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INTELLECTUAL PROPERY CODE (R.A. No.

8293, effective January 1, 1998) INTELLECTUAL PROPERY

-those property rights which results from the physical manifestation of an original thought.)
COVERAGE Intellectual property right con i t o!" a# Copyright an$ relate$ right % &# Tra$e'ar( an$ er)ice 'ar( % c# Geographic in$ication % $# In$u trial $e ign % e# Patent % !# Layout*$e ign +Topographie # o! Integrate$ Circuit % an$ g# Protection o! Un$i clo e$ In!or'ation, +-ec, .# -TATE POLICY IN RE-PECT O/ INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIG0T- +IPR# *There i a $eclaration o! -tate Policy that1 a'ong other 1 the -tate recogni2e that an e!!ecti)e intellectual an$ in$u trial property y te' i )ital to the $e)elop'ent o! $o'e tic an$ creati)e acti)ity1 !acilitate tran !er o! technology1 attract !oreign in)e t'ent an$ en ure 'ar(et acce !or our pro$uct 1 hence it hall protect an$ ecure e3clu i)e right o! cienti t 1 in)entor 1 arti t 1 an$ other gi!te$ citi2en to their intellectual property an$ creation , +-ec, 4# INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION AND RECIPROTICY Any per on 5ho i a national or 5ho i $o'icile$ or ha a real an$ e!!ecti)e in$u trial e ta&li h'ent in a country 5hich 6# i a party to any con)ention1 treaty1 or agree'ent relating to intellectual property right or the repre ion o! un!air co'petition to 5hich the Philippine i al o a party1 or 4# e3ten$ reciprocal right to national o! the Philippine &y la51 hall &e entitle$ to &ene!it to the e3tent nece ary to gi)e e!!ect to any pro)i ion o! uch con)ention1 treaty1 or reciprocal la51 in a$$ition to the right to 5hich any o5ner o! an intellectual property right i other5i e pro)i$e$ &y la5, +-ec, 7# REVERSE RECIPROCITY OF FOREIGN LAWS Section 231 'a(ing en!orcea&le on national o! a !oreign tate all con$ition 1 re triction 1 li'itation 1 $i'inution 1 re8uire'ent or penaltie that 'ay &e i'po e$ &y uch !oreign tate on a /ilipino national ee(ing intellectual property protection, Reciprocal application i not auto'atic Rather1 the Phil , 'ay apply to the !oreign national tho e re triction that hi country i'po e on /ilipino applicant 9hat are :TEC0NOLOGY TRAN-/ER ARRANGE;ENT-<= *contract or agree'ent in)ol)ing the tran !er o! y te'atic (no5le$ge !or the 'anu!acture o! a pro$uct1 the application o! a proce 1 or ren$ering o! a er)ice inclu$ing 'anage'ent contract % an$ the tran !er1 a ign'ent or licen ing o! all !or' o! intellectual property right 1 inclu$ing licen ing o! co'puter o!t5are e3cept co'puter o!t5are $e)elope$ !or 'a 'ar(et, +-ec, .#

PRESCRIP I!E PERI"# "$ AC I"NS $"R #A%A&ES 'N#ER (E IPC *No $a'age 'ay &e reco)ere$ a!ter !our +.# year !ro' the ti'e the cau e o! action aro e +-ec, 44># J'RIS#IC I"N "!ER #ISP' ES 'N#ER IPC

A. Original Jurisdiction 1) #irector &enera) (IP") *ha original ?uri $iction to re ol)e $i pute relating to the ter' o! a licen e in)ol)ing the author@ right to pu&lic per!or'ance or other co''unication o! hi 5or(, 2) *ureau of +e,a) Affair*ha ?uri $iction o)er the !!" i, Oppo ition to application !or regi tration o! 'ar( % ii, Cancellation o! tra$e'ar( % iii, Cancellation o! patent 1 utility 'o$el an$ in$u trial $e ign % i), Petition !or co'pul ory licen ing o! patent % ), A$'ini trati)e Co'plaint !or )iolation o! la5 in)ol)ing IPR 5here the total $a'age clai'e$ i not le than P4AA1AAA,AA 3) #ocu.entation, Infor.ation an/ ec0no)o,y ran-fer *ureau *ha ?uri $iction to ettle $i pute in)ol)ing technology tran !er pay'ent B. Appellate Jurisdiction 1) #irector &enera) *o)er all $eci ion ren$ere$ &y the !!" Dir, o! Legal A!!air Dir, o! Patent Dir, o! Tra$e'ar( Dir, o! the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er 2) Court of A11ea)*o)er $eci ion o! the Director General in the e3erci e o! hi appellate ?uri $iction o)er the $eci ion o! the" Dir, o! Legal A!!air Dir, o! Patent Dir, o! Tra$e'ar( 3) Secretary of ra/e an/ In/u-try *o)er $eci ion o! the Director General on the e3erci e o! hi appellate ?uri $iction o! the Director o! Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er% AND *o)er $eci ion o! the Director General in the e3erci e o! hi original ?uri $iction relating to the ter' o! licen e in)ol)ing the author@ right, A#%INIS RA I!E PENA+ IES I%P"SE# $"R !I"+A I"NS "$ +A2S IN!"+!IN& IPR *The Director !or Legal A!!air 'ay i'po e the !!" a# I uance o! a cea e an$ $e i t or$er +CDO#% &# Acceptance o! )oluntary a urance co'pliance +VAC# or )oluntary a urance o! $i continuance +VAD#% c# Con$e'nation or ei2ure o! pro$uct u&?ect o! the o!!en e% $# /or!eiture o! propertie u e$ in the co''i ion o! the o!!en e% e# I'po ition o! a$'ini trati)e !ine % !# Cancellation o! per'it1 licen e1 authority or regi tration% g# 9ithhol$ing o! per'it1 licen e1 authority or regi tration% h# A e 'ent o! $a'age % i# Cen ure% ?# Analogou penaltie or anction +-ec, 6A,4 B&C# +A2 "N PA EN S PA EN an e3clu i)e right ac8uire$ o)er an in)ention1 to ell1 u e1 an$ 'a(e the a'e 5hether !or co''erce or in$u try,

PA EN A*+E IN!EN I"NS *any technical olution o! a pro&le' in any !iel$ o! hu'an acti)ity 5hich i NEW1 in)ol)e an INVENTIVE STEP an$ i INDUSTRIA ! APP I"AB E hall &e patenta&le, The patenta&le in)ention 'ay &e1 or 'ay relate to1 a pro$uct1 or proce 1 or an i'pro)e'ent o! any o! the !oregoing, +-ec, 46# Re3uire.ent-4 1) ec0nica) -o)ution of a 1ro5)e. in any fie)/ of 0u.an activity 4# Nove)ty that 5hich $oe not !or' part o! a prior art con i t o!" a# that 5hich ha &een 'a$e a)aila&le to the pu&lic any5here in the 5orl$ &e!ore the !iling $ate or the priority $ate o! the application &# that 5hich !or' part o! an application 5hether !or patent1 utility or in$u trial $e ign1 e!!ecti)e in the Philippine 1 pro)i$e$ that" i, the in)entor or applicant are not the a'e ii, the content o! the application are pu&li he$ in accor$ance 5ith the re8uire'ent o! patent application rule , iii, the !iling $ate o! the prior art i earlier,

3) Inventivene--6Inventive Ste1 *an in)ention in)ol)e an in)enti)e tep i!1 ha)ing regar$ to prior art1 it i not o&)iou to a per on (ille$ in the art o! the ti'e o! the !iling $ate or priority $ate o! the application clai'ing the in)ention, +-ec, 4># 7) In/u-tria) A11)ica5i)ity *an in)ention that can &e pro$uce$ an$ u e$ in any in$u try, +-ec, 4D# N"N8PA EN A*+E IN!EN I"NS The !ollo5ing hall &e e3clu$e$ !ro' patent protection" a# Di co)erie 1 -cienti!ic Theorie an$ ;athe'atical ;etho$ % &# -che'e 1 rule an$ 'etho$ o! per!or'ing 'ental act 1 playing ga'e or $oing &u ine 1 an$ progra' !or co'puter% c# ;etho$ !or treat'ent o! the hu'an or ani'al &o$y &y urgery or therapy an$ $iagno tic 'etho$ practice$ on the hu'an or ani'al &o$y% $# Plant )arietie or ani'al &ree$ o! e entially &iological proce !or the pro$uction o! plant or ani'al % e# Ae thetic creation % !# Anything 5hich i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality +-ec, 44#

RI&( a# &# c# $# e# !#

" A PA EN The right to a patent &elong " to the in)entor1 hi heir 1 or a ign 5hen 4 or 'ore per on ha)e 'a$e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ently to the' ?ointly i! t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e 'a$e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ently o! each other to the per on 5ho !ile$ an application !or uch in)ention ($IRS " $I+E R'+E) 5here 4 or 'ore application are !ile$ !or the a'e in)ention to the applicant 5ho ha the earlie t !iling $ate or the earlie t priority $ate ($IRS " $I+E R'+E) +-ec, 4E# in ca e o! in)ention create$ pur uant to a co''i ion to the per on 5ho co''i ion the 5or( UNLESS agree$ other5i e, in ca e an e'ployee 'a$e the in)ention in the cour e o! hi e'ploy'ent1 the patent hall &elong to" the e'ployee i! in)ention not part o! hi regular $utie e)en i! he u e the ti'e1 !acilitie an$ 'aterial o! the e'ployer% OR the e'ployer i! the in)ention i the re ult o! the per!or'ance o! hi regularly a igne$ $utie unle agree$ other5i e,

RI&( S AC9'IRE# *: (E PA EN EE The patentee ac8uire the !ollo5ing right un$er hi patent a# 9here the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent i a product1 to re train1 prohi&it an$ pre)ent any unauthori2e$ per on or entity !ro' 'a(ing1 u ing1 o!!ering !or ale1 elling or i'porting that pro$uct% &# 9here the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent i a process1 to re train1 pre)ent or prohi&it any unauthori2e$ per on or entity !ro' u ing the proce 1 an$ !ro' 'anu!acturing1 $ealing in1 u ing or o!!ering !or ale1 or i'porting any pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' uch proce % c# to a ign1 or tran !er &y ucce ion the patent1 an$ to conclu$e licen ing contract !or the a'e +-ec, D6# C"N EN S "$ PA EN APP+ICA I"N A patent application hall contain" 6# a re8ue t !or the grant o! patent% 4# a $e cription o! the in)ention% *the $i clo ure o! the in)ention 'u t &e in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or it to &e carrie$ out &y a (ille$ in the art, 7# Dra5ing nece ary !or the un$er tan$ing o! the in)ention% .# One or 'ore clai' F# An a& tract +-ec, 74# 'u t contain rele)ant in!or'ation a to the i$entity o! the per on +no anony'ou per on# i! the applicant i not the in)entor% he 'u t ho5 proo! o! authority to ee( application !or regi tration 'NI : "$ IN!EN I"N *e)ery application !or patent regi tration 'u t contain an application o)er a in)ention or e)eral in)ention &ut 'u t !or' part o! a ingle general in)enti)e concept i'ple

PR"CE#'RE $"R (E &RAN "$ PAREN a# Accor$ing a !iling $ate to the application +-ec, .6#% &# E3a'ination o! co'pliance &y applicant 5ith the !or'al re8uire'ent peci!ie$ in -ec, 741 i,e,1 content o! application +-ec, .4#% c# Cla i!ication o! application an$ earch !or prior art +-ec, .7# $# Pu&lication o! patent application in the IPO Ga2ette +-ec, ..#% e# In pection o! the application $ocu'ent &y any intere te$ party an$ 5ritten o& er)ation &y any thir$ party concerning the patenta&ility o! the in)ention +-ec , ..,4 an$ .D#% !# 9ritten re8ue t &y the applicant1 5ithin > 'onth !ro' the $ate o! pu&lication o! hi patent application1 !or the u& tanti)e e3a'ination &y the IPO o! hi application, +-ec .G#% g# Grant o! the patent +-ec, FA#1 or re!u al o! the e3a'iner to grant the patent +-ec, F6#% in the latter ca e1 the re!u al 'ay &e appeale$ to the Director o! the Hureau o! Patent % h# Pu&lication o! the grant o! patent in the IPO Ga2ette +-ec, F4# ER% "$ A PA EN , ' I+I : %"#E+, IN#'S RIA+ #ESI&N a# Patent 4A yr !ro' the !iling $ate o! application1 5ithout rene5al &# Utility 'o$el D yr 1 5Iout rene5al c# In$u trial $e ign F yr 1 rene5a&le t5ice ' I+I : %"#E+S *'o$el o! i'ple'ent or tool o! any in$u trial pro$uct e)en i! not po 8uality o! in)ention &ut 5hich i o! :practical utility< e e$ o! the

IN#'S RIA+ #ESI&N *any co'po ition o! line or color or any three*$i'en ional !or'1 5hether or not a ociate$ 5ith line or color pro)i$e$ that uch co'po ition or !or' gi)e a pecial appearance to an$ can er)e a pattern !or an in$u trial pro$uct or han$icra!t,

CANCE++A I"N "$ PA EN S 20o .ay fi)e; any per on IPO motu proprio &roun/-4 a# That the patent i in)ali$ +-ec, G6#% &# That 5hat i clai'e$ a the in)ention i not ne5 or patenta&le% c# That the patent $oe not $i clo e the in)ention in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or it to &e carrie$ out &y any per on (ille$ in the art% or $# That the patent i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality, +-ec, >6# e# !ailure to 'a(e pay'ent o! annual !ee or $ue 20ere to fi)e; HLA i! in )iolation o! IPC +a$'ini trati)e# RTC other5i e IN$RIN&E%EN *the 'a(ing1 u ing1 o!!ering !or ale1 elling or i'porting a patente$ pro$uct or a pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' a patente$ proce or the u e o! a patente$ proce 5ithout the authori2ation o! the patentee, +-ec, D># ES "$ PA EN IN$RIN&E%EN 1) +itera) Infrin,e.ent re ort i ha$ to the :5or$ < o! the clai', 2) #octrine of E3uiva)ent- i! t5o $e)ice $o the a'e 5or( in u& tantially the a'e 5ay1 the a'e re ult1 an$ pro$uce u& tantially the a'e re ult1 they are the a'e e)en though they $i!!er in na'e1 !or'1 or hape, RE%E#IES IN CASE "$ IN$RIN&E%EN A# /ile civil c se !or the !ollo5ing purpo e " 6# To reco)er !ro' the in!ringer uch $a'age a the court 'ay a5ar$ con i$ering the circu' tance o! the ca e pro)i$e$ it hall not e3cee$ 7 ti'e the a'ount o! the actual $a'age u taine$ plu attorney@ !ee an$ other e3pen e o! litigation% 4# To ecure an in?unction !or the protection o! hi right % 7# To recei)e a rea ona&le royalty1 i! the $a'age are ina$e8uate or cannot &e rea$ily a certaine$ 5ith rea ona&le certainty% .# To ha)e the in!ringing goo$ 1 'aterial an$ i'ple'ent pre$o'inantly u e$ in the in!ringe'ent $i po e$ o! out i$e the channel o! co''erce1 or $e troye$ 5ithout co'pen ation% F# To hol$ the contri&utory in!ringer ?ointly an$ e)erally lia&le 5ith the in!ringer, H# /ile crimi! l c se 5ithin 7 year !ro' $ate o! co''i in!ringe'ent +-ec, G.# +A2 "N RA#E%AR<S RA#E%AR< anything 5hich i a$opte$ an$ u e$ to i$enti!y the ource o! origin o! goo$ 1 an$ 5hich i capa&le o! $i tingui hing the' !ro' goo$ e'anating !ro' a co'petitor SER!ICE %AR< $i tingui he the er)ice o! an enterpri e !ro' the enterpri e , It per!or' !or er)ice 5hat a tra$e'ar( $oe !or goo$ , er)ice o! other ion o! the cri'e !or repetition o!

C"++EC I!E %AR< * any )i i&le ign $e ignate$ a uch in the application !or regi tration an$ capa&le o! $i tingui hing the origin or any other co''on characteri tic1 inclu$ing the 8uality o! goo$ an$ er)ice o! $i!!erent enterpri e 5hich u e the ign un$er the control o! the regi tere$ o5ner o! the collecti)e 'ar( +-ec, 646,4#

RA#E NA%ES the per on +5hether natural or ?uri$ical# 5ho $oe &u ine an$ pro$uce the goo$ or the er)ice i $e ignate$ &y a tra/e na.e, *Un$er the la51 there i no nee$ to regi ter tra$e na'e in or$er to ecure protection !or the', RA#E #RESS in)ol)e the total i'age o! a pro$uct1 inclu$ing hape1 color or color co'&ination 1 te3ture1 an$Ior graphic , uch !eature a i2e1

("2 %AR<S ARE AC9'IRE# *Un$er RA G4E71 the right in a 'ar( hall &e ac8uire$ through regi tration 'a$e )ali$ly in accor$ance 5ith it pro)i ion , +-ec, 644# *Thi propo ition o! la51 ho5e)er1 'ay not &e con)erte$ !or it i not true that 5here there i no regi tration1 there i no protection, Ac3ui-ition t0rou,0 u-e *9hether or not a regi tere$ tra$e'ar( i e'ploye$1 5hen a per on ha i$enti!ie$ in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic the goo$ he 'anu!acture or $eal in hi &u ine or er)ice !ro' tho e o! other 1 uch a per on ha a property right in the goo$5ill o! ai$ goo$ or er)ice 5hich 5ill &e protecte$ in the a'e 'anner a other property right +-ec, 6>G,6# RI&( S C"N$ERRE# *the o5ner o! a regi tere$ 'ar( hall ha)e the e3clu i)e right to pre)ent all thir$ partie not ha)ing the o5ner@ con ent !ro' u ing in the cour e o! tra$e i$entical or i'ilar ign or container !or goo$ or er)ice 5hich are i$entical or i'ilar to tho e in re pect o! 5hich the tra$e'ar( i regi tere$ 5here uch u e 5oul$ re ult in a li(elihoo$ o! con!u ion, +-ec, 6.D# #'RA I"N *the certi!icate o! regi tration o! a tra$e'ar( hall &e ten +6A# year !ro' the !iling $ate o! application pro)i$e$ the regi trant hall !ile a $eclaration o! actual u e 5ithin a year !ro' the Fth anni)er ary o! regi tration $ate +-ec, 6.F# *rene5a&le !or another 6A yr , +-ec, 6.># N"N8RE&IS RA*+E RA#E%AR<S, RA#E NA%ES AN# SER!ICE %AR< A 'ar( cannot &e regi tere$ i! it" a# Con i t o! i''oral1 $ecepti)e or can$alou 'atter1 or 'atter 5hich 'ay $i parage or !al ely ugge t a connection 5ith per on 1 li)ing or $ea$1 in titution 1 &elie! 1 or national y'&ol 1 or &ring the' into conte'pt or $i repute% &# Con i t o! the !lag or coat o! ar' or other in ignia o! the Philippine or any o! it political u&$i)i ion 1 or o! any !oreign nation1 or any i'ulation thereo!% c# Con i t o! a na'e1 portrait or ignature i$enti!ying a particular li)ing in$i)i$ual e3cept &y hi 5ritten con ent1 or the na'e1 ignature1 or portrait o! a $ecea e$ Pre i$ent o! the Philippine 1 $uring the li!e o! hi 5i$o51 i! any1 e3cept &y 5ritten con ent o! the 5in$o5% $# I i$entical 5ith a regi tere$ 'ar( &elonging to a $i!!erent proprietor or a 'ar( 5ith an earlier !iling or priority $ate1 in re pect o!" +i# The a'e go$ or er)ice 1 or +ii# Clo ely relate$ goo$ or er)ice 1 or +iii# I! it nearly re e'&le uch a 'ar( a to &e li(ely to $ecei)e or cau e con!u ion% e# I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( 5hich i con i$ere$ &y the co'petent authority o! the Philippine to &e 5ell*(no5n internationally an$ in the Philippine 1 5hether or not it i regi tere$ here1 a &eing alrea$y the 'ar( o! a per on other than the applicant !or regi tration1 an$ u e$ !or i$entical or i'ilar goo$ or er)ice " pro)i$e$1 that in $eter'ining 5hether a 'ar( i 5ell*(no5n1 account hall &e ta(en o! the (no5le$ge o! the rele)ant ector o! the pu&lic1 rather than o! the pu&lic at large1 inclu$ing (no5le$ge in the Philippine 5hich ha &een o&taine$ a a re ult o! the pro'otion o! the 'ar(% !# I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( con i$ere$ 5ell*(no5n in accor$ance 5ith the prece$ing paragraph1 5hich i regi tere$ in the

Philippine 5ith re pect to goo$ or er)ice 5hich are not i'ilar to tho e 5ith re pect to 5hich regi tration i applie$ !or" pro)i$e$1 that u e o! the 'ar( in relation to tho e goo$ or er)ice 5oul$ in$icate a connection &et5een tho e goo$ or er)ice 1 an$ the o5ner o! the regi tere$ tra$e'ar(" Pro)i$e$ !urther that the intere t o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( are li(ely to &e $a'age$ &y uch u e% g# I li(ely to 'i lea$ the pu&lic1 particularly a to the nature1 8uality1 characteri tic or geographical origin o! the goo$ or er)ice % h# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign that are generic !or the goo$ or er)ice that they ee( to i$enti!y% i# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or o! in$ication that ha)e &eco'e cu to'ary or u ual to $e ignate the goo$ or er)ice in e)ery$ay language or in a &ona!i$e an$ e ta&li he$ tra$e practice% ?# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or in$ication that 'ay er)e in tra$e to $e ignate the (in$1 8uality1 8uantity1 inten$e$ purpo e1 )alue1 geographical origin1 ti'e or pro$uction o! the goo$ or ren$ering o! the er)ice 1 or other characteri tic o! the goo$ or er)ice % (# Con i t o! hape that 'ay &e nece itate$ &y technical !actor or &y the nature o! the goo$ the' el)e or !actor that a!!ect their intrin ic )alue% l# Con i t o! color alone1 unle $e!ine$ &y a gi)en !or'% or '# I contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality +-ec, 647# $I+IN& #A E "$ AN APP+ICA I"N *The !iling $ate o! an application hall &e the $ate on 5hich the o!!ice recei)e$ the !ollo5ing in$ication an$ ele'ent in Engli h or /ilipino" a# An e3pre or i'plicit in$ication that the regi tration o! a 'ar( i ought% &# In$ication u!!icient to contact the applicant or hi repre entati)e1 i! any% c# In$ication u!!icient to contact the applicant or hi repre entati)e1 i! any% $# A repro$uction o! the 'ar( 5here regi tration i ought% an$ e# The li t o! the goo$ or er)ice !or 5hich the regi tration i ought, +-ec, 64D,6# NO !iling $ate hall &e accor$e$ until the re8uire$ !ee i pai$ +-ec, 64D,4# PR"CE#'RE $"R RE&IS RA I"N a# E3a'ination to $eter'ine 5hether the application ati !ie the re8uire'ent !or the grant o! a !iling $ate, &# E3a'ination to $eter'ine 5hether the application 'eet the re8uire'ent o! -ec, 64. an$ the 'ar( i regi tra&le un$er -ec, 647, c# Denial o! the application or a'en$'ent thereo! or pu&lication o! the application% $# Oppo ition to the application% notice% hearing% $eci ion &y e3a'iner% appeal to the Director o! Hureau o! Tra$e'ar( % appeal to the IPO Director General% appeal to the CA% e# I uance o! Certi!icate o! regi tration !# Pu&lication in the IPO Ga2ette o! the !act o! regi tration CANCE++A I"N "$ RA#E%AR< "R RA#ENA%E 20o .ay fi)e; any per on 5ho &elie)e that he i an$ 5ill &e $a'age$ &y the regi tration o! a 'ar( 20ere to fi)e; HLA &roun/-4 a# ;ar( &eco'e generic !or goo$ !or 5hich it i regi tere$% &# A&an$on'ent o! the 'ar(% c# Regi tration o&taine$ !rau$ulently or contrary to pro)i ion o! RA G4E7% $# ;ar( u e$ &y1 or 5ith per'i ion1 or1 regi trant% e# /ailure to u e the 'ar( 5ithin the Philippine !or 7 uninterrupte$ year or longer, E$$EC S "$ N"N8'SE 'ay &e e3cu e$ i! cau e$ &y circu' tance ari ing in$epen$ently o! the 5ill o! the tra$e'ar( o5ner1 uch a 'ilitary coup1 or political change that i'pe$e co''erce

Regi tration i an a$'ini trati)e act $eclaratory o! a pre*e3i ting right that $oe not1 o! it el!1 per!ect a tra$e'ar(1 !or 5hat $oe i ctu l use Non*u e i a groun$ !or re'o)ing a 'ar( !ro' the regi ter

#"C RINE "$ SEC"N#AR: %EANIN& *9hile a generic1 in$icati)e or $e cripti)e 'ar( 5ill1 a a general rule1 &e $enie$ regi tration1 there i a circu' tance that 5ill allo5 it to &e regi tere$, Un$er the doctri!e o" seco!d r# me !i!$% 5hen a 'ar( ha &eco'e $i tincti)e o! the applicant@ go$ in co''erce an$1 in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic1 in$icate a ingle ource o! con u'er 1 it 'ay &e regi tere$, 2(A C"NS I ' ES AN IN$RIN&E%EN *Un$er RA G4E71 any per on hall1 5ithout the con ent o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar(" 6# U e in co''erce any repro$uction1 counter!eit1 copy1 or colora&le i'itation o! a regi tere$ 'ar( or the a'e container or a $o'inant !eature thereo! in connection 5ith the ale1 o!!ering !or ale1 $i tri&ution1 a$)erti ing any goo$ or er)ice inclu$ing other preparatory tep nece ary to carry out the ale o! any goo$ or er)ice on or in connection 5ith 5hich uch u e i li(ely to cau e con!u ion1 or to cau e 'i ta(e1 or to $ecei)e% or 4# Repro$uce1 counter!eit1 copy or colora&ly i'itate a regi tere$ 'ar( or a $o'inant !eature thereo! an$ apply uch repro$uction1 counter!eit1 copy1 or colora&le i'itation to la&el 1 ign 1 print 1 pac(age 1 5rapper 1 receptacle 1 or a$)erti e'ent inten$e$ to &e u e$ in co''erce upon or in connection 5ith the ale1 o!!ering !or ale1 $i tri&ution1 or a$)erti ing o! goo$ or er)ice on1 or in connection 5ith 5hich uch u e i li(ely to cau e con!u ion1 or to cau e 'i ta(e1 or to $ecei)e1 hall &e lia&le !or in!ringe'ent, +-ec, 6FF# ES "$ RA#E%AR< IN$RIN&E%EN 1) #o.inancy e-t = con i t in ee(ing out the 'ain1 e ential or $o'inant !eature o! a 'ar(, 2) (o)i-tic e-t ta(e toc( o! the other !eature o! a 'ar(1 ta(ing into con i$eration the entirety o! the 'ar( , #I$$EREN IA E# $R"% 'N$AIR C"%PE I I"N 6# C use o" ctio!& in in!ringe'ent1 the cau e o! action i the unauthori2e$ u e o! a regi tere$ tra$e'ar(% in un!air co'petition1 it i the pa ing o!! o! one@ goo$ a tho e o! another 'erchant, 4# Fr udule!t i!te!t i not nece ary in in!ringe'ent1 &ut nece ary in UC, 7# Re$istr tio! o" tr dem r's& in in!ringe'ent1 it i a pre*re8ui ite% in UC1 it i not re8uire$, .# Cl ss o" $oods i!volved& in in!ringe'ent1 the goo$ 'u t &e o! i'ilar cla % in UC1 the goo$ nee$ not &e o! the a'e cla , in!ringe'ent i a !or' o! un!air co'petition RE%E#IES A!AI+A*+E IN CASE "$ IN$RIN&E%EN "$ A RE&IS ERE# %AR< a# -ue !or $a'age +-ec, 6F>,6#% &# 0a)e the in!ringing goo$ i'poun$e$ +-ec, 6F>,4#% c# A ( !or $ou&le $a'age +-ec, 6F>,7# $# A ( !or in?unction +6F>,.# e# 0a)e the in!ringing goo$ $i po e$ o! out i$e the channel o! co''erce +-ec, 6FD,6# !# 0a)e the in!ringing goo$ $e troye$ +-ec, 6FD,6# g# /ile cri'inal action +-ec, 6DA#% h# A$'ini trati)e -anction 'N$AIR C"%PE I I"N *any per on 5ho hall e'ploy $eception or any other 'ean contrary to goo$ !aith &y 5hich he hall pa o!! the goo$ 'anu!acture$ &y hi' or in 5hich he $eal 1 or hi &u ine 1

or er)ice !or tho e o! the one ha)ing e ta&li he$ uch goo$5ill1 or 5ho hall co''it any act calculate$ to pro$uce ai$ re ult1 hall &e guilty o! un!air co'petition, (o> Co..itte/ a# ;a(ing one@ goo$ appear a the goo$ o! another% &# U e o! arti!ice or $e)ice to in$uce the !al e &elie! that one@ goo$ are tho e o! another% c# /al e tate'ent in the cour e o! tra$e% or $# Any act contrary to goo$ !aith calculate$ to $i cre$it another@ goo$ ES "$ 'N$AIR C"%PE I I"N *The te t i 5hether certain goo$ ha)e &een clothe$ 5ith an appearance li(ely to $ecei)e the or$inary purcha er e3erci ing or$inary care, RE%E#IES A&AINS 'N$AIR C"%PE I I"N a# Da'age 5hich 'ay either &e" rea ona&le pro!it 5hich 5oul$ ha)e reali2e$1 or actual pro!it collecte$ &y the $e!en$ant1 or a certain percentage o)er the gro ale o! $e!en$ant in ca e o! the 'ea ure o! $a'age cannot &e rea$ily a certaine$% &# Da'age 'ay &e $ou&le$ in ca e 5here actual intent to 'i lea$ the pu&lic or to $e!rau$ the co'plaint i ho5n% c# I'poun$ing o! ale in)oice an$ other $ocu'ent e)i$encing ale % $# In?unction e# De truction o! goo$ !oun$ to &e in!ringing1 an$ all paraphernalia,

+A2 "N C"P:RI&( C"P:RI&( y te' o! legal protection an author en?oy in the !or' o! e3pre ion o! i$ea

*ASIC PRINCIP+ES 9or( are protecte$ &y the ole !act o! their creation1 irre pecti)e o! their 'o$e or !or' o! e3pre ion1 a 5ell a their content1 8uality or purpo e +-ec, 6D4,4# Protection e3ten$ only to the e3pre ion o! the i$ea1 not to the i$ea it el! or to any proce$ure1 y te'1 'etho$ or operation1 concept or principle1 $i co)ery or 'ere $ata, CREA I"N "$ A 2"R< A copyright 5or( i create$ 5hen the t5o+4# re8uire'ent are 'et" 1) "ri,ina)ity $oe not 'ean no)elty or ingenuity1 neither uni8uene nor creati)ity, It i'ply 'ean that the 5or( (o)es its ori$i! to t*e ut*or+ 2) E?1re--ion there 'u t &e ("i, tio!+ To &e :!i3e$<1 a 5or( 'u t &e e'&o$ie$ in a 'e$iu' u!!iciently" per'anent% or ta&le to per'it it to &e percei)e$1 repro$uce$1 or other5i e co''unicate$ !or a perio$ o! 'ore than tran itory $uration, *i! it i not re8uire$ that the 'e$iu' &e )i i&le a long a there i a po i&ility o! retrie)al1 then there i !i3ation *it i !i3ation that $e!ine the ti'e !ro' 5hen copyright u& i t , He!ore !i3ation1 there can &e no in!ringe'ent, 2"R<S PR" EC E# *: C"P:RI&( A. "ri,ina) 2or@ * Literary an$ arti tic 5or( are original intellectual creation in the literary an$ arti tic $o'ain protecte$ !ro' the 'o'ent o! their creation1 irre pecti)e o! their 'o$e or !or' o! e3pre ion1 a 5ell a o! their content1 8uality an$ purpo e1 an$ hall inclu$e in particular" a# Hoo( 1 pa'phlet 1 article an$ other 5riting

&# Perio$ical an$ ne5 paper c# Lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 $i ertation prepare$ !or oral $eli)ery1 5hether or not re$uce$ in 5riting or other 'aterial !or' $# Letter e# Dra'atic or $ra'atico*'u ical co'po ition % choreographic 5or( or entertain'ent in $u'& ho5 !# ;u ical co'po ition 1 5ith or 5ithout 5or$ g# 9or( o! $ra5ing1 painting1 architecture1 culpture1 engra)ing1 lithography or other 5or( o! art% 'o$el or $e ign !or 5or( o! art h# Original orna'ental $e ign or 'o$el !or article o! 'anu!acture1 5hether or not regi tra&le a an in$u trial $e ign1 an$ other 5or( o! applie$ art, i# Illu tration 1 'ap 1 plan 1 (etche 1 chart an$ three*$i'en ional 5or( relati)e to geography1 topography1 architecture or cience ?# Dra5ing or pla tic 5or( o! a cienti!ic or technical character (# Photographic 5or( inclu$ing 5or( pro$uce$ &y a proce analogou to photography% lantern li$e l# Au$io)i ual 5or( an$ cine'atographic or any proce !or 'a(ing au$io*)i ual recor$ing '# Pictorial illu tration an$ a$)erti e'ent n# Co'puter progra' o# Other literary1 cholarly1 cienti!ic an$ arti tic 5or( +-ec, 6D4# *. #erivative 2or@- the !ollo5ing $eri)ati)e 5or( hall al o &e protecte$" a# Dra'ati2ation 1 tran lation 1 a$aptation 1 a&ri$g'ent 1 arrange'ent 1 an$ other alteration o! literary 5or( &# Collection o! literary1 cholarly or arti tic 5or( 1 an$ co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial 5hich are original &y rea on o! the election or coor$ination or arrange'ent o! their content , +-ec, 6D7# 2"R<S N" PR" EC E# *The !ollo5ing 5or( are not protecte$" 6# Any i$ea1 proce$ure1 y te'1 'etho$ or operation1 concept1 principle1 $i co)ery or 'ere $ata a uch1 e)en i! e3pre e$1 e3plaine$1 illu trate$1 or e'&o$ie$ in a 5or(% 4# Ne5 o! the $ay an$ other !act ha)ing the character o! 'ere ite' o! pre in!or'ation% 7# Any o!!icial te3t o! a legi lati)e1 a$'ini trati)e or legal nature1 a 5ell a any o!!icial tran lation thereo!, +-ec, 6DF# .# Any 5or( o! the Go)ern'ent o! the Philippine , +-ec, 6D># *ho5e)er1 prior appro)al o! the go)ern'ent agency or o!!ice 5herein the 5or( i create$ hall &e nece ary !or e3ploitation o! uch 5or( !or pro!it, -uch agency or o!!ice1 'ay1 a'ong other thing 1 i'po e a a con$ition the pay'ent o! royaltie F# Plea$ing % ># Deci ion o! court an$ tri&unal , *Thi pertain to the (ori$i! l decisio!s+ not to the -CRA pu&li he$ in )olu'e ince the e are protecte$ un$er $eri)ati)e 5or( , RI&( S "$ AN A' ("R +Author a natural per on 5ho ha create$ the 5or(,# A. Econo.ic Ri,0t- (Sec. 1AA) 6# Right to repro$uce% 4# Right to create $eri)ati)e 5or( % 7# Right to !ir t pu&lic $i tri&ution or !ir t ale% .# Right to rent out the original or a cop o! an au$io)i ual or cine'atographic 5or(% F# Right to pu&lic per!or'ance% ># Right to other co''unication o! the 5or( to the pu&lic, *. %ora) Ri,0t- (Sec. 193) 6# Right o! attri&ution or paternity right% 4# Right o! alteration or non*pu&lication%

7# Right to pre er)ation o! integrity .# Right not to &e i$enti!ie$ 5ith 5or( o! other or 5ith $i torte$ 5or(, er. of .ora) ri,0t *li!eti'e o! the author an$ FA year a!ter hi $eath 2aiver of .ora) ri,0t 6# &y a 5ritten in tru'ent +-ec, 6EF# 4# &y contri&ution to a collecti)e 5or( unle e3pre ly re er)e$ +-ec, 6E># PRINCIP+E "$ A' "%A IC PR" EC I"N Un$er the Herne Con)ention1 the en?oy'ent an$ e3erci e o! copyright1 inclu$ing 'oral right 1 hall not &e the u&?ect o! any !or'ality, "2NERS(IP "$ C"P:RI&( 6, Si!$le cre tor copyright &elong to the author o! the 5or(1 hi heir or a ign , 4, -oi!t cre tio! copyright &elong to the co*author ?ointly a co*o5ner , Hut i! the 5or( con i t o! i$enti!ia&le part 1 the author o! each part o5n the part that he ha create$, 7, Emplo#ee.s cre tio! copyright &elong to the e'ployee i! the creation i not part o! hi regular $utie e)en i! he u e the ti'e1 !acilitie an$ 'aterial o! the e'ployer% other5i e it &elong to the e'ployer ., Commissio!ed )or' the 5or( &elong to the per on co''i ioning &ut the copyright re'ain 5ith the creator unle there i a 5ritten tipulation to the contrary, F, Ci!em to$r p*ic )or's the pro$ucer ha copyright !or purpo e o! e3hi&ition% !or all other purpo e 1 the pro$ucer1 the author o! the cenario1 the co'po er1 the !il' $irector1 the author o! the 5or( are the creator , >, A!o!#mous !d pseudo!#mous )or's the pu&li her hall &e $ee'e$ the repre entati)e o! the author unle " a, the contrary appear &, the p eu$ony' or a$opte$ na'e lea)e no $ou&t a to the author@ i$entity or c, i! the author $i clo e hi i$entity +-ec, 6DE#, D, Collective )or's the contri&utor i $ee'e$ to ha)e 5ai)e$ hi right unle he e3pre ly re er)e it, +-ec, 6E># Collecti)e 5or( a 5or( create$ &y t5o or 'ore per on at the initiati)e an$ un$er the $irection o! another 5ith the un$er tan$ing that it 5ill &e $i clo e$ &y the latter un$er hi o5n na'e an$ that the contri&ution o! natural per on 5ill not &e i$enti!ie$, +-ec, 6D6,4# G, In ca e o! tran !er 1 the tran !eree hall o5n one or 'ore or all the econo'ic right tran !erre$ pro)i$e$" a, the a ign'ent1 i! inter )i)o 1 &e in 5riting +-ec, 6GA,4# &, the a ign'ent &e !ile$ 5ith the National Li&rary upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee, +-ec, 6G4#

#'RA I"N "$ C"P:RI&( Liter r# rtistic )or's !d deriv tive )or's o" SINGLE CREATOR * li!eti'e o! the creator an$ !or FA year a!ter hi $eath -oi!t cre tio! li!eti'e o! la t ur)i)ing co*creator an$ !or FA year a!ter hi $eath, A!o!#mous or )or' u!der pseudo!#m !ot ide!ti"i /le )it* t*e true ! me o" t*e cre tor FA year a!ter the $ate o! their !ir t pu&lication, E3cept 5here1 &e!ore the e3piration o! ai$ perio$1 the authorJ i$entity i re)eale$ or i no longer in $ou&t1 the rule !or ingle an$ ?oint creation hall apply P*oto$r p*ic )or's FA year !ro' the pu&lication o! the 5or(1 or !ro' 'a(ing the a'e ter' i gi)en to au$io)i ual 5or( pro$uce$ &y photography or analogou proce e , Wor' o" Applied Art 4F year !ro' the $ate o! 'a(ing Ne)sp per Article li!eti'e o! the author an$ FA year a!ter hi $eath A pure ne5 report 5ill no longer !in$ protection un$er he ne5 la51 HUT a colu'n or pu&li he$ co''ent 5ill

The 5or( o! per!or'er not incorporate$ in RECORDING1 PRODUCT- O/ -OUND I;AGE RECORDING-1 an$ HROADCA-T-1 are protecte$ !or perio$ o! FA year 1 FA year 1 an$ 4A year 1 re pecti)ely1 counte$ !ro' the en$ o! the year o! per!or'ance1 recor$ing1 or &roa$ca t 1 re pecti)ely,

