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# Gravimetric Analysis Analysis by mass Summary notes

## Key chemistry principles to consider.

Law of conservation of mass states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. Chemical reactions are simply rearrangements of the existing atoms. Substances or mixtures containing a volatile component (evaporating readily at room temperature) such as water, are heated to drive off the volatile component and the mass of the solid product left behind is measured. Substances must be heated to constant mass is obtained to ensure all of the volatile material is driven off. Practice question 1. Soy sauce weighing 74.6g was heated in an oven to constant mass. The final mass was 14.2g. What percentage of water did the sauce contain?

Empirical and Molecular forumulae Can be determined experimentally, usually by finding the mass of each element in a given mass of compound The molecular formula is always a whole number multiple of the empirical formula. To calculate molecular formulae divide the molar mass of the compound by the molar mass of the empirical formula Eg. Molar mass of compound Molar mass of empirical formulae Practice Questions 2. After heating of 2.95g of crystals of hydrated magnesium sulphate (MgSO4.xH2O) the mass of the residue is found to be 1.44g. Find the value of x in the formula of the compound.

A compound has the empirical formula CH and a molar mass of 78gmol-1 . What is the molecular formula? Calculating masses of reactants and products The mole enables us to calculate the quantities of substances consumed or produced in chemical reactions. Mole ratios can be used to calculate masses of reactants and products When using pV=nRT volume must be in Litres, pressure in kilopascals, temperature in Kelvin R is constant = 8.31JK-1 once the number of mole of gas is calculated then its mass can be calculated using the formula n = m/M

Practice Questions 3. Calculate the mass of lead iodide that can be made from 30.0g of potassium iodide. When lead nitrate is reacted with potassium iodide. nb lead iodide forms a precipitate.
Step one: write a balanced equation

## Step two: Calculate the amount in mol, of potassium iodide consumed

Step three: Use the ratio of amounts of substances to calculate the number of mole of iodide formed.

## Step four: Calculate the mass of lead iodide.

4. The active ingredient of an antacid powder is magnesium carbonate. When treated with excess HCl, a 3.50g sample of the antacid produced 714ml of carbon dioxide, measured at 22.0C and 101.3kPa pressure. Calculate the percentage of magnesium carbonate in the powder.
Step one: Write out the equation

Step two: pV = nRT ( are all of the units in the correct units to use this formula?)

Step three:Use the ratio amounts of substance from the equation to calculate the number of moles of magnesium carbonate

Step four: use the formula n=m/M to determine the mass of magnesium carbonate

## Step five: express as a %

Excess reactants The amount of limiting reactant determines the amount of product formed You will need to become familiar with solubility table to detemine whether a product will be a precipitate or stay in solution. Refer to pg 31 in your textbook Practice question Calculate the mass of silver bromide that can be formed if a solution containing 15.0g of silver nitrate is allowed to react with a solution containing 10.0g of calcium bromide
Step one: write out the equation

Step two: calculate the amounts of both reactants using n=m/M From the equation determine which is the reactant in excess. Look at your calculations for the number of moles

Step three: Use a mole ratio involving silver nitrate(not calcium bromide) to calculate the amount of silver bromide formed.

Finding the composition of a mixture Ions can be analysed using gravimetric analysis. The precipitate should: a) have a known formula b) have a low solubility c) be stable when heated ( so it can be dried easily) d) not form precipitates when other ions that are likely to be present No solid is absolutely insoluble or infinitely soluble Precipitates formed for gravimetric analysis Element to be analysed Chlorine Bromine Iodine Iron Phosphorus Magnesium Sulfur Barium Precipitate AgCl Ag Br AgI Fe2O2 Mg2P2O7 Mg2P2O7 BaSO4 BaSO4 Compound name Silver chloride Silver bromide Silver iodide Iron(III)oxide Magnesium pyrophosphate Magnesium pyrophosphate Barium sulphate Barium sulphate