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G.P.

BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout

TheTasteoftheDead: FuneraryOfferingsandBanquetinginAncientElam
Gian Pietro BASELLO (Universit di Napoli LOrientale) Ravenna, 2013 March 23 Conference From Elam to Iran twitter.com/elamici

Selected general bibliography


AMIET, Pierre (1966) lam, Auvers-sur-Oise. OEANE: The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, Oxford, 1997 (s.v. Chogha Zanbil, Haft Tepe, Susa). POTTS, Daniel T. (1999) The Archaeology of Elam. Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State (Cambridge World Archaeology), New York. STEVE, Marie-Joseph, Franois VALLAT & Hermann GASCHE (2002) Suse, Supplment au Dictionnaire de la Bible, 78, pp. 359-511, Paris. kispu in Mesopotamia BAYLISS, Miranda (1973) The cult of dead kin in Assyria and Babilonia, Iraq, 35, pp. 115-125. BIROT, Maurice (1980) Fragment de ritual de Mari relative au kispum, in B. ALSTER (ed.), Death in Mesopotamia. Papers read at the XXVIe Rencontre assyriologique internationale, pp. 139-150, Copenhagen: Akademisk. COHEN, Andrew C. (2005) Kispum remembrance rituals an ED practice?, in Death rituals. Ideology, and the development of early Mesopotamian kingship, pp. 106-108. SKAIST, Aaron (1980) The Ancestor Cult and Succession in Mesopotamia, in B. ALSTER (ed.), Death in Mesopotamia. Papers read at the XXVIe Rencontre assyriologique internationale, pp. 123-128, Copenhagen: Akademisk. TSUKIMOTO, Akio (1985) Untersuchungen zur Totenpflege (kispum) im alten Mesopotamien (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, 216), Kevelaer: Butzon & Bercker (see the review by A.R. GEORGE, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 50/3 (1987), pp. 538-539). Royal burials NIEHR, Herbert (2006) The Royal Funeral in Ancient Syria. A Comparative View on the Tombs in the Palaces of Qatna, Kumidi and Ugarit, Journal of North-West Semitic Languages, 32/2, pp. 1-24. PINNOCK, Frances (2007-2008) Le tombe delle regine assire sotto il Palazzo Nord-Ovest di Nimrud, Scienze dellantichit. Storia archeologia antropologia, 14/1 (= Gilda BARTOLONI & M. Gilda BENEDETTINI (eds.), Sepolti tra i vivi. Buried among the living. Evidenza ed interpretazione di contesti funerari in abitato. Roma, 26-29 Aprile 2006), pp. 309-322, Roma.

1. The sack of Susa according to the Annals of Ashurbanipal


Prisma A VI 70. Borger 1996, p. 55 Luckenbill 1926-1927, 810 GPB The sepulchers of their earlier I sepolcri dei loro re antichi e ki-ma-e LUGALme--nu ma-ru-u! EGIRme and later kings, recenti, d 71. who did not fear Assur and che non temettero Assur e la pa-li-u-u AN.R u XV ENme-ia Ishtar, my lords, Ishtar, miei signori, me me 72. mu-nar-ri-u LUGAL AD - (and who) had plagued the kings, (e che) turbarono i re, miei avi, ia my fathers, 73. I destroyed, I devastated, I ho demolito, devastato (e) ap-pul aq-qur -kal-lim d UTU-i exposed to the sun. esposto al Sole. me 74. Their bones (members) I carried Le loro ossa ho portato via in GR.PAD.DU --nu al-qa-a a-na kurAN.Rki off to Assyria. Assiria. 75. e-m-me--nu la a-la-lu e- I laid restlessness upon their Ho fatto s che i loro spiriti non m-id shades. avessero riposo. ME 76. I deprived them of food-offerings Li ho privati di offerte di cibo ki-is-pi na-aq A -za-amme--nu and libations of water. (kispu) e libagioni di acqua. kimau: sepolcro, tomba. eemtu (GR.PAD.DU): ossa mar: primo, precedente. leq: portar via. (w)ark (EGIR): tardo, successivo. eemmu: fantasma di una persona morta. palu: temere, riverire. allu: stare, dormire. naru: D scuotere, far tremare. emdu: imporre. naplu: cavare, estirpare, demolire. naq: versare una libagione. naqru: demolire, radere al suolo, devastare. m (A): acqua. kullumu D: esporre alla luce, mostrare, rivelare. zumm: far mancare, privare. amu (UTU): (dio) Sole. 1