T*e term o" protectio! s* ll /e cou!ted "rom t*e "irst d # o" - !u r# o" t*e #e r "ollo)i!$ t*e de t* or o" l st pu/lic tio! 0Sec1 2345 +I%I A I"NS " (E RI&( S "N C"P:RI&( 1) Private 1erfor.ance, 1rivate an/ 1er-ona) u-e applica&le only :5hen a 5or( ha &een la5!ully 'a$e acce i&le to the pu&lic,< Per-ona) '-e *'a(ing a ingle repro$uction1 a$aptation1 arrange'ent or other tran !or'ation o! another@ 5or( e3clu i)ely !or one@ o5n in$i)i$ual u e in uch ca e a per onal re earch1 learning or a'u e'ent Private '-e *'a(ing a repro$uction1 a$aptation or other tran !or'ation o! it1 in a ingle per on a in the ca e o! :per onal u e< &ut al o !or a co''on purpo e &y a peci!ic circle o! per on only, 2) $air '-e of a Co1yri,0te/ 2or@ $air '-e * A pri)ilege in per on other than the o5ner o! the copyright to u e the copyrighte$ 'aterial in a rea ona&le 'anner 5ithout it con ent1 not5ith tan$ing the 'onopoly grante$ to the o5ner &y the copyright, *the $octrine o! !air u e i 'eant to &alance the 'onopolie en?oye$ &y the copyright o5ner 5ith intere t o! the pu&lic an$ o! ociety, CRI ERIA " #E ER%INE 2(E (ER 'SE IS $AIR "R N" 4 a# Purpo e an$ the character o! the u e &# Nature o! the copyrighte$ 5or( c# A'ount an$ u& tantially o! the portion u e$ $# E!!ect o! the u e upon the potential 'ar(et o! the copyrighte$ 5or( +-ec, 6GF# (E B$AIR8'SESC "$ PR" EC E# %A ERIA+ ARE4 a# Critici2ing1 co''enting1 an$ ne5 reporting% &# U ing !or in tructional purpo e inclu$ing pro$ucing 'ultiple copie o! cla cholar hip1 re earch an$ i'ilar purpo e +-ec, 6GF#

roo' u e1 !or

3) 2"R<IN& "$ ARC(I EC 'RE (Sec. 18D) *inclu$e the right to control the erection o! any &uil$ing 5hich repro$uce the 5hole or a u& tantial part o! the 5or( either in it original or in any !or' recogni2a&ly $eri)e$ !ro' the original% Pro)i$e$1 that the copyright in any uch 5or( hall not inclu$e the right to control the recon truction1 or reha&ilitation in the a'e tyle a the original o! a &uil$ing to 5hich that copyright relate 7) REPR"#'C I"N "$ P'*+IS(E# 2"R< *e3clu i)ely !or re earch an$ pri)ate tu$y, E) REPR"&RAP(IC REPR"#'C I"N *: +I*RARIES *any li&rary or archi)e 5ho e acti)itie are not !or pro!it 'ay1 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o! copyright o5ner1 'a(e a ingle copy o! the 5or( &y reprographic repro$uction, D) REPR"#'C I"N "$ C"%P' ER PR"&RA%S *allo5e$ on the !!, con$ition " a# only one copy i 'a$e% &# la5!ul o5ner 'a$e the copy%

c# purpo e o! 5hich the repro$uction i 'a$e i legal li(e" u e to 5hich the progra' i 'a$e an$ !or 5hich it 5a purcha e$ $e'an$ the repro$uction o! a copy% or the repro$uction o! a copy i nece ary to guarantee again t lo or $e truction +-ec, 6GE,6# A) I%P"R A I"N $"R PERS"NA+ P'RP"SES *The i'portation o! a copy o! a 5or( &y an in$i)i$ual !or hi per onal purpo e hall &e per'itte$ 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o!1 or other o5ner o! copyright in1 the 5or( un$er the !ollo5ing circu' tance " a# Copie o! the 5or( are !ot v il /le in the Philippine an$" i, not 'ore than one copy at one ti'e i i'porte$ !or trict in$i)i$ual u e% ii, i'portation i &y authority an$ !or the u e o! Philippine Go)ern'ent% or iii, Religiou 1 charita&le1 or e$ucational ociety i'porte$ not 'ore than 7 copie per title pro)i$e$ they are not !or ale, &# Copie !or' part o! li&rarie an$ per onal &aggage &elonging to per on or !a'ilie arri)ing !ro' !oreign countrie an$ are not inten$e$ !or ale" Pro)i$e$1 that uch copie $o not e3cee$ three +7#, +-ec, 6EA# RE%E#IES IN CASE "$ IN$RIN&E%EN 4 6# I!6u!ctio! to pre)ent in!ringe'ent 4# 7 m $es a e e$ on the &a i o! the proo! allege$ &y the plainti!! o! ale 'a$e &y the $e!en$ant o! the in!ringing 5or( 'inu 5hate)er co t the $e!en$ant 'ay &e a&le to pro)e an$ appreciate$ &y the court, 7# 7eliver# u!der o t* o! all i'ple'ent e'ploye$ in the pro$uction o! the in!ringing pro$uct the' el)e an$ the in!ringing ite' 1 !or i'poun$ing or $e truction a the court 'ay or$er, .# P #me!t o" mor l !d e,empl r# d m $es in the $i cretion o! court, F# Cri'inal Action #I$$ERENCE *E 2EEN C"P:RI&( , PA EN AN# RA#E%AR< 6# Su/6ect 8 tter o" t*e Ri$*t& Copyright literary1 cienti!ic or arti tic 5or(% Patent ne51 u e!ul1 an$ in$u trially applica&le in)ention % Tra$e'ar( goo$ 'anu!acture$ or pro$uce$ 4# W*ere Ri$*t Re$istered& Copyright National Li&rary Patent an$ Tra$e'ar( IPO 7# 7ur tio! o" Ri$*t& Patent 4A year !ro' !iling or priority $ate Tra$e'ar( 6A year Copyright Generally up to FA year a!ter the $eath o! the author,

PART II /UNCTION- O/ T0E INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY O//ICE +IPO# +-EC, F# 6, ,E3a'ine application !or grant o! letter patent !or in)ention an$ regi ter utility 'o$el an$ in$u trial $e ign % 4, E3a'ine application !or the regi tration o! 'ar( 1 geographic in$ication 1 integrate$ circuit % 7, Regi ter technology tran !er arrange'ent an$ ettle $i pute in)ol)ing technology tran !er pay'ent % ., Pro'ote the u e o! patent in!or'ation a a tool !or technology $e)elop'ent% F, Pu&li h regularly in it o5n pu&lication the patent 1 'ar( 1 utility 'o$el an$ in$u trial $e ign 1 i ue$ an$ appro)e$1 an$ the technology tran !er arrange'ent regi tere$% >, A$'ini trati)ely a$?u$icate conte te$ procee$ing a!!ecting intellectual property right % an$ D, Coor$inate 5ith other go)ern'ent agencie an$ the pri)ate ector to trengthen the protection o! intellectual property right in the country% G, Cu to$y o! all recor$ 1 &oo( 1 $ra5ing 1 peci!ication 1 $ocu'ent 1 an$ other paper an$ thing relating to the intellectual property right application !ile$ 5ith the O!!ice, LAW ON COPYRIG9T COPYRIG9T It i that y te' o! legal protection an author en?oy in the !or' o! e3pre ion o! i$ea , +9orl$ Intellectual Property Organi2ation * 9IPO# the e3clu i)e right +or right # o! an author to the 5or( o! hi author hip (198A Con-titution). #E$INI I"NS FAut0orF * i the ! tur l perso! 5ho ha create$ the 5or(, KCo))ective 2or@F * i a 5or( 5hich ha &een create$ &y t5o +4# or 'ore natural per on at the initiati)e an$ un$er the $irection o! another 5ith the un$er tan$ing that it 5ill &e $i clo e$ &y the latter un$er hi o5n na'e an$ that contri&uting natural per on 5ill not &e i$enti!ie$, KJoint 2or@F * i a 5or( prepare$ &y t5o or 'ore author 5ith the intention that their contri&ution &e 'erge$ into in epara&le or inter$epen$ent part o! a unitary 5hole, i,e, 'e$ical te3t&oo( that i ?ointly authori2e$ &y t5o or three e3pert , F2or@ of a11)ie/ artF 8 i an arti tic creation )it* utilit ri ! !unction or incorporate$ in a u e!ul article1 5hether 'a$e &y han$ or pro$uce$ on an in$u trial cale, FPerfor.er-F * are actor 1 inger 1 'u ician 1 $ancer 1 an$ other per on 5ho act1 ing1 $eclai'1 play in1 interpret1 or other5i e per!or' literary an$ arti tic 5or(, CONSTITUTIONAL :ASIS The St te s* ll protect !d secure the e3clu i)e right o! -CIENTI-T-1 INVENTOR-1 ARTI-T- AND OT0ER GI/TED CITILEN- to their intellectual property an$ creation1

p rticul rl# )*e! /e!e"ici l to t*e people% !or uch perio$ a 'ay &e pro)i$e$ &y la5, (Art. GI!, Sec. 13, 198A Con-titution) CIVIL CO7E PROVISIONS Hy Intellectual creation1 the !ollo5ing per on ac8uire o)!ers*ip" 6, The author 5ith regar$ to hi literary1 $ra'atic1 hi torical1 legal1 philo ophical1 cienti!ic or other 5or(% 4, The co'po er1 a to hi 'u ical co'po ition% 7, The painter1 culptor1 or other arti t1 5ith re pect to the pro$uct o! hi art% ., The cienti t or technologi t or any other per on 5ith regar$ to hi $i co)ery or in)ention, (Art. A21, NCC) Letter an$ other pri)ate co''unication in 5riting are o5ne$ &y the per on to 5ho' they are a$$re e$ an$ $eli)ere$1 HUT they cannot &e pu&li he$ or $i e'inate$ 5ithout the con ent o! the 5riter or hi heir , (Art. A23, NCC) SI&NI$ICAN PR"!ISI"NS "$ (E A&REE%EN "N RA#E8RE+A E# ASPEC S "$ IN E++EC 'A+ PR"PER : RI&( S ( RIPS) IN RE&AR# " C"P:RI&( S4 a# Co'pliance 5ith the pro)i ion o! the Pari- convention (19DA) i 'a$e co'pul ory to 'e'&er , &# O&ligation un$er the Pari 1 Herne an$ Ro'e con)ention re'ain1 c# The treat'ent any 'e'&er* tate accor$ it o5n national relati)e to intellectual property i to &e accor$e$ the national o! all other 'e'&er* tate , /urther'ore1 any a$)antage1 !a)or or pri)ilege accor$e$ the national o! any other country hall &e accor$e$ the national o! other 'e'&er tate , EMCLUDED !ro' thi 'o t !a)ore$ nation pro)i ion are the right o! per!or'er 1 pro$ucer o! phonogra' an$ &roa$ca ting organi2ation +RECIPROCITY RULE#, $# ;e'&er are to co'ply 5ith the *erne Convention of 19A1 an/ it- a11en/i? 1 EMCEPT the right an$ o&ligation un$er Article >&i +ha to $o 5ith an authorJ K'oral right K# * ;EANING" 5hether or not the protection an$ guarantee con!erre$ &y Article >&i + mor l ri$*ts# apply or not i le!t 5ith the 'unicipal legi lation o! each 'e'&er* tate, SU:SISTENCE OF T9E RIG9TS Co!"erme!t o" ri$*ts The right con!erre$ &y the IPC in o!ar a COPYRIG0T i concerne$ su/sists "rom t*e mome!t o" cre tio! (Sec. 1A2.1). Un$er Philippine La51 NO /OR;ALITY I- RENUIRED that the author &e )e te$ 5ith the right o! copyright, CREATION O/ A 9ORO" A copyrighta&le 5or( i create$ 5hen the t5o re8uire'ent are 'et" 6, ORIGINALITY* $oe not 'ean no)elty or ingenuity1 neither uni8uene i'ply 'ean that the 5or( Ko)es its ori$i! to t*e ut*or;1 The 5or( i an in$epen$ent creation o! the author, nor creati)ity1 it

#. E$PRESSION%t&ere 'ust (e )*i+ation), to (e )-i+ed) a .or/ 'ust (e e'(odied in a 'ediu' su--icientl01 a# PER;ANENT% or &# -TAHLE% to per'it it to &e percei)e$1 repro$uce$1 or other5i e co''unicate$ !or a perio$ o! 'ore than tran itory $uration, -trictly pea(ing there i no 5or( !or copyright purpo e1 unle there i o'ething tangi&le1

*It i !i3ation that $e!ine the ti'e !ro' 5hen copyright u& i t , He!ore the ti'e o! !i3ation there can &e no in!ringe'ent, *Crucial e)ent or act that allo5 the author to in)o(e the la5" * It 'u t &e 5hen a 5or( o! author hip i at lea t e3pre e$ in o'e $eter'inate !or'1 i,e, !i3ation, N" E 4 CONTRARY VIE9 * The ne5 Intellectual Property Co$e i ilent on the re8uire'ent o! !i3ation, A& ent thi re8uire'ent o! !i3ation1 then copyright 5oul$ attach to &ear i$ea 5hich i e3clu$e$ &y uni)er al principle o! copyright, DURATION O/ COPYRIG0T /OR VARIOU- 9ORO-" +C0AP, MIV1 -EC, 467# A, LITERARY ARTI-TIC 9ORO- AND DERIVATIVE 9ORO- O/ A -INGLE CREATOR*the right u& i t $uring the li!eti'e o! the creator an$ !or !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath, +/or purpo e o! rec(oning the tart o! the !i!ty +FA#*year perio$1 the !ir t $ay o! Panuary o! the year !ollo5ing the e)ent 5hich gi)e ri e to the' i the tarting point * Sec. 217# &, In ca e o! POINT CREATION*the econo'ic right hall &e protecte$ $uring the li!e o! the la t ur)i)ing author an$ !or !i!ty year a!ter hi $eath +the !i!ty*year perio$ i counte$ !ro' the $eath o! the la t ur)i)ing co*creator#, c, 9hen an ANONY;OU- OR A P-EUDONY;OU- 9ORO* i pu&li he$1 the copyright la t till the en$ o! !i!ty year !ollo5ing the $ate o! their !ir t pu&lication, +co''encing !ro' Panuary 6 !ollo5ing the $ate o! pu&lication * Sec. 217# $, A 5or( o! APPLIED ART en?oy protection !or t5enty*!i)e +4F# year !ro' the $ate o! 'a(ing, E, P0OTOGRAP0IC 9ORO-* are protecte$ !or !i!ty +FA# year !ro' the pu&lication o! the 5or(1 or !ro' 'a(ing the a'e ter' i gi)en to au$io)i ual 5or( pro$uce$ &y photography or analogou proce e , /, A NE9-PAPER ARTICLE* 5ill there!ore en?oy a ter' o! protection e8ual to that en?oye$ &y other literary 5or( " the li!eti'e o! the author an$ !i!ty year therea!ter, I'portant1 ho5e)er1 relati)e to ne5 paper an$ perio$ical i the $enial o! copyright protection to Kne5 o! the $ay an$ other 'i cellaneou !act ha)ing the character o! 'ere ite' o! pre in!or'ation,K (Sec. 1AE) A pure !e)s report )ill !o lo!$er "i!d protectio! u!der t*e !e) l )% :UT colum! or pu/lis*ed comme!t )ill1 9hen ne5 paper an$ perio$ical inclu$e 5or( en?oying in$epen$ent copyright 1 the 5or( o inclu$e$ continue en?oying the right !or a $uration proper to the', T9E SU:-ECT OF COPYRIG9T A, LITERARY AND ARTI-TIC 9ORO6, Hoo( 1 pa'phlet 1 article an$ other 5riting % 4, Perio$ical an$ ne5 paper % 7, Lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 $i ertation prepare$ !or oral $eli)ery1 5hether or not re$uce$ in 5riting or other 'aterial !or'% ., Letter % F, Dra'atic or $ra'atico*'u ical co'po ition % choreographic 5or( or entertain'ent in $u'& ho5 % >, ;u ical co'po ition 1 5ith or 5ithout 5or$ % D, 9or( o! $ra5ing1 painting1 architecture1 culpture1 engra)ing1 lithography or other 5or( o! art% 'o$el or $e ign !or 5or( o! art% G, Original orna'ental $e ign or 'o$el !or article o! 'anu!acture1 5hether or not regi tra&le a an in$u trial $e ign1 an$ other 5or( o! applie$ art% E, Illu tration 1 'ap 1 plan 1 (etche 1 chart an$ three +7# $i'en ional 5or( relati)e to geography1 topography1 architecture or cience% 6A, Dra5ing or pla tic 5or( o! a cienti!ic or technical character% 66, Photographic 5or( inclu$ing 5or( pro$uce$ &y a proce analogou to photography% lantern li$e %

64, Au$io)i ual 5or( an$ cine'atographic 5or( an$ 5or( pro$uce$ &y a proce analogou to cine'atography or any proce !or 'a(ing au$io)i ual recor$ing % 67, Pictorial illu tration an$ a$)erti e'ent % 6., Co'puter progra' % an$ 6F, Other literary1 cholarly1 cienti!ic an$ arti tic 5or( , (Sec. 1A2) N" E4 The author o! peeche 1 lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 an$ $i s* ll * ve t*e e,clusive ri$*t o" m 'i!$ collectio! o" *is )or's . (Sec. 1AD.2) ertation

B. DERIVATIVE WOR2S The !ollo5ing $eri)ati)e 5or( hall al o &e protecte$ &y copyright, 6, Dra'ati2ation 1 tran lation 1 a$aptation 1 a&ri$g'ent 1 arrange'ent 1 an$ other alteration o! literary or arti tic 5or( % an$ 4, Collection o! literary1 cholarly or arti tic 5or( 1 an$ co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial 5hich are original &y rea on o! the election or coor$ination or arrange'ent o! their content (Sec. 1A3). An i'portant inno)ation o! the ne5 la5 i the $i tinct copyright that the pu&li her o! a 5or( en?oy , The co$e pro)i$e * KIn a$$ition to the right to pu&li h grante$ &y the author1 hi heir 1 or a ign 1 t*e pu/lis*er s* ll * ve cop#ri$*t co!sisti!$ merel# o" t*e ri$*t o" reproductio! o" t*e t#po$r p*ic l rr !$eme!t o" t*e pu/lis*ed editio! o" t*e )or'1; (Sec. 1A7)

2"R<S N" PR" EC E#4 6, No protection hall e3ten$1 un$er thi la51 to any i$ea1 proce$ure1 y te'1 'etho$ or operation1 concept1 principle1 $i co)ery or 'ere $ata a uch1 e)en i! they are e3pre e$1 e3plaine$1 illu trate$ or e'&o$ie$ in a 5or(% (Sec. 1AE) 4, Ne5 o! the $ay an$ other 'i cellaneou !act ha)ing the character o! 'ere ite' o! pre in!or'ation% (Sec. 1AE) or 7, Any o!!icial te3t o! a legi lati)e1 a$'ini trati)e or legal nature1 a 5ell a any o!!icial tran lation thereo!, (Sec. 1AE) ., Any 5or( o! the Go)ern'ent o! the Philippine % 0o5e)er1 prior appro)al o! the go)ern'ent agency or o!!ice 5herein the 5or( i create$ hall &e nece ary !or e3ploitation o! uch 5or( !or pro!it, -uch agency or o!!ice 'ay1 a'ong other thing 1 i'po e a a con$ition the pay'ent o! royaltie , No prior appro)al or con$ition hall &e re8uire$ !or the u e o! any purpo e o! tatute 1 rule an$ regulation 1 an$ peeche 1 lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 an$ $i ertation 1 pronounce$1 rea$ or ren$ere$ in court o! ?u tice1 &e!ore a$'ini trati)e agencie 1 in $eli&erati)e a e'&lie an$ in 'eeting o! pu&lic character, (Sec. 1AE) F, Plea$ing % >, Although not e3plicitly 'entione$1 DECI-ION- O/ COURT- AND TRIHUNAL- are li(e5i e non*copyrighta&le, They 'ay there!ore &e !reely u e$ or 8uote$, NOTE" Thi pertain to the Koriginal $eci ion K not the -CRA PUHLI-0ED VOLU;E9IT0 ANNOTATION- ince the e are protecte$ un$er $eri)ati)e 5or( a Kcollection o! literary1 cholarly1 or arti tic 5or( an$ co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial 5hich are original &y rea on o! the election or coor$ination or arrange'ent o! their content ,K (Sec. 1A3.1 5) T9E RIG9TS OF COPYRIG9T A1 Cop#ri$*t or Eco!omic Ri$*ts

Copyright or Econo'ic right hall con i t o! the e3clu i)e right to +a# carry out1 +&# authori2e or +c# pre)ent the !ollo5ing act " 6, Repro$uction o! the 5or( or u& tantial portion o! the 5or(% 4, Dra'ati2ation1 tran lation1 a$aptation1 a&ri$g'ent1 arrange'ent or other tran !or'ation o! the 5or(% 7, /ir t pu&lic $i tri&ution o! the original an$ each copy o! the 5or(% ., Rental o! the original or a copy o! an au$io)i ual or cine'atographic 5or(% F, Pu&lic $i play o! the original or a copy o! the 5or(% >, Pu&lic per!or'ance o! the 5or(% an$ D, Other co''unication to the pu&lic o! the 5or(, (Sec. 1AA) B. 3oral Rig&ts The author o! a 5or( hall1 in$epen$ent o! econo'ic right or the grant o! an a ign'ent or licen e 5ith re pect to uch right1 ha)e the right" 6, Re8uire that the author hip o! the 5or( &e attri&ute$ to hi'1 in a pro'inent 5ay on the copie 1 an$ 5ith the pu&lic u e o! the 5or(% 4, ;a(e any alteration o! hi 5or( prior to1 or to 5ithhol$ it !ro' pu&lication% 7, O&?ect to any $i tortion1 'utilation or other 'o$i!ication o!1 or other $erogatory action in relation to1 hi 5or( 5hich 5oul$ &e pre?u$icial to hi honor or reputation% an$ ., Re train the u e o! hi na'e 5ith re pect to any 5or( not o! hi o5n creation or in a $i torte$ )er ion o! hi 5or( (Sec. 193), LI8ITATIONS ON COPYRIG9T& 0e fo))o>in, act- -0a)) N" con-titute infrin,e.ent of co1yri,0t4 6, Recitation or per!or'ance o! a 5or( *'a$e acce i&le to the pu&lic *pri)ately $one * !ree o! charge * trictly !or a charita&le or religiou in titution% 4, ;a(ing o! 8uotation !ro' a pu&li he$ 5or( * co'pati&le 5ith !air u e * to the e3tent ?u ti!ie$ !or the purpo e * inclu$ing 8uotation !ro' ne5 paper article an$ perio$ical * ource an$ na'e o! the author1 appearing on 5or(1 'u t &e 'entione$% 7, Repro$uction or co''unication to the pu&lic &y 'a 'e$ia * o! article on current political1 ocial1 econo'ic1 cienti!ic or religiou topic1 lecture 1 a$$re e an$ other 5or( 1 $eli)ere$ in pu&lic * u e i !or in!or'ation purpo e * not e3pre ly re er)e$ * ource i alrea$y in$icate$% ., Repro$uction an$ co''unication to the pu&lic o! literary1 cienti!ic or arti tic 5or( * a part o! report o! current e)ent *&y 'ean o! photography1 cine'atography or &roa$ca ting - to the e3tent nece ary !or the purpo e% F, Inclu ion o! a 5or( in a pu&lication1 &roa$ca t1 or other co''unication to the pu&lic1 oun$ recor$ing or !il' * i! 'a$e &y 5ay o! illu tration !or teaching purpo e * co'pati&le 5ith !air u e * ource an$ na'e o! the author1 appearing on 5or(1 'u t &e 'entione$% >, Recor$ing 'a$e in chool 1 uni)er itie 1 or e$ucational in titution o! a 5or( inclu$e$ in a &roa$ca t !or the u e o! uch chool 1 uni)er itie or e$ucational in titution * uch recor$ing 'u t &e $elete$ 5ithin a rea ona&le perio$

* uch recor$ing 'ay not &e 'a$e !ro' au$io)i ual 5or( 5hich are part o! the general cine'a repertoire o! !eature !il' EMCEPT !or &rie! e3cerpt o! the 5or(% D, ;a(ing o! ephe'eral recor$ing *&y a &roa$ca ting organi2ation * &y 'ean o! it o5n !acilitie * !or u e in it o5n &roa$ca t% G, U e 'a$e o! a 5or( &y or un$er the $irection or control o! the Go)ern'ent * Go)ern'ent * National Li&rary * E$ucational1 -cienti!ic1 or pro!e ional in titution * u e i in the pu&lic intere t * co'pati&le 5ith !air u e% E, Pu&lic per!or'ance or the co''unication to the pu&lic o! a 5or( * in a place 5here no a$'i ion !ee i charge$ &y a clu& on in titution * !or charita&le or e$ucational purpo e only * ai' i not pro!it 'a(ing% 6A, Pu&lic $i play o! the original or a copy o! the 5or( not 'a$e &y 'ean o! a !il'1 li$e1 tele)i ion i'age or other5i e on creen or &y 'ean o! any other $e)ice or proce * either the 5or( ha &een a# pu&li he$ &# ol$ c# gi)en a5ay $# tran !erre$ to another per on &y the author or hi ucce or in title% 66, Any u e 'a$e o! a 5or( !or the purpo e * o! any ?u$icial procee$ing % or * !or the gi)ing o! pro!e ional a$)ice &y a legal practitioner, The pro)i ion o! thi ection hall &e interprete$ in uch a 5ay a to allo5 the 5or( to &e u e$ in a 'anner 5hich $oe not con!lict 5ith the !orm l e,ploit tio! o" t*e )or' !d does !ot u!re so! /l# pre6udice t*e ri$*t *older<s le$itim te i!terests1 4Sec. 187.2) The pri)ate repro$uction o! a pu&li he$ 5or( in a si!$le cop#% 5here the repro$uction i 'a$e &y a natural per on e3clu i)ely !or +6# re earch an$ +4# pri)ate tu$y1 hall &e per'itte$1 5ithout the authori2ation o! the o5ner o! copyright in the 5or(, (Sec. 18A.1) 0O9EVER1 the per'i ion grante$ un$er -u& ection 6GD,6 -0ALL NOT EMTEND to the repro$uction o!" 333 +&# An e!tire /oo'% or su/st !ti l p rt t*ereo"% or o! a 'u ical 5or( in graphic !or' &y reprographic 'ean % (Sec. 18A.2) Un$er Article 56 paragrap& # of t0e Berne % Paris Convention1 in$i)i$ual countrie 'ay per'it the repro$uction o! literary an$ arti tic 5or( Kpro)i$e$ that uch repro$uction $oe not con!lict 5ith a nor'al e3ploitation o! the 5or( an$ $oe not unrea ona&ly pre?u$ice the legiti'ate intere t o! the author,K (a)-o foun/ in Sec. 18A.2 e) The a'e c ve t i containe$ in Article 78 of t0e 9ATT 58 intellectual property agree'ent" Li'itation or e3ception to the e3clu i)e right hall &e con!ine$ to certain pecial ca e 5hich $o not con!lict 5ith a nor'al e3ploitation o! the 5or( an$ $o not unrea ona&ly pre?u$ice the legiti'ate intere t o! the right * hol$er, T*is i!=/uilt protectio! o" t*e i!terests o" cop#ri$*t o)!er is !o) u!e>uivoc ll# e!s*ri!ed i! Sec. 7:;.# e1 PERS"NA+ 'SE * generally un$er too$ a 'a(ing a si!$le reproductio!% a$aptation1 arrange'ent or other tran !or'ation o! anotherJ 5or( e3clu i)ely !or oneJ o5n in$i)i$ual u e in uch ca e a per onal re earch1 learning or a'u e'ent, PRI!A E 'SE * generally un$er too$ in relation to a pu&li he$ 5or( a 'a(ing a repro$uction1 a$aptation or other tran !or'ation o! it1 in a ingle per on1 a in the ca e o! Kper onal u eK &ut al o !or a co''on purpo e &y a speci"ic circle o" perso!s o!l#, /AIR U-E O/ A COPYRIG0TED 9ORO

*air Use A pri)ilege1 in per on other than the o5ner o! the copyright1 to u e the copyrighte$ 'aterial in a re so! /le m !!er 5ithout hi con ent1 not5ith tan$ing the 'onopoly grante$ to the o5ner &y the copyright, It i 'eant to &alance the 'onopolie en?oye$ &y the copyright o5ner 5ith the intere t o! the pu&lic an$ o! ociety, N" E4 It only applie to copyrighte$ 5or( an$ not to non*copyrighta&le 'aterial,

CRITERIA TO DETER;INE 90ET0ER U-E I- /AIR OR NOT" 6, 4, 7, ., Purpo e an$ the character o! the u e Nature o! the copyrighte$ 5or( A'ount an$ u& tantiality o! the portion u e$ E!!ect o! the u e upon the potential 'ar(et o! the copyrighte$ 5or(

T0E K/AIR U-E-K O/ PROTECTED ;ATERIAL ARE" 6, Critici2ing1 co''enting1 an$ ne5 reporting% 4, U ing !or in tructional purpo e 1 inclu$ing pro$ucing 'ultiple copie !or cla roo' u e1 !or cholar hip1 re earch an$ i'ilar purpo e i not an in!ringe'ent o! copyright, (Sec. 18E) REPR"&RAP(IC REPR"#'C I"N *: +I*RARIES4 Any li&rary or archi)e 5ho e acti)itie are not !or pro!it 'ay1 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o! copyright o5ner1 'a(e a ingle copy o! the 5or( &y reprographic repro$uction1 5hen" 6, /ragile or rare 4, I olate$ article 7, Pre er)ation (Sec. 188.1) 3 4 It hall not &e per'i i&le to pro$uce a )olu'e o! a 5or( pu&li he$ in e)eral )olu'e or to pro$uce 'i ing to'e or page o! 'aga2ine or i'ilar 5or( 1 unle the )olu'e1 to'e or part i nece ary !or the collection o! the li&rary an$ i out o! toc(, (Sec. 188.2)

The right 'entione$ )e t in li&rarie 1 pu&lic archi)e an$ 'u eu' , There i no re8uire'ent that the li&rary &e a pu&lic li&rary1 it coul$ &e pri)ate, An$ i li'ite$ only to literary or arti tic 5or( , CRI ERIA $"R FREPR"&RAP(IC REPR"#'C I"NF "$ +I*RARIES4 6, Photocopying only1 i,e, K3ero3K +not &y other 'e$iu'# 4, -ingle copy 7, Con i tent 5ith the acti)itie o! the li&rary or archi)e REPR"#'C I"N "$ C"%P' ER PR"&RA%S4 The repro$uction o! a co'puter progra' i allo5e$ on the !ollo5ing con$ition " 6, Only one +6# copy i 'a$e% 4, La5!ul o5ner 'a$e the copy% 7, Purpo e !or 5hich the repro$uction i 'a$e i legal1 li(e" a# u e to 5hich the progra' i 'a$e an$ !or 5hich it 5a purcha e$ $e'an$ the repro$uction o! a copy% or &# lo or $e truction i a)oi$e$,

(Sec. 189.1) I.1ortation for Per-ona) Pur1o-e The i'portation o! a copy o! a 5or( &y an in$i)i$ual !or hi per onal purpo e hall &e per'itte$ 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o!1 or other o5ner o! copyright in1 the 5or( un$er the !ollo5ing circu' tance " a, Copie o! the 5or( are not a)aila&le in the Philippine an$" 1."ne (1) co1y at one ti.e i- i.1orte/, for -trict in/ivi/ua) 4,Hy Authority o! an$ !or the u e o! the Philippine Go)ern'ent% or 7,Religiou 1 Charita&le or E$ucational -ociety or in titution i'porte$ not 'ore than three +7# copie per title +or (in$# pro)i$e$ they are not !or ale, +it i enough i! the i'portation &e !or the a(e o! uch ociety or in titution# &, Copie !or' part o! li&rarie an$ per onal &aggage &elonging to per on or !a'ilie arri)ing !ro' !oreign countrie an$ are not inten$e$ !or ale" Provided1 That uch copie $o not e3cee$ three +7#, (Sec. 19H) T9E OWNERS9IP OF COPYRIG9T 6, -INGLE CREATOR * The creator1 hi heir or a ign o5n copyright, 4, POINT CREATION = The co * author hall &e the original o5ner o! the copyright an$ in the a& ence o! agree'ent1 their right hall &e go)erne$ &y the rule on co * o5ner hip, I!1 ho5e)er1 a 5or( o! ?oint author hip con i t o! part that can &e u e$ eparately an$ the author o! each part can &e i$enti!ie$1 the author o! each part hall &e the original o5ner o! the copyright in the part that he ha create$, 7, CO;;I--IONED 9ORO * O5ner hip o! the 5or( i in the per on co''i ioning% o5ner hip o! copyright1 re'ain 5ith the creator1 unle there i a 5ritten tipulation to the contrary, ., CINE;ATOGRAP0IC 9ORO * The pro$ucer e3erci e copyright !or purpo e o! e3hi&ition% !or all other purpo e 1 the pro$ucer1 the author o! the cenario1 the co'po er1 the !il' $irector1 the photographic $irector an$ the author o! the 5or( are the creator , /or purp e o! ho5ing the !il'1 ho5e)er1 the pro$ucer i to &e $ee'e$ copyright o5ner, F, P-EUDONY;OU- AND ANONY;OU- 9ORO- * Unle the author i un$i puta&ly (no5n1 the pu&li her hall &e pre u'e$ to &e the repre entati)e o! the author, (Sec. 1A8 an/ 1A9) A regar$ mor l ri$*ts1 the ?oint author are entitle$ to &e ac(no5le$ge$ a author o! the 5or( +-ec, 6E7,6 'ay apply#, A regar$ contri&ution to a collecti)e 5or(1 the la5 pro)i$e that unle the contri&utor e3pre ly re er)e hi right +5hich o!ten 5ill not &e the ca e preci ely &ecau e he i in the e'ploy o! a putati)e author or co''only accepte$ author#1 it i the putati)e author to 5ho' the 5or( 5ill &e attri&ute$, (Sec. 19D) 9hen a 5riter1 a photographer1 an arti t * or any other contri&utor * en$ in hi piece to a perio$ical or ne5 paper pu&li her1 uch 5riter or arti t retain hi copyright on the piece e3cept the right to pu&li h once * 5hich i $ee'e$ grante$ to the pu&li her, (Sec. 18H.3) COPYRIG0T O9NER-0IP O/ /OREIGN AUT0OR 9hen the author1 though a !oreigner1 ha ha&itual re i$ence in the Philippine 1 or 5hen the hea$8uarter o! the pro$ucer o! au$io)i ual 5or( i in the Philippine 1 copyright protection i &eyon$ $ou&t, Protection a!!or$e$ the co$e are applie$ to 5or( Kprotecte$ &y )irtue o! an$ in accor$ance 5ith any international con)ention or other international agree'ent to 5hich the Philippine i a party, (Sec. 221.2) ;e'&er hall accor$ the treat'ent pro)i$e$ !or in thi Agree'ent to the national o! other ;e'&er , (Art. 1, 1ar. 3, RIPSI Pari- 8 *erne ConventionI &A 97) 7EPOSIT AN7 NOTICE

Regi tration an$ Depo it 5ith the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary /or the purpo e o! co'pleting the recor$ o! the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary1 5ithin three +7# 5ee( 1 t5o +4# co'plete copie o! the 5or( hall &e regi tere$ an$ $epo ite$ 5ith the ai$ li&rarie 1 &y per onal $eli)ery or &y regi tere$ 'ail, A certi!icate o! $epo it hall &e i ue$ an$ the pre cri&e$ !ee collecte$ !or 5hich the copyright o5ner hall &e e3e'pt !ro' 'a(ing a$$itional $epo it o! the 5or( 5ith the a!ore'entione$ li&rarie un$er other la5 , I!1 5ithin three +7# 5ee( a!ter receipt &y the copyright o5ner o! a 5ritten $e'an$ !ro' the $irector !or uch $epo it1 the re8uire$ copie or repro$uction are not $eli)ere$ an$ the !ee i not pai$1 the copyright o5ner hall &e lia&le to pay a !ine . (Sec. 191) NOTICE OF COPYRIG9T Each copy o! a 5or( pu&li he$ or o!!ere$ !or ale 'ay contain a notice &earing the na'e o! the copyright o5ner1 3 3 3, (Sec. 192) Notice o! copyright i llo)ed1 !ot prescri/ed1 !or the per'i i)e K'ayK i u e$, INFRINGE8ENT RE;EDIE- o! one 5ho co'plain o! in!ringe'ent" 6, INPUNCTION to pre)ent in!ringe'ent (Sec. 21D) 4, DA;AGE- a e e$ on the &a i o! the proo! allege$ &y the plainti!! o! ale 'a$e &y the $e!en$ant o! the in!ringing 5or( 'inu 5hate)er co t the $e!en$ant 'ay &e a&le to pro)e an$ appreciate$ &y the court, +&# 7, DELIVERY UNDER OAT0 O/ ALL I;PLE;ENT- e'ploye$ in the pro$uction o! the in!ringing ite' 1 a 5ell a the in!ringing pro$uct the' el)e 1 !or i'poun$ing, +c# ., DELIVERY un$er oath o! all in!ringing copie or $e)i e !or $e truction, +$# F, PAY;ENT o! 'oral an$ e3e'plary $a'age in the $i cretion o! the court, +e# The in!ringer al o e3po e hi' el! to cri'inal lia&ility 5herein the la5 pre cri&e penaltie o! i'pri on'ent an$ !ine 1 inclu$ing u& i$iary i'pri on'ent in ca e o! in ol)ency, (Sec. 218) RELATE7 ISSUES 6, PURI-DICTION 5 Original ?uri $iction lie 5ith the Director General o! the IPO o)er $i pute relating to the ter' o! a licen e in)ol)ing the authorJ right to pu&lic per!or'ance or other co''unication o! hi 5or(, (Sec. A c) Other in!ringe'ent ca e are not 5ithin the ?uri $iction o! the Director * General, In !act throughout Sectio! 23?1 the ter' KcourtK i u e$1 lea)ing no $ou&t that ?uri $iction 5ill re t 5ith the KcourtK in )ie5 o! the ?uri $ictional a'ount an$ the cri'inal pro ecution o! i'po a&le penaltie , 4, -TANDING TO -UE Per on 5ho 'ay ue" a# Legal o5ner% or &# Hene!icial o5ner% ince they are Kpartie in intere t,K 7, DE/ENDANT6 Tho e 5ho 'ay &e lia&le !or in!ringe'ent un$er the copyright la5" a# In!ringer &# Ai$ c# A&et $# Participate e# Contri&ute !# Authori2e

a# Hene!it +$ee'e$ inclu$e$ in Sec. 21A#, A corner &oo( tore an$ 'aga2ine tore that )en$ pirate$ copie o! a 5or( i in !act )iolating the copyright o5nerJ right to e3clu i)ely $i tri&ute hi 5or(, -uch tore 5oul$ there!ore &e in!ringing, The printer 5ho1 though acting un$er in truction !ro' another1 et into 'otion the illegal repro$uction o! protecte$ 'aterial 5oul$1 in !act1 &e in!ringing copyright, ., PRE-CRIPTIVE PERIOD No $a'age 'ay &e reco)ere$ a!ter !our +.# year !ro' the ti'e the cau e o! action aro e, (Sec. 22D) Thi pertain only to reco)ery o! $a'age , There i no uch pre cripti)e perio$ in petition !or in?uncti)e relie! a 5ell a !or the i'poun$ing an$ $e truction o! in!ringing 'aterial, The cri'e o! in!ringe'ent i u&?ect to the general rule o! pre cription o! cri'e , PERFOR8ER<S RIG9TS 6, Authori2e a 5ell a prohi&it" a, The &roa$ca ting an$ other co''unication to the pu&lic o! their per!or'ance +inclu$ing teleca t#, (Sec. 2H3.1 a) &, The !i3ation o! their un!i3e$ per!or'ance, +&# +The a&o)e right hall &e 'aintaine$ an$ e3erci e$ !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath1 &y hi heir 1 an$ in $e!ault o! heir 1 the go)ern'ent * Sec. 2H7.2) 4, Direct or in$irect repro$uction o! their per!or'ance (Sec. 2H3.2) 7, /ir t Pu&lic $i tri&ution o! the original an$ copie o! their per!or'ance (Sec. 2H3.3), ., Co''ercial rental to the pu&lic o! the original an$ copie o! their per!or'ance (Sec. 2H3), F, ;a(ing a)aila&le to the pu&lic o! their per!or'ance !i3e$ in oun$ recor$ing &y 5ire or 5irele 'ean (Sec. 2H7.E), 8ORAL RIG9TS OF PERFOR8ERS 6, I$enti!ie$ a the per!or'er, 4, O&?ect to any $i tortion or 'utilation o! the per!or'ance (Sec. 2H7),

LA9 ON TRADE;ARORA#E%AR< i anything 5hich i a$opte$ an$ u e$ to i$enti!y the ource o! origin o! goo$ 1 an$ 5hich i capa&le o! $i tingui hing the' !ro' goo$ e'anating !ro' a co'petitor, &""#2I++ i the reputation an$ pu&lic con!i$ence that a &u ine through a perio$ o! cre$ita&le $ealing , )enture ha earne$

The rea on the la5 protect tra$e'ar( i to protect the intere t o! pro$ucer in their 'ar( 1 an$ in the goo$5ill earne$, The e ence o! tra$e'ar( in!ringe'ent i " pa ing o!! one@ goo$ a tho e o! a pro$ucer o! !a'e or note, SER!ICE %AR< $i tingui he enterpri e , the er)ice o! an enterpri e !ro' the er)ice o! other

%AR< any )i i&le ign capa&le o! $i tingui hing the goo$ or er)ice o! an enterpri e an$ hall inclu$e a ta'pe$ or 'ar(e$ container o! goo$ ,

