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Modern Transportation March 2013, Volume 2, Issue 1, PP.

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Air Emission Inventories Methodology for Port and Air Quality Simulation
Bang Q. Ho
Institute for Environment and Resources (IER), Vietnam National University, HoChiMinh, Vietnam. Email: bangquoc@yahoo.com

Abstract
Port activities can be a major source of air pollution. Conducting an air emission inventory is essential to design effective emission abatement strategies. The aims of this study are to calculate air emissions, modeling of air quality and discuss emission abatement strategies for Saigon port, Vietnam. Saigon Port within the port system of the Vietnam Maritime sector is one the port having the highest throughput and productivity in the country. The air quality in the area around the port is polluted. Then the air emissions results are used for modelling air quality in Saigon Port. The results of air quality modelling are used to design emissions abatement strategies. The results of air emission inventories show that total emissions of all pollutants are dominated by OGVs and harbor cranes. Emissions from OGVs are mainly during hotelling due to the long times spent at berth, while harbor cranes emissions are high because of the extended usage and high power rating. The results of air quality modeling using only air emission inventories from the port as input parameter show that concentration of air pollutants is lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. Only air emissions from Saigon port dont pollute the air s urrounding area but if combined with other sources of emissions cause air pollution to the surrounding area. Keywords: Air Emissions; Air Quality Modelling; Methodology; Saigon Port

1 INTRODUCTION
Port activities are a major source of air pollution and emitter of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx), particulate matter and Greenhouse Gases (such as CO2, N2O, CH4) into the atmosphere. Annually, ocean-going vessels are estimated to emit large amount of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters of 10 m or less), SOx, and NOx into the atmosphere. Studies estimated that around 15% of global NOx and 58% of global SOx emissions are attributed to ocean going vessels (James et al., 2007). These emissions have potentially negative impacts on human health. The effects of air pollution on health have been extensively studied in recent years. The results of these studies showed that PM2.5 emissions from shipping are responsible for approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths annually worldwide, with impacts concentrated in coastal regions on major trade routes (FIG. 1). Most of deaths occur near coastlines in Southeast Asia where high populations and high shipping-related PM2.5 concentrations coincide (James et al., 2007). Based on previous estimates (Cohen et al., 2005) of global PM2.5-related mortalities (712,000 cardiopulmonary deaths are attributable to urban outdoor PM2.5 pollution annually), the results of James et al. showed that 8% of these mortalities are attributable to marine shipping. In the Third Assessment Report (IPCC, 2001) of The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), they identified that GHG such as aerosols, CO2 and CH4 are the main contributors to climate change. According to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, climate change is a complex problem and has become the leading challenge for humankind in the 21st century (IPCC, 2007). Climate change has affected many regions in the world, particularly the ASEAN Region. Therefore, the aims of this study are to calculate air emissions and discuss emission abatement strategies for reducing the air emissions, protecting human health, especially for port workers from air pollution and for climate change mitigation. This study was conducted in Saigon port, Vietnam. Emissions from marine and land-based sources including ocean going vessels (OGVs), harbor craft, cargo-handling equipment (CHE) and road vehicles
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were calculated. The pollutants NOx, SO2, particulate matter (particles with a diameter of less than 10 m or PM10 and often particles with a diameter less than 2.5 m or PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), the GHG carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were considered in this study.

FIG.1 CARDIOPULMONARY MORTALITY ATTRIBUTABLE TO SHIP PM2.5 EMISSIONS WORLDWIDE (JAMES ET AL., 2007)