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout LVAREZ-MON, Javier (2009) Ashurbanipals Feast: A View from Elam, Iranica Antiqua, 44, pp. 131-180. BORGER, Rykle (1996) Beitrge zum Inschriftenwerk Assurbanipals. Die Prismenklassen A, B, C = K, D, E, F, G, H, J und T sowie andere Inschriften, with the collaboration of Andreas FUCHS, Wiesbaden. DENTZER, Jean Marie (1982) Le motif du banquet couch dans le Proche-Orient et le monde grec du 7. au 4. sicle avant J.-C. (Bibliothque des coles franaises dAthnes et de Rome, 246), Rome: coles franaise de Rome. LUCKENBILL, Daniel David (1926-1927) Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, 1, Historical Records of Assyria from the Earliest Times to Sargon; 2, Historical Records of Assyria from Sargon to the End (reprint 1989).

2. Stone plaques with banquet scene (Louvre, Sb 41-42)


From Susa, acropolis, under the temple of Ninhursag. Dating: 2730-2600 BC ca. A. Louvre, Sb 41 In alabaster, 17 16 cm. Local production following Mesopotamian models (Harper & al. 1992, no. 51 = Amiet 1969, no. 130, with bibliography). Banqueting scene in the upper register; hero hitting a lion which is biting a bull in the lower register. B. Louvre, Sb 42 In alabaster, 11 13 cm. Local production following Mesopotamian models (Amiet 1969, no. 131, with bibliography). Fragment of a banqueting scene in the upper register; servants and/or drinking companions filling containers from a great vase in the lower register. AMIET, Pierre (1966) lam, Auvers-sur-Oise. HARPER, Prudence O., Joan ARUZ & Franoise TALLON (1992) The Royal City of Susa. Ancient Near Eastern Treasures in the Louvre, New York (anche in edizione francese rivista da Annie CAUBET: La cit royale de Suse, Paris, 1994).

A.

B. GPBs editing of the photos in Amiet 1966. Not in scale.

3. Funerary offerings in an Akkadian legal text from Susa


Sukkal-mah period (first half of the 2nd millennium BC). 1014. MDP 23, no. 285 ina pani mtiu kirbna a pani u warki ipma ana fNarubti mrtiu iddii CAD Before his death, he broke the clod of his current and future (children) and gave (his estate) to his daughter Narubti. Facing death, he broke the clod (from) the front and the rear (border line?) and gave (his estate) to his daughter Narubti. While I am still alive you will give me food, when I am dead you will make funerary offerings (kispu) (for me). 2 CAD P (2005), s.v. pan p. 97b CAD K (1971), p. 403a, s.v. kirbnu 1 2 b CAD K, p. 426b, s.v. kispu b)

1516.

balkuma akala ta[nadd]ina mtakuma kispa takassi[pa]

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout A fronte (delleventualit) della sua (prossima?) morte, egli ha rotto la zolla del prima e dopo (= ha diseredato la sua prole presente e futura*) e ha dato (tutti i suoi possedimenti, elencati prima) alla figlia Narubti. Finch sar vivo mi fornirai alimento, quando sar morto farai le offerte funebri (kispu). * Cos Malul 1988, p. 83, nota 21. GPB preferisce la prole nata prima e dopo Narubti. MALUL, Meir (1988) Studies in Mesopotamian Legal Symbolism (Alter Orient und Altes Testament, 221), Kevelaer & Neukirchen-Vluyn. MDP 23 = Vincent SCHEIL (1932) Actes juridiques susiens (Suite : no 166 no 327) (Mmoires de la Mission Archologique de Perse, 23), Paris.