The ter' :)i i&le< i not li'ite$ to 5hate)er 'ay &e :percepti&le &y the en e <, C"++EC I!E %AR< any )i i&le ign $e ignate$ a uch in the application !or regi tration an$ capa&le o! $i tingui hing the origin or any other co''on characteri tic1 inclu$ing the 8uality o! goo$ or er)ice o! $i!!erent enterpri e 5hich u e the ign un$er the control o! the regi tere$ o5ner o! the collecti)e 'ar(, #IS INC I"N 4 TRADE3AR2S TRADE NA3E * The goo$ or * The per on er)ice o!!ere$ +5hether natural &y a proprietor or ?uri$ical# 5ho or an enterpri e $oe the &u ine are $e ignate$ an$ pro$uce the &y tra$e'ar( or goo$ or er)ice er)ice 'ar( , i $e ignate$ &y a tra$e na'e, A tra$e'ar( ha an e3i tence proprietor or the ?uri$ical per on $oing &u ine an$ pro$ucing the goo$ or $i tinct !ro' the e3i tence o! the the er)ice o!!ere$ &y uch per on or enterpri e, Un$er the ne5 la51 there i no nee$ to regi ter tra$e na'e in or$er to ecure protection !or the' (Sec. 1DE.2, a, IP+),

7ISTINCTIONS & RA#E%AR<S * i anything 5hich i a$opte$ an$ u e$ to i$enti!y the ource o! origin o! goo$ 1 an$ 5hich i capa&le o! $i tingui hing the' !ro' goo$ e'anating !ro' a co'petitor, ABE * it na'e 5hat i 5ithin the container or pac(age, * purpo e"in!or' ati)e

In practice1 a 5or$1 a na'e o! a phra e1 couple$ 5ith in$icator o! &u ine organi2ation1 uch a :Inc,<1 :Corp,< or :Co,< 5ill not &e regi tere$ a tra$e'ar( or er)ice 'ar( , RA#E #RESS in)ol)e the total i'age o! a pro$uct1 inclu$ing uch !eature a color or color co'&ination 1 te3ture an$ Ior graphic , i2e1 hape1

Un!air co'petition inclu$e the : elling o! goo$ an$ gi)ing the' the general appearance o! goo$ o! another 'anu!acturer or $ealer1 either a to the goo$ the' el)e or in the 5rapping o! the pac(age in 5hich they are containe$1 or the $e)ice or 5or$ thereon1 or in any other !eature o! their appearance1 5hich 5oul$ &e li(ely to in!luence purcha er to &elie)e that the goo$ o!!ere$ are tho e o! a 'anu!acturer1 or $ealer1 or 5ho other5i e clothe the goo$ 5ith uch appearance a hall $ecei)e the pu&lic an$ $e!rau$ another o! hi legiti'ate tra$e1 or any u& e8uent )en$or o! uch goo$ or any agent o! any )en$or engage$ in elling uch goo$ 5ith a li(e purpo e<, All that i nece ary i the li(elihoo$ o! $eception,

7 $'NC I"NS "$ A %AR< Accor$ing, to the 9orl$ Intellectual Property Organi2ation" 6, Di tingui hing or $i!!erentiating !unction , It et apart the pro$uct or er)ice o! an enterpri e !ro' tho e o! another, 4, Origin or ource !unction, It re!er to origin or ource in ter' o! enterpri e, 7, Nuality !unction, The 'ar( guarantee the a'e tan$ar$ an$ control 5ith 5hich it i a ociate$, ., A$)erti ing !unction, A"<UISITION O* RI9=T>9OODWI T=ROU9= USE 9hen a per on ha i$enti!ie$ in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic the goo$ he 'anu!acture or $eal in hi &u ine or er)ice !ro' tho e o! other 1 uch a per on ha a property right in the goo$5ill o! the ai$ goo$ 1 o! er)ice 5hich 5ill &e protecte$ in the a'e 'anner a other property right ,

Priority in regi tration in the Philippine o! a tra$e'ar( i not 'aterial in an action !or un!air co'petition a $i tingui he$ !ro' an action !or in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar(, The &a i o! an action !or un!air co'petition i con!u ing an$ 'i lea$ing i'ilarity in general appearance1 not i'ilarity o! tra$e'ar(, (Conver-e Ru55er 2or)/ v. Jacinto Ru55er, &.R. No-. +82A72E an/ +8 3HEHE, A1ri) 28, 198H)

The u e o! the 'ar( 'u t &e uch a to allo5 the a'e to &e a ociate$ &y the pu&lic 5ith a particular pro$ucer or 'anu!acturer, 0ence1 'ere intention to a$opt a particular 'ar( or na'e 5ithout actual u e gi)e ri e to no right at all,

DI-TINCTION- " INFRINGE8ENT OF TRA7E 8AR@ UNFAIR

CO8 PETI TION 6, it i the 6, i the pa ing unauthori2e$ u e o!! o! one@ o! a tra$e'ar( goo$ a tho e 4, !rau$ulent intent i o! another unnece ary 4, !rau$ulent 7, prior regi tration intent i o! the tra$e'ar( e ential i a prere8ui ite to 7, regi tration i the action not nece ary, AR IC+E 189 o! the Re)i e$ Penal Co$e pro)i$e !or the !ollo5ing puni ha&le act " 6, -elling one@ goo$ 1 gi)ing the' the general appearance o! the goo$ o! another 'anu!acturer or $ealer, +Un!air co'petition# 4, A!!i3ing to one@ goo$ or u ing in connection 5ith one@ er)ice a !al e $e ignation or origin1 or any !al e $e cription or repre entation,

7, Procuring !rau$ulently !ro' the patent o!!ice the regi tration o! tra$e na'e1 tra$e'ar( or er)ice 'ar(, +/rau$ulent regi tration# AC9'ISI I"N (R"'&( RE&IS RA I"N The right to a 'ar( are ac8uire$ through re$istr tio! 5ith the Hureau o! Tra$e'ar( + HT# o! the Intellectual Property O!!ice +IPO#, 0o5e)er1 it i not nece ary to u e the the 'ar( in co''erce in the Philippine +or el e5here# &e!ore !iling the application 5ith the HT 1 T*e use o" m r' /ecomes !ecess r# o!l# "ter it * s /ee! "iled1 ne5 la5 re8uire an applicant or the regi trant to !ile a $eclaration o! actual u e o! the 'ar(1 5ith e)i$ence to that e!!ect1 5ithin three +7A year !ro' the !iling $ate o! the application (Sec. 127.2, IP+), E**E"TS O* NON%USE Circu' tance ari ing in$epen$ently o! the 5ill o! the tra$e'ar( o5ner +-ec, QF41 IPL#1 uch a 'ilitary coup1 or political change that i'pe$e co''erce, Regi tration i an a$'ini trati)e act $eclaratory o! a pre*e3i ting right that $oe not1 o! it el!1 per!ect a tra$e'ar(1 !or 5hat $oe i ctu l use, Non*u e i a groun$ !or re'o)ing a 'ar( !ro' the regi ter (Sec. 127.2, IP+), (E $"++"2IN& ARE NOT E+I&I*+E $"R +ICENSIN&4 A 'ar( cannot &e regi tere$ i! it" 6, Con i t o! i''oral1 $ecepti)e1 or can$alou 'atter1 or 'atter 5hich 'ay $i parage or !al ely ugge t a connection 5ith per on 1 li)ing or $ea$1 in titution 1 &elie! 1 or national y'&ol 1 or &ring the' into conte'pt or $i repute% 9hether a 'ar( i i''oral1 can$alou or contrary to pu&lic $ecency i to &e a certaine$ !ro' the tan$point o! a u& tantial co'po ite o! the general pu&lic, 4, Con i t o! the !lag or coat o! ar' or other in ignia o! the Philippine or any o! it political u&$i)i ion 1 or o! any !oreign nation1 or any i'ulation thereo!% 7, Con i t o! a na'e1 portrait or ignature i$enti!ying a particular li)ing in$i)i$ual e3cept &y hi 5ritten con ent1 or the na'e1 ignature1 or portrait o! a $ecea e$ Pre i$ent o! the Philippine 1 $uring the li!e o! hi 5i$o51 i! any1 e3cept &y 5ritten con ent o! the 5i$o5% ., I i$entical 5ith a registered 'ar( &elonging to a $i!!erent proprietor or a 'ar( 5ith an earlier !iling or priority $ate1 in re pect o!" +i# the a'e goo$ or er)ice 1 or +ii# clo ely relate$ goo$ or er)ice 1 or +iii# i! it nearly re e'&le uch a 'ar( a to &e li(ely to $ecei)e or cau e con!u ion% RE!ERSE C"N$'SI"N 8ta(e place 5hen a large ?unior u er 'a(e u e o! a 'ar( or a na'e con!u ingly i'ilar to the 'ar( or a na'e o! a 'all enior u er1 occa ioning the i'pre ion that the pro$uct o! the enior are tho e o! the ?unior1 or that the enior ha o'eho5 &een a& or&e$ or 'erge$ into the ?unior, The la5 in titute a :race !or the regi try o!!ice<1 he 5ho reache an$ regi ter !ir t gain the protection o! la5 to the e3clu ion o! other in regar$ to the a'e or a con!u ingly i'ilar 'ar(, F, I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( 5hich i con i$ere$ &y the co'petent authority o! the Philippine +IPO# to &e 5ell*(no5n internationally an$ in the Philippine ,1 5hether or not it i regi tere$ here1 a &eing alrea$y the 'ar( o! a per on other than the applicant !or regi tration1 an$ u e$ !or i$entical or i'ilar goo$ or er)ice " Pro)i$e$1 That in $eter'ining 5hether a 'ar( i 5ell*(no5n1 account hall &e ta(en o! the (no5le$ge o! the rele)ant ector o! the pu&lic1 rather than o!

the pu&lic at large1 inclu$ing (no5le$ge in the Philippine , 9hich ha &een o&taine$ a a re ult o! the pro'otion o! the 'ar(% Protect e)en unregi tere$ 'ar( an$ na'e , Deal 5ith an applicant@ goo$ that are identical or si'ilar to tho e un$er a pre)iou ly regi tere$ or pre)iou ly 5ell*(no5n 'ar(, 9here the a'e ign i u e$ !or i$entical goo$ 1 there 5ill &e pre u'ption o! the li(elihoo$ o! con!u ion, (Sec. 17A.1, IP+) >, I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( con i$ere$ 5ell*(no5n in accor$ance 5ith the prece$ing paragraph1 5hich i regi tere$ in the Philippine 5ith re pect to goo$ or er)ice 5hich are not i'ilar to tho e 5ith re pect to 5hich regi tration i applie$ !or" Pro)i$e$1 T&at use o- t&e 'ar/ in relation to t&ose goods or ser?ices .ould indicate a connection (et.een t&ose goods or ser?ices6 and t&e o.ner o- t&e registered 'ar/1 Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That the intere t o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( are li(ely to &e $a'age$ &y uch u e% 0i- 1rovi-ion /ea)- >it0 ,oo/- or -ervice- /i--i.i)ar fro. t0o-e /i-1o-e/ of un/er t0e -a.e .ar@ or na.e. #"C RINE "$ #I+' I"N 8re!er to copying 5hich1 5hile not u!!iciently con!u ing to $i)ert ale in the hort run1 5ill ten$ to $i)ert the' in the long run &y 5ea(ening the in tantaneou !a)ora&le a ociation the pu&lic 'a(e 5ith highly regar$e$ pro$uct ,

TESTS O* TRADE3AR2 IN*RIN9E3ENT #"%INANC: 0OLI-TIC TE-T ES * con i t in * ta(e toc( o! the ee(ing out the other !eature o! 'ain1 e ential a 'ar(1 ta(ing or $o'inant into con i$eration !eature o! a the entirety o! the 'ar(, 'ar( , Un$er the Do'inancy Te t1 i! the co'peting tra$e'ar( contain the 'ain or e ential or $o'inant !eature o! another1 an$ con!u ion an$ $eception i li(ely to re ult1 in!ringe'ent ta(e place, TRANS ATIONS There 5ill &e in!ringe'ent 5hen a tran lation o! a 5ell*(no5n 'ar( in the Philippine , or internationally i u e$ !or i'ilar goo$ or pro$uct , There 5ill li(e 5i e &e in!ringe'ent 5hen a tran lation o! a regi tere$ 'ar( in the Philippine , i u e$ !or $i i'ilar goo$ or pro$uct , #"C RINE "$ $"REI&N +AN&'A&E E9'I!A+EN S * tate that Kthe !oreign e8ui)alent o! a 'erely $e cripti)e Engli h*language 5or$ i $ee'e$ to &e no 'ore regi tra&le than the Engli h 5or$ it el!1 $e pite the !act that the !oreign ter' 'ay not &e co''only (no5n to &e general pu&licK, D, I li(ely to 'i lea$ the pu&lic1 particularly a geographical origin o! the goo$ or er)ice % to the nature1 8uality1 characteri tic or

A 'ar( then 5ill not &e grante$ regi tration that ugge t a 8uality1 a characteri tic or an origin that the goo$ or er)ice $oe not po e , G, Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign that are generic !or the goo$ or er)ice that they ee( to i$enti!y% E, Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or o! in$ication that ha)e &eco'e cu to'ary or u ual to $e ignate the goo$ or er)ice in e)ery$ay language or in &ona !i$e an$ e ta&li he$ tra$e practice% It 'u t &e 'a$e clear that the !act that a ter' i generic $oe not per se ren$er it non* regi tra&le, 9hat the la5 e3clu$e i the regi tration o! a 'ar( that i generic relati)e to the goo$ or pro$uct !or 5hich the 'ar( i u e$, 9here a 5or$ or a ter' 5a originally the u&?ect o! a tra$e'ar(1 &ut &eco'e o a ociate$ in the pu&lic 'in$ 5ith an article to 5hich it i applie$ an$ there&y &eco'e a generic in$icator1 it can no longer &e protecte$, 6A, Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or o! in$ication that 'ay er)e in tra$e to $e ignate the (in$1 8uality1 8uantity1 inten$e$ purpo e1 )alue1 geographical origin1 ti'e or pro$uction o! the goo$ or ren$ering o! the er)ice 1 or other characteri tic o! the goo$ or er)ice % That 5hich 'ay rightly &e ai$ o! all can &e appropriate$ &y none, 66, Con i t o! hape that 'ay &e nece itate$ &y technical !actor or &y the nature o! the goo$ the' el)e or !actor that a!!ect their intrin ic )alue% 64, Con i t o! color alone1 unle $e!ine$ &y a gi)en !or'% or 67, I contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality (Sec. 123.1, IP+). Sec. 123.2. A regar$ ign or $e)ice 'entione$ in paragraph +?#1 +(# an$ +l#1 nothing hall pre)ent the regi tration o! any uch ign or $e)ice 5hich ha &eco'e $i tincti)e1 in relation to the goo$ !or 5hich regi tration i re8ue te$ a a re ult o! the u e that ha)e &een 'a$e o! it in co''erce in the Philippine , The O!!ice 'ay accept a a prim " cie e)i$ence that the 'ar( ha &eco'e $i tincti)e1 a u e$ in connection 5ith the applicantJ goo$ or er)ice in co''erce1 proo! o! u& tantially e3clu i)e an$ continuou u e thereo! &y the applicant in co''erce in the Philippine !or !i)e +F# year &e!ore the $ate on 5hich the clai' o! $i tincti)ene i 'a$e, #"C RINE "$ SEC"N#AR: %EANIN& 9hile a generic1 in$icati)e or $e cripti)e 'ar( 5ill1 a a general rule1 &e $enie$ regi tration1 there i a circu' tance that 5ill allo5 it to &e regi tere$1 thi i the $octrine o! econ$ary 'eaning 5hich ha &een $e!ine$ a 1 5hen a 'ar( ha &eco'e $i tincti)e o! the applicantJ goo$ in co''erce an$1 an$ in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic1 in$icate a ingle ource to con u'er 1 it 'ay &e regi tere$, Re8uire'ent o! the $octrine" 6, The econ$ary 'eaning 'u t ha)e ari en a a re ult o! u& tantial co''ercial u e in the Philippine , 4, The u e re ult in the $i tincti)ene o! the 'ar( in o!ar a the goo$ or the pro$uct are concerne$, 7, Pri'a !acie e)i$ence i proo! o! co''ercial u e in the Philippine F year &e!ore $ate o! clai', , RI9=TS "ON*ERRED 6, The right to the e3clu i)e u e o! the 'ar( !or oneJ o5n goo$ or er)ice ,

4, The right to pre)ent other !ro' the u e o! the a'e 'ar( !or i$entical goo$ or er)ice in the cour e o! tra$e, 7, The right to the e3clu i)e u e o! oneJ alrea$y regi tere$ 'ar( e)en !or goo$ or er)ice into 5hich oneJ )enture e3pan$ 1 i! u e &y other !or $i i'ilar pro$uct i li(ely to $a'age the &u ine intere t o! the !ir t )enturer (Sec. 17A, IP+). The right 1 &y Sec. 17E1 la t !or ten +6A# year u&?ect to in$e!inite rene5al !or perio$ o! ten year each, The right to the u e o! a regi tere$ tra$e'ar( 'ay &e licen e$ to another per on1 natural or ?uri$ical1 ena&ling uch a party to pro$uce1 'ar(et1 $i tri&ute an$ a$)erti e goo$ or er)ice &y the tra$e or er)ice 'ar( o! the licen or, -ec, 6FA,6 ho5e)er re8uire that a licen or e!!ecti)ely control the 8uality o! the goo$ or er)ice o! the licen ee,

STANDIN9 TO SUE AND JURISDI"TION The right to the u e o! the corporate or tra$e na'e i a property right1 a right in re'1 5hich it 'ay a ert an$ protect in any o! the court o! the 5orl$ e)en in ?uri $iction 5here it $oe not tran act &u ine ?u t the a'e a it 'ay protect it tangi&le property1 real or per onal again t tre pa or con)er ion, -ec, 6>A lea)e no $ou&t that a !oreign national or ?uri$ical per on 5ho i a national o! a country that i party to a rele)ant con)ention to 5hich the Philippine , i al o a party 'ay &ring a ci)il or an a$'ini trati)e action !or oppo ition1 cancellation1 in!ringe'ent1 un!air co'petition or !al e $e ignation o! origin an$ !al e $e cription1 regar$le o! it tatu +or lac( o! it# in the Philippine ,1 an$ e)en i! uch an entity $oe not $o &u ine in the Philippine , ELE;ENT- O/ T0E CRI;E O/ TRADE;ARO IN/RINGE;ENT" 6, The $eceit!ul act o! gi)ing one@ goo$ the general appearance o! the goo$ o! another 'anu!acturer or $ealer, 4, The $ecepti)e i'ilarity i either in the goo$ the' el)e 1 in the tra$e $re 1 in the 5or$ or $e)ice 1 or in any other !eature o! appearance, 7, The o!!en$er o!!er to ell or ell the goo$ 1 or gi)e other the opportunity to $o the a'e, ., An actual intent to $ecei)e the pu&lic or $e!rau$ the co'petitor, PATENT I a $ocu'ent1 i ue$1 upon application1 &y a go)ern'ent o!!ice1 5hich $e cri&e an in)ention an$ create a legal ituation in 5hich the patente$ in)ention can nor'ally only &e e3ploite$ +'anu!acture$1 u e$1 ol$1 i'porte$# 5ith the authori2ation o! the o5ner o! the patent i an e3clu i)e right ac8uire$ o)er an in)ention1 to ell1 u e an$ 'a(e the a'e 5hether !or co''erce or in$u try, #IS INC I"NS 4 PA EN C"P:RI&( 9hen a per on1 * It 'ay &e )e te$ &y in$epen$ent in a 5or( clo ely re earch arri)e i'ilar or e)en at the a'e i$entical to an pro$uct or that earlier1 alrea$y alrea$y patente$1 patente$ 5or(1 he i re traine$ pro)i$e$ that the &y the ar' o! the !or'er i truly

la5 !ro' e3ploiting uch an in)ention &y rea on o! the patent grante$ the earlier $i co)erer,

original1 ie,1 it o5e it e3i tence to it creator,

It 5ill &e re'e'&ere$ that 5hat i not patenta&le 'ay ne)erthele copyright la5, PATENTABI IT! To &e patenta&le1 a pro$uct 'u t &e" a, a technical olution o! a pro&le' in any !iel$ o! hu'an acti)ity &, no)el c, an in)ention $, in$u trially applica&le The e criteria 'ay apply to" a, pro$uct &, proce e c, i'pro)e'ent o! either pro$uct or proce

&e protecte$ un$er

PR"CESS8 con i t o! an act1 operation1 or tep or a erie thereo!1 per!or'e$ upon a peci!ie$ u&?ect 'atter to pro$uce phy ical re ult, 5here the patent i !or a proce 1 the la5 !or&i$ other !ro' u ing the proce 1 an$ al o !ro' 'anu!acturing1 $ealing in 1 or i'porting any pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' uch proce , PRODU"T%is /ro d e!ou$* term to i!clude ever# output o" *um ! i!$e!uit#% ever# t !$i/le result o" cr "tsm !s*ip or p rt!ers*ip1 It is to /e !oted t* t !ot ll products re p te!t /le /ec use !ot ll process t*e re>uireme!ts o" p te!t /ilit#1 I3PROVE3ENTS% to /e p te!t /le% t*e improveme!t s*ould /e !o!=o/vious to o!e s'illed i! t*e rt o" t*e ori$i! l i!ve!tio! !d is trul# !ovel1 I" it is merel# co!se>ue!ce o" tec*!ic l co!"i$ur tio! o" t*e ori$i! l i!ve!tio! !d is t*us (su$$ested+ /# t*e i!ve!tio! itsel"% t*e improveme!t is still )it*i! t*e domi!io! o" t*e ori$i! l i!ve!tio!1 EMCLUDED /RO; PATENT PROTECTION" 6, $i co)erie 1 cienti!ic theorie an$ 'athe'atical 'etho$ 4, che'e 1 rule an$ 'etho$ o! per!or'ing 'ental act 1 playing ga'e 1 or $oing &u ine 1 an$ progra' !or co'puter 7, 'etho$ !or treat'ent o! the hu'an &o$y or ani'al &o$y &y urgery or therapy an$ $iagno tic 'etho$ practice$ on the hu'an or ani'al &o$y, ., Plant )arietie or ani'al &ree$ o! e entially &iological proce !or the pro$uction o! plant or ani'al F, Ae thetic creation >, Anything 5hich i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality (Sec. 22#, RE<UIRE3ENTS *OR PATENT1 6, N"!E+ :* that 5hich $oe not !or' part o! the prior art (Sec. 23).

(Prior rt+ i peci!ie$ un$er -ec, 4.1 to 5it" a, that 5hich ha &een 'a$e a)aila&le to the pu&lic any5here in the 5orl$ &e!ore the !iling $ate or the priority $ate o! application &, that 5hich !or' part o! an application 5hether !or patent1 utility 'o$el or in$u trial $e igne$1 e!!ecti)e in the Philippine 1 pro)i$e$ that" &,6, the in)entor or applicant are not the a'e &,4, the content o! the application are pu&li he$ in accor$ance 5ith the re8uire'ent o! patent application rule &,7, the !iling $ate o! prior art I earlier thu prior art i ynony'ou 5ith pre?u$icial $i clo ure Sec. 2E RA 8293 e'&o$ie the e3ception to prior art un$er the hea$ing :non*pre?u$icial $i clo ure< any $i clo ure o! the in)ention 'a$e 5ithin t5el)e +64# 'onth &e!ore the !iling $ate $oe not pre?u$ice the application i! the $i clo ure i 'a$e &y" a, in)entor hi' el! +or &y anyone 5ho ha the right to patent1 Sec. 2E, 2) &, patent o!!ice* 5hen the in!or'ation o! the latter o!!ice co'e another application !ile$ &y the in)entor that houl$ not ha)e &een $i clo e$ &y the o!!ice c, thir$ per on@ application 5hen uch per on in!or'ation $irectly in$irectly co'e !ro' the in)entor hi' el! 5ithout the in)entor@ per'i ion1 or !ro' any thir$ per on 5ho o&taine$ hi in!or'ation !ro' the in)entor, 2. IN!EN I!ENESS 7 8 an in)ention in)ol)e an in)enti)e tep i!1 ha)ing regar$ to prior act1 it i not o&)iou to a per on (ille$ in the art at the ti'e o! the !iling $ate or priority $ate o! the application clai'ing the in)ention (Sec. 2D, RA 8293). It i ugge te$ that the te t o! non*o&)iou ne &e pur ue$ in !our tep " 6, the cope an$ content o! the prior art are $eter'ine$ 4, the $i!!erence &et5een the prior art an$ the clai' at i ue are a certaine$ 7, the le)el o! or$inary (ill in the pertinent art i re ol)e$ ., again t thi &ac(groun$1 the o&)iou ne or non*o&)iou ne o! the u&?ect 'atter i a certaine$ (DH A% J'R 2/, Patent-, Sec. 177).

3. CAPA*+E "$ IN#'S RIA+ APP+ICA I"N ( RIPS, Sec. E Art. 2A, 1ar. 1) T5o re8uire'ent o! in$u trial applica&ility hall &e !ul!ille$" a, it can &e pro$uce$ &, can &e u e$ in in$u try (Sec. 2A) 9 The application hall $i clo e the in)ention in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or it to &e carrie$ out &y a per on (ille$ in the art, accor$ing to TRIP-1 it i ynony'ou 5ith :use"ul+ (Sec. E Art. 29 year 1, RIPS) :an applicant !or a patent hall $i clo e the in)ention in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or the in)ention to &e carrie$ out &y a per on (ille$ in the art an$ 'ay re8uire the applicant to in$icate the &e t 'o$e !or carrying out the in)ention (no5n to the in)entor at the !iling $ate<

FIRST TO FILE RULE Un$er Sec. 29 R.A. 82931 i! t5o or 'ore per on ha)e 'a$e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ently o! each other the right to the patent hall &elong to the per on 5ho !ir t !ile$ an application !or uch in)ention,

OWNERS=IP O* PATENT RI9=TS1 The right a, &, c, to a patent &elong to" in)entor1 hi heir 1 or a ign 5hen t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e ?ointly 'a$e an in)ention to the' ?ointly i! t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ent o! each other to the per on 5ho !ile$ an application !or uch in)ention $, 5here 4 or 'ore application are !ile$ !or the a'e in)ention to the applicant 5ho ha the earlie t !iling $ate or the earlie t priority $ate (Sec. 28)

TER3 O* A PATENT The ter' o! a patent hall &e t5enty +4A# year !ro' the !iling $ate o! application (Sec. E7 ),

IN$RIN&E%EN 8 the 'a(ing1 u ing1 o!!ering !or ale 1 elling or i'porting a patente$ pro$uct or a pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' a patente$ proce 1 or the u e o! a patente$ proce 5ithout the authori2ation o! the patentee (Sec. AD.1). ES S "$ PA EN IN$RIN&E%EN 6, Literal in!ringe'ent* re ort i ha$ to the <5or$ : o! the clai', 4, Doctrine o! e8ui)alent * i! t5o $e)ice $o the a'e 5or( in u& tantially the a'e 5ay1 the a'e re ult1 an$ pro$uce u& tantially a'e re ult1 they are the a'e e)enthough they $i!!er in na'e1 !or' or hape, -ec, DG 5arn that 5here the pro$uct i i$entical1 it hall &e pre u'e$ to ha)e &een o&taine$ thru the u e o! the patente$ proce , Thu there ha e)ol)e$ the $octrine o! e8ui)alent 5hich protect a patente$ in)ention !ro' circu')ention &y 'inor change or $e)iation , T0E RIG0T- O/ A PATENTEE + -EC, D6# 6, In ca'e o! a pro$uct1 the patentee hall ha)e the e3clu i)e right to 'a(e1 u e1 o!!er !or ale1 ell or i'port the pro$uct, 4, In ca e o! a proce 1 the patentee hall ha)e the e3clu i)e right to u e the proce 1 an$ to 'anu!acture1 $eal in1 u e1 ell or o!!er !or ale or i'port any pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' uch proce , The go)ern'ent or a thir$ per on authori2e$ &y the go)ern'ent 'ay u e the patent 5ithout the authority o! a patent o5ner1 pro)i$e$" 6, on pu&lic intere t groun$ 1 in particular1 national ecurity1 nutrition1 health or the $e)elop'ent o! other ector 1 a $eter'ine$ &y the appropriate agency o! the go)ern'ent o re8uire % i,e, i'portation o! 'e$icine un$er the Generic Act &y the Depart'ent o! 0ealth, 4, The 'anner o! e3ploitation &y the o5ner o! the patent or hi licen ee1 i anti* co'petiti)e (Sec. A7.1), Un$er Sec. 7D R.A. 82931 A!ter the pu&lication o! the patent application1 the applicant1 e)ent 5hile hi application i till pen$ing1 i alrea$y accor$e$ the right o! a patentee grante$ un$er the la5 a again t any per on unla5!ully e3erci ing patent right 1 pro)i$e$ the !!, con$ition concur 6, the latter ha actual (no5le$ge that the in)ention he 5a u ing 5a the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent 4, he ha 5ritten notice o! uch !act

7, the action 'ay &e !ile$ only a!ter the grant o! the patent an$ 5ithin !our +.# year !ro' the co''i ion o! the act co'plaine$ o!, ' I+I : %"#E+S 8 ARE ;ODEL- O/ I;PLE;ENT OR TOOL- O/ ANY INDU-TRIAL PRODUCT EVEN I/ NOT PO--E--ED O/ T0E NUALITY O/ INVENTION HUT 90IC0 I- O/ :PRACTICAL UTILITY,< Sec. 1H8.1 treat patent an$ utility 'o$el i'ilarly 5hat $i tingui he a utility 'o$el ho5e)er !ro' a patenta&le in)ention i et !orth in -ec, 6AE,6" An in)ention 8uali!ie !or regi tration a a utility 'o$el i! it i :ne5< an$ :in$u trially applica&le,< That i 5hy it i ai$ that the $egree o! in)enti)ene nece ary !or the grant o! protection to utility 'o$el i lo5er in $egree than that re8uire$ o! a patenta&le in)ention,

%AN#A "R: PR"!ISI"NS The la5 re8uire that certain 'an$atory pro)i ion &e incorporate$ in the technology tran !er agree'ent +TTA# a, Philippine La5 houl$ go)ern the interpretation o! contract an$ that in ca e o! litigation1 the )enue hall &e the peace 5here the licen ee ha it principal o!!ice, &, The licen ee hall ha)e continue$ acce to i'pro)e'ent in techni8ue an$ proce e relate$ to the technology !or the $uration o! the TTA, c, In ca e o! ar&itration1 the ar&itration la5 o! the Philippine or o! the UN Co''i ion or International tra$e la5 or o! the International Cha'&er o! Co''erce hall apply an$ the )enue hall &e the Philippine or any neutral country1 an$ $, Pay'ent o! Philippine Ta3e relating to the TTA hall &e &orne &y the licen or,

PART III (E +A2 "N C"P:RI&( 1. #E$INI I"N -ECTION 6DD, "op0rig&t or Econo'ic Rig&ts, R -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! Chapter VIII1 copyright or econo'ic right hall con i t o! the e3clu i)e right to carry out1 authori2e or pre)ent the !ollo5ing act " 6DD,6, Repro$uction o! the 5or( or u& tantial portion o! the 5or(% 6DD,4, Dra'ati2ation1 tran lation1 a$aptation1 a&ri$g'ent1 arrange'ent or other tran !or'ation o! the 5or(% 6DD,7, The !ir t pu&lic $i tri&ution o! the original an$ each copy o! the 5or( &y ale or other !or' o! tran !er o! o5ner hip% 6DD,., Rental o! the original or a copy o! an au$io)i ual or cine'atographic 5or(1 a 5or( e'&o$ie$ in a oun$ recor$ing1 a co'puter progra'1 a co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial or a 'u ical 5or( in graphic !or'1 irre pecti)e o! the o5ner hip o! the original or the copy 5hich i the u&?ect o! the rental% 6DD,F, Pu&lic $i play o! the original or a copy o! the 5or(% 6DD,>, Pu&lic per!or'ance o! the 5or(% an$ 6DD,D, Other co''unication to the pu&lic o! the 5or(,

2. S AN#AR# $"R C"P:RI&( A*I+I : "=IN9 2IAN ?s. "A BG,R, No, 67A7>A, Augu t 6F1 4AA6C A per on to &e entitle$ to a copyright 'u t &e the original creator o! the 5or(, 0e 'u t ha)e create$ it &y hi o5n (ill1 la&or an$ ?u$g'ent 5ithout $irectly copying or e)a i)ely i'itating the 5or( o! another, SA3BAR ?s. EVI STRAUSS BG,R, No, 674>A., ;arch >1 4AA4C To &e entitle$ to copyright1 the thing &eing copyrighte$ 'u t &e original1 create$ &y the author through hi o5n (ill1 la&or an$ ?u$g'ent1 5ithout $irectly copying or e)a i)ely i'itating the 5or( o! another, 3. !ES IN& "$ C"P:RI&( -ECTION 6D4, iterar0 and Artistic Wor/s, R 6D4,6, Literary an$ arti tic 5or( 1 hereina!ter re!erre$ to a K5or( K1 are original intellectual creation in the literary an$ arti tic $o'ain protecte$ !ro' the 'o'ent o! their creation 3 3 3 6D4,4, 9or( are protecte$ &y the ole !act o! their creation1 irre pecti)e o! their 'o$e or !or' o! e3pre ion1 a 5ell a o! their content1 8uality an$ purpo e, N*4 The rule enunciate$ in the ca e o! S !tos vs1 8cCullou$* Pri!ti!$ Co1 an$ Filipi!o Societ# o" Composers vs1 T ! that" KParagraph 77 o! Patent O!!ice A$'ini trati)e Or$er No, 7 +a a'en$e$1 $ate$ -epte'&er 6G1 6E.D# entitle$ JRule o! Practice in the Philippine Patent O!!ice relating to the Regi tration o! Copyright Clai' J pro'ulgate$ pur uant to Repu&lic Act 6>F1 pro)i$e a'ong other thing that an intellectual creation houl$ &e copyrighte$ thirty +7A# $ay a!ter it pu&lication1 i! 'a$e in ;anila1 or 5ithin i3ty +>A# $ay i! 'a$e el e5here1 !ailure o! 5hich ren$er uch creation pu&lic property1K i no longer goo$ la5, 7. SC"PE -ECTION 6D4, iterar0 and Artistic Wor/s, R 6D4,6, Literary an$ arti tic 5or( 1 hereina!ter re!erre$ to a K5or( K1 are original intellectual creation in the literary an$ arti tic $o'ain protecte$ !ro' the 'o'ent o! their creation an$ hall inclu$e in particular" +a# Hoo( 1 pa'phlet 1 article an$ other 5riting % +&# Perio$ical an$ ne5 paper % +c# Lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 $i ertation prepare$ !or oral $eli)ery1 5hether or not re$uce$ in 5riting or other 'aterial !or'% +$# +e# Letter % Dra'atic or $ra'atico*'u ical co'po ition % choreographic 5or( or entertain'ent in $u'& ho5 % +!# ;u ical co'po ition 1 5ith or 5ithout 5or$ % +g# 9or( o! $ra5ing1 painting1 architecture1 culpture1 engra)ing1 lithography or other 5or( o! art% 'o$el or $e ign !or 5or( o! art% +h# Original orna'ental $e ign or 'o$el !or article o! 'anu!acture1 5hether or not regi tra&le a an in$u trial $e ign1 an$ other 5or( o! applie$ art% +i# Illu tration 1 'ap 1 plan 1 (etche 1 chart an$ three*$i'en ional 5or( relati)e to geography1 topography1 architecture or cience% +?# Dra5ing or pla tic 5or( o! a cienti!ic or technical character% +(# Photographic 5or( inclu$ing 5or( pro$uce$ &y a proce analogou to photography% lantern li$e % +l# Au$io)i ual 5or( an$ cine'atographic 5or( an$ 5or( pro$uce$ &y a proce analogou to cine'atography or any proce !or 'a(ing au$io*)i ual recor$ing % +'# Pictorial illu tration an$ a$)erti e'ent %

+n# +o#

Co'puter progra' % an$ Other literary1 cholarly1 cienti!ic an$ arti tic 5or( , 7eriv tive Wor's1 J 1A3.1. 0e fo))o>in, /erivative >or@- -0a)) a)-o 5e 1rotecte/ 5y co1yri,0t4 Dra'ati2ation 1 tran lation 1 a$aptation 1 a&ri$g'ent 1 arrange'ent 1 an$ other alteration o! literary or arti tic 5or( % an$ Collection o! literary1 cholarly or arti tic 5or( 1 an$ co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial 5hich are original &y rea on o! the election or coor$ination or arrange'ent o! their content ,

SEC I"N 1A3. +a# +&#

E. "2NERS(IP "$ C"P:RI&( -ECTION 6DG, Rules on "op0rig&t O.ners&ip , R Copyright o5ner hip hall &e go)erne$ &y the !ollo5ing rule " 6DG,6 -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! thi ection1 in the ca e o! original literary an$ arti tic 5or( 1 copyright hall &elong to the author o! the 5or(% 6DG,4, In the ca e o! 5or( o! ?oint author hip1 the co*author hall &e the original o5ner o! the copyright an$ in the a& ence o! agree'ent1 their right hall &e go)erne$ &y the rule on co*o5ner hip, I!1 ho5e)er1 a 5or( o! ?oint author hip con i t o! part that can &e u e$ eparately an$ the author o! each part can &e i$enti!ie$1 the author o! each part hall &e the original o5ner o! the copyright in the part that he ha create$% 6DG,7, In the ca e o! 5or( create$ &y an author $uring an$ in the cour e o! hi e'ploy'ent1 the copyright hall &elong to" +a# The e'ployee1 i! the creation o! the o&?ect o! copyright i not a part o! hi regular $utie e)en i! the e'ployee u e the ti'e1 !acilitie an$ 'aterial o! the e'ployer, +&# The e'ployer1 i! the 5or( i the re ult o! the per!or'ance o! hi regularly*a igne$ $utie 1 unle there i an agree'ent1 e3pre or i'plie$1 to the contrary, 6DG,., In the ca e o! a 5or( co''i ione$ &y a per on other than an e'ployer o! the author an$ 5ho pay !or it an$ the 5or( i 'a$e in pur uance o! the co''i ion1 the per on 5ho o co''i ione$ the 5or( hall ha)e o5ner hip o! the 5or(1 &ut the copyright thereto hall re'ain 5ith the creator1 unle there i a 5ritten tipulation to the contrary% 6DG,F, In the ca e o! au$io)i ual 5or(1 the copyright hall &elong to the pro$ucer1 the author o! the cenario1 the co'po er o! the 'u ic1 the !il' $irector1 an$ the author o! the 5or( o a$apte$, 0o5e)er1 u&?ect to contrary or other tipulation a'ong the creator 1 the pro$ucer hall e3erci e the copyright to an e3tent re8uire$ !or the e3hi&ition o! the 5or( in any 'anner1 e3cept !or the right to collect per!or'ing licen e !ee !or the per!or'ance o! 'u ical co'po ition 1 5ith or 5ithout 5or$ 1 5hich are incorporate$ into the 5or(% an$ 6DG,>, In re pect o! letter 1 the copyright hall &elong to the 5riter u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! Article D47 o! the Ci)il Co$e, AR IC+E A23 (CI!I+ C"#E)4 Letter an$ other pri)ate co''unication in 5riting are o5ne$ &y the per on to 5ho' they are a$$re e$ an$ $eli)ere$1 &ut they cannot &e pu&li he$ or $i e'inate$ 5ithout the con ent o! the 5riter or hi heir , 0o5e)er1 the court 'ay authori2e their pu&lication or $i e'ination i! the pu&lic goo$ or intere t o! ?u tice re8uire , -ECTION 6DE, Anon0'ous and Pseudon0'ous Wor/s, R /or purpo e o! thi Act1 the pu&li her hall &e $ee'e$ to repre ent the author o! article an$ other 5riting pu&li he$ 5ithout the na'e o! the author or un$er p eu$ony' 1 unle the contrary appear 1 or the p eu$ony' or a$opte$ na'e lea)e no $ou&t a to the authorJ i$entity1 or i! the author o! the anony'ou 5or( $i clo e hi i$entity, ARTICLE F4A +CIVIL CODE#" A tra/e.ar@ or tra/e na.e /u)y re,i-tere/ in t0e 1ro1er ,overn.ent 5ureau or office i- o>ne/ 5y an/ 1ertain- to t0e 1er-on, cor1oration, or fir. re,i-terin, t0e -a.e, -u5Kect to t0e 1rovi-ion- of -1ecia) )a>-.