2 STUDY LOCATION, SCOPE OF AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES, DATA AND METHODS


2.1 Study Location and Scope of air emission inventories

FIG. 2 LOCATION OF SAIGON PORT, VIETNAM

FIG. 3 LOCATION OF TERMINALS IN SAIGON PORT

Saigon Port Saigon Port within the port system of the Vietnam Maritime sector is one the port having the highest throughput and productivity in Vietnam. With a large hinterland including Ho Chi Minh city and the adjacent provinces and the Mekong Delta areas totaling in more than 25 million of inhabitants. Saigon Port, established on February 22nd, 1860 under the French colony time with the name of Saigon Commercial Port, is located mainly along Saigon River (FIG. 2) and plays an important role and challenging task in serving the import/export demand and economic development in general for the whole Southern part of the country. At the moment, there are 3 terminals under Saigon Port named
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Khanh Hoi terminal, Terminal 1 and terminal 2 (FIG.3). Saigon Port is the landlord of these three terminals. However, Khanh Hoi terminal moved to Nha Be district of HCMC since 16 May 2009. Therefore, I will develop emission inventories only for 02 terminals which are Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 (FIG.2) and the characteristic of Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 are described in Table 1.
TABLE 1 WHARVES OF TERMINAL 1 AND TERMINAL 2
Name of terminal Terminal 1 Quay K12 K12A K12B K12C BARGES Terminal 2 K12C1 TT2 Length 188 m 132 m 204 m 189 m 70 m 222 m Depth -11.0 m -11.0 m -12.1 m -11.0 m -10.5 m

-not available data Scope of Air Emission Inventories In order to provide a good decision for reducing emission and reduce its impact of port on the environment and health of worker and local public in any port by using different tool (such as: air quality modeling, etc), I must firstly calculate the emissions of all the emission sources in order to identify which pollutants and emission sources are the most important. For these purpose, this project is devoted to the generation of an Air Emission Inventories (AEI) for Saigon Port. For generating the AEI for Saigon port, I use the methodology and emission factors which were provided by Dr. Chris Taylor (International consultant of this project). The domain for AEI, emission sources, pollutants and period of AEI for Saigon port are described as follow: - The boundary for land side of Terminal 1 is covered around 156,653 m2 of area. The boundary for land side of Terminal 2 is covered around 48,513 m2 of area (FIG.4). The physical boundary for land side of Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 is defined by the author of this paper. I counted the boundary from the main gate to the riverside of each terminal (detailed in annex 1 and annex 2). - The boundary for marine side of Terminal 1 is covered around 1,800 (in length) x 350 km (in width) = 630,000 m2 area of surface water. The boundary for marine side of Terminal 2 is covered around 1,300 (in length) x 350 km (in width) = 455,000 m2 area of surface water. The physical boundary of the marine side of Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 is defined by the author of this paper after asking staff of Business and Operation Department, Captain and Saigon port staffs. The length of boundary for marine side of each terminal is taken before and after the terminal 500 m. The width of boundary for marine side of each terminal is taken for the width of Saigon River closed to terminal. The functional map of terminal 1 and terminal 2 is presented in the annex 1 and annex 2, respectively.

2.2 Data Collection


Campaigns and surveys for data collecting were organized during the emission inventories. The year of campaigns and surveys is from May to August 2011. However, the year for air emission inventories is on 2010 because at that time Saigon Port had the newest full data which is in 2010. For ocean going vessels: In general, the inventories for OGVs were of a high standard, with a significant amount of port operational data used in the calculations. In addition, I used some information related to OGVs power in Information on Power of Ship (Information power, 2011), information of Ship Type, Speed (Information of type, 2011). For cargo handling equipment: The inventories for CHE generally had detailed data for the quantity, type, rated power and age of equipment, allowing a basic inventory to be prepared. For harbor craft: The inventories for harbor crafts were generally less detailed. However, as harbor crafts generally
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make only a minor contribution to the inventory, it was not a major concern for the overall accuracy of the inventory.

FIG. 4 PHYSICAL BOUNDARY FOR AIR EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR BOTH LAND SIDE AND MARINE SIDE

For road vehicles: The number and general type of vehicles entering the port was recorded, but for many inventories the travelled distance within the port, traffic speeds and idling times were estimated. The collected data included the length of railway, engine and fuel consumption.