4. Food for the dead in the funerary tablets from Susa


Akkadian tablets found in the entrance pit of a hypogeal chamber tomb to the East of the Apadana of Susa. The tablets are dated on palaeographical grounds to the end of the Sukkal-mah period, i.e. about 1500 BC according to the ultra-low chronology. The content, quite enigmatic for us, is related to the netherworld. See Tavernier 2013 for further bibliography. A. Scheil no. 4; MDP 18, no. 253 (Dossin); Bottro no. 18; Gasche & Steve no. 4. Steve & Gasche 1996 4. e--ru(?) a-u aal-li im-mar 5. i.a i-li-im-me 6. li-m[al?]-la pi-ka 7. -l li-im-gu-r-ka Steve & Gasche 1996 emporter (?) pour une jarre il trouvera des huiles, de la graisse de grosses sauterelles. Quil emplisse ta bouche ! Que le die texauce ! Bottro 1982 te montrer[a(?)] donguents GPB per trovare una giara. Di tutti i tipi di olio (e) di olio di cavallette possa riempire la tua bocca!

eru: portar via, prendere. allu: un vaso dargilla per birra, olio, grassi o vino. amru: vedere, trovare, essere mostrato, prendersi cura. au: riguardo a, a causa di, con il durativo al fine di.

que soit remp[li]e ta bouche, (et) que mon dieu Possa il dio esserti texauce ! favorevole! ilimmu: cavalletta. mal: riempire canali, terra, persone, organi umani, contenitori. p: bocca. ilu: dio. magru: essere daccordo, favorevole.

B. Scheil no. 7; MDP 18, no. 259 (Dossin); Ebeling no. 3 V; Bottro no. 21; Gasche & Steve no. 7. Original exemplar lost, available only in Dossins drawing. Steve & Gasche 1996 1. ku-r[u(?)-um-ma-tu ] 2. ma-a-[q-it ] 3. is-q ma-zu-tu [] Steve & Gasche 1996 des portions de nourriture ? de la bois[son ] une provision dhuile, de (bire) presse quon apporte x [] (pour) nourriture : mouton, orge pais, quil man[ge!] Bottro 1982 la bi[re ??] la bois[son ??] ont t apurs/librs Je vais installer GPB razioni di cibo , bevande , una parte dolio, (birra) pressata , possa portare. Possa mangiare un montone e orzo ben maturo come cibo.

4. lu-uz-t-bil x [] 5. ma-ak-la UDU E.GUR4 (?) li[k-ku-ul ?] kurummatu: porzione di cibo, razione per uomini, di o animali. kurunnu: birra di qualit. maqtu: bevanda, pozione (medicinale). isqu: parte, porzione. amnu (): olio, per lo pi di sesamo, raramente doliva; grasso danimale. Cf. maztu: f., (eccessivamente) pressata, generalmente riferito alla birra economica. zablu: Gt portare, trasportare. mklu: cibo, pasto, offerta di cibo agli di. immeru (UDU): montone. eu (E): orzo. kabru (GUR4): essere, rendere spesso. In riferimento alle spighe di orzo, indica il pieno rigoglio (CAD K, p. 5, s.v. kabru 1 e). aklu: mangiare. 3

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout BOTTRO, Jean (1982) Les inscriptions cuniformes funraires, in Gherardo GNOLI & Jean-Pierre VERNANT (eds.), La mort, les morts dans les socits anciennes. Actes du Colloque sur lidologie funraire, Ischia, Cambridge, 1977, pp. 373406, Cambridge. GRILLOT-SUSINI, Franoise (2001) Le monde den bas en Susiane, Revue dassyriologie et darchologie orientale, 95, pp. 141-148. STEVE, M.-J. & H. GASCHE (1996) Laccs lau-del, Suse, H. GASCHE & B. HROUDA, eds., Collectanea Orientalia. Histoire, arts de lespace et industrie de la terre. tudes offertes en hommage Agns Spycket (Civilisations du ProcheOrient. Serie I. Archologie et environnement, 3), pp. 329-348, Neuchtel & Paris: Recherches et Publications. TAVERNIER, Jan (2013) Elamite and Old Iranian Afterlife Concept, in Katrien DE GRAEF & Jan TAVERNIER (eds.), Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives. Proceedings of the International Congress held at Ghent University, December 14-17, 2009 (Mmoires de la Dlgation en Perse, 58), pp. 471-489, Leiden: Brill.

