, a sound approximation pronunciation guide. Unlike standard means of music distribution, the music is received normally within forty-eight hours via email with a certificate for the number of copies purchased. Nearly all of his choral compositions have been recorded by Anna, which also gives directors an audio reference. A complete list of his works is found in Appendix A of this document. The list has been cross-referenced by title, date of composition, commission, and voicing. Appendix B is a discography to assist in locating recordings of specific compositions.

Anna Anna, the current name of the group that McGlynn formed in 1987, has become one of the leading professional choral ensembles in the world. The ensemble is known for its interpretations of traditional Irish songs, reconstructions of medieval Irish music, McGlynns own original music, and for its unique staging. As McGlynns music and compositional output is directly related to Anna, it is essential to view it as an aspect of his work as a composer, as well as a tool he uses in the compositional process. The original name of the ensemble, An Uaithne, is the collective term that describes the three ancient kinds of Irish music, Suantra (lullaby), Geantra (happy

7 song), and Goltra (lament). An Uaithne was shortened to Anna, a name that has no meaning but uses portions of the original words; it was simply easier for non-Irish speakers to pronounce and recognize. When asked about the reason for creating an ensemble of this kind McGlynn stated, Anna developed from that idea [of bringing choral music to more people]. It developed from the need to reinterpret the choral canvas.8 Under McGlynns direction the ensemble has released fourteen albums which feature primarily his own compositions and arrangements. Three of the albums have placed in the United States Billboard charts, and Deep Dead Blue reached the top five in the United Kingdom Classical Chart and was nominated for a Classical Brit Award in 2000.9 When McGlynn was asked why he chose to form a new ensemble instead of work within the framework of the existing choral infrastructure in Ireland he stated that he created Anna because he felt that there was a need to find a choral voice that was distinctly Irish.10 All of the ensembles that were in existence were founded from nonIrish sources and rarely performed music influenced by their country. As he perceived it, there was no indigenous form of choral singing in Ireland. McGlynn felt a ...need to define Ireland in a choral fashion in some way.11 He also wanted to make certain that choral music was accessible to the people, not just to the lucky few who could understand

Michael McGlynn, interview with Contemporary Music Center, Dublin, Ireland, July 2009 www.anuna.ie/JML (accessed 16 August 2009). Craig Harris, Anna, http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:wxfwxqlgldte~T1 (accessed 28 November 2010).
10 11

Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, February 2010. Ibid.

8 it. In his opinion, much of classical music in Ireland, has only been accessible to a minority of people.12 He has succeeded with Anna in bringing choral music, and specifically that which he feels expressed a sound native to Ireland to a large number of people. In a 2009 interview McGlynn discussed the fragility of the human voice that first intrigued him. McGlynn uses this term to describe the natural and beautiful flaws heard in untrained singers. The fragility of Annas sound, in his opinion, is one of the primary reasons it is successful. Listen to the Sixteen or the Tallis Scholars [singing chorally] and it will sound beautiful, but it doesnt allow the human element to come out. These people are brilliant singers, with fantastic technique. All of us in Anna are flawed. And thats conscious. What I have done is to try to always create an accessibility using the concept of fragility in the voice to allow the audience to access music that otherwise they might find overtly and harmonically complex or technically demanding to listen to. In a recent recording of the Allegri Misereri Mei Deus the first soprano soloist, unusually for us, was a trained English singer. She had the ability to sing all of the lines in one breath, but she was instructed to sound more fragile.13 With Anna McGlynn serves as composer, artistic director, vocal coach, conductor, singer, producer, and business manager. In his desire to produce a better sounding ensemble with a group of non-trained singers he has developed an approach to producing better singers. He has found over his twenty years as a choral director that awareness of singers posture, technique, and attitude during the rehearsal process contributes to the overall success or failure of an ensemble. If an individual singer is not standing with the correct posture or appears to have brought the stress of daily life into

12

Ibid. Ibid.

13

9 the rehearsal, he will address that singer and insist on an immediate change of demeanor or posture. His manner of rehearsing is focused on empowering and requiring each individual to concentrate on his or her own performance within the choral ensemble. In a February 2010 interview with this author, McGlynn spoke about his rehearsal and audition process: I can spend hours over six months on only a few notes if I am not happy with the sound they are making. I try to bring musical persons into the ensemble, but quite often that is not possible. Many people I bring in I bring in based on personality; they need to be able to take criticism.14 While an awareness of singers physical well-being and attitude is not new to choral conductors, his instence and attention to detail has proven to make a distinct difference in the sound quality of Anna. Instead of conducting in front of the ensemble, which McGlynn chose to forego after only a few seasons, he leads from within the tenor section. He believes that the essential connection that should occur between performer and audience is often impeded rather than helped by the presence of a conductor. His rehearsal and performance techniques have been developed to aid in the elimination of the physical obstruction of a body between the chorus members and the audience. While he does believe that a conductor can be an asset to an ensemble, in his opinion optimal music making is only possible when the ensemble members have the responsibility of creating the musical impulse of a performance.15 To him, the role of the conductor is to shape and form the music during the rehearsal process, not in the moment of performance. Although his

14 15

Ibid. Ibid.

10 standard expectation for Anna is high, and perhaps challenging for the mostly nonprofessional singers he encounters, he considers the ensembles amateur nature among its greatest attributes and one of its sustaining factors. Through his role as a member of the ensemble he is able to aid in tuning, energize, and focus the performance.16

Compositional Output and Style McGlynns compositional output is indelibly linked with Anna. Fundamentally, the ensemble is a compositional tool for him; he uses Anna as many composers would use a piano in the creation of new works. He generally will make changes or adjustments to a new work only after hearing it in a performance. Prior to publication, new compositions will sometimes go through several revisions before he feels the singers and the audience gauge the piece in the way he intended. The complexity of McGlynns compositions is limited by what Anna is able to achieve vocally and musically without a conductor. Contrary to what many believe, the vast majority of the singers in Anna are not trained musicians. Few of them have had any formal theory or musicianship classes, and even fewer have had traditional vocal training. Occasionally one or two classically trained singers will audition, but most often the core of the ensemble is simply people who love to sing and share the same passion and desire to communicate through music that McGlynn has. For this reason he has created a unique manner of quickly training his members to sing as part of the chorus. It is also why he leads the ensemble from within.

16

Ibid.

11 As a choir that is known the world over as an Irish choral ensemble, Anna must maintain several traditional or traditional sounding compositions in its repertoire at any given time. Instead of solely producing arrangements of traditional songs for the ensemble, McGlynn also composes completely original songs that use many of the elements found in the traditional song repertoire. His use of familiar texts and original melodies that incorporate elements of traditional music leads the listener to identify these choral compositions as part of the ever-changing corpus of Irish music. The use of compositional elements that have existed in the Irish music tradition has closely identified McGlynns compositions with Ireland. It is also for this reason that an understanding of the history, culture, and music of Ireland is important to the study of his music. This understanding allows the choral conductor to identify those aspects in his compositions that are traditional. While McGlynns music draws influence from various idioms, it is considered by many to be the genuine sound of Irish choral music.

CHAPTER 2 CULTURE AND MUSIC HISTORY OF IRELAND

In ancient times Ireland was renowned for skilled musicians, many of whose tales are recounted in mythology and lore. It was the turbulent history of conquest and rule from around AD 1100 that both stifled the performance and transmission of this music and kept Ireland from following the same path of musical creation that other European countries enjoyed. The void was created by an absence of native composers and music indigenous to Ireland. The only choral music found on the island was that of the church, which originated in other areas of Europe. The study of Michael McGlynns musical influences must begin with an understanding of both Irish culture and the music history of Ireland, as it is from this tradition and culture that his music is created.

Irish Historical Overview The people who began settling Ireland as long ago as 500 BC belonged to a now extinct race of people called the Celts. The Celts settled in clan groups in areas throughout much of Europe, including parts of modern-day Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Brittany, and Cornwall. Celtic influence can also be found in the regions of Galicia and Asturias, in Spain, and in areas of Portugal.17 In Ireland these clans or tribes were well

Dorthea E Hast and Stanley Scott, Music in Ireland: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Pres, 2004), 20.

17

12

13 established by 100 BC. The descendents of these groups, the Gaelic chieftains, are those commonly associated with the creation and proliferation of the Gaelic-Irish language and culture. Legends of the kings and chieftains who ruled the four provinces (Ulster, Munster, Leinster, and Connaught) evolved into sagas and have since been passed down through story and song. First conquered in the fifth century AD by the Norse (Vikings), Irelands first peaceful visitors came from its nearest neighbor, Britain. These missionaries began the rapid spread of Christianity through the pagan Celtic land. This influx of people from England also began almost 1500 years of British involvement in Ireland. When the British first occupied Ireland they were fascinated by the cultural differences they found on an island so close to their own. However, as time passed the British governing body became less and less tolerant of Irish culture. The Irish people came to be considered degenerate and barbaric, and the British government, through a series of laws and acts beginning around 1350, outlawed the language, music, religion, and culture of the Irish people. Subsequent to the original missionary settlements, Ireland had become a strong Catholic region, wholly embracing the religion the British had spread only years earlier. King Henry VIII, through his disaffiliation with the Catholic Church in 1532, further complicated Irish life. Following the English Reformation, a series of laws prohibited Catholics from participation in public life, voting, and ownership of land.18

18

Ibid., 27.

14 During the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries under Queen Elizabeth, life for the Irish became worse. The Queen felt that the wandering bards and harpers, who had enjoyed a high status in earlier years, were political spies and that their music and lyrics stirred up political unrest. By 1571 the Earl of Kildare was commissioned to punish all harpers, poets, and bards by death. A 1603 proclamation, to hang the harpers wherever found and destroy their instruments, effectively halted the public playing of Irish music.19 While records do not indicate a mass extermination of harpers and bards, the threat served to seriously diminish the tradition and its oral transmission to subsequent generations. The Act of Settlement in 1652 allowed Cromwell to confiscate property from Irish-Catholic landowners, thereby displacing seventy-five percent of the population, all Catholic, to less than fifteen percent of land. The land to which they were displaced was an area in the province of Connaught deemed quite infertile.20 Although it appeared the heritage and livelihood of the Irish people had been broken, many families continued to pass on the language and music of their ancestors in the privacy of their homes. In 1695 the British Parliament, after a few small uprisings, removed the authority of the Irish Parliament to create laws for itself. There were many attempts to remove the British government from power in Ireland. After the American and French Revolutions, the people of Ireland felt that they would be able to retake their parliament. In 1782 an effective campaign for legislative independence was initiated with the Constitution of 1782. This document did acknowledge the sole right of the Irish Parliament to create laws for Ireland, but it was a
19 20

San O'Boyle, The Irish Song Tradition (Toronto: Macmilian of Canada, 1976), 10.

J.C. Beckett, Introduction: Eighteenth Century Ireland, Vol. IV, in A New History of Ireland, ed. T.W. Moody and W.E Vaughan, xliii (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), xliii.

15 Parliament still under the authority of the British government. Many who led the movement were not satisfied. The outbreak of the French Revolution rekindled their desire to unite Irishmen of all denominations in an attempt to break connection [with Great Britain] and establish in Ireland a republic on the French model.21 It was this disagreement between countrymen that led to civil unrest and instability and kept the people from regaining governance over their country. This internal conflict continued until the Irish Potato Famine in the mid-1800s. During the twenty years beginning in 1845 with the first of many years of crop failures, the population of the country was depleted by nearly two-thirds either from death or emigration. Those who remained and survived were in no way able to remove Englands control. It was not until 1922, when the Irish Free State was established and the British government no longer ruled Ireland, that the native culture and language of the people experienced a renaissance. In the 1922 Constitution English and Irish were established as co-national languages, demonstrating the new governments commitment to the heritage of the people.

Music in Ireland Brian Boydell writes that ...Ireland has a reputation for inheriting a great musical tradition extending back to the earliest of times.22 When British rulers outlawed the Irish language, culture, and tradition that existed for at least a millennium prior to their arrival, this musical heritage was almost lost.

J.C. Beckett, Eighteenth Century Ireland, 1691-1800, Vol. 4, in A New History of Ireland, ed. T.W. Moody and W.E. Vaughan (Oxford: Claredon Press, 1986), xil-xli. Brian Boydell, Music Before 1700, Vol. IV, in A New History of Ireland, ed. T.W. Moody and W.E. Vaughan, 544 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 544.
22

21

16 The origin of the musical heritage of Ireland is still disputed, even though much research on the topic exists. Very few sources have been found, and records of musical events are scarce. As is often the case with traditional music, there was no one readily available to transcribe it for posterity. It was not until the eighteenth century that musicians trained in the Western classical style of music began to collect the traditional music of Ireland. The earliest complete transcriptions of this traditional music were made and published in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Composers and musicologists Charles Villiers Stanford, Edward Bunting, George Petrie, and P.W. Joyce collected, transcribed, and described the music that had been a vital component of the cultural identity of Ireland since early recorded times. There were a few writings and single songs published in English volumes before these Irish collections, but much of what is known about music before 1600 is based only upon anecdotal reference. There are letters and other writings that confirm the existence of music schools within monasteries and that the harp was considered the only instrument suitable to accompany voices. Various writers, artists, and poets mention instruments and musical gatherings, though very little writing about the style of the music exists. Within courts and villages, bards and harpers held places of honor. The bards were the oral keepers of the laws; they recounted stories of war and genealogy. Perhaps most importantly for their social status, they praised their patrons. Most often a harper would accompany the bard as the stories were recounted; thus the development of a solo musical tradition began. This led to a multi-century comingling of ideas, mythology, Gaelic traditions, and the old style (sean-ns) singing that makes Irelands musical heritage unique.

17 The vocal music of Ireland includes a long mythological tradition that contributed to its complicated history. Irish folklore tells of four races that existed in Ireland before the Gaels arrived in the fourth century BC. According to the mythology as described by Cowdery, these races began with the Fomorians, or sinister giants, who were defeated by the Firbologs. The Firbologs, a small but cunning race, eventually disappeared, giving way to the Danaans. The Danaans were seen as the embodiment of all that was good. The Milesians eventually overtook them, but due to their close connection with nature, they were able to turn into the invisible little peopleleprechauns and fairies. The Danaans were admired for their music, especially that of the fairies, whose tunes were said to be the sweetest music ever heard and which possessed magic powers. Many tunes that exist in the modern repertoire are said to have come from the fairies.23 The musical tradition of the early Gaelic court musicians is, of course, not known in concrete terms. There are sources that give terminology to various kinds of songs, though those are without examples. These musical categories include goltra (music for sorrow), geantra (music for happiness), and suantra (music for sleep). Terms found in later sources cited by Harry Flood, goltraighe (music of valor), geantraight (music for love), and suantraighe (music for rest), are each related to a particular mode or traighe. The modal associations are the Dorian, Phrygian, and Lydian modes accordingly.24 Sean-ns, which translates to old-style, is a form of solo singing considered the oldest in Ireland and is generally believed to date from at least the fifteenth century AD,

23

James Cowdery, The Melodic Tradition of Ireland (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, Ibid., 6.

1990), 5.
24

18 and possibly earlier. This style of music is usually modal, highly ornamented, either a cappella or with very little accompaniment, and above all else, highly personalized by the singer. While a great majority of these songs is in the Irish language, due to the dual use of English and Irish for a long period of time, many tunes were adapted to English texts. One of the best examples of this is found in the Irish Melodies of Thomas Moore in which the author creates new English language texts to fit the existing ancient Irish tunes.25 Harmonically, the use of modal structures does predominate in the genre, but some songs in the Irish repertoire also use hexatonic and pentatonic scales.26 Most songs in the Irish song repertoire are binary (in two large sections) and most sections can be divided into four near-equal phrases. The use of the binary form also demonstrates the close relation of the song tradition to dance, which by its nature requires regular sections that are commonly repeated. Several styles of dance, including the jig, reel, hornpipe, and slide are commonly used as the rhythmic and structural basis of solo songs.27 Although Irish music was long a solo art, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries there began a movement towards group performances and the arrangement and adaptation of many traditional songs for choral ensembles. Several ensembles and composers (Altan, Anna, Clannad, David Mooney, and Michael McGlynn among them)

Thomas Moore, Moore's Irish Melodies With Symphonies and Accompaniments (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1893). Breandn Breathnach, Folk Music and Dances of Ireland: A Comprehensice Study examining the Basic Elements of Irish Folk Music and Dance (Cork: Mercier Press, 1996), 12. James Cowdery, The Melodic Tradition of Ireland (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1990), 16-18.
27 26

25

19 specialize in choral settings and work diligently to adhere to the artistic ideals of that solo art form in the ensemble medium.

CHAPTER 3 IRISH VOCAL MUSIC

The vocal music of Ireland has been influenced by many changes in the culture of the country. The song tradition was first influenced by the structure of the Irish language and then by the increased, and eventually mandated, use of English. The song styles that flourished in earlier times, especially the sean-ns, were limited to specific areas and were kept alive by a few communities throughout times of occupation and oppression. Because of Britains rules and restrictions in the use of the Irish language and the domination of the Anglican Church through musics developmental periods, the choral music of Ireland remained in an infantile state. The only choral music that existed was in the church, and that was British. When the Irish language was outlawed and the majority of the ruling class for whom the songs were performed spoke only English, musicians were forced to either forego their native language or combine it in moderation with English. When Englands rulers outlawed Irish music, any development in group singing of traditional repertoire was cut short. Music that began as a solo art style remained as such outside of the choral development within the Anglican Church. It has only been in the last century that choral music began to take a foothold in the world of Irish music, but that is not to say that choral music did not exist in Ireland.

20

21 During the years of occupation it was difficult for musicians to perform any music that was not sanctioned by Great Britain. There were, however, great choral societies. Musical events based on the English model, like the premiere of Handels Messiah in Dublin, were permitted and encouraged. Michael McGlynn has been trying to create a distinct Irish choral tradition, which due to the strong foreign influence did not develop. His music is a window into all that has come before him and synthesizes the language influences, song traditions, and early choral forms that were in place prior to Irelands subjugation.

Language The language that is today known as Irish or Irish-Gaelic belongs to the Celtic group of languages. While similar to other Celtic languages including Welsh, Manx, Breton, and Scots Gaelic, Irish also assimilated components from languages outside the immediate family group. Borrowed words in the Irish language came primarily from Latin, Norse, and English. These additions came through missionaries, early settlements of the Viking peoples on the east coast, and the use of a language that was required by the British rule.28 The Irish Gaelic literary tradition had great influence on the songs of Ireland. Bards used very complex forms of poetic meter, which in turn defined the musical structure of the songs and airs. George Petrie first stated the importance of the

28

James Cowdery, The Melodic Tradition of Ireland (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press,

1990), 7.

22 interrelationship of the two structures in his Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland in 1855: For those airs are not, like so many modern melodies, mere ad libitum arrangements of a pleasing succession of tones unshackled by a rigid obedience of the sentiments of the songs for which they were composed, but always strictly coincident with, and subservient to, the laws of rhythm and metre which govern the construction of those songs, and to which they consequently owe their peculiarities of structure. And hence it obviously follows that entire body of our vocal melodies may be easily divided into, and arranged under, as many classes as there are metrical forms of construction in our native lyrics but no further; and that any melody that will not naturally fall into some one or other of those classes must either be corrupt or altogether fictitious.29 Of the six meters used in Irish-language poetry, amhrnaocht is one of the most common. The meter, which forms the basis for some of the most characteristic melodies, consists of a stanza with five stressed syllables in each line. Each stanza fits easily into two bars of 9/8 or six bars of 3/4. OBoyle gives as an example of this metric similarity as the first line of An Bata Dubh Droighin. The five stressed syllables per line of this meter fit into two measures of 9/8 (Example 3.1) or five measures of 3/4 (Example 3.2).30

Amhranainocht Meter examples


Example 3.1. Amhrnaocht meter in 9/8

Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Music by: [Composer Arranged by [Arranger

9 & 8 .
4

slai - tn bhog bhocht

j 3 & 4 . & t
29

j t

gag

de'n

chuil - eann chas chuar

. t . t

. t

. . t !

! !

3 4

slai - tn bhog

bhocht

gag

11

George Petrie, The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, ed. David Cooper (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005), 36.
30

de'n

chuil - eann chas

chuar

San O'Boyle, The Irish Song Tradition (Toronto: Macmilian of Canada, 1976), 21.

9 & 8 .
4

slai - tn bhog bhocht

j 3 & 4 . & t

j t

gag

de'n

chuil - eann chas chuar

. t . t

. t

. . t

23

! ! !

3 4

Example 3.2. Amhrnaocht meter in 3/4

slai - tn bhog

bhocht

gag

11

When the English language is used with Irish melody the construction is changed

de'n

chuil - eann chas

chuar

slightly. As OBoyle noted: William Carleton, the Tyrone novelist, records that his mother, when asked to sing the English version of Bean an Fhir Rua, said: Ill sing it for you, but the English words and the air are like a quarrelling man and wife the Irish melts into the tune but the English doesnt.31 Many nineteenth century Irish speakers shared this sentiment, and when writing in English, poets who were familiar with Irish poetry attempted to place assonances and stressed syllables in a location that was suited to the amhrnaocht meter. However, that was not always possible. Those that did not fit the traditional structure fell into a verse form known as Ochtfhoclach, or tail-rhyme. Consisting of four large parts, each containing three lines of five syllables and one line of four syllables, the five-syllable lines rhyme, as do the lines of four. Ochfhoclach Mr is another verse form that contains odd syllabification. In this structure there are two large groups. The first has three lines of six syllables, each rhyming with the other, and a line of five syllables. The second contains three lines of five syllables, all of which rhyme with the six-syllable lines of the first part, and a line of four syllables that rhymes with the last line of the first section.

31

Ibid., 25.

24 The outlawing of the Irish language brought about changes in the repertoire of Irish music. Many songs became bi-lingual, that is, the traditional tune was sometimes translated into what became a well-known English version. Other tunes were sung partially in each language, typically with verses in English and a refrain in Irish. One example of this kind of modification is seen in Siil a Rin (Table 3.1). A detailed description of this familiar song is included in Chapter Five.

Table 3. 1. Siil, a Rin, mixed English text and translation32 Verse Chorus (crfa) I wish I were on yonder hill Siil, siil, siil a rin 'Tis there I'd sit and cry my fill And every tear would turn a mill I wish I sat on my true love's knee Many a fond story he told to me He told me things that ne'er shall be Siil go sochair agus siil go ciin Siil go doras agus alaigh liom (Translation: Go, go, go my love Go quietly and go peacefully Go to the door and fly with me)

By the nineteenth century Hiberno-English, a dialect of English, was the primary language spoken in Ireland. However in the last decade of the same century a movement began to reinstate Irish and its historical literary style. The movement to reestablish Irish to the prominence it once held fed into the struggle for national independence, which was eventually won in 1922. Today, although English continues to be the primary language throughout Ireland, basic Irish language skills are taught in schools and certain communities exist where Irish is the sole language. In supporting this initiative, the
Celtic Lyrics Corner, November 27, 2008, http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/anuna/siuil.htm (accessed October 29, 2009).
32

25 government has kept Irish from becoming a dead language and has made it one whose future is yet to be determined.

Sean-ns Sean-ns refers to both the repertoire and style of singing generally considered to be the oldest in Ireland, dating from at least the fifteenth century, if not earlier.33 While found most frequently in the southwestern area of the country, sean-ns has spread to all parts of Ireland. It is an unaccompanied musical style that is typically characterized by a highly ornamented melodic line, though the means and degree of ornamentation change from region to region. Although an original source for this music is unknown, it is generally assumed that it is derived from the medieval bardic tradition. Many sean-ns singers in recent history have come from Gaeltacht areas (Figure 3.1), and most consider Irish their first language. These are regional areas in Ireland where Irish is the primary language and where the culture of passing this body of songs through generations is still part of daily life. At the very least the singers have a considerable facility and competency in it.

33

The Sean-ns style of singing was discussed on page 16.

26

Figure 3. 1. Gaeltacht areas (darkened areas are officially recognized regions)34

The performer of sean-ns takes considerable liberties with the original tune or framework of the song through knowledge of a commonly understood rules. These stylistic constraints permit him to adhere to tradition while allowing enough freedom to place his own unique mark and interpretation on the song. The singer is not constrained by meter or tempo, but moves through the song according to both his interpretation of the

Irish Gaelic Translator, http://www.irishgaelictranslator.com/translation/topic66267.html (accessed June 21, 2010). Map alterd by author to illustrate regions.

34

27 text and through his use of sometimes very elaborate ornamentation. This process is called humoring or gracing the tune.35 Harmonically, sean-ns is similar to much of what will be seen in the greater body of Irish song; modalities and alternate scale structures (pentatonic and hexatonic scales) are often employed. To the listener accustomed to European art music, especially that of the seventeenth through nineteenth centuries, it may sound foreign. Irish composer Sen Riada has said: In approaching that style of singing which is called in Irish, the Sean-Ns the old styleit is best to listen as if we were listening to music for the first time, with a childs new mind; or to think of Indian music rather than European.36 Within the corpus of the sean-ns repertoire there exist several subgenres according to the subject matter. These include love songs, lullabies, vision or dream songs, laments, hymns, drinking songs, and humorous songs. Many of these songs were composed for a local audience who would have known either the story upon which the song was based or who had a personal connection with the place or event described. The songs therefore do not relay the events in a journalistic manner, but are a part of the long storytelling tradition that stems from the bardic era. The bards of medieval Ireland held highly honored places in the court. Their manner of reciting poetry and stories, often of epic length, was long revered by their patrons. Though the use of the harp to accompany the recitation was lost, two features of

Dorthea E Hast and Stanley Scott, Music in Ireland: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Pres, 2004), 103. Sean Riada, Thomas Kinsella and Toms Canainn, Our Musical Heritage (Mountrth: Fundireacht an Riadaigh/ Dolmen Press, 1982), 23.
36

35

28 early Irish poetry did have significant effects on sean-ns singing. First, the length of the poetic line was far greater than many of its counterparts in English or other languages. This meant that there would be more stresses or accented beats in a musical line. It also made the overall poem or song longer than those in other languages. Second, there was a prevalence of internal rhyming and assonance.37 The internal rhyming did transfer into English language poetry and song in Ireland, but caused problems for those poets and musicians who tried to maintain both the rhyme scheme and the original musical line. While it may not be overly difficult to create an adequate translation in English that uses a final syllable rhyme scheme, internal rhyming does pose a considerable challenge.38 There are many accounts of the vocal tone used in the singing of this old style. Many modern day recordings demonstrate a rather nasal sound while others employ a vocal tone reminiscent of Italian bel canto technique. What might this style have sounded like before the modern influence and training of various styles? An account from John Dutton near the end of the seventeenth century states that he ...was entertained by the landlady, who was brought in to sing an Irish cronaan, which is so odd a thing that I cannot express it, being mostly performed in the throat, only now and then some miserable sounds are sent through the nose.39 It is not known if the performer described was suitably versed in the form and performance of the style.

Dorthea E Hast and Stanley Scott, Music in Ireland: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture (Oxford: Oxford University Pres, 2004), 99.
38

37

A detailed description of the common features of Irish poetic meter found on page 20.

Brian Boydell, Music Before 1700, Vol. IV, in A New History of Ireland, ed. T.W. Moody and W.E. Vaughan, 544 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 565.

39

29 Ornamention in sean-ns varies greatly from area to area. Singers from Connacht, the western portion of Ireland, normally have very florid musical lines in contrast with Ulster (northern Ireland), which customarily has a simple presentation.40 The singer strives to reflect the stresses of the poetic meter above all, moving from stress to stress at his own pace. Sean-ns began as a solo-unaccompanied style much like ballad singing across Europe, but unlike other areas of Europe, it never developed to incorporate harmony, group singing, or accompaniment.41 During the Elizabethan age there was a necessity for anonymity, lest one be put to death. Only recently has this repertoire been developed to incorporate group singing.

Choral Music in Ireland The concept of choral singing in Ireland has long been an imported art form. But what might have been in place before the Norman invasion (1169-1171)? Are we to believe that throughout fifteen centuries no singing was done in groups? There are forms of work songs that survive from c. AD 600. It would not be unusual for these to have been sung by all of those contributing to the days chores. Was this done as a form of call and response or in rudimentary harmony? Unfortunately there is no definitive answer. The Cross of Muireadach (Figure 3.2), a Celtic high cross dating from the tenth century, depicts a choir of monks among other musicians, with one of the figures holding a book. If the era from which this cross dates is compared to the rest of Europe, one

40 41

Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 49.

Nuala O'Conor, Bringing it All Back Home: The Influence of Irish Music (Dublin: Merlin Publishing, 2001), 9.

30 might assume that this could be a depiction of early organum singing. Many sources have references to singing in churches dating from the seventh century, but the earliest Irish music manuscripts that have polyphonic notation date from between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.42 These date from after the Norman invasion and thus demonstrate more of the outside influence on the people and practices of Ireland than on the indigenous culture. A polyphonic choir was established at St. Patricks Cathedral in Dublin established in 1431. Its music followed the developing continental polyphonic style and composition, particularly that of the Burgundian School.43

Figure 3. 2. Cross of Muireadach, Monasterboice, County Louth, Ireland44

42
43

Ibid., 782.

Brian Boydell, Music Before 1700, Vol. IV, in A New History of Ireland, ed. T.W. Moody and W.E. Vaughan, 544 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986), 543. Monasterboice, Ireland, http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/muiredach/muiredach.html (accessed June 21, 2010).
44

31 From the inception of polyphony at St. Patricks Cathedral, choral church music in Ireland developed similarily to that of northern continental Europe and Britain. The influence the British exerted was great, and, for a country that would be under foreign rule for over a millennea, it was insurmountable. Any secular choral singing would have been done in the home, away from the ears of the ruling class, and without notation. We know that the oral tradition continued in the Gaeltacht areas. Modern ensembles, such as the Bothy Band, Clannad, and Altan, demonstrate the kind of ensemble singing that might have occurred.45 These groups sing in simple harmonies, usually at the third or the fifth, and are accompanied by the pipes, fiddle, and bodhrn (traditional drum). They often use drone voices at intervals of a fifth to accompany a solo line and join either in unison or harmony during the curf (refrain). Scholars agree that this kind of group singing might have been very typical in family and social gatherings throughout Ireland for centuries.

These ensembles are popular Celtic/ Irish vocal and instrumental groups who have recorded extensively from the 1990s on.

45

CHAPTER 4 TRADITIONAL IRISH MUSICAL ELEMENTS

Even in their liveliest strains we find some melancholy note intrude some minor third or flat seventh which throws its shade as it passes, and makes even mirth interesting. Thomas Moore, The Poetical Works of Thomas Moore

The traditional music of Ireland has long been isolated from the musical developments of continental Europe and the rest of the world. The traditional music as described in this chapter belonged to the Irish peasantry, not the English elite. The native musicians were not exposed to the music that was fashionable in England, France, and Germany. Traditional Irish musicians were still using modal systems and non-tempered instruments when trained musicians such as George Petrie and Edward Bunting began fieldwork collecting and notating tunes in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. The harmonic systems, rhythmic theories, and traditional instruments in use throughout the various regions of Ireland combined to give traditional Irish music the old, essentially medieval sound it retains today. Many of the musical elements described in this chapter are visible in McGlynns compositions.