2.3 Methodology
Emission inventory approaches

There are many different approaches to develop an emission inventory for port. They are very significant in terms of the time, money and effort. Such as, detailed inventory approach requires detailed data on vessels and land-based equipment characteristics and activities, as well as detailed information on port geography and ship paths within the port. This is the best practice for all ports, however its applications are limited by available resources. Meanwhile, the streamlined inventory approach requires less input data. The methodology can be tailored to the amount of available data. In some cases, the emission inventory can be developed using extrapolation data. As it is discussed in the previous section about available data of Saigon port. In general, I used a streamlined approach for doing air emissions inventory. This is generally outlined by FIG. 5.

FIG. 5 EMISSION INVENTORY APPROACH Application emission inventory approaches in Saigon port

To calculate air emissions for port, a streamlined air emissions inventory approach, following the US EPA (United
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States Environmental Protection Agency) Guidance (US EPA, 2009), was used. - Ocean going vessels (OGVs) The available data for some ports in developing countries are not sufficient to develop a detailed inventory by calculating emissions from each vessel. The US EPA guidance (2009) proposes a mid-tier approach for calculating air emissions in port and allows us to calculate emissions for each category using a single representative vessel specification and operating pattern, rather than calculating emissions for every different vessel call. The research port selected a detailed or mid-tier approach, depending on the available data. Emissions were then calculated using the formula: E = P * LF * A * EF (1)

Where E = Emissions (g), P = Maximum Continuous Power Rating (kW), LF = Load Factor (%), A = Activity (hours) and EF = Emission Factor (g/kWh). Emission factors were taken from US EPA guidance (2009): The Table 2-9 in US EPA guidance (2009) is emission Factors for OGV Main Engines and the Table 2-16 in US EPA guidance (2009) is Auxiliary Engine Emission Factors, g/kWh Main engine load factors were calculated using the formula: LF = (AS/MS)3 Where LF = Load Factor (%), AS = Actual Speed (knots) and MS = Maximum Speed (knots). - Harbor craft: Emissions were calculated using the formula: E = P * LF * A * EF (3) (2)

Where E = Emissions (g), P = Maximum Continuous Power Rating (kW), LF = Load Factor (%), A = Activity (hours) and EF = Emission Factor (g/kWh). In this estimation, I do not include the useful life of harbor craft. Emission factors were taken from the Table 3-8: Harbor Craft Emission Factors in US EPA guidance (2009) - Cargo-handling equipment (CHE): Emissions were calculated for each category using the formula: E = N * P * LF * A * EF (4)

Where E = Emissions (g), N = number of items, P = Maximum Continuous Power Rating (kW), LF = Load Factor (%), A = Activity (hours) and EF = Emission Factor (g/kWh). Emission factors were taken from the Table 4-789: Cargo-handling equipment Emission Factors in US EPA guidance (2009) - Road vehicles: A variety of methods were used to calculate emissions from road vehicles (P. Krittayakasem et al., 2011, Ho et al., 2011 and URS/ Scott Wilson, 2011), depending on the availability of emission factors for each country and the previous experience of the expert compiling the inventory. Sources included country-specific emissions models and international data from the US and Europe. Emissions were calculated for each category using the formula: E = N*(EF1*M+EF2 *T) (5)

Where E = Emissions (g), N = number of items, EF1 = Emission Factor (g/km) (Eggleston et al., 1993). EF2 = Idle Emission Factor (g/h). T= idle time (h). M= Trip distance (km). Emission factors were taken from the Table 8-27: Speed dependency of emission and consumption factors for diesel duty vehicles in the Eggleston et al., 1993
Meteorological model