D. 2"R<S N" PR" EC E# -ECTION 6DF, Unprotected Su(@ect 3atter. R Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! -ection 6D4 an$ 6D71 no protection hall e3ten$1 un$er thi la51 to any i$ea1 proce$ure1 y te'1 'etho$ or operation1 concept1 principle1 $i co)ery or 'ere $ata a uch1 e)en i! they are e3pre e$1 e3plaine$1 illu trate$ or e'&o$ie$ in a 5or(% ne5 o! the $ay an$ other 'i cellaneou !act ha)ing the character o! 'ere ite' o! pre in!or'ation% or any o!!icial te3t o! a legi lati)e1 a$'ini trati)e or legal nature1 a 5ell a any o!!icial tran lation thereo!, J"A9'IN an/ *J PR"#'C I"NS, INC. v-. #RI+"N AG1R1 No1 3BCD4?1 - !u r# 2C% 3DDDE Co1yri,0t, in t0e -trict -en-e of t0e ter., i- 1ure)y a -tatutory ri,0t. It i- a ne> or in/e1en/ent ri,0t ,rante/ 5y t0e -tatute, an/ not -i.1)y a 1re8e?i-tin, ri,0t re,u)ate/ 5y t0e -tatute. *ein, a -tatutory ,rant, t0e ri,0t- are on)y -uc0 a- t0e -tatute confer-, an/ .ay 5e o5taine/ an/ enKoye/ on)y >it0 re-1ect to t0e -u5Kect- an/ 5y t0e 1er-on-, an/ on ter.- an/ con/ition- -1ecifie/ in t0e -tatute. P,D, No, .E1 S4 Bno5 S6D4 o! the INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CODE O/ T0E P0ILIPPINE+R,A, No, G4E7#C1 in enu'erating 5hat are u&?ect to copyright1 re!er to !ini he$ 5or( an$ not to concept , The copyright $oe not e3ten$ to an i$ea1 proce$ure1 proce 1 y te'1 'etho$ o! operation1 concept1 principle1 or $i co)ery1 regar$le o! the !or' in 5hich it i $e cri&e$1 e3plaine$1 illu trate$1 or e'&o$ie$ in uch 5or(, The !or'at o! a ho5 i not copyrighta&le The !or'at or 'echanic o! a tele)i ion ho5 i not inclu$e$ in the li t o! protecte$ 5or( , Copyright co)er only au$io*)i ual recor$ing o! each epi o$e, A. #'RA I"N "$ C"P:RI&( -ECTION 467, Ter' o- Protection. R 467,6, -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -u& ection 467,4 to 467,F1 the copyright in 5or( un$er -ection 6D4 an$ 6D7 hall &e protecte$ $uring the li!e o! the author an$ !or !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath, Thi rule al o applie to po thu'ou 5or( , 467,4, In ca e o! 5or( o! ?oint author hip1 the econo'ic right hall &e protecte$ $uring the li!e o! the la t ur)i)ing author an$ !or !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath, 467,7, In ca e o! anony'ou or p eu$ony'ou 5or( 1 the copyright hall &e protecte$ !or !i!ty +FA# year !ro' the $ate on 5hich the 5or( 5a !ir t la5!ully pu&li he$" Pro)i$e$1 That 5here1 &e!ore the e3piration o! the ai$ perio$1 the authorJ i$entity i re)eale$ or i no longer in $ou&t1 the pro)i ion o! -u& ection 467,6, an$ 467,4 hall apply1 a the ca e 'ay &e" Pro)i$e$1 !urther1 That uch 5or( i! not pu&li he$ &e!ore hall &e protecte$ !or !i!ty +FA# year counte$ !ro' the 'a(ing o! the 5or(, 467,., In ca e o! 5or( o! applie$ art the protection hall &e !or a perio$ o! t5enty*!i)e +4F# year !ro' the $ate o! 'a(ing, 467,F, In ca e o! photographic 5or( 1 the protection hall &e !or !i!ty +FA# year !ro' pu&lication o! the 5or( an$1 i! unpu&li he$1 !i!ty +FA# year !ro' the 'a(ing, 467,>, In ca e o! au$io*)i ual 5or( inclu$ing tho e pro$uce$ &y proce analogou to photography or any proce !or 'a(ing au$io*)i ual recor$ing 1 the ter' hall &e !i!ty +FA# year !ro' $ate o! pu&lication an$1 i! unpu&li he$1 !ro' the $ate o! 'a(ing, -ECTION 46F, Ter' o- Protection -or Per-or'ers6 Producers and Broadcasting OrganiAations. R 46F,6, The right grante$ to per!or'er an$ pro$ucer o! oun$ recor$ing un$er thi la5 hall e3pire" +a# /or per!or'ance not incorporate$ in recor$ing 1 !i!ty +FA# year !ro' the en$ o! the year in 5hich the per!or'ance too( place% an$ +&# /or oun$ or i'age an$ oun$ recor$ing an$ !or per!or'ance incorporate$ therein1 !i!ty +FA# year !ro' the en$ o! the year in 5hich the recor$ing too( place,

46F,4, In ca e o! &roa$ca t 1 the ter' hall &e t5enty +4A# year !ro' the $ate the &roa$ca t too( place, The e3ten$e$ ter' hall &e applie$ only to ol$ 5or( 5ith u& i ting protection un$er the prior la5, 8. +I%I A I"NS -ECTION 6D>, Wor/s o- t&e 9o?ern'ent. R 6D>,6, No copyright hall u& i t in any 5or( o! the Go)ern'ent o! the Philippine , 0o5e)er1 prior appro)al o! the go)ern'ent agency or o!!ice 5herein the 5or( i create$ hall &e nece ary !or e3ploitation o! uch 5or( !or pro!it, -uch agency or o!!ice 'ay1 a'ong other thing 1 i'po e a a con$ition the pay'ent o! royaltie , No prior appro)al or con$ition hall &e re8uire$ !or the u e o! any purpo e o! tatute 1 rule an$ regulation 1 an$ peeche 1 lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 an$ $i ertation 1 pronounce$1 rea$ or ren$ere$ in court o! ?u tice1 &e!ore a$'ini trati)e agencie 1 in $eli&erati)e a e'&lie an$ in 'eeting o! pu&lic character, 6D>,4, The author o! peeche 1 lecture 1 er'on 1 a$$re e 1 an$ $i ertation 'entione$ in the prece$ing paragraph hall ha)e the e3clu i)e right o! 'a(ing a collection o! hi 5or( , 6D>,7, Not5ith tan$ing the !oregoing pro)i ion 1 the Go)ern'ent i not preclu$e$ !ro' recei)ing an$ hol$ing copyright tran !erre$ to it &y a ign'ent1 &e8ue t or other5i e% nor hall pu&lication or repu&lication &y the Go)ern'ent in a pu&lic $ocu'ent o! any 5or( in 5hich copyright i u& i ting &e ta(en to cau e any a&ri$g'ent or annul'ent o! the copyright or to authori2e any u e or appropriation o! uch 5or( 5ithout the con ent o! the copyright o5ner, -ECTION 6G., i'itations on "op0rig&t. R 6G.,6, Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! Chapter V1 the !ollo5ing act hall not con titute in!ringe'ent o! copyright" +a# The recitation or per!or'ance o! a 5or(1 once it ha &een la5!ully 'a$e acce i&le to the pu&lic1 i! $one pri)ately an$ !ree o! charge or i! 'a$e trictly !or a charita&le or religiou in titution or ociety% +&# The 'a(ing o! 8uotation !ro' a pu&li he$ 5or( i! they are co'pati&le 5ith !air u e an$ only to the e3tent ?u ti!ie$ !or the purpo e1 inclu$ing 8uotation !ro' ne5 paper article an$ perio$ical in the !or' o! pre u''arie " Pro)i$e$1 That the ource an$ the na'e o! the author1 i! appearing on the 5or(1 are 'entione$% +c# The repro$uction or co''unication to the pu&lic &y 'a 'e$ia o! article on current political1 ocial1 econo'ic1 cienti!ic or religiou topic1 lecture 1 a$$re e an$ other 5or( o! the a'e nature1 5hich are $eli)ere$ in pu&lic i! uch u e i !or in!or'ation purpo e an$ ha not &een e3pre ly re er)e$" Pro)i$e$1 That the ource i clearly in$icate$% +$# The repro$uction an$ co''unication to the pu&lic o! literary1 cienti!ic or arti tic 5or( a part o! report o! current e)ent &y 'ean o! photography1 cine'atography or &roa$ca ting to the e3tent nece ary !or the purpo e% +e# The inclu ion o! a 5or( in a pu&lication1 &roa$ca t1 or other co''unication to the pu&lic1 oun$ recor$ing or !il'1 i! uch inclu ion i 'a$e &y 5ay o! illu tration !or teaching purpo e an$ i co'pati&le 5ith !air u e" Pro)i$e$1 That the ource an$ o! the na'e o! the author1 i! appearing in the 5or(1 are 'entione$% +!# The recor$ing 'a$e in chool 1 uni)er itie 1 or e$ucational in titution o! a 5or( inclu$e$ in a &roa$ca t !or the u e o! uch chool 1 uni)er itie or e$ucational in titution " Pro)i$e$1 That uch recor$ing 'u t &e $elete$ 5ithin a rea ona&le perio$ a!ter they 5ere !ir t &roa$ca t" Pro)i$e$1 !urther1 That uch recor$ing 'ay not &e 'a$e !ro' au$io)i ual 5or( 5hich are part o! the general cine'a repertoire o! !eature !il' e3cept !or &rie! e3cerpt o! the 5or(% +g# +h# (i) The 'a(ing o! ephe'eral recor$ing &y a &roa$ca ting organi2ation &y 'ean o! it o5n !acilitie an$ !or u e in it o5n &roa$ca t% The u e 'a$e o! a 5or( &y or un$er the $irection or control o! the Go)ern'ent1 &y the National Li&rary or &y e$ucational1 cienti!ic or pro!e ional in titution 5here uch u e i in the pu&lic intere t an$ i co'pati&le 5ith !air u e% 0e 1u5)ic 1erfor.ance or t0e co..unication to t0e 1u5)ic of a >or@, in a 1)ace >0ere no a/.i--ion fee i- c0ar,e/ in re-1ect of -uc0 1u5)ic 1erfor.ance or

co..unication, 5y a c)u5 or in-titution for c0arita5)e or e/ucationa) 1ur1o-e on)y, >0o-e ai. i- not 1rofit .a@in,, -u5Kect to -uc0 ot0er )i.itation- a- .ay 5e 1rovi/e/ in t0e Re,u)ation-I +?# Pu&lic $i play o! the original or a copy o! the 5or( not 'a$e &y 'ean o! a !il'1 li$e1 tele)i ion i'age or other5i e on creen or &y 'ean o! any other $e)ice or proce " Pro)i$e$1 That either the 5or( ha &een pu&li he$1 or1 that the original or the copy $i playe$ ha &een ol$1 gi)en a5ay or other5i e tran !erre$ to another per on &y the author or hi ucce or in title% an$ +(# Any u e 'a$e o! a 5or( !or the purpo e o! any ?u$icial procee$ing or !or the gi)ing o! pro!e ional a$)ice &y a legal practitioner, 6G.,4, The pro)i ion o! thi ection hall &e interprete$ in uch a 5ay a to allo5 the 5or( to &e u e$ in a 'anner 5hich $oe not con!lict 5ith the nor'al e3ploitation o! the 5or( an$ $oe not unrea ona&ly pre?u$ice the right hol$erJ legiti'ate intere t , -ECTION 6GD, Reproduction o- Pu(lis&ed Wor/. R 6GD,6, Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! -ection 6DD1 an$ u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -u& ection 6GD,41 the pri)ate repro$uction o! a pu&li he$ 5or( in a ingle copy1 5here the repro$uction i 'a$e &y a natural per on e3clu i)ely !or re earch an$ pri)ate tu$y1 hall &e per'itte$1 5ithout the authori2ation o! the o5ner o! copyright in the 5or(, 6GD,4, The per'i ion grante$ un$er -u& ection 6GD,6 hall not e3ten$ to the repro$uction o!" +a# A 5or( o! architecture in the !or' o! &uil$ing or other con truction% (5) An entire 5oo@, or a -u5-tantia) 1art t0ereof, or of a .u-ica) >or@ in ,ra10ic for. 5y re1ro,ra10ic .ean-I +c# A co'pilation o! $ata an$ other 'aterial % +$# A co'puter progra' e3cept a pro)i$e$ in -ection 6GE% an$ +e# Any 5or( in ca e 5here repro$uction 5oul$ unrea ona&ly con!lict 5ith a nor'al e3ploitation o! the 5or( or 5oul$ other5i e unrea ona&ly pre?u$ice the legiti'ate intere t o! the author, +n# SEC I"N 188. Repro$r p*ic Reproductio! /# Li/r ries1 J 188.1. Not>it0-tan/in, t0e 1rovi-ion- of Su5-ection 1AA.D, any )i5rary or arc0ive >0o-e activitie- are not for 1rofit .ay, >it0out t0e aut0oriLation of t0e aut0or of co1yri,0t o>ner, .a@e a -in,)e co1y of t0e >or@ 5y re1ro,ra10ic re1ro/uction4 +a# 9here the 5or( &y rea on o! it !ragile character or rarity cannot &e lent to u er in it original !or'% +&# 9here the 5or( are i olate$ article containe$ in co'po ite 5or( or &rie! portion o! other pu&li he$ 5or( an$ the repro$uction i nece ary to upply the'1 5hen thi i con i$ere$ e3pe$ient1 to per on re8ue ting their loan !or purpo e o! re earch or tu$y in tea$ o! len$ing the )olu'e or &oo(let 5hich contain the'% an$ +c# 9here the 'a(ing o! uch a copy i in or$er to pre er)e an$1 i! nece ary in the e)ent that it i lo t1 $e troye$ or ren$ere$ unu a&le1 replace a copy1 or to replace1 in the per'anent collection o! another i'ilar li&rary or archi)e1 a copy 5hich ha &een lo t1 $e troye$ or ren$ere$ unu a&le an$ copie are not a)aila&le 5ith the pu&li her, 6GG,4, Not5ith tan$ing the a&o)e pro)i ion 1 it hall not &e per'i i&le to pro$uce a )olu'e o! a 5or( pu&li he$ in e)eral )olu'e or to pro$uce 'i ing to'e or page o! 'aga2ine or i'ilar 5or( 1 unle the )olu'e1 to'e or part i out o! toc(" Pro)i$e$1 That e)ery li&rary 5hich1 &y la51 i entitle$ to recei)e copie o! a printe$ 5or(1 hall &e entitle$1 5hen pecial rea on o re8uire1 to repro$uce a copy o! a pu&li he$ 5or( 5hich i con i$ere$ nece ary !or the collection o! the li&rary &ut 5hich i out o! toc(, -ECTION 6GE, Reproduction o- "o'puter Progra', R 6GE,6, Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! -ection 6DD1 the repro$uction in one +6# &ac(*up copy or a$aptation o! a co'puter progra' hall &e per'itte$1 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o!1 or other o5ner o! copyright in1 a co'puter progra'1 &y the la5!ul o5ner o! that co'puter progra'" Pro)i$e$1 That the copy or a$aptation i nece ary !or" +a# The u e o! the co'puter progra' in con?unction 5ith a co'puter !or the purpo e1 an$ to the e3tent1 !or 5hich the co'puter progra' ha &een o&taine$% an$

Archi)al purpo e 1 an$1 !or the replace'ent o! the la5!ully o5ne$ copy o! the co'puter progra' in the e)ent that the la5!ully o&taine$ copy o! the co'puter progra' i lo t1 $e troye$ or ren$ere$ unu a&le, 6GE,4, No copy or a$aptation 'entione$ in thi -ection hall &e u e$ !or any purpo e other than the one $eter'ine$ in thi -ection1 an$ any uch copy or a$aptation hall &e $e troye$ in the e)ent that continue$ po e ion o! the copy o! the co'puter progra' cea e to &e la5!ul, 6GE,7, Thi pro)i ion hall &e 5ithout pre?u$ice to the application o! -ection 6GF 5hene)er appropriate, -ECTION 6EA, I'portation -or Personal Purposes. R 6EA,6, Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! -u& ection 6DD,>1 &ut u&?ect to the li'itation un$er the -u& ection 6GF,41 the i'portation o! a copy o! a 5or( &y an in$i)i$ual !or hi per onal purpo e hall &e per'itte$ 5ithout the authori2ation o! the author o!1 or other o5ner o! copyright in1 the 5or( un$er the !ollo5ing circu' tance " +a# 9hen copie o! the 5or( are not a)aila&le in the Philippine an$" +i# Not 'ore than one +6# copy at one ti'e i i'porte$ !or trictly in$i)i$ual u e only% or +ii# The i'portation i &y authority o! an$ !or the u e o! the Philippine Go)ern'ent% or (iii) 0e i.1ortation, con-i-tin, of not .ore t0an t0ree (3) -uc0 co1ie- or )i@ene--e- in any one invoice, i- not for -a)e 5ut for t0e u-e on)y of any re)i,iou-, c0arita5)e, or e/ucationa) -ociety or in-titution /u)y incor1orate/ or re,i-tere/, or i- for t0e encoura,e.ent of t0e fine art-, or for any -tate -c0oo), co))e,e, univer-ity, or free 1u5)ic )i5rary in t0e P0i)i11ine-. +&# 9hen uch copie !or' part o! li&rarie an$ per onal &aggage &elonging to per on or !a'ilie arri)ing !ro' !oreign countrie an$ are not inten$e$ !or ale" Pro)i$e$1 That uch copie $o not e3cee$ three +7#, 9. $AIR 'SE -ECTION 6GF, *air Use o- a "op0rig&ted Wor/. R 6GF,6, The !air u e o! a copyrighte$ 5or( !or critici '1 co''ent1 ne5 reporting1 teaching inclu$ing 'ultiple copie !or cla roo' u e1 cholar hip1 re earch1 an$ i'ilar purpo e i not an in!ringe'ent o! copyright, Deco'pilation1 5hich i un$er too$ here to &e the repro$uction o! the co$e an$ tran lation o! the !or' o! the co'puter progra' to achie)e the inter*opera&ility o! an in$epen$ently create$ co'puter progra' 5ith other progra' 'ay al o con titute !air u e, In $eter'ining 5hether the u e 'a$e o! a 5or( in any particular ca e i !air u e1 the !actor to &e con i$ere$ hall inclu$e" +a# The purpo e an$ character o! the u e1 inclu$ing 5hether uch u e i o! a co''ercial nature or i !or non*pro!it e$ucational purpo e % The nature o! the copyrighte$ 5or(% The a'ount an$ u& tantiality o! the portion u e$ in relation to the copyrighte$ 5or( a a 5hole% an$ +$# The e!!ect o! the u e upon the potential 'ar(et !or or )alue o! the copyrighte$ 5or(, 6GF,4, The !act that a 5or( i unpu&li he$ hall not &y it el! &ar a !in$ing o! !air u e i! uch !in$ing i 'a$e upon con i$eration o! all the a&o)e !actor , =ABANA et al. ?s. ROB ES and 9OODWI 6E1 6EEEC $i enting opinion1 DAVIDE TRADIN9 "O.6 IN". BG,R, No, 676F44, Puly +&# +c#

+&#

/air u e ha &een $e!ine$ a a pri)ilege to u e the copyrighte$ 'aterial in a rea ona&le 'anner 5ithout the con ent o! the copyright o5ner or a copying the the'e or i$ea rather than their e3pre ion, No 8ue tion o! !air or un!air u e ari e ho5e)er1 i! no copying i pro)e$ to &egin 5ith, Thi i in con onance 5ith the principle that there can &e no in!ringe'ent i! there

5a no copying, It i only 5here o'e !or' o! copying ha &een ho5n that it &eco'e nece ary to $eter'ine 5hether it ha &een carrie$ to an Kun!air1K that i 1 illegal1 e3tent, 1H. ASSI&N%EN -ECTION 6GA, Rig&ts o- Assignee. R 6GA,6, The copyright 'ay &e a igne$ in 5hole or in part, 9ithin the cope o! the a ign'ent1 the a ignee i entitle$ to all the right an$ re'e$ie 5hich the a ignor ha$ 5ith re pect to the copyright, 6GA,4, The copyright i not $ee'e$ a igne$ inter )i)o in 5hole or in part unle there i a 5ritten in$ication o! uch intention, 6GA,7, The u&'i ion o! a literary1 photographic or arti tic 5or( to a ne5 paper1 'aga2ine or perio$ical !or pu&lication hall con titute only a licen e to 'a(e a ingle pu&lication unle a greater right i e3pre ly grante$, I! t5o +4# or 'ore per on ?ointly o5n a copyright or any part thereo!1 neither o! the o5ner hall &e entitle$ to grant licen e 5ithout the prior 5ritten con ent o! the other o5ner or o5ner , -ECTION 6G6, "op0rig&t and 3aterial O(@ect. R The copyright i $i tinct !ro' the property in the 'aterial o&?ect u&?ect to it, Con e8uently1 the tran !er or a ign'ent o! the copyright hall not it el! con titute a tran !er o! the 'aterial o&?ect, Nor hall a tran !er or a ign'ent o! the ole copy or o! one or e)eral copie o! the 5or( i'ply tran !er or a ign'ent o! the copyright, -ECTION 6G4, *iling o- Assign'ent or icense. R An a ign'ent or e3clu i)e licen e 'ay &e !ile$ in $uplicate 5ith the National Li&rary upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee !or regi tration in &oo( an$ recor$ (ept !or the purpo e, Upon recor$ing1 a copy o! the in tru'ent hall &e returne$ to the en$er 5ith a notation o! the !act o! recor$, Notice o! the recor$ hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette, -ECTION 6G7, Designation o- Societ0, R The copyright o5ner or their heir 'ay $e ignate a ociety o! arti t 1 5riter or co'po er to en!orce their econo'ic right an$ 'oral right on their &ehal!, 11. RE&IS RA I"N -ECTION 6E6, Registration and Deposit .it& National i(rar0 and t&e Supre'e "ourt i(rar0. R A!ter the !ir t pu&lic $i e'ination o! per!or'ance &y authority o! the copyright o5ner o! a 5or( !alling un$er -u& ection 6D4,61 6D4,4 an$ 6D4,7 o! thi Act1 there hall1 !or the purpo e o! co'pleting the recor$ o! the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary1 5ithin three +7# 5ee( 1 &e regi tere$ an$ $epo ite$ 5ith it1 &y per onal $eli)ery or &y regi tere$ 'ail t5o +4# co'plete copie or repro$uction o! the 5or( in uch !or' a the $irector o! ai$ li&rarie 'ay pre cri&e, A certi!icate o! $epo it hall &e i ue$ !or 5hich the pre cri&e$ !ee hall &e collecte$ an$ the copyright o5ner hall &e e3e'pt !ro' 'a(ing a$$itional $epo it o! the 5or( 5ith the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary un$er other la5 , I!1 5ithin three +7# 5ee( a!ter receipt &y the copyright o5ner o! a 5ritten $e'an$ !ro' the $irector !or uch $epo it1 the re8uire$ copie or repro$uction are not $eli)ere$ an$ the !ee i not pai$1 the copyright o5ner hall &e lia&le to pay a !ine e8ui)alent to the re8uire$ !ee per 'onth o! $elay an$ to pay to the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary the a'ount o! the retail price o! the &e t e$ition o! the 5or(, Only the a&o)e 'entione$ cla e o! 5or( hall &e accepte$ !or $epo it &y the National Li&rary an$ the -upre'e Court Li&rary, 12. IN$RIN&E%EN -ECTION 46>, Re'edies -or In-ringe'ent. R 46>,6, Any per on in!ringing a right protecte$ un$er thi la5 hall &e lia&le"

+a#

To an in?unction re training uch in!ringe'ent, The court 'ay al o or$er the $e!en$ant to $e i t !ro' an in!ringe'ent1 a'ong other 1 to pre)ent the entry into the channel o! co''erce o! i'porte$ goo$ that in)ol)e an in!ringe'ent1 i''e$iately a!ter cu to' clearance o! uch goo$ , +&# Pay to the copyright proprietor or hi a ign or heir uch actual $a'age 1 inclu$ing legal co t an$ other e3pen e 1 a he 'ay ha)e incurre$ $ue to the in!ringe'ent a 5ell a the pro!it the in!ringer 'ay ha)e 'a$e $ue to uch in!ringe'ent1 an$ in pro)ing pro!it the plainti!! hall &e re8uire$ to pro)e ale only an$ the $e!en$ant hall &e re8uire$ to pro)e e)ery ele'ent o! co t 5hich he clai' 1 or1 in lieu o! actual $a'age an$ pro!it 1 uch $a'age 5hich to the court hall appear to &e ?u t an$ hall not &e regar$e$ a penalty, Deli)er un$er oath1 !or i'poun$ing $uring the pen$ency o! the action1 upon uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e1 ale in)oice an$ other $ocu'ent e)i$encing ale 1 all article an$ their pac(aging allege$ to in!ringe a copyright an$ i'ple'ent !or 'a(ing the', +$# Deli)er un$er oath !or $e truction 5ithout any co'pen ation all in!ringing copie or $e)ice 1 a 5ell a all plate 1 'ol$ 1 or other 'ean !or 'a(ing uch in!ringing copie a the court 'ay or$er, +e# -uch other ter' an$ con$ition 1 inclu$ing the pay'ent o! 'oral an$ e3e'plary $a'age 1 5hich the court 'ay $ee' proper1 5i e an$ e8uita&le an$ the $e truction o! in!ringing copie o! the 5or( e)en in the e)ent o! ac8uittal in a cri'inal ca e,

+c#

21D.2. In an infrin,e.ent action, t0e court -0a)) a)-o 0ave t0e 1o>er to or/er t0e -eiLure an/ i.1oun/in, of any artic)e >0ic0 .ay -erve a- evi/ence in t0e court 1rocee/in,-. -ECTION 46D, "ri'inal Penalties. R 46D,6, Any per on in!ringing any right ecure$ &y pro)i ion o! Part IV o! thi Act or ai$ing or a&etting uch in!ringe'ent hall &e guilty o! a cri'e puni ha&le &y" +a# I'pri on'ent o! one +6# year to three +7# year plu a !ine ranging !ro' /i!ty thou an$ pe o +PFA1AAA# to One hun$re$ !i!ty thou an$ pe o +P6FA1AAA# !or the !ir t o!!en e, +&# I'pri on'ent o! three +7# year an$ one +6# $ay to i3 +># year plu a !ine ranging !ro' One hun$re$ !i!ty thou an$ pe o +P6FA1AAA# to /i)e hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +PFAA1AAA# !or the econ$ o!!en e, +c# I'pri on'ent o! i3 +># year an$ one +6# $ay to nine +E# year plu a !ine ranging !ro' !i)e hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +PFAA1AAA# to One 'illion !i)e hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +P61FAA1AAA# !or the thir$ an$ u& e8uent o!!en e , +$# In all ca e 1 u& i$iary i'pri on'ent in ca e o! in ol)ency, 46D,4, In $eter'ining the nu'&er o! year o! i'pri on'ent an$ the a'ount o! !ine1 the court hall con i$er the )alue o! the in!ringing 'aterial that the $e!en$ant ha pro$uce$ or 'anu!acture$ an$ the $a'age that the copyright o5ner ha u!!ere$ &y rea on o! the in!ringe'ent, 46D,7, Any per on 5ho at the ti'e 5hen copyright u& i t in a 5or( ha in hi po e ion an article 5hich he (no5 1 or ought to (no51 to &e an in!ringing copy o! the 5or( !or the purpo e o!" +a# -elling1 letting !or hire1 or &y 5ay o! tra$e o!!ering or e3po ing !or ale1 or hire1 the article% +&# Di tri&uting the article !or purpo e o! tra$e1 or !or any other purpo e to an e3tent that 5ill pre?u$ice the right o! the copyright o5ner in the 5or(% or +c# Tra$e e3hi&it o! the article in pu&lic1 hall &e guilty o! an o!!en e an$ hall &e lia&le on con)iction to i'pri on'ent an$ !ine a a&o)e 'entione$, -ECTION 46G, A--ida?it E?idence. R 46G,6, In an action un$er thi Chapter1 an a!!i$a)it 'a$e &e!ore a notary pu&lic &y or on &ehal! o! the o5ner o! the copyright in any 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter an$ tating that" +a# At the ti'e peci!ie$ therein1 copyright u& i te$ in the 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter% +&# 0e or the per on na'e$ therein i the o5ner o! the copyright% an$

+c#

+a# +&#

The copy o! the 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter anne3e$ thereto i a true copy thereo!1 hall &e a$'itte$ in e)i$ence in any procee$ing !or an o!!en e un$er thi Chapter an$ hall &e pri'a !acie proo! o! the 'atter therein tate$ until the contrary i pro)e$1 an$ the court &e!ore 5hich uch a!!i$a)it i pro$uce$ hall a u'e that the a!!i$a)it 5a 'a$e &y or on &ehal! o! the o5ner o! the copyright, 218.2. In an action under t&is "&apter1 Copyright hall &e pre u'e$ to u& i t in the 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter to 5hich the action relate i! the $e!en$ant $oe not put in i ue the 8ue tion 5hether copyright u& i t in the 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter% an$ 9here the u& i tence o! the copyright i e ta&li he$1 the plainti!! hall &e pre u'e$ to &e the o5ner o! the copyright i! he clai' to &e the o5ner o! the copyright an$ the $e!en$ant $oe not put in i ue the 8ue tion o! hi o5ner hip, +c# 9here the $e!en$ant1 5ithout goo$ !aith1 put in i ue the 8ue tion o! 5hether copyright u& i t in a 5or( or other u&?ect 'atter to 5hich the action relate 1 or the o5ner hip o! copyright in uch 5or( or u&?ect 'atter1 there&y occa ioning unnece ary co t or $elay in the procee$ing 1 the court 'ay $irect that any co t to the $e!en$ant in re pect o! the action hall not &e allo5e$ &y hi' an$ that any co t occa ione$ &y the $e!en$ant to other partie hall &e pai$ &y hi' to uch other partie ,

-ECTION 46E, Presu'ption o- Aut&ors&ip. R 46E,6, The natural per on 5ho e na'e i in$icate$ on a 5or( in the u ual 'anner a the author hall1 in the a& ence o! proo! to the contrary1 &e pre u'e$ to &e the author o! the 5or(, Thi pro)i ion hall &e applica&le e)en i! the na'e i a p eu$ony'1 5here the p eu$ony' lea)e no $ou&t a to the i$entity o! the author, 46E,4, The per on or &o$y corporate 5ho e na'e appear on a au$io*)i ual 5or( in the u ual 'anner hall1 in the a& ence o! proo! to the contrary1 &e pre u'e$ to &e the 'a(er o! ai$ 5or(, SEC I"N 22H. I!ter! tio! l Re$istr tio! o" Wor's1 J A -tate.ent concernin, a >or@, recor/e/ in an internationa) re,i-ter in accor/ance >it0 an internationa) treaty to >0ic0 t0e P0i)i11ine- i- or .ay 5eco.e a 1arty, -0a)) 5e con-true/ a- true unti) t0e contrary i1rove/ e?ce1t4 44A,6, 9here the tate'ent cannot &e )ali$ un$er thi Act or any other la5 concerning intellectual property, 44A,4, 9here the tate'ent i contra$icte$ &y another tate'ent recor$e$ in the international regi ter, 2H ( CEN 'R: $"G $I+% C"RP"RA I"N v-. CA AG1R1 Nos1 L=F??4D=G31 Au$ust 3D% 3DCCE The e ence o! a copyright in!ringe'ent i the i'ilarity or at lea t u& tantial i'ilarity o! the purporte$ pirate$ 5or( to the copyrighte$ 5or(, 0ence1 the applicant 'u t pre ent to the court the copyrighte$ !il' to co'pare the' 5ith the purcha e$ e)i$ence o! the )i$eo tape allege$ly pirate$ to $eter'ine 5hether the latter i an unauthori2e$ repro$uction o! the !or'er, Thi lin(age o! the copyrighte$ !il' to the pirate$ !il' 'u t &e e ta&li he$ to ati !y the re8uire'ent o! pro&a&le cau e, ;ere allegation a to the e3i tence o! the copyrighte$ !il' cannot er)e a &a i !or the i uance o! a earch 5arrant, Reiterate$ in Colum/i Pictures% I!c vs1 Court o" Appe ls BG,R, No , E>FED*EE, Octo&er >1 6EE.,C, C"+'%*IA PIC 'RES, INC. v-. C"'R "$ APPEA+S AG1R1 No1 33BH3C1 Au$ust 2C% 3DD?E The !act that petitioner are a$'itte$ly copyright o5ner or o5ner o! e3clu i)e $i tri&ution right in the Philippine 'otion picture or !il' $oe not con)ert uch o5ner hip into an

in$iciu' o! $oing &u ine 5hich 5oul$ re8uire the' to o&tain a licen e &e!ore they can ue upon a cau e o! action in local court , It i e)i$ently incorrect to ugge t1 a the ruling in 4Ath Century /o3 'ay appear to $o1 that in copyright in!ringe'ent ca e 1 the pre entation o! 'a ter tape o! the copyrighte$ !il' i al5ay nece ary to 'eet the re8uire'ent o! pro&a&le cau e an$ that1 in the a& ence thereo!1 there can &e no !in$ing o! pro&a&le cau e !or the i uance o! a earch 5arrant, It i true that uch 'a ter tape are o&?ect e)i$ence1 5ith the 'erit that in thi cla o! e)i$ence the a certain'ent o! the contro)erte$ !act i 'a$e through $e'on tration in)ol)ing the $irect u e o! the en e o! the pre i$ing 'agi trate, -uch au3iliary proce$ure1 ho5e)er1 $oe not rule out the u e o! te ti'onial or $ocu'entary e)i$ence1 $epo ition 1 a$'i ion or other cla e o! e)i$ence ten$ing to pro)e the !actu' pro&an$u'1 e pecially 5here the pro$uction in court o! o&?ect e)i$ence 5oul$ re ult in $elay1 incon)enience or e3pen e out o! proportion to it e)i$entiary )alue, In!ringe'ent o! a copyright i a tre pa on a pri)ate $o'ain o5ne$ an$ occupie$ &y the o5ner o! the copyright1 an$1 there!ore1 protecte$ &y la51 an$ in!ringe'ent o! copyright1 or piracy1 5hich i a ynony'ou ter' in thi connection1 con i t in the $oing &y any per on1 5ithout the con ent o! the o5ner o! the copyright1 o! anything the ole right to $o 5hich i con!erre$ &y tatute on the o5ner o! the copyright, A copy o! a piracy i an in!ringe'ent o! the original1 an$ it i no $e!en e that the pirate1 in uch ca e 1 $i$ not (no5 5hat 5or( he 5a in$irectly copying1 or $i$ not (no5 5hether or not he 5a in!ringing any copyright% he at lea t (ne5 that 5hat he 5a copying 5a not hi 1 an$ he copie$ at hi peril, In $eter'ining the 8ue tion o! in!ringe'ent1 the a'ount o! 'atter copie$ !ro' the copyrighte$ 5or( i an i'portant con i$eration, To con titute in!ringe'ent1 it i not nece ary that the 5hole or e)en a large portion o! the 5or( hall ha)e &een copie$, I! o 'uch i ta(en that the )alue o! the original i en i&ly $i'ini he$1 or the la&or o! the original author are u& tantially an$ to an in?uriou e3tent appropriate$ &y another1 that i u!!icient in point o! la5 to con titute a piracy, It i pointle !or pri)ate re pon$ent to in i t on co'pliance 5ith the regi tration an$ $epo it re8uire'ent un$er Pre i$ential Decree No, .E a prere8ui ite !or in)o(ing the courtJ protecti)e 'antle in copyright in!ringe'ent ca e , A e3plaine$ &y the court &elo5" A correctly pointe$ out &y pri)ate co'plainant *oppo itor 1 the Depart'ent o! Pu tice ha re ol)e$ thi legal 8ue tion a !ar &ac( a Dece'&er 641 6EDG in it Opinion No, 6E6 o! the then -ecretary o! Pu tice Vicente A&a$ -anto 5hich tate$ that -ection 4> an$ FA $o not apply to cine'atographic 5or( an$ PD No, .E Kha$ $one a5ay 5ith the regi tration an$ $epo it o! cine'atographic 5or( K an$ that Ke)en 5ithout prior regi tration an$ $epo it o! a 5or( 5hich 'ay &e entitle$ to protection un$er the Decree1 the creator can !ile action !or in!ringe'ent o! it right ,K 0e cannot $e'an$1 ho5e)er1 pay'ent o! $a'age ari ing !ro' in!ringe'ent, The a'e opinion tre e$ that Kthe re8uire'ent o! regi tration an$ $epo it are thu retaine$ un$er the Decree1 not a con$ition !or the ac8ui ition o! copyright an$ other right 1 &ut a prere8ui ite to a uit !or $a'age ,K The tatutory interpretation o! the E3ecuti)e Hranch &eing correct1 i entitle$ +to# 5eight an$ re pect, -ection 4 o! the $ecree pre!ace it enu'eration o! copyrighta&le 5or( 5ith the e3plicit tate'ent that Kthe right grante$ un$er thi Decree hall1 !ro' the 'o'ent o! creation1 u& i t 5ith re pect to any o! the !ollo5ing cla e o! 5or( ,K Thi 'ean that un$er the pre ent tate o! the la51 the copyright !or a 5or( i ac8uire$ &y an intellectual creator !ro' the 'o'ent o! creation e)en in the a& ence o! regi tration an$ $epo it, That pri)ate re pon$ent are licen e$ &y the Vi$eogra' Regulatory Hoar$ $oe not in ulate !ro' cri'inal an$ ci)il lia&ility !or their unla5!ul &u ine practice ,

PE"P+E v-. RA%"S AG1R1 No1 L=2G2?G1 8 # D% 3DFCE On the applica&ility o! the !our*year pre cripti)e perio$ pro)i$e$ in Act No, 774>, The a'e i not applica&le, -ai$ Act pro)i$e "

K-ection 6, Violation penali2e$ &y pecial act hall unle other5i e pro)i$e$ in uch act 1 pre cri&e in accor$ance 5ith the !ollo5ing rule " +a# , , , , , , , , , , +&# a!ter !our year !or tho e puni he$ &y i'pri on'ent !or 'ore than one 'onth1 &ut le than t5o year % 3 3 3K Act No, 774> applie only i! the pecial act $oe not pro)i$e !or it o5n pre cripti)e perio$, It ha no application here1 5here the Copyright La5 pro)i$e !or it o5n pre cripti)e perio$1 )i2" K-ection 4., All action 1 uit 1 or procee$ing ari ing un$er thi Act hall &e originally cogni2a&le &y the Court o! /ir t In tance o! the Philippine an$ hall pre cri&e a!ter t5o year !ro' the ti'e the cau e o! action aro e,K +A< A2 v-. PA&+INA2AN AG1R1 No1 33DHF1 April 3% 3D3C1E 20ere one in 1u5)i-0in, a S1ani-08 a,a)o, /ictionary 0a- 5ut co1ie/ t0e e3uiva)ent-, /efinition- an/ /ifferent .eanin,- ,iven in anot0erM- S1ani-08 a,a)o, /ictionary, a)t0ou,0 .a@in, -o.e a//ition- of 0i- o>n an/ -o.e uni.1ortant c0an,e- in t0e e?a.1)e- to i))u-trate t0e .eanin,- of t0e >or/-, -uc0 a- -u5-titutin, F aya5a-F for F*u)acanF in t0e e?1re--ion F!oy a *u)acanF (I a. ,oin, to *u)acan), it i- evi/ent t0at 0e .ere)y re1ro/uce/ t0e /ictionary of t0e ot0er aut0or in vio)ation of t0e +a> of January 1H, 18A9, on Inte))ectua) Pro1erty. The author o! a $ictionary pu&li he$ in 6GGE ha)ing an e3clu i)e right thereto1 )e te$ un$er the La5 o! Panuary 6A1 6GDE1 an$ protecte$ &y the Treaty o! Pari o! Dece'&er 6A1 6GEG1 e)ery )iolator o! ai$ right 5ill &e hel$ re pon i&le !or the $a'age the ai$ author 'ay ha)e u taine$, %ERRIA% SC(""+ AN# "$$ICE S'PP+IES v-. CA AG1R1 No1 L=4C43H1 -u!e HB% 3DCBE I'plicit in the Reprinting Co''itteeJ ruling i the a u'ption that the ;erria' an$ 9e& ter !ir' are in!ringer o! the right to reprint the &oo( 5hich 5a e3clu i)ely a5ar$e$ to National Hoo( -tore1 Inc, an$ are not a5ar$ee o! any reprinting right, The cau e o! action o! National Hoo( -tore1 Inc, i pre$icate$ on the in!ringe'ent o! that right, 9ithout pre?u$ging Ci)il Ca e No, 6AE.6. !or in?unction an$ $a'age 1 5e hol$ that the Court o! /ir t In tance ha ?uri $iction o)er the ca e, =ABANA et al. ?s. ROB ES and 9OODWI 6E1 6EEEC TRADIN9 "O.6 IN". BG,R, No, 676F44, Puly

In $eter'ining the 8ue tion o! in!ringe'ent1 the a'ount o! 'atter copie$ !ro' the copyrighte$ 5or( i an i'portant con i$eration, To con titute in!ringe'ent1 it i not nece ary that the 5hole or e)en a large portion o! the 5or( hall ha)e &een copie$, I! o 'uch i ta(en that the )alue o! the original i en i&ly $i'ini he$1 or the la&or o! the original author are u& tantially an$ to an in?uriou e3tent appropriate$ &y another1 that i u!!icient in point o! la5 to con titute piracy, In!ringe'ent o! a copyright i a tre pa on a pri)ate $o'ain o5ne$ an$ occupie$ &y the o5ner o! the copyright1 an$1 there!ore1 protecte$ &y la51 an$ in!ringe'ent o! copyright1 or piracy1 5hich i a ynony'ou ter' in thi connection1 con i t in the $oing &y any per on1 5ithout the con ent o! the o5ner o! the copyright1 o! anything the ole right to $o 5hich i con!erre$ &y tatute on the o5ner o! the copyright, A copy o! a piracy i an in!ringe'ent o! the original1 an$ it i no $e!en e that the pirate1 in uch ca e 1 $i$ not (no5 5hether or not he 5a in!ringing any copyright% he at lea t (ne5 that 5hat he 5a copying 5a not hi 1 an$ he copie$ at hi peril, In ca e o! in!ringe'ent1 copying alone i not 5hat i prohi&ite$, The copying 'u t pro$uce an Kin?uriou e!!ectK, To allo5 another to copy the &oo( 5ithout appropriate ac(no5le$g'ent i in?ury enough, 13. PAR :