32

33

Harmonic Devices The specific scales found in traditional Irish music derive from the stringing of the cruit (Irish Harp). A general understanding of the harp as it existed when many of the traditional tunes first came into being is therefore essential. A favored instrument among the upper classes in Ireland, once strung these harps were fixed in pitch. Strings were made of thick brass anchored at one end by metal pins, with the other end wound around wooden pegs housed in the hollowed-out soundboard. An example of this, the Brian Boru harp (Figure 4.1), is housed at Trinity College Dublin. Flood indicates that this specific harp dates from around AD 1220, but Breanthnach lists the date for its construction at about one hundred years later. Traditional Irish harps had between twenty-one and sixty strings (the Boru harp had twenty-nine strings).46 This surviving specimen of the traditional instrument was restrung in the mid-1900s with metal strings. When played it was said to have an extraordinarily sweet and clear [tone] with a quality which was somewhat bell-like.47

William H. Grattan Flood, "A History of Irish Music," Library Ireland, 1905, http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.libraryireland.com/IrishMusic/boruharp.jpg&imgrefurl =http://www.libraryireland.com/IrishMusic/III.php&h=257&w=150&sz=40&tbnid=rYQj36spHkU6NM:& tbnh=112&tbnw=65&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrian%2Bboru%2Bharp&usg=__Nd0cAlg9CSnB8mEeNM qc9RR5c84=&ei=P1-S6fiDIKdlgf25bneBg&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=9&ct=image&ved=0CBYQ9QEwCA (accessed March 28, 2010).
47

46

Brendn Breathnach, Folk Music and Dances of Ireland. (Cork: Mercier Press, 1996), 66.

34

Figure 4.1. Brian Boru Harp, illustration48

When Edward Bunting transcribed songs of the harpers at the Belfast Harp Festival in July of 1792, he noted: It would appear that the old Musicians, in transmitting Music to us through so many centuries, treated it with the utmost reverence, as they seem to never have ventured to make the slightest innovation in it during its descent. He further states It is remarkable that the performers all tuned their instruments on the same principle, totally ignorant of the principle itself, and without being able to assign any reason for their mode of tuning, or their playing of the bass.49

48

Early Gaelic Harp, http://www.earlygaelicharp.info/harps/trinity.htm (accessed March 24,

2010). Edward Bunting, The Ancient Music of Ireland: The Bunting Collections (a facsimile edition of Edward Bunting's songs and airs in piano arrangements), ed. Harry Long (Dublin: Walton Manufacturing Ltd., 2002), preface.
49

35 While musicologists now consider Buntings concept that there was no innovation as generally false, the observation is significant in its reference to the tuning systems employed. Since the tuning system of the harp was fixed it is widely agreed that the scales employed were of a modal origin. From various writings and from later transcriptions of tunes, it is likely that the harp had one of its G strings tuned down to F# in order to facilitate a greater variety of modal scales. Thus the Do, Re, and Mi modes were played through the C Do using the F natural while the Fa, Sol, and La modes were played through the G Do with the F#.50 The division and distribution of notes within each scale and their relation to the traditional church modes, as seein in table 4.1, is easily viewed in two sets of three modes.

Table 4.1. Modes found in Irish Traditional Music51 First scale degree Scale Do C D E F G A B C Re D E F G A B C D Mi E F G A B C D E Fa C D E F# G A B C Sol D E F# G A B C D La E F# G A B C D E

Scale name Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian

The final note defines the mode of each song. In order to facilitate the recognition of modes in a variety of songs, it is helpful to see examples of tunes in each of the six possibilities:

San O'Boyle, The Irish Song Tradition (Toronto: Macmilian of Canada, 1976), 30-31. In order to facilitate discussion of the harmonic structures, solfege syllables will be used.
51

50

Ibid., 30.

36

Scales
Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Do Mode

Mu Arra

Voice

& Cailleacha Chige Uladh


from Petrie Collection
3

Example 4.1. Doh mode (C Doh)

! !

& 9 . &8 J j .
qd = 118

Example 4.2. Doh mode, Cailleacha Chige Uladh52

n ! Scales &b . . & . Lyrics j j . by: [Lyricist]


5

Music by: [Com Arranged by [Ar

Re Mode

& & b n Voice


8 10

! ! ! !

& &
3

Example 4.3. Re mode (C Doh)

! !
!

12

#&b n &
5

14

George Petrie, The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, ed. David Cooper (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005). George Petrie, The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, ed. 10 David Cooper (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005), 152.

52

&

#&
8

! !

# & #

12

37

Tiagharna Mhaighe-eo
Fleischmann 2212

Example 4.4. Re mode, Tiagharna Mhaighe-eo53

& . .

&C

& Voice &

11

. Scales Lyrics by: [Lyricist] . b n

Music by: [Co Arranged by [A

. . 3

&

Mi mode

&
Example 4.5. Mi mode (F Doh)

. .

! !

n &b & & & & # # #

! ! ! !

10

12
53

Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 1, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998), 429.

14

The Campbells are Coming


Fleischmann- 2315)

38

j j j 6 j j & b 8 Scales
6

Example 4.6. Mi mode, The Campbells are Coming54

& b .

11

. . Voice . & b n . J &b J J


&b

. j . . J J J
Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Mus Arran

! ! ! ! ! !

16

21

Fa Mode

& . j . &b 5 n b &


8

j 3

&
Example 4.7. Fa mode (C Doh)

10

# & & & # ! #

12

14

Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 1, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998), 448.

54

Scales
Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

The Last Time I Came Thro' the Muire


&C J
5

39

Music b Arranged

Example 4.8. Fa mode, The Last Time I Came the Muire55 Thro
Voice

& &

. .& b J
3

Fleischmann 445

. J
5

&
j .

. j

! !

14

. &

b & J

. J

Sol Mode
Score

&

[Title]

!
[Composer]

&c # 2 & 4 & #


Beir

56 Example 4.10. Sol mode, Bn-Chnoic ireann


bean14 - nacht

& # & j j

12

10 Example

# # #

4.9. Sol mode (G Doh)

!
hi

# 2 4

! !


Bn chnoic

# &
55

i reann
i -

&

m'


chroi go

tir


na

Chun a

mair -eann

j
-

j
de

reann

shol - ra


bhir ar

bhn

a - gus

chnoic

reann

Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 1, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998), 86.
56

San O'Boyle, The Irish Song Tradition (Toronto: Macmilian of Canada, 1976), 36.

10

La Mode

# & # &
Example 4.11. La mode (G Doh)

40

! !

12

#from O hEidin Cas Amhran ! & Example 4.12. La mode, Ardaidh Cuain57 # 6 j . . & 8 J . J
14
5

Ardaidh Cuain

&

# 9 6 . j & 8 . 8 . J

9 j . . . 8 J J

Two other scales, the pentatonic and hexatonic (Examples 4.13 and 4.14), also hold important places in Irish music. Both of these scales correspond to the Do scale, or Ionian mode. The pentatonic scale most often used normally lack the fourth and seventh scale degrees, while the hexatonic scale lacks only the seventh. These scales are only employed in a small number of the tunes in the traditional Irish music repertoire. However, many tunes have components or phrases that are set completely in one of these two scales. Often times, it is only a secondary phrase or the refrain that completes the normal eight-tone scale by adding the one or two missing scale degrees from the pentatonic or hexatonic phrase.

57

Mchel hEidhin, Cas Amhrn (Conmara: Cl Iar-Chonnachta, 1975), 152.

Score

Score

[Title] [Title]
Example 4.13. Pentatonic scale

41

& & &

&

! Hexatonic 4.14. Example scale

Of particular interest to the collector of Irish music are the chromaticallyinflected scale degrees, particularly those notes that appear in both raised and lowered forms within a tune. For many years, collectors and musicians have argued as to the purpose of these inflected notes. Some have said that the presence of these altered versions serve to change the modal scale in mid-tune. Others believe that they are merely a decoration or passing tone.58 Canainn writes of the rules governing inflection: 1. The seventh is by far the most commonly inflected note, but the third and occasionally the fourth degree of the scale may be inflected. 2. If the inflectible note proceeds upwards by step, it is sharpened. 3. If the inflectible note is the highest note of a group, it is generally flattened. 4. In the pattern 8-7-5 the seventh may be either flattened or sharpened, but it is more usually sharpened.59

58 59

Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 30. Ibid., 33-34.

42

Rhythmic Devices It is quite strange that in a country such as Ireland, which had an early affinity for music, there was not a word that corresponds to the Latin word for dance until the mid 1500s. Early Irish translations of the Bible use words that mean jump, hop, and leap where a word for dance would have been found. It is this verbiage that has lead many to believe that the early dances of Ireland were much like the step-dances of today, highly energetic acrobatic dances that involved leaping and jumping about. In modern Irish two words are used for dance: damhsa and rince, both of which came into use between 1530 and 1650 from France and England respectively.60 Dances are the most common and abundant tunes found in the traditional Irish music repertoire. The most popular dance forms are jigs, reels, and hornpipes. Several other dance styles, including mazurkas, polkas, slides, highlands, and barn dances are also found in the song literature, though not frequently. Most of the dance tunes are in a standard repeated form (AA BB). Though many of the dance forms originated in other countries, they have been assimilated into the Irish musical tradition. In fact, the most common form of dance in the Irish repertoire, the reel, originated in Scotland. Many of the rhythms found in the dances serve as the basis for tunes in the traditional song catalog. Tunes frequently began as dances and later had words added to create a song that often became more popular than the original dance. The dance forms are identified by several variables of which the most easily identifiable are tempo, time

Breandn Breathnach, Folk Music and Dances of Ireland: A Comprehensice Study examining the Basic Elements of Irish Folk Music and Dance (Cork: Mercier Press, 1996), 35.

60

43 signature, and rhythmic pattern (Table 4.2). As much of the vocal music repertoire came from instrumental tunes, many songs can also be placed into these categories.

Table 4.2. Dance Forms and Structure61 Dance Type Tempo Single Jig (also known as slide) Double Jig Hop or Slip Jig Reel Hornpipe Fast Moderately fast Fast Fast, with a 2 feel Steady, 4 feel

Time Signature 6/8 (or 12/8) 6/8 9/8 2/4 or 4/4 4/4

Characteristic Rhythm

\ q e q e\ \ eee eee \ \ q e q e q e\ \ ee ee \ \ q ee q ee\

Instruments and Accompaniment In order to better understand the elements and performance of the vocal music in a musical society known for its instrumental contributions to folk music, it is essential to understand the instruments that had the greatest impact in the genre. Much of what exists today in the corpus of known tunes has variations and derivations stemming from various means of performance and ornamentation. Different instruments require

Andrew Purcell, "Irish Traditional Music," in Music: Revision for Leaving Certification (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 2006), 13.

61

44 different methods of performance that are easily identifiable. Today these instruments are known both for their solo styles and for their interaction with the vocal traditions. Harp Throughout Irish history there have been three distinct versions of the Irish harp: the fourteenth and fifteenth century small low-headed harp, the large low-headed harp of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and the straighter, taller high-headed harp of the eighteenth century.62 Scholars believe that the harp existed as early as the beginning of the third century, when in the reign of Cormac Ulfada a law required every regional chieftan to have a musician in his court, widely believed to be a harper.63 It was common for bards or court poets to recite stories to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument, most likely an early harp or version of the lyre. The first known depiction of the fully framed triangular harp appears in Psalters of the ninth century (Figure 4.2) .64

62 63

Detailed description of the harp included in discussion about harmonic elements on page 34.

Anniina Jokinen, Cormac mac Art, May 20, 2007, http://luminarium.org/mythology/ireland/cormac.htm (accessed December 12, 2009). Cormac Mac Art, also known as Cormac Ulfada (Cormac Long beard), became king of Ireland in 218 AD and reigned until 254. He is said to have turned to Christianity near the end of his life. He is remembered as a noble and celebrated king and Ireland was said to be full of goodness in his time Thomas F. Johnston, "The Social Context of Irish Folk Instruments," International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music (Croatian Musicological Society) 26, no. 1 (June 1995): 35-59, 42.
64

45

Figure 4.2. Maedoc book cover from Ireland (circa 1000 A.D.), framed triangular harp depicted65 Uilleann Pipes Also closely associated with the traditional music of Ireland is the Uilleann or Union pipes, which is closely related to the bagpipes of Scotland and possibly derived from similar instruments used in ancient Greece and Rome. Instruments known as ppa were noted in writings from as early as the eleventh century in pre-Norman Ireland.66 These earliest notations were references to a very simple instrument similar to pipes of the ancient Greeks and Romans.67 A set of pipes is constructed of five basic parts (Figure 4.3): the bag, bellow, chanter, drone, and pipes. The primary difference between the various pipes of different geographic regions is the manner in which the bag is filled with air. While the Scottish version uses a mouthpiece to inflate the bag through blowing, the Irish pipes uses a bellow strapped to the arm. In order to fill the bag the elbow is raised, extending the

65 66

Classic Cat- Harp, http://classiccat.net/iv/harp.info.php (accessed June 21, 2010).

Breandn Breathnach, Folk Music and Dances of Ireland: A Comprehensice Study examining the Basic Elements of Irish Folk Music and Dance (Cork: Mercier Press, 1996), 69. Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 81. Ancient historians reference Neros ability to play the pipes.
67

46 bellow. While innovative, this change made the Uilleann pipes less portable than its counterparts, as modern pipes are played in the seated position.

Figure 4.3. Uilleann pipes68

The Uilleann pipes chanter has a range and tone similar to that of a modern oboe (Example 4.15). This part of the instrument allows the piper to play a single melodic line. Though old pipes were transposing instruments, modern versions are double-reed instruments and are set in concert pitch. The lowest note of the chanter is the D above middle C; the range extends upwards two octaves. The prevalence of drones in the performance of traditional music most likely began with the harp and was continued in the pipes. The use of instrumental drones began sometime in the thirteenth century and was first used as a very simple continuous accompaniment to the melody played on the

68

Dirk Campbell, http://www.dirkcampbell.co.uk/Uilleann_pipes.html (accessed June 21, 2010).

47 chanter. It has also been suggested that the drones may have originated in sean-ns singing. Joe Heaney (one of the most famous sean ns singers in modern times) talked to James Crowdery about the nea, a vocal drone accompaniment sung through the nose.69 Heaney explained to Cowdrey how while not audible to the listener except at the beginnings and ends of phrases, the single pitch is always present to the performer. It is his way of accompanying himself and an example of how vocal music and instrumental music in this tradition influence each other.

Example 4.15. Uilleann Pipes, chanter range

Early Uilleann pipes (union pipes) consisted of two drones, with a third added in the mid-eighteenth century. The drones allow the pipes to serve as both a melodic and harmonic instrument and provide a constant harmonic support while the melodic line is played on the chanter. Each of the three drones is tuned to D, spaced an octave apart. The highest of the three matches the lowest pitch of the chanter (Example 4.16).

Example 4. 16. Uilleann pipes, Drones

James Cowdery, The Melodic Tradition of Ireland (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1990), 36-37.

69

48

Also in the mid-1900s, regulators were added allowing additional accompaniment to be played. The regulator allows the piper to play one of four predertmined three-note chords (Example 4.17). 70

Example 4. 17. Uilleann Pipes, regulator chords

70

Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 81-82.

CHAPTER 5 TRADITIONAL SONGS OF IRELAND Perhaps we may look no further than the last disgraceful century for the origin of most of those wild and melancholy strains, which were at once the offspring and solace of grief. Thomas Moore, The Poetical Works of Thomas Moore

Craig Harris writes: Twelve centuries of Irelands vocal tradition are explored by the choral ensemble, Anna.71 Musicians in this tradition have both knowingly and unknowingly made changes to the repertoire. The ability to see some of these changes and to recognize what has not changedcan be beneficial to the performer of McGlynns choral music. This chapter examines variations found in the collections of the traditional repertoire in specific songs that McGlynn has arranged.

Collectors of Irish Music Late in the sixteenth century a few Irish songs became popular in England. These appeared as early transcriptions found in books that contained a variety of songs from different geographic areas including England, Ireland, Scotland, France, and Italy. Among the earliest written Irish tune was Caliln chois tSiire m (The Croppy Boy), a rebel tune that was found in both William Ballets Lute Book (1590) and in the

Craig Harris, All Music Guide- Anna, 1995, http://www.allmusicguide.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=11:wxfwxqlgldte~T1 (accessed March 2, 2010).

71

49

50 Fitzwilliam Virginal Book (1609-19).72 Later in the same century, several other Irish tunes appeared in London publications of Playfords The Dancing Master (1695).73 These tunes were altered, often changing words, language, or modal inflections from their original forms in order to be more suitable for the English gentry for whom these books were compiled.74 The first collection that contained exclusively Irish tunes, Neals A Collection of the Most Celebrated Irish Tunes, was published in Dublin in 1726.75 As many of the melodies that appeared in this collection are still in the common repertoire today, this publication should be viewed as an important milestone in the history of Irish music. It was in 1792 at the Belfast Harp Festival that the serious and scholarly collection of Irish tunes began. From that event Edward Bunting produced his first volume of collected music, Ancient Irish Music (1796). In attendance at that festival were ten harpers who were considered the last generation in a line that extended back several hundred years. Bunting was also the first collector to note the importance of the Irish texts that accompanied the tunes. He employed Patrick Lynch to collect the texts separately. Bunting and Lynch encountered problems because often they were dealing with different

William H. Grattan Flood, "A History of Irish Music," Library Ireland, 1905, http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.libraryireland.com/IrishMusic/boruharp.jpg&imgrefurl =http://www.libraryireland.com/IrishMusic/III.php&h=257&w=150&sz=40&tbnid=rYQj36spHkU6NM:& tbnh=112&tbnw=65&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrian%2Bboru%2Bharp&usg=__Nd0cAlg9CSnB8mEeNM qc9RR5c84=&ei=P1-S6fiDIKdlgf25bneBg&sa=X&oi=image_result&resnum=9&ct=image&ved=0CBYQ9QEwCA (accessed April 8, 2010). Margaret Dean-Smith, "Hornpipe (ii)," Grove Music Online, Oxford Music Online, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/1336 (accessed April 9, 2010).
74 75 73

72

Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 10. Ibid.

51 versions of the same song. Bunting continued to collect over two hundred fifty songs, many of them in various versions. These songs were collected from the 1792 festival and from his travels throughout the country. In the preface of his third volume Bunting states:
Whatever differences of opinion may exist as to the high degree of early civilization and national glory laid claim to by the Irish people, it has never been questioned that, in the most remote times, they had at least a national music peculiar to themselves, and that their bards and harpers were eminently skilful in its performance.76

Bunting also attempts in his collection to give an approximate time frame for the composition of most tunes. He places them into three categories: the very ancient, the ancient, and those composed from around the time of Carolan the harper.77 Bunting adds that while the words associated with each tune may change slightly, the tune remains the same if studied within the region of origin.
A strain of music, once impressed on the popular ear, never varies. It may be made the vehicle of many different sets of words, but they are adapted to it, not it to them, and it will no more alter its character on their account than a ship will change the number of its masts on account of an alternation in the nature of its lading. For the taste of music is so universal, especially among country people, and in a pastoral age, and airs are so easily, indeed, in many instances, so intuitively acquired, that when a melody has once been divulged in any district, a criterion is immediately established in almost every ear... It is thus that changes in the actual frame and structure of our melodies have never been attempted, unless on the introduction of the altered tunes for the first time amongst those who have never heard them in their original state.78

The assertion that the tunes, once composed, never changed is of debate. As will be seen with several tunes, there is in fact, great variation.

Edward Bunting, The Ancient Music of Ireland: The Bunting Collections (a facsimile edition of Edward Bunting's songs and airs in piano arrangements), ed. Harry Long (Dublin: Walton Manufacturing Ltd., 2002), 1. Ibid., 6. Turlough OCarolan (Toirdhealbhach Cearbhallin) was an Irish harper who lived near County Meath from 1670 to 1738. He is noted as both an eminently skilled harper and the composer of many of the tunes that exist in the modern repertoire.
78 77

76

Ibid., 1-2.

52 After the Bunting collections, several antiquarians began their own compilations. Many of the collectors, noteworthy musicians in their own right, made great contributions to Irish musicology, and several of them used a similar methodology for acquiring the tunes. They traveled the countryside and asked traditional musicians to perform given pieces that they then transcribed into modern musical notation. Herein lies a distinct problem: all of the collectors listened to the tunes through the prism of their modern musical ears relative to their knowledge of western musical traditions. Many of them failed to realize that the tunes did not fit exactly into the modern tuning and harmonic systems in which they were transcribing. The ancient Irish harp was a diatonic instrument without accidentals and thus the tunes were in modal scales. Unfortunately, many of the transcriptions forced the melodies into a contemporary key signature or scale, removing the ancient sound of the tune. In an effort to give metric value to notes, the free-flowing nature of the tunes was constrained to a determined note value. Thus, despite their efforts to preserve the ancient music, they changed it forever.

Song Comparisons In beginning the study of Michael McGlynns settings of traditional tunes, it is quickly noticeable to anyone familiar with Irish traditional music that some of the tunes are different from those of other modern Irish traditional performers and composers. Portions of songs discussed in this chapter are annotated here; complete melodies are in Appendix D. Many of the songs discussed below show only minor variances in the tunes and can reflect the living nature of traditional music as in any culture. However, some of them are quite different, so much so that they can be considered different tunes with the

53 same text. This section will demonstrate the differences and similarities, harmonic and rhythmic, between variations of four songs (S do Mhaimeo , Ardaigh Cuan, Silent, OMoyle, and Siil, a Rin) that have been set by McGlynn. As this primary objective of this study is the examination McGlynns compositions and arrangements, this chapter is intended to demonstrate how and where he deviates from or aligns with tradition in his arrangements. In order to accurately establish the origin and transmission of the songs, this author compiled sources used by many traditional musicians in Ireland. The variations are referenced according to the author and title of the collection. It should be noted that in creating some of his arrangements, McGlynn intentionally used a tune that he knew without refering to any particular source. McGlynn does not always rely on scholarly sources for his melodies, turning instead to personal recollection. In a few instances he intentionally changed or omitted portions, as will be seen in Si do Mhaimeo and Siil, a Run. Si do Mhaimeo S do Mhaimeo is also known by the title Caileach an Airgid or Cailleacha Chige Uladh, and by the English titles The Hags with the Money or The Hags from Ulster. This tune dates from 1839, attributed by both Petrie and Fleischmann (who notate identical tunes) to Patrick Coneely, a piper from the Connaught region. While there are only slight variations between the four recent versions as performed by Joe Heaney from his CD From My Tradition,79 by OhEidhin in Cas Amhrn, by McLaughlin in Singing in Irish, and the choral arrangement by Michael McGlynn, the modern

Joe Heaney, "Cailleach an Airgid," From My Tradition: The Best of Joe Heaney, 2005. Transcribed by the author.

79

54 examples differ from the tune earlier attributed to Coneely. Canainn notates yet another version, and though he does not attribute the tune to any particular time, person, or place, his 1978 version has similarities with both the tune found in the Petrie collection and the modern versions. It could be considered as a link beteen the earlier and later versions. Fleischmanns Sources of Irish Traditional Music also contains two additional versions, listed by English language titles, which bear only faint resemblance to the others. For this study, these two versions of the melody shall be considered enough of a deviation from the original to be separate songs. This metamorphosis, or possible use of similar names for different tunes, occurrs frequently as the tunes were passed down through generations. It is evidence of the living nature of the traditional music of Ireland. The translation and transcription difficulties of the Irish language by non-Irish speakers combined with the natural and subtle changes of a tune as it traveled from performer to performer, often gave rise to entirely new songs. Let us first consider the differences between what is considered the earliest source material (the melody found in Petrie) and that notated by Canainn in 1970. The more modern versions by OhEidhin, McLaughlin, and McGlynn will then be compared to the Canainn as they are very similar and demonstrate possible performance and regional differences. Most striking between the versions are the variant time signatures. While most of the tune variations as demonstrated by Canainn use a 6/8 meter, which place them in the jig or double jig category, the Petrie version is written as a slip jig in 9/8. It is also evident that the melodies are quite different, even though they are both supposedly from the same piper. The second half of the tune contains similarities between Petrie (Example

55 5.1) and Canainn (Example 5.2). Though there are differences, the basic shape of the tune is the same. The beginning note of each compound beat is the same The boxes denote analogous places in the tune. As the Petrie has added beats, the melody is slightly displaced, but the examples give the idea of the same tune ornamented in a different manner.

Example 5.1. Cailleach an Airgid- Canainn, m. 5-780

Example 5.2. Cailleacha Chige Uladh- Petrie, mm. 5-781

It is also interesting to compare four relatively contemporary versions of S do Mhaimeo . The examples shown are the curf (chorus) from four sources: a transcription of a 2005 performance by Joe Heaney on his From My Tradition: The Best of Joe Heaney album (Example 5.3), the reference version in Cas Amhrn as compiled by hEidhin (Example 5.4), the solo line of Michael McGlynns choral arrangement from 1993 (Example 5.5), and a 2002 arrangement for solo voice and accompaniment by Mary

80 81

Toms Canainn, Traditional Music in Ireland (London: Routledge & Kegan, 1978), 29.

George Petrie, The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, ed. David Cooper (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005),152.

56 McLaughlin found in Singing in Irish Gaelic (Example 5.6). Immediately it is clear that these are versions of the same tune. All begin with the same ascent of a fourth with a return to the note of origin followed by a melodic descent; however, they all use different tonal or modal centers. It should be noted that, unlike the older versions that were intended for a solo instrument, these arrangements are for three different mediums: solo unaccompanied singing, solo singing with accompaniment, and chorus. The differences that exist appear to be from interpretative and ornamental decisions or in how the performer or arranger recalled the tune.

Cailleach an Airgid
as performed by Joe Heaney

Example 5.3. Cailleach an Airgid- Heaney, mm. 1-482

6 V8
6

j .
Curf

'S Do

# Mhaimeo j

V # Example 83 # .- O' 5.4. hEidhin, mm. . Do Mhaimeo 'S 1-4 .

Cas Amhrn

11

16

j j 6 &8 j j j V # J . # . # 'S do Mhaimeo Arranged by Michael McGlynn 5 q = 108 b b j & j j Mhaimeo - McGlynn, mm. 1-484 do V Example J 5.5. 'S . 6 &8 9 & J J
11

155.
10
14

Tradition: & Joe Heaney, My TheBest of Joe Heaney, 2005. ! From an Airgid," "Cailleach hEidhin, J & Mchel (Conmara: Cl Iar-Chonnachta, J S Do Mhaimeo , Cas Amhrn 1975),
82 83

14

j S do Mhaimeo (Dublin: j McGlynn & Warner j Michael & Michael Chappell, 1993). McGlynn, j b & J
84

&

S Do Mham
Singing in Irish Gaelic

57
Arranged by Mary McLaughlin

6 & 8 j b
6

Example 5.6. S Do Mham - McLaughlin, mm. 1-585

j j j .

melodic differences in where the whole and half steps of the melody are found. While all versions j notes, the & have an interval of a perfect fourthbetween the first and fourth eighth
10

& At the beginning but also j b oftheverse b there are not only rhythmic variations,

. motion taken to get there is different. The placement of whole and half steps varies & . j . j

11 between the Cas Amhrn (Example 5.7) and the others (Examples 5.8-10). Another

comparison is how the end of versions . . thephrase varies among the four interesting
16

(indicated by the second box). In the tune this phrase is repeated. How each enters that repeat, use varied & from . orbelow, allows the performer to j The ornamentations. above

rhythmic durations of the phrases are also notable. Several versions have a pause at the end of the primary phrase. It should be noted that McGlynn opted to remove this pause in some verses and to elongate it in other verses. Many traditional musicians view this change as a deviation from the accepted version of the song.86

b .

Example 5.7. 'S Do Mhaimeo - hEidhin, mm. 9-12

Mary McLaughlin, "S do Mhaim ," in Singing in Irish Gaelic: A Phonetic Approach to Singing in the Irish Language Suitable for Non-Irish Speakers (Pacific, MO, MO: Mel Bay Publications, 2002), 36-37.
86

85

McGlynns arrangement, this rhythmic change, and his reasoning will be further discussed in

Chapter 6.

58

Example 5.8. 'S do Mhaimeo - McGlynn, mm. 10-1387

Example 5.9. Cailleach an Airgid- Heaney, mm.11-1488

Example 5.10. S Do Mham - McLaughlin, mm. 11-1589

Ardaigh Cuan Composed by Sen MacAmbrois in the middle of the nineteenth century, Ardaigh Cuan is a haunting song about the cliffs of Northern Ireland. Legend recounts that MacAmbrois, one of the last poets of the Glens of Antrim, composed this tune while gazing back at his homeland cliffs while on the shores of Scotland, unable to return. It

87 88

Michael McGlynn, S do Mhaimeo (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993).

Joe Heaney, Cailleach an Airgid, From My Tradition: The Best of Joe Heaney, 2005. Transcribed by author. Mary McLaughlin, S do Mhaim , in Singing in Irish Gaelic: A Phonetic Approach to Singing in the Irish Language Suitable for Non-Irish Speakers (Pacific, MO, MO: Mel Bay Publications, 2002).
89

59 became one of the most recognized emigrant tunes in the modern repertoire. Versions of this tune exist under the titles Ardaidh Cuain, Airde Cuan, Airdi Cuan, and Ardaigh Cuan. They are printed in several collections and arranged settings dating from 1975 to 1995. Unlike other songs and airs, all available versions of this tune are remarkably similar, the greatest variant being the use of the 6/8 or 2/4 time signatures. Of the four compared notations, all are in a pentatonic minor with the fourth and seventh eliminated. The two versions in the simple meter, by Baoill and MacEoinare nearly identical, the only differnces are one note and one rhythm in measures sixteen and seventeen (Examples 5.11 and 5.12).

Example 5.11. Airdi Cuan, Baoill, mm. 16-2290

Example 5.12. Airde Cuan, MacEoin, mm. 16-2291

Sen g Baoill and Mnus Baoill, "Airdi Cuan," in Celota Gael (Corcaigh: Cl Mercier, 1975), 10.
91

90

Michel Mac Eoin, Ardi Cuan, in An Cr Gaelach (Corcaigh: An Chad Chl, 1985), 9.

60 Similarly, the two versions in compound meter are nearly identical to each other. When compared to the hEidhin and McGlynn (Example 5.13) arrangements, it is evident that the tunes are the same as examples 5.11 and 5.12. The rhythmic change to the complex meter allows for additional ornamentation and greater variation in the manner in which the song progresses. The lack of variation between versions may be due to the nature and recent origin of the tune. As only about a century divides the original composition from the current versions, it was most likely in written notation since its creation.
q = 60

Ardaigh Cuan
Arranged by Michael McGlynn

6 & 8 .
5

Example 5.13. Ardaidh Cuain- McGlynn, mm. 1-492

. .

j .

Silent OMoyle
9

& J

. j . & . 8 . 8 J Dear Eveleen, and Arah My Dear EvLeen, Fionnuala, Tell me during the first
decade of the nineteenth century. Moore composed the text and fit it to the ancient air with which he was famliar. While other airs notated only a few decades earlier exist in different versions, this tune is nearly identical in all published records and arrangements. The material has existed in printed sources since Moore set it. In writing about his love of music and why he, a celebrated poet and writer, was publishing a volume of Irish Melodies, Moore states:

U Thomas Silent OMoyle, also j Moore composed 9 6 known as the Song of

. .

. . J

92

Michael McGlynn, Ardaigh Cuan (Dublin: Michael McGlynn/ Warner Chappell, 1995).

61
Dryden has happily described music as being inarticulate poetry; and I have always felt, in adapting words to an expressive air, that I was bestowing upon it the gift of articulation, and thus enabled it to speak to others all that was conveyed in its wordless eloquence to myself.93

The only non-ornamental variation that is found among the six versions compared (Moore, three in Fleischman, Page, and McGlynn) is a deviation in the minor mode. While Moores version is written in harmonic minor (Example 5.14), one of the three listings in Fleischmanns Sources of Irish Traditional Music has the tune in melodic minor (Example 5.15). An arrangement by N. Clifford Page in Irish Songs: Collection of Airs Old and New is the natural minor version (Example 5.16).