The FVM (Finite Volume Model) model used in this research is a three dimensional Eulerian meteorological model for simulating the meteorology. The model uses a terrain following grid with finite volume discretization (Clappier et al., 1996). This mesoscale model is non-hydrostatic and anelastic to solve the momentum equation for the wind component, the energy equation for the potential temperature, the air humidity equation for mean absolute humidity and the Poisson equation for the pressure. The turbulence is parameterized using turbulent coefficients. In the transition layer, these coefficients are derived from turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, computed prognostically), and a length scale, following the formulation of Bougeault and Lacarrere (Bougeault et al., 1989). In the surface layer (corresponding to the lowest numerical level), in rural areas, the formulation of Louis (Louis et al., 1979) is used.
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The ground temperature and moisture, in rural areas, are estimated with the soil module of Tremback and Kessler (Tremback et al., 1985). An urban turbulence module in the model simulates the effect of urban areas on the meteorology (Matilli et al., 2002 b). The second module, the Building Energy Model (BEM, Krpo, 2009), takes into account the diffusion of heat through walls, roofs, and floors, the natural ventilation, the generation of heat from occupants and equipments, and the consumption of energy through air conditioning systems. The FVM model was developed at the Air and Soil Pollution Laboratory (LPAS) of EPFL.
Air Quality Model

The air quality model used for this study is the Transport and Photochemistry Mesoscale Model (TAPOM) (Martilli et al,. 2003; Junier et al,. 2004) implemented at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL), and at the Joint Research Center in ISPRA. It is a transport and photochemistry three dimensional Eulerian model, which is based on the resolution of the mass balance equation for the atmospheric substances. This equation includes the advection by the mean wind, the vertical diffusion by the turbulence, the chemical transformation by reactions, the dry deposition and the emissions. The chemical transformations are simulated by using the RACM (Stockwell et al., 1997), the Gong and Cho (Gong et al., 1993) chemical solver for the gaseous phase and the ISORROPIA module for inorganic aerosols (Nenes et al., 1998, Brown etal., 2000). The transport is solved using the algorithms developed by Collella et al., (1984). This algorithm has recently been improved by Clappier et al., (1998). The photolysis rate constants used for chemical reactions are calculated using the radiation module TUV which is developed by Madronich et al., (1998) at the NCAR4

A domain of 34 km x 30 km with resolution of 1 km in x and y directions is chosen for air quality simulation by using the TAPOM model. The main part of HCMC is located in this domain. In vertical position, the grids extend up to 7300 m with 12 levels. The vertical resolution is 15 m for the first level, and then it is stretched up to the top of the domain at 2000 m (grid stretching factor of 1.2 for lower and 1.6 for upper layers of the grid). For obtaining more realistic initial conditions, a pre-run of one day is computed for the air quality simulations

3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


TABLE 2 TOTAL EMISSIONS BY SOURCE (TONES PER YEAR)
Total Emission (tonnes per year) NOx OGV Harbour Craft CHE Private Trucks Power Plant TOTAL 311 5.858 128.71 0.58 0.02 PM10 33 0.466 4.69 0.02 0.01 PM2.5 30 0.454 4.56 0.02 HC 11 0.140 10.77 0.04 CO 25 1.008 42.10 0.14 0.01 SOx 261 2.014 1.73 0.04 0.05 CO2 24784 355.940 8147.45 40.14 N2O 7 0.010 -

446.1

38.1

35.0

21.95

68.26

264.8

33327

7.01

-not available data It can be seen that total emissions of all pollutants are dominated by those from OGVs, especially, N 2O and SOx are almost from OGVs (Table 2). This is likely to be as a result of the use of RO fuel with high sulphur content. The results also show that about 30% of NOx emissions, more than 50% of HC emissions and more than 60% of CO emissions come from CHE emission sources. The results of Saigon port air emission inventories in 2010 are from 702 OGVs (of which 60% are of container vessels), 23 harbor crafts (including 22 tugboats and 1 workboat), 9 CHE (including harbor cranes, forklifts, yard tractors and reach stackers) and 24,298 trucks (including 3,244 light trucks and 21,054 heavy trucks). The main sources of emissions from Saigon Port are OGVs and harbor cranes (a specific kind of cranes in CHE emission
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sources). Emissions from OGVs are mainly during hotelling due to the long times spent at berth, while harbor cranes emissions are high because of their extended usage and high power rating. Therefore, to reduce the air emissions from OGVs at Saigon Port, the efficiency of operation should be improved to reduce the time spent at berth and the port could supply electricity via shore based power supply during the hotelling. For reducing emissions from harbor cranes at Saigon Port, the harbor cranes should be maintained periodically and could be replaced by modern energy efficient alternatives, such as electric cranes. Saigon port currently is switching diesel fuel used in CHE to electricity and they are planning to supply electricity for OGVs during hotelling at the port (Krittayakasem et al., 2011).