5. Funerary offerings in the stela of Tepti-Ahar


Stela found at Haft Tappeh (15 km to the South-East of Susa, centre settled in the 15th century BC) in the courtyard of the Tomb-Temple Complex. At the back of the courtyard there are two vaulted burial chambers (3 5 m ca. each) where 42 skeletons were found. Text and translation according to Reiner 1973. 1-27. Quantities of flour, beer and sheep subdivided according to time periods and feasts, with several subtotals. 28. (omissis) U.NIGN 42 GUR 4 BN ZI.DA 42 GUR 4 (omissis) in all, 42 GUR 4 seahs of flour, 42 GUR 4 seahs BN bi-il-la-t[u 84+ X UDU.NIT] of beer, [84 + x sheep] 29. a-bi i-s-in dki-ir-wa--ir ta-a-ri-i-ti e-ri-iq-[q for the festival of Abu, the feast of Kirwair, Tartu, ku-uk-al-la-tu ku-uk-e-ru- i-ri-ba-am-ma] and the chariot [Kuk-Allatu, Kuk-er, Irbamma,] 30. ma-gu-na-an-nu mat-ta-me-te-en mi-ri-ib-dIM mi-lu- Agunannu, Attameten, Irb-Adad, Ilum-bni [...] um-ba-ni mN[I? ...] they will sacrifice and will make the funerary 31. i-na-aq-q- ki-is-pa i-ka-as-s-i-pu ma-a-a-ar offerings; the guards of the house [... Kuk-Allatu,] .D.A [...mku-uk-al-la-tu] Kuk-er, Irbamma, Agunannu, Attameten, Irb-[Adad 32. mku-uk-e-ru- mi-ri-ba-am-ma ma-gu-na-an-nu m at-ta-me-te-en mi-ri-[ib-dIM ...] ...] 33. in-na-an-di-nu UD 1 SLA a-ka-la UD 1 SLA which will be delivered, per day 1 q of bread, per day ka-a-ra ip-pu [u- ...] 1 q of beer, the ippu of [Susa ...] 34. ki-is-pa i-ka-as-s-pu ip-pu u- li-i- x [...] they will make the funerary offerings, the ippu of Susa let take and [...] 35. x-x-an-di-lu--ma 5 UD an-na-a -ki-in ku-ul-li- they will [...] these 5 days the ... [...] i a x [...] 36. [x] il-ki KU is-su--ma UDU.NIT in-na-ak-ki- has taken and called? ....; the sheep that will be su x [...] slaughtered [...] 37. ? 5 UD an-na-a ka-di UDU.NIT wa-a-ar-ku- in- and(?) these 5 days together with the later sheep will na-ak-ki-s[u ...] be sacrificed [...] 38. u-ku-ul-ta i-na pu-ur-s-ti li-il-q i-i-ru tu-u[-...] let him take the food in a bowl; the meat, .... [...] Sumerian GUR BN SLA Akkadian kurru stu q translation = SLA modern (ca.) kor 300 300 l seah 10 10 l liter 1 1l

MALBRAN-LABAT, Florence (1995) Les inscriptions royales de Suse. Briques de lpoque palo-lamite lEmpire no-lamite, Paris: ditions de la Runion des muses nationaux. MOFIDI-NASRABADI, Behzad (2010) Vorebericht der archologischen Ausgrabungen der Kampagnen 2005-2007 in Haft Tappeh (Iran), mit Beitrgen von Doris Prechel und Reza Vahidzadeh, Mnster: Agenda. NEGAHBAN, Ezat O. (1991) Excavations at Haft Tepe, Iran, Philadelphia: The University Museum of Archaelogy and Anthropology. REINER, Erica (1973) Inscription from a Royal Elamite Tomb, Archiv fr Orientforschung, 24, pp. 87-102 & pls. XI-XII, Berlin & Graz.