Example 5.14. The Song of Fionnuala- Moore, m. 1-294

Example 5.15. Arah My Dear Ev'Leen- Fleischmann (4521), m. 1-295

Thomas Moore, Moore's Irish Melodies With Symphonies and Accompaniments (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1893), v. Thomas Moore, Silent, OMoyle, Be The Roar of Thy Water: The Song of Fionnuala, Moore's Irish Melodies With Symphonies and Accompaniments (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1893), 105-106. Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 2, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998), 824.
95 94

93

62 Example 5.16. Silent O Moyle, be the Roar of the Water- Page, mm. 1-296

In creating a choral arrangement of this tune, Michael McGlynn uses a combination of both the natural and harmonic minor (Example 5.17), adding the raised leading tone only in the final cadence (a derivation from the Moore original shown in Example 5.18). The examples demonstrate the similarity of the two versions of the melody.

Example 5.17. Silent, O Moyle- McGlynn, m. 13-1697

Example 5.18. Song of Fionnaula- Moore, mm. 13-16

Clifford Page, Silent O Moyle, be the Roar of the Water, Irish Songs: Collections of Airs Old and New, ed. Clifford Page (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1935), 60-61.
97

96

Michael McGlynn, Silent, O Moyle (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993).

63

Siil, a Rin Both Joyce98 and N Uallachin99 give the origins of this tune as from the time of the Wild Geese or Irish Brigade (between 1691 and 1745), when thousands of young Irishmen enlisted with the armies of France and other areas of the continent, in hopes of overthrowing the British rule of Ireland. Nearly a century later in his Irish Melodies (Example 5.19), Thomas Moore quotes the air for his Alone in Crowds to Wander On. This air, unlike others included in this study, emigrated to America. Though the words have changed, the songs known as Johnny Has Gone for a Soldier or Come, My Love bear a striking resemblance to the published Irish tunes notated by Joyce, Fleischmann,100 and as arranged by McGlynn.101

P.W. Joyce, Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: A Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs Hitherto Unpublished (Dublin: Hodger Figgis & Co, Ltd., 1909), 236-237. Pdragn N Uallachin, A Hidden Ulster: People, Songs, and Traditions of Oriel (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1893), 303-05. Aloys Fleischmann, Shule Arun (6339), Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 2, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998), 1159.
101 100 99

98

Michael McGlynn, Siil, a Rin (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1994).

64 Example 5.19. Alone in Crowds: Shule Aroon- Moore, mm. 9-13102

Most of the versions of this tune are notated in a dorian mode with the fourth scale degree omitted, making this a hexatonic minor mode. A few versions do include the fourth, but it is used more in the manner of a passing tone or ornamentation. Joyce indicates that the transcription is from a combination of personal memory and several known versions, possibly alluding to the source of variations found in other known versions. This is also the case with McGlynn, though he intentionally omitted a line of the chorus (as will be discussed further in Chapter 6). The traditional music of Ireland carries with it a rich history. It is a living corpus of musical material that changes daily. The manner in which the music has changed over time and is affected by performers serves as a guide for those to come. Whether they choose to adhere to the tune with minimal embellishment or use only the text as their inspiration, the musicians who passed these songs through generations left a world of possibilities for subsequent performers. Many of the tunes found in the genre have been changed a multitude of times, and it is in this light that McGlynn approaches traditional music. He is not a purist and is not concerned with retaining the exact material as the
102

Thomas Moore, Alone in Crowds to Wander On, Moore's Irish Melodies With Symphonies and Accompaniments (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1893), 54-55.

65 collectors have recorded it. He often uses impressions or recollections of a tune and creates something different but recognizable. Through those changes, McGlynn has added to the traditional repertoire in a choral voice.

CHAPTER 6 SELECTED CHORAL ARRANGEMENTS OF MICHAEL MCGLYNN

Michael McGlynn is known worldwide both for his arrangements of traditional Irish tunes and his original choral compositions. These arrangements have been a staple of the performance repertoire of Anna, and all levels of ensembles from amateur to professional and middle school to college perform them. His arrangements can be placed into two categories: arrangements of songs from the traditional Irish repertoire, and arrangements or reinterpretations of songs or chants from the Medieval period. In creating a traditional song arrangement, McGlynn admittedly does not attempt to preserve the original melody of the song. Rather, he strives to reinterpret the impression of the song by retaining something familiar. Many of his Irish traditional song settings come from his memory during his time at the Gaeltacht rather than from a specific source. One of the misapprehensions about my music is that I am not actually concerned with saving Irish traditional music; I am not a traditionalist. The only exposure I had [to traditional Irish song] was during my year at Coliste na Rinne in Dn Garbhn. The songs that I set are not from a specific collection; they are more impressions of the songs I remembered.103 His reinterpretations or arrangements of chant or medieval material all retain the original melody in some manner, and can be considerd arrangements. This chapter

103

Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, February 2010.

66

67 includes discussions of S do Mhaimeo and Siil, a Rin, from the traditional repertoire, and Cormacus Scripsit, from chant sources.

Traditional Repertoire S do Mhaimeo Originating in 1839 S do Mhaimeo (also known in traditional Irish music as Cailleach an Airgid or The Hag with the Money) is a spirited jig (a piping tune) that tells a tale of a young man in the village willing to do anything for money. McGlynn has set this tune for SATB chorus and a featured female solo. The solo is set in a manner that exaggerates the rhythmic vitality naturally found in the melodic line. When he first arranged this tune he was highly criticized for it: S do Mhaimeo is probably the most interesting example [of my arrangements] for which I was criticized. The original tune places large gaps in the middle of the phrase. When I thought about it in a choral setting I knew I could not do that. I would have had to place little vocal gymnastics in the breaks as to not stop the rhythm. So, what I did was, I took out the gaps. The result is something that is impossible to sing in one breath, but a choir can do it since they stagger the breaths. So therefore the piece works wonderfully as a choral piece, but it is not the piece it began as.104 The difference in rhythmic momentum is visible in the examples of the Joe Heaney performance (Example 6.1) and solo line from McGlynns choral arrangement (Example 6.2).

104

Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, February 2010.

68 Example 6.1. Cailleach an Airgid- Heaney, pause in forward momentum 105

Joe Heaney, "Cailleach an Airgid," From My Tradition: The Best of Joe Heaney, 2005. Transcribed by author.

105

69 Example 6.2. S do Mhaimeo - McGlynn, derivation from traditional tune106

Throughout much of the arrangement, the chorus serves as both a harmonic foundation and a driving rhythmic force in its repetition of the text S do Mhaimeo . The repeated articulation of the initial consonant (the [] sound at the beginning of the phrase) during each repeat of the curf (chorus) is emphasized by offset rhythms within the parts (Example 6.3). McGlynns use of a dotted eighth note rhythm in the same sections serves as a variation from the melody line and assists in creating the forward motion of the tune.

106

Michael McGlynn, S do Mhaimeo (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993).

70 Example 6.3. S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, annotated rhythmic articulation, mm. 1-5

While the harmonic support is unusual for what one might expect to hear in a traditional song arrangement, it is important to remember that this would have traditionally been performed unaccompanied. It is interesting that McGlynns use of parallel movement, often found in his original compositions, also characterizes the accompaniment now being added by traditional groups who are recording this music (Example 6.4). With the parallel motion, as well as the drone-like repetition of the bass line, McGlynn creates a modern arrangement using traditional ideas superimposed on ideas found both in traditional music and early art music. Both the parallel movement and the use of the drone would have also been found in piping tunes in Ireland.

Si do Mhaimeo - 6.2
Example 6.4. S do Mhaimeo - McGlynn, parallel movement that concludes each verse, mm.11-12
Alto

71

Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Music by: [Composer] Arranged by [Arranger]

b 6 &b 8

Tenor

b 6 V b 8 . ? bb 6 8 .

Ah

. .

Ah

. . .

Ah

. .

Ah

Bass

Ah

Ah

bb & Although McGlynn was not inclined to retain the original song, the choruss
4

change to single syllable homophonic accompaniment during each verse is reminiscent of


T

of the solo tradition while still meeting his desire to create a choral arrangement. The choral parts are able to ?move with the soloist without disrupting the solos rhythmic
B

b Vb bb

motion (Example 6.5). The soloist is thus able to more freely negotiate the language and interpret the song. The chorus needs to be aware of where the language and harmonic stresses fall in the solo in order to align changes in the underlying chords.

Si do mahimeo
b &b 6 8 J b &b 6 8 .. b &b 6 8 b .
oo

Music by: mcglynn

72 Example 6.5. S do Mhaimeo , McGlynn, choral accompaniment, mm. 16-19

Soprano 1

roth a gh'l tim - peall

siar - na ceath rn a[]

. . . .

Catih feadh s'n sti - ir

J J . . . . . . . .

naoi nuair 'ara 'cl, 'Sn

Soprano 2

Alto

Tenor

b Vb 6 8 . . ? bb 6 8
oo oo

oo

Bass

Through the use of the featured soloist, the intent and tradition of the song heritage has been maintained while being reinterpreted. The song reflects life in 1839 Ireland where the ladies would sit and gossip while working (See Table 6.1 for the translation).107 The chorus plays the role of townspeople reacting to a story they are being told.

Michael McGlynn, S do Mhaimeo (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993). Translation is supplied with the score purchase

107

73 Table 6.1. S do Mhaimeo , Text and Translation


S do Mhaimeo , s do Mhaimeo , s do Mhaimeo cailleach an airgid; S do Mhaimeo , Bhail Iorrais Mhir , S chuirfeadh s cist r bhithre Chois Fharraige. bhFeicfesa n steam gal siar Tin U Loing, S na rotha ghl timpeall siar na ceathrna; Caithfeadh sn stiir naoi n-uairar a cl, S n choinneodh s sil le cailleach an airgid Measann t bpsfa, measann t bpsfa, Measann t bpsfa cailleach an airgid? T s am nach bpsfa, t s am nach bpsfa, Mar t s r-g gus dlfadh sn t-airgead. S gairid go bpsfa, s gairid go bpsfa, S gairid go bpsfa beirt ar an mbaile seo; S gairid go bpsfa, s gairid go bpsfa, San Shamais Mhir agus Mire N Chathasaigh. She is your granny, she is your granny, She is your granny the hag with the money She is your granny from Iorrais Mr, And she would put coaches on the roads of Cois Farraige If youd see the steam [steam boat] going past Tin U Loing And the wheels turning speedily at her flanks Shed scatter the store nine times to the rear, But she never keeps pace with the hag with the money. Do you reckon hed marry, do you reckon hed marry, Do you reckon hed marry the hag with the money? I know hell not marry, I know hell not marry, Because hes too young and hell drink the money. Well soon have a wedding, well soon have a wedding, Well soon have a wedding by two in the village Well soon have a wedding, well soon have a wedding, Between San Samais Mr and Mire N Chathasaigh.

While the conductor and choir need not be fluent in Irish to perform Si do Mhaimeo , they must have a certain level of understanding of the flow of the language (an IPA transliteration can be found in Appendix C). If this is to be performed without a conductor (a viable option especially when performed with a smaller ensemble), the soloist needs to be able to lead the ensemble to the changes in harmony; the ensemble must listen intensely to the solo line, much in the same manner as a soloist leading to

74 harmonic changes during a recitative. When performed with a conductor, the conductor should follow the soloist and strive to join the two entities so they work as one unit. This arrangement is accessible to all levels of choirs and is intended to be fun. If a soloist is not able to sing the duration of the lines without taking a breath, she should take a breath that is percussive in nature and omit a syllable (marked syllable Example 6.6) in order to make the breath part of the phrase. In performance the chorus should be acutely aware of the places in the line where it is difficult for the soloist to project.

Example 6.6. S do Mhaimeo - McGlynn, example of syllable omission to facilitate breath, mm. 9-12

Siil, a Rin As was discussed in Chapter Five, Siil, a Rin dates from around 1700 and is seen as a remorseful song of farewell. The structure is a simple strophic verse with a refrain (Table 6.2). The difference here is that the verse is in English and the refrain is in Irish. Each statement of the verse has slight variations of rhythm and ornamentation which are dependent on the text. The chorus serves as accompaniment throughout the verses, creating the harmonic foundation for the soloist. In the refrain the chorus sings the text while maintaining a more or less homophonic structure. McGlynn purposefully deviated from the original tune by omitting the final line of the curf, Is go dte t mo mhuirnon slan (for you my darling will be).

75 Table 6.2. Siil a Rin, form


Introduction A B A B Interlude B A B B m. 1 m. 9 m. 24 m. 30 m. 38 m. 44 m. 53 m. 54 m. 62 m. 69 Harmonic introduction Verse 1 Refrain Verse 2 Refrain Verse melody in violin Refrain Verse 3 (half statement) Refrain Refrain (extended)

Siil, a Rin is a moderately easy arrangement that can serve as an introduction to singing in the Irish language. The solo, while marked for mezzo-soprano, could also be sung by a soprano, as it is in a moderate tessitura. The chordal movements of the ensemble move logically and are in a moderate range.

Medieval Chant Source Cormacus Scripsit Cormacus Scripsit is an arrangement of a chant melody and text from notations on an Irish psalter. Completed around the twelfth century, the Psalter was probably in a library on the continent for much of the Middle Ages and rebound in the sixteenth century.108 The British Library acquired it in 1904.109 The source of the text (Table 6.3) and chant for McGlynns arrangement are from the final page of the manuscript (Figure 6.1). On this page Cormac, the scribe, writes to ask for prayers from those who read it.

William O'Sullivan, Manuscripts and palaeography, Vol. 1, in A New History of Ireland: Prehistoric and Early Ireland, ed. Dibhi Crinn (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 533. Sarah Biggs (Catalog of Illuminated Manuscripts, British Library), email communication regarding the manuscript, March 17, 2010.
109

108

76

Figure 6.1: Facsimile of Psalter, final page110


British Library Board: 36929 (reprinted by permission)

The source document is held in the British Library. The title appears as Psalter in all reference books and catalogs. Reference Add 36929 British Library Catalog. O Sullivan refers to it as the Cormac Psalter. An illuminated manuscript, the braid-like lines appear in red as do parts of the large first letters.

110

77 Table 6.3. Cormacus Scripsit, text and translation


Cormacus scripsit hoc psalterium Cormacus scripsit Cormacus scripsit hoc psalterium Cormacus scripsit Cormacus scripsit hoc psalterium Ora pro eo qui legis hec Ora procese qualibet hora Cormacus scripsit, Cormacus scripsit Cormacus wrote this psalm Cormacus wrote Cormacus wrote this psalm Cormacus wrote Cormacus wrote this psalm Pray for him you who read these [words] Pray for yourself at any hour Cormacus wrote Cormacus wrote

In McGlynns arrangement of this medieval chant he demonstrates his affinity for ancient musical forms and structures. Cormacus Scripsit is in a ternary form in which each large section is comprised of several smaller subsections (Table 6.4). The end of the first section is delineated by a tonal shift, and the final section is set off from the previous by a caesura. In this way his intent of framing the original chant (Theme B) is realised.111 McGlynn composed two parts of the thematic material, Themes A and C, which are related to the original melody, Theme B, through the use of similar tonal centers and melodic motion. McGlynn states that in placing his own arrangement around the original it causes people to look at the image in the middle. The basis for this arrangement is the medieval lyric idea of taking a Christian image and hiding it within the context of a natural environment... This constant taking of nature and using it to amplify the message of the central Christian conceit is the basis of the form.112

111 112

Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Dublin, Ireland, November 2009. Ibid.

78 Table 6.4. Cormacus Scripsit, form m. 1 Theme A, McGlynn Opening statement A m. 9 Theme A doubled at the fifth m. 14 Theme A altered ending m. 17 Theme B, Chant motive B m. 23 Theme C, McGlynn Chant motive m. 28 Tutti entrance Theme B variation Theme C, augmented C m. 38 Theme A, as in opening statement m. 42 Theme A, doubled at the fifth
Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Over drone Drone doubled at octave Aleatoric figure Drones and fifths return

Cormacus examples
Cormacus examples

3

Music by: [Composer Arranged by [Arranger

b 4 & b b 4 .
Cor

Example 6.7. Cormacus Scripsit, Theme A, mm. 2-5 3 Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Music by: [Composer 3 3 b 4 Arranged by [Arranger ! . U U & b b 4 . ! ! & Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc psal - ter - i - um Example 6.8. Cormacus Scripsit , 3 Theme B, mm. 18 3 n Corb - ma4 - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal - ter - i - um o - ra pro e - o b ! n n . & b 4 . U U 3 ! -, - cusScrip - sit hoc & - ter - i - um ! psal Cor ma ! & Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal - ter - i - um o - ra pro e - o 3 UiU Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal ter um ! ! & 3 , 2 ! e- & Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal - ter - i - um o - ra pro o ! & 3 6.9. Cormacus Scripsit, Theme C, mm. 23 Example Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal i um 3 ter , ! & 2 & Cor - ma 3 - cus Scrip - sit hoc Psal ! - ter i um Lyrics by: [Lyricist]
2

.
-

Music by: [Comp Arranged by [Arra

Cormacus examples - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc psal - ter - i - um

nnn

Theme A (seen in Example 6.7) is in G Phrygian. The addition of the doubled theme a

! The use of thematic material is quite unique throughout Cormacus Scripsit. &

79 fifth above and the drone an octave below serve to further reinforce the tonal center, one of the compositional aspects that allows this melody to appear original (Example 6.10).

Cormacus 6.5
Lyrics by: [Lyricist] Music by: [Composer]
Tenor

b . V b b c . ? b c w bb w
5

Arranged by [Arranger] Example 6.10. Cormacus Scripsit, Theme A doubled, mm. 10-13

Cor

.. w w

Bass

Cor

ma cus Scrip

sit

hoc

ma cus Scrip

sit

w w

psal

ter

um

Theme B, found in the alto (Example 6.8), and Theme C, the soprano solo (Example ? 6.9), both carry into the final section where they develop and sound
B

b Vb b bbb

simultaneously. Theme B is used as a cantus firmus in the alto, where it is doubled in duration and then varied at the fifth in the soprano. Theme C then moves into the mezzosoprano voice and is used in an augmented form (Example 6.11). The use of Theme A at the beginning and the end creates an arch form.

Cormacus 6.8
Lyrics by: [Lyricist]

Example 6.11. Cormacus Scripsit, Themes B and C in variation, mm. 28-30 Arranged by [Arranger]

Music by: [Composer]

Soprano

& &

Theme B Variation at the fth

. . . . !

Theme C augmented variation

MzS.

Alto

& V

Theme B derived

Tenor

80

S.

F ensure that intervals are well tuned. notes may take the open . Sliding between and perfect MzS. . &
28

metrical manner.- In preparing Cormacus for performance, special care must be taken to Cor ma cus Scrip sit hoc psal - ter - i - um

&

28

tutti The

greatest difficulty lies in conducting the chant in a non for the conductor


o - ra

time to Cor perfect, so move precisely 6.12). - that the mamen cus Scrip - (Example sit

A.

F &
Cor -

hoc

psal - ter

um

o - ra

T.

FExample 6.12. Cormacus Scripsit, sliding between notes, mm. 28-30 W V W .


ma cus Scrip sit hoc psal - ter -

i -

um

o - ra

B.

f ? W W f
Oh* Oh* 32

Slide between notes

. .

W W

*There must be no discernible breaths between notes in this section

S.

. arrangements & While McGlynns of traditional songs and Medieval chants


comprise a small percentage of his overall compositional output, they are significant in
pro e o qui le gis hec o -


ra pro - ce se

MzS.

Through these melodies, his& repertoire. he has taken a body ofmusic not known to the
vast majority of the public and created arrangements that are to the public through the
pro e o qui le gis hec o

32

. .

. .
o


ra pro - ce -

se

A.

& choral medium.


pro e

.
o


ra pro - ce -

se

qui

le

gis

hec

T.

V W ? W W

W W W

. ..

w w w

B.

CHAPTER 7 SELECTED ORIGINAL CHORAL WORKS OF MICHAEL MCGLYNN

Michael McGlynns original choral output can be divided into three categories of composition, each with a different genesis of inspiration: traditional, natural, and spiritual. All three categories are influenced by Irish culture in different ways. The traditional music is drawn from the ancient song and poetic traditions of his country. The natural compositions are an attempt to audibly depict the physical beauty of Ireland. With the spiritual compositions McGlynn creates music that draws upon Irelands ancient culture; he creates the sensation of his connection to something far greater than himself. Of the three categories of music, McGlynn considers the natural and spiritual compositions linked together: The spiritual music, not sacred, is usually informed by using some kind of religious text, but the text is something that is not necessarily set in a manner that is religious; it is set in a contemplative way. We look at the ideas behind the text, and through those we find hopefully a greater truth. That is exactly the way that I set the secular texts.... Secular [music] uses tonal language to produce the thought of something existing beyond this world, a secular text with almost no spiritual input to show an almost pantheistic place where God exists in everything. I respond to the text, and that is the key.113 McGlynns original compositions consist of psalm settings, mass movements, settings of other sacred texts, works with his own texts, and settings of texts by famous Irish philosophers and poets. He has set texts in Irish, Early Irish, Middle Irish, Latin, Spanish,

113

Michael McGlynn, Interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, February 2010.

81

82 French, Auvergnat, Greek, Italian, Swedish, Breton, Scots Gaelic, Middle English, and English.

Traditional Works McGlynn chooses on occasion to create new compositions that could be perceived as arrangements of Irish songs. These works are not arrangements, but are complete reinterpretations of a song or, in the case of Dlamn, entirely original using only a traditional text. The melodies in this kind of McGlynns compositions are often confused with existing traditional songs, maybe with a few deviations. In fact they are not traditional songshe is not a traditionalist and is not concerned with maintaining the song tradition. His intent is to create new choral music that fits into the overall vocal tradition of Ireland. People just assume that I have just found a living version. In fact I have done what has made solo traditional music so viable: I have created a new version. I take the songs and reinterpret them in a new way. My priority is always to create a choral version that works.114 Dlamn Dlamn is a well-known song in the traditional Irish repertoire. However, McGlynns setting bears no resemblance to the original tune. The Amhrain Chuige Uladh, as compiled by Mith,115 includes a version of the tune (Example 7.1) that has been recorded by several contemporary traditional Irish music groups, including Altan,

114

Michael McGlynn, Interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, February 2010. Muireadhach Mith compiled traditional Irish songs in the 1970s and 1980s.

115

83 Clannad, and the Kingston Cil Band. In these versions the tune is a reel in a moderate lilting tempo, a far cry from McGlynns setting of this same text.

. . . . 2 . &4 . # . .
A n ghin mh n ! Sin a nall na fir shu r ghe A mha thair mh n
6

Example 7.1. Dlamn, tune from Amhrin Chige Uladh116

McGlynn firstroith drawn the ! was Cuir mo lean to go this dt text me. because D laof m the n nainflection binn e bu of dhe d Irish la m

& . . .

. .

. .
n a

Gaodh lach,

. . j & . . . The Irish is intricately placed in thefast-changing the language that most intrigued him.
13 language. When he set this text in 1995 for a male ensemble, it was in fact the rhythm of

la m n

na

binn

e buidhe,

du

la man

Goadh

lach.

meter to accentuate the natural syllabic stresses (Example 7.2). In his version the tenor solo sings the bulk of the text, while the chorus refrain is rhythmically energized with a limited amount of Irish (Example 7.3).

Example 7.2. Dlamn, solo entrance, mm. 1-5117

116

Muireadhach Mith, Dlamn, Amhrin Chige Uladh (Baile tha Cliath: Gilbert Dalton, Michael McGlynn, Dlamn (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 1995).

1977).
117

84

 $ % $ !  # & & & & & & # & & & & & & & # &&& "  $ # & & & & & & % # & & & & & & & $ # &&& "  $ # & & & & & & % # & & & & & & & $ # &&&
Dl a mn, dl a mn, dl a mn na binn e bu, Dl a mn, dl a mn, dl a mn na binn e bu, Dl a mn, dl a mn, dl a mn na binn e bu,

Example 7.3. Dlamn, chorus refrain, mm. 6-9

dl a mn

' & & ' & & ' & &

na

binn e bu Gae

B1

dl a mn

na

binn e bu Gae

(& & & & & & (& & & & & &

& & & & & &

lach

lach

B2

dl a mn

na

binn e bu Gae

lach

The overall structure of McGlynns Dlamn is still very much in keeping with the traditional song form. There is a verse and refrain (or curf) structure wherein the soloist has a great deal of rapidly moving text in the verse and the chorus enters on the refrain. The traditional versions have between four and seven verses, four of which McGlynn used. Dlamn is McGlynns most popular composition: it is exciting and rhythmic and it is fun for the ensemble to sing. He has completed revisions of this for SATB and SSAA voicings in addition to the original TTBB, which he feels works the best. The text (Table 7.1) is well suited for a male ensemble, as it tells of the young men who have gathered the seaweed coming back to town while the soloist, the father, tells his young daughter about the men.118

Celtic Lyrics Corner, October 20, 2008, http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/anuna/dulaman.htm (accessed October 29, 2009).

118

85 Table 7.1. Dlamn, text and translation


Dlamn na binne bu, dlamn Gaelach, Dlamn na farraige, dlamn Gaelach. A non mhn ! Sin anall na fir shuir A mhthair mhn ! Cuir na roithlen go dt m! Rachaidh me chun lir leis adlamn Gaelach Ceanndh brga daor, arsa dlamn Gaelach. Brga bretha dubha ar a dlamn Gaelach. Bairad agus tris ar a dlamn Gaelach T ceann bu ir ar adlamn Gaelach. T dh chluais mhaolar a dlamn Maorach. Seaweed of the yellow peaks, Gaelic seaweed. Seaweed of the ocean, Gaelic seaweed O gentle daughter, here come the wooing men. O gentle mother, put the wheels in motion for me! I would go to the tailor with the Gaelic seaweed I would buy expensive shoes," said the Gaelic seaweed. The Gaelic seaweed has beautiful black shoes. The Gaelic seaweed has a beret and trousers. There is a yellow gold head on the Gaelic seaweed. There are two blunt ears on the stately seaweed.

The challenges within this composition are greater than they may first appear. The open harmonic setting and fast harmonic shifts (Example 7.4) make intonation a central concern for any conductor. The ever-shifting meter can be challenging, as each solo section is slightly different in meter, making choral entrances difficult to synchronize. It is essential that the ensemble be exceedingly familiar with the solo in order to better anticipate the entrances. The text is set in such a way that the syllabic stress of the Irish occurs naturally in both the solo and chorus parts. Since the sections that the chorus sings are repetitive, Dlamn can be quickly learned and memorized. Dlamn gives the listener the impression that it is far more difficult than it actually is.

86

 & !  $$ # "  $$ # & "  $$ # &

& & &


a a a

Example 7.4. Dlamn, Chorus, mm. 26-27

& & &

& & &

Dl

mn

na

binn e bu,

& & & $% & & & & & & & & & & # & & & $% & & & & & & & & #
dl a mn na binn e bu Gae

lach,

B1

Dl

mn

na

binn e bu,

B2

Dl

mn

na

binn e bu,

& & & $% # & & & & & & & &
dl a mn na binn e

dl

mn

na binn

bu Gae

lach,

& '

bu Gae

lach,

( &

Natural Works Among McGlynns compositions that he considers influenced by nature, he is especially fond of those with references to the sea. McGlynn views this music as a song cycle that includes Invocation (1992), Wind on Sea (1994), The Sea (1996), Island (1996), and 1901 (1997 with revision in 2009). Through these compositions he sought to evoke the idea of the sea and describes the influence it had on him. When I was very young we lived by the sea in the west of Ireland. We lived in a very wild and ancient place in many ways. Although we lived in a modern hotel (because my father was a hotel manager) we were surrounded by the wildness of nature all the time, but particularly the sea. It was at that time that I developed a great love of sea swimming. I love the sea. The human voice is the only instrument that can create that flowing sound [of the sea]. I suppose that I have tried to describe the sea in many ways. I have tried to look at the sea and then interpret how it makes me feel. The first time I think I did it very successfully was in the piece Invocation which dates from 1993. Although it does not mention the sea except as a passing reference, underneath it the sense of space and almost otherworldliness of some of the harmonies and the openness of [those harmonies] reminds me of the sea. I took that a step further in 1994 with I Am Wind on Sea which I shortened to Wind on Sea. The sea, while it is only a small part of the text, is something that runs throughout the entirely of the work. The sense of flow and the sense of movement forward is ever constant. Then I followed that in 1995 and 1996 with

87 two songs from the album Deep Dead Blue. There are two tracks on that called the The Sea and Island which complete that cycle of music, Island being the one that I think far more successful of the two. It takes ideas of melodic lines floating over repetitive patterns. Then after that 1901 and Ocean move into different territories with 1901 as my orchestral interpretation.119 Two of these compositions, Wind on Sea and Island, are included here as examples of this repertoire.

Wind on Sea Composed for two tenor soloists, SATB chorus, and violin, the 1994 composition Wind on Sea is seen by the composer as a natural evolution from his 1993 Invocation. As such, he chose to use material from Invocation as an introduction and as a coda to the new composition. Both complete scores can be viewed in Appendix E for comparison. Wind on Sea is in a large compound three-part form with the material from Invocation supplying symmetry to the exterior sections (Table 7.2). Essentially, McGlynn split Invocation in half, ignoring his original introduction to that work, and used it on either side of the new composition. Table 7.2 references the specific measures from Invocation when they are applicable in the overall form of Wind on Sea.

119

Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, February 2010.

88 Table 7.2. Wind on Sea, form Intro 1-8 A transition a A b 2124 2532 9-12 1320 material from Invocation (mm. 916) choral statement of harmonic movement tenor solo entrance with chorus repeating transition material but rhythm changes tenor solo remains, chorus changes movement Chorus returns to material similar to transition with new text Tenor solo has same melodic material from A Same material as mm. 21-24. Ailu iath nErenn. I am the wind breathe on the sea. I am tide wave on the ocean I am the wind breathe on the sea. I am tide wave on the ocean. I am the ray eye of the sun. I am the tomb cold in the darkness. Who but I can cast light upon the meeting of the mountains? Who but I can find a place that hides away the sun? I am a star, tear of the Sun. I am the bloom, wonder in flower. I am the spear that cries out for blood the word of great power. I am the wind that breathes on the sea. Who but I can cast light upon the meeting of the mountains? Who but I will cry aloud the changes in the moon? Who but I can find a place that hides away the sun? I am the depths of a great pool. I am the song of the blackbird. I am the wind that breathes on the sea. Who but I can cast light upon the meeting of the mountains? Who but I will cry aloud the changes in the moon? Who but I can find a place that hides away the sun? Ailu iath nErenn. From the breeze on the mountain, to the lake of deep pools; from the waterfall down to the sea; never changing or ending on the voice of the

A (cont)

3336 3742 4346 4750 5152 5359 (60) 6168

extension/ transition a

Same material as mm. 25-32 Same material from mm. 21-24.

extension Coda c d

Uses the repeat from Invocation (mm. 916) Section B of Invocation (mm. 1724) Tenor solo with English text evoking

89 images if Ireland. Chorus in chant-like Latin harmonic support Conclusion of Invocation (mm. 2532) wind sing the dark song of Erenn to me. In spirat omnia vivificat omnia superat omnia suffulcit omnia. Ailu iath nErenn.

6977

McGlynn seeks to evoke the sound sensation of the ocean in this composition. He does so by using the chorus in a flowing harmonic passage (Example 7.5) with voice parts moving on each beat in a non-accented syncopated figure. He also specifies that the chorus should not breathe as a group unless indicated in the score. McGlynn does not insert a choral breath or rests between measure nine and measure fifty-two. This constant motion he creates depicts both the depth and vastness of the sea and its seemingly unending currents.
A Maj7/D E sus4/A D min7 A min7/E

Wind on Sea
b b b
D ??/F

Music by: McGlynn

S/ A

T/B

3 & 4 j j # I j am thej wind b ? 3 b b 4 J


am the wind 5

Example 7.5. Wind on Sea, choral passage, mm. 9-12

D ??/F A Maj7/D G min7/B G min7/B A min7/E A min7/C E ??/A 120

breathe

. .