FIG. 6 CONTRIBUTIONS TO EMISSIONS FROM SAIGON PORT

The results of air quality simulation are shown in the FIG. 7 (left) in which the highest concentration of CO in the domain is 203 ppb, and this is much lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. The results of air quality simulation shown in the FIG. 7 (right) that the highest concentration of NOx in the domain is 18 ppb, and this is lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. We can see that the results of air quality modeling are lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. But we should note that i used only air emission inventories from the port as input parameter, therefore only air emissions from Saigon port dont pollute the air surrounding area but if combined with other sources of emissions which may cause air pollution to the surrounding area.

FIG. 7 SIMULATION OF AIR QUALITY OVER SAIGON PORT, VIETNAM FOR CO (LEFT) AND NOX (RIGHT)
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4 CONCLUSIONS AND OUTLOOK


-The methodology used to conduct the emission inventories which was based on the streamlined approach prescribed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, was used to calculate air emissions successfully in Saigon port. The results show that in general the total emissions of all pollutants were dominated by OGVs and CHE. The results of air quality modeling using only air emission inventories from the port as input parameter show that concentration of air pollutants is lower than the Vietnamese technical regulation on ambient air quality. Only air emissions from Saigon port dont pollute the air surrounding area but if combined with other sources of emissions causing air pollution to the surrounding area. In this study, the potential emission abatement strategies for the port were also discussed. Three main measures are proposed to reduce air emission levels in the port including: (i) The efficiency of operation should be improved to reduce the time spent at berth and the port could supply electricity via shore based power supply during vessel hotelling; (ii) CHE should be maintained periodically and could be replaced by modern energy efficient alternatives, such as electricity. -The emission inventory results indentified the main air emissions sources for the port. The results of a technical/scientific study can help decision makers set policies for reducing air emission level within the port, as well as to organize decision making processes to be well informed. This is the first air emission inventory for the port and the available data for the port are not sufficient to develop a detailed inventory. Therefore, the streamlined approach was used for calculating air emissions in port. Meanwhile, port should record more data and development of regional surrogate data (such as emission factors, etc) to conduct more detailed emission inventory. - In addition, for tracking progress in reducing emission strategies and for updating the monitoring of air pollution levels in the port, emission inventories for port should be updated regularly every 2-3 years and the proposed mitigation measures in this study are provisional. Therefore, a cost-benefit analysis would be required for the port to prioritise emission reduction measures. Another interesting track for the future study is the study of air pollution impacts on port workers to protect their health.

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AUTHORS
Bang Q. Ho was born in Vietnam, on 17/12/1979. He got Docteur s Sciences (Ph.D.) degree on Environmental Science (Emission inventories and air quality modelling) at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), Switzerland in 2010. He is doing research on Climate Change, Energy and Air quality fields. He got Master degree on Environmental Science at EPFL, Switzerland in 2005. He got Bachelor of Analytical Chemistry at the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City in 2001. From 2001 to 2010 he worked for several Labs in IER (System laboratories lab, Air quality lab), EPFL (LPAS, LASIG) and also in French National Center for Scientific Research, France on Emission inventory, Modelling of Meteorology and Air pollution, monitoring of air quality and water quality, Climate change. In 2011 he worked at Duke University, USA as visiting scholars on Energy and Environment. He is doing as a National and Regional consultant on Air emission inventories for ASEAN Ports funding by German Technical Cooperation (GIZ). Dr. Ho is currently a Director of Air Pollution and Climate Change Department/Institute of Environment & Resources (IER)/Vietnam National University, HoChiMinh City (VNU/HCM). He teaches many courses on Sustainable Energy Use, Climate Change, Control of air pollution and noise and environmental modelling for master and engineer levels.

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