6. The funerary (?) banquets of Chogha Zanbil


Inscription attested on 14 votive seals found at Chogha Zanbil; some of them have a banqueting scene (MDP 42, nos. 54-58, 78 and 80). On three seals (among which MDP 42, no. 56), the last line is omitted. Text and translation according to Reiner in MDAI 42. CARTER, Elizabeth (2011) Landscapes of Death in Susiana during the Last Half of the 2nd Millennium B.C., in Javier LVAREZ-MON and Mark B. GARRISON (eds.), Elam and Persia, pp. 45-58, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns. 4

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout MDAI 40 = Roman GHIRSHMAN (1968) Tchoga Zanbil (Dur-Untash), vol. II, Temenos, temples, palais, tombes (Mmoires de la Dlgation Archologique en Iran, 40), Paris. MDAI 42 = Edith PORADA (1970) Tchoga Zanbil (Dur-Untash), vol. IV, La glyptique (Mmoires de la Dlgation Archologique en Iran, 42), lgendes des cylinders par E. REINER, Paris. MOFIDI NASRABADI, Behzad (2007) Archologische Ausgrabungen und Untersuchungen in oa Zanbil, Mnster: Edition Quantum. 1. KI DINGIR TI.LA itti ili balu Il est au dieu de (donner) la vie, 2. KI 200 KAR itti arri eru il est au roi de sauver 3. NI NI APIN(?) KA ... ...

From left: TZ 607 = MDP 42, no. 54 (50 17 mm); TZ 632, MDP 42, no. 55 (46 15 mm), both from the room called Chapel IV along the wall surrounding the ziggurat of Chogha Zanbil; TZ 244 = MDP 42, no. 56 (40 13 mm), from room M.

7. The banquet of Izeh, the bowl from the Arjan tomb and the ip at Persepolis
The following evidence is not necessarily related to a funerary context but it is relevant in a discussion of banqueting in ancient Elam. Rock relief of Kul-e Farah (KF IV) Rock relief in the gorge of Kul-e Farah near the city of Izeh (South-Western Iran). In the same gorge there are other rock reliefs, among which KF I is inscribed with a long neo-Elamite inscription, commonly dated to the 7th or 6th century BC, in the name of Hani, an otherwise unknown local chief. In the relief KF IV, dated to the 9th8th centuries BC according to varez-Mon, a wide banqueting scene is carved on more registers and adjoining surfaces of the rock. At the top of the central section (panel A), a human figure is seated in front of a small table with a mouthful of food, probably meat, in hand. He is surrounded by ca. 140 smaller standing human figures in the same act of eating, except for some musicians. LVAREZ-MON, Javier (2013) Braids of Glory. Elamite Sculptural Reliefs from the Highlands: Kl-e Farah IV, in Katrien DE GRAEF & Jan TAVERNIER (eds.), Susa and Elam. Archaeological, Philological, Historical and Geographical Perspectives. Proceedings of the International Congress held at Ghent University, December 14-17, 2009 (Mmoires de la Dlgation en Perse, 58), pp. 207-248, Leiden: Brill. DE WAELE, ric (1981) Travaux archologiques ekf-e Salmn et Kl-e Farah prs dIzeh (Mlamr), Iranica Antiqua, 16, pp. 45-61 & pls. 1-4. MALBRAN-LABAT, Florence (2004) La fte en lam dans le culte royal et les crmonies populaires, in M. MAZOYER, J. PREZ REY, F. MALBRAN-LABAT & R. LEBRUN (eds.), La fte. La rencontre des dieux et des hommes (Collection Kubaba. Srie Actes, 4), pp. 39-48, Paris.

KF IV in De Waeles drawings (De Waele 1981, figs. 7-8).

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout

KF IV in lvarez-Mons rectified drawing (lvarez-Mon 2013, fig. 16).