. b

breathe

j on sea j J
on sea

j # I am tide j b . b b J . .
I am tide

Arranged by [Arranger]

j wave on j b
on

A min7/C

j the j J
the

o - cean

o - cean

When the violin solo enters in measure seventeen, its melodic movement is in opposition to that of the solo (Example 7.6). As McGlynn sought to imitate the motions
B

&

! !

! !

120

Michael McGlynn, Wind on Sea (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 1994).

90 of the sea, this movement can be viewed as the tossing of the waves. The following A section gives momentary rest from the undulations that came before (Example 7.7), both through a slower harmonic motion and a change from text to a single vowel.

Wind on Sea- example 2


Expressively

Music by: [Composer]

Example 7.6. Wind on Sea, violin and solo, mm. 17-20


Violin

, ! , 3 -# - 3 b # # 3 b # &4 # # # #
3 3 3 3

Tenor

3 V 4 # .
I am the ray,

j b
the eye of the Sun.

#
I am the tomb,


cold in the dark ness

Soprano

3 & 4 . .
I

Baritone

?4 3 b b.
I 5

j # am ray j b J
am ray

j eye of j b
of

j the sun. j J
the sun

b . b
I

..
I

j # am tomb j b J
am tomb

j cold in j b
in

j the dark -ness j J


the dark -ness

Vln.

& .

! b .
3

" " " "

V . b b & oo ? b b
oo Who but I can cast light upon the meeting of the mountains? Ah

Who but I

. b b . #

can nd a place that hides a -way the sun?

# .. . .

j b b J

Baritone

. ?4 3 bb
I

.
I

am

am

ray j b J
ray

eye of

j b

the sun.

of

the

Example 7.7. Wind on Sea, part b, mm. 17-20


Vln.

. I j b . b J
sun I

am tomb

am tomb

j b J

cold in

j b
in

the dark -ness

the dark -ness

j J

91

& .

! b .
3

V . b b & oo ? b b
oo Who but I can cast light up on the Ah meeting of the mountains?

Who but I

. b b
can nd a place that

hides a -way the sun?

# .. . .

j b b J

McGlynn concludes Wind on Sea much in the way it begins. The coda starts with a repeat of the introduction and completes the material borrowed from Invocation evoking the spirit of Ireland (Table 7.3). In creating the structural pillars at the beginning and the end, McGlynn reinforces his affinity for formal structure.121

Table 7.3. Wind on Sea, text and translation


Ailu iath nErenn. In spirat omnia vivificat omnia superat omnia suffulcit omnia. Ailu iath nErenn. I invoke the land of Ireland. He inspires all things He makes all things grow He is above all things He supports all things. I invoke the land of Ireland.

Michael McGlynn, Wind on Sea (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1994). Translation taken from score.

121

92 Island Composed two years after Wind on Sea, the 1996 Island is scored for SATB chorus and harp. This composition is the final choral work in McGlynns evolutionary cycle of music based upon the ocean (1901, though later, is the orchestral component to the cycle). He explores both the stillness and the motion of the water in the contrast between the chorus and the harp. The opening four measures illustrate this natural contradiction (Example 7.8) and are characteristic of the rest of the composition. Whether the chorus is holding a single chord on an open vowel or moving through text in a fluid manner, it is at any given time either rhythmically or harmonically static (Example 7.9).

Island
Example 7.8. Island, chorus and harp contrast, mm. 1-4122

Soprano 1

Soprano 2

Tenor

& c .. w mm p & c .. w mm p V c .. w & c .. !


mm

w w w b b

w w w #

w w w #

.. .. .. .. ..

Harp

? c ..
5

S1

&w &w Vw

S2
122

Michael McGlynn, Island (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 1996).

93

Soprano

&c .. & c . . Vc
De - us De - us

Example 7. 9. Island, choral stasis mm. 29-32

Island

ac

so - lis

.. . . !

ac

lu

nae

ww w w

! ! ! ! w ! ! !

Alto

so - lis

Tenor

lu

nae

Tenor

Vc

De - us

Bass

. ?c w
De - us oo

so - lis

ac

so - lis

ac

Harp

&c ?c

! !

lu

nae

lu

nae

w w

! !

The use of text in Island is unique. McGlynn chose to use English, Irish, and Latin in combination (Table 7.4), sometimes simultaneously. The changes in the text occur most often in conjunction with tonal shifts and help to delineate the overall form of the composition (Table 7.5).

94 Table 7.4. Island, text and translation123


On an island I long to be Gazing out upon the shining surface of the sea I hear the sound of the ocean wave on wave Crying, "You who have turned away from home. Ascnam tar tuinn topur ndlenn dochum To sail across the wild sea back to Ireland nirenn Deus caeli et terrae God of heaven and earth Maris et fluminum The sea and the rivers Deus solis ac lunae God of the sun and the moon On an island I long to live Seabirds lament the coming of the winter wind I hear the endless sound of sea on shore Crying, "You who have turned away from home. Deus super caelo et in caelo et sub caelo God above heaven and in heaven and under heaven Habet habitaculum erga caelum He dwells in heaven Et terram et mare And earth and sea Et omnia quae sunt in eis And all that is in them Non separantur Pater Not separate are the Father Et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus The Son and the Holy Spirit On an island I long to be Evening brings a whisper of the summer breeze I hear the song of the ocean wave on wave Crying, "You who have turned away from home. Ascnam tar tuinn topur ndlenn dochum To sail across the wild sea back to Ireland nirenn Inspirat omnia He inspires all things Vivificat omnia He makes all things grow Superat omnia He is above all things Suffulcit omnia He supports all things

Celtic Lyrics Corner-Island, 2008, http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/anuna/island.htm (accessed December 2, 2009).

123

95

Table 7.5. Island, form Introduction 1-4 a 5-21 b 21-24 25-28 A c 29-33 34-46 47-50 d 51-54 55-60 B Transition A D a b 61-65 66-80 81-84 85-101

open vowel English Irish Latin Latin Latin and English Irish and English Latin Latin open vowel English Irish Latin

Key change chant

Key change chant

McGlynn has several other compositions that explore various aspects of nature and the personification of the natural world. Among them are August, Silver River, and The Wild Song. All of these compositions depict the landscape of Ireland and use harmonic techniques (modal scales) from the song tradition.

Spiritual Works When McGlynn discusses his compositions that he considers spiritual, he is very careful to specify that he does not mean that they are spiritual in a religious context. Although many of the texts are associated with the Catholic Church because of their scriptural use, he views them in a spiritual realm that does not ascribe to a specific religion. Many of the texts have dual meanings, and most have a natural or human component. McGlynn spoke about this concept in a January 2010 interview: ...this constant taking of nature and using it to amplify the message of the central Christian

96 conceit is the basis of the form.124 The exception to his choice of text settings is in commissioned works, where he is constrained by the commisson, as in the Agnus Dei. Other compositions included in this category are the Sanctus from his Celtic Mass and Incantations, the texts of which he chose or created because of the spiritual connection he found with the words.

Sanctus McGlynn composed the Sanctus from his 1991 Celtic Mass for three soprano solos, baritone solo, and SATB chorus with optional harp accompaniment. He indicates in the score that the three solos should be placed at various locations around the venue in an antiphonal manner. This setting of the mass movement is quiet and ethereal, and should be performed with as little physical motion from the ensemble as possible. The only movement should be from the baritone soloist as he moves from his position in the chorus to prepare to sing the solo. According to McGlynn this soloist is intended to represent the voice of man and should move forward in a dominant manner.125 The overall form of Sanctus is ABA (Table 7.6) and is based upon ...the Hildegard idea of rhapsodic melody and restrained ecstasy.126 The use of three soloists is significant for McGlynn because, as he stated, the whole point to the Sanctus is the number three. Three soloists echo the three statements of the word, and there are three statements of the choir in the center singing sanctus. He said the soloists must be placed

124 125 126

Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Dublin, Ireland, January 2010. Michael McGlynn, rehearsal comments, Coral Gables, February 2010. Michael McGlynn, interview with author, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, February 2010.

97 throughout the venue so as to give a sense of space and endlessness as the angels sing for all eternity.127

Table 7.6. Sanctus, formal structure


m. 1 Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabbaoth, Pleni sunt caeli et terra gloria tua Osanna in excelsis Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus Deus Sabbaoth, Pleni sunt caeli et terra gloria tua, Osanna in excelsis Osanna in excelsis Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Ossana. Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Theme A by soloists Theme A variations by soloists Theme B by solists and choral women Free chant by solo Theme A by solists Theme B by choral women Theme A by solists C drone C over F drone Men C/F drone Harp arpeggio C drone

A m. 25 m. 36 B m. 51 C m. 63

themes occur in stretto over C/F drone and harp arpeggio

McGlynn employs two main themes in Sanctus, the first having several variations which are harmonically related. The entire composition is based around a C minor scale, which is placed over a foundation of stacked fifths, F and C. The pentatonic scale of Theme A (C, D, E-flat, A-flat, B-flat) is used in variation, as occasionally the D is changed to D-flat. This variation also recalls the traditional concept of chromatic inflection.

127

Michael McGlynn, interview by author, Dublin, Ireland, January 15, 2010.

98 Theme A (Example 7. 10), which is repeated once and then varied for the third

Sanctus examples

statement of the text, uses only those tones found in the pentatonic scale. Theme B (Example 7.11) uses b Scale 7 a new pentatonic scale (B-flat, C, D E-flat, F).

Sanctus examples

b 4 &b b 7
Theme A

Scale

. bbb 2 4 Theme 2& A


2 5

& b b 4

San b 2 & b b Theme 4 A Variation 5


Theme A Variation
8

b 2 & b b 4 . b 2 &b b 4 b 2 &b b 4


b 2 &b b 4

128 Example J 7.10. Sanctus, Theme A, mm. 2-5

bbb 2 4 b 2 b b

Theme B

Example 7.11. Sanctus, Theme B, mm. 25-29


san - na

tus

bbb 2 4

bbb 2 4
-

bbb 2 4 bbb 2 4

Theme B


san - na in

in ex - cel - . J

. J

ex - cel

- sis.

sis.

Upon the return of the A section in measure fifty-one, the two themes begin simultaneously (Example 7.12). It is only at this point that the two pentatonic scales are combined to realize a c-minor tonality without the G (the fifth). The piece then concludes in much the same manner in which it began, with the three statements of the solos ending on a unison C over the F/C drone.

128

Michael McGlynn, Sanctus (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 1991).

99

S1

b 2 & b b 4 . b 2 &bb 4 b 2 &bb 4


O

Example 7.12. Sanctus, final section entry, mm. 51- 57

S2

J
san

na

J
san

J
san

S3

na

SA

b 2 . &bb 4 J 2 ? b 4 bb
Oh Be ne

di ctus

TB


qui ven it

j . J
in no

na

mi

ne

Incantations Incantations, with text written by McGlynn, was composed and premiered in 1989. It is set for an unaccompanied SSAATTBB chorus. This rhythmically animated composition is a series of affirmations of beliefs (Table 7.7). This text demonstrates McGlynns concept of taking a Christian theme and placing it into a natural environment. There is an apparent trinity within the form of the composition, including the form of the text. Each poetic line refernces three items and is completed by a three note Alilu. The piece is written in 6/8 with frequent use of hemiola for a contrasting feeling of 3/4.

100 Table 7.7. Incantations, text and translation129


S Tusa an dmh, s Tusa an an, s Tusa an t-iasc, ailil. S Tusa an ghoath, s Tusa an fuacht, s Tusa an mhuir, ailil. S Tusa an ghrian, s Tusa an ralt, s Tusa an spir, ailil. S Tusa an fear, s Tusa an blth, s Tusa na crainn, ailil. Ailil mo osa, Ailil mo chro, Ailil mo Thuarna, Ailil mo Chrost.
You are the stag, You are the bird, You are the fish, Alleluia. You are the wind, You are the cold, You are the sea, Alleluia You are the sun, You are the star, You are the sky, Alleluia. You are the grass, You are the flower, You are the tree, Alleluia. Alleluia my Jesus, Alleluia my heart, Alleluia my Lord, Alleluia my Christ.

The overall structure (Table 7.8) of Incantations is ternary, however it is a compound ternary form. McGlynn begins by introducing a rhythmic ostinato, which remains constant throughout the work (Example 7.13). He composed Incantations during a time when he was commuting forty-five minutes on a motorbike and says that the rhythm and pitch are that of the bike.130 Overall, the entire work is constructed in layers with each theme developed over the underlying rhythmic intensity of the eighth note pattern.

Michael McGlynn, Incantations (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1989). Translation in score.
130

129

Michael McGlynn, Interview with Author, February 2010

Alto 2

&6 8

Tenor

6 V 8 .
Ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Example 7.13. Incantations, ostinato, mm. 1-4131P


ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Tu -sa an dmh, P .
Tu -sa an dmh,

Tu- sa an

an,

101

Tu- sa an

an,

Bass

?6 8

.
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l,

ail - i - l

Ail - i - l,

S1 Table

! 7. 8. Incantations , form &


A m.1 m. 4 m. 8 m. 10 ! m. 16 m. 20 m. 24 m. 27 m. 29 m. - 33 l. m. 37 m. 40 m. 41 l. m. 43 m. 45

S2

& I & #
II

A1

ail - i

A2

& #A/B
ail - i

. V m.50
I?
ail - i - l, m.

58 m. 61 m.63 A/B m. 64 m. 67 Ail - i - l, ail - i - l, m.71

Introduction Beginning of ostinato Ail - i - l, i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, Theme A ail -Theme A in Alto p Theme A Theme A in Soprano II Theme A A in Soprano I . Theme . . Theme A Theme A in Soprano I Tu -sa an saSoprano an fuacht, Tu - sa an mhuir, Theme B ghaoth, Theme Tu Bin II F Theme B Theme B in Soprano I Theme B Theme B in Soprano II . Theme B in Alto Theme B Theme C Theme Ail C in in augmentation ail - i - l, - i male - l, voices ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, Theme Theme C in male voices in augmentation p C Theme C Theme C in soprano I voice in variation Theme C . Theme C in soprano IIvoice in variation Theme C Theme C in male voices in augmentation ail - i - l, - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, Theme Theme Ail B in Soprano I and II offset by one p C beat Theme C Theme C in male voices .. in augmentation Transition Related to Introduction and ostinato i - l, ail - i original - l, ail - i - l, Theme B ail -Theme B in form in Alto Theme B Theme B in original form in Soprano I and II Theme A in original form . in Alto Theme A Theme B Theme B in original form in Soprano I Theme B ail -Theme B in original form in Soprano II ail - i - l, ail - i - l, i - l, ail - i - l, Ail - i - l, Coda Ostinato material with opening chord

ail - i - l,

ail - i

l.

ail - i - l,

. . .. .

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

After a three-measure introduction, Theme A is stated by the altos, who continue through the first line of the text with the first three affirmations of You are. The second
1989 Michael McGlynn

131

Michael McGlynn, Incantations (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 1989).

102 line is brought in by soprano II (Example 7.14) at the same pitch level, followed by soprano I, which has the final two statements of the first part of the text (beginning a fourth higher). Measure twenty marks the start of section IIB and the introduction of Theme B by the soprano II section (Example 7.15). [Title]
Score
[Composer]

S2

6 & 8 .
Tu - sa
5

Example 7.14. Incantations, Theme A, Soprano II, mm. 8-11

an ghaoth,

Tu - sa

an fuacht,

Tu - sa

an mhuir,

all

l.

& & & &


S1

6 & 8 !

Example 7.15. Incantations, Theme B, Soprano, mm. 20-25

17

S2

6 &8 ! ! l ! Ail ! i mo

.
os

ail

. !a.

! ! !
!

.
chro,

mo

! !

26

(Example 7.16) is stated in an augmented form with all male voices in stacked fifths and fourths. In measure thirty-seven, the sopranos enter with a version of Theme C (Example 7.17) in a compressed rhythmic structure that begins on a different pitch level. The difference in metrical duration of the two themes causes the harmonic rhythm to become denser. This is especially true once Theme C is repeated after a delay of only one beat. After reaching a climax in measure forty-eight there is a complete bar of rest. Chromatic alteration or inflection is also visable in both examples 7.16 and 17. McGlynn frequently

In Section II, McGlynn introduces ! ! ! a new theme ! and its variation. ! Theme C!

103 uses an F followed within a measure or two by the F-sharp or a C-sharp, followed by a Cnatural.

V6 8 . ?6 . 8 .
Tu Tu

Example 7. 16. Incantations, Theme C, tenor and bass, mm. 33-36

. b .
sa

sa

. .

#. .
an

.. ..

an

..

dmh,

incan
. .

dmh,

Soprano

6 . &8
ail
5

Example 7.17. Incantations Theme C, Soprano m. 37-40

.
i

# .
l

mo

Thiar - na,

Score

The transition at measure fifty restates the ostinato and hemiola pattern (Example

&

7.18) that was seen in the opening (Example 7.19). This time, however, he has voiced
Tenor

8 . at the ninth to .create a more openharmonic .anticipation the . theV dissonances structure in
final section.

#.
an

. . .

Bass

? 6 . 8 .
ail

Tu

. b.
i

sa

l,

..

dmh,

ail

Example 7.18. Incantations, ostinato and hemiola return, mm. 50-54


T

V ? V ? ! !

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail

l,

ail - i - l,

b bb ! !

ail - i - l,

ail

l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail

l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail

l,

! !

! !

A1

& &

! !

! !

! !

A2

. . ail - i - l, ail - i - l, Example 7.19. Incantations, ostinato, mm. 13-16" . . . V . . . ? ..


ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

. ail - i - l, "

ail - i - l,

104

" ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

"

ail - i - l,

"

" ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

The final section, I, combines both Themes A and B, just as was seen in the first section. This time, however, the themes occur simultaneously in the womens voices 19

S 1 while the men continue with their material from the transition. The work concludes with

& &

the ostinato that has been ever-present. Through his use of the repeated eighth-note

ail

l.

ail


i - l

.
chro,

mo

S 2 pattern, McGlynn has created a constant rhythmic energy that serves as foundation for the

A1

development of the melodicF motives.


Ail -


i - l

mo

os

a,

! ! !

ail i - l, those layers and paired voices to properly frame the tuning, which could be extremely

! !layers of sound. ! The conductor ! should use ! McGlynn composed Incantations in & . & V . ! ! ! ! !

difficult due to the stacked fifths and parallel movement that occur between the male A 2
ail - i - l, is seen in the presentation of Theme C (Example 7.20). Although the voices. An example

work remains centered ..around G, the chromatic alternations of a given pitch in close
T

P . 7.21)will . attention. . . require eight, ? Example B


ail - i - l,

proximityail to-each measures forty-three through fortyi - l, other (as in the soprano lines from ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

. .

. .

ail - i - l, ail -i - l

ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

ail - i - l, ail -i - l

105

6 V 8 . ?6 . 8 .
Tu Tu

Example 7.20. Incantations, men parallel motion, mm. 33-36

. b .
sa

sa

. .

#. .
an

an

..

dmh,

.. ..

dmh,

S1

&

.
ail

Example 7.21. Incantations, soprano I and II, mm. 43-48

.
i

#. .
l

. . . .
na,

. . . .
i i

#. .
l

. . .

S2

. &
ail

. #.
mo i l

Thiar

ail

. #.
mo mo

Chrost.

mo

Thiar

na,

Chrost.

Agnus Dei Agnus Dei, from And On Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass, is scored for SSAATBB and Tenor solo and is approximately ten minutes in duration. The complete work, commissioned by Chanticleer in 2007, is a compilation of movements by living composers from different ethnicities and backgrounds. For his contribution, McGlynn chose to set the text of the Agnus Dei in both Irish and Latin (Table 7.9).

Table 7.9. Agnus Dei, text and translation A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, den trcaire orainn. A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, den trcaire orainn.

Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.

106 A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, Tabhair dinn sochin. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, misereri nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, misereri nobis. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona nobis pacem. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, grant us peace. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

The overall structure of the movement is in a compound binary form, with each large section composed of three smaller sub-sections that also have roughly three parts. Given the three lines of text, a trinity of structure like this is quite common for movements of the Agnus Dei. Each subsection also contains three parts. The entire concept of the Agnus Dei is in groups of threes, thus evoking the Holy Trinity.

Table 7.10. Agnus Dei, form


m. 1 m. 6 I A m. 10 Tenor Solo in Irish Tenor solo with harmonic support Tenor solo with harmonic support Tenor section, Latin Bass Section homophonic choral movement homophonic Choral treatment of theme Tenor solo paired with chorus homophonic choral movement Tenor solo paired with chorus Variations in chorus and solo Chorus in forms of countermelody Homophonic chordal movement Chant Theme

m. 15 m. 19 m. 23 26 m. 28 m. 32 m. 36 m. 40 m. 42 m. 50 m. 52 m. 76

Theme A Theme A Theme A treatment Theme A variations Theme B (solo) Theme A (chorus) Theme B variation Theme B Theme A related material Theme A related material

II

coda

107

Monophonic influence and affinity for chant are clearly evident in the opening fifteen measures with the Irish language solo chant-like melody. Although notated in meter, it is marked Freely and is intended to follow the natural inflection of the language (Example 7.22).

$ !" # !" (

Freely

&'

Example 7.22. Agnus Dei, McGlynn, tenor solo, mm.1-5132

3 3 * ( ( ( ( (( ( * ) ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( () ( ( ( ( ( ()

A U ain D,

a th gas pea ca an domhain,


3

A U ain

D,

a th gas pea ca an domhain,


3

A U ain

D,

( ( ( ( ( ()
a th gas pea

ca an domhain,

( ( (

dan

( -

+ () ( ( ( () #
tr cai re

or ainn;

( ( (
A

U ain

Although the melodic line was influenced by chant, the material is not derived from any one specific source. There is, however, another chant-like version of the Agnus Dei in the Irish language (Example 7.23) by Sen Riada in his Ceol an Aifrinn.133 When asked about this work, McGlynn was not familiar with the exact tune, but stated that he would have been introduced to Riadas music from his time at the gaeltacht. When shown the Riada setting, McGlynn discussed his thoughts on the two:

Michael McGlynn, "Agnus Dei," in And on Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass (Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Warner Chappell, 2007). Sen Riada, Agnus Dei, Ceol an Aifrinn: mar a chanter i nGaeltacht Chil Aodha (Baile tha Cliath: An Clchomar Tta, 1971). Riada was extremely influential in the revival of traditional Irish music during the 1960s and 70s both as a composer and as a performer.
133

132

108 The two look familiar in that both use repeated notes and are chant-like. Mine is not based on [ Riadas], but it is a piece of chant with Irish words. It is a very interesting thing to look at the two of them side by side. Simply by the fact that they are both in the Irish language and modal people assume that [the chant] is Irish. By saying it is by an Irish composer and in the Irish language people assume that it is in the tradition of Irish music.134

3 b 3 j j c &b 4

Example 7.23. Agnus Dei, Riada, solo line, mm. 1-6

Uain D

th gas pea ca an domhain,

3 3 4 J J
dan tr cai re 'rainn.

&b &b

b c J
Uain D, a th gas

3 an domhain, pea ca

dan

3 3 4 b

tr cai re 'rainn.

b
Uain

D,

7 J 4
a

3 an domhain, th gas pea ca


tabhair

dinn

so

3 U 4

chin.

Another example of the dual influence of ancient and traditional music on McGlynn may be seen in his treatment of the chorus during the opening solo section. Measure six marks the first entrance of the partial chorus voiced harmonically in stacked fifths (Example 7.24). Though it was not his intent, the overtones present are quite reminiscent of a drone accompaniment that occurs with the use of the Ulleann pipes. Despite McGlynns own denial that traditional music or instruments had any impact on his compositional style, many of the tools and harmonies he uses are closely related. He recalled many traditional songs from his time in the gaeltacht, and it is almost certain that there were instrumentalists in the area as well. Such treatment of a melody over a

134

Michael McGlynn, interview by Author, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, February 2010.

109 sustained drone would also have been present in early Irish church music, the only place known where part-singing did occur frequently on the island.

Example 7.24. Agnus Dei, McGlynn, choral harmony with tenor solo, m. 6

Although it is not notated in the score, the composer has indicated that his intent was for the chorus to engage in harmonic overtone singing in the first section (through measure thirteen). To do this the chorus would move slowly, and independently, through a series of vowels to change the overtones occuring at any given time. Throughout the opening section the conductor should treat the rhythms and tempo as freely as recitative conducting, following the soloist as to make it as non-metrical as possible. Chordal changes need only to align with the movement of the solo and not on specific beats. McGlynn lists an option for concluding the piece at measure thirteen, two minutes into the ten minute composition, creating a work only for solo tenor and a chorus in chordal accompaniment. If performed in this setting, the entire work would only be sung

110 in Irish, for it is at measure fifteen that the tenor section enters with new thematic material, Theme A (Example 7.25), in the traditional Latin text. The piece continues in Latin for the rest of the composition. The basses restate the first measure of Theme A with slight variation (Theme A). It is then taken through a series of sequences until, when sung by the basses in measure nineteen (Example 7.26), it becomes a thread for the rest of the B and C sections. This motive appears in many forms, both independently and simultaneously, as in measure twenty-three and twenty-four where it appears in parallel form and as a mirror image in parallel form (Example 7.27). The tenors then have a restatement of their original material to conclude the section. While each individual voice line is not extremely difficult and rests relatively central in the range, difficulty for the ensemble arises when the parts form layers within the harmonic structure as was seen in example 7.24 creating a superimposition of varying tonal centers.

Score

[Title]
[Composer] Freely

6 n n . j b . j . j b . j w . Vb 4
A gnus De - i, A gnus De - i qui tol - lis pec-ca - ta qui tol - lis pec-ca - ta mun - di,

Example 7.25. Agnus Dei, tenor entry, Theme A, mm. 15-19

? b n
A gnus De i

Example 7.26. Agnus Dei, baritone entry, Theme A', mm. 19-23

n . b . b . J J J
gnus De i qui tol lis pec ca ta qui tol lis pec ca

w.
di,

ta mun

111 Example 7.27. Agnus Dei, parallel and inverted statements, mm. 23-24

At measure twenty-eight the tempo slows and the tenor solo returns with a new motive, Theme B. Unlike before, the motive is almost exclusively restricted to the tenor solo line (Example 7.28), though the other voices do have derivations. Throughout the statement of this new theme, the chorus men continue alternating material based on the previous theme. The solo appears to alternate between two triads, one major and one minor, yet when viewed in conjunction with the choral components there exists a dual tonal center. The solo is set around a hexatonic A scale (A B-flat C D E F) and the chorus around an E pentatonic scale (E F G A B-flat). This duality is further complicated by the dual pedal tones of F and C held by the bass and soprano respectively (Example 7.29).

112

Vb


gnus De i

Example 7.28. Agnus Dei, solo entrance, Theme B, mm. 28-31


gnus De i

b
ta mun

di

qui

tol

lis

pec

ca

Example 7.29. Agnus Dei, harmonic superimposition, mm. 28-31

Alternations in the chromatic placement of a note also occur very frequently in McGlynns music. Quite often he will use the natural note and a sharp or flattened same note within very close proximity to each other, many times even within the same phrase. An example of this can also be seen in Example 7.27 with the change from E to E-flat in the second half of the solo phrase. The last section of the Agnus Dei, section II D, begins in measure forty with the tenor restatement of Theme B. This repeats in measure forty-two, at which point the treble voices join the solo melody line in parallel motion at the third while the chorus

113 tenors return to Theme A (Example 7.30). The beginning notes for the treble voices are those outlined in the opening descending three notes of the solo (E, C, and A respectively). The parallel lines are only partial statements of the motive, as they do not fully complete the statement.

Example 7. 30: Agnus Dei, Theme B variations and Theme A, mm. 42-44

The movement concludes, as McGlynn notates, With Stillness, in alternations of C Major 9 and A-flat. The final chord of the composition (Example 7.31) avoids final resolution by retaining the ninth in the soprano melody.

114 Example 7. 31. Agnus Dei, final chords, m. 79


S1

&b c &b c & b c b Vb c Vb c b

pa

cem.

b
U U U U

S2

pa

cem.

A1

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

B1

B2

? c b b

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

The conductor can overcome the challenges in Agnus Dei by identifying and rehearsing paired voices. Often there are dissonances and passages where the voiceleading creates difficult tuning issues. If the conductor is able to identify the voices that work in consonance, he or she will then be able to rehearse the section more efficiently. A challenge for both conductor and ensemble is the duration of the movement: at nearly eight and a half minutes, the pacing of the piece is crucial. The entire movement must build in intensity to measure fifty, the only forte indication, and then quickly release to a sustained piano only two measures later. There is then a long period of time to reach the final pacem, which continues to seek rest, but never fully resolves. Michael McGlynn is a composer who seeks to bring choral music to a place of importance in Ireland. His goal has been to give Irish choral music a prominent and unique voice in the world. Through his compositions, workshops, recordings, and

115 concerts he is gaining a reputation not only as a composer and arrnger of Irish traditional music, but as a viable contemporary, classical composer as well who uses the native sounds of his country. The songs he knew as a child, the Irish language, the poets, the sounds of the ocean, the impressions of the landscape, and the ancient structures of Ireland have all aided in forming his compositional style. McGlynn is a product of a land that has been steeped in musical tradition since antiquity, and his objective is to bring choral music to a place of prominence in that vast musical heritage.

GLOSSARY Act of Settlement in 1652135 imposed hash penalties, including death and land confiscation, against Irish participants of the rebellion of 1641against the British government, as well as and civil uprisings that could occur in the future. aisling [ l i]- dreams Anna [a nu n]- ensemble formed by Michael McGlynn in 1994. The name has no meaning, but is derived from An Uaithne, a collective term for kinds of Irish music. bodhrn [ba rn]- traditional Irish drum, shaped like a tambourine and typically covered with sheep or goats skin Celts [klts]- the people that inhabited Ireland prior to 400 A.D. curf [k f] the chorus or refrain of a song Gaeltacht [l tax]- areas in Ireland where the primary language of the community is Irish and there is an emphasis placed on maintaining the peoples Irish heritage and culture. Gentra [in tri]- ancient name for song of joy Goltra [ol tri]- ancient name for song of lament Irish Potato Famine (an Gorta Mr)136- time of mass starvation leading to death, disease, and emigration between 1845 and 1852 in Ireland. After the potato became the staple food and growing of the crop was expanded almost the entire country was dependant on it. The crop disease Blithe caused a series of crop failures throughout the island from 1832-45, but it was the over fifty percent failure of the 1846 crop that led to the decimation of more than one-third of the population. Irish Free State137- established under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1922. Originally encompassed the entire island of Ireland, but Northern Ireland opted out. Irish Free State came to an end when the citizens of Ireland voted to replace the 1922 constitution and create the Republic of Ireland in 1949.

S. J. Connolly, ed., Oxford Companion to Irish History, ed. S. J. Connolly (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).
136 137

135

Ibid. Ibid.