-ECTION 446, Points o- Attac&'ent -or Wor/s under Sections 7;# and 7;B. R 446,6, The protection a!!or$e$ &y thi Act to copyrighta&le 5or( un$er -ection 6D4 an$ 6D7 hall apply to" +a# 9or( o! author 5ho are national o!1 or ha)e their ha&itual re i$ence in1 the Philippine % +&# Au$io*)i ual 5or( the pro$ucer o! 5hich ha hi hea$8uarter or ha&itual re i$ence in the Philippine % +c# 9or( o! architecture erecte$ in the Philippine or other arti tic 5or( incorporate$ in a &uil$ing or other tructure locate$ in the Philippine % +$# 9or( !ir t pu&li he$ in the Philippine % an$ +e# 9or( !ir t pu&li he$ in another country &ut al o pu&li he$ in the Philippine 5ithin thirty $ay 1 irre pecti)e o! the nationality or re i$ence o! the author , 446,4, The pro)i ion o! thi Act hall al o apply to 5or( that are to &e protecte$ &y )irtue o! an$ in accor$ance 5ith any international con)ention or other international agree'ent to 5hich the Philippine i a party, -ECTION 444, Points o- Attac&'ent -or Per-or'ers. R The pro)i ion o! thi Act on the protection o! per!or'er hall apply to" 444,6, Per!or'er 5ho are national o! the Philippine % 444,4, Per!or'er 5ho are not national o! the Philippine &ut 5ho e per!or'ance " +a# Ta(e place in the Philippine % or +&# Are incorporate$ in oun$ recor$ing that are protecte$ un$er thi Act% or +c# 9hich ha not &een !i3e$ in oun$ recor$ing &ut are carrie$ &y &roa$ca t 8uali!ying !or protection un$er thi Act, -ECTION 447, Points o- Attac&'ent -or Sound Recordings. R The pro)i ion o! thi Act on the protection o! oun$ recor$ing hall apply to" 447,6, -oun$ recor$ing the pro$ucer o! 5hich are national o! the Philippine % an$ 447,4, -oun$ recor$ing that 5ere !ir t pu&li he$ in the Philippine , -ECTION 44., Points o- Attac&'ent -or Broadcasts. R 44.,6, The pro)i ion o! thi Act on the protection o! &roa$ca t hall apply to" +a# Hroa$ca t o! &roa$ca ting organi2ation the hea$8uarter o! 5hich are ituate$ in the Philippine % an$ +&# Hroa$ca t tran 'itte$ !ro' tran 'itter ituate$ in the Philippine , 44.,4, The pro)i ion o! thi Act hall al o apply to per!or'er 5ho1 an$ to pro$ucer o! oun$ recor$ing an$ &roa$ca ting organi2ation 5hich1 are to &e protecte$ &y )irtue o! an$ in accor$ance 5ith any international con)ention or other international agree'ent to 5hich the Philippine i a party, -ECTION 476, Re?erse Reciprocit0 o- *oreign a.s. R Any con$ition1 re triction1 li'itation1 $i'inution1 re8uire'ent1 penalty or any i'ilar &ur$en i'po e$ &y the la5 o! a !oreign country on a Philippine national ee(ing protection o! intellectual property right in that country1 hall reciprocally &e en!orcea&le upon national o! ai$ country1 5ithin Philippine ?uri $iction, 17. INS I ' I"N "$ AC I"NS -ECTION 44F, Jurisdiction. R 9ithout pre?u$ice to the pro)i ion o! -u& ection D,6+c#1 action un$er thi Act hall &e cogni2a&le &y the court 5ith appropriate ?uri $iction un$er e3i ting la5, +-ec, FD1 P,D, No, .Ea# -ECTION 44>, Da'ages. R No $a'age 'ay &e reco)ere$ un$er thi Act a!ter !our +.# year !ro' the ti'e the cau e o! action aro e, +-ec, FG1 P,D, No, .E#

1E. %"RA+ RI&( S -ECTION 6E7, Scope o- 3oral Rig&ts. R The author o! a 5or( hall1 in$epen$ently o! the econo'ic right in -ection 6DD or the grant o! an a ign'ent or licen e 5ith re pect to uch right1 ha)e the right" 6E7,6, To re8uire that the author hip o! the 5or( &e attri&ute$ to hi'1 in particular1 the right that hi na'e1 a !ar a practica&le1 &e in$icate$ in a pro'inent 5ay on the copie 1 an$ in connection 5ith the pu&lic u e o! hi 5or(% 6E7,4, To 'a(e any alteration o! hi 5or( prior to1 or to 5ithhol$ it !ro' pu&lication% 6E7,7, To o&?ect to any $i tortion1 'utilation or other 'o$i!ication o!1 or other $erogatory action in relation to1 hi 5or( 5hich 5oul$ &e pre?u$icial to hi honor or reputation% an$ 6E7,., To re train the u e o! hi na'e 5ith re pect to any 5or( not o! hi o5n creation or in a $i torte$ )er ion o! hi 5or(, -ECTION 6E., Breac& o- "ontract. R An author cannot &e co'pelle$ to per!or' hi contract to create a 5or( or !or the pu&lication o! hi 5or( alrea$y in e3i tence, 0o5e)er1 he 'ay &e hel$ lia&le !or $a'age !or &reach o! uch contract, -ECTION 6EF, Wai?er o- 3oral Rig&ts. R An author 'ay 5ai)e hi right 'entione$ in -ection 6E7 &y a 5ritten in tru'ent1 &ut no uch 5ai)er hall &e )ali$ 5here it e!!ect i to per'it another" 6EF,6, To u e the na'e o! the author1 or the title o! hi 5or(1 or other5i e to 'a(e u e o! hi reputation 5ith re pect to any )er ion or a$aptation o! hi 5or( 5hich1 &ecau e o! alteration therein1 5oul$ u& tantially ten$ to in?ure the literary or arti tic reputation o! another author% or 6EF,4, To u e the na'e o! the author 5ith re pect to a 5or( he $i$ not create, -ECTION 6E>, "ontri(ution to "ollecti?e Wor/. R 9hen an author contri&ute to a collecti)e 5or(1 hi right to ha)e hi contri&ution attri&ute$ to hi' i $ee'e$ 5ai)e$ unle he e3pre ly re er)e it, -ECTION 6ED, Editing6 Arranging and Adaptation o- Wor/. R In the a& ence o! a contrary tipulation at the ti'e an author licen e or per'it another to u e hi 5or(1 the nece ary e$iting1 arranging or a$aptation o! uch 5or(1 !or pu&lication1 &roa$ca t1 u e in a 'otion picture1 $ra'ati2ation1 or 'echanical or electrical repro$uction in accor$ance 5ith the rea ona&le an$ cu to'ary tan$ar$ or re8uire'ent o! the 'e$iu' in 5hich the 5or( i to &e u e$1 hall not &e $ee'e$ to contra)ene the authorJ right ecure$ &y thi chapter, Nor hall co'plete $e truction o! a 5or( uncon$itionally tran !erre$ &y the author &e $ee'e$ to )iolate uch right , -ECTION 6EG, Ter' o- 3oral Rig&ts. R 6EG,6, The right o! an author un$er thi chapter hall la t $uring the li!eti'e o! the author an$ !or !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath an$ hall not &e a igna&le or u&?ect to licen e, The per on or per on to &e charge$ 5ith the po thu'ou en!orce'ent o! the e right hall &e na'e$ in 5riting to &e !ile$ 5ith the National Li&rary, In $e!ault o! uch per on or per on 1 uch en!orce'ent hall $e)ol)e upon either the authorJ heir 1 an$ in $e!ault o! the heir 1 the Director o! the National Li&rary, 6EG,4, /or purpo e o! thi -ection1 KPer onK hall 'ean any in$i)i$ual1 partner hip1 corporation1 a ociation1 or ociety, The Director o! the National Li&rary 'ay pre cri&e rea ona&le !ee to &e charge$ !or hi er)ice in the application o! pro)i ion o! thi -ection, -ECTION 6EE, En-orce'ent Re'edies. R Violation o! any o! the right con!erre$ &y thi Chapter hall entitle tho e charge$ 5ith their en!orce'ent to the a'e right an$ re'e$ie a)aila&le to a copyright o5ner, In a$$ition1 $a'age 5hich 'ay &e a)aile$ o! un$er the Ci)il Co$e 'ay al o &e reco)ere$, Any $a'age reco)ere$ a!ter the creatorJ $eath hall &e hel$ in tru t !or an$ re'itte$ to hi heir 1 an$ in $e!ault o! the heir 1 hall &elong to the go)ern'ent,

1D. S'*SE9'EN

RANS$ERS (#R"I #E S'I )

SEC I"N 2HH. S le or Le se o" Wor'1 J In every -a)e or )ea-e of an ori,ina) >or@ of 1aintin, or -cu)1ture or of t0e ori,ina) .anu-cri1t of a >riter or co.1o-er, -u5-e3uent to t0e fir-t /i-1o-ition t0ereof 5y t0e aut0or, t0e aut0or or 0i- 0eir- -0a)) 0ave an ina)iena5)e ri,0t to 1artici1ate in t0e ,ro-- 1rocee/- of t0e -a)e or )ea-e to t0e e?tent of five 1ercent (EN). 0i- ri,0t -0a)) e?i-t /urin, t0e )ifeti.e of t0e aut0or an/ for fifty (EH) year- after 0i- /eat0. -ECTION 4A6, Wor/s Not "o?ered. R The pro)i ion o! thi Chapter hall not apply to print 1 etching 1 engra)ing 1 5or( o! applie$ art1 or 5or( o! i'ilar (in$ 5herein the author pri'arily $eri)e gain !ro' the procee$ o! repro$uction , 1A. NEI&(*"RIN& RI&( S -ECTION 4A7, Scope o- Per-or'ersC Rig&ts. R -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -ection 4641 per!or'er hall en?oy the !ollo5ing e3clu i)e right " 4A7,6, A regar$ their per!or'ance 1 the right o! authori2ing" +a# The &roa$ca ting an$ other co''unication to the pu&lic o! their per!or'ance% an$ +&# The !i3ation o! their un!i3e$ per!or'ance, 4A7,4, The right o! authori2ing the $irect or in$irect repro$uction o! their per!or'ance !i3e$ in oun$ recor$ing 1 in any 'anner or !or'% 4A7,7, -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -ection 4A>1 the right o! authori2ing the !ir t pu&lic $i tri&ution o! the original an$ copie o! their per!or'ance !i3e$ in the oun$ recor$ing through ale or rental or other !or' o! tran !er o! o5ner hip% 4A7,., The right o! authori2ing the co''ercial rental to the pu&lic o! the original an$ copie o! their per!or'ance !i3e$ in oun$ recor$ing 1 e)en a!ter $i tri&ution o! the' &y1 or pur uant to the authori2ation &y the per!or'er% an$ 2H3.E. 0e ri,0t of aut0oriLin, t0e .a@in, avai)a5)e to t0e 1u5)ic of t0eir 1erfor.ancefi?e/ in -oun/ recor/in,-, 5y >ire or >ire)e-- .ean-, in -uc0 a >ay t0at .e.5er- of t0e 1u5)ic .ay acce-- t0e. fro. a 1)ace an/ ti.e in/ivi/ua))y c0o-en 5y t0e.. SEC I"N 2H7. 8or l Ri$*ts o" Per"ormers1 J 2H7.1. In/e1en/ent)y of a 1erfor.erMecono.ic ri,0t-, t0e 1erfor.er, -0a)), a- re,ar/- 0i- )ive aura) 1erfor.ance- or 1erfor.ance- fi?e/ in -oun/ recor/in,-, 0ave t0e ri,0t to c)ai. to 5e i/entifie/ at0e 1erfor.er of 0i- 1erfor.ance-, e?ce1t >0ere t0e o.i--ion i- /ictate/ 5y t0e .anner of t0e u-e of t0e 1erfor.ance, an/ to o5Kect to any /i-tortion, .uti)ation or ot0er .o/ification of 0i- 1erfor.ance- t0at >ou)/ 5e 1reKu/icia) to 0i- re1utation. 4A.,4, The right grante$ to a per!or'er in accor$ance 5ith -u& ection 4A7,6 hall &e 'aintaine$ an$ e3erci e$ !i!ty +FA# year a!ter hi $eath1 &y hi heir 1 an$ in $e!ault o! heir 1 the go)ern'ent1 5here protection i clai'e$, -ECTION 4AF, i'itation on Rig&t. R 4AF,6, -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -ection 4A>1 once the per!or'er ha authori2e$ the &roa$ca ting or !i3ation o! hi per!or'ance1 the pro)i ion o! -ection 4A7 hall ha)e no !urther application, 4AF,4, The pro)i ion o! -ection 6G. an$ -ection 6GF hall apply 'utati 'utan$i to per!or'er , SEC I"N 2HD. Additio! l Remu!er tio! "or Su/se>ue!t Commu!ic tio!s or :ro dc sts1 J 'n)e-- ot0er>i-e 1rovi/e/ in t0e contract, in every co..unication to t0e 1u5)ic or 5roa/ca-t of a 1erfor.ance -u5-e3uent to t0e fir-t co..unication or 5roa/ca-t t0ereof 5y t0e 5roa/ca-tin, or,aniLation, t0e 1erfor.er -0a)) 5e entit)e/ to an a//itiona) re.uneration e3uiva)ent to at )ea-t five 1ercent (EN) of t0e ori,ina) co.1en-ation 0e or -0e receive/ for t0e fir-t co..unication or 5roa/ca-t.

-ECTION 4AD, "ontract Ter's. R Nothing in thi Chapter hall &e con true$ to $epri)e per!or'er o! the right to agree &y contract on ter' an$ con$ition 'ore !a)ora&le !or the' in re pect o! any u e o! their per!or'ance, SEC I"N 2H8. Scope o" Ri$*t1 J Su5Kect to t0e 1rovi-ion- of Section 212, 1ro/ucerof -oun/ recor/in,- -0a)) enKoy t0e fo))o>in, e?c)u-ive ri,0t-4 4AG,6, The right to authori2e the $irect or in$irect repro$uction o! their oun$ recor$ing 1 in any 'anner or !or'% the placing o! the e repro$uction in the 'ar(et an$ the right o! rental or len$ing% 4AG,4, The right to authori2e the !ir t pu&lic $i tri&ution o! the original an$ copie o! their oun$ recor$ing through ale or rental or other !or' o! tran !erring o5ner hip% an$ 4AG,7, The right to authori2e the co''ercial rental to the pu&lic o! the original an$ copie o! their oun$ recor$ing 1 e)en a!ter $i tri&ution &y the' &y or pur uant to authori2ation &y the pro$ucer, -ECTION 4AE, "o''unication to t&e Pu(lic. R I! a oun$ recor$ing pu&li he$ !or co''ercial purpo e 1 or a repro$uction o! uch oun$ recor$ing1 i u e$ $irectly !or &roa$ca ting or !or other co''unication to the pu&lic1 or i pu&licly per!or'e$ 5ith the intention o! 'a(ing an$ enhancing pro!it1 a ingle e8uita&le re'uneration !or the per!or'er or per!or'er 1 an$ the pro$ucer o! the oun$ recor$ing hall &e pai$ &y the u er to &oth the per!or'er an$ the pro$ucer1 5ho1 in the a& ence o! any agree'ent hall hare e8ually, -ECTION 46A, i'itation o- Rig&t, R -ection 'utan$i to the pro$ucer o! oun$ recor$ing , 6G. an$ 6GF hall apply 'utati

-ECTION 466, Scope o- Rig&t. R -u&?ect to the pro)i ion o! -ection 4641 &roa$ca ting organi2ation hall en?oy the e3clu i)e right to carry out1 authori2e or pre)ent any o! the !ollo5ing act " 466,6, The re&roa$ca ting o! their &roa$ca t % 466,4, The recor$ing in any 'anner1 inclu$ing the 'a(ing o! !il' or the u e o! )i$eo tape1 o! their &roa$ca t !or the purpo e o! co''unication to the pu&lic o! tele)i ion &roa$ca t o! the a'e% an$ 466,7, The u e o! uch recor$ !or !re h tran 'i ion or !or !re h recor$ing, -ECTION 464, i'itations on Rig&ts. R -ection 4A71 4AG an$ 4AE hall not apply 5here the act re!erre$ to in tho e -ection are relate$ to" 464,6, The u e &y a natural per on e3clu i)ely !or hi o5n per onal purpo e % 464,4, U ing hort e3cerpt !or reporting current e)ent % 464,7, U e olely !or the purpo e o! teaching or !or cienti!ic re earch% an$ 464,., /air u e o! the &roa$ca t u&?ect to the con$ition un$er -ection 6GF,

(E +A2 "N PA EN 7. PURPOSE 3ANDANO ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 6677GG, -epte'&er F1 6EEDC The pri'ary purpo e o! the patent y te' i not the re5ar$ o! the in$i)i$ual &ut the a$)ance'ent o! the art an$ cience , The !unction o! a patent i to a$$ to the u' o! u e!ul (no5le$ge an$ one o! the purpo e o! the patent y te' i to encourage $i e'ination o! in!or'ation concerning $i co)erie an$ in)ention ,

#. W=AT ARE PATENTAB EE a. Invention-

-ECTION 46, Patenta(le In?entions. R Any technical olution o! a pro&le' in any !iel$ o! hu'an acti)ity 5hich i ne51 in)ol)e an in)enti)e tep an$ i in$u trially applica&le hall &e Patenta&le, It 'ay &e1 or 'ay relate to1 a pro$uct1 or proce 1 or an i'pro)e'ent o! any o! the !oregoing,
5. Inventivene--

-ECTION 4>, In?enti?e Step. R An in)ention in)ol)e an in)enti)e tep i!1 ha)ing regar$ to prior art1 it i not o&)iou to a per on (ille$ in the art at the ti'e o! the !iling $ate or priority $ate o! the application clai'ing the in)ention, VAR9AS ?s. "=UA6 et al. BG,R, No, 7>>FA, Panuary 4D1 6E77C 9e ha)e care!ully e3a'ine$ all the plo5 pre ente$ a e3hi&it a 5ell a the $e ign o! tho e co)ere$ &y the patent 1 an$ 5e are con)ince$ that no u& tantial $i!!erence e3i t &et5een the plo51 E3hi&it /1 an$ the plo51 E3hi&it 7*Chua 5hich 5a originally patente$ &y the appellee1 Varga , The only $i!!erence note$ &y u i the uppre ion o! the &olt an$ the three hole on the 'etal trap attache$ to the han$le &ar, The e hole an$ &olt 5ith it nut 5ere uppre e$ in E3hi&it / in 5hich the &ea' i 'o)a&le a in the original plo5, The 'e'&er o! thi court1 5ith the plo5 in )ie51 arri)e$ at the conclu ion that not only i there no !un$a'ental $i!!erence &et5een the t5o plo5 &ut no i'pro)e'ent 5hate)er ha &een 'a$e on the late t 'o$el1 !or the a'e 5or(ing an$ 'o)e'ent o! the &ea' e3i te$ in the original 'o$el 5ith the a$)antage1 perhap 1 that it gra$uation coul$ &e carrie$ through 5ith 'ore certainty &y the u e o! the &olt 5hich a ha alrea$y &een tate$1 5a a$?u ta&le an$ 'o)a&le, A to the !act1 upon 5hich 'uch e'pha i 5a lai$1 that $eeper !urro5 can &e 'a$e 5ith the ne5 'o$el1 5e ha)e een that the a'e re ult can &e ha$ 5ith the ol$ i'ple'ent, The appellee i not entitle$ to the protection he ee( !or the i'ple rea on that hi plo51 E3hi&it /1 $oe not con titute an in)ention in the legal en e1 an$ &ecau e1 accor$ing to the e)i$ence1 the a'e type o! plo5 ha$ &een 'anu!acture$ in thi country an$ ha$ &een in u e

in 'any part o! the Philippine Archipelago1 e pecially in the Pro)ince o! Iloilo1 long &e!ore he o&taine$ hi la t patent, *RAN2 and 9O=N ?s. 9. 2OSU!A3A BG,R, No, 7GA6A, Dece'&er 461 6E77C 9e agree 5ith the trial court that1 trictly pea(ing1 the he'p tripping 'achine o! the plainti!! $oe not con titute an in)ention on the groun$ that it lac( the ele'ent o! no)elty1 originality an$ prece$ence, In !act1 &e!ore the plainti!! herein o&taine$ their patent1 they the' el)e ha$ alrea$y pu&licly u e$ the a'e (in$ o! 'achine !or o'e 'onth 1 at lea t1 an$1 )ariou other 'achine 1 ha)ing in general1 the a'e characteri tic an$ i'portant part a that o! the ai$ plainti!! 1 5ere (no5n in the Pro)ince o! Da)ao, A9UAS ?s. DE EON BG,R, No, L*746>A, Panuary 7A1 6EG4C 9here the recor$ $i clo e that pri)ate re pon$entJ proce i an i'pro)e'ent o! the ol$ proce o! tile*'a(ing an$ that uch i'pro)e'ent i in$ee$ in)enti)e an$ goe &eyon$ the e3erci e o! 'echanical (ill &y 5hich pri)ate re pon$ent ha intro$uce$ a ne5 (in$ o! tile !or a ne5 purpo e, 3ANDANO ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 6677GG, -epte'&er F1 6EEDC A utility 'o$el hall not &e con i$ere$ Kne5K i! &e!ore the application !or a patent it ha &een pu&licly (no5n or pu&licly u e$ in thi country or ha &een $e cri&e$ in a printe$ pu&lication or pu&lication circulate$ 5ithin the country1 or i! it i u& tantially i'ilar to any other utility 'o$el o (no5n1 u e$ or $e cri&e$ 5ithin the country,
c. Nove)ty

-ECTION 47, prior art,

No?elt0. R An in)ention hall not &e con i$ere$ ne5 i! it !or' part o! a

-ECTION 4., Prior Art. R Prior art hall con i t o!" 4.,6, E)erything 5hich ha &een 'a$e a)aila&le to the pu&lic any5here in the 5orl$1 &e!ore the !iling $ate or the priority $ate o! the application clai'ing the in)ention% an$ 4.,4, The 5hole content o! an application !or a patent1 utility 'o$el1 or in$u trial $e ign regi tration1 pu&li he$ in accor$ance 5ith thi Act1 !ile$ or e!!ecti)e in the Philippine 1 5ith a !iling or priority $ate that i earlier than the !iling or priority $ate o! the application" Pro)i$e$1 That the application 5hich ha )ali$ly clai'e$ the !iling $ate o! an earlier application un$er -ection 76 o! thi Act1 hall &e prior art 5ith e!!ect a o! the !iling $ate o! uch earlier application" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That the applicant or the in)entor i$enti!ie$ in &oth application are not one an$ the a'e, -ECTION 4F, Non%Pre@udicial Disclosure. R 4F,6, The $i clo ure o! in!or'ation containe$ in the application $uring the t5el)e +64# 'onth prece$ing the !iling $ate or the priority $ate o! the application hall not pre?u$ice the applicant on the groun$ o! lac( o! no)elty i! uch $i clo ure 5a 'a$e &y" +a# The in)entor% (5) A 1atent office an/ t0e infor.ation >a- containe/ (a) in anot0er a11)ication fi)e/ 5y t0e inventor an/ -0ou)/ not 0ave 5een /i-c)o-e/ 5y t0e office, or (5) in an a11)ication fi)e/ >it0out t0e @no>)e/,e or con-ent of t0e inventor 5y a t0ir/ 1arty >0ic0 o5taine/ t0e infor.ation /irect)y or in/irect)y fro. t0e inventorI or +c# A thir$ party 5hich o&taine$ the in!or'ation $irectly or in$irectly !ro' the in)entor, 4F,4, /or the purpo e o! -u& ection 4F,61 Kin)entorK al o 'ean any per on 5ho1 at the !iling $ate o! application1 ha$ the right to the patent,

3A9UAN ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*.F6A6, No)e'&er 4G1 6EG>C It ha &een repeate$ly hel$ that an in)ention 'u t po e the e ential ele'ent o! no)elty1 originality an$ prece$ence an$ !or the patentee to &e entitle$ to protection1 the in)ention 'u t &e ne5 to the 5orl$, Accor$ingly1 a ingle in tance o! pu&lic u e o! the in)ention &y a patentee !or 'ore than t5o year +no5 !or 'ore than one year only un$er -ec, E o! the Patent La5# &e!ore the $ate o! hi application !or hi patent1 5ill &e !atal to the )ali$ity o! the patent 5hen i ue$, +/ran(1 et al, ), Oo uya'a% Varga ), /,;, Yaptico T Co, an$ Varga ), Chua1 et al,1 upra#, VAR9AS ?s. *. 3. !APTI"O F "o. 4 TD.G BG,R, No, 6.6A6, -epte'&er 4.1 6E6EC The trial court reache$ the conclu ion that Kthe patente$ plo5 o! the plainti!!1 E3hi&it D1 i not $i!!erent !ro' the nati)e plo51 E3hi&it 41 e3cept in the 'aterial1 in the !or'1 in the 5eight an$ the gra$e o! the re ult1 the ai$ $i!!erence gi)ing it neither a ne5 !unction nor a ne5 re ult $i tinct !ro' the !unction an$ the re ult o&taine$ !ro' the nati)e plo5% con e8uently1 it pro$uction $oe not pre uppo e the e3erci e o! the in)enti)e !aculty &ut 'erely o! 'echanical (ill1 5hich $oe not gi)e a right to a patent o! an in)ention un$er the pro)i ion o! the Patent La5,K In thu !in$ing1 the court 'ay ha)e &een right1 ince the Varga plo5 $oe not appear to &e uch a Kco'&inationK a contain a no)el a e'&lage o! part e3hi&iting in)ention, *RAN2 and 9O=N ?s. 9. 2OSU!A3A BG,R, No, 7GA6A, Dece'&er 461 6E77C -upra,
/. '-efu)ne--

-ECTION 4D, Industrial Applica(ilit0. R An in)ention that can &e pro$uce$ an$ u e$ in any in$u try hall &e in$u trially applica&le,
e. 'ti)ity %o/e)

-ECTION 6AG, Applica(ilit0 o- Pro?isions Relating to Patents. R 6AG,6, -u&?ect to -ection 6AE1 the pro)i ion go)erning patent hall apply1 'utati 'utan$i 1 to the regi tration o! utility 'o$el , 6AG,4, 9here the right to a patent con!lict 5ith the right to a utility 'o$el regi tration in the ca e re!erre$ to in -ection 4E1 the ai$ pro)i ion hall apply a i! the 5or$ KpatentK 5ere replace$ &y the 5or$ Kpatent or utility 'o$el regi trationK, -ECTION 6AE, Special Pro?isions Relating to Utilit0 3odels. R 6AE,6, +a# An in)ention 8uali!ie !or regi tration a a utility 'o$el i! it i ne5 an$ in$u trially applica&le, +&# -ection 461 KPatenta&le In)ention K1 hall apply e3cept the re!erence to in)enti)e tep a a con$ition o! protection, 6AE,4, -ection .7 to .E hall not apply in the ca e o! application !or regi tration o! a utility 'o$el, 6AE,7, A utility 'o$el regi tration hall e3pire1 5ithout any po i&ility o! rene5al1 at the en$ o! the e)enth year a!ter the $ate o! the !iling o! the application, 6AE,., In procee$ing un$er -ection >6 to >.1 the utility 'o$el regi tration hall &e cancele$ on the !ollo5ing groun$ " +a# That the clai'e$ in)ention $oe not 8uali!y !or regi tration a a utility 'o$el an$ $oe not 'eet the re8uire'ent o! regi tra&ility1 in particular ha)ing regar$ to -u& ection 6AE,6 an$ -ection 441 471 4. an$ 4D% +&# That the $e cription an$ the clai' $o not co'ply 5ith the pre cri&e$ re8uire'ent % +c# That any $ra5ing 5hich i nece ary !or the un$er tan$ing o! the in)ention ha not &een !urni he$%

+$#

That the o5ner o! the utility 'o$el regi tration i not the in)entor or hi title,

ucce

or in

-ECTION 66A, "on?ersion o- Patent Applications or Applications -or Utilit0 3odel Registration. R 66A,6, At any ti'e &e!ore the grant or re!u al o! a patent1 an applicant !or a patent 'ay1 upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 con)ert hi application into an application !or regi tration o! a utility 'o$el1 5hich hall &e accor$e$ the !iling $ate o! the initial application, An application 'ay &e con)erte$ only once, 66A,4, At any ti'e &e!ore the grant or re!u al o! a utility 'o$el regi tration1 an applicant !or a utility 'o$el regi tration 'ay1 upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 con)ert hi application into a patent application1 5hich hall &e accor$e$ the !iling $ate o! the initial application, +-ec, FG1 R,A, No, 6>Fa# SEC I"N 111. Pro*i/itio! $ i!st Fili!$ o" P r llel Applic tio!s1 J An a11)icant .ay not fi)e t>o (2) a11)ication- for t0e -a.e -u5Kect, one for uti)ity .o/e) re,i-tration an/ t0e ot0er for t0e ,rant of a 1atent >0et0er -i.u)taneou-)y or con-ecutive)y.
f.

In/u-tria) #e-i,n-

-ECTION 664, De-inition o- Industrial Design. R An in$u trial $e ign i any co'po ition o! line or color or any three*$i'en ional !or'1 5hether or not a ociate$*5ith line or color " Pro)i$e$1 That uch co'po ition or !or' gi)e a pecial appearance to an$ can er)e a pattern !or an in$u trial pro$uct or han$icra!t, -ECTION 667, Su(stanti?e "onditions -or Protection. R 667,6, Only in$u trial $e ign that are ne5 or original hall &ene!it !ro' protection un$er thi Act, 667,4, In$u trial $e ign $ictate$ e entially &y technical or !unctional con i$eration to o&tain a technical re ult or tho e that are contrary to pu&lic or$er1 health or 'oral hall not &e protecte$, -ECTION 66., "ontents o- t&e Application. R 66.,6, E)ery application !or regi tration o! an in$u trial $e ign hall contain" +a# A re8ue t !or regi tration o! the in$u trial $e ign% +&# In!or'ation i$enti!ying the applicant% +c# An in$ication o! the (in$ o! article o! 'anu!acture or han$icra!t to 5hich the $e ign hall &e applie$% +$# A repre entation o! the article o! 'anu!acture or han$icra!t &y 5ay o! $ra5ing 1 photograph or other a$e8uate graphic repre entation o! the $e ign a applie$ to the article o! 'anu!acture or han$icra!t 5hich clearly an$ !ully $i clo e tho e !eature !or 5hich $e ign protection i clai'e$% an$ The na'e an$ a$$re o! the creator1 or 5here the applicant i not the creator1 a tate'ent in$icating the origin o! the right to the in$u trial $e ign regi tration, 66.,4, The application 'ay &e acco'panie$ &y a peci'en o! the article e'&o$ying the in$u trial $e ign an$ hall &e u&?ect to the pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee, -ECTION 66F, Se?eral Industrial Designs in One Application. R T5o +4# or 'ore in$u trial $e ign 'ay &e the u&?ect o! the a'e application" Pro)i$e$1 That they relate to the a'e u&*cla o! the International Cla i!ication or to the a'e et or co'po ition o! article , -ECTION 66>, E+a'ination. R 66>,6, The O!!ice hall accor$ a the !iling $ate the $ate o! receipt o! the application containing in$ication allo5ing the i$entity o! the applicant to &e e ta&li he$ an$ a repre entation o! the article e'&o$ying the in$u trial $e ign or a pictorial repre entation thereo!, 66>,4, I! the application $oe not 'eet the e re8uire'ent the !iling $ate houl$ &e that $ate 5hen all the ele'ent peci!ie$ in -ection 6AF are !ile$ or the 'i ta(e correcte$, Other5i e i! the re8uire'ent are not co'plie$ 5ithin the pre cri&e$ perio$1 the application hall &e con i$ere$ 5ith$ra5n, +e#

66>,7, A!ter the application ha &een accor$e$ a !iling $ate an$ the re8uire$ !ee pai$ on ti'e1 the applicant hall co'ply 5ith the re8uire'ent o! -ection 66. 5ithin the pre cri&e$ perio$1 other5i e the application hall &e con i$ere$ 5ith$ra5n, 66>,., The O!!ice hall e3a'ine 5hether the in$u trial $e ign co'plie 5ith re8uire'ent o! -ection 664 an$ -u& ection 667,4 an$ 667,7, SEC I"N 11A. Re$istr tio!1 J 11A.1. 20ere t0e "ffice fin/- t0at t0e con/itionreferre/ to in Section 113 are fu)fi))e/, it -0a)) or/er t0at re,i-tration 5e effecte/ in t0e in/u-tria) /e-i,n re,i-ter an/ cau-e t0e i--uance of an in/u-tria) /e-i,n certificate of re,i-tration, ot0er>i-e, it -0a)) refu-e t0e a11)ication. 66D,4, The !or' an$ content o! an in$u trial $e ign certi!icate hall &e e ta&li he$ &y the Regulation " Pro)i$e$1 That the na'e an$ a$$re o! the creator hall &e 'entione$ in e)ery ca e, 66D,7, Regi tration hall &e pu&li he$ in the !or' an$ 5ithin the perio$ !i3e$ &y the Regulation , 66D,., The O!!ice hall recor$ in the regi ter any change in the i$entity o! the proprietor o! the in$u trial $e ign or hi repre entati)e1 i! proo! thereo! i !urni he$ to it, A !ee hall &e pai$1 5ith the re8ue t to recor$ the change in the i$entity o! the proprietor, I! the !ee i not pai$1 the re8ue t hall &e $ee'e$ not to ha)e &een !ile$, In uch ca e1 the !or'er proprietor an$ the !or'er repre entati)e hall re'ain u&?ect to the right an$ o&ligation a pro)i$e$ in thi Act, 66D,F, Anyone 'ay in pect the Regi ter an$ the !ile o! regi tere$ in$u trial $e ign inclu$ing the !ile o! cancellation procee$ing , -ECTION 66G, T&e Ter' o- Industrial Design Registration. R 66G,6 The regi tration o! an in$u trial $e ign hall &e !or a perio$ o! !i)e +F# year !ro' the !iling $ate o! the application, 66G,4, The regi tration o! an in$u trial $e ign 'ay &e rene5e$ !or not 'ore than t5o +4# con ecuti)e perio$ o! !i)e +F# year each1 &y paying the rene5al !ee, 66G,7, The rene5al !ee hall &e pai$ 5ithin t5el)e +64# 'onth prece$ing the e3piration o! the perio$ o! regi tration, 0o5e)er1 a grace perio$ o! i3 +># 'onth hall &e grante$ !or pay'ent o! the !ee a!ter uch e3piration1 upon pay'ent o! a urcharge 66G,., The Regulation hall !i3 the a'ount o! rene5al !ee1 the urcharge an$ other re8uire'ent regar$ing the recor$ing o! rene5al o! regi tration, -ECTION 66E, Application o- Ot&er Sections and "&apters. R 66E,6, The !ollo5ing pro)i ion relating to patent hall apply 'utati 'utan$i to an in$u trial $e ign regi tration" -ection 46 R No)elty" -ection 4. R Prior art" Pro)i$e$1 That the $i clo ure i containe$ in printe$ $ocu'ent or in any tangi&le !or'% -ection 4F R Non*pre?u$icial Di clo ure% -ection 4D R In)ention Create$ Pur uant to a Co''i ion% -ection 4G R Right to a Patent% -ection 4E R /ir t to /ile Rule% -ection 76 R Right o! Priority" Pro)i$e$1 That the application !or in$u trial $e ign hall &e !ile$ 5ithin i3 +># 'onth !ro' the earlie t !iling $ate o! the corre pon$ing !oreign application% -ection 77 R Appoint'ent o! Agent or Repre entati)e% -ection F6 R Re!u al o! the Application% -ection F> to >A R -urren$er1 Correction o! an$ Change in Patent% Chapter VII R Re'e$ie o! a Per on 5ith a Right to Patent% Chapter VIII R Right o! Patentee an$ In!ringe'ent o! Patent % an$ Chapter MI R A ign'ent an$ Tran 'i ion o! Right ,

66E,4, I! the e ential ele'ent o! an in$u trial $e ign 5hich i the u&?ect o! an application ha)e &een o&taine$ !ro' the creation o! another per on 5ithout hi con ent1 protection un$er thi Chapter cannot &e in)o(e$ again t the in?ure$ party, +n# -ECTION 64A, "ancellation o- Design Registration. R 64A,6, At any ti'e $uring the ter' o! the in$u trial $e ign regi tration1 any per on upon pay'ent o! the re8uire$ !ee1 'ay petition the Director o! Legal A!!air to cancel the in$u trial $e ign on any o! the !ollo5ing groun$ " +a# I! the u&?ect 'atter o! the in$u trial $e ign i not regi tra&le 5ithin the ter' o! -ection 664 an$ 667% +&# I! the u&?ect 'atter i not ne5% or +c# I! the u&?ect 'atter o! the in$u trial $e ign e3ten$ &eyon$ the content o! the application a originally !ile$, 64A,4, 9here the groun$ !or cancellation relate to a part o! the in$u trial $e ign1 cancellation 'ay &e e!!ecte$ to uch e3tent only, The re triction 'ay &e e!!ecte$ in the !or' o! an alteration o! the e!!ecte$ !eature o! the $e ign,

B. W=AT ARE NOT PATENTAB EE -ECTION 44, Non%Patenta(le In?entions. R The !ollo5ing hall &e e3clu$e$ !ro' patent protection" 44,6, Di co)erie 1 cienti!ic theorie an$ 'athe'atical 'etho$ % 44,4, -che'e 1 rule an$ 'etho$ o! per!or'ing 'ental act 1 playing ga'e or $oing &u ine 1 an$ progra' !or co'puter % 44,7, ;etho$ !or treat'ent o! the hu'an or ani'al &o$y &y urgery or therapy an$ $iagno tic 'etho$ practice$ on the hu'an or ani'al &o$y, Thi pro)i ion hall not apply to pro$uct an$ co'po ition !or u e in any o! the e 'etho$ % 44,., Plant )arietie or ani'al &ree$ or e entially &iological proce !or the pro$uction o! plant or ani'al , Thi pro)i ion hall not apply to 'icro*organi ' an$ non*&iological an$ 'icro&iological proce e , Pro)i ion un$er thi u& ection hall not preclu$e Congre to con i$er the enact'ent o! a la5 pro)i$ing ui generi protection o! plant )arietie an$ ani'al &ree$ an$ a y te' o! co''unity intellectual right protection" 44,F, Ae thetic creation % an$ 44,>, Anything 5hich i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality, +-ec, G1 R,A, No, 6>Fa#

8. OWNERS=IP O* PATENT -ECTION 4G, Rig&t to a Patent. R The right to a patent &elong to the in)entor1 hi heir 1 or a ign , 9hen t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e ?ointly 'a$e an in)ention1 the right to a patent hall &elong to the' ?ointly, -ECTION 4E, *irst to *ile Rule. R I! t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e 'a$e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ently o! each other1 the right to the patent hall &elong to the per on 5ho !ile$ an application !or uch in)ention1 or 5here t5o or 'ore application are !ile$ !or the a'e in)ention1 to the applicant 5ho ha the earlie t !iling $ate or1 the earlie t priority $ate, -ECTION 7A, In?entions "reated Pursuant to a "o''ission. R 7A,6, The per on 5ho co''i ion the 5or( hall o5n the patent1 unle other5i e pro)i$e$ in the contract, 7A,4, In ca e the e'ployee 'a$e the in)ention in the cour e o! hi e'ploy'ent contract1 the patent hall &elong to" +a# The e'ployee1 i! the in)enti)e acti)ity i not a part o! hi regular $utie e)en i! the e'ployee u e the ti'e1 !acilitie an$ 'aterial o! the e'ployer,

+&#

The e'ployer1 i! the in)ention i the re ult o! the per!or'ance o! hi regularly* a igne$ $utie 1 unle there i an agree'ent1 e3pre or i'plie$1 to the contrary,

-ECTION >D, Patent Application (0 Persons Not =a?ing t&e Rig&t to a Patent. R >D,6, I! a per on re!erre$ to in -ection 4E other than the applicant1 i $eclare$ &y !inal court or$er or $eci ion a ha)ing the right to the patent1 uch per on 'ay1 5ithin three +7# 'onth a!ter the $eci ion ha &eco'e !inal" +a# Pro ecute the application a hi o5n application in place o! the applicant% +&# /ile a ne5 patent application in re pect o! the a'e in)ention% +c# Re8ue t that the application &e re!u e$% or +$# -ee( cancellation o! the patent1 i! one ha alrea$y &een i ue$, >D,4, The pro)i ion o! -u& ection 7G,4 hall apply 'utati 'utan$i to a ne5 application !ile$ un$er -u& ection >D, 6+&#, SEC I"N D8. Remedies o" t*e True !d Actu l I!ve!tor1 J If a 1er-on, >0o >a/e1rive/ of t0e 1atent >it0out 0i- con-ent or t0rou,0 frau/ i- /ec)are/ 5y fina) court or/er or /eci-ion to 5e t0e true an/ actua) inventor, t0e court -0a)) or/er for 0i-u5-titution a- 1atentee, or at t0e o1tion of t0e true inventor, cance) t0e 1atent, an/ a>ar/ actua) an/ ot0er /a.a,e- in 0i- favor if >arrante/ 5y t0e circu.-tance-. SEC I"N D9. Pu/lic tio! o" t*e Court Order1 J 0e court -0a)) furni-0 t0e "ffice a co1y of t0e or/er or /eci-ion referre/ to in Section- DA an/ D8, >0ic0 -0a)) 5e 1u5)i-0e/ in t0e IP" &aLette >it0in t0ree (3) .ont0- fro. t0e /ate -uc0 or/er or /eci-ion 5eca.e fina) an/ e?ecutory, an/ -0a)) 5e recor/e/ in t0e re,i-ter of t0e "ffice. -ECTION DA, Ti'e to *ile Action in "ourt. R The action in$icate$ in -ection >D an$ >G hall &e !ile$ 5ithin one +6# year !ro' the $ate o! pu&lication 'a$e in accor$ance 5ith -ection .. an$ F61 re pecti)ely, -ECTION 47>, Preser?ation o- E+isting Rig&ts. R Nothing herein hall a$)er ely a!!ect the right on the en!orce'ent o! right in patent 1 utility 'o$el 1 in$u trial $e ign 1 'ar( an$ 5or( 1 ac8uire$ in goo$ !aith prior to the e!!ecti)e $ate o! thi Act, H. APP I"ATION *OR PATENT
a.