The Arjan bowl Bronze bowl ( 43 cm) found in a hypogeal tomb near the Marun river, in the neighbourhood of the abandoned city of Arjan, in the area of Behbehan. The bowl is internally decorated by five concentric narrative registers. Dated to the second half of the 7th century BC or to the first half of the 6th, according to lvarez-Mon it commemorates the deeds of the dead. In the outer register (Vb), some high-rank persons, seated in front of tables, are drinking from a cup.

Register Vb in the rectified drawing by Vatandust (lvarez-Mon 2010, tav. 64).

ALVAREZ-MON, Javier (2004) Imago Mundi: Cosmological and Ideological Aspects of the Arjan Bowl, Iranica Antiqua, 39, pp. 203-237. LVAREZ-MON, Javier (2010) The Arjan Tomb. At the Crossroads of the Elamite and the Persian Empires (Acta Iranica, 49), Leuven: Peeters. PF-NN 2259 Elamite administrative tablets from the northern fortification wall of Persepolis, internally dated to the 20th regnal year (502-501 BC) of Darius I. Full text and English translation in Henkelman 2008, pp. 387-389. GPB sperimental transcription Henkelman 2008 14 (head), in accordance with a sealed document from 14 halmi HALFarnaka-na-ma ANip-ma ma-k-a Parnakka, were consumed at a ip feast, du[...]; Parnakka has tu?-[...] HALKI+MIN (= Farnaka) ANip huta-performed the ip feast (at) Pasargadae (in) the month [...]. ta APatrakata ANITIME [...] (Summary): Altogether 420 head of sheep/goats consumed in 29- PAP 4 ME 20 UDU.NITME ma-k-a pel 20the 20th year; allocations from Apayauda, Urikama being 30. umema kur-ma-n HALApaiauda-na HAL Aurikama ara-ma-n-a pel 20-umema responsible, in the 20th year. halmi: sigillo, utilizzato spesso con il significato di documento sigillato ovvero authentication (Cameron, Hinz, Stolper), authorization (Hallock), original document (opposed to a copy) (Henkelman). -na: suffisso con valore generalmente genitivo. 1-2. 6