116

117 Provinces of Ireland- Ireland is divided into four provinces: Ulster, Munster, Lenister, Connaught RT (Raidi Teilifs ireann) [rado tl fi e rn]- broadcast company of Ireland; also sponsors the arts including the National Symphony Orchestra Sean- ns [n no]- old style of singing, commonly associated with the solo song tradition Suantra [su n tri]- ancient name for song of sleep Ullieann Pipes [ln] - also known as the Union Pipes, they are the characteristic bagpipe of Ireland

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Interviews McGlynn, Michael- A series of interviews were conducted by the author. All interviews were recorded and are held by the author. July 2009- both parties in Dublin, Ireland October 2009- via internet with Dublin, Ireland

124 January 2010- via internet with Dublin, Ireland February 2010- both parties in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida March 2010- via internet with Dublin, Ireland

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From: Stacie Rossow [mailto:slrossow@comcast.net] Sent: 11 March 2010 14:34 To: Permissions Subject: Use of an image in a dissertation

Good afternoonI am a doctoral student from the University of Miami in Coral Gables, Florida. I am completing my doctoral thesis on the music of Irish composer Michael McGlynn and am attempting to gain permission to use a facsimile of one of your holdings. The piece is Add. 36929. PSALTER in Latin, of St. Jerome's second (or Gallican) version. I only need the one page which is described in your listing as: (a) At the end of Ps. 1. (f. 56 b) Dan. iii. 57-88, Is. xii. 1-6 and xxxviii. 10-20, followed by the colophon, with music on a stave of four red lines, " Cormacus scripsit hoe osalterium ora pro eo. Qui legis hec ora pro sese qualibet hora." (f. 59);Mr. McGlynn has used the chant found there as the basis for one of his compositions and I think that it would be helpful to see them both side by side. Any information or assistance you might be able to offer would be greatly appreciated. Thank youStacie Rossow Stacie Lee Rossow

APPENDIX A MICHAEL MCGLYNN WORKS LIST Alphabetical listing by title (with year composed and voicing) Title Voicing and Year Instrumentation 1901 [revision, Behind the SATB, S solo, 2009 Closed Eye] Symphony Orchestra A Str mo Chro SATB 1989 Agnus Dei (from And on Earth SATB (div) 2006 Peace: A Chanticler Mass) Agnus Dei (from Celtic Mass) SATB 1990 (alternate version SSAA, acc) An Oche SSATB 1999 Ardaigh Cuan SATB 1995 Armaque cum Scuto SATB, acc 1999 Aube Soprano or Tenor & 1990 Piano August TTBB 1997 Ave Maria (from Celtic Mass) SATB 1991 Bean Phidin SSAA 1993 Behind the Closed Eye SATB (div) sax 1997 Blackthorn SATB, acc 1996 Brezairola SATB 2006 Carolan's Farwell to Music Oboe, Strings, Harp 2003 Ceann Dubh Dlis TTBB (alternate 1997 version SSAA) Christus Resurgens SATB, acc 1998 Cloch na Rn Symphony Orchestra 2001 Codail a Linbh SATB, acc 1995 Codhlam go Suan SATB, acc 1991 Cormacus Scripsit SATB 1990 Crist and St. Marie SATB 1990 Cnnla SSAA 2004 Cynara SATB (div.), T solo 1998 Dlamn TTBB (alt versions 1995 SATB, SSAA) Fionnghuala SATB 2005 Fugfdh Misen Baile Seo SATB 1999 125

126 Gaudete Geantra Geminiani's Adagio Geminiani's Allegro Gloria (from Celtic Mass) Heia Viri Hinbarra Hymn to the Virgin I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Igitur Servus Incantations Incidental Music for "Three Sisters" Invocation Island Jerusalem Jingle Bells Kyrie (from Celtic Mass) Lauda Anima Mea Les Effars Lorica Lux Aeterna Magnificat Maid in the Moor Maria Matrem Virginem May [Revision] Media Vita Miserere Missa Brevis My Lagan Love My Songs Shall Rise Noel Nouvelete O Ignis Spiritus O Maria O Tannenbaum/ O Christmas Tree O Viridissima O Vos Omnes SATB (alternate version TTBB) SATB (div) (alternate version SSAA) Oboe, Strings, Harp Oboe, Strings SATB, acc SATB SATB (Alternate versions TTBB, SSAA) SSAA, acc SATB, solo Oboe, Strings, Harp SATB SSAATTBB (alternate version SSAA) Piano, Voices, Traditional Instruments SATB SATB, acc SSAA TTBB SATB SATB Soprano or Tenor & Piano SSAA Harp SATB SATB SSAA SSA, solo Symphony Orchestra SATB (alternate versions TTBB, SSAA) SATB, acc SATB, Organ, Str Quartet SATB SSATTBB, solo SSAA SATB, acc SATB TTBB SATB (div), 2 solo SSSAAATTTBBB 1990 1995 2003 2003 1991 1994 1994 1999 1999 2003 1999 1989 1990 1993 1996 1992 2008 1991 2004 1987 2008 2005 1991 2005 1995 2009 1992 1999 2004 2000 2010 2008 2002 2006 2008 1995 1989

127 Ocean Our Wedding Day Pater Noster (from Celtic Mass) Pie Jesu SATB, acc SATB SATB SATB (div), solo clsolo, strings Pie Jesu SATB (alternate version SSAA) Pie Jesu [revision] SATB, S solo, Symphony Orchestra Quem Queritis SATB Reve pour l'Hiver Soprano or Tenor & Piano Rince [Dance] Trumpet and Piano Ru, Ru TTBB Salve Rex Gloriae SATB, acc Sanctus SSAA Sanctus (from Celtic Mass) SATB Sensation Soprano or Tenor & Piano S do Mhaimeo SATB (alternate version SSAA) Silent, O Moyle SSAA Silver River Oboe, Strings, Dbl Vibraphone Siil a Rin SATB, solo (alternate version SSAA) Sliabh Geal gCua SATB Sliabh Geal gCua Oboe, Strings Song of Oisn SATB, acc Song of Oisn SATB, acc St Marie Viginae TTBB St. Nicholas TTBB (alternate version SSAA) Summer Song SATB Tenebrae I SATB (div), solo Tenebrae II SATB (div), solo Tenebrae III SATB (div.) with solo) Tenebrae IV TTBB The Blackbird of Derrycairn Soprano or Tenor & Piano The Coming of Winter [revision, SSAA, Symphony Behind the Closed Eye] Orchestra The Coventry Carol SSAA The Dawn SATB The First Noel SATB, solo The Flower of Maherally SATB 1999 1995 1991 1998 1999 2009 1996 1985 1985 1999 1993 2009 1991 1985 1993 1993 2003 1994 1996 2003 1994 1994 1990 1990 2002 1990 1995 1999 2005 1984 2009 1999 1999 2008 1995

128 The Great Wood [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Green Laurel The Hounds Cry The Lark in the Clear Air The Last Rose The Lost Heifer The Meeting of the Waters The Mermaid The Planter's Daughter The Poet Sleeps The Raid The Rising of the Sun The Rising of the Sun [revision] The Road of Passage The Song of the Birds The Wexford Carol The White Rose The White Rose [Revision] The Wild Song There is no Ros Through a Valley of Tears [Revision] Toraocht Triplets Twilight [Revision] Victimae Visions When I was in My Prime When the War is Over Wind on Sea SATB, S solo, Symphony Orchestra SATB SSAATTB, perc, sax, vn T Solo, String Orchestra, Oboe SSAA, acc Soprano or Tenor & Piano T Solo, String Orchestra, Oboe SATB (alternate version SATB, acc) Soprano or Tenor & Piano SATB SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, Mzsop solo, Symphony Orchestra SATB SATB, Symphony Orchestra SSAA SSAA, acc SSAA Chorus, MzSop solo Symphony Orchestra SSATBB SATB, acc SATB, T Solo Symphony Orchestra Symphony Orchestra Fl, Ob, Clar Symphony Orchestra TTBB Saxophone & Piano SSAA SSATB SATB, 2 T- solo, vn 2009 1996 2001 2003 1994 1984 2003 1995 1984 2004 1993 1994 2009 2003 2009 1990 2000 2009 2001 1992 2009 2006 2006 2009 1999 1996 1996 1999 1994

129 Chronological Listing of Works Year Title 1984 The Blackbird of Derrycairn 1984 The Lost Heifer 1984 The Planter's Daughter 1985 Reve pour l'Hiver 1985 Rince [Dance] 1985 Sensation 1987 Les Effars 1989 A Str mo Chro 1989 Incantations 1989 O Vos Omnes 1990 Agnus Dei (from Celtic Mass) 1990 Aube 1990 Cormacus Scripsit 1990 Crist and St. Marie 1990 Gaudete 1990 Incidental Music for "Three Sisters" 1990 St Marie Viginae 1990 St. Nicholas 1990 Tenebrae I 1990 The Wexford Carol 1991 Ave Maria (from Celtic Mass) 1991 Codhlam go Suan 1991 Gloria (from Celtic Mass) 1991 Kyrie (from Celtic Mass) 1991 Magnificat 1991 Pater Noster (from Celtic Mass) 1991 Sanctus (from Celtic Mass) 1992 Jerusalem 1992 Media Vita 1992 There is no Ros 1993 Bean Phidin 1993 Invocation 1993 Salve Rex Gloriae 1993 S do Mhameo 1993 Silent, O Moyle 1993 The Raid 1994 Heia Viri 1994 Hinbarra 1994 Siil a Rin 1994 Song of Oisn 1994 The Last Rose 1994 The Rising of the Sun 1994 Wind on Sea 1995 Ardaigh Cuan

130 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1995 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1996 1997 1997 1997 1997 1998 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 2001 2001 2002 2002 Codail a Linbh Dlamn Geantra Maria Matrem Virginem O Viridissima Our Wedding Day Tenebrae II The Flower of Maherally The Mermaid Blackthorn Island Quem Queritis Sliabh Geal gCua The Green Laurel Visions When I was in My Prime Nobilis Humilis August Behind the Closed Eye Midnight Ceann Dubh Dlis Christus Resurgens Cynara Pie Jesu An Oche Armaque cum Scuto Fugfdh Misen Baile Seo Hymn to the Virgin I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Igitur Servus Miserere Ocean Pie Jesu Ru, Ru Tenebrae III The Coventry Carol The Dawn Victimae When the War is Over My Lagan Love The White Rose Cloch na Rn The Hounds Cry The Wild Song O Ignis Spiritus Summer Song

131 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2005 2005 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 Carolan's Farwell to Music Geminiani's Adagio Geminiani's Allegro I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Silver River Sliabh Geal gCua The Lark in the Clear Air The Meeting of the Waters The Road of Passage Cnnla Lauda Anima Mea Missa Brevis The Poet Sleeps Fionnghuala Lux Aeterna Maid in the Moor Tenebrae IV Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticler Mass) Brezairola O Maria Toraocht Triplets St. Francis Jingle Bells Lorica Noel Nouvelete O Tannenbaum/ O Christmas Tree The First Noel 1901 [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] May [Revision] Pie Jesu [revision] Sanctus The Coming of Winter [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Great Wood [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Rising of the Sun [revision] The Song of the Birds [revision] The White Rose [Revision] Through a Valley of Tears [Revision] Twilight [Revision] My Songs Shall Rise

132 List of Works by Commission (listed alphabetically by the commissioning entity) Commissioned by Year Title BBCNI 2000 My Lagan Love Canty 2008 Lorica Chanticleer 2006 Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticler Mass) Cork Choral Festival for The BBC 1989 O Vos Omnes Singers Dublin Youth Orchestra 2006 Toraocht Gerard MacChrystal [Grant Aided by 1996 Visions the Arts Council of Ireland] John Marshall High School 2001 The Hounds Cry Leioa Kantika Korala 2009 Sanctus Linda Kenny 2000 The White Rose Linda Kenny 2009 The White Rose [Revision] Louis Lentin 1999 Hymn to the Virgin Louis Lentin 1999 The Dawn Louvain 400 2009 The Song of the Birds Louvain 400 2009 Through a Valley of Tears [Revision] Matthew Manning 2003 Carolan's Farwell to Music Matthew Manning 2003 Geminiani's Adagio Matthew Manning 2003 Geminiani's Allegro Matthew Manning 2003 I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Matthew Manning 2003 Silver River Matthew Manning 2003 Sliabh Geal gCua Matthew Manning 2003 The Lark in the Clear Air Matthew Manning 2003 The Meeting of the Waters Ocean Telecom 1999 Ocean Pierre Schuster 2009 The Coming of Winter [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] Rajaton [Grant aided by The Arts 2001 The Wild Song Council of Ireland] Rajaton [Grant aided by The Arts 2002 Summer Song Council of Ireland] RT Concert Orchestra 2001 Cloch na Rn RT Lyric FM 2006 Triplets Stacie Lee Rossow [Grant aided by the 2010 My Songs Shall Rise Theodore Presser Foundation] St. David's Cathedral Wales 2004 Missa Brevis The Cork Choral Festival 1999 When the War is Over The Gate Theatre 1990 Incidental Music for "Three Sisters" The National Concert Hall Dublin 2002 O Ignis Spiritus

133 The Palestrina Choir The Project Arts Centre The Project Arts Centre The Syracuse Vocal Ensemble The Syracuse Vocal Ensemble The Ulster Orchestra The Ulster Orchestra The Ulster Orchestra UCD 150 2004 1994 2009 2004 2004 1997 2009 2009 2003 Lauda Anima Mea The Rising of the Sun The Rising of the Sun [revision] Cnnla The Poet Sleeps Behind the Closed Eye 1901 [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Great Wood [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Road of Passage

Works by Voicing Fl, Ob, Clar Oboe, Strings Oboe, Strings Oboe, Strings, Dbl Vibraphone Oboe, Strings, Harp Oboe, Strings, Harp Oboe, Strings, Harp Piano, Voices, Traditional Instruments SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB

Triplets Geminiani's Allegro Sliabh Geal gCua Silver River Carolan's Farwell to Music Geminiani's Adagio I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Incidental Music for "Three Sisters" My Lagan Love The Dawn Summer Song Lauda Anima Mea The Poet Sleeps The Road of Passage A Str mo Chro Cormacus Scripsit Crist and St. Marie Ave Maria (from Celtic Mass) Kyrie (from Celtic Mass) Magnificat Pater Noster (from Celtic Mass) Sanctus (from Celtic Mass) Invocation Heia Viri Ardaigh Cuan Our Wedding Day The Flower of Maherally Quem Queritis Sliabh Geal gCua The Green Laurel Fugfdh Misen Baile Seo

134 SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB SATB (alternate version SATB, acc) SATB (alternate version SSAA) SATB (alternate version SSAA) SATB (alternate version SSAA, acc) SATB (alternate version TTBB) SATB (alternate versions TTBB, SSAA) SATB (Alternate versions TTBB, SSAA) SATB (div) SATB (div) (alternate version SSAA) SATB (div) sax SATB (div), 2 solo SATB (div), solo SATB (div), solo SATB (div), solo cl- solo, strings SATB (div.) with solo) SATB (div.), T solo SATB, 2 T- solo, vn SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, acc SATB, Mzsop solo, Symphony Orchestra SATB, Organ, Str Quartet SATB, S solo, Symphony Orchestra SATB, S solo, Symphony Orchestra Igitur Servus Fionnghuala Lux Aeterna Brezairola O Maria The Mermaid S do Mhameo Pie Jesu Agnus Dei (from Celtic Mass) Gaudete Media Vita Hinbarra Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass) Geantra Behind the Closed Eye O Viridissima Tenebrae I Tenebrae II Pie Jesu Tenebrae III Cynara Wind on Sea Ocean O Ignis Spiritus The Rising of the Sun Codhlam go Suan Gloria (from Celtic Mass) There is no Ros Salve Rex Gloriae The Raid Song of Oisn Song of Oisn Codail a Linbh Blackthorn Island Christus Resurgens Armaque cum Scuto Miserere The Rising of the Sun [revision] Missa Brevis 1901 [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Great Wood [revision, Behind the

135 Closed Eye] SATB, S solo, Symphony Orchestra Pie Jesu [revision] SATB, solo I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls SATB, solo The First Noel SATB, solo (alternate version SSAA) Siil a Rin SATB, Symphony Orchestra The Song of the Birds SATB, T Solo Symphony Orchestra Through a Valley of Tears [Revision] Saxophone & Piano Visions Soprano or Tenor & Piano The Blackbird of Derrycairn Soprano or Tenor & Piano The Lost Heifer Soprano or Tenor & Piano The Planter's Daughter Soprano or Tenor & Piano Reve pour l'Hiver Soprano or Tenor & Piano Sensation Soprano or Tenor & Piano Les Effars Soprano or Tenor & Piano Aube SSA, solo Maria Matrem Virginem SSAA Sanctus SSAA Cnnla SSAA The Wexford Carol SSAA Jerusalem SSAA Bean Phidin SSAA Silent, O Moyle SSAA When I was in My Prime SSAA The Coventry Carol SSAA Maid in the Moor SSAA Noel Nouvelete SSAA Chorus, MzSop solo Symphony The White Rose [Revision] Orchestra SSAA Harp Lorica SSAA, acc The White Rose SSAA, acc Hymn to the Virgin SSAA, acc The Last Rose SSAA, Symphony Orchestra The Coming of Winter [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] SSAATTB, perc, sax, vn The Hounds Cry SSAATTBB (alternate version SSAA) Incantations SSATTBB, solo My Songs Shall Rise SSATB When the War is Over SSATB An Oche SSATBB The Wild Song SSSAAATTTBBB O Vos Omnes Symphony Orchestra Toraocht Symphony Orchestra Cloch na Rn Symphony Orchestra May [Revision] Symphony Orchestra Twilight [Revision] T Solo, String Orchestra, Oboe The Lark in the Clear Air

136 T Solo, String Orchestra, Oboe Trumpet and Piano TTBB TTBB TTBB TTBB TTBB TTBB TTBB TTBB (alt versions SATB, SSAA) TTBB (alternate version SSAA) TTBB (alternate version SSAA) Arrangements Geminiani's Allegro A Str mo Chro Ardaigh Cuan Bean Phidin Carolan's Farwell to Music Christus Resurgens Cormacus Scripsit Crist and St. Marie Fionnghuala Gaudete Geminiani's Adagio I Dreamt I Dwelt in Marble Halls Igitur Servus Jerusalem Jingle Bells Media Vita Miserere My Lagan Love Nobilis Humilis Noel Nouvelete O Tannenbaum/ O Christmas Tree Our Wedding Day Quem Queritis Ru, Ru S do Mhameo Silent, O Moyle Siil a Rin Sliabh Geal gCua St Marie Viginae St. Nicholas The Coventry Carol The Meeting of the Waters Rince [Dance] St Marie Viginae August Ru, Ru Victimae Tenebrae IV Jingle Bells O Tannenbaum/ O Christmas Tree Dlamn St. Nicholas Ceann Dubh Dlis

137 The First Noel The Flower of Maherally The Lark in the Clear Air The Last Rose The Meeting of the Waters The Mermaid The Wexford Carol There is no Ros When I was in My Prime Original Compositions Triplets 1901 [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticler Mass) Agnus Dei (from Celtic Mass) An Oche Armaque cum Scuto Aube August Ave Maria (from Celtic Mass) Behind the Closed Eye Blackthorn Brezairola Ceann Dubh Dlis Cloch na Rn Codail a Linbh Codhlam go Suan Cnnla Cynara Dlamn Fugfdh Misen Baile Seo Geantra Gloria (from Celtic Mass) Heia Viri Hinbarra Hymn to the Virgin Incantations Incidental Music for "Three Sisters" Invocation Island Kyrie (from Celtic Mass) Lauda Anima Mea Les Effars Lorica Lux Aeterna

138 Magnificat Maid in the Moor Maria Matrem Virginem May [Revision] Midnight Missa Brevis My Songs Shall Rise O Ignis Spiritus O Maria O Viridissima O Vos Omnes Ocean Pater Noster (from Celtic Mass) Pie Jesu Pie Jesu Pie Jesu [revision] Reve pour l'Hiver Rince [Dance] Salve Rex Gloriae Sanctus Sanctus (from Celtic Mass) Sensation Silver River Song of Oisn Song of Oisn St. Francis (cantata in four movements) Summer Song Tenebrae I Tenebrae II Tenebrae III Tenebrae IV The Blackbird of Derrycairn The Coming of Winter [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Dawn The Great Wood [revision, Behind the Closed Eye] The Green Laurel The Hounds Cry The Lost Heifer The Planter's Daughter The Poet Sleeps The Raid The Rising of the Sun The Rising of the Sun [revision] The Road of Passage The Song of the Birds The White Rose

139 The White Rose [Revision] The Wild Song Through a Valley of Tears [Revision] Toraocht Twilight [Revision] Victimae Visions When the War is Over Wind on Sea

APPENDIX B DISCOGRAPHY

Anna. Anna. recorded 1999-2004, Dublin: Michael McGlynn and Brian Masterson, Windmill Lane Studios, 2005. Media Vita arr. M. McGlynn Crist and St. Marie arr. M. McGlynn Invocation M. McGlynn The Raid M. McGlynn Suantra arr. F. Cearbhaill Kells M. McGlynn Sanctus M. McGlynn Cormacus Scripsit M. McGlynn S do Mhaimeo arr. M. McGlynn
*arr. By McGlynn

Silent, O Moyle The First Day Jerusalem The Blue Bird Faigh an Gleas Pater Noster Hymn to the Virgin The Dawn

arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn C.V. Stanford* arr. M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn

Anna (Musical group), and Michael McGlynn. Celtic Origins. Cleveland, Ohio: Elevation, 2007. The rising of the sun M. McGlynn Siil a rin arr. M. McGlynn Gaudete arr. M. McGlynn Our wedding day M. McGlynn Pie Jesu M. McGlynn Ceann dubh dlis arr. M. McGlynn August M. McGlynn Sanctus M. McGlynn Kells M. McGlynn Greensleeves arr. M. McGlynn Scarborough Fair arr. M. McGlynn I dreamt I dwelt in marble halls arr. M. McGlynn Fionnghuala arr. M. McGlynn The flower of Maherally arr. M. McGlynn Aisling M. McGlynn If all she has is you J. McGlynn Dlamn M. McGlynn S do Mhaimeo arr. M. McGlynn

140

141

Anna (Musical group), Michael McGlynn, Lesley Hatfield, and Kenneth Edge. Behind the Closed Eye. [S.l.]: Danu, 2005 August M. McGlynn Aisling M. McGlynn The Great Wood M. McGlynn From Nowhere to Nowhere M. McGlynn Annaghdown M. McGlynn Cean Dubh Dlis M. McGlynn Ave Maria Gathering Mushrooms Behind the Closed Eye Midnight The Coming of Winter Where All Roses Go 1901 M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn

Anna (Musical group). Christmas Songs. New York: Koch Records, 2004. Away in a Manger The Wexford Carol Ru Ru Silent Night The Coventry Carol arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn Codhlaim Go Suan Pie Jesu Hymn to the Virgin O Holy Night There Is No Ros M. McGlynn M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn arr. M. McGlynn

Anna (Musical Group), and Michael McGlynn. Cynara. Dublin: Dan, 2000. Igitur Servus M. McGlynn An Oche M. McGlynn Ru Ru arr. M McGlynn Incantations M. McGlynn When the War is Over M. McGlynn I Dreamt that I Dwelt in Marble Halls arr. M McGlynn Amarque Cum Scuto M. McGlynn Miserere M. McGlynn Cynara M. McGlynn Buachaill n irne arr. M. McGlynn Fughfidh Misen Baile Seo arr. M. McGlynn Victimae M. McGlynn Christus Resurgens M. McGlynn Pie Jesu M. McGlynn Ocean M. McGlynn

142 Anna (Musical group) and Michael McGlynn. Deep Dead Blue. [S.l.]: Warner Chappell Music, 2004. Nobilis Humilis Dicant Nunc Blackthorn Kyrie There Is No Ros M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn arr. M McGlynn The Green Laurel Island Silabh Geal Gcua Quem Queritis The Sea arr. M McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn

Anna (Musical group). Essential Anna. New York: Koch Records, 2005. The Blue Bird C.V. Stanford* Cormacus Scripsit arr. M. McGlynn The Wild Song M. McGlynn Siil, a Rin arr. M. McGlynn Wind on Sea M. McGlynn The Rising of the Sun M. McGlynn The Flower of Maherally arr. M. McGlynn Dlamn M. McGlynn Kyrie M. McGlynn
*arr. By McGlynn

Deep Dead Blue Elvis Costello and Bill Frisell Blackthorn M. McGlynn Behind the Closed Eye M. McGlynn August M. McGlynn Christus Resurgens arr. M. McGlynn Victimae M. McGlynn Pie Jesu M. McGlynn Hymn to the Virgin M. McGlynn Cynara M. McGlynn War is Over Greenwalt, McGlynn, Radigan

Anna (Musical group), Michael McGlynn, and Charles Villiers Stanford. Omnis. Dublin: Dan, 2003. Salve Rex Gloriae M. McGlynn Ardaigh Cuan arr. M. McGlynn Beati Quorum Via C.V. Stanford* The Flower of Maherally arr. M. McGlynn Geantra M. McGlynn Maria Matrem M. McGlynn Codail a Linbh M. McGlynn Gaudate arr. M. McGlynn Agnus Dei M. McGlynn Ave Generosa arr. M. McGlynn
*arr. By McGlynn

O Viridissima M. McGlynn Dlamn M. McGlynn A Str mo Chro arr. M. McGlynn Risn Dubh arr. Patterson, McGlynn, Clarke The Mermaid arr. M. McGlynn St. Nicholas arr. M. McGlynn Diwanit Bugale arr. M. McGlynn Tenebrae I M. McGlynn Tenebrae II M. McGlynn Tenebrae III M. McGlynn

143 Anna (Musical group), Antonio Lotti, Michael McGlynn, and Gregorio Allegri. Sanctus. Dublin: Dan, 2009. Crucifixus A. Lotti* Nobilis Humilis M. McGlynn Agnus Dei M. McGlynn (from And on Earth Peach: A Chanticleer Mass) Maria Matrem Virginem M. McGlynn Victimae M. McGlynn Miserere Mei Deus G. Allegri* O Maria M. McGlynn
*arr. By McGlynn

Anna (Musical group), and Michael McGlynn. Sensation. Dublin: Dan, 2006. Anna. O Ignis Spiritus Brezairola Sensation Silver River Shining water Lux Aeterna M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn The road of passage Whispers of paradise Maid in the moor Tenebrae IV O Maria M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn M. McGlynn

Recordings that contain single selections: A Celtic Journey Laudate Singers And on Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Chanticleer Mass Blue Bird Boys Air Choir Boundless Rajaton Celtic Twilight 3: Lullabies Various Artists, Anna Celtic Twilight 7:Sacred Spirit Various Artists, Anna Ceremony Choir of Canterbury Cathedral Christmas with Chanticleer Chanticleer Comfort and Joy, Volume II Cantus Deep in a Winters Night Sacramento Master Singers Goin Home Chor Leoni Choir I Still Love You Conspirare La Musique Celticue our les Nuls Various Artists, Anna Let Your Voice be Heard Cantus Meeting Point Gerard MacChrystal Nearer Conspirare Out of Bounds Rajaton

2008 2007 2007 2001 1996 2007 2008 2001 2005 2008 2002 2009 2001 1996 2006

144 Silver River St. Patricks Day Turn Darkness into Light Under the Dome Vox Angelica Whispers of Love Wish List: St. Paul Sunday Wondrous Love DVD Christmas Memories (DVD) Invocations of Ireland (DVD) Matthew Manning Katie McMahon Harald Jers Notre Dame Glee Club Emma Horwood Fionnuala Gill Chanticleer Chanicleer Anna Anna 2003 2007 2009 2000 2007 1997 2008 2009

APPENDIX C IPA TRANSCRIPTIONS

There is a guide for Irish language pronunciation found in the International Phonetic Association Handbook138 that describes, in detail, the consonant structures. What is found here is a slightly simplified version, intended for those with a moderate understanding of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), as specific for the compositions and arrangements of Michael McGlynn. These IPA transcriptions have been derived from a series of conversations and choral workshops with Michael McGlynn. The author created the guides from a combination of audio recordings and transliteration guides, presented them to several ensembles, and asked McGlynn to make corrections during rehearsals. Irish is a difficult language for IPA and as such, these guides should be used in combination with audio recordings to refine inflection and syllabic stress. The translations that are included have either been supplied by McGlynn or were obtained and approved by him from Celtic Lyrics Corner.139

Ailbhe N Chasaide, "Irish," in Handbook of the International Phonetic Association (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 111-116.
139

138

http://www.celticlyricscorner.net/ (Accessed 25 February 2010)

145

146 Irish pronunciation Irish has no aspirated [d] or [t]. They are instead soft as might find in Spanish. In most cases when ch is present the actual sound is somewhat between the [k] or [h] and the [x]. There are several variations of pronunciation found in Ireland. Those given here are as the composer speaks, and more importantly, how he has set the text to be sung. IPA Guides Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass) A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, den trcaire orainn. [ u n de ho s p ki n do n dn tro k re or n] Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, Tabhair dinn sochin. [ u n de ho s p ki n do n tav dun i x an] Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world, grant us peace. An Oche [n i h] An cuimhin leat an oche d a bh t ag an bhfuinneog, [ n kwin lt n i h ud a vi tu n vwn jo] Do you remember that night when you were at the window Gan hata gan limhne dod dhon gan chasg? [n ha t n l iv n dd ji n n x s] Without a hat or glove or overcoat on you? Do shn m mo lmh chughat 's do rug t uirthi barrg, [d hin me m lv xu d sd r tu hi br ] I gave my hand to you and you clasped it to you. Gan hata gan limhne dod dhon gan chasg? Do labhair an fhuiseog. [n ha t n l iv n dd ji n n x s do la n ] Without a hat or glove or overcoat on you? And the skylark spoke. A Chumainn mo chro tar oche ghar igin. [ x mn m kri tar i h ar e n]

147 My love, come to me some night. An cuimhin leat an oche d 'san oche ag cur cuisne. [n kwin lat n i h u sn i h k kwi n ] Do you remember that night, and the night was so cold. Cnnla140 [kun la] C h sid thos at leagan na gcla ocha? [ke he ud his ta la n lei h] Who is that down there knocking the stone walls? Mise m fin a deir Cnnla . [m me fen a der kun l] Me, myself, says Cunnla Chnnla chro n tar [a] nos goire dhom! [hun la k ri na ta r ni s r hm] Cnnla dear dont come any nearer to me! C h sid thos at tarraingt na pluide dhom [ke he ud his ta tr t n pl jm ] Who is that down there pulling the blanket off me? Mise m fin a deir Cnnla [m me fen a der kun l] Me, myself, says Cunnla. Chnnla chro n tar [a] nos goire dhom! [hun la x ri na ta r ni s r hm] Cnnla dear dont come any nearer to me! M anam go tiocfaidh! deir Cnnla [ma nm g k :ki der kun l] My soul I will, says Cunnla Mise m fin a deir Cnnla [m me fen a der kun l] Me, myself, says Cunnla
140

It is important to note that this traditional song has a dark interpretation where the young lady is actually quite scared.

148 C h sid thos at tochas mo bhonnacha? [ke he ud his ta t xs m vn xe] Who is that down there tickling the souls of my feet? Mise m fin a deir Cnnla [m me fen a der kun l] Me, myself, says Cunnla Manam go tiocfaidh! deir Cnnla [ma nm g k :ki der kun l] My soul I will, says Cunnla

Dlamn [du l man] Dlamn na binne bu, dlamn Gaelach, [du l man n b n bwi du l man e lx] Seaweed of the yellow peaks, Gaelic seaweed Dlamn na farraige, dlamn Gaelach. [ du l ma na f r du l man e lx] Seaweed of the ocean, Gaelic seaweed. A non mhn ! Sin anall na fir shuir [a ni n vi no n an l na fr ho ri] O gentle daughter, here come the wooing men. A mhthair mhn ! Cuir na roithlen go dt m!. [a wa h vi no kw na r xu lan i me] O gentle mother, put the wheels in motion for me!

Rachaidh me chun lir leis a dlamn Gaelach [rk: k me k lur l a du l man e lx] I would go to the tailor with the Gaelic seaweed. Ceanndh brga daor, arsa dlamn Gaelach. [k a no bro der er s du l man e lx] I would buy expensive shoes,"said the Gaelic seaweed. Brga bretha dubha ar a dlamn Gaelach.