20o %ay A11)y;

-ECTION 4G, Rig&t to a Patent. R The right to a patent &elong to the in)entor1 hi heir 1 or a ign , 9hen t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e ?ointly 'a$e an in)ention1 the right to a patent hall &elong to the' ?ointly, -ECTION 4E, *irst to *ile Rule. R I! t5o +4# or 'ore per on ha)e 'a$e the in)ention eparately an$ in$epen$ently o! each other1 the right to the patent hall &elong to the per on 5ho !ile$ an application !or uch in)ention1 or 5here t5o or 'ore application are !ile$ !or the a'e in)ention1 to the applicant 5ho ha the earlie t !iling $ate or1 the earlie t priority $ate, -ECTION 7A, In?entions "reated Pursuant to a "o''ission. R 7A,6, The per on 5ho co''i ion the 5or( hall o5n the patent1 unle other5i e pro)i$e$ in the contract, 7A,4, In ca e the e'ployee 'a$e the in)ention in the cour e o! hi e'ploy'ent contract1 the patent hall &elong to" +a# The e'ployee1 i! the in)enti)e acti)ity i not a part o! hi regular $utie e)en i! the e'ployee u e the ti'e1 !acilitie an$ 'aterial o! the e'ployer, +&# The e'ployer1 i! the in)ention i the re ult o! the per!or'ance o! hi regularly* a igne$ $utie 1 unle there i an agree'ent1 e3pre or i'plie$1 to the contrary, -ECTION >G, Re'edies o- t&e True and Actual In?entor. R I! a per on1 5ho 5a $epri)e$ o! the patent 5ithout hi con ent or through !rau$ i $eclare$ &y !inal court or$er or

$eci ion to &e the true an$ actual in)entor1 the court hall or$er !or hi u& titution a patentee1 or at the option o! the true in)entor1 cancel the patent1 an$ a5ar$ actual an$ other $a'age in hi !a)or i! 5arrante$ &y the circu' tance , SEC I"N 3. I!ter! tio! l Co!ve!tio!s !d Reciprocit#1 J Any 1er-on >0o i- a nationa) or >0o i- /o.ici)e/ or 0a- a rea) an/ effective in/u-tria) e-ta5)i-0.ent in a country >0ic0 i- a 1arty to any convention, treaty or a,ree.ent re)atin, to inte))ectua) 1ro1erty ri,0tor t0e re1re--ion of unfair co.1etition, to >0ic0 t0e P0i)i11ine- i- a)-o a 1arty, or e?ten/- reci1roca) ri,0t- to nationa)- of t0e P0i)i11ine- 5y )a>, -0a)) 5e entit)e/ to 5enefit- to t0e e?tent nece--ary to ,ive effect to any 1rovi-ion of -uc0 convention, treaty or reci1roca) )a>, in a//ition to t0e ri,0t- to >0ic0 any o>ner of an inte))ectua) 1ro1erty ri,0t i- ot0er>i-e entit)e/ 5y t0i- Act. -ECTION 476, Re?erse Reciprocit0 o- *oreign a.s. R Any con$ition1 re triction1 li'itation1 $i'inution1 re8uire'ent1 penalty or any i'ilar &ur$en i'po e$ &y the la5 o! a !oreign country on a Philippine national ee(ing protection o! intellectual property right in that country1 hall reciprocally &e en!orcea&le upon national o! ai$ country1 5ithin Philippine ?uri $iction, -ECTION 47F, Applications Pending on E--ecti?e Date o- Act. R 47F,6, All application !or patent pen$ing in the Hureau o! Patent 1 Tra$e'ar( an$ Technology Tran !er hall &e procee$e$ 5ith an$ patent thereon grante$ in accor$ance 5ith the Act un$er 5hich ai$ application 5ere !ile$1 an$ ai$ Act are here&y continue$ to &e en!orce$1 to thi e3tent an$ !or thi purpo e only1 not5ith tan$ing the !oregoing general repeal thereo!" Pro)i$e$1 That application !or utility 'o$el or in$u trial $e ign pen$ing at the e!!ecti)e $ate o! thi Act1 hall &e procee$e$ 5ith in accor$ance 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi Act1 unle the applicant elect to pro ecute ai$ application in accor$ance 5ith the Act un$er 5hich they 5ere !ile$, 47F,4, All application !or regi tration o! 'ar( or tra$e na'e pen$ing in the Hureau o! Patent 1 Tra$e'ar( an$ Technology Tran !er at the e!!ecti)e $ate o! thi Act 'ay &e a'en$e$1 i! practica&le to &ring the' un$er the pro)i ion o! thi Act, The pro ecution o! uch application o a'en$e$ an$ the grant o! regi tration thereon hall &e procee$e$ 5ith in accor$ance 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi Act, I! uch a'en$'ent are not 'a$e1 the pro ecution o! ai$ application hall &e procee$e$ 5ith an$ regi tration thereon grante$ in accor$ance 5ith the Act un$er 5hich ai$ application 5ere !ile$1 an$ ai$ Act are here&y continue$ in !orce to thi e3tent !or thi purpo e only1 not5ith tan$ing the !oregoing general repeal thereo! +n#
5. A11)ication

-ECTION 74, T&e Application. R 74,6, The patent application hall &e in /ilipino or Engli h an$ hall contain the !ollo5ing" +a# A re8ue t !or the grant o! a patent% +&# A $e cription o! the in)ention% +c# Dra5ing nece ary !or the un$er tan$ing o! the in)ention% +$# One or 'ore clai' % an$ +e# An a& tract, 74,4, No patent 'ay &e grante$ unle the application i$enti!ie the in)entor, I! the applicant i not the in)entor1 the O!!ice 'ay re8uire hi' to u&'it ai$ authority, -ECTION 77, Appoint'ent o- Agent or Representati?e. R An applicant 5ho i not a re i$ent o! the Philippine 'u t appoint an$ 'aintain a re i$ent agent or repre entati)e in the Philippine upon 5ho' notice or proce !or ?u$icial or a$'ini trati)e proce$ure relating to the application !or patent or the patent 'ay &e er)e$, -ECTION 7., T&e ReIuest. R The re8ue t hall contain a petition !or the grant o! the patent1 the na'e an$ other $ata o! the applicant1 the in)entor an$ the agent an$ the title o! the in)ention,

-ECTION 7F, Disclosure and Description o- t&e In?ention. R 7F,6, #i-c)o-ure. R The application hall $i clo e the in)ention in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or it to &e carrie$ out &y a per on (ille$ in the art, 9here the application concern a 'icro&iological proce or the pro$uct thereo! an$ in)ol)e the u e o! a 'icro*organi ' 5hich cannot &e u!!iciently $i clo e$ in the application in uch a 5ay a to ena&le the in)ention to &e carrie$ out &y a per on (ille$ in the art1 an$ uch 'aterial i not a)aila&le to the pu&lic1 the application hall &e upple'ente$ &y a $epo it o! uch 'aterial 5ith an international $epo itory in titution, 7F,4, #e-cri1tion. R The Regulation hall pre cri&e the content o! the $e cription an$ the or$er o! pre entation, -ECTION 7>, T&e "lai's. R 7>,6, The application hall contain one +6# or 'ore clai' 5hich hall $e!ine the 'atter !or 5hich protection i ought, Each clai' hall &e clear an$ conci e1 an$ hall &e upporte$ &y the $e cription, 7>,4, The Regulation hall pre cri&e the 'anner o! the pre entation o! clai' , SEC I"N 3A. T*e A/str ct1 J 0e a5-tract -0a)) con-i-t of a conci-e -u..ary of t0e /i-c)o-ure of t0e invention a- containe/ in t0e /e-cri1tion, c)ai.- an/ /ra>in,- in 1refera5)y not .ore t0an one 0un/re/ fifty (1EH) >or/-. It .u-t 5e /rafte/ in a >ay >0ic0 a))o>- t0e c)ear un/er-tan/in, of t0e tec0nica) 1ro5)e., t0e ,i-t of t0e -o)ution of t0at 1ro5)e. t0rou,0 t0e invention, an/ t0e 1rinci1a) u-e or u-e- of t0e invention. 0e a5-tract -0a)) .ere)y -erve for tec0nica) infor.ation. -ECTION 7G, Unit0 o- In?ention. R 7G,6, The application hall relate to one in)ention only or to a group o! in)ention !or'ing a ingle general in)enti)e concept, 7G,4, I! e)eral in$epen$ent in)ention 5hich $o not !or' a ingle general in)enti)e concept are clai'e$ in one application1 the Director 'ay re8uire that the application &e re tricte$ to a ingle in)ention, A later application !ile$ !or an in)ention $i)i$e$ out hall &e con i$ere$ a ha)ing &een !ile$ on the a'e $ay a the !ir t application" Pro)i$e$1 That the later application i !ile$ 5ithin !our +.# 'onth a!ter the re8uire'ent to $i)i$e &eco'e !inal or 5ithin uch a$$itional ti'e1 not e3cee$ing !our +.# 'onth 1 a 'ay &e grante$" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That each $i)i ional application hall not go &eyon$ the $i clo ure in the initial application, 7G,7, The !act that a patent ha &een grante$ on an application that $i$ not co'ply 5ith the re8uire'ent o! unity o! in)ention hall not &e a groun$ to cancel the patent, -ECTION 7E, In-or'ation "oncerning "orresponding *oreign Application -or Patents. R The applicant hall1 at the re8ue t o! the Director1 !urni h hi' 5ith the $ate an$ nu'&er o! any application !or a patent !ile$ &y hi' a&roa$1 herea!ter re!erre$ to a the K!oreign application1K relating to the a'e or e entially the a'e in)ention a that clai'e$ in the application !ile$ 5ith the O!!ice an$ other $ocu'ent relating to the !oreign application, -ECTION G, T&e Bureau o- Patents. R The Hureau o! Patent hall ha)e the !ollo5ing !unction " G,6, -earch an$ e3a'ination o! patent application an$ the grant o! patent % G,4, Regi tration o! utility 'o$el 1 in$u trial $e ign 1 an$ integrate$ circuit % an$ 8.3. Con/uct -tu/ie- an/ re-earc0e- in t0e fie)/ of 1atent- in or/er to a--i-t t0e #irector &enera) in for.u)atin, 1o)icie- on t0e a/.ini-tration an/ e?a.ination of 1atent-.
c. Priority #ate

-ECTION 76, Rig&t o- Priorit0. R An application !or patent !ile$ &y any per on 5ho ha pre)iou ly applie$ !or the a'e in)ention in another country 5hich &y treaty1 con)ention1 or la5 a!!or$ i'ilar pri)ilege to /ilipino citi2en 1 hall &e con i$ere$ a !ile$ a o! the $ate o! !iling the !oreign application" Pro)i$e$1 That" +a# the local application e3pre ly clai' priority% +&# it i !ile$ 5ithin t5el)e +64# 'onth !ro' the $ate the earlie t !oreign application 5a !ile$% an$ +c#

a certi!ie$ copy o! the !oreign application together 5ith an Engli h tran lation i !ile$ 5ithin i3 +># 'onth !ro' the $ate o! !iling in the Philippine , BOOT=E ?s. DIRE"TOR O* PATENTS BG,R, No, L*4.E6E, Panuary 4G1 6EGAC It i i'perati)e that the application &e co'plete in or$er that it 'ay &e accepte$, It i e ential to the )ali$ity o! Letter Patent that the peci!ication &e !ull1 $e!inite1 an$ peci!ic, The purpo e o! re8uiring a $e!inite an$ accurate $e cription o! the proce i to appri e the pu&lic o! 5hat the patentee clai' a hi in)ention1 to in!or' the Court a to 5hat they are calle$ upon to con true1 an$ to con)ey to co'peting 'anu!acturer an$ the $ealer in!or'ation o! e3actly 5hat they are &oun$ to a)oi$, The peci!ication 5hich petitioner u&'itte$ on ;arch F1 6EF. 5a !ar !ro' co'plete, The $e!ect 5a one o! u& tance an$ not 'erely one o! !or', 9hat petitioner clai'e$ a their in)ention 5a not co'plete $eter'ina&le there!ro', Petitioner J application coul$ &e $ee'e$ a co'plete only on Puly 41 6E>7 5hen they u&'itte$ the a$$itional page on the -peci!ication an$ Clai' ,
/. $i)in, #ate

-ECTION .A, *iling Date ReIuire'ents. R .A,6, The !iling $ate o! a patent application hall &e the $ate o! receipt &y the O!!ice o! at lea t the !ollo5ing ele'ent " +a# An e3pre or i'plicit in$ication that a Philippine patent i ought% +&# In!or'ation i$enti!ying the applicant% an$ +c# De cription o! the in)ention an$ one +6# or 'ore clai' in /ilipino or Engli h, .A,4, I! any o! the e ele'ent i not u&'itte$ 5ithin the perio$ et &y the Regulation 1 the application hall &e con i$ere$ 5ith$ra5n, SEC I"N 71. Accordi!$ Fili!$ 7 te1 J 0e "ffice -0a)) e?a.ine >0et0er t0e 1atent a11)ication -ati-fie- t0e re3uire.ent- for t0e ,rant of /ate of fi)in, a- 1rovi/e/ in Section 7H 0ereof. If t0e /ate of fi)in, cannot 5e accor/e/, t0e a11)icant -0a)) 5e ,iven an o11ortunity to correct t0e /eficiencie- in accor/ance >it0 t0e i.1)e.entin, Re,u)ation-. If t0e a11)ication /oe- not contain a)) t0e e)e.ent- in/icate/ in Section 7H, t0e fi)in, /ate -0ou)/ 5e t0at /ate >0en a)) t0e e)e.ent- are receive/. If t0e /eficiencieare not re.e/ie/ >it0in t0e 1re-cri5e/ ti.e )i.it, t0e a11)ication -0a)) 5e con-i/ere/ >it0/ra>n.
e. $or.a)ity E?a.ination

SEC I"N 72. Form lit# E, mi! tio!1 J 72.1. After t0e 1atent a11)ication 0a- 5een accor/e/ a fi)in, /ate an/ t0e re3uire/ fee- 0ave 5een 1ai/ on ti.e in accor/ance >it0 t0e Re,u)ation-, t0e a11)icant -0a)) co.1)y >it0 t0e for.a) re3uire.ent-1ecifie/ 5y Section 32 an/ t0e Re,u)ation- >it0in t0e 1re-cri5e/ 1erio/, ot0er>i-e t0e a11)ication -0a)) 5e con-i/ere/ >it0/ra>n. .4,4, The Regulation hall $eter'ine the proce$ure !or the re*e3a'ination an$ re)i)al o! an application a 5ell a the appeal to the Director o! Patent !ro' any !inal action &y the e3a'iner,
f.

C)a--ification an/ Searc0

-ECTION .7, "lassi-ication and Searc&. R An application that ha co'plie$ 5ith the !or'al re8uire'ent hall &e cla i!ie$ an$ a earch con$ucte$ to $eter'ine the prior art,
,. Confi/entia)ity *efore Pu5)ication

SEC I"N 7E. Co!"ide!ti lit# :e"ore Pu/lic tio!1 J A 1atent a11)ication, >0ic0 0anot yet 5een 1u5)i-0e/, an/ a)) re)ate/ /ocu.ent-, -0a)) not 5e .a/e avai)a5)e for in-1ection >it0out t0e con-ent of t0e a11)icant.
0. Pu5)ication of Patent A11)ication

-ECTION .., Pu(lication o- Patent Application. R ..,6, The patent application hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette together 5ith a earch $ocu'ent e ta&li he$ &y or on &ehal! o! the O!!ice citing any $ocu'ent that re!lect prior art1 a!ter the e3piration o! eighteen + 6G# 'onth !ro' the !iling $ate or priority $ate, ..,4, A!ter pu&lication o! a patent application1 any intere te$ party 'ay in pect the application $ocu'ent !ile$ 5ith the O!!ice, ..,7, The Director General u&?ect to the appro)al o! the -ecretary o! Tra$e an$ In$u try1 'ay prohi&it or re trict the pu&lication o! an application1 i! in hi opinion1 to $o o 5oul$ &e pre?u$icial to the national ecurity an$ intere t o! the Repu&lic o! the Philippine ,
i.

Ri,0t- Conferre/ 5y a Patent A11)ication

-ECTION .>, Rig&ts "on-erred (0 a Patent Application A-ter Pu(lication. R The applicant hall ha)e all the right o! a patentee un$er -ection D> again t any per on 5ho1 5ithout hi authori2ation1 e3erci e$ any o! the right con!erre$ un$er -ection D6 o! thi Act in relation to the in)ention clai'e$ in the pu&li he$ patent application1 a i! a patent ha$ &een grante$ !or that in)ention" Pro)i$e$1 That the ai$ per on ha$" .>,6, Actual (no5le$ge that the in)ention that he 5a u ing 5a the u&?ect 'atter o! a pu&li he$ application% or .>,4, Recei)e$ 5ritten notice that the in)ention that he 5a u ing 5a the u&?ect 'atter o! a pu&li he$ application &eing i$enti!ie$ in the ai$ notice &y it erial nu'&er" Pro)i$e$1 That the action 'ay not &e !ile$ until a!ter the grant o! a patent on the pu&li he$ application an$ 5ithin !our +.# year !ro' the co''i ion o! the act co'plaine$ o!,
K.

"5-ervation 5y t0e 0ir/ Partie-

-ECTION .D, O(ser?ation (0 T&ird Parties. R /ollo5ing the pu&lication o! the patent application1 any per on 'ay pre ent o& er)ation in 5riting concerning the patenta&ility o! the in)ention, -uch o& er)ation hall &e co''unicate$ to the applicant 5ho 'ay co''ent on the', The O!!ice hall ac(no5le$ge an$ put uch o& er)ation an$ co''ent in the !ile o! the application to 5hich it relate ,
@. Re3ue-t for Su5-tantive E?a.ination

SEC I"N 78. Re>uest "or Su/st !tive E, mi! tio!1 J 78.1. 0e a11)ication -0a)) 5e /ee.e/ >it0/ra>n un)e-- >it0in -i? (D) .ont0- fro. t0e /ate of 1u5)ication un/er Section 71, a >ritten re3ue-t to /eter.ine >0et0er a 1atent a11)ication .eet- t0e re3uire.ent- of Section- 21 to 2A an/ Section- 32 to 39 an/ t0e fee- 0ave 5een 1ai/ on ti.e. .G,4, 9ith$ra5al o! the re8ue t !or e3a'ination hall &e irre)oca&le an$ hall not authori2e the re!un$ o! any !ee,
).

A.en/.ent

-ECTION .E, A'end'ent o- Application. R An applicant 'ay a'en$ the patent application $uring e3a'ination" Pro)i$e$1 That uch a'en$'ent hall not inclu$e ne5 'atter out i$e the cope o! the $i clo ure containe$ in the application a !ile$, J. ISSUAN"E AND RE*USA O* PATENTS

-ECTION FA, 9rant o- Patent. R FA,6, I! the application 'eet the re8uire'ent o! thi Act1 the O!!ice hall grant the patent" Pro)i$e$1 That all the !ee are pai$ on ti'e, EH.2. If t0e re3uire/ fee- for ,rant an/ 1rintin, are not 1ai/ in /ue ti.e, t0e a11)ication -0a)) 5e /ee.e/ to 5e >it0/ra>n. FA,7, A patent hall ta(e e!!ect on the $ate o! the pu&lication o! the grant o! the patent in the IPO Ga2ette, -ECTION F6, Re-usal o- t&e Application. R F6,6, The !inal or$er o! re!u al o! the e3a'iner to grant the patent hall &e appeala&le to the Director in accor$ance 5ith thi Act, F6,4, The Regulation hall pro)i$e !or the proce$ure &y 5hich an appeal !ro' the or$er o! re!u al !ro' the Director hall &e un$erta(en, -ECTION F7, "ontents o- Patent. R The patent hall &e i ue$ in the na'e o! the Repu&lic o! the Philippine un$er the eal o! the O!!ice an$ hall &e igne$ &y the Director1 an$ regi tere$ together 5ith the $e cription1 clai' 1 an$ $ra5ing 1 i! any1 in &oo( an$ recor$ o! the O!!ice, +-ec , 6E an$ 4A1 R,A, No, 6>Fa# ;. PUB I"ATION UPON 9RANT O* PATENTS -ECTION F4, Pu(lication Upon 9rant o- Patent. R F4,6, The grant o! the patent together 5ith other relate$ in!or'ation hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette 5ithin the ti'e pre cri&e$ &y the Regulation , E2.2. Any intere-te/ 1arty .ay in-1ect t0e co.1)ete /e-cri1tion, c)ai.-, an/ /ra>in,of t0e 1atent on fi)e >it0 t0e "ffice.

:.

TER3 O* PATENT

-ECTION F., Ter' o- Patent. R The ter' o! a patent hall &e t5enty +4A# year !ro' the !iling $ate o! the application, 5. ANNUA *EES

SEC I"N EE. A!!u l Fees1 J EE.1. o .aintain t0e 1atent a11)ication or 1atent, an annua) fee -0a)) 5e 1ai/ u1on t0e e?1iration of four (7) year- fro. t0e /ate t0e a11)ication >a- 1u5)i-0e/ 1ur-uant to Section 77 0ereof, an/ on eac0 -u5-e3uent anniver-ary of -uc0 /ate. Pay.ent .ay 5e .a/e >it0in t0ree (3) .ont0- 5efore t0e /ue /ate. 0e o5)i,ation to 1ay t0e annua) fee- -0a)) ter.inate -0ou)/ t0e a11)ication 5e >it0/ra>n, refu-e/, or cance))e/. FF,4, I! the annual !ee i not pai$1 the patent application hall &e $ee'e$ 5ith$ra5n or the patent con i$ere$ a lap e$ !ro' the $ay !ollo5ing the e3piration o! the perio$ 5ithin 5hich the annual !ee 5ere $ue, A notice that the application i $ee'e$ 5ith$ra5n or the lap e o! a patent !or non*pay'ent o! any annual !ee hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette an$ the lap e hall &e recor$e$ in the Regi ter o! the O!!ice, FF,7, A grace perio$ o! i3 +># 'onth hall &e grante$ !or the pay'ent o! the annual !ee1 upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ urcharge !or $elaye$ pay'ent,

7K. SURRENDER6 "ORRE"TION AND A3END3ENT -ECTION F>, Surrender o- Patent. R F>,6, The o5ner o! the patent1 5ith the con ent o! all per on ha)ing grant or licen e or other right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patent an$ the in)ention co)ere$ there&y1 5hich ha)e &een recor$e$ in the O!!ice1 'ay urren$er hi patent or any clai' or clai' !or'ing part thereo! to the O!!ice !or cancellation,

F>,4, A per on 'ay gi)e notice to the O!!ice o! hi oppo ition to the urren$er o! a patent un$er thi ection1 an$ i! he $oe o1 the Hureau hall noti!y the proprietor o! the patent an$ $eter'ine the 8ue tion, ED.3. If t0e "ffice i- -ati-fie/ t0at t0e 1atent .ay 1ro1er)y 5e -urren/ere/, 0e .ay acce1t t0e offer an/, a- fro. t0e /ay >0en notice of 0i- acce1tance i- 1u5)i-0e/ in t0e IP" &aLette, t0e 1atent -0a)) cea-e to 0ave effect, 5ut no action for infrin,e.ent -0a)) )ie an/ no ri,0t co.1en-ation -0a)) accrue for any u-e of t0e 1atente/ invention 5efore t0at /ay for t0e -ervice- of t0e ,overn.ent. -ECTION FD, "orrection o- 3ista/es o- t&e O--ice. R The Director hall ha)e the po5er to correct1 5ithout !ee1 any 'i ta(e in a patent incurre$ through the !ault o! the O!!ice 5hen clearly $i clo e$ in the recor$ thereo!1 to 'a(e the patent con!or' to the recor$ , -ECTION FG, "orrection o- 3ista/e in t&e Application. R On re8ue t o! any intere te$ per on an$ pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 the Director i authori2e$ to correct any 'i ta(e in a patent o! a !or'al an$ clerical nature1 not incurre$ through the !ault o! the O!!ice, -ECTION FE, "&anges in Patents. R FE,6, The o5ner o! a patent hall ha)e the right to re8ue t the Hureau to 'a(e the change in the patent in or$er to" +a# Li'it the e3tent o! the protection con!erre$ &y it% +&# Correct o&)iou 'i ta(e or to correct clerical error % an$ +c# Correct 'i ta(e or error 1 other than tho e re!erre$ to in letter +&#1 'a$e in goo$ !aith" Pro)i$e$1 That 5here the change 5oul$ re ult in a &roa$ening o! the e3tent o! protection con!erre$ &y the patent1 no re8ue t 'ay &e 'a$e a!ter the e3piration o! t5o +4# year !ro' the grant o! a patent an$ the change hall not a!!ect the right o! any thir$ party 5hich ha relie$ on the patent1 a pu&li he$, FE,4, No change in the patent hall &e per'itte$ un$er thi ection1 5here the change 5oul$ re ult in the $i clo ure containe$ in the patent going &eyon$ the $i clo ure containe$ in the application !ile$, FE,7, I!1 an$ to the e3tent to 5hich the O!!ice change the patent accor$ing to thi ection1 it hall pu&li h the a'e, +n# SEC I"N DH. Form !d Pu/lic tio! o" Ame!dme!t1 J An a.en/.ent or correction of a 1atent -0a)) 5e acco.1)i-0e/ 5y a certificate of -uc0 a.en/.ent or correction, aut0enticate/ 5y t0e -ea) of t0e "ffice an/ -i,ne/ 5y t0e #irector, >0ic0 certificate -0a)) 5e attac0e/ to t0e 1atent. Notice of -uc0 a.en/.ent or correction -0a)) 5e 1u5)i-0e/ in t0e IP" &aLette an/ co1ie- of t0e 1atent @e1t or furni-0e/ 5y t0e "ffice -0a)) inc)u/e a co1y of t0e certificate of a.en/.ent or correction.

77. "AN"E

ATION O* PATENTS

a. &roun/-

-ECTION >6, "ancellation o- Patents. R >6,6, Any intere te$ per on 'ay1 upon pay'ent o! the re8uire$ !ee1 petition to cancel the patent or any clai' thereo!1 or part o! the clai'1 on any o! the !ollo5ing groun$ " +a# That 5hat i clai'e$ a the in)ention i not ne5 or Patenta&le% +&# That the patent $oe not $i clo e the in)ention in a 'anner u!!iciently clear an$ co'plete !or it to &e carrie$ out &y any per on (ille$ in the art% or +c# That the patent i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality, >6,4, 9here the groun$ !or cancellation relate to o'e o! the clai' or part o! the clai'1 cancellation 'ay &e e!!ecte$ to uch e3tent only, -ECTION G4, Patent *ound In?alid 3a0 (e "ancelled. R In an action !or in!ringe'ent1 i! the court hall !in$ the patent or any clai' to &e in)ali$1 it hall cancel the a'e1 an$ the Director o! Legal A!!air upon receipt o! the !inal ?u$g'ent o! cancellation &y the

court1 hall recor$ that !act in the regi ter o! the O!!ice an$ hall pu&li h a notice to that e!!ect in the IPO Ga2ette,
5. Procee/in,-

SEC I"N D2. Re>uireme!t o" t*e Petitio!1 J 0e 1etition for cance))ation -0a)) 5e in >ritin,, verifie/ 5y t0e 1etitioner or 5y any 1er-on in 0i- 5e0a)f >0o @no>- t0e fact-, -1ecify t0e ,roun/- u1on >0ic0 it i- 5a-e/, inc)u/e a -tate.ent of t0e fact- to 5e re)ie/ u1on, an/ fi)e/ >it0 t0e "ffice. Co1ie- of 1rinte/ 1u5)ication- or of 1atent- of ot0er countrie-, an/ ot0er -u11ortin, /ocu.ent- .entione/ in t0e 1etition -0a)) 5e attac0e/ t0ereto, to,et0er >it0 t0e tran-)ation t0ereof in En,)i-0, if not in t0e En,)i-0 )an,ua,e. -ECTION >7, Notice o- =earing. R Upon !iling o! a petition !or cancellation1 the Director o! Legal A!!air hall !orth5ith er)e notice o! the !iling thereo! upon the patentee an$ all per on ha)ing grant or licen e 1 or any other right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patent an$ the in)ention co)ere$ there&y1 a appear o! recor$ in the O!!ice1 an$ o! notice o! the $ate o! hearing thereon on uch per on an$ the petitioner, Notice o! the !iling o! the petition hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette, -ECTION >., "o''ittee o- T&ree. R In ca e in)ol)ing highly technical i ue 1 on 'otion o! any party1 the Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay or$er that the petition &e hear$ an$ $eci$e$ &y a co''ittee co'po e$ o! the Director o! Legal A!!air a chair'an an$ t5o +4# 'e'&er 5ho ha)e the e3perience or e3perti e in the !iel$ o! technology to 5hich the patent ought to &e cancelle$ relate , The $eci ion o! the co''ittee hall &e appeala&le to the Director General, -ECTION >F, "ancellation o- t&e Patent. R >F,6, I! the Co''ittee !in$ that a ca e !or cancellation ha &een pro)e$1 it hall or$er the patent or any peci!ie$ clai' or clai' thereo! cancelle$, >F,4, I! the Co''ittee !in$ that1 ta(ing into con i$eration the a'en$'ent 'a$e &y the patentee $uring the cancellation procee$ing 1 the patent an$ the in)ention to 5hich it relate 'eet the re8uire'ent o! thi Act1 it 'ay $eci$e to 'aintain the patent a a'en$e$" Pro)i$e$1 That the !ee !or printing o! a ne5 patent i pai$ 5ithin the ti'e li'it pre cri&e$ in the Regulation , >F,7, I! the !ee !or the printing o! a ne5 patent i not pai$ in $ue ti'e1 the patent houl$ &e re)o(e$, >F,., I! the patent i a'en$e$ un$er -u& ection >F,4 hereo!1 the Hureau hall1 at the a'e ti'e a it pu&li he the 'ention o! the cancellation $eci ion1 pu&li h the a& tract1 repre entati)e clai' an$ $ra5ing in$icating clearly 5hat the a'en$'ent con i t o!, SEC I"N DD. E""ect o" C !cell tio! o" P te!t or Cl im1 J 0e ri,0t- conferre/ 5y t0e 1atent or any -1ecifie/ c)ai. or c)ai.- cance))e/ -0a)) ter.inate. Notice of t0e cance))ation -0a)) 5e 1u5)i-0e/ in t0e IP" &aLette. 'n)e-- re-traine/ 5y t0e #irector &enera), t0e /eci-ion or or/er to cance) 5y #irector of +e,a) Affair- -0a)) 5e i..e/iate)y e?ecutory even 1en/in, a11ea).

7#. RI9=TS O* PATENTEE


a. Ri,0t-

SEC I"N A1. +a#

Ri$*ts Co!"erred /# P te!t1 J A1.1. A 1atent -0a)) confer on it- o>ner t0e fo))o>in, e?c)u-ive ri,0t-4 9here the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent i a pro$uct1 to re train1 prohi&it an$ pre)ent any unauthori2e$ per on or entity !ro' 'a(ing1 u ing1 o!!ering !or ale1 elling or i'porting that pro$uct%

9here the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent i a proce 1 to re train1 pre)ent or prohi&it any unauthori2e$ per on or entity !ro' u ing the proce 1 an$ !ro' 'anu!acturing1 $ealing in1 u ing1 elling or o!!ering !or ale1 or i'porting any pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' uch proce , D6,4, Patent o5ner hall al o ha)e the right to a ign1 or tran !er &y ucce ion the patent1 an$ to conclu$e licen ing contract !or the a'e, PAR2E6 DAVIS F "O3PAN! ?s. DO"TORSC P=AR3A"EUTI"A S6 IN". BG,R, No, L* 4D7>6, ;ay 4E1 6EG6,C (a/ t0e )o>er court 0y1ot0etica))y a--u.e/ a- true, for t0e 1ur1o-e of t0e .otion to /i-.i--, t0e a))e,ation- in t0e co.1)aint t0at FC0)ora.10enico)F an/ FC0)ora.10enico) Pa).itateF are entire)y /ifferent -u5-tance- an/ t0at F!eni.icetin Su-1en-ionF actua))y contain- FC0)ora.10enico) Pa).itateF an/ not FC0)ora.10enico)F a- in/icate/ in it1ac@a,e an/ )a5e), it nece--ari)y >ou)/ 0ave to conc)u/e t0at t0e co.1)aint -tatecau-e- of action for infrin,e.ent of 1atent an/ for unfair co.1etition. $or /efen/ant>ou)/ t0en 5e ,ui)ty of infrin,e.ent of 1atent 5y -e))in,, cau-in, to 5e -o)/, u-in, an/ cau-in, to 5e u-e/ FC0)ora.10enico) Pa).itateF, >it0out t0e con-ent or aut0ority of t0e 1)aintiff a- t0e 0o)/er of +etter- Patent No. 2A9, C)ai. 7 of >0ic0 a))e,e/)y cover-ai/ -u5-tance. Li(e5i e1 the $e!en$ant 5oul$ &e guilty o! un!air co'petition &y !al ely tating that $e!en$ant No, 6J 'e$icine calle$ KVeni'icetin -u pen ionK contain KChlora'phenicolK 5hen in !act it actually contain KChlora'phenicol Pal'itateK1 an$ that it i co)ere$ &y a co'pul ory licen e !ro' the plainti!!,
5. +i.itation-

+&#

-ECTION D4, i'itations o- Patent Rig&ts. R The o5ner o! a patent ha no right to pre)ent thir$ partie !ro' per!or'ing1 5ithout hi authori2ation1 the act re!erre$ to in -ection D6 hereo! in the !ollo5ing circu' tance " D4,6, U ing a patente$ pro$uct 5hich ha &een put on the 'ar(et in the Philippine &y the o5ner o! the pro$uct1 or 5ith hi e3pre con ent1 in o!ar a uch u e i per!or'e$ a!ter that pro$uct ha &een o put on the ai$ 'ar(et% D4,4, 9here the act i $one pri)ately an$ on a non*co''ercial cale or !or a non*co''ercial purpo e" Pro)i$e$1 That it $oe not igni!icantly pre?u$ice the econo'ic intere t o! the o5ner o! the patent% D4,7, 9here the act con i t o! 'a(ing or u ing e3clu i)ely !or the purpo e o! e3peri'ent that relate to the u&?ect 'atter o! the patente$ in)ention% D4,., 9here the act con i t o! the preparation !or in$i)i$ual ca e 1 in a phar'acy or &y a 'e$ical pro!e ional1 o! a 'e$icine in accor$ance 5ith a 'e$ical pre cription or act concerning the 'e$icine o prepare$% D4,F, 9here the in)ention i u e$ in any hip1 )e el1 aircra!t1 or lan$ )ehicle o! any other country entering the territory o! the Philippine te'porarily or acci$entally" Pro)i$e$1 That uch in)ention i u e$ e3clu i)ely !or the nee$ o! the hip1 )e el1 aircra!t1 or lan$ )ehicle an$ not u e$ !or the 'anu!acturing o! anything to &e ol$ 5ithin the Philippine , -ECTION D7, Prior User. R D7,6, Not5ith tan$ing -ection D4 hereo!1 any prior u er1 5ho1 in goo$ !aith 5a u ing the in)ention or ha un$erta(en eriou preparation to u e the in)ention in hi enterpri e or &u ine 1 &e!ore the !iling $ate or priority $ate o! the application on 5hich a patent i grante$1 hall ha)e the right to continue the u e thereo! a en)i age$ in uch preparation 5ithin the territory 5here the patent pro$uce it e!!ect, D7,4, The right o! the prior u er 'ay only &e tran !erre$ or a igne$ together 5ith hi enterpri e or &u ine 1 or 5ith that part o! hi enterpri e or &u ine in 5hich the u e or preparation !or u e ha)e &een 'a$e, SEC I"N A7. Use o" I!ve!tio! /# Gover!me!t1 J A7.1. A &overn.ent a,ency or t0ir/ 1er-on aut0oriLe/ 5y t0e &overn.ent .ay e?1)oit t0e invention even >it0out a,ree.ent of t0e 1atent o>ner >0ere4

The pu&lic intere t1 in particular1 national ecurity1 nutrition1 health or the $e)elop'ent o! other ector 1 a $eter'ine$ &y the appropriate agency o! the go)ern'ent1 o re8uire % or (5) A Ku/icia) or a/.ini-trative 5o/y 0a- /eter.ine/ t0at t0e .anner of e?1)oitation, 5y t0e o>ner of t0e 1atent or 0i- )icen-ee i- anti8co.1etitive. D.,4, The u e &y the Go)ern'ent1 or thir$ per on authori2e$ &y the Go)ern'ent hall &e u&?ect1 'utati 'utan$i 1 to the con$ition et !orth in -ection EF to ED an$ 6AA to 6A4,
c. Action for Infrin,e.ent

+a#

*RAN2 and 9O=N ?s. BENITO BG,R, No, 4DDE7, ;arch 6>1 6E4GC It i 5ell e ta&li he$ that an i'pro)er cannot appropriate the &a ic patent o! another1 an$ that the i'pro)er 5ithout licen e i an in!ringer an$ 'ay &e ue$ a uch,

9SE

?s. !AP%JUE BG,R, No, 6G6>, April 6D1 6EA>C

The e)i$ence al o ho5 clearly that the $e!en$ant u e$1 an$ ha$ &een u ing1 the a'e proce !or the 'anu!acture o! 5al(ing tic( an$ u'&rella han$le1 the e3clu i)e right to 5hich ha$ &een grante$ to1 the plainti!!J a ignor, The e)i$ence al o ho5 that the original grantee o! the patent1 0enry Al!re$ G ell1 ha$ $uly tran !erre$ to the plainti!! herein1 an$ that the plainti!! herein there&y uccee$e$ to all o! the right grante$ in ai$ letter patent, 3A9UAN ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*.F6A6, No)e'&er 4G1 6EG>C The &ur$en o! proo! to u& tantiate a charge o! in!ringe'ent i 5ith the plainti!!, Hut 5here the plainti!! intro$uce the patent in e)i$ence1 an$ the a'e i in $ue !or'1 there i create$ a pri'a !acie pre u'ption o! it correctne an$ )ali$ity, 9ODINES ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, ED7.7, -epte'&er 671 6EE7C Te t ha)e &een e ta&li he$ to $eter'ine in!ringe'ent, The e are +a# literal in!ringe'ent% an$ +&# the $octrine o! e8ui)alent , In u ing literal in!ringe'ent a a te t1 K, , , re ort 'u t &e ha$1 in the !ir t in tance1 to the 5or$ o! the clai', I! accu e$ 'atter clearly !all 5ithin the clai'1 in!ringe'ent i 'a$e out an$ that i the en$ o! it,K To $eter'ine 5hether the particular ite' !all 5ithin the literal 'eaning o! the patent clai' 1 the Court 'u t ?u3tapo e the clai' o! the patent an$ the accu e$ pro$uct 5ithin the o)erall conte3t o! the clai' an$ peci!ication 1 to $eter'ine 5hether there i e3act i$entity o! all 'aterial ele'ent , Recogni2ing that the logical !all&ac( po ition o! one in the place o! $e!en$ant i to a)er that hi pro$uct i $i!!erent !ro' the patente$ one1 court ha)e a$opte$ the $octrine o! e8ui)alent 5hich recogni2e that 'inor 'o$i!ication in a patente$ in)ention are u!!icient to put the ite' &eyon$ the cope o! literal in!ringe'ent, Thu 1 accor$ing to thi $octrine1 K+a#n in!ringe'ent al o occur 5hen a $e)ice appropriate a prior in)ention &y incorporating it inno)ati)e concept an$1 al&eit 5ith o'e 'o$i!ication an$ change1 per!or' u& tantially the a'e !unction in u& tantially the a'e 5ay to achie)e u& tantially the a'e re ult,K The rea on !or the $octrine o! e8ui)alent i that to per'it the i'itation o! a patente$ in)ention 5hich $oe not copy any literal $etail 5oul$ &e to con)ert the protection o! the patent grant into a hollo5 an$ u ele thing, -uch i'itation 5oul$ lea)e roo' !or R in$ee$ encourage R the un crupulou copyi t to 'a(e uni'portant an$ in u& tantial change an$ u& titution in the patent 5hich1 though a$$ing nothing1 5oul$ &e enough to ta(e the copie$ 'atter out i$e the clai'1 an$ hence out i$e the reach o! the la5,

DE ROSARIO ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66F6A>, ;arch 6F1 6EE>C It i ele'entary that a patent 'ay &e in!ringe$ 5here the e ential or u& tantial !eature o! the patente$ in)ention are ta(en or appropriate$1 or the $e)ice1 'achine or other u&?ect 'atter allege$ to in!ringe i u& tantially i$entical 5ith the patent in)ention, In or$er to in!ringe a patent1 a 'achine or $e)ice 'u t per!or' the a'e !unction1 or acco'pli h the a'e re ult &y i$entical or u& tantially i$entical 'ean an$ the principle or 'o$e o! operation 'u t &e u& tantially the a'e,
/. Civi)

-ECTION DF, E+tent o- Protection and Interpretation o- "lai's. R DF,6, The e3tent o! protection con!erre$ &y the patent hall &e $eter'ine$ &y the clai' 1 5hich are to &e interprete$ in the light o! the $e cription an$ $ra5ing , DF,4, /or the purpo e o! $eter'ining the e3tent o! protection con!erre$ &y the patent1 $ue account hall &e ta(en o! ele'ent 5hich are e8ui)alent to the ele'ent e3pre e$ in the clai' 1 o that a clai' hall &e con i$ere$ to co)er not only all the ele'ent a e3pre e$ therein1 &ut al o e8ui)alent , -ECTION D>, "i?il Action -or In-ringe'ent. R D>,6, The 'a(ing1 u ing1 o!!ering !or ale1 elling1 or i'porting a patente$ pro$uct or a pro$uct o&taine$ $irectly or in$irectly !ro' a patente$ proce 1 or the u e o! a patente$ proce 5ithout the authori2ation o! the patentee con titute patent in!ringe'ent, D>,4, Any patentee1 or anyone po e ing any right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patente$ in)ention1 5ho e right ha)e &een in!ringe$1 'ay &ring a ci)il action &e!ore a court o! co'petent ?uri $iction1 to reco)er !ro' the in!ringer uch $a'age u taine$ there&y1 plu attorneyJ !ee an$ other e3pen e o! litigation1 an$ to ecure an in?unction !or the protection o! hi right , AD.3. If t0e /a.a,e- are ina/e3uate or cannot 5e rea/i)y a-certaine/ >it0 rea-ona5)e certainty, t0e court .ay a>ar/ 5y >ay of /a.a,e- a -u. e3uiva)ent to rea-ona5)e roya)ty. D>,., The court 'ay1 accor$ing to the circu' tance o! the ca e1 a5ar$ $a'age in a u' a&o)e the a'ount !oun$ a actual $a'age u taine$" Pro)i$e$1 That the a5ar$ $oe not e3cee$ three +7# ti'e the a'ount o! uch actual $a'age , D>,F, The court 'ay1 in it $i cretion1 or$er that the in!ringing goo$ 1 'aterial an$ i'ple'ent pre$o'inantly u e$ in the in!ringe'ent &e $i po e$ o! out i$e the channel o! co''erce or $e troye$1 5ithout co'pen ation, D>,>, Anyone 5ho acti)ely in$uce the in!ringe'ent o! a patent or pro)i$e the in!ringer 5ith a co'ponent o! a patente$ pro$uct or o! a pro$uct pro$uce$ &ecau e o! a patente$ proce (no5ing it to &e e pecially a$opte$ !or in!ringing the patente$ in)ention an$ not uita&le !or u& tantial non*in!ringing u e hall &e lia&le a a contri&utory in!ringer an$ hall &e ?ointly an$ e)erally lia&le 5ith the in!ringer,
e. Cri.ina) Action for Re1etition of Infrin,e.ent

SEC I"N 87. Crimi! l Actio! "or Repetitio! o" I!"ri!$eme!t1 J If infrin,e.ent ire1eate/ 5y t0e infrin,er or 5y anyone in connivance >it0 0i. after fina)ity of t0e Ku/,.ent of t0e court a,ain-t t0e infrin,er, t0e offen/er- -0a)), >it0out 1reKu/ice to t0e in-titution of a civi) action for /a.a,e-, 5e cri.ina))y )ia5)e t0erefor an/, u1on conviction, -0a)) -uffer i.1ri-on.ent for t0e 1erio/ of not )e-- t0an -i? (D) .ont0- 5ut not .ore t0an t0ree (3) year- an/6or a fine of not )e-- t0an "ne 0un/re/ t0ou-an/ 1e-o- (P1HH,HHH) 5ut not .ore t0an 0ree 0un/re/ t0ou-an/ 1e-o- (P3HH,HHH), at t0e /i-cretion of t0e court. 0e cri.ina) action 0erein 1rovi/e/ -0a)) 1re-cri5e in t0ree (3) year- fro. /ate of t0e co..i--ion of t0e cri.e.
f.