G.P. BASELLO The Taste of the Dead Handout Farnaka: antico-iranico *Farnaka-, uno dei pi alti funzionari attestati nelle tavolette di Persepoli. Secondo la legenda aramaica di uno dei suoi sigilli (PFS 16*, attestato come sigillatura su varie altre tavolette), Parnaka figlio di Arama, probabilmente lo stesso Arama nonno di Dario I secondo la genealogia delliscrizione di Bisotun (2). Se cos fosse, Parnaka sarebbe il fratello di Vistaspa, il padre di Dario, e quindi zio paterno dello stesso Dario. In realt Arama era un nome abbastanza comune; si chiama cos anche lalto funzionario persiano di cui stata ritrovata parte di una corrispondenza in Egitto (<http://www.iranica.com/ articles/arsama-greek-arsmes-aramaic-rsm-name-of-several-achaemenid-notables>; si veda anche lutile materiale in <http://arshama.classics.ox.ac.uk/general>). Erodoto menziona tra laltro Artabazo, figlio di (da Tavernier 2007, pp. 178-179, 4.2.567; ad es. Storie IX 41), posto da Serse alla guida della Frigia Ellespontica (la satrapia di coloro (che sono) presso il mare, amministrata dal centro di Daskyleion). AN: determinativo (classificatore lessicale nella terminologia linguistica) che precede i nomi di divinit e altri elementi considerati divini o comunque legati al mondo divino, come alcuni nomi di mese o le parole stesse per mese e giorno (Basello 2002, pp. 16-17; Henkelman 2008, p. 552). ip: una festa legata agli di (Henkelman 2011). Si noti il classificatore AN. -ma: suffisso con valore genericamente locativo. ma-: consumare, mangiare (?). huta-: fare. Patrakata: probabilmente Pasargade. ITI: logogramma per mese. PAP: logogramma per totale. UDU.NIT: ovino. pel: anno. -umena: suffisso che forma lordinale. kur-ma-n: base allargata in -ma, forse con significato essere in mano, in senso traslato essere responsabile (Basello 2011, pp. 6ss, 2.3). Il sintagma kurman PN-na largamente attestato anche nelle tavolette elamiche amministrative di tardo periodo neo-elamita da Susa e corrisponde forse allaramaico l-yd in mano a ovvero sotto la responsabilit di. Cf. anche elamico kur-p mani in DB el. III:62 (= DB pers. 54): a-ak me-ni AN u-ra-ma-da kur-pi DI-ni-na-ma ap-pi-in hu-ut-ta Ahuramazda mise (letteralmente: fece) loro (= i paesi ribelli) nelle mie mani. Henkelman preferisce tradurre stanziamento/assegnazione di PN lasciando il senso generico di responsabilit a ara-ma-n-a (si veda pi sotto). *Aspyauda-: nome iranico, combattendo a cavallo (Tavernier 2007, p. 121, no. 4.2.168). *Auri-kma-: nome iranico, desiderio di Ahura (Tavernier 2007, p. 128, no. 4.2.212). ara-: distribuire, generalmente nel sintagma PN ara-ma-n-a PN distribuente (base allargata in -ma nella forma interpretata in genere come participio presente o gerundio) ovvero, nellinterpretazione corrente, PN incaricato della distribuzione (Henkelman 2008, p. 19 e p. 128, nota 285). BASELLO, Gian Pietro (2002) Elam and Babylonia: The Evidence of the Calendars, in Antonio C.D. PANAINO & Giovanni PETTINATO (eds.), Ideologies as Intercultural Phenomena (Melammu Symposia, 3), pp. 13-36, Milano: Mimesis & Istituto Italiano per lAfrica e lOriente. BASELLO, Gian Pietro (2011) Elamite as Administrative Language: From Susa to Persepolis, in Javier LVAREZ-MON & Mark B. GARRISON (eds.), Elam and Persia, pp. 61-88, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, ISBN 978-1-57506-166-5. HENKELMAN, Wouter F.M. (2003) An Elamite Memorial: The umar of Cambyses and Hystaspes, in Wouter HENKELMAN & Amlie KUHRT (eds.), A Persian Perspective. Essays in Memory of Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg (Achaemenid History, 13), pp. 101-172, Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. HENKELMAN, Wouter F.M. (2008) The Other Gods who are. Studies in Elamite-Iranian Acculturation based on the Persepolis Fortification Texts (Achaemenid History, 14), Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten. HENKELMAN, Wouter F.M. (2010) Consumed before the king. The Table of Darius, that of Irdabama and Irtatuna, and that of his satrap, Karki, in Bruno JACOBS & Robert ROLLINGER (eds.), Der Achmenidenhof. Akten des 2. internationalen Kolloquiums zum Thema Vorderasien im Spannungsfeld klassischer und altorientalischer berlieferungen, Landgut Castelen bei Basel, 23.-25. Mai 2007 (Classica et Orientalia, 2), pp. 667-775, Wiesbaden. HENKELMAN, Wouter F.M. (2011) Parnakkas Feast: ip in Prsa and Elam, in Javier LVAREZ-MON & Mark B. GARRISON (eds.), Elam and Persia, pp. 89-166, Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, ISBN 978-1-57506-166-5. HULTGRD, Anders (2004) Ritual Community Meals in Ancient Iranian Religion, in Michael STAUSBERG (ed.), Zoroastrian Rituals in Context, pp. 367-388, Leiden: Brill. PARPOLA, Simo (2004) The Leftovers of God and King: On the Distribution of Meat at the Assyrian and Achaemenid Imperial Courts, in Lucio MILANO & Cristiano GROTTANELLI (eds.), Food and Identity in the Ancient World (History of the Ancient Near East. Studies, 9), pp. 281-312, Padova: S.A.R.G.O.N. TAVERNIER, Jan (2007) Iranica in the Achaemenid period (ca. 550-330 B.C.). Lexicon of Old Iranian Proper Names and Loanwords, Attested in Non-Iranian Texts (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, 158), Leuven: Peeters.