149 [bro br ha du a er a du l man e lx] Beautiful black shoes has the Gaelic seaweed. Bairad agus tris ar a dlamn Gaelach [bar ed as trus er a du l man e lx] A beret and trousers has the Gaelic Seaweed. T ceann bu ir ar adlamn Gaelach. [ta ki an bwi or er a du l man e lx] There is a yellow gold head on the Gaelic seaweed. T dh chluais mhaolar a dlamn Maorach. [tak a klu wel er a du l man mwer x] There are two blunt ears on the stately seaweed. Incantations Ailil, [ l lu] Alleluia, S Tusa an dmh, s Tusa an an, s Tusa an t-iasc, ailil. [st s n darv st s n en st s n tsk l lu] You are the stag, you are the bird, you are the fish, alleluia S Tusa an ghaoth, s Tusa an fuacht, s Tusa an mhuir, ailil. [st s n wa st s n fuxt st s n vwir l lu ] You are the wind, you are the cold, you are the sea, alleluia S Tusa an ghrian, s Tusa an ralt, s Tusa an spir, ailil. [st s n rin st s n relt st s n sper l lu] You are the sun, you are the star, you are the sky, alleluia S Tusa an far, S Tusa an blth, S Tusa na crainn, ailil. [st s n fer st s n bla st s n krin l lu] You are the grass, you are the flower, you are the trees, alleluia Ailil mo osa, ailil mo chro, ailil mo Thiarna, ailil mo Chrost. [ l lu mo i sa l lu mo kri l lu hern l lu mo krist] Alleluia my Jesus, alleluia my heart, alleluia my Lord, alleluia my Christ.

150 Salve Rex Duisgeadh agoinn dmh donn a doire donn namhdha nua [du g gwIn dav d n der e d niv ga nu a] We awoke a great brown stag from the new grass... Dan Dan Dan D [da nu da nu da nu de]

S do Mhaimeo [i do a mo i ] S do Mhaimeo , s do Mhaimeo , [i do a mo i i do a mo i ] She is your granny, she is your granny, s do Mhaimeo cailleach an air[i]gid; [i do a mo i kl jk an r d] She is your granny the hag with the money S do Mhaimeo , Bhail Iorrais Mhir , [i do a mo i o vaj lj v r ] She is your granny from the town of Iorrais Mr, S chuirfeadh s cist r bhithre Chois Fharraige. [skwir i ko ti v r xu r ] And she would put coaches on the roads of Cois Farraige bhFeicfesa n steam gal siar Tin U Loing, [ vk s n stim l ir t ni i ] If youd see the steam [steam boat] going past Tin U Loing S na rotha ghl timpeall siar na ceathrna[]; [ sna r hi l tm pl ir na k ru ni] And the wheels turning speedily at her flanks Caithfeadh sn stiir naoi n-uairar a cl, [k wh in stir n i nu rer kul ] Shed scatter the store nine times to the rear, S n choinneodh s sil le cailleach an air[i]gid [sni xw n i ul l k k an r d ] But she never keeps pace with the hag with the money.

151 Measann t bpsfa, measann t bpsfa, [ms n tu bos f ms n tu bos f ] Do you reckon hed marry, do you reckon hed marry, Measann t bpsfa cailleach an air[i]gid? [ms n tu bos f kl k an r d ] Do you reckon hed marry the hag with the money T s am nach bpsfa, t s am nach bpsfa [ta sm nk bos f ta sm nx bos f ] I know hell not marry, I know hell not marry Mar t s r-g gus dlfadh sn t-air[i]gead. [mar ta e ro o s dol k e n tr d ] Because hes too young and hell drink the money. S gairid go bpsfa, s gairid go bpsfa, [sk rd bos f sk rd bos f ] Well soon have a wedding, well soon have a wedding, S gairid go bpsfa beirt ar an mbaile seo; [sk rd bos f bet e rn ml ja ] Well soon have a wedding by two in the village S gairid go bpsfa, s gairid go bpsfa, [sk rd bos f sk rd bos f ] Well soon have a wedding, well soon have a wedding, San Shamais Mhir gus Mire N Chathasaigh. [an he m vr gs mo r ni k h si] Between San Samais Mr and Mire N Chathasaigh.

APPENDIX D COMPLETE MUSICAL EXAMPLES All musical examples found within the body of the document are given here in their complete form. The exceptions are the complete scores of Michael McGlynns music, which are found in Appendix F.

S do Mhaimeo / Cailleacha Chige Uladh

Cailleacha Chige Uladh


from Petrie Collection

9 . &8 J j .
5

qd = 118

& .. j j ..

152

153

Cailleach an Airgid
from Canainn (p. 29)

6 &8
5

& & .. # .

.. j # #

13

.. & #

q = 108

'S do Mhaimeo Arranged by Michael McGlynn

6 &8 #
5

&

J J J J

10

& &

J j

14

154

'S Do Mhaimeo
Cas Amhrn

6 &8
5

j j J j

b & b & & J J J b J

13

Cailleach an Airgid
as performed by Joe Heaney

6 V8
6

j .

V . V V j J
J

. . j . j .

11

16

155

S Do Mham
Singing in Irish Gaelic Arranged by Mary McLaughlin

6 j j & 8 j j .
6

& & j .

j # . .

13

& # . &

# . j .

17

156

Cailleacha Chigid (Chige) Uladh


From Fleischmann -6781 Patrick Coneely (P) Galway- 1839

9 &8
3

J j .. j j ..

& & .. &

The Old Hag in the Corner


From- Fleischmann- 4483

6 J &8 J
5

& & &

J J J J J J

10

14

157

The Old Hagg in the Corner


From- Fleischmann- 3900

6 & 8 b J
5

j b

j b J j j j. .

& b

j b

& .. &

13

17

j & .. j j j j j j j j j & j .. .. ..

24

28

J &

158 Ardaigh Cuan

Airdi Cuan
Ceolta Gael
Soprano

2 . . . &4 J J
9

j .

j .

j .

. &J & & .

16

21

Airde Cuan
An Cr Gaelach Arranged by Michel Mac Eoin

2 . &4
9

. J .

. J J

j . .

j . j J

j .

. &J & & .

J .

16

21

159

Ardaidh Cuain
from O hEidin Cas Amhran

6 &8
5

. J .

. J

9 8

&J

. .

j . J

j . . &9 8 . 6 8 J

Ardaigh Cuan
6 & 8 .
5

q = 60

Arranged by Michael McGlynn

. .

j .

& J

U j 9 6 . j . & . 8 . 8 J

. .

. . J

160 Silent OMoyle

The Song of Fionnuala


Moore's Irish Melodies

j j j & c . # . # . J
5

&

# j . # j # j . J
j

& J & . j J

. J

13

j . #

Silent, O Moyle
j 4 & 4 .
5

q = 55

Arranged by Michael McGlynn

j j . . J # j . J

&

j .

. & & . j .

J J . J

13

161

Tell Me Dear Eveleen


Fleischmann #2986

# . . # & c
5

. # . J # . . J
j

# # & # & & # .

13

# J

# J

The Song of Fionnuala


Fleischmann # 4766

j & c . #
5

. # . j J . # j j . . J
j

&

j #

& J & . j # J

j J

13

j # j

162

Silent O Moyle, Be the Roar of the Water


Irish Songs: Collection of Airs Old & New Arranged by N. Clifford Page
q = 65

j b j j & b c . . j .
5

b j & b . &b &b b . J j J J . j . j . . J

13

b .

j .

163 Siul, a Run

Siil a Rin
Arranged by McGlynn

12 . . j . . . . . . . &8 J J J
4

qd = 110

&

j .

. J

j & . . & .

6 . 12 . . j . j . . 8 J 8 J . . J J 6 8 ! . 12 8 j . J J J . J j . . .

10

13

j & . .

17

. . . . j . . & . . J J J J JJ

164

Shule Aroon
P.W. Joyce

&c
5

Slow with feeling q = 120

. . . J J

j .

j .

j .

j .

& . . j . . & . & . j . j j . j . j .

10

j . . .

14

Shule Arun
Fleishmann (6339)

&c
5

j .

j j . j j . # j . j j

& & j .

13

& . . #

165

Arah My Dear Ev'Leen


Fleschimann # 4521

& C .
5

&

# # # # . J

& &

13

# # # . J

Edward Bunting, The Ancient Music of Ireland: The Bunting Collections (a facsimile edition of Edward Bunting's songs and airs in piano arrangements), ed. Harry Long (Dublin: Walton Manufacturing Ltd., 2002).

Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 2, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998). Aloys Fleischmann, Sources of Irish Traditional Music c. 1600-1855: An Annotated Catalogue of Prints and Manuscripts, 1583-1855, ed. Aloys Fleischmann, Vol. 1, 2 vols. (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1998). P.W. Joyce, Old Irish Folk Music and Songs: A Collection of 842 Irish Airs and Songs Hitherto Unpublished (Dublin: Hodger Figgis & Co, Ltd., 1909). Michel Mac Eoin, "Ardi Cuan," in An Cr Gaelach (Corcaigh: An Chad Chl, 1985). Michael McGlynn, Ardaigh Cuan (Dublin: Michael McGlynn/ Warner Chappell, 1995). ------, Incantations (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1989). ------, Silent, O Moyle (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993). ------, Siil, a Rin (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1994). ------ S do Mhaimeo (Dublin: Michael McGlynn & Warner Chappell, 1993).

166

Mary McLaughlin, "S do Mhaim ," in Singing in Irish Gaelic: A Phonetic Approach to Singing in the Irish Language Suitable for Non-Irish Speakers (Pacific, MO, MO: Mel Bay Publications, 2002). Thomas Moore, Moore's Irish Melodies With Symphonies and Accompaniments (Boston: Oliver Ditson, 1893). Muireadhach Mith, Amhrin Chige Uladh (Baile tha Cliath: Gilbert Dalton, 1977). George Petrie, The Petrie Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, ed. David Cooper (Cork: Cork University Press, 2005). Pdragn N Uallachin, A Hidden Ulster: People, Songs, and Traditions of Oriel (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1893). Sen g Baoill and Mnus Baoill, "Airdi Cuan," in Celota Gael (Corcaigh: Cl Mercier, 1975). Mchel hEidhin, Cas Amhrn (Conmara: Cl Iar-Chonnachta, 1975).

APPENDIX E MICHAEL MCGLYNN SELECTED SCORES

The scores contained in this Appendix are reprinted by the consent of the composer and are not intended for duplication (documentation found in the final page of this Appendix). These, as well as other scores, can be found and purchased from www.anuna.ie. Agnus Dei ........................................................................................................ 167

Cormacus Scripsit.................................................................................................. 169 Dlamn ........................................................................................................... 177

Incantations............................................................................................................ 185 Invocation Island Sanctus ........................................................................................................ 190 ............................................................................................................. 194 ........................................................................................................ 203

S do Mhaimeo ................................................................................................... 209 Siil, a Rin ........................................................................................................... 218 Wind on Sea........................................................................................................... 224

167

168

Certificate
Re: Agnus Dei Cormacus Scripsit Dlamn Incantations Invocation Island Sanctus

______________________________________________

S do Mhaimeo Siil, a Rin Wind on Sea

10/03/2010

This is to certify that Stacie Lee Rossow has been issued permission to reprint, in their entirety, the following scores in her Doctoral Thesis titled The Choral Music of Irish Composer Michael McGlynn. as indicated above written and/or arranged by Michael McGlynn. To confirm the propriety of this certificate contact info@anuna.ie

____________________ Michael McGlynn Anna Teoranta Cert. 3230


Contact Anna, PO Box 4468, Churchtown, Dublin 14, Ireland or info@anuna.ie to confirm the authenticity. You may also call +353 1 2835533
Please note that this Certificate does not allow the purchaser to lend or hire this permission to any third party, nor does it allow for the recording in any medium of the pieces listed above without the authority of the copyright holder.

169

Agnus Dei
Tenor Solo

5 Vb 4 "

Freely

q! # P
A U - ain D,

Michael McGlynn

.
3

"

#
A U - ain

D,

a th - gas pea - ca an domhain,

.
3

a th - gas pea - ca an domhain,

# .
A U - ain

S1

&b
4

"
U

3 4 J

TSolo

Vb Vb ? b

D,

.
3

a th - gas

pea- ca an domhain,

dan

w F 3 . . U 5 . 3 # 4 4
Oh
3

5 4

S1 & 2 together until bar 13

# .
A U - ain

tr - cai - re or - ainn;

" "

3 4 3 4

" "

A U - ain

D,

a th - gas pea - ca an domhain,

5 4 w

B2

P 5 w 4 w
Oh Oh

6 4
no breath

S1

&b
7

TSolo

Vb

D,

.
3

a th - gas pea - ca an domhain,

# .
3

A U - ain

D,

a th - gas

pea-ca an domhain,

U 6 5 . # 4 J 4 . 3
dan tr - cai - re or - ainn; A U - ain

. w u

5 4

Vb w ?
10

..
3

w b w ..
U

6 . 4 w u 6 . 4 w .
3

5 4
U

B2

. .
U

5 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

S1

5 &b 4 w 5 . Vb 4
D,

TSolo

a th-gas pea-ca an domhain,

# .
3

A U-ain D,

a th-gas

pea-ca an domhain,

A U- ain

D,

a th-gas pea ca an domhain, tabhair

5 Vb 4 w ? 5 . b 4 .

w ..
Warner Chappell Music U.K. 2006

w # n n. b .

B2

170
3 &b 4 .
13

S1

. .

A1

3 &b 4

TSolo

3 V b 4 . J 3 V b 4 . ? 3 b 4 ? 3 . b 4 b . !

d-inn s- och-in, tabhair

d- inn s -och-in, tabhair

. J .

6 4 w .. oo p 6 4 w. oo p 6 4 6 4 n p6 w. 4
A

Steadily

q" .

. .

!. . . !

b. . !

. .

d - inn s - och - in.


gnus De - i, A

j n . j b . . j
gnus De - i qui tol - lis pec - cca - ta qui

B1

w w

! !

oo

B2

..

6 4 w. w.
oo

S1

& b b.
18

. ! .

Nw.
A

S2

&b & b .

N. p
oo

#
-

gnus De

n
i

b.
A

A - gnus

. . . .

! b.
De

. .

. . !

. .

gnus

.
i

A1

. w.

.
A

gnus

De

.
i

j V b b .
tol -

b.
A

lis pec - cca - ta mun - di,

B2

n
A gnus De - i

n . J
A gnus De - i

qui

tol - lis

p b . J
gnus pec - cca - ta

b.
De -

.
i

qui

tol - lis pec - cca - ta mun -

b . J

Please note - it is possible to end this piece at the end of bar 13. If the intention is to do this, then please note the following: At bar 13, the S1 lower part should continue singing a D [as per S1] . T should continue holding the G as per bar 12, and not sing the Tenor figure that starts at bar 13. All parts should hold that bar as if it were a final one, except the T solo.

171
S1

& b N . j N . j b
23

mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re no

bis, A - gnus De - i,

- - - . . p !

w.
A

.
poco rit

De -

S2

& b N . j b N . j b
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no -

bis,

A1

& b . j n b
mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re no

. n j
-

bis,

V b . n J b
mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re no

b n n. . n J
-

A p p
A

gnus De - i,

gnus De - i,

poco rit

gnus De - i,

gnus De - i,

bis,

n
gnus De - i,

n
A gnus De - i

poco rit

B1

? ?

b b

mi - se - re - re no - bis,

. b b J

! b b .. n .. A b J
mi - se - re - re no -

!
gnus De - i,

poco rit

B2

w .
di,

p
A

A -


gnus De - i,

bis,

poco rit

S1

& b w.
28

Slower

q""

w.
i

w.
A -

.
gnus

De

b
i

S2

& b .
oo

. .

. .
A -

. .

b. b.
tol -

. . b
-

b. .

. .
mun -

F
De

w.
A

A1

&b

oo

TSolo

Vb

V b n
A gnus De - i

A P

,
gnus De - i

,
gnus De - i

lis

b
ta

F N
A gnus De - i, di,

gnus De - i,

qui

pec - cca

n
A -

gnus De - i

b.

F n
A gnus De - i

B1

?b ? b w.
oo

! w.

qui

tol - lis

b . J
pec - cca - ta

b
tol - lis

F w .
A

gnus De - i

qui

pec-cca - ta mun - di,

B2

w.


A -

w. F
-

172
& b .
33

S1

.
i

. b.
tol

pec - cca - ta

.
mun -

.
di,

q! 9 6 4 b 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no bis,

S2

&b
A

gnus De - i,

b.
-

.
ta

lis

pec - cca

9 6 4 b 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no bis,

A1

&b
A

TSolo

Vb

A -

b J
gnus De - i qui tol -

gnus De - i,

tol

lis

pec - cca

b.

lis

pec - cca

b 9 4
ta mun di,

ta

9 6 4 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no bis,

"

6 4

V b n .
A gnus De - i

qui

j b.
tol

lis

.
-

.
ta

pec - cca

9 6 4 4 6 9 b n b 4 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no bis, mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no bis,

B2

b w.

w.
gnus

De

.
i

S1

6 &b 4
37

mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re

no

# 3 4 b
bis, mi - se -

re

re

6 4 w. # 6 4 .
oo

" .
,

S2

6 &b 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re

no

b .
-

bis,

3 4 . 3 4 . 3 4 3 4 . 3 . 4 b. "

A1

6 &b 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis,

mi - se - re - re

no

.
-

bis,

TSolo

6 Vb 4

"

" b n .
-

# 6 4 . . oo # 6 4 6 4 .
oo

.
,

. .

6 Vb 4
mi - se - re - re no - bis,


A gnus De - i

gnus De - i

mi - se - re - re

no

bis,

B2

? 6 b .. n b 4 b
mi - se - re - re no - bis, mi - se - re - re no -

bis,

# 6 w. 4 #
oo

. w.

.
,

173
&b
42

Floating

S1

q!!
gnus De - i

A -

tol -

gnus De

b
lis

b
ta

pec - cca

mun


di, A

b
gnus De - i

S2

&b
A

b b
gnus De - i

N
A -

b b
gnus De i

b
tol -

b b
lis

pec - cca

ta

mun

N b
di, A gnus De - i

A1

&b
A

TSolo

Vb

A -


gnus De - i

gnus

De - i

,
A

A -

b
gnus De i

b J
gnus De i

qui

b b
tol -

b b
lis

lis

pec - cca - ta

b b

A -

n
ta mun di, A

mun - di,

b b
gnus De - i gnus De - i

qui

tol

pec - cca

V b n b b n n
A gnus De i, A -

b
tol -

b
lis pec - cca


ta

n b b
mun di, A gnus De i,

gnus De

B2

? b
A

gnus De - i

gnus De

Oh

..

..

..

..

gnus De - i

b b 6 4

S1

&b
47

n
A -

b
gnus De i

Crescendo Poco a Poco


-

tol

b
lis

b
ta

pec - cca

mun

5 4
di,

b
nus De - i, Ag -

S2

&b
A

gnus De

qui

b b
tol -

lis

pec - cca - ta

b b

mun - di,

A1

& b n
A

b b
gnus De i

b
tol -

TSolo

Vb

A -

b b J
gnus De i qui

b b
lis

pec - cca

tol

lis

pec - cca

n 5 4
ta mun di,

ta

mun

f 5 N 4 b
di,

f 5 N 4

Ag

nus De - i

Ag

6 b 4
nus De - i, Ag nus De - i

Ag

6 b b 4
nus De - i, Ag nus De - i

"

"

6 4

V b n n
A -

b
tol -

b
lis pec - cca


ta

gnus De

mun

5 N b b 6 4 4
di,

B2

b
A

gnus De

Oh

..

. .

..

. .

no breath

f 5 w 4 w f

Ag

nus De - i,

Ag

nus De - i

"

6 4

174
6 w. &b 4
52

S1

S2

p 6 & b 4 n 6 &b 4 N p

do

3 . 4
-

6 w. 4
na

3 . 4
na

6 4 6 n 4 6 4 N 6 4

na

do

no - bis

4 3 3 4 3 4 3 4

na


no - bis

do

3 b 4 3 4 b

b
cem,

pa

6 n 4 6 4 N


no - bis

do

3 b 4 3 4 b 3 4 3 b 4
-

b
cem,

cem,

, ,

pa

pa

do - na

A1

p 6 Vb 4

do

na

no - bis

pa

cem,

do

na

no - bis

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

do - na

B1

no - bis pa p ?b 4 6 do - na do

3 . 4 3 b 4
-

6 4 J 6 4
do na no - bis cem, do - na no - bis


do - na no - bis

pa

cem,

- cem,

cem,

B2

? 6 w. b 4
pa

na

no - bis

pa

pa

6 4 3 4
do na no - bis pa -

S1

3 &b 4
57

3 4 b
-

cem.

6 4 w.
pa

3 4 b
-

cem.

6 4 w.
pa

3 4 6 4 6 4 6 4 6 4

pa

cem,

6 4 6 n 4
-

na


do - na

do

3 4 3 b 4 3 4 b

b
pa -

6 n 4 6 4


no - bis

cem,

S2

3 b &b 4 3 &b 4 b

b
pa

cem,

, ,


do - na


pa -

do - na

3 4 3 b 4

b
cem,

pa

n
no - bis

b
cem,

no - bis

no - bis

cem,

A1

no - bis

pa

6 4 N
-

cem,

do - na

no - bis

b b

pa

6 n 4 6 4

do - na

pa

cem,

do - na

no - bis

3 4 b

pa

cem,

3 Vb 4 ?b 4 3 b

pa

cem,

6 4


do - na no - bis

3 4 3 b 4

n
pa -

w
-

B1

cem,

6 4
do na no - bis

pa

cem,

cem,

pa

6 4
do -

na


pa -

3 . 4 3 b 4
-

cem.

cem,

no - bis

6 4 6 4

B2

?b 4 3 b

cem.

6 w. 4
pa

3 b 4
-

cem.

6 w. 4
pa

3 4
-

cem,

175
6 n &b 4
62

S1


na no - bis pa -

do

3 4
-

- cem,

6 .. w . 4
pa

With Stillness
-

S2

6 &b 4 6 n &b 4

n
na no - bis pa -

do

3 b 4
-

b
- cem,

! 6 .. n 4 6 .. 4 N
do - na no - bis

3 . 4 3 b 4 3 4 b 3 4 3 b 4
-

cem,

6 n w. 4
pa

3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4 3 4

A1

do

na

N
no - bis

pa

3 4 b
-

- cem,

b
cem,

do - na

no - bis

pa

6 . 4
do

na

. ..

6 Vb 4 J
do - na

B1

?b 4 6
do na no - bis

no - bis

3 4 3 b 4
-

pa

cem,

! 6 . 4 . ! 6 . 4 .
do - na no - bis

pa

cem,

6 4 N ..
do

na

pa

- cem,

6 4
do - na no - bis

pa

- cem,

- cem,

pa

B2

? 6 w. b 4
pa

3 4
-

cem,

6 4 .. w . . !
pa

!
do

na

no - bis

pa

6 . 4
do

.
na

3 4 .

cem,

6 4
do -

na

S1

3 b &b 4
67

b
cem,

6 . 4
pa

cem,

3 . 4
pa

6 n w. 4
-

cem.

S2

3 &b 4 3 &b 4 b 3 Vb 4 ?b 4 3 b ?b 4 3 b

pa

cem,

6 n 4 6 4 N 6 4 6 4


na


pa

do - na

no - bis

3 b 4 3 4 b 3 4 3 b 4
-

b
cem,

pa

6 . 4
do

na

. .. .
pa -

A1

pa

cem,

do - na

no - bis

pa

cem,

6 4 N ..
do

na

cem,

do - na

no - bis

B1

cem,

cem,

6 4 6 . 4
do

do - na

no - bis

3 4 3 4

cem,

pa

do

no - bis

pa

na

B2

cem.

pa

6 w. 4
pa

3 . 4

cem,

6 4

do -

na

3 4

176
3 b &b 4
71

S1

b
cem,

pa

6 n w. 4
,
pa

3 b 4
-

b
cem.

6 nw. .. 4
pa

c b
-

b
cem.

S2

3 &b 4 3 & b 4 b 3 Vb 4 ? 3 b b 4 ? 3 b b 4

pa

cem,

6 4 .
do

na

. ..

3 4 3 4 b 3 4 3 b 4 3 b 4
-

pa

cem,

6 . .. 4
do

na

. ..

c c b

pa

cem,

A1

pa

cem,

6 4 N ..
do

na

pa

cem,

6 .. 4 N ..
do

na

pa

cem,

cem,

6 4 6 4 .
do


do - na no - bis pa -

cem,

6 .. 4 6 . .. 4
do


do - na no - bis pa -

c c b c b
pa -

cem,

B1

cem,

.
na

cem,

.
na

pa

B2

cem.

pa

6 4
do -

pa

cem.

na

pa

6 .. 4
do -

cem,

na

pa

cem.

S1

& b b
76

b
cem,

b
pa -

b
cem,

b
pa -

b
cem,

b
pa -

b
cem,

pa

S2

&b & b b Vb ? b b ? b b

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

A1

pa

cem,

b b b

pa

cem,

b b b

pa

cem,

b b b

pa

cem,

b
u U

A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, dan trcaire orainn; A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, dan trcaire orainn; A Uain D, a thgas peaca an domhain, tabhair dinn sochin. Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, have mercy on us; Lamb of God, who takes away the sins of the world, grant us peace.

pa

cem.

B1

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

U
cem,

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

pa

cem,

pa

B2

U
cem.

Completed May 2006

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

pa

cem.

pa

Commissioned by Chanticleer, San Francisco, CA in 2005 From "And on earth Peace : A Chanticleer Mass"

177

Cormacus Scripsit
Soprano

b q ! &b b
1

As Atmospherically as Possible

! ! ! . .
-

! ! !
3

! ! !

Cormac, c.1150, arramged Michael McGlynn

! ! !

! ! !

Mz. Sop.

b &b b
1

! ! !

Alto

b &b b b Vb b ? bb w b !

Tenor

Bass

F w
Cor

ma - cus Scrip - sit

hoc psal - ter - i - um

w
Cor

Cor

w
-

MzS.

b &b b
7

F
Cor

ma - cus Scrip - sit

!
3
ma - cus Scrip - sit

! . . . .

! ..
-

!
3

!
3

T.

b V b b . ? b w b b b &b b
13

ma - cus Scrip - sit

Cor

B.

Cor

f w w !

ma - cus Scrip - sit

w w

ma - cus Scrip - sit

MzS.

!
i

!
3

!
3

nnn nnn nnn

T.

b Vb b

hoc

psal

- ter

um

w w

Cor

. .
-

ma

cus

Scrip

sit

B.

? b w b b w

Cor

w w

ma

cus

Scrip

sit

178
n &nn
17

MzS.

! ! p
Fig. 1 Oh Fig. 1

A.

n &nn n Vn n w w ? nn w n w p
Oh

Cor - ma - cus Scrip - sit hoc psal - ter - i - um

U U U

T.

B.

Oh

o - ra

pro

e - o

! !

! !

! !

! !

.
Oh

Continue Fig. 1 with each singer singing the figure seperately, until *

S.

& &

22

! ! ,

! !
o - ra

! !

3 ,

solo

Cor - ma

cus

Scrip

sit

hoc


psal ter -

i - um

22

MzS.

!
U

A.

&
qui le - gis

hec

pro - ce

se

qua - li - bet

ho - ra

W
Hold until *

S.

&
26 o - ra pro e o

qui

, 3 3 3
le gis hec o ra pro-ce - se qua - li - bet ho ra

MzS.

&

26

179

S.

& &

28

tutti


ma cus


Scrip -


sit

hoc


psal - ter -

i -

um


o - ra

Cor

28

MzS.

A.

F &
Cor

ma -

cus

.
Scrip -

.
sit


hoc psal - ter -

i -

um

o - ra

T.

F V W
Cor

ma

cus

Scrip

sit

. .


hoc psal - ter -

i -

um

o - ra

B.

f ? W W f
Oh* Oh*

W W W

Slide between notes

. .

*There must be no discernible breaths between notes in this section

S.

& .
32 pro 32

qui


le gis


hec


o -


ra pro - ce se

MzS.

&
pro e -

qui

le

gis

.
hec

.
o -


ra pro - ce -

se

A.

&

pro

.
o

qui

le

gis

hec

.
o


ra pro - ce -

se

T.

V W ? W W

W W W

. ..

w w w

B.

180
&
36

S.

qua -

li -


bet

ho

ra

w w

MzS.

& & V ?

36

li -

qua

bet


ho -

ra

p w
oo

w w w b. w
-

A.

li -

qua

bet

ho

ra

p w
oo oo

T.

W W W

p . w
Cor

B.

p w w
oo

p w w w . . w w w w w bb ..
-

oo

w w

S.

&w &w &w V w


3
ma - cus Scrip - sit 40

40

w w w .. w w

! ! bb ! 3 ! w w ! w w

mm

w w w

MzS.

mm

A.

mm

T.

Cor

ma - cus Scrip - sit

. . w w

B.

?w w

w w

mm

181

Dlamn
Tenor

# 7 V # 8 j
1

qk!

Fast and Very Rhythmically

solo

F
A

'n - on mh - n

7 6 6 8 8 8
sin a nall na fir shuir - , A mha - thair mh - n cuir na

Michael McGlynn

roi - th - len go dt m

# tutti V # .. 7 8 6 8 j
6

BI

farr- aig- e F ? # # .. 7 8 6 8 j Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 7 8
bu Gae lach,

B II

F ? # # .. 7 6 j 8 8 F
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e dl - a - mn solo

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

dl - a - mn

na

n .. 7 8
binn - e bu Gae lach,

na

n .. 7 8
binn - e bu Gae lach,

# V # 7 8 6 8 7 8 5 8 6 8
10

Rach - aidh m chun 'lir leis a'

dl - a - mn Gael - lach

ceann - dh br - ga daor' ar - sa

dl - a - mn Gael - ach

# 6 7 6 V # 8 .. 8 8 j
14

tutti

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 7 8
bu Gae lach,

BI

? # # 6 .. 7 6 8 8 8 J
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 7 8
bu Gae lach,

B II

? ## 6 8 .. 7 8 6 8 j
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e dl - a - mn solo

na

n .. 7 8
binn - e bu Gae lach,

# V # 7 8 6 8 7 8 5 8 6 8
18

Br - ga bre - tha dubh' ar

a'

dl - a - mn Gae

lach

bair - ad ag - us tris ar

a'

dl - a - mn Gae - lach

2
tutti # V # 6 8 .. 7 8 6 8 j
22

182
.. 11 8
bu Gae lach,

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

BI

? ## 6 8 .. 7 8 6 8 J
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 11 8
bu Gae lach,

B II

? ## 6 8 .. 7 8 6 8 j
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e dl - a - mn
26

na

n .. 11 8
binn - e bu Gae lach,

# 10 .. 6 V # 11 8 .. 8 8 .. 7 8 10 ? # # 11 8 .. 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae lach, Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

BI

B II

? # # 11 8 .. 10 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

. 7 .. 6 8 J 8 .
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

p p p

Dl - a - mn

na

binn - e bu,

dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

j .. 6 8 .. 7 8
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

# j V # 7 8 6 8
29

BI

? ## 7 8 6 8 J j ? ## 7 8 6 8 n
dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e, dl - a - mn dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e, dl - a - mn

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

. 11 10 . 8 8 10 .. 11 8 8
bu Gae - lach, Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu,

na

binn - e

B II

na

binn - e

11 . 10 8 . 8
bu Gae - lach, Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, bu Gae - lach,

Dl - a - mn

na binn - e bu,

183
T

# 10 11 solo j 7 V # 8 8 8
33

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach,

Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu,

dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae - lach, A

BI

? # # 10 8 ? # # 10 8
36

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach,

11 8 J J J J J J J J
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae - lach,

7 8 J j 7 8

B II

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach,

j j j j 11 8 J J J J
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae - lach,

# V # 7 8 6 8 7 8 6 8
'n - on mh - n sin a nall na fir shuir - , A mha - thair mh - n cuir na roi - th - len go dt

# tutti V # ..
40

Dl

BI

? # # .. ? # # ..
43

p p p

a - mn,

dl

a - mn,

7 8 7 8 7 8

dl - a - mn

na

binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

6 8 6 8 6 8

dl - a - mn

j j j

na

Dl

a - mn,

dl

a - mn,

dl - a - mn

na

binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

dl - a - mn

na

B II

dl -

na

Dl

a - mn,

a - mn,

dl - a - mn

binn - e bu, farr- aig- e

dl - a - mn

na

# 1. V # .. 7 8 j j j J
binn - e bu Gae lach, binn - e bu

Gae

j j solo j ..
lach, T

BI

j j j j ? # # n .. 7 8 n J
binn - e bu Gae lach, binn - e bu Gae -

lach,

J J

cea - nn

bu

()

ir

ar

'a

6 8 6 8 6 8 6 8

.. ..