A/.ini-trative

-ECTION 6A,4, +a# E3erci e original ?uri $iction in a$'ini trati)e co'plaint !or )iolation o! la5 in)ol)ing intellectual property right " Pro)i$e$1 That it ?uri $iction i li'ite$ to co'plaint 5here the total $a'age clai'e$ are not le than T5o hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +P4AA1AAA#" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That a)ail'ent o! the pro)i ional re'e$ie 'ay &e grante$ in accor$ance 5ith the Rule o! Court, The Director o! Legal A!!air hall ha)e the po5er to hol$ an$ puni h !or conte'pt all tho e 5ho $i regar$ or$er or 5rit i ue$ in the cour e o! the procee$ing , +&# A!ter !or'al in)e tigation1 the Director !or Legal A!!air 'ay i'po e one +6# or 'ore o! the !ollo5ing a$'ini trati)e penaltie " +i# +ii# The i uance o! a cea e an$ $e i t or$er 5hich hall peci!y the act that the re pon$ent hall cea e an$ $e i t !ro' an$ hall re8uire hi' to u&'it a co'pliance report 5ithin a rea ona&le ti'e 5hich hall &e !i3e$ in the or$er% The acceptance o! a )oluntary a urance o! co'pliance or $i continuance a 'ay &e i'po e$, -uch )oluntary a urance 'ay inclu$e one or 'ore o! the !ollo5ing" +6# An a urance to co'ply 5ith the pro)i ion o! the intellectual property la5 )iolate$% +4# An a urance to re!rain !ro' engaging in unla5!ul an$ un!air act an$ practice u&?ect o! the !or'al in)e tigation% +7# An a urance to recall1 replace1 repair1 or re!un$ the 'oney )alue o! $e!ecti)e goo$ $i tri&ute$ in co''erce% an$ +.# An a urance to rei'&ur e the co'plainant the e3pen e an$ co t incurre$ in pro ecuting the ca e in the Hureau o! Legal A!!air , The Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay al o re8uire the re pon$ent to u&'it perio$ic co'pliance report an$ !ile a &on$ to guarantee co'pliance o! hi un$erta(ing% The con$e'nation or ei2ure o! pro$uct 5hich are u&?ect o! the o!!en e, The goo$ ei2e$ hereun$er hall &e $i po e$ o! in uch 'anner a 'ay &e $ee'e$ appropriate &y the Director o! Legal A!!air 1 uch a &y ale1 $onation to $i tre e$ local go)ern'ent or to charita&le or relie! in titution 1 e3portation1 recycling into other goo$ 1 or any co'&ination thereo!1 un$er uch gui$eline a he 'ay pro)i$e% The !or!eiture o! paraphernalia an$ all real an$ per onal propertie 5hich ha)e &een u e$ in the co''i ion o! the o!!en e% 0e i.1o-ition of a/.ini-trative fine- in -uc0 a.ount a- /ee.e/ rea-ona5)e 5y t0e #irector of +e,a) Affair-, >0ic0 -0a)) in no ca-e 5e )e-- t0an $ive t0ou-an/ 1e-o- (PE,HHH) nor .ore t0an "ne 0un/re/ fifty t0ou-an/ 1e-o- (P1EH,HHH). In a//ition, an a//itiona) fine of not .ore t0an "ne t0ou-an/ 1e-o- (P1,HHH) -0a)) 5e i.1o-e/ for eac0 /ay of continuin, vio)ationI The cancellation o! any per'it1 licen e1 authority1 or regi tration 5hich 'ay ha)e &een grante$ &y the O!!ice1 or the u pen ion o! the )ali$ity thereo! !or uch perio$ o! ti'e a the Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay $ee' rea ona&le 5hich hall not e3cee$ one +6# year% The 5ithhol$ing o! any per'it1 licen e1 authority1 or regi tration 5hich i &eing ecure$ &y the re pon$ent !ro' the O!!ice% The a e 'ent o! $a'age % Cen ure% an$ Other analogou penaltie or anction ,

+iii#

+i)# (v)

+)i#

+)ii# +)iii# +i3# +3#

,. 20o .ay $i)e;

-ECTION DD, In-ringe'ent Action (0 a *oreign National. R Any !oreign national or ?uri$ical entity 5ho 'eet the re8uire'ent o! -ection 7 an$ not engage$ in &u ine in the Philippine 1 to 5hich a patent ha &een grante$ or a igne$ un$er thi Act1 'ay &ring an action !or in!ringe'ent o! patent1 5hether or not it i licen e$ to $o &u ine in the Philippine un$er e3i ting la5, "RESER PRE"ISION S!STE3S6 IN" ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66GDAG, /e&ruary 41 6EEGC

Only the patentee or hi ucce or *in*intere t 'ay !ile an action !or in!ringe'ent, The phra e Kanyone po e ing any right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patente$ in)entionK upon 5hich petitioner 'aintain it pre ent uit1 re!er only to the patenteeJ ucce or *in*intere t1 a ignee or grantee ince action !or in!ringe'ent o! patent 'ay &e &rought in the na'e o! the per on or per on intere te$1 5hether a patentee1 a ignee 1 or a grantee 1 o! the e3clu i)e right, ;oreo)er1 there can &e no in!ringe'ent o! a patent until a patent ha &een i ue$1 ince 5hate)er right one ha to the in)ention co)ere$ &y the patent ari e alone !ro' the grant o! patent, In hort1 a per on or entity 5ho ha not &een grante$ letter patent o)er an in)ention an$ ha not ac8uire$ any right or title thereto either a a ignee or a licen ee1 ha no cau e o! action !or in!ringe'ent &ecau e the right to 'aintain an in!ringe'ent uit $epen$ on the e3i tence o! the patent,
0. Pre-u.1tion-

-ECTION DG, Process Patents, Burden o- Proo- . R I! the u&?ect 'atter o! a patent i a proce !or o&taining a pro$uct1 any i$entical pro$uct hall &e pre u'e$ to ha)e &een o&taine$ through the u e o! the patente$ proce i! the pro$uct i ne5 or there i u& tantial li(elihoo$ that the i$entical pro$uct 5a 'a$e &y the proce an$ the o5ner o! the patent ha &een una&le $e pite rea ona&le e!!ort 1 to $eter'ine the proce actually u e$, In or$ering the $e!en$ant to pro)e that the proce to o&tain the i$entical pro$uct i $i!!erent !ro' the patente$ proce 1 the court hall a$opt 'ea ure to protect1 a !ar a practica&le1 hi 'anu!acturing an$ &u ine ecret ,
i.

#a.a,e-

-ECTION DE, i'itation o- Action -or Da'ages. R No $a'age can &e reco)ere$ !or act o! in!ringe'ent co''itte$ 'ore than !our +.# year &e!ore the in titution o! the action !or in!ringe'ent, -ECTION GA, Da'ages6 ReIuire'ent o- Notice. R Da'age cannot &e reco)ere$ !or act o! in!ringe'ent co''itte$ &e!ore the in!ringer ha$ (no5n1 or ha$ rea ona&le groun$ to (no5 o! the patent, It i pre u'e$ that the in!ringer ha$ (no5n o! the patent i! on the patente$ pro$uct1 or on the container or pac(age in 5hich the article i upplie$ to the pu&lic1 or on the a$)erti ing 'aterial relating to the patente$ pro$uct or proce 1 are place$ the 5or$ KPhilippine PatentK 5ith the nu'&er o! the patent,
K.

#efen-e-

-ECTION G6, De-enses in Action -or In-ringe'ent. R In an action !or in!ringe'ent1 the $e!en$ant1 in a$$ition to other $e!en e a)aila&le to hi'1 'ay ho5 the in)ali$ity o! the patent1 or any clai' thereo!1 on any o! the groun$ on 5hich a petition o! cancellation can &e &rought un$er -ection >6 hereo!,
@. Patent $oun/ Inva)i/ .ay 5e Cance))e/

SEC I"N 82. P te!t Fou!d I!v lid 8 # /e C !celled1 J In an action for infrin,e.ent, if t0e court -0a)) fin/ t0e 1atent or any c)ai. to 5e inva)i/, it -0a)) cance) t0e -a.e, an/ t0e #irector of +e,a) Affair- u1on recei1t of t0e fina) Ku/,.ent of cance))ation 5y t0e court, -0a)) recor/ t0at fact in t0e re,i-ter of t0e "ffice an/ -0a)) 1u5)i-0 a notice to t0at effect in t0e IP" &aLette.
).

A--e--or-

-ECTION G7, Assessor in In-ringe'ent Action. R G7,6, T5o +4# or 'ore a e or 'ay &e appointe$ &y the court, The a e or hall &e po e e$ o! the nece ary cienti!ic an$ technical (no5le$ge re8uire$ &y the u&?ect 'atter in litigation, Either party 'ay challenge the !itne o! any a e or propo e$ !or appoint'ent,

G7,4, Each a e or hall recei)e a co'pen ation in an a'ount to &e !i3e$ &y the court an$ a$)ance$ &y the co'plaining party1 5hich hall &e a5ar$e$ a part o! hi co t houl$ he pre)ail in the action,
.. +icen-in,

i.

!o)untary

-ECTION GF, Voluntar0 icense "ontract. R To encourage the tran !er an$ $i e'ination o! technology1 pre)ent or control practice an$ con$ition that 'ay in particular ca e con titute an a&u e o! intellectual property right ha)ing an a$)er e e!!ect on co'petition an$ tra$e1 all technology tran !er arrange'ent hall co'ply 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi Chapter, -ECTION G>, Jurisdiction to Settle Disputes on Ro0alties. R The Director o! the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau hall e3erci e 8ua i*?u$icial ?uri $iction in the ettle'ent o! $i pute &et5een partie to a technology tran !er arrange'ent ari ing !ro' technology tran !er pay'ent 1 inclu$ing the !i3ing o! appropriate a'ount or rate o! royalty, -ECTION GD, Pro&i(ited "lauses. R E3cept in ca e un$er -ection E61 the !ollo5ing pro)i ion hall &e $ee'e$ pri'a !acie to ha)e an a$)er e e!!ect on co'petition an$ tra$e" GD,6, Tho e 5hich i'po e upon the licen ee the o&ligation to ac8uire !ro' a peci!ic ource capital goo$ 1 inter'e$iate pro$uct 1 ra5 'aterial 1 an$ other technologie 1 or o! per'anently e'ploying per onnel in$icate$ &y the licen or% GD,4, Tho e pur uant to 5hich the licen or re er)e the right to !i3 the ale or re ale price o! the pro$uct 'anu!acture$ on the &a i o! the licen e% GD,7, Tho e that contain re triction regar$ing the )olu'e an$ tructure o! pro$uction% GD,., Tho e that prohi&it the u e o! co'petiti)e technologie in a non*e3clu i)e technology tran !er agree'ent% GD,F, Tho e that e ta&li h a !ull or partial purcha e option in !a)or o! the licen or% GD,>, Tho e that o&ligate the licen ee to tran !er !or !ree to the licen or the in)ention or i'pro)e'ent that 'ay &e o&taine$ through the u e o! the licen e$ technology% GD,D, Tho e that re8uire pay'ent o! royaltie to the o5ner o! patent !or patent 5hich are not u e$% GD,G, Tho e that prohi&it the licen ee to e3port the licen e$ pro$uct unle ?u ti!ie$ !or the protection o! the legiti'ate intere t o! the licen or uch a e3port to countrie 5here e3clu i)e licen e to 'anu!acture an$Ior $i tri&ute the licen e$ pro$uct+ # ha)e alrea$y &een grante$% GD,E, Tho e 5hich re trict the u e o! the technology upplie$ a!ter the e3piration o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent1 e3cept in ca e o! early ter'ination o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent $ue to rea on+ # attri&uta&le to the licen ee% GD,6A, Tho e 5hich re8uire pay'ent !or patent an$ other in$u trial property right a!ter their e3piration1 ter'ination arrange'ent% GD,66, Tho e 5hich re8uire that the technology recipient hall not conte t the )ali$ity o! any o! the patent o! the technology upplier% GD,64, Tho e 5hich re trict the re earch an$ $e)elop'ent acti)itie o! the licen ee $e igne$ to a& or& an$ a$apt the tran !erre$ technology to local con$ition or to initiate re earch an$ $e)elop'ent progra' in connection 5ith ne5 pro$uct 1 proce e or e8uip'ent% GD,67, Tho e 5hich pre)ent the licen ee !ro' a$apting the i'porte$ technology to local con$ition 1 or intro$ucing inno)ation to it1 a long a it $oe not i'pair the 8uality tan$ar$ pre cri&e$ &y the licen or% GD,6., Tho e 5hich e3e'pt the licen or !or lia&ility !or non*!ul!il'ent o! hi re pon i&ilitie un$er the technology tran !er arrange'ent an$Ior lia&ility ari ing !ro' thir$ party uit &rought a&out &y the u e o! the licen e$ pro$uct or the licen e$ technology% an$ GD,6F, Other clau e 5ith e8ui)alent e!!ect ,

-ECTION GG, 3andator0 Pro?isions. R The !ollo5ing pro)i ion hall &e inclu$e$ in )oluntary licen e contract " GG,6, That the la5 o! the Philippine hall go)ern the interpretation o! the a'e an$ in the e)ent o! litigation1 the )enue hall &e the proper court in the place 5here the licen ee ha it principal o!!ice% GG,4, Continue$ acce to i'pro)e'ent in techni8ue an$ proce e relate$ to the technology hall &e 'a$e a)aila&le $uring the perio$ o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent% 88.3. In t0e event t0e tec0no)o,y tran-fer arran,e.ent -0a)) 1rovi/e for ar5itration, t0e Proce/ure of Ar5itration of t0e Ar5itration +a> of t0e P0i)i11ine- or t0e Ar5itration Ru)e- of t0e 'nite/ Nation- Co..i--ion on Internationa) ra/e +a> ('NCI RA+) or t0e Ru)e- of Conci)iation an/ Ar5itration of t0e Internationa) C0a.5er of Co..erce (ICC) -0a)) a11)y an/ t0e venue of ar5itration -0a)) 5e t0e P0i)i11ine- or any neutra) countryI an/ GG,., The Philippine ta3e on all pay'ent relating to the technology tran !er arrange'ent hall &e &orne &y the licen or, +n# -ECTION GE, Rig&ts o- icensor. R In the a& ence o! any pro)i ion to the contrary in the technology tran !er arrange'ent1 the grant o! a licen e hall not pre)ent the licen or !ro' granting !urther licen e to thir$ per on nor !ro' e3ploiting the u&?ect 'atter o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent hi' el!, -ECTION EA, Rig&ts o- icensee. R The licen ee hall &e entitle$ to e3ploit the u&?ect 'atter o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent $uring the 5hole ter' o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent, SEC I"N 91. E,ceptio! l C ses1 J In e?ce1tiona) or .eritoriou- ca-e- >0ere -u5-tantia) 5enefit- >i)) accrue to t0e econo.y, -uc0 a- 0i,0 tec0no)o,y content, increa-e in forei,n e?c0an,e earnin,-, e.1)oy.ent ,eneration, re,iona) /i-1er-a) of in/u-trie- an/6or -u5-titution >it0 or u-e of )oca) ra> .ateria)-, or in t0e ca-e of *oar/ of Inve-t.ent-, re,i-tere/ co.1anie- >it0 1ioneer -tatu-, e?e.1tion fro. any of t0e a5ove re3uire.ent- .ay 5e a))o>e/ 5y t0e #ocu.entation, Infor.ation an/ ec0no)o,y ran-fer *ureau after eva)uation t0ereof on a ca-e 5y ca-e 5a-i-. -ECTION E4, Non%Registration .it& t&e Docu'entation6 In-or'ation and Tec&nolog0 Trans-er Bureau. R Technology tran !er arrange'ent that con!or' 5ith the pro)i ion o! -ection G> an$ GD nee$ not &e regi tere$ 5ith the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau, Non*con!or'ance 5ith any o! the pro)i ion o! -ection GD an$ GG1 ho5e)er1 hall auto'atically ren$er the technology tran !er arrange'ent unen!orcea&le1 unle ai$ technology tran !er arrange'ent i appro)e$ an$ regi tere$ 5ith the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau un$er the pro)i ion o! -ection E6 on e3ceptional ca e , ii. Co.1u)-ory

-ECTION .,4, The ter' Ktec0no)o,y tran-fer arran,e.ent-K re!er to contract or agree'ent in)ol)ing the tran !er o! y te'atic (no5le$ge !or the 'anu!acture o! a pro$uct1 the application o! a proce 1 or ren$ering o! a er)ice inclu$ing 'anage'ent contract % an$ the tran !er1 a ign'ent or licen ing o! all !or' o! intellectual property right 1 inclu$ing licen ing o! co'puter o!t5are e3cept co'puter o!t5are $e)elope$ !or 'a 'ar(et, -ECTION E7, 9rounds -or "o'pulsor0 icensing. R The Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay grant a licen e to e3ploit a patente$ in)ention1 e)en 5ithout the agree'ent o! the patent o5ner1 in !a)or o! any per on 5ho ha ho5n hi capa&ility to e3ploit the in)ention1 un$er any o! the !ollo5ing circu' tance " E7,6, National e'ergency or other circu' tance o! e3tre'e urgency%

E7,4, 9here the pu&lic intere t1 in particular1 national ecurity1 nutrition1 health or the $e)elop'ent o! other )ital ector o! the national econo'y a $eter'ine$ &y the appropriate agency o! the Go)ern'ent1 o re8uire % or E7,7, 9here a ?u$icial or a$'ini trati)e &o$y ha $eter'ine$ that the 'anner o! e3ploitation &y the o5ner o! the patent or hi licen ee i anti*co'petiti)e% or E7,., In ca e o! pu&lic non*co''ercial u e o! the patent &y the patentee1 5ithout ati !actory rea on% E7,F, I! the patente$ in)ention i not &eing 5or(e$ in the Philippine on a co''ercial cale1 although capa&le o! &eing 5or(e$1 5ithout ati !actory rea on" Pro)i$e$1 That the i'portation o! the patente$ article hall con titute 5or(ing or u ing the patent, -ECTION E., Period -or *iling a Petition -or a "o'pulsor0 icense. R E.,6, A co'pul ory licen e 'ay not &e applie$ !or on the groun$ tate$ in -u& ection E7,F &e!ore the e3piration o! a perio$ o! !our +.# year !ro' the $ate o! !iling o! the application or three +7# year !ro' the $ate o! the patent 5hiche)er perio$ e3pire la t, E.,4, A co'pul ory licen e 5hich i applie$ !or on any o! the groun$ tate$ in -u& ection E7,41 E7,71 an$ E7,. an$ -ection ED 'ay &e applie$ !or at any ti'e a!ter the grant o! the patent, -ECTION EF, ReIuire'ent to O(tain a icense on Reasona(le "o''ercial Ter's. R EF,6, The licen e 5ill only &e grante$ a!ter the petitioner ha 'a$e e!!ort to o&tain authori2ation !ro' the patent o5ner on rea ona&le co''ercial ter' an$ con$ition &ut uch e!!ort ha)e not &een ucce !ul 5ithin a rea ona&le perio$ o! ti'e, EF,4, T*e re>uireme!t u!der Su/sectio! DG13 s* ll !ot ppl# i! t*e "ollo)i!$ c ses& +a# 9here the petition !or co'pul ory licen e ee( to re'e$y a practice $eter'ine$ a!ter ?u$icial or a$'ini trati)e proce to &e anti*co'petiti)e% +&# In ituation o! national e'ergency or other circu' tance o! e3tre'e urgency% +c# In ca e o! pu&lic non*co''ercial u e, 9E.3. In -ituation- of nationa) e.er,ency or ot0er circu.-tance- of e?tre.e ur,ency, t0e ri,0t 0o)/er -0a)) 5e notifie/ a- -oon a- rea-ona5)y 1ractica5)e. EF,., In the ca e o! pu&lic non*co''ercial u e1 5here the go)ern'ent or contractor1 5ithout 'a(ing a patent earch1 (no5 or ha $e'on tra&le groun$ to (no5 that a )ali$ patent i or 5ill &e u e$ &y or !or the go)ern'ent1 the right hol$er hall &e in!or'e$ pro'ptly, -ECTION E>, "o'pulsor0 icensing o- Patents In?ol?ing Se'i%"onductor Tec&nolog0. R In the ca e o! co'pul ory licen ing o! patent in)ol)ing e'i*con$uctor technology1 the licen e 'ay only &e grante$ in ca e o! pu&lic non*co''ercial u e or to re'e$y a practice $eter'ine$ a!ter ?u$icial or a$'ini trati)e proce to &e anti*co'petiti)e, -ECTION ED, "o'pulsor0 icense Based on Interdependence o- Patents. R I! the in)ention protecte$ &y a patent1 herea!ter re!erre$ to a the K econ$ patent1K 5ithin the country cannot &e 5or(e$ 5ithout in!ringing another patent1 herea!ter re!erre$ to a the K!ir t patent1K grante$ on a prior application or &ene!iting !ro' an earlier priority1 a co'pul ory licen e 'ay &e grante$ to the o5ner o! the econ$ patent to the e3tent nece ary !or the 5or(ing o! hi in)ention1 u&?ect to the !ollo5ing con$ition " ED,6, The in)ention clai'e$ in the econ$ patent in)ol)e an i'portant technical a$)ance o! con i$era&le econo'ic igni!icance in relation to the !ir t patent% ED,4, The o5ner o! the !ir t patent hall &e entitle$ to a cro *licen e on rea ona&le ter' to u e the in)ention clai'e$ in the econ$ patent% ED,7, The u e authori2e$ in re pect o! the !ir t patent hall &e non*a igna&le e3cept 5ith the a ign'ent o! the econ$ patent% an$ c$a ia ED,., The ter' an$ con$ition o! -ection EF1 E> an$ EG to 6AA o! thi Act, SEC I"N 98. Form !d Co!te!ts o" Petitio!. J 0e 1etition for co.1u)-ory )icen-in, .u-t 5e in >ritin,, verifie/ 5y t0e 1etitioner an/ acco.1anie/ 5y 1ay.ent of t0e re3uire/ fi)in, fee. It -0a)) contain t0e na.e an/ a//re-- of t0e 1etitioner a- >e)) at0o-e of t0e re-1on/ent-, t0e nu.5er an/ /ate of i--ue of t0e 1atent in connection >it0 >0ic0 co.1u)-ory )icen-e i- -ou,0t, t0e na.e of t0e 1atentee, t0e tit)e of t0e invention,

t0e -tatutory ,roun/- u1on >0ic0 co.1u)-ory )icen-e i- -ou,0t, t0e u)ti.ate factcon-titutin, t0e 1etitionerM- cau-e of action, an/ t0e re)ief 1raye/ for. -ECTION EE, Notice o- =earing. R EE,6, Upon !iling o! a petition1 the Director o! Legal A!!air hall !orth5ith er)e notice o! the !iling thereo! upon the patent o5ner an$ all per on ha)ing grant or licen e 1 or any other right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patent an$ in)ention co)ere$ there&y a appear o! recor$ in the O!!ice1 an$ o! notice o! the $ate o! hearing thereon1 on uch per on an$ petitioner, The re i$ent agent or repre entati)e appointe$ in accor$ance 5ith -ection 77 hereo!1 hall &e &oun$ to accept er)ice o! notice o! the !iling o! the petition 5ithin the 'eaning o! thi -ection, EE,4, In e)ery ca e1 the notice hall &e pu&li he$ &y the ai$ O!!ice in a ne5 paper o! general circulation1 once a 5ee( !or three +7# con ecuti)e 5ee( an$ once in the IPO Ga2ette at applicantJ e3pen e, -ECTION 6AA, Ter's and "onditions o- "o'pulsor0 icense. R The &a ic ter' an$ con$ition inclu$ing the rate o! royaltie o! a co'pul ory licen e hall &e !i3e$ &y the Director o! Legal A!!air u&?ect to the !ollo5ing con$ition " 6AA,6, The cope an$ $uration o! uch licen e hall &e li'ite$ to the purpo e !or 5hich it 5a authori2e$% 6AA,4, The licen e hall &e non*e3clu i)e% 6AA,7, The licen e hall &e non*a igna&le1 e3cept 5ith that part o! the enterpri e or &u ine 5ith 5hich the in)ention i &eing e3ploite$% 1HH.7. '-e of t0e -u5Kect .atter of t0e )icen-e -0a)) 5e /evote/ 1re/o.inant)y for t0e -u11)y of t0e P0i)i11ine .ar@et4 Provi/e/, 0at t0i- )i.itation -0a)) not a11)y >0ere t0e ,rant of t0e )icen-e i- 5a-e/ on t0e ,roun/ t0at t0e 1atenteeM- .anner of e?1)oitin, t0e 1atent i- /eter.ine/ 5y Ku/icia) or a/.ini-trative 1roce--, to 5e anti8co.1etitive. 6AA,F, The licen e 'ay &e ter'inate$ upon proper ho5ing that circu' tance 5hich le$ to it grant ha)e cea e$ to e3i t an$ are unli(ely to recur" Pro)i$e$1 That a$e8uate protection hall &e a!!or$e$ to the legiti'ate intere t o! the licen ee% an$ 6AA,>, The patentee hall &e pai$ a$e8uate re'uneration ta(ing into account the econo'ic )alue o! the grant or authori2ation1 e3cept that in ca e 5here the licen e 5a grante$ to re'e$y a practice 5hich 5a $eter'ine$ a!ter ?u$icial or a$'ini trati)e proce 1 to &e anti*co'petiti)e1 the nee$ to correct the anti*co'petiti)e practice 'ay &e ta(en into account in !i3ing the a'ount o! re'uneration, -ECTION 6A6, A'end'ent6 "ancellation6 Surrender o- "o'pulsor0 icense. R 6A6,6, Upon the re8ue t o! the patentee or the licen ee1 the Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay a'en$ the $eci ion granting the co'pul ory licen e1 upon proper ho5ing o! ne5 !act or circu' tance ?u ti!ying uch a'en$'ent, 6A6,4, Upon the re8ue t o! the patentee1 the ai$ Director 'ay cancel the co'pul ory licen e" +a# I! the groun$ !or the grant o! the co'pul ory licen e no longer e3i t an$ i unli(ely to recur% (5) If t0e )icen-ee 0a- neit0er 5e,un to -u11)y t0e /o.e-tic .ar@et nor .a/e -eriou- 1re1aration t0ereforI +c# I! the licen ee ha not co'plie$ 5ith the pre cri&e$ ter' o! the licen e% 6A6,7, The licen ee 'ay urren$er the licen e &y a 5ritten $eclaration u&'itte$ to the O!!ice, 6A6,., The ai$ Director hall cau e the a'en$'ent1 urren$er1 or cancellation in the Regi ter1 noti!y the patentee1 an$Ior the licen ee1 an$ cau e notice thereo! to &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette, SEC I"N 1H2. Lice!see<s E,emptio! "rom Li /ilit#1 J Any 1er-on >0o >or@- a 1atente/ 1ro/uct, -u5-tance an/6or 1roce-- un/er a )icen-e ,rante/ un/er t0iC0a1ter, -0a)) 5e free fro. any )ia5i)ity for infrin,e.ent4 Provi/e/ 0o>ever, 0at in t0e ca-e of vo)untary )icen-in,, no co))u-ion >it0 t0e )icen-or i- 1roven. 0i- i- >it0out 1reKu/ice to t0e ri,0t of t0e ri,0tfu) o>ner of t0e 1atent to recover fro. t0e )icen-or >0atever 0e .ay 0ave receive/ a- roya)tie- un/er t0e )icen-e.

PRI"E6 et al.6 ?s. UNITED ABORATORIES BG,R, No, L*G4F.4, -epte'&er 4E1 6EGGC The ter' an$ con$ition o! the co'pul ory licen e 'ay &e !ile$ &y the Director o! Patent a!ter a hearing an$ care!ul con i$eration o! the e)i$ence o! the partie an$ in $e!ault o! an agree'ent &et5een the' a to the ter' o! the licen e, O! in$u&ita&le rele)ance to thi point i the e)i$ence that UNILAH ha &een engage$ in the &u ine o! 'anu!acturing $rug an$ phar'aceutical pro$uct !or the pa t thirty +7A# year 1 that it i the lea$ing $rug 'anu!acturer in the country1 that it ha the nece ary e8uip'ent an$ technological e3perti e !or the $e)elop'ent o! oli$ $o age !or' or !or ta&let1 cap ule1 an$ li8ui$ preparation 1 an$ that it 'aintain tan$ar$ an$ proce$ure to en ure the 8uality o! it pro$uct , E)en i! it 5ere true1 a allege$ &y the patentee +although it i $enie$ &y UNILAH#1 that it capa&ility to u e the patente$ co'poun$ 5a only ac8uire$ a!ter the petition !or co'pul ory licen ing ha$ &een !ile$1 the i'portant thing i that uch capa&ility 5a pro)en to e3i t $uring the hearing o! the petition, The patente$ in)ention in thi ca e relate to 'e$icine an$ i nece ary !or pu&lic health a it can &e u e$ a co'ponent in the 'anu!acture o! anti*ulcer 'e$icine, The Director o! Patent $i$ not err in granting a co'pul ory licen e o)er the entire patente$ in)ention !or there i no la5 re8uiring that the licen e &e li'ite$ to a peci!ic e'&o$i'ent o! the in)ention1 or1 to a particular clai', In any e)ent1 ince the petitioner 5ill &e pai$ royaltie on the ale o! any pro$uct the licen ee 'ay 'anu!acture u ing any or all o! the patente$ co'poun$ 1 the petitioner cannot co'plain o! a $epri)ation o! property right 5ithout ?u t co'pen ation, S3IT= 2 INE F *REN"= ABORATORIES6 TD. ?s. "A BG,R, No, 646G>D, Puly 4.1 6EEDC -ection A+4# o! Article F o! the Pari Con)entional une8ui)ocally an$ e3plicitly re pect the right o! 'e'&er countrie to a$opt legi lati)e 'ea ure to pro)i$e !or the grant o! co'pul ory licen e to pre)ent a&u e 5hich 'ight re ult !ro' the e3erci e o! the e3clu i)e right con!erre$ &y the patent, An e3a'ple pro)i$e$ o! po i&le a&u e i K!ailure to 5or(%K ho5e)er1 a uch1 i 'erely upplie$ &y 5ay o! an e3a'ple1 it i plain that the treaty $oe not preclu$e the inclu ion o! other !or' o! categorie o! a&u e , The legi lati)e intent in the grant o! a co'pul ory licen e 5a not only to a!!or$ other an opportunity to pro)i$e the pu&lic 5ith the 8uantity o! the patente$ pro$uct1 &ut al o to pre)ent the gro5th o! 'onopolie , S3IT= 2 INE F *REN"= ABORATORIES6 TD. ?s. "A BG,R, No, 6464>D, Octo&er 471 4AA6C Neither $oe the Court agree 5ith petitioner that the grant o! the co'pul ory licen e to pri)ate re pon$ent 5a erroneou &ecau e the a'e 5oul$ lea$ the pu&lic to thin( that the Ci'eti$ine i the in)ention o! pri)ate re pon$ent an$ not o! petitioner, -uch !ear are un!oun$e$ ince1 a the appellate court pointe$ out in the a aile$ $eci ion1 &y the grant o! the co'pul ory licen e1 pri)ate re pon$ent a licen ee e3plicitly ac(no5le$ge that petitioner i the ource o! the patente$ pro$uct Ci'eti$ine, E)en a u'ing arguen$o that uch con!u ion 'ay in$ee$ occur1 the $i a$)antage i !ar out5eighe$ &y the &ene!it re ulting !ro' the grant o! the co'pul ory licen e1 uch a an increa e$ upply o! phar'aceutical pro$uct containing Ci'eti$ine1 an$ the con e8uent re$uction in the price thereo!, There i li(e5i e no &a i !or the allegation that the grant o! a co'pul ory licen e to pri)ate re pon$ent re ult in the $epri)ation o! petitionerJ property 5ithout ?u t co'pen ation, It 'u t &e pointe$ out that a o5ner o! Letter Patent No, 644AD1 petitioner ha$ alrea$y en?oye$ e3clu i)e right to 'anu!acture1 u e an$ ell Ci'eti$ine !or at lea t t5o year !ro' it grant in No)e'&er1 6EDG, E)en i! other entitie li(e pri)ate re pon$ent are u& e8uently allo5e$ to

'anu!acture1 u e an$ ell the patente$ in)ention &y )irtue o! a co'pul ory licen e1 petitioner a o5ner o! the patent 5oul$ till recei)e re'uneration !or the u e o! uch pro$uct in the !or' o! royaltie ,
n. Ri,0t to ran-fer

-ECTION 6A7, Trans'ission o- Rig&ts. R 6A7,6, Patent or application !or patent an$ in)ention to 5hich they relate1 hall &e protecte$ in the a'e 5ay a the right o! other property un$er the Ci)il Co$e, 6A7,4, In)ention an$ any right1 title or intere t in an$ to patent an$ in)ention co)ere$ there&y1 'ay &e a igne$ or tran 'itte$ &y inheritance or &e8ue t or 'ay &e the u&?ect o! a licen e contract, -ECTION 6A., Assign'ent o- In?entions. R An a ign'ent 'ay &e o! the entire right1 title or intere t in an$ to the patent an$ the in)ention co)ere$ there&y1 or o! an un$i)i$e$ hare o! the entire patent an$ in)ention1 in 5hich e)ent the partie &eco'e ?oint o5ner thereo!, An a ign'ent 'ay &e li'ite$ to a peci!ie$ territory, -ECTION 6AF, *or' o- Assign'ent. R The a ign'ent 'u t &e in 5riting1 ac(no5le$ge$ &e!ore a notary pu&lic or other o!!icer authori2e$ to a$'ini ter oath or per!or' notarial act 1 an$ certi!ie$ un$er the han$ an$ o!!icial eal o! the notary or uch other o!!icer, SEC I"N 1HD. Recordi!$1 J 1HD.1. 0e "ffice -0a)) recor/ a--i,n.ent-, )icen-ean/ ot0er in-tru.ent- re)atin, to t0e tran-.i--ion of any ri,0t, tit)e or intere-t in an/ to invention-, an/ 1atent- or a11)ication for 1atent- or invention- to >0ic0 t0ey re)ate, >0ic0 are 1re-ente/ in /ue for. to t0e "ffice for re,i-tration, in 5oo@- an/ recor/- @e1t for t0e 1ur1o-e. 0e ori,ina) /ocu.ent- to,et0er >it0 a -i,ne/ /u1)icate t0ereof -0a)) 5e fi)e/, an/ t0e content- t0ereof -0ou)/ 5e @e1t confi/entia). If t0e ori,ina) i- not avai)a5)e, an aut0enticate/ co1y t0ereof in /u1)icate .ay 5e fi)e/. '1on recor/in,, t0e "ffice -0a)) retain t0e /u1)icate, return t0e ori,ina) or t0e aut0enticate/ co1y to t0e 1arty >0o fi)e/ t0e -a.e an/ notice of t0e recor/in, -0a)) 5e 1u5)i-0e/ in t0e IP" &aLette. 6A>,4, -uch in tru'ent hall &e )oi$ a again t any u& e8uent purcha er or 'ortgagee !or )alua&le con i$eration an$ 5ithout notice1 unle 1 it i o recor$e$ in the O!!ice1 5ithin three +7# 'onth !ro' the $ate o! ai$ in tru'ent1 or prior to the u& e8uent purcha e or 'ortgage, SEC I"N 1HA. Ri$*ts o" -oi!t O)!ers1 J If t>o (2) or .ore 1er-on- Koint)y o>n a 1atent an/ t0e invention covere/ t0ere5y, eit0er 5y t0e i--uance of t0e 1atent in t0eir Koint favor or 5y rea-on of t0e a--i,n.ent of an un/ivi/e/ -0are in t0e 1atent an/ invention or 5y rea-on of t0e -ucce--ion in tit)e to -uc0 -0are, eac0 of t0e Koint o>ner-0a)) 5e entit)e/ to 1er-ona))y .a@e, u-e, -e)), or i.1ort t0e invention for 0i- o>n 1rofit4 Provi/e/, 0o>ever, 0at neit0er of t0e Koint o>ner- -0a)) 5e entit)e/ to ,rant )icen-e- or to a--i,n 0i- ri,0t, tit)e or intere-t or 1art t0ereof >it0out t0e con-ent of t0e ot0er o>ner or o>ner-, or >it0out 1ro1ortiona))y /ivi/in, t0e 1rocee/- >it0 -uc0 ot0er o>ner or o>ner-. -ECTION GF, Voluntar0 icense "ontract. R To encourage the tran !er an$ $i e'ination o! technology1 pre)ent or control practice an$ con$ition that 'ay in particular ca e con titute an a&u e o! intellectual property right ha)ing an a$)er e e!!ect on co'petition an$ tra$e1 all technology tran !er arrange'ent hall co'ply 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi Chapter, -ECTION G>, Jurisdiction to Settle Disputes on Ro0alties. R The Director o! the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau hall e3erci e 8ua i*?u$icial ?uri $iction in the ettle'ent o! $i pute &et5een partie to a technology tran !er arrange'ent ari ing !ro' technology tran !er pay'ent 1 inclu$ing the !i3ing o! appropriate a'ount or rate o! royalty,