! ! 5 8

B II

j j j j ? # # n .. 7 8 n J
binn - e bu Gae lach, binn - e bu Gae -

lach,

# V # 6 8
46

dl - a - mn

Gae - lach,

7 8

()

mhaol'

ar

a'

dh

chlu - ais

dl

a - mn

Maor - ach

184
4
T
tutti # V # 6 8 ..
49

BI

F ? ## 6 8 .. F ? ## 6 8 ..
53

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

7 8 7 8 7 8

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

6 8 j
dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 11 8
bu Gae lach,

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

6 8 J
dl - a - mn

na

binn - e

.. 11 8
bu Gae lach,

B II

Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

# 10 .. 6 .. 7 6 V # 11 8 .. 8 8 8 8 ? # # 11 .. 10 8 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a- mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach, Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

6 8 j
dl - a - mn

na

n .. 11 8
binn - e bu Gae lach,

BI

B II

? # # 11 8 .. 10 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach,

6 .. 7 .. 6 8 8 J 8
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn,

p p p

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

# V # 6 8
57

Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu,

dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae - lach,

j .. 6 8 .. 7 8 6 8
Dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, farr- aig- e,

j
na

bu

Gae

lach,

dl

a - mn

binn - e

.. 11 8

a -

mn

na


binn - e bu,

BI

? ## 6 8 ? ## 6 n 8
60

dl

a - mn

na

bu

Gae

lach,

binn - e

.. 11 8
Dl

10 8 10 8 10 8

a -

mn

na


binn - e bu,

B II

j
na

dl

a - mn

binn - e

bu

Gae

lach,

.. 11 8
Dl

a -

mn

na


binn - e bu,

# 10 V # 10 8 11 8 8
dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae lach, Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e bu Gae -

Dl

lach,

BI

? # # 10 8
dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

10 11 8 J 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

B II

? # # 10 8
dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

j 11 10 8 8
Dl - a - mn na binn - e bu, dl - a - mn na binn - e

bu Gae

lach,

185
Score

Incantations
Michael McGlynn

Soprano 1

6 &8 6 &8 &6 8 &6 8

Fast qk

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! ! !

! ! . Tu -sa an dmh, P .
Tu -sa an dmh,

! ! . .

! ! . .

Soprano 2

Alto 1

Tu- sa an

an,

Tu -sa an tiasc,

Alto 2

Tenor

V6 8 .
Ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Tu- sa an

an,

Tu -sa an tiasc,

Bass

?6 8

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

.
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l,


ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l,

S1

& & & # & #

! !

Ail - i - l,

S2

ail - i - l,

. . .

ail - i - l,

. .

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Tu - sa an ghrian,

Tu -sa an ghaoth,

A1

ail - i

l.

F p p

Tu -sa an fuacht,

Tu - sa an mhuir,

#
ail - i

. ! ! !

l.

ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,


ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

. . .. .

A2

ail - i

l.

ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,


ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

V .
ail - i - l,

?
Ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

.. .


Ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

"

"
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

1989 Michael McGlynn

Incantations

186
b . . . . .

13

S1

& b .
Tu - sa an

ralt,

Tu -sa an spir,

. ! !

ail -

l.

Tu -sa an far,

Tu - sa an

blth,

Tu -sa na crainn,

A1

& &

! !

! !

ail - i - l,

A2

. "

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

. V . ? ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

" ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

. .

ail - i - l,

"

ail - i - l,

"

" ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

. . ail - i - l, " . .

ail - i - l,

"

"
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

19

S1

& &

ail

l.

! .
os -

! .

ail


i - l

.
chro,

! ! ! !

mo

S2

! . .

A1

& &

F
Ail


i - l

! ! ! . . . .

! ! !

mo

a,

ail


i - l

mo

! !

! ! . .

! !

! ! . . . .

! !

ail - i - l,

A2

. V . ? ..
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

P . P

ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

ail - i - l, ail -i - l,

Incantations

187
3

28

S2

& . & &

Thiar

na,

! . .

! . .

! ! !

! . ail - i - l, P
ail - i - l,

! . .

A1

! !

A2

V ?

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l mo F . . . .

ail - i - l mo F

Chrost.

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Chrost.

. . . .

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

" .
Thiar

" .
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

. P .. .
Tu

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Tu

F ..

. b .
sa

sa

#. .
an

an

..

36

S1

& &

! !

. F
ail -

.
i -

#.
l

.
mo

.
na,

! . .
i -

! #.
l

! .
mo

S2

.
Chrost.

ail

A1

&
ail -i -l,

ail-i -l,

ail -i -l,

ail -i -l,

ail -i -l,

ail -i -l,

ail -i -l,

A2

& .
ail -i - l,

ail -i - l,

. . . .

ail -i - l,

ail -i - l,

ail -i - l,

. .. ..

ail -i - l,

. . . .

ail -i - l,

.. V ? . .

dmh,

Tu

dmh,

Tu

. b.
sa

sa

# . .
an

an,

Tu

an

..

an,

Tu

. b.
sa

sa

4
43

Incantations

188
. #.
l

S1

. &
ail

.
i -

#.
l

. #.
l mo

.
Thiar

.
na,

.
ail

. #.
l mo

.
Chrost.

! .
Chrost.

S2

. &
ail

.
i

.
-

.
ail

.
i

! ! ! ! !

mo

Thiar

na,

mo

A1

& & .
ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

.. ..

A2

ail - i - l,

. .. ..

ail - i - l,

. . ..

Ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

. V # .
an

tiasc,

Tu

? . .
an
50

tiasc,

Tu

. b .
sa

sa

# . .
an

Chrost.

an

..

Chrost.

V
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, p ? b b ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, ail - i - l, p
58

b #
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

b b
ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

S1

& & &

! !
i -

! !
l

! ! .
Thiar -

ail

S2

A1

A2

P &
ail ail

mo

na,

. .

P
ail

P
i i

mo

.
chro,

Ail

i-

mo

.
chro,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

P V
i l

.
Thiar -

P P
i

Tu - sa an ghaoth,

. .

"

ail - i - l,

. .

Tu - sa an fuacht,

mo

na,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

Tu - sa an ghaoth,

Tu - sa an fuacht,

" ?
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

# b
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail

l,

ail - i - l,

b b b

ail - i - l,

"

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

b b
ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail

l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

Incantations
65

189
5

S1

&

mo

. .

Thiar - na,

S2

&
ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail

A1

& .
Tu - sa

an mhuir,

# # . . .

ail - i - l.

A2

& .
Tu - sa

. !

b.
i

. . . . ..

#. . #. . .. .

mo

Chrost:

b. .

an mhuir,

ail - i - l.

V ?
71

ail

l,

. ! .. !

.. .

ail

l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

S1

& & & & V ? .


ail - i - l, P ail - i - l, P

Crescendo molto, senza rit.

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,


ail - i - l, ail - i - l,


ail - i - l

ail - i - l,

S2


ail - i - l, ail - i - l,


ail - i - l

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

A1

" " "

A2

F
ail - i - l, ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l

F "

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l

'S Tusa an dmh, 's Tusa an an, 's Tusa an t-iasc, ailil. 'S Tusa an ghaoth, 's Tusa an fuacht, 's Tusa an mhuir, ailil. 'S Tusa an ghrian, 's Tusa an ralt, 's Tusa an spir, ailil. Ailil mo osa, ailil mo chro, ailil mo Thiarna, ailil mo Chrost. You are the stag, You are the bird, You are the fish, alleluia You are the wind, You are the cold, You are the sea, alleluia You are the sun, You are the star, You are the sky, alleluia Alleluia my Jesus, alleluia my heart, alleluia my Lord, alleluia my Christ.

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l,

ail - i - l

www.michaelmcglynn.com

190

Score

Invocation
## & # c & & V ### ### ###
With Feeling q

Soprano

! .
3

w p
Ail -

Michael McGlynn

i,

Soprano

c c w

Ail

w
-

i,

Ail

Ail

w
-

i,

Alto

Tenor

Bass

p ? ### c w w p

p c w

oo

Ail

i,
3

oo

Ail - i,

. ..

oo

w w

Ail

i,

w w

oo

Ail

w
-

w w

i,

oo

w w

oo

oo

w w

Ail-

oo

## & # .
3

&

###

Ail

.. w ..

## V # V ###

oo

Ail - i,

! w
i,

w oo " ..
Ail

"

oo

. .

w w

oo

. .


Ail-

. ..

P .. w " .. w "
oo

m 3 J

.
nEr enn,


Ail -

oo

i iath

m . J
3

. .

w w

? ### w w

oo

. .

oo

oo

oo

1993 Michael McGlynn

2
13

Invocation

191
.
3

Sop.

## & #

! ..

! ! . .
3

! w w

## & # . & ###


Ail -

Ail

P ..
Ail i

In

Alto

! w

## & # w V ###
-

P
Ail

.
-

spi

rat

Ail

## V # w ? ### w

m 3 J
-


Ail -

Ail

i iath

nEr - enn,

m . J
i
3

From the

breeze on the moun tain, to the

# n In spi - rat p j .. p p
spi -

Ail

. .

Ail

w w

. .

rat

In

spi -

rat

Ail

Ail

In

18

## & # ## & #

om

ni

#
a

vi

vi

fi - cat

om - ni - a

su

pe

rat

3 ## V #

om

ni

vi

vi

fi - cat

om - ni - a

su

###

lake

of

deep pools;


vi -


wa -ter -fall

from the

down

to the

sea;

ne ver

chan ging

or end - ing

j J

pe

rat

on the

? ###

om

ni

vi

vi

fi - cat

om - ni - a

su

pe

rat

ni -

om

ni

vi

fi - cat

om - ni - a

om

Invocation

192
3

22

Sop.

## & # & & ### ###

#
a

Ah

w n

.. n n n b b

om

ni

su

fful

3 ## V #

om

ni

su

## V # ? ###

voice of

the wind

sing the

dark song

of Er - enn

j J

fful

P nnb .. n b n cit om - ni - a Ail P j .. n n n b b .


cit om - ni - a Ail to me.

n .. n n b b
i

iath

om

ni

su

fful

cit

om - ni - a

F .. n n n b b
Ail Ail

iath m 3 J
-

i iath

.
a

om

ni - a

P .. n n n b b P
Ail


i iath


i iath

26

Sop.

&b

b
Ail -

P b b & &b b
nEr

. .
3

.. . .

Ail

iath

Alto

enn

!
Ail -

Ail

w w

b &b nEr - enn P b . Vb b Vb


nEr
3

F w w
Ail Ail

P
Ail

iath

enn,

m J
3

P
Ail Ail i Ail -

m 3 J
iath i

iath

P ? bb
nEr nEr

enn

w
Ail -

.
i

enn

w
Ail -

P
Ail

iath

P
Ail

iath

Invocation

193

30

Sop.

b &b b &b &b b


enn

3
Ail -

Ail

3 . 3 6 U 4 w.

nEr

Ail

w w

6 U w 4 w ..
i

Alto

! w w

6 4
Ail

,
-

U
i

b &b

b . Vb b Vb ? bb
nEr
3

nEr

enn

Ail -

Ail

m
3

6 4
-

P
U
i

enn,

6 4 J
-

w.


Ail -

enn

w
Ail -

nEr

6 4 w. 6 U w. 4
i i

enn

w
Ail -

nEr

194

Island
Soprano 1

Sop2/Alto

Tenor

& c .. w mm p & c .. w mm p V c .. w
mm

Rhythmically

w w w "

135

Michael McGlynn

w w w " "

w w w " #

.. ..

w w

w w w b
On an

w w w
land

T or S Solo

V c .. & c ..

.. w .. .. ..

Harp

? c ..

# b b ! b b


I long

to

is

S1

& w & w V w
8

w w w

w w w

w w w

w w w
I

w w w

w w w

S 2/A

Solo

. V
8

be,

gaz - ing out

b . . J J b b

up - on the shin-ing

sur-face of the sea.

hear the sound of the

b b . J b b

o-cean wave on

& #
8

Hp.

Copyright Warner Chappell U.K. 1996

195
15

S1

& &
15

w w

w w w #

w w w
who

w w w b
have

w w w .

w w w . #
from

As-cnam tar tuinn p p w w


home". As-cnam tar tuinn

S 2/A

V w V # .
15

Solo

wave,

cry - ing

"You,

turned

a - way

15

&
Hp.

S1

&w
22

, , ! ! b

to - pur ndl - enn

! #

w ww w !

do - chum nir - enn

b ww
oo

ww w w ww

ww w w ww

ww w w ww

S 2/A

& ww
22

to - pur ndl - enn

bw w b ww

oo

V ?
22

to - pur ndl - enn

oo oo

De - us

&
Hp.

p o

w bw b
cae - li

bw b bw b
ma - ris

ac ter - rae,

! !

et

flu - min - um

! !

196
& n ..
29

S1

De - us

so - lis

.. . . !

ac

lu

nae.

ww w w

n ..
De - us

so - lis

.. . .
land

ac

lu

S 2/A

& n .
De - us
29

V
29

. !

so - lis

ac

lu

nae.

n .
De - us

so - lis

ac

lu

De - us

so - lis

ac

lu

nae.

De - us

Solo

!
ac

!
nae.

b
On an

so - lis

ac

lu

. ? w
De - us oo
29

so - lis

. w

&
Hp.

! !

lu

w w

De - us

! ! ww w w

. w ! !


ac

lu

is

so - lis

. w

long

to -

! ! ww w w b w

? & ww
36

S1

nae.

oo

ww w w

ww w w

ww w w w
I

ww w w b . J w

S 2/A

& w V w
36 36

nae.

oo

Solo

. V ? w w
36

nae.

oo

live,

b
win-ter wind.

sea - birds

la - ment the com-ing of the

hear the end - less

sound of sea on

nae.

&
Hp.

w b b

w #

197
& ww
43

S1

ww w w w # # #

ww w w
who

ww w w w b
have

As-cnam tar tuinn

w ww !

, ,

to-pur ndl-enn

p w

S 2/A

& w V w
43

As-cnam tar tuinn

w . w
a

to-pur ndl-enn

to-pur ndl-enn

Solo

V #.
43

.
way

from

shore,

cry - ing

"You,

turned

home".

? w
43

w b

! # #

! b

&
Hp.

? &
50

b ww w w ww

ww w w ww

S1

do - chum

nir - enn

b ww

S 2/A

&w ww V w
50

P b ww
oo

P bw w
oo

ww w w ww ! ! b
cae - lo

9 bbbbb 4 9 bbbbb 4 9 bbbbb 4 9 bbbbb 4 b


cae - lo

Solo

V
50

! b

P
oo oo

!
su - per

! bw b
cae -

?
50

&
Hp.

P b

De - us

lo

bw
et in

w b
et

sub

9 bbbbb 4 9 bbbbb 4 9 bbbbb 4

! !

! !

! !

! !

198

S1

b 9 W & b bbb 4
55

Very Smooth...Chant-like even...

S 2/A

F b b b 9 10 n b & b 4 4 n
Ah

10 4 W

8 W 4 8 n n 4 nn
3

c c
e - is.

F b 9 10 V b bbb 4 4
Ha - bet ha - bit - a - cu - lum er - ga cae - lum et ter - ram et
55

ma - re

Et

om - ni - a quae sunt in
3

F ? bb b 4 9 10 4 b bb
Ha - bet ha - bit - a - cu - lum er - ga cae - lum et ter - ram et

ma - re

8 n 4
Et

om - ni - a quae sunt in
3

c
e - is.

Ha - bet ha - bit - a - cu - lum er - ga

cae - lum et ter - ram et

ma - re

8 n 4
Et

c
e - is.

om - ni - a quae sunt in

S1

b & b bbb c
58

tur

S 2/A

bb & b b b c bb
58

Non

se - per - an

6 . 4 6 .. 4 b .
Pa Pa

ter

Ah

7 4 W 7 4 7 4 7 4
li -

nnn nn c
us

b V b bbb c b
3 3 ? bb b c b bb

Non

se - per - an

tur


ter

et

Fi

li -

us

et

Spir - i - tus
3

nnn nn c nnn nn c nnn nn c

Non

se - per - an

tur

6 4 .
Pa

ter

et

Fi

us

et

Spir - i - tus
3

Non

se - per - an

tur

6 . 4
Pa

et

li -

ter

Fi

et

Spir - i - tus

199
.. & c n n
61

Getting Quieter

S1

Sanc - tus

Sanc - tus

.. .

Sanc - tus

.. .

Sanc - tus

.. .

Sanc

S 2/A

& c n
61

n . Vc .
Sanc - tus

Sanc - tus

Sanc - tus

.. ! w

Sanc - tus

.. ! w

Sanc - tus

.. ! w

Sanc

p ww p

p w

w w

tus

w w w

tus

ww
-

Sanc - tus

Sanc - tus

Sanc - tus

Sanc

Solo

Vc
61

tus

is -

land

On an

?c w &c
61

Hp.

F ?c J & w w
67

Sanc

w
-

w
tus

p #

S1

oo

w w w ww
to

w w w ww w # b

w w w ww
whis - per

w w w ww b
of the

w w w ww w # #
I

S 2/A

& w V ww
67 67

oo

oo

Solo

V
I

.
be,

3 w

long

even - ing brings a

sum - mer breeze.

? w
oo
67

w #

w b

&
Hp.

200
S1

& w w
73

w w w ww J b w b b b

w w w ww # . w #

w w w ww w # #

w w w ww
who

w w w ww w b b b
have

S 2/A

& w V ww
73 73

Solo

V . ? w
73

hear

the sound of the

o - cean wave

on

wave,

cry - ing

"You,

&
Hp.

?
79

S1

& w w & w w V w
79

w w w ww
a -

S 2/A

w As - cnam tar tuinn P P w


from As - cnam tar tuinn

, , !

to - pur ndl - enn

w ww w ! w

do - chum nir - enn

bbbb 7 4 bbbb 7 4 bbbb 7 4 bbbb 7 4 7 bbbb 4

ww

to - pur ndl - enn

Solo

V .
79

.
way

w
home".

w w b b

to - pur ndl - enn

turned

? w
79

w # #

w #

&
Hp.

bbbb 7 4 bbbb 7 4

201
b & b bb 7 4 ..
85

S1

S 2/A

F b & b bb 7 4 ..
In

spir - at om - ni - a

n n n

6 b n 7 b n 4 4
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a

suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

n .. .. n n

F bb 7 V b b 4 ..
In
85

Hp.

F ? bb b 7 . . b 4 W W F o w 85 b b 7 . b b . & 4 F ? bb b 7 b 4 ..
In -

6 b n n n n n n b n n 4 7 4 ..
spir - at om - ni - a vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

spir - at om - ni - a

6 7 4 b 4 b n n n n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a

suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

W W ! !

6 W 4 W 6 4

6 4

7 4 7 4

7 4 W W ! !

.. .. ..

S1

b ! & b bb
89

S 2/A

&
89

bbbb

In

spir - at om - ni - a

F Ah . n n n

W W 6 bW b n 4 n 7 4 n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

bb Vbb

In

In

6 b n n n n n n b n n 4 7 4
spir - at om - ni - a vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

spir - at om - ni - a

6 7 4 b 4 b n n n n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a

suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

n n

? bb b W b W
89

&
Hp.

bbbb

W W ! !

6 W 4 W 6 4

? bb b b

6 4

7 4 7 4

7 4 W W ! !

202
bb W &bb
93

S1

S 2/A

bb &bb b V b b b
93

In

spir - at om - ni - a

n n n

W 6 bW bW n 4 n 7 4 n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

In

In

n 6 b n n n n b n n 4 7 4 n
spir - at om - ni - a vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

spir - at om - ni - a

6 7 4 b 4 b n n n n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su - per - at om - ni - a

suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

n n

? bb b W b W b & b bb
93

W W ! !

6 W 4 W 6 4

Hp.

? bb bb b W & b bb
97

6 4

7 4 7 4

7 4 W W ! !

Fade Away...

S1

S 2/A

bb &bb bb Vbb
97

In

spir - at om - ni - a

W W w 6 bW n 7 n b n 4 4 n c w
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su- per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

In

In

w 6 b n n n n n n b n n 4 7 4 c w
spir - at om - ni - a vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su- per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

spir - at om - ni - a

6 7 n n n n b 4 b 4 c w w n n n n
vi - vi - fi - cat om - ni - a su- per - at om - ni - a suf - ful - cit om - ni - a

? bb W bb W b & b bb
97

Hp.

? bb b b

W W ! !

6 4 W W 6 4

" 6 4

7 4 7 4

7 W 4 W ! !

c w w c c ! !

203

Slowly, from a Distance q


Soprano I

b &b b 2 4
1

! ! !

San

Soprano II

b &b b 2 4 b &b b 2 4 b &b b 2 4


1

!
J

Michael McGlynn

Sanctus
ctus

3 4 .

2 4 2 4 2 4
-

! !

! !
-

Soprano III

. 3 4 . J San ctus p 3 ! ! 4 b
San

j b

Soprano/Alto

Tenor/Bass

oo " ? bb 2 b 4
oo


Do - mi - nus De


Do - mi - nus De

3 4

2 4

S. I

b &b b
8

! !

"

3 4 .
j b

2 4 !
sa bba -

us sa - bba - oth

S. II

b &b b b &b b b &b b


8

! ! p

! !

us sa - bba - oth

S. III

ctus

SA

Oh*

TB

? bb b

"Oh*" indicates a form of harmonic singing. Form the mouth into an "oh" shape, lifting the soft palate. Without moving the mouth-shape, move the tongue slowly into the shape "ee" [as "she"], sending the sound through the nose. The lower the voice the stronger the sound. S. I, II & III are all solo soprano parts. The three soloists should be placed throughout the venue. Harp is optional. Soprano II and III may be situated in various parts of the venue. This piece may be prefigured by a finger cymbal gently struck three times or more just as the drone starts, and ended with a similar cymbal figure as the piece ends.

Oh*

204
2
S. I

b &b b
15

! !

F
Ple -


ni sunt cae


ni sunt

S. II

b &b b b &b b b &b b


15

F
Ple

cae

J
li


ni sunt

et

j b


li,

ter - ra

S. III

j b

j b

F
Ple

cae

oth

SA

TB

? bb b b &b b
22

3 4
a

S. I


ri - a

glo

tu

S. II

b &b b


ri - a

dim.

glo

tu

3 4
a

p p p

. 2 4 J
san-na in ex - cel

. 2 4 J
san-na in ex - cel

S. III

b &b b b &b b
22

li,

dim.

tu

3 4
a

. 2 4 J
san-na in ex - cel

dim.

SA

3 4 3 4

TB

? b bb b &b b
22

! ! ! !

p
O

. 2 4 J 2 4 2 4
san-na in ex - cel

! !

Harp

3 4 3 4

!
Figure A

? bb
22

2 - 4 3

Gentle glissando with both hands

The note values and glissandi as indicated on the harp part are only a rough guide. The first note of Figure A must coincide with the word "Osanna" - at the end of Figure A the glissandi should diminuendo.

205

S. I

b &b b
29

sis

. j J
O - san-na in ex - cel

sis

j
O - san - na in

Becoming quieter

ex - cel

. J . J . J . J

S. II

b &b b b &b b b &b b


29

sis

. j J
O - san-na in ex - cel

sis

j
O - san - na in

ex - cel

S. III

sis

. j J
O - san-na in ex - cel

sis

j
O - san - na in

ex - cel

SA

TB

? bb b b &b b
29

sis

. j J
O - san-na in

ex - cel

Harp

? bb
29

-3

sis

j
O - san - na

in

ex - cel

-3

206

S. I

b &b b
36

no break

"
oo

sis no break

3 . 4 3 4 . 3 . 4 3 4 . . 3 4
-

4 w 4 4 4 w 4 w 4 4 4 w 4 4 w
Do-mi-nus De - us

S. II

b &b b b &b b b &b b


36

sis no break

S. III

"
oo

sis no break

SA

"
oo

TB

? bb b ? bb
36 36

sis

no break

Solo

" oo

"
oo

Freely - like UChant q


ctus


San

! ! 4 4 4 4
ra

Harp

b &b b ? bb
36 43

F
San

ctus San - ctus

! !

! !
ni sunt

! !

3 4 3 4

! ! ,

b ,
Ple

Solo

? bb U b
sa bba -


cae li, et ter -

oth

Solo

? bb . b
46


ri

glo

. U . J J
a tu - a O san na in ex cel -

207

S. I

b * . &b b 2 4
51

Strictly as Tempo I

S. II

b &b b 2 4 b &b b 2 4
51

F
O

J
san -

J
san na

. P
O -

na

! !

! !

. F
O -

S. III

!
it

.
O -

SA

b . &b b 2 4 J F ? bb 2 b 4 F ? bb w b
Be
51

ne

di - ctus

TB

qui


ven

F j . J
san in no

J
-

na

mi

ne

Do


mi

Solo

sis

Harp

b &b b 2 4
51 51

? bb 2 b 4 -

F3

As figure A

--

208
6
S. I

b &b b
58


san -

na


na

!
j b

! !
j b

.
San

S. II

b &b b

.
O -

S. III

P b b b j b & b &b b
58


san -


na

"

J
-

! !
-

! j
O - san

SA

ni.

TB

? b b b b &b b
58

P
O na,

san

j
O

Harp

? bb
58 65

P j b

-
j b


san

na

"
O

san

dim.

S. I

b &b b

- !
San -

A Little Slower

!
j b

ctus

ctus

S. II

S. III

b & b b . J " San b ! &b b b &b b


65


ctus

j b

! !

! !
no break

. "
San

J !


ctus

SA

TB

? b bb b &b b
65

na

"
oo

mm

Harp

glissando very gently to the end

? bb
65

209

'S do Mhaimeo
Traditional Irish Melody Arranged by: Michael McGlynn

Tenor

b Vb 6 8 . F . ? bb 6 8 F b &b V bb

Very Rhythmically qd = 100

'S do Mhaim-eo,

Bass

'S do Mhaim-eo,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim-eo,

. .

. .

'S do Mhaim-eo,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo,

'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo,

'S do Mhaim,

Solo

'S do

? bb .

'S do Mhaim - eo,

F .

Mhaim - eo

. .

'S

n
do Mhaim-eo

'S do Mhaim - eo

. .

. .

caill-each

an

air -[i]-gid;

caill-each

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

an

air-[i]-gid;

'S do Mhaim - eo,

caill-each

'S

do Mhaim-eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

an

air-[i]-gid;

'S

do Mhaim-eo,

Solo

b &b
'S do Mhaim-eo ,

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir , 'S

. .
do Mhaim-eo,

. . .
Ah

chuir-feadh s cis - t

j j . j j . . J J

'r

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

. .

b & b . . F b b V . .
'S do Mhaim-eo,

j j . . J J . J J

! ! ! !

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Ah

Ah

? b . . b

caill - each an

. .
do Mhaim-eo,

air - [i]-gid;

Ah

Ah

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Ah

1993

2
14

'S do Mhaimeo

210
.. b. . . J . . . .

Solo

&b

F b b & .
oo

'bhFeic - fe - sa'n "steam"

'ga'l


siar Tin U Loing',

'Sna

roth - a gh'l tim - peall

siar

- na ceath-rn - a[];

&b V

P
oo

. . . .

P ? bb .
oo
18

bb

P .

Solo

&b &b &b Vb

b b b

P
oo

Caith-feadh s'n sti - ir

. . . .

naoi nuair - 'ara 'cl,

'Sn

choinn-eodh s

sil

. .

Ah

. . .

j j . j j n . . J J . J J

le

j
caill-each an

air - [i] - gid


caill-each an air - [i] - gid

b .

Ah

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid

? bb .

Ah

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid

.
Ah

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid

211
'S do Mhaimeo

22

Solo

b &b b & b . & bb F .

'S do Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim - eo

n . . . .

j . . . .

'S do Mhaim - eo

caill-each

. . . .

an

air-[i] - gid;

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

F b V b . F ? bb . F
26

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo,

'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim -eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim - eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim -eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim - eo,

Solo

b &b

'S do Mhaim - eo ,

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

'S

chuir-feadh s cis - t 'r

. . . j j .

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

b & b .
'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo,

. . . .

. . . .

'S do Mhaim,

Ah

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

b & b . b V b . ? b . b
'S 'S 'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim-eo,

. . .

Ah

j j n . . J J . J J

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim-eo,

Ah

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

.
Ah

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim-eo,

bhith-re Chois Fharr-ai-ge.

'S do Mhaimeo

212
.. b. . . J . . . . j
dl - fadh s'n tair - [i] - gead.

30

Solo

&b &b &b Vb

b b b b

! ! ! ! !

'Meas-ann t 'bps - fa,

P
oo oo

F . .

. . . .

'meas-ann t 'bps - fa,

'Meas-ann t 'bps - fa

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid?

? b b
35

P .
oo

P .

Solo

b &b b & b . b & b . b V b . ? bb .

P
oo

T 'sa'm nach bps - fa',


Mar

'sa'm nach bps - fa'

t s r - g

. . .

. . . .

Ah

j j . j j n . . J J . J J

'gus

dl - fadh s'n tair - [i] - gead.

Ah

dl - fadh s'n tair - [i] - gead.

Ah

dl - fadh s'n tair - [i] - gead.

.
Ah

dl - fadh s'n tair - [i] - gead.

'S do Mhaimeo

213

39

Solo

b & b .. b & b .. . b & b .. . F b V b .. . F ? b .. . b F

'S do Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim - eo

n . . . .

'S do Mhaim - eo

. . . .

cailleach an

air-[i] - gid;

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . . . . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim-eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim-eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

43

Solo

b &b b &b ..
Oh

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim-eo,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim-eo,

'S do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir ,


'S

. . . .

chuir-feadh s cis - t

j j .

'r

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

.. . . .

Ah

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

&b

b V b .
Oh

Oh

Ah

j j . j j . j j .

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

Ah

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

? bb .
Oh

b.
Ah

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

'S do Mhaimeo

214
J . . . . .
Mhir

47

Solo

&b &b &b Vb

b ! b ! b ! b !

'Sgair-id

P
oo oo

F . .

go bps - fa',


'sgair-id

go bps - fa',

'Sgair-id

..

! ! ! ! . .

go bps - fa'

beirt ar an mbail-e seo;

. . . . . J
'sgair- id

P .
oo P . .

b. . . . J j

? b ! b
53

P
oo

Solo

&b &b &b Vb

b b b b

'Sgair-id

. . .

go bps - fa',

go bps - fa',

San ShaM - ais

oo

. . . . .

Ah

. . .

j j . j j n . . J J . J J

'gus

Mi - re

N Chath -as - aigh.

Mi - re

N Chath -as - aigh.

oo

Ah

Mi - re

N Chath -as - aigh.

oo

? bb

. .

Ah

Mi - re

N Chath -as - aigh.

.
Ah

Mi - re

N Chath -as - aigh.

'S do Mhaimeo

215

57

Solo

b &b
'S

do

Mhaim - eo

'S

n
do Mhaim-eo

'S

do Mhaim-eo

caill-each an

b &b
'S

b & b . V F ? bb .
'S 'S
61

do

Mhaim - eo

j
'S

air - [i] - gid;

do Mhaim-eo

'S

do Mhaim-eo

j j j

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid;

bb

F .
'S

Mhaim - eo

j j j
'S 'S 'S

do Mhaim-eo

j b j j . . . .
'S

do Mhaim-eo

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid;

Mhaim - eo

do Mhaim-eo

'S

do Mhaim-eo

Solo

b &b b &b b &b b Vb ? bb

Mhaim - eo

do Mhaim-eo

'S

do Mhaim-eo

j b
caill-each an

caill-each an

air - [i] - gid;

air - [i] - gid;

'S do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

'S

chuir-feadh s cis - t

j j .

'r

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

'S do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

. . . .

Ah

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

'S do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

Ah

'S do Mhaim-eo

j j .

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

Ah

j j! . j j .

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

'S do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

b.
Ah

bhith - re Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

'S do Mhaimeo

216
. . . . . . . .

65

Solo

b &b b & b . b & b . b V b . ? bb .

'S do Mhaim - eo

. . . .

'S do Mhaim - eo

n . . . .

'S do Mhaim - eo

. . . .

caill-each

an

air-[i] - gid;

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo

. . . .

'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

. . . .

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim,

'S

do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Mhaim - eo

'S do Mhaim, 'S do Mhaim,

'S

Mhaim - eo

69

Solo

b &b
'S

do Mhaim-eo

Bhail' Iorr - ais Mhir

'S

1.

chuir-feadh s

& &

bb bb

oo

P .

..

.. . . .


cis - t

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

chuir-feadh s


cis - t

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

P b V b .
oo oo


cis - t cis - t cis - t 'r

chuir-feadh s

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

P ? b . b
oo

chuir-feadh s

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

chuir-feadh s

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

217
'S do Mhaimeo
73

&b &b Vb

b b b

! ! ! !
2.

P
oo

. .

. . . . .

.. b. . . .

. . . . .

oo

. . .

. . . . .

.. b. . . .

. . . . .

.. .. .. ..

? b b
82

P . .
oo oo

P .
oo

oo

oo

Solo

b &b b &b b &b Vb

chuir-feadh


s cis - t

oo

. .

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

chuir-feadh


s cis - t

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

b
chuir-feadh s cis - t chuir-feadh


'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

? b b


s cis - t

cis - t

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

chuir-feadh

S do Mhaimeo , Bhail Iorrais Mhir , S chuir-feadh s cist r bhithre Chois Fharraige. bhFeicfesa n steam gal siar Tin U Loing, S na rotha ghl timpeall siar na ceathrna[]; Caithfeadh sn stiir naoi n-uairar a cl, S n choinneodh s sil le cailleach an air[i]gid Measann t bpsfa cailleach an air[i]gid? T s am nach bpsfa, t s am nach bpsfa Mar t s r-g gus dlfadh sn t-air[i]gead. S gairid go bpsfa beirt ar an mbaile seo; S gairid go bpsfa, s gairid go bpsfa, San Shamais Mhir agus Mire N Chathasaigh.

'r

bhith - re

Chois Fharr - ai - ge.

She is your granny, the hag with the money She is your granny from the town of Iorrais Mr, And she would put coaches on the roads of Cois Farraige If youd see the steam [steam boat] going past Tin U Loing And the wheels turning speedily at her flanks Shed scatter the store nine times to the rear, But she never keeps pace with the hag with the money. Do you reckon hed marry, the hag with the money I know hell not marry, I know hell not marry Because hes too young and hell drink the money. Well soon have a wedding, by two in the village Well soon have a wedding, well soon have a wedding, Between San Samais Mr and Mire N Chathasaigh. [Translation Julie Feeney]

218

Siil a Rin
Traditional Irish

Mezzo Sop.

& #

# 12 . 8

With Freedom qd = 105

j . . j j j . . .
U

Arranged by: Michael McGlynn

P
I

wish

was

on

yon - der

hill.

'Tis

there I'd

. .

. .

sit

and

MzS

&

cry

j j j . . .
U
my fill, and e -

very tear

would

j . j .
A little slower

turn

mill.

qk j 12 6 . 8 8

Rhythmically

P
I

MzS

&

S/A

# 12 . & 8 . . . . .
wish I sat

# 12 . . j 8 j . j . .
on my true love's knee

ma-ny a

. . .

fond sto - ry he

. J

told

j j .
to me. He

T/B

? # 12 8 # #

p . . . w
oo

.. .. . . #. . j

.. . .

oo

.. .. .

.. . #.

..

..

.. w
oo

. . . n. j . .. .
siil,

oo

13

MzS

& &

told

j . .. . .

me things that

ne're

shall

j .
be.

6 8

S/A

# ..
oo

.. . .

.. . .

. 6 8 .. . . . 6 8 . .

12 8 .

F 12 . 8 . . .
Siil,

siil,

Siil,

T/B

? # . .
oo

. 12 8 w . P
Siil,

siil,

1994

2
17

Siil a Rin

219
. . j j j
go dor-as a - gus

MzS

& &

# #

siil

. . j .
a rin.

Siil go

. . . . .. w ..
Siil,

so-chair a - gus

J J .. .

siil

j
go

ciin.

. ..

Siil

S/A

T/B

. . ? # # . .
Siil a

Siil

.. ..
a

rin

.. . .

Siil, siil,

Siil

..

. #.

go

..

. . . n.

ciin

# ..
oo

.. . .

rin

siil,

Siil

go

ciin

oo

. .

21

MzS

& &

# #

ea - la

j . . .
liom

j 12 6 . 8 8 . . 6 8 . . .
His

.
was

S/A

.. ..
eal - a

liom

.. . .

. 12 8 . 12 8

hair

black

j j . j . j
his eye was blue. His

T/B

?# .. ..
eal - a

liom

6 8

. . . .

Ah

..

.. .

.. .. . . #. .

.. . . 6 8 6 8 6 8

w ..
Ah

25

MzS

&

S/A

# . & . . .
arm Ah

. . . .
was strong his

word

j j j j j j j . . .
was true. I wish in my heart I was with

you.

.. .

.. . #.

.. . .

.. . n.

# ..
oo

.. . .

.. ..

.. . .

T/B

?#

w ..
Ah

oo

..

Siil a Rin

220

29

MzS

# 6 & 8

S/A

. # 6 & 8 . . . . . ?# 6 8 . .
33

12 . 8

F 12 . 8 . . .
Siil,

siil,

j . .. .

siil

j . . .
a rin.

Siil

. . . .
go

so-chair

J J .. .

a - gus

Siil,

T/B

.. 12 w 8 P
Siil,

siil,

Siil

.. ..
a

. . #. .
a

rin

.. . .

Siil,

..

siil,

.. w
Siil,

siil,

Siil

rin

siil,

MzS

& &

# #

siil

j
go

ciin.

. ..

Siil

j j j j . . .
go dor - as a - gus ea - la liom

6 8

S/A

T/B

. ? # # .
37

Siil

..

go

.. . .

ciin

# ..
oo

. n.

.. . . . .. . . .
oo

.. ..
eal - a

liom

.. . .

. 6 8 . . . . . 6 8 . .

12 8 12 8 12 8

Siil

go

ciin

oo

. .

.. ..
eal - a

liom

SD

# & 12 8 . & # 12 8 . .
Ah

S/A

Ah

. # ..

. ..

. .. . .

.
Ah

. # ..

. ..

w. .. . . .. . . .. . .

T/B

F . ? # 12 8 . F
Ah

. ..
oo

. . n . .

..

Ah

.. ..

. . n . .

oo

Ah

221
4
41

SD

& &

# #

.
Ah

. # ..

. ..

. .. . . . . .

. .. . .

Siil a Rin

.
oo

.
Ah

. # ..

. ..

w. .. . . .. . . .. . .

S/A

Ah

..

. ..
oo

T/B

?# ..
Ah
45

. . n . .

. .

Ah

.. . .

. . n . .

oo

Ah

MzS

& & &

# # w.

I'll

j . . f
dye my

SD

S/A

# . . .. .. P . w . .

Siil, siil,

. . .. .. .. w
Siil,

Siil, siil

T/B

?#
49

j .

F . . ..
Ah

. . J .. .

pe - tti - coats, I'll

j . J ..

dye

j . . J .. . . .. . .

them

j j .
red. A-

MzS

& & &

# # #

Siil,

siil,

siil a rin

round the world I'll

. .

. .

SD

. . J J . . ..
Ah

beg

j j j 6 j . j . . 8 . . j . . J .. .. . . .. . n.
my bread, 'til I find my love a live or dead

Ah

.. w w.

Ah

. #. w.

w. # ..
oo

! .. . . .. .. .. . .

6 8 6 8 6 8

S/A

.. .

T/B

.. ? # w w.
Ah

. #. w.

oo

..

Siil a Rin
53

222

MzS

# & 6 8

S/A

. # & 6 8 . . . . . ?# 6 8 . .
57

12 8 .

P 12 8 .. . .
Siil,

siil,

j . .. .

siil

j . . .
a rin.

Siil

. . . .
go

so - chair a - gus

J J .. .

Siil,

T/B

. 12 8 w .
Siil,

siil,

Siil

.. ..
a

MzS

& &

# #

siil

j
go

. . #. .
a

rin

.. . .

Siil,

..

siil,

.. w
Siil,

siil,

Siil

rin

siil,

ciin.

. ..

Siil

j j j . . j .
go dor - as a - gus ea - la liom

6 8

S/A

T/B

. ? # # .
61

Siil

..

go

.. . .

ciin

# ..
oo

. n.

.. . . j . .
a rin.

.. ..
eal - a

liom

.. . .

. 6 8 . . . . . 6 8 . .

12 8 12 8 12 8 .

Siil

go

ciin

oo

.. .

. . . .
eal - a

liom

MzS

# & 12 8 .

SD

F # 12 . . & 8 J
Siil,

siil,

j . J

siil

S/A

&

# 12 8 . . . P

P .
Ah

j . . J .. .. . .
a a

Siil go

. .

Ah

. . J . . .. .. .

so-chair a- gus

J J J

siil

j
go

j . . J .. .. . . ..

ciin.

Siil,

siil,

.. .

Siil

T/B

. ? # 12 8 w . P
Siil

. #.

rin

.. . .

Siil,

siil,

Siil

.. w
Siil

. #.

go

ciin

. n.

siil

Siil

rin

siil

Siil

go

ciin

Siil a Rin

223

65

MzS

& & &

# # #

Siil

j j j j . . . .
go dor-as a - gus ea - la liom

Slower to the End

Siil

j j j . . . . J .. . .
go dor-as a - gus eal

SD

w. # ..
oo

. .. . . .. ..
eal - a

. .. . .

Ah

eal

j J
a

j . u

liom[m].

liom[m].

. . u .. . .
U

S/A

liom

# ..
oo

..
eal -

..
a

liom[m].

T/B

? # . .
oo

. . . .
eal - a

liom

oo

. .

. .
eal -

. .
a

liom[m].

I wish I were on yonder hill 'Tis there I'd sit and cry my fill And every tear would turn a mill I wish I sat on my true love's knee Many a fond story he told to me He told me things that ne'er shall be His hair was black, his eye was blue His arm was strong, his word was true I wish in my heart I was with you I'll dye my petticoat, I'll dye it red And 'round the world I'll beg my bread 'Til I find my love alive or dead Siil, siil, siil a rin Siil go sochair agus siil go ciin Siil go doras agus alaigh liom Go, go, go my love Go quietly and go peacefully Go to the door and fly with me

224

Wind on Sea
Tenor Solo

## V # c ## & # c

With Atmosphere

m 3 . J
3 i iath nEr enn,


Ail -

m . J
3 i


Ail -

Michael McGlynn

m 3 J
i iath

Soprano Alto

Tenor Bass

! ? ### c w w
oo

w w

P
Ail

.. . . P

w w
oo

.. ..
q#

..
Ail -

w w
oo

w w
Ail -

S/soli

&

###

!
oo

Ail

"
Ail -

"

T/solo

# # . V #
3

m . J
3 i

nn 3 . . n 4 #.
3 i,

"

" " j j J

P
Ail

nnn 3 4

S/A

&

###

nEr

enn,

.. .
i

w w w
Ail -

.. .
i

marked n n n 3 Nojbreaths unless 4 j # ..

T/B

. ? ### .
i

w w
Ail -

..
i

! j n nnn 4 3 b b
I

am

the wind

j b J

breathe

on sea

. b
breathe

am

the wind

on sea

T/solo

11

" j # j b J j j b

" j

# . . .
I

Very Expressively

j
that

n b
breathes on the sea

#
I am the wave,

S/A

& . .
I

P
I

am the wind

am

tide

wave on

the

T/B

? b. b
I

j b. b J
o - cean I

o - cean

am

j # j b J

wind

Breathe on

j j b

the

j j J

sea

. .
I

am

j # j b J

tide

b . b
I

am

tide

on

the

am

wind

on

the

sea

am

tide

225
&
16

Vln.

T/solo

V n
wave on the o - cean

3 , # #n n b # # 3 p 3 j n b # .

Expressively

3 " # # # # 3

#
I


am the tomb,

am the ray,

the

eye

of

the Sun

S/A

& j j ? b
20 wave

on

the

j j J ,

o - cean

. .
I

am

j # j b J

ray

eye

j j b

of

the

j j J

sun

. .
I

am

j # j b J

tomb

T/B

b. b
I

b . b b" .
I

on

the

o - cean

am

ray

of

Vln.

n & n b
3

the

sun

am

tomb

T/solo

V n
cold in the dark - ness

n . b b
Who but I

. b b
Who but I

S/A

& j j ? b
24 cold

in

the

T/B

j bb J
dark - ness

dark - ness

oo

can cast light up - on the Ah

mee - ting of the moun - tains?

# .. . .

can find

a place that

b .. j # j b J j
a

bb J #
I

Vln.

" &
3

in

the

T/solo

V n
hides a - way the sun?

# . P j
I am a star,

j n b
the tear of the Sun,

J
am

a won - der,

S/A

& . ?

T/B

j b b

am

j # j b J
a a

star,

tear

j j b

of

the

j j J

Sun,

j j b b
I

am

the

bloom

am

star,

of

the

Sun,

am

the

bloom

-2-

226
Vln.

&
28 3

! # #
3

# # n n b
3 3 3

,
3

3 ! # # # # 3

T/solo

V n
won - der in flow - er.

#
I am the spear that cries out for

.
blood


the word of great pow - er,

# .
I am the wind

that

S/A

& j j ? b &
32

won - der

j
in

j
I am

j #
the

T/B

j j b b J
in flow - er.

flow - er.

j b J

spear

cry

j j b

out

for

j j J

j j b b
I am

j #
the

blood

j b J

word

...der

am

the

spear

out

for

blood

am

the

word

Vln.

n n b
3

. .
Who

T/solo

V
breathes


on the sea

b b
can cast light Ah up - on the

p
mee - ting of

J J

S/A

& j
word

T/B

j ? b &
35

of

great

j j J

pow - er,

oo

but I

the moun - tains?

b b
3

# .. .. " "
3

Vln.

b.

of

great

pow - er,

" n

n! b b
3

T/solo

V .
Who but I

b b
will cry a - loud the

. n
chan - ges in the moon?

.
Who but I

b b
can find Ah a place that


hides a - way the sun?

S/A

. & ? b b

#
-3-

T/B

b b

227
& .
39

Vln.

! ! # b Ah . b ! Ah .

! ! # b Ah . b

! ! # # j
that

T/solo

V Ah & . ? bb &
44

# F
I

" # #
3

# #
pool.


am the depths


of a great

S/A

crescendo

T/B

bb

j b b

. J
I

am

the

#
wind

j b J

Vln.

n n b
3

# #
dim.
3

n n b
3

am

the

wind

T/solo

V . & J
I


am the song


of

#
dim.

.
am the wind

breathes


on the sea

the black - bird.

S/A

T/B

j ? &
47

Breathe

on

the

b
on

j J

sea

j b b
dim.

. J
I

am

the

#
wave,

j b J

wave

j b

on

the

j J

o - cean

the

sea

am

the

wave

on

the

o - cean

Vln.

" .
More gentle

! b b
can cast light up - on oo the

! n J J .
Who but I

T/solo

V . & ? b b
Who but I


mee - ting of

b b
will cry a - loud the

the moun - tains?

S/A

oo

# .. . .
-4-

. bb

T/B

228
&
50

Vln.

poco rit.

b. .
Who

! b b
can oo find a place that

T/solo

V . n
chan - ges in the moon?

poco rit.

U
hides a - way the sun?

, , ,

## # c ## # c ## # c ## # c
Ail-

S/A

. & ?
53 ## V # c

#. . . .
Ail -

J J

but I

b
Ail -

.
-

poco rit.

T/B

bb

T/solo

S/A

## & # c w w

m 3 . J
3 i iath nEr enn,

m . J
3 i

T/B

" # ? ## c w w
oo

.. ..

w w
oo

.. ..

w w
oo

S/soli

& V &

57

### ### ###


Ail

"
oo

! m 3 . J 3
i iath nEr enn,

!
Ail -

!
-

T/solo

m J
3 -

P Ail -3 - - i, . . P
Ail 3 -


From the

S/A

..
-

. ..
i


-5-

w w w
Ail -

. .. p
i

T/B

? ### w w
Ail -

. .
i

w w
Ail -

.. p
i

229
61 ## & # .

S/soli

" . j
on the moun - tain,


3 to the lake of

"
from the

" .
wa - ter - fall

" j j
to the sea;

T/solo

## V # & ###

n
ni a

P
ne - ver

breeze

deep pools;

down

S/A

T/B

In ! ? ### In

b
-


spi -


rat


om -


ni -

#
a vi -

#
vi -

n
fi -


cat


om


spi -


rat


om -


ni -


vi -


vi -


fi cat


om ni -

S/soli

&

65

###

" j J
or d - ing

Ah

w
a

nnnbb nnnbb nnnbb nnnbb

T/solo

## V # J ## & # b p # ? ##
su chan - ging


on the voice of the wind

J
sing the dark song

j J
of Er - enn

j .
to me.

S/A


pe -


rat


om -


ni -

#
a

#
su -

n
fful -


cit

n
om -

ni

T/B


--pe ni -


rat


om a -


ni -


su -


fful -

cit


om -


ni -

su om

-6-

230
F

S/soli

&

69

bb b F
Ail Ail -

Ail

3 . 3 3
i

T/solo

Vb

m 3 . J
3 i iath nEr enn,


Ail -

F
Ail -


Ail -

m J
i 3 i

S/A

b &b P ? bb P
Ail Ail 73 -


iath


nEr -


enn

w w w w
Ail -

...
i

T/B


iath


nEr -


enn

w w
Ail -

..
i

S/soli

F b &b !
-

iath

T/solo

b Vb b &b
Ail i

Ail

m 3 3 . J
i iath nEr

!
Ail 3 -

i,

Ail

3 , . Freely w 3 ! 3 i.


Ail -

P Ail - m Freely J
3 i

u
i

S/A


iath

enn,

w w w w
Ail -

Ail

w w w
i

nEr

enn

T/B

? bb
Ail -


iath

w w
Ail -

w w
i

nEr

enn

-7-

APPENDIX F SURVEY OF SUGGESTED CHORAL WORKS OF MICHAEL MCGLYNN

The material contained within this appendix is designed to assist in the programming. The choral works are listed in alphabetical order by title. Each page lists the characteristics for one composition. All information is either derived from the score or from the composer. The categories for each work are:

Title Voicing Instrumentation Text Source Meter Tempo Form Duration Date of Composition Alternate Voicing Commission Pertinent Characteristics

Whenever not indicated compositions were commissioned by Anna Teoranta on behalf of Anna.

231

232

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

1901 SATB, soprano solo 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpet, 3 trombone, strings No text. 3/4, 6/8, and other varied Free with rubato. (q = 60) Through composed (though material is repeated and developed) 5:30 1997 (2009 Revision) The Ulster Orchestra The soprano solo begins a cappella and the strings take over the melody. McGlynn considers this work the orchestral component in his musical cycle about the sea.

233

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

Agnus Dei (from Celtic Mass) SATB, mezzo-soprano solo Organ and violin (violin is optional and can be substituted with any similar instrument) Latin Mass 4/4 Slowly and Expressively (q =60) ABC 2:43 1990 SSAA The solo is dominant while the choral part is atmospheric.

234

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

Agnus Dei (from And on Earth Peace: A Chanticleer Mass) SSAATTBB, tenor solo a cappella Irish language and Latin Mass 5/4, 4/4, 6/4, varied Freely (q =45), Steadily (q =65) AB (with multiple sub-sections in the B) 8:25 2007 Chanticleer Tenor solo throughout.

235

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

An Oche SSATB a cappella Traditional Irish 6/8 Steadily, with Subtle Phrasing (q. = 40) ABAB 4:20 1999 SSAA While not notated in the score, the composer indicated in rehearsals that there were to be large pauses between each of the A and B sections.

236

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Ardaigh Cuan (arrangement) SATTBB, female solo a cappella Traditional Irish 6/8 Freely with Expression (q=60) Strophic with minor variations per verse. 2:04 1999 The solo is predominant and the male voices glissando from chord to chord while employing harmonic singing techniques.

237

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

August TTBB, tenor solo a cappella Francis Ledwidge, English 4/4 Expressively (q =70) Stophic 1:51 1997 While the tenor solo is predominant, the choral parts intricately interwoven with it.

238

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

Behind the Closed Eye SSATBB Alto Saxophone Sedullus Scottus, Latin 4/4 Expressively (q =80) AB 3:17 1997 (premiere 1999) The Ulster Orchestra The chorus serves as accompaniment to the saxophone through the A section.

239

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Blackthorn SSATBB, soprano solo Irish Harp 18th Century Irish and English adapted by McGlynn 3/4 Smooth and with feeling (q = 110) Verse- Chorus 3:19 1996 Soprano solo is predominant.

240

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Brezairola SATB, tenor solo a cappella Traditional Auvergne 4/4 A Lullaby, but keep it moving ABAB 3:32 2006 It is advised to move the soprano descant off stage during the second chorus.

241

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Christus Resurgens (arrangement) SSATTBB Percussion 12th Century Irish-Latin 4/4 With Energy (q =75) ABA, additional harmony added with each subsection 3:21 1998 Ladies component is very minimal

242

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Codail a Linbh SATB, 2 soprano solos Violin, harp Traditional Irish 3/4 Gently (q=105) AB AB 2:35 1995 The two soprano lines should be solos with a four-part choral ensemble.

243

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Cormacus Scripsit (arrangement) SATB a cappella Medieval Irish, Latin 4/4 and free chant As Atmospherically as Possible (q=90) ABC 3:43 1990 While this is technically an arrangement of a chant, the chant is merely imbedded in the middle section. All other material is original.

244

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

Cnnla SSAA, solo a cappella Traditional Irish 12/8, 10/8 Fast and Very Rhythmically (q. = 145) Verse- Chorus 2:10 2004 The Syracuse Vocal Ensemble Very quick tempo that should feel as though it is speeding and slowing in the alternation of verse and chorus.

245

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Cynara SATB, tenor solo a cappella Ernest Dowson, English 3/4, 4/4 Gently and Expressively AABA 4:45 1998 (premiere 2000) Tenor solo predominately

246

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

Dlamn TTBB, tenor solo a cappella Traditional Irish 6/8, 5/8, 10/8 Fast (q =110) Verse- Chorus 1:48 1995 SSAA, SATB Solo carries near all of the Irish text and moves quickly. Choral text is minimal.

247

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

Incantations SSAATTBB a cappella Michael McGlynn, Irish 6/8 Fast (q.=130) ABA 1:40 1989 SSAA Three main themes are interwoven throughout the work.

248

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Invocation SSATTB, tenor and soprano solos a cappella Traditional, adapted by McGlynn, Irish and English 4/4 With Feeling (q =60) ABABA 4:16 1993 The chorus parts in the B section should be flowing. Tenor solo could be divided between two different soloists.

249

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Island SSATTB, tenor solo Harp Traditional, adapted by McGlynn, English, Irish, Latin 4/4 Rhythmically (q. =135) ABABAC 4:00 1996 The ending is intended to fade away

250

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Jerusalem (arrangement) Treble, 4 solos lines a cappella Irish Medieval (English text) 4/4, 3/4 (hetrophonic section) Very Freely (q =60) Chorus- Verse 5:45 1992 Should be performed with movement around the performance space. The solos can be divded between four separate soloists or performed by the same person; however, all four solos should be performed.

251

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Kyrie (from Celtic Mass) SSATBB, soprano solo a cappella Latin Mass 4/4 Slow (q= 70) AAC 2:13 1991 The solo changes slightly between sections. Final tenor melody (last five measures) can be a solo.

252

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Lux Aeterna SSSAATTBB, soprano solo a cappella Traditional Latin 4/4, 2/4 With Flexibility (q =55) ABC 3:40 2005 Very atmospheric with chord clusters. There are also suspended soprano lines that should be sung with very few voices.

253

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

Midnight SSATB, soprano solo a cappella Francis Ledwidge, English 4/4 Slow but with Flexibility (q =80) A (with subsections) B 4:20 1997 The Ulster Orchestra First half is choral followed by the orchestra.

254

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Nobilis Humilis (arrangement) SATB, soprano solo Harp (optional) Traditional Latin Non-metered womens voices, men in 4/4 Very Freely ABC 5:00 1997 Opening can be by a solo or a few voices.

255

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

O Ignis Spiritus SATTBB, Mezzo-soprano and soprano solo Soprano Saxophone Traditional Latin 4/4 With a Restrained Energy (q = circa 90) AB with subsections 6:00 2002 The National Concert Hall Dublin Opening section is a soprano saxophone solo followed by an unaccompanied mezzo-soprano solo.

256

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

Ocean SSATTBB, soprano solo Harp, violin, (and strings) Traditional, adapted by McGlynn 4/4 With Atmosphere (q =70) Into, ABAB 4:20 (6:13 with orchestral introduction) 1999 Ocean Telecom As recorded on Cynara there is an orchestral introduction.

257

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Pater Noster (from Celtic Mass) SSATB, soprano and tenor solos a capella Traditional Latin 4/4, 6/4, 5/8 With Movement but Always Gentle (q =65) ABCA 2:26 1991 Solos are chant based.

258

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

Pie Jesu SSATB, soprano solo a cappella or with orchestra (clarinet, strings) Traditional Latin 2/2 With expression (h =30) ABA coda 2:37 1998/ 2009 (orchestral revision) SSAA Descant should be sung with only one or two voices.

259

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Salve Rex Gloriae SATTBB, tenor solo percussion 13th Century Irish (Irish and English) 12/8 With energy (q. =100) Verse-chorus 3:10 1993 Mens parts are predominant.

260

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Sanctus (from Celtic Mass) SATTBB, 3 soprano solos, baritone sol optional Harp Traditional Latin Mass 2/4 Slowly, from a Distance (h =50) ABA 3:46 1991 Should be performed with the three soloists at three different locations throughout venue and the chorus and harp in the front.

261

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

S do Mhaimeo (arrangement) SATB, female solo optional percussion Traditional Irish 6/8 Very Rhythmically (q. =108) Chorus-Verse 2:20 1993 SSAA If the percussion is omitted then the two measures of choral rest should be reduced to a single measure.

262

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

Siil, a Rin (arrangement) SATB, soprano solo a cappella Traditional Irish and English 3/4, 12/8 Rhythmically (q. =110) Chorus-Verse 2:45 1994 SSAA As Anna recorded it there is also an accompaniment. John McGlynn added the guitar part.

263

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation:

Song of the Birds (from St. Francis) SSAA (revised for SATB) 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 2 trombones, harp, strings, percussion Anon. c. 1912 possibly Father Esther Bouquerel, French 12/8 Rhythmically (q. = 65) ABA 5:07 2007 (revised in 2009) Louvain 400 SATB This is the second part of St. Francis and is able to serve as a stand-alone work.

Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Alternate Voicing: Pertinent Characteristics:

264

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

The Coming of Winter SA 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, percussion, strings Traditional, adapted by McGlynn 12/8 Fast (q. =115) ABA 2:43 1984 (revised 1997 and 2009) Pierre Schuster Originally composed for trumpet and piano in 1984 and was revised on 1994 and then again in 2009. Primarily an orchestral composition with a choral part.

265

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

The Raid SATTB, baritone solo Tenor drum, violin Medieval Irish 6/8 With Rhythm (q. =85) Verse-chorus 2:39 1993 Acceptable to have chords played by a guitar as accompaniment although the composer does not supply them.

266

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

The Rising of the Sun / Eir na Grne SATB, mezzo-soprano solo percussion, violin, Uilleann pipes Revised in 2009 for orchestra Traditional Irish 10/8, 9/8, 12/8 Energetically (q.=110) Chorus-verse 3:16 1994 (revised 2009) The Project Arts Center The instruments play one repeat of the verse. If a piper cannot be found, alternate instruments can be used: oboe, flute, or additional percussion.

267

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

The Road of Passage SSATTBB, soprano solo a cappella John Henry Newman (1852), English 4/4 With Simplicity (h =45) Through composed 2:20 2003 UCD 150 Solo predominates though there are many several full choral moments.

268

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

The White Rose S,MzS,A, mezzo-soprano solo Oboe, Harp Revision for orchestra Traditional adapted by McGlynn, English and Irish 4/4 Sweetly and Simply (q=70) Verse-Chorus 4:40 2000 (revised 2009) Linda Kenny Solo carries the verse.

269

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Commission: Pertinent Characteristics:

The Wild Song SSATBB, soprano and tenor solos a cappella McGlynn 4/4 Expressively (q =60) [AAB] [AAB] 3:16 2001 Rajaton (Grant by The Arts Council of Ireland) One soprano solo is more dominate than the other solos.

270

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Victimae TTBB, tenor solo a cappella 4th Century Latin 4/4 With Fluidity and a Solid Pulse Through-composed 3:25 1999 Chant is intended to imitate Byzantine Chant. Ornamentation is acceptable but inadvertent scooping should be avoided.

271

Title: Voicing: Instrumentation: Text Source: Meter: Tempo: Form: Duration: Date of Composition: Pertinent Characteristics:

Wind on Sea SATB, 2 tenor solos and 2 soprano solos a cappella Traditional, adapted by McGlynn 4/4 With Atmosphere (q =60) ABA (with subsections) 6:08 1994 Wind on Sea uses Invocation and places new material in between the repeat. The tenor solos should be different soloists between the two main sections.

VITA Stacie Lee Rossow was born in Sarasota, Florida, on September 12, 1974. Her parents are Daniel B. Niehaus (deceased) and Kristine Hohlt Niehaus. She received her secondary education at Riverview High School in Sarasota. In August 1992 she entered Florida Atlantic University, from which she was graduated with the BMUS degree in Vocal Performance in December 1997. She began graduate work in Conducting and completed her Master of Arts in Music with an emphasis in Choral Conducting in 2001. She has been a faculty member at Florida Atlantic since 2001, teaching courses in voice, choral conducting, and sight-singing and is the conductor of the Womens Chorus. In August 2007 she was admitted to the Graduate School of the University of Miami, where she was granted a D.M.A. in Choral Conducting in June 2010. Permanent Address: 22544 Sea Bass Drive, Boca Raton, Florida 33428