-ECTION GD, Pro&i(ited "lauses. R E3cept in ca e un$er -ection E61 the !ollo5ing pro)i ion hall &e $ee'e$ pri'a !acie to ha)e an a$)er e e!!ect on co'petition an$ tra$e" GD,6, Tho e 5hich i'po e upon the licen ee the o&ligation to ac8uire !ro' a peci!ic ource capital goo$ 1 inter'e$iate pro$uct 1 ra5 'aterial 1 an$ other technologie 1 or o! per'anently e'ploying per onnel in$icate$ &y the licen or% GD,4, Tho e pur uant to 5hich the licen or re er)e the right to !i3 the ale or re ale price o! the pro$uct 'anu!acture$ on the &a i o! the licen e% GD,7, Tho e that contain re triction regar$ing the )olu'e an$ tructure o! pro$uction% GD,., Tho e that prohi&it the u e o! co'petiti)e technologie in a non*e3clu i)e technology tran !er agree'ent% GD,F, Tho e that e ta&li h a !ull or partial purcha e option in !a)or o! the licen or% GD,>, Tho e that o&ligate the licen ee to tran !er !or !ree to the licen or the in)ention or i'pro)e'ent that 'ay &e o&taine$ through the u e o! the licen e$ technology% GD,D, Tho e that re8uire pay'ent o! royaltie to the o5ner o! patent !or patent 5hich are not u e$% GD,G, Tho e that prohi&it the licen ee to e3port the licen e$ pro$uct unle ?u ti!ie$ !or the protection o! the legiti'ate intere t o! the licen or uch a e3port to countrie 5here e3clu i)e licen e to 'anu!acture an$Ior $i tri&ute the licen e$ pro$uct+ # ha)e alrea$y &een grante$% GD,E, Tho e 5hich re trict the u e o! the technology upplie$ a!ter the e3piration o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent1 e3cept in ca e o! early ter'ination o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent $ue to rea on+ # attri&uta&le to the licen ee% GD,6A, Tho e 5hich re8uire pay'ent !or patent an$ other in$u trial property right a!ter their e3piration1 ter'ination arrange'ent% 8A.11. 0o-e >0ic0 re3uire t0at t0e tec0no)o,y reci1ient -0a)) not conte-t t0e va)i/ity of any of t0e 1atent- of t0e tec0no)o,y -u11)ierI GD,64, Tho e 5hich re trict the re earch an$ $e)elop'ent acti)itie o! the licen ee $e igne$ to a& or& an$ a$apt the tran !erre$ technology to local con$ition or to initiate re earch an$ $e)elop'ent progra' in connection 5ith ne5 pro$uct 1 proce e or e8uip'ent% GD,67, Tho e 5hich pre)ent the licen ee !ro' a$apting the i'porte$ technology to local con$ition 1 or intro$ucing inno)ation to it1 a long a it $oe not i'pair the 8uality tan$ar$ pre cri&e$ &y the licen or% 8A.17. 0o-e >0ic0 e?e.1t t0e )icen-or for )ia5i)ity for non8fu)fi).ent of 0ire-1on-i5i)itie- un/er t0e tec0no)o,y tran-fer arran,e.ent an/6or )ia5i)ity ari-in, fro. t0ir/ 1arty -uit- 5rou,0t a5out 5y t0e u-e of t0e )icen-e/ 1ro/uct or t0e )icen-e/ tec0no)o,yI an/ GD,6F, Other clau e 5ith e8ui)alent e!!ect , -ECTION GG, 3andator0 Pro?isions. R The !ollo5ing pro)i ion hall &e inclu$e$ in )oluntary licen e contract " GG,6, That the la5 o! the Philippine hall go)ern the interpretation o! the a'e an$ in the e)ent o! litigation1 the )enue hall &e the proper court in the place 5here the licen ee ha it principal o!!ice% GG,4, Continue$ acce to i'pro)e'ent in techni8ue an$ proce e relate$ to the technology hall &e 'a$e a)aila&le $uring the perio$ o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent% 88.3. In t0e event t0e tec0no)o,y tran-fer arran,e.ent -0a)) 1rovi/e for ar5itration, t0e Proce/ure of Ar5itration of t0e Ar5itration +a> of t0e P0i)i11ine- or t0e Ar5itration Ru)e- of t0e 'nite/ Nation- Co..i--ion on Internationa) ra/e +a> ('NCI RA+) or t0e Ru)e- of Conci)iation an/ Ar5itration of t0e Internationa) C0a.5er of Co..erce (ICC) -0a)) a11)y an/ t0e venue of ar5itration -0a)) 5e t0e P0i)i11ine- or any neutra) countryI an/ GG,., The Philippine ta3e on all pay'ent relating to the technology tran !er arrange'ent hall &e &orne &y the licen or, -ECTION GE, Rig&ts o- icensor. R In the a& ence o! any pro)i ion to the contrary in the technology tran !er arrange'ent1 the grant o! a licen e hall not pre)ent the licen or !ro'

granting !urther licen e to thir$ per on nor !ro' e3ploiting the u&?ect 'atter o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent hi' el!, -ECTION EA, Rig&ts o- icensee. R The licen ee hall &e entitle$ to e3ploit the u&?ect 'atter o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent $uring the 5hole ter' o! the technology tran !er arrange'ent, SEC I"N 91. E,ceptio! l C ses1 J In e?ce1tiona) or .eritoriou- ca-e- >0ere -u5-tantia) 5enefit- >i)) accrue to t0e econo.y, -uc0 a- 0i,0 tec0no)o,y content, increa-e in forei,n e?c0an,e earnin,-, e.1)oy.ent ,eneration, re,iona) /i-1er-a) of in/u-trie- an/6or -u5-titution >it0 or u-e of )oca) ra> .ateria)-, or in t0e ca-e of *oar/ of Inve-t.ent-, re,i-tere/ co.1anie- >it0 1ioneer -tatu-, e?e.1tion fro. any of t0e a5ove re3uire.ent- .ay 5e a))o>e/ 5y t0e #ocu.entation, Infor.ation an/ ec0no)o,y ran-fer *ureau after eva)uation t0ereof on a ca-e 5y ca-e 5a-i-. -ECTION E4, Non%Registration .it& t&e Docu'entation6 In-or'ation and Tec&nolog0 Trans-er Bureau. R Technology tran !er arrange'ent that con!or' 5ith the pro)i ion o! -ection G> an$ GD nee$ not &e regi tere$ 5ith the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau, Non*con!or'ance 5ith any o! the pro)i ion o! -ection GD an$ GG1 ho5e)er1 hall auto'atically ren$er the technology tran !er arrange'ent unen!orcea&le1 unle ai$ technology tran !er arrange'ent i appro)e$ an$ regi tere$ 5ith the Docu'entation1 In!or'ation an$ Technology Tran !er Hureau un$er the pro)i ion o! -ection E6 on e3ceptional ca e , A BALA ?s. DIRE"TOR O* PATENTS BG,R, No, L*.FD4, ;ay 441 6EF7C A ign'ent o! patent an$ in)ention co)ere$ there&y 'ay &e recor$e$ in &oo( an$ recor$ (ept !or the purpo e in the Patent O!!ice i! pre ente$ in $ue !or' +Repu&lic Act 6>F1 ection F6*F7#, Hut 5here a per on other than the in)entor !ile a 'otion 5ith the Director o! Patent praying that the applicant*in)entor &e co'pelle$ to ign the contract e3ecute$ &y a co* applicant*in)entor an$ &oth applicant*in)entor to ac(no5le$ge it &e!ore a notary pu&lic a 5ell a another $ocu'ent 5hich re!er to the 'inute o! a 'eeting o! the organi2er o! a 'anu!acturing corporation1 an$ then to ha)e &oth $ocu'ent recor$e$ in the Patent O!!ice an$ in the o!!ice o! the regi trar o! $ee$ 1 the Director o! Patent ha no po5er an$ authority to co'pel the applicant*in)entor to $o 5hat the 'o)ant i a (ing the' to per!or', 9hat the 'o)ant a ( the Director o! Patent to $o !or hi' i e entially a ?u$icial !unction 5hich 5oul$ re8uire the $eter'ination o! !in$ing &y a court o! co'petent ?uri $iction a to 5hether there 5a a 'eeting o! the 'in$ o! the contracting partie &e!ore it coul$ co'pel any o! the' to per!or' 5hat the 'o)ant pray the court to or$er hi' to $o,

T9E LAW ON TRA7E8AR@S 7. DE*INITION -ECTION 646,6, K%ar@K 'ean any )i i&le ign capa&le o! $i tingui hing the goo$ +tra$e'ar(# or er)ice + er)ice 'ar(# o! an enterpri e an$ hall inclu$e a ta'pe$ or 'ar(e$ container o! goo$ % DISTI ERIA WAS=IN9TON6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 64AE>6, Octo&er 6D1 6EE>C

A tra/e.ar@ re!er to a 5or$1 na'e1 y'&ol1 e'&le'1 ign or $e)ice or any co'&ination thereo! a$opte$ an$ u e$ &y a 'erchant to i$enti!y1 an$ $i tingui h !ro' other 1 hi goo$ o! co''erce, It i &a ically an intellectual creation that i u cepti&le to o5ner hip, #. *UN"TIONS AN9 TIBA! ?s. TEODORO BG,R, No, .G44>, Dece'&er 6.1 6E.4C The !unction o! a tra$e'ar( i to point $i tincti)ely1 either &y it o5n 'eaning or &y a ociation1 to the origin or o5ner hip o! the 5are to 5hich it i applie$, ETEP=A ?s. DIRE"TOR O* PATENTS BG,R, No, L*4A>7F, ;arch 761 6E>>C The o&?ect o! a tra$e'ar( are to point out $i tinctly the origin or o5ner hip o! the article to 5hich it i a!!i3e$1 to ecure to hi' 5ho ha &een in tru'ental in &ringing into 'ar(et a uperior article o! 'erchan$i e the !ruit o! hi in$u try an$ (ill1 an$ to pre)ent !rau$ an$ i'po ition, 3IRPURI ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66.FAG, No)e'&er 6E1 6EEEC The !unction o! a tra$e'ar( i to point out $i tinctly the origin or o5ner hip o! the goo$ to 5hich it i a!!i3e$% to ecure to hi'1 5ho ha &een in tru'ental in &ringing into the 'ar(et a uperior article o! 'erchan$i e1 the !ruit o! hi in$u try an$ (ill% to a ure the pu&lic that they are procuring the genuine article% to pre)ent !rau$ an$ i'po ition% an$ to protect the 'anu!acturer again t u& titution an$ ale o! an in!erior an$ $i!!erent article a hi pro$uct,

B. A"<UISITION -ECTION 644, =o. 3ar/s are AcIuired. R The right in a 'ar( hall &e ac8uire$ through regi tration 'a$e )ali$ly in accor$ance 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi la5, C ses decided u!der Rep1 Act 3?? I2=A% )*ic* st tes t* t " :O5ner hip o! tra$e'ar( 1 tra$ena'e an$ er)ice 'ar( % ho5 ac8uire$, R Anyone 5ho la5!ully pro$uce or $eal in 'erchan$i e o! any (in$ or 5ho engage in any la5!ul &u ine 1 or 5ho ren$er any la5!ul er)ice in co''erce1 &y actual u e thereo! in 'anu!acture or tra$e1 in &u ine 1 an$ in the er)ice ren$ere$1 'ay appropriate to hi e3clu i)e u e a tra$e'ar(1 a tra$ena'e1 or a er)ice 'ar( not o appropriate$ &y another1 to $i tingui h hi 'erchan$i e1 &u ine or er)ice !ro' the 'erchan$i e1 &u ine or er)ice o!

other , The o5ner hip or po e ion o! a tra$e'ar(1 tra$ena'e1 er)ice 'ar(1 hereto!ore or herea!ter appropriate$1 a in thi ection pro)i$e$1 hall &e recogni2e$ an$ protecte$ in the a'e 'anner an$ to the a'e e3tent a are other property right (no5n to the la5,< UNNO "O33ER"IA /e&ruary 4G1 6EG7C ENTERPRISES ?s. 9ENERA 3I IN9 "ORP. BG,R, No, L*4GFF.,

Regi tration 'erely create a pri'a !acie pre u'ption o! the )ali$ity o! the regi tration1 o! the regi trantJ o5ner hip o! the tra$e'ar( an$ o! the e3clu i)e right to the u e thereo!, Regi tration $oe not per!ect a tra$e'ar( right, E)i$ence 'ay &e pre ente$ to o)erco'e the pre u'ption, Prior u e &y one 5ill contro)ert a clai' o! legal appropriation &y u& e8uent u er , 2ABUS=I 2AIS=A ISETAN ?s. IA" BG,R, No, DF.4A, No)e'&er 6F1 6EE6C A !un$a'ental principle o! Philippine Tra$e'ar( La5 i that actual u e in co''erce in the Philippine i a pre*re8ui ite to the ac8ui ition o! o5ner hip o)er a tra$e'ar( or a tra$e na'e, A prior regi trant cannot clai' e3clu i)e u e o! the tra$e'ar( unle it u e it in co''erce, P=I IP 3ORRIS6 IN".6 et al. ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, E6774, Puly 6>1 6EE7C Al&eit petitioner are hol$er o! certi!icate o! regi tration in the Philippine o! their y'&ol a a$'itte$ &y pri)ate re pon$ent1 the !act o! e3clu i)e o5ner hip cannot &e 'a$e to re t olely on the e $ocu'ent ince $o'inion o)er tra$e'ar( i not ac8uire$ &y the 'ere !act o! regi tration alone an$ $oe not per!ect a tra$e'ar( right, N*4 A the la5 no5 tan$ 1 there i no nee$ !or prior u e,

8. W=AT 3AR2S 3A! BE RE9ISTEREDE -ECTION 647, Registra(ilit0. R 647,6, A 'ar( cannot &e regi tere$ i! it" +a# Con i t o! i''oral1 $ecepti)e or can$alou 'atter1 or 'atter 5hich 'ay $i parage or !al ely ugge t a connection 5ith per on 1 li)ing or $ea$1 in titution 1 &elie! 1 or national y'&ol 1 or &ring the' into conte'pt or $i repute% +&# Con i t o! the !lag or coat o! ar' or other in ignia o! the Philippine or any o! it political u&$i)i ion 1 or o! any !oreign nation1 or any i'ulation thereo!% +c# Con i t o! a na'e1 portrait or ignature i$enti!ying a particular li)ing in$i)i$ual e3cept &y hi 5ritten con ent1 or the na'e1 ignature1 or portrait o! a $ecea e$ Pre i$ent o! the Philippine 1 $uring the li!e o! hi 5i$o51 i! any1 e3cept &y 5ritten con ent o! the 5i$o5% +$# I i$entical 5ith a regi tere$ 'ar( &elonging to a $i!!erent proprietor or a 'ar( 5ith an earlier !iling or priority $ate1 in re pect o!" +i# The a'e goo$ or er)ice 1 or +ii# Clo ely relate$ goo$ or er)ice 1 or +iii# I! it nearly re e'&le uch a 'ar( a to &e li(ely to $ecei)e or cau e con!u ion% +e# I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( 5hich i con i$ere$ &y the co'petent authority o! the Philippine to &e 5ell*(no5n internationally an$ in the Philippine 1 5hether or not it i regi tere$ here1 a &eing alrea$y the 'ar( o! a per on other than the applicant !or regi tration1 an$ u e$ !or i$entical or i'ilar goo$ or er)ice " Pro)i$e$1 That in $eter'ining 5hether a 'ar( i 5ell*(no5n1 account hall &e ta(en o! the (no5le$ge o! the rele)ant ector o! the pu&lic1 rather than o! the pu&lic at large1 inclu$ing (no5le$ge in the Philippine 5hich ha &een o&taine$ a a re ult o! the pro'otion o! the 'ar(% +!# I i$entical 5ith1 or con!u ingly i'ilar to1 or con titute a tran lation o! a 'ar( con i$ere$ 5ell*(no5n in accor$ance 5ith the prece$ing paragraph1 5hich i

regi tere$ in the Philippine 5ith re pect to goo$ or er)ice 5hich are not i'ilar to tho e 5ith re pect to 5hich regi tration i applie$ !or" Pro)i$e$1 That u e o! the 'ar( in relation to tho e goo$ or er)ice 5oul$ in$icate a connection &et5een tho e goo$ or er)ice 1 an$ the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar(" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That the intere t o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( are li(ely to &e $a'age$ &y uch u e% (,) I- )i@e)y to .i-)ea/ t0e 1u5)ic, 1articu)ar)y a- to t0e nature, 3ua)ity, c0aracteri-tic- or ,eo,ra10ica) ori,in of t0e ,oo/- or -ervice-I +h# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign that are generic !or the goo$ or er)ice that they ee( to i$enti!y% +i# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or o! in$ication that ha)e &eco'e cu to'ary or u ual to $e ignate the goo$ or er)ice in e)ery$ay language or in &ona !i$e an$ e ta&li he$ tra$e practice% +?# Con i t e3clu i)ely o! ign or o! in$ication that 'ay er)e in tra$e to $e ignate the (in$1 8uality1 8uantity1 inten$e$ purpo e1 )alue1 geographical origin1 ti'e or pro$uction o! the goo$ or ren$ering o! the er)ice 1 or other characteri tic o! the goo$ or er)ice % +(# Con i t o! hape that 'ay &e nece itate$ &y technical !actor or &y the nature o! the goo$ the' el)e or !actor that a!!ect their intrin ic )alue% +l# Con i t o! color alone1 unle $e!ine$ &y a gi)en !or'% or +'# I contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'orality, 647,4, A regar$ ign or $e)ice 'entione$ in paragraph +?#1 +(#1 an$ +l#1 nothing hall pre)ent the regi tration o! any uch ign or $e)ice 5hich ha &eco'e $i tincti)e in relation to the goo$ !or 5hich regi tration i re8ue te$ a a re ult o! the u e that ha)e &een 'a$e o! it in co''erce in the Philippine , The O!!ice 'ay accept a pri'a !acie e)i$ence that the 'ar( ha &eco'e $i tincti)e1 a u e$ in connection 5ith the applicantJ goo$ or er)ice in co''erce1 proo! o! u& tantially e3clu i)e an$ continuou u e thereo! &y the applicant in co''erce in the Philippine !or !i)e +F# year &e!ore the $ate on 5hich the clai' o! $i tincti)ene i 'a$e, 647,7, The nature o! the goo$ to 5hich the 'ar( i applie$ 5ill not con titute an o& tacle to regi tration, ETEP=A ?s. DIRE"TOR O* PATENTS BG,R, No, L*4A>7F, ;arch 761 6E>>C KTu inK i 'erely $e cripti)e% it i generic% it !urni he to the &uyer no in$ication o! the origin o! the goo$ % it i open !or appropriation &y anyone, It i accor$ingly &arre$ !ro' regi tration a tra$e'ar(, 9hile Ktu inK &y it el! cannot thu &e u e$ e3clu i)ely to i$enti!y oneJ goo$ 1 it 'ay properly &eco'e the u&?ect o! a tra$e'ar( K&y co'&ination 5ith another 5or$ or phra e,K 9UI ER3O BA$TER ?s. DUADUA6 et al.6 BG,R, No, 6DFA, Octo&er 4>1 6EAFC

The o5ner hip o! the tra$e'ar( KAgua $e OanangaK $i$ not gi)e the plainti!! a right to the e3clu i)e u e o! the 5or$ KOananga,K The 5or$ KOanangaK repre ent the na'e o! a 5ell* (no5n tree in the Philippine , The ai$ 5or$ coul$ not &e u e$ e3clu i)ely a a tra$e*'ar(1 any 'ore than coul$ the 5or$ K ugar1K Kto&acco1K or Kco!!ee,K The la5 i clear an$ conclu i)e upon the u&?ect, KA $e ignation or part o! a $e ignation1K ay ection 4 o! Act No, >>>1 K5hich relate only to the na'e1 8uality1 or $e cription o! the 'erchan$i e , , , can not &e the u&?ect o! a tra$e*'ar(,K "O3PALIA 9ENERA DE TABA"OS DE *I IPINAS ?s. A =A3BRA "I9AR F "I9ARETTE 3ANU*A"TURIN9 "O. BG,R, No, 6A4F6, /e&ruary 6A1 6E6>C 9e $o not &elie)e that the 5or$ KI a&elaK can &e appropriate$ or coul$ &e appropriate$ at the ti'e plainti!! clai'e$ that it &egan to u e that 5or$ a $e cripti)e o! it pro$uct , The Royal Decree o! 6GGG prohi&ite$ the u e o! a geographical na'e a a tra$e*na'e or tra$e*'ar(, AN9 ?s. TEODORO BG,R, No, .G44>, Dece'&er 6.1 6E.4C

An in8uiry into the ety'ology an$ 'eaning o! the Tagalog 5or$ KAng Ti&ayK ho5 that the phra e i ne)er u e$ a$?ecti)ely to $e!ine or $e cri&e an o&?ect, It i 1 there!ore1 not a $e cripti)e ter' 5ithin the 'eaning o! the Tra$e*'ar( La5 &ut rather a !anci!ul or coine$ phra e 5hich 'ay properly an$ legally &e appropriate$ a a tra$e*'ar( or tra$e*na'e, 0ence1 it 5a originally capa&le o! e3clu i)e appropriation a a tra$e*'ar( &y the re pon$ent, E)en i! a u'ing :Ang Ti&ay< 5ere not capa&le o! e3clu i)e appropriation a a tra$e'ar(1 the application o! the $octrine o! econ$ary 'eaning coul$ ne)erthele &e !ully u taine$ &ecau e1 in any e)ent1 &e re pon$ent@ long an$ e3clu i)e u e o! ai$ phra e 5ith re!erence to hi pro$uct an$ hi &u ine 1 it ha ac8uire$ a proprietary connotation, Thi $octrine i to the e!!ect that a 5or$ or phra e originally incapa&le o! e3clu i)e appropriation 5ith re!erence to an article on the 'ar(et1 &ecau e geographically or other5i e $e cripti)e1 'ight ne)erthele ha)e &een u e$ o long an$ o e3clu i)ely &y one pro$ucer 5ith re!erence to hi article that1 in that tra$e an$ to that &ranch o! purcha ing pu&lic1 the 5or$ o! phra e ha co'e to 'ean that the article 5a hi pro$uct, AR"E SONS F "O. ?s. SE E"TA BIS"UIT "O3PAN!6 IN". BG,R, No, L*6.D>6, Panuary 4G1 6E>6C The 5or$ K-ELECTAK1 it i true1 'ay &e an or$inary or co''on 5or$ in the en e that it 'ay &e u e$ or e'ploye$ &y any one in pro'oting hi &u ine or enterpri e1 &ut once a$opte$ or coine$ in connection 5ith oneJ &u ine a an e'&le'1 ign or $e)ice to characteri2e it pro$uct 1 or a a &a$ge o! authenticity1 it 'ay ac8uire a econ$ary 'eaning a to &e e3clu i)ely a ociate$ 5ith it pro$uct an$ &u ine , The ter' K-ELECTAK 'ay &e place$ at par 5ith the 5or$ KAng Ti&ayK 5hich thi Court ha con i$ere$ not 'erely a a $e cripti)e ter' 5ithin the 'eaning o! the Tra$e*'ar( La5 &ut a a !anci!ul or coine$ phra e1 or a tra$e'ar(, 2ABUS=I 2AIS=A ISETAN ?s. IA" BG,R, No, DF.4A, No)e'&er 6F1 6EE6C I etann Depart'ent -tore1 Inc, i the na'e o! a tore an$ not o! pro$uct ol$ in )ariou part o! the country, Thi ca e 'u t &e $i!!erentiate$ !ro' ca e in)ol)ing pro$uct &earing uch !a'iliar na'e a KColgateK1 K-ingerK1 KToyotaK1 or K-onyK 5here the pro$uct are 'ar(ete$ 5i$ely in the Philippine , There i no pro$uct 5ith the na'e KI etannK populari2e$ 5ith that &ran$ na'e in the Philippine , E3ERA D 9AR3ENT ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 6AAAEG, Dece'&er 4E1 6EEFC KLEEK i pri'arily a urna'e, Pri)ate re pon$ent cannot1 there!ore1 ac8uire e3clu i)e o5ner hip o)er an$ ingular u e o! ai$ ter', It ha &een hel$ that a per onal na'e or urna'e 'ay not &e 'onopoli2e$ a a tra$e'ar( or tra$e na'e a again t other o! the a'e na'e or urna'e, /or in the a& ence o! contract1 !rau$1 or e toppel1 any 'an 'ay u e hi na'e or urna'e in all legiti'ate 5ay , E. RE&IS RA I"N -ECTION 7, International "on?entions and Reciprocit0. R Any per on 5ho i a national or 5ho i $o'icile$ or ha a real an$ e!!ecti)e in$u trial e ta&li h'ent in a country 5hich i a party to any con)ention1 treaty or agree'ent relating to intellectual property right or the repre ion o! un!air co'petition1 to 5hich the Philippine i al o a party1 or e3ten$ reciprocal right to national o! the Philippine &y la51 hall &e entitle$ to &ene!it to the e3tent nece ary to gi)e e!!ect to any pro)i ion o! uch con)ention1 treaty or reciprocal la51 in a$$ition to the right to 5hich any o5ner o! an intellectual property right i other5i e entitle$ &y thi Act, -ECTION 64., ReIuire'ents o- Application. R 64.,6, The application !or the regi tration o! the 'ar( hall &e in /ilipino or in Engli h an$ hall contain the !ollo5ing" +a# A re8ue t !or regi tration%

+&# +c# +$# +e# +!#

+h# +i#

The na'e an$ a$$re o! the applicant% The na'e o! a -tate o! 5hich the applicant i a national or 5here he ha $o'icile% an$ the na'e o! a -tate in 5hich the applicant ha a real an$ e!!ecti)e in$u trial or co''ercial e ta&li h'ent1 i! any% 9here the applicant i a ?uri$ical entity1 the la5 un$er 5hich it i organi2e$ an$ e3i ting% The appoint'ent o! an agent or repre entati)e1 i! the applicant i not $o'icile$ in the Philippine % 9here the applicant clai' the priority o! an earlier application1 an in$ication o!" i# The na'e o! the -tate 5ith 5ho e national o!!ice the earlier application 5a !ile$ or i! !ile$ 5ith an o!!ice other than a national o!!ice1 the na'e o! that o!!ice1 ii# The $ate on 5hich the earlier application 5a !ile$1 an$ iii# 9here a)aila&le1 the application nu'&er o! the earlier application% (,) 20ere t0e a11)icant c)ai.- co)or a- a /i-tinctive feature of t0e .ar@, a -tate.ent to t0at effect a- >e)) a- t0e na.e or na.e- of t0e co)or or co)orc)ai.e/ an/ an in/ication, in re-1ect of eac0 co)or, of t0e 1rinci1a) 1art- of t0e .ar@ >0ic0 are in t0at co)orI 9here the 'ar( i a three*$i'en ional 'ar(1 a tate'ent to that e!!ect% One or 'ore repro$uction o! the 'ar(1 a pre cri&e$ in the Regulation % +?# A tran literation or tran lation o! the 'ar( or o! o'e part o! the 'ar(1 a pre cri&e$ in the Regulation %

(@) 0e na.e- of t0e ,oo/- or -ervice- for >0ic0 t0e re,i-tration i- -ou,0t, ,rou1e/ accor/in, to t0e c)a--e- of t0e Nice C)a--ification, to,et0er >it0 t0e nu.5er of t0e c)a-- of t0e -ai/ C)a--ification to >0ic0 eac0 ,rou1 of ,oo/- or -ervice- 5e)on,-I an/ +l# A ignature &y1 or other el!*i$enti!ication o!1 the applicant or hi repre entati)e, 64.,4, The applicant or the regi trant hall !ile a $eclaration o! actual u e o! the 'ar( 5ith e)i$ence to that e!!ect1 a pre cri&e$ &y the Regulation 5ithin three +7# year !ro' the !iling $ate o! the application, Other5i e1 the application hall &e re!u e$ or the 'ar( hall &e re'o)e$ !ro' the Regi ter &y the Director, 64.,7, One +6# application 'ay relate to e)eral goo$ an$Ior er)ice 1 5hether they &elong to one +6# cla or to e)eral cla e o! the Nice Cla i!ication, 64.,., I! $uring the e3a'ination o! the application1 the O!!ice !in$ !actual &a i to rea ona&ly $ou&t the )eracity o! any in$ication or ele'ent in the application1 it 'ay re8uire the applicant to u&'it u!!icient e)i$ence to re'o)e the $ou&t, SEC I"N 12E. Represe!t tio!J Address "or Service1 J If t0e a11)icant i- not /o.ici)e/ or 0a- no rea) an/ effective co..ercia) e-ta5)i-0.ent in t0e P0i)i11ine-, 0e -0a)) /e-i,nate 5y a >ritten /ocu.ent fi)e/ in t0e "ffice, t0e na.e an/ a//re-- of a P0i)i11ine re-i/ent >0o .ay 5e -erve/ notice- or 1roce-- in 1rocee/in,- affectin, t0e .ar@. Suc0 notice- or -ervice- .ay 5e -erve/ u1on t0e 1er-on -o /e-i,nate/ 5y )eavin, a co1y t0ereof at t0e a//re-- -1ecifie/ in t0e )a-t /e-i,nation fi)e/. If t0e 1er-on -o /e-i,nate/ cannot 5e foun/ at t0e a//re-- ,iven in t0e )a-t /e-i,nation, -uc0 notice or 1roce-- .ay 5e -erve/ u1on t0e #irector. -ECTION 64>, Disclai'ers. R The O!!ice 'ay allo5 or re8uire the applicant to $i clai' an unregi tra&le co'ponent o! an other5i e regi tra&le 'ar( &ut uch $i clai'er hall not pre?u$ice or a!!ect the applicantJ or o5nerJ right then e3i ting or therea!ter ari ing in the $i clai'e$ 'atter1 nor uch hall $i clai'er pre?u$ice or a!!ect the applicantJ or o5nerJ right on another application o! later $ate i! the $i clai'e$ 'atter &eca'e $i tincti)e o! the applicantJ or o5nerJ goo$ 1 &u ine or er)ice , -ECTION 64G, Single Registration -or 9oods and>or Ser?ices. R 9here goo$ an$Ior er)ice &elonging to e)eral cla e o! the Nice Cla i!ication ha)e &een inclu$e$ in one +6# application1 uch an application hall re ult in one regi tration, -ECTION 67A, Signature and Ot&er 3eans o- Sel-%Identi-ication. R 67A,6, 9here a ignature i re8uire$1 the O!!ice hall accept"

A han$*5ritten ignature% or The u e o! other !or' o! ignature1 uch a a printe$ or ta'pe$ ignature1 or the u e o! a eal in tea$ o! a han$*5ritten ignature" Pro)i$e$1 That 5here a eal i u e$1 it houl$ &e acco'panie$ &y an in$ication in letter o! the na'e o! the ignatory, 67A,4, The O!!ice hall accept co''unication to it &y telecopier1 or &y electronic 'ean u&?ect to the con$ition or re8uire'ent that 5ill &e pre cri&e$ &y the Regulation , 9hen co''unication are 'a$e &y tele!ac i'ile1 the repro$uction o! the ignature1 or the repro$uction o! the eal together 5ith1 5here re8uire$1 the in$ication in letter o! the na'e o! the natural per on 5ho e eal i u e$1 appear , The original co''unication 'u t &e recei)e$ &y the O!!ice 5ithin thirty +7A# $ay !ro' $ate o! receipt o! the tele!ac i'ile, 13H.3. No atte-tation, notariLation, aut0entication, )e,a)iLation or ot0er certification of any -i,nature or ot0er .ean- of -e)f8i/entification referre/ to in t0e 1rece/in, 1ara,ra10-, >i)) 5e re3uire/, e?ce1t, >0ere t0e -i,nature concern- t0e -urren/er of a re,i-tration. SEC I"N 127.2. 0e a11)icant or t0e re,i-trant -0a)) fi)e a /ec)aration of actua) u-e of t0e .ar@ >it0 evi/ence to t0at effect, a- 1re-cri5e/ 5y t0e Re,u)ation- >it0in t0ree (3) year- fro. t0e fi)in, /ate of t0e a11)ication. "t0er>i-e, t0e a11)ication -0a)) 5e refu-e/ or t0e .ar@ -0a)) 5e re.ove/ fro. t0e Re,i-ter 5y t0e #irector. -ECTION 676, Priorit0 Rig&t. R 676,6, An application !or regi tration o! a 'ar( !ile$ in the Philippine &y a per on re!erre$ to in -ection 71 an$ 5ho pre)iou ly $uly !ile$ an application !or regi tration o! the a'e 'ar( in one o! tho e countrie 1 hall &e con i$ere$ a !ile$ a o! the $ay the application 5a !ir t !ile$ in the !oreign country, 131.2. No re,i-tration of a .ar@ in t0e P0i)i11ine- 5y a 1er-on /e-cri5e/ in t0i- -ection -0a)) 5e ,rante/ unti) -uc0 .ar@ 0a- 5een re,i-tere/ in t0e country of ori,in of t0e a11)icant. 676,7, Nothing in thi ection hall entitle the o5ner o! a regi tration grante$ un$er thi ection to ue !or act co''itte$ prior to the $ate on 5hich hi 'ar( 5a regi tere$ in thi country" Pro)i$e$1 That1 not5ith tan$ing the !oregoing1 the o5ner o! a 5ell*(no5n 'ar( a $e!ine$ in -ection 647,6+e# o! thi Act1 that i not regi tere$ in the Philippine 1 'ay1 again t an i$entical or con!u ingly i'ilar 'ar(1 oppo e it regi tration1 or petition the cancellation o! it regi tration or ue !or un!air co'petition1 5ithout pre?u$ice to a)ailing hi' el! o! other re'e$ie pro)i$e$ !or un$er the la5, 676,., In li(e 'anner an$ u&?ect to the a'e con$ition an$ re8uire'ent 1 the right pro)i$e$ in thi ection 'ay &e &a e$ upon a u& e8uent regularly !ile$ application in the a'e !oreign country" Pro)i$e$1 That any !oreign application !ile$ prior to uch u& e8uent application ha &een 5ith$ra5n1 a&an$one$1 or other5i e $i po e$ o!1 5ithout ha)ing &een lai$ open to pu&lic in pection an$ 5ithout lea)ing any right out tan$ing1 an$ ha not er)e$1 nor therea!ter hall er)e1 a a &a i !or clai'ing a right o! priority, -ECTION 47E,4, ;ar( regi tere$ un$er Repu&lic Act No, 6>> hall re'ain in !orce &ut hall &e $ee'e$ to ha)e &een grante$ un$er thi Act an$ hall &e $ue !or rene5al 5ithin the perio$ pro)i$e$ !or un$er thi Act an$1 upon rene5al hall &e recla i!ie$ in accor$ance 5ith the International Cla i!ication, Tra$e na'e an$ 'ar( regi tere$ in the -upple'ental Regi ter un$er Repu&lic Act No, 6>> hall re'ain in !orce &ut hall no longer &e u&?ect to rene5al, -ECTION 64D, *iling Date. R 64D,6, Re8uire'ent , R The !iling $ate o! an application hall &e the $ate on 5hich the O!!ice recei)e$ the !ollo5ing in$ication an$ ele'ent in Engli h or /ilipino" +a# An e3pre or i'plicit in$ication that the regi tration o! a 'ar( i ought% +&# The i$entity o! the applicant% +c# In$ication u!!icient to contact the applicant or hi repre entati)e1 i! any% +$# A repro$uction o! the 'ar( 5ho e regi tration i ought% an$ +e# The li t o! the goo$ or er)ice !or 5hich the regi tration i ought, 12A.2. No fi)in, /ate -0a)) 5e accor/e/ unti) t0e re3uire/ fee i- 1ai/.

+a# +&#

-ECTION 674, Application Nu'(er and *iling Date. R 674,6, The O!!ice hall e3a'ine 5hether the application ati !ie the re8uire'ent !or the grant o! a !iling $ate a pro)i$e$ in -ection 64D an$ Regulation relating thereto, I! the application $oe not ati !y the !iling re8uire'ent 1 the O!!ice hall noti!y the applicant 5ho hall 5ithin a perio$ !i3e$ &y the Regulation co'plete or correct the application a re8uire$1 other5i e1 the application hall &e con i$ere$ 5ith$ra5n, 674,4 Once an application 'eet the !iling re8uire'ent o! -ection 64D1 it hall &e nu'&ere$ in the e8uential or$er1 an$ the applicant hall &e in!or'e$ o! the application nu'&er an$ the !iling $ate o! the application 5ill &e $ee'e$ to ha)e &een a&an$one$, -ECTION 677, E+a'ination and Pu(lication. R 677,6, Once the application 'eet the !iling re8uire'ent o! -ection 64D1 the O!!ice hall e3a'ine 5hether the application 'eet the re8uire'ent o! -ection 64. an$ the 'ar( a $e!ine$ in -ection 646 i regi tra&le un$er -ection 647, 677,4, 9here the O!!ice !in$ that the con$ition re!erre$ to in -u& ection 677,6 are !ul!ille$1 it hall upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 !orth5ith cau e the application1 a !ile$1 to &e pu&li he$ in the pre cri&e$ 'anner, 133.3. If after t0e e?a.ination, t0e a11)icant i- not entit)e/ to re,i-tration for any rea-on, t0e "ffice -0a)) a/vi-e t0e a11)icant t0ereof an/ t0e rea-on- t0erefor. 0e a11)icant -0a)) 0ave a 1erio/ of four (7) .ont0- in >0ic0 to re1)y or a.en/ 0i- a11)ication, >0ic0 -0a)) t0en 5e re8e?a.ine/. 0e Re,u)ation- -0a)) /eter.ine t0e 1roce/ure for t0e re8e?a.ination or reviva) of an a11)ication a- >e)) a- t0e a11ea) to t0e #irector of ra/e.ar@- fro. any fina) action 5y t0e E?a.iner. 677,., An a&an$one$ application 'ay &e re)i)e$ a a pen$ing application 5ithin three +7# 'onth !ro' the $ate o! a&an$on'ent1 upon goo$ cau e ho5n an$ the pay'ent o! the re8uire$ !ee, 677,F, The !inal $eci ion o! re!u al o! the Director o! Tra$e'ar( hall &e appeala&le to the Director General in accor$ance 5ith the proce$ure !i3e$ &y the Regulation , -ECTION 64>, Disclai'ers. R The O!!ice 'ay allo5 or re8uire the applicant to $i clai' an unregi tra&le co'ponent o! an other5i e regi tra&le 'ar( &ut uch $i clai'er hall not pre?u$ice or a!!ect the applicantJ or o5nerJ right then e3i ting or therea!ter ari ing in the $i clai'e$ 'atter1 nor uch hall $i clai'er pre?u$ice or a!!ect the applicantJ or o5nerJ right on another application o! later $ate i! the $i clai'e$ 'atter &eca'e $i tincti)e o! the applicantJ or o5nerJ goo$ 1 &u ine or er)ice , SEC I"N 129. 7ivisio! o" Applic tio!1 J Any a11)ication referrin, to -evera) ,oo/- or -ervice-, 0ereafter referre/ to a- t0e Finitia) a11)ication,F .ay 5e /ivi/e/ 5y t0e a11)icant into t>o (2) or .ore a11)ication-, 0ereafter referre/ to a- t0e F/ivi-iona) a11)ication-,F 5y /i-tri5utin, a.on, t0e )atter t0e ,oo/- or -ervice- referre/ to in t0e initia) a11)ication. 0e /ivi-iona) a11)ication- -0a)) 1re-erve t0e fi)in, /ate of t0e initia) a11)ication or t0e 5enefit of t0e ri,0t of 1riority. -ECTION 677,4, 9here the O!!ice !in$ that the con$ition re!erre$ to in -u& ection 677,6 are !ul!ille$1 it hall upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 !orth5ith cau e the application1 a !ile$1 to &e pu&li he$ in the pre cri&e$ 'anner, -ECTION 67., Opposition. R Any per on 5ho &elie)e that he 5oul$ &e $a'age$ &y the regi tration o! a 'ar( 'ay1 upon pay'ent o! the re8uire$ !ee an$ 5ithin thirty +7A# $ay a!ter the pu&lication re!erre$ to in -u& ection 677,41 !ile 5ith the O!!ice an oppo ition to the application, -uch oppo ition hall &e in 5riting an$ )eri!ie$ &y the oppo itor or &y any per on on hi &ehal! 5ho (no5 the !act 1 an$ hall peci!y the groun$ on 5hich it i &a e$ an$ inclu$e a tate'ent o! the !act relie$ upon, Copie o! certi!icate o! regi tration o! 'ar( regi tere$ in other countrie or other upporting $ocu'ent 'entione$ in the oppo ition hall &e !ile$ there5ith1 together 5ith the tran lation in Engli h1 i! not in the Engli h language, /or goo$ cau e ho5n an$ upon pay'ent o! the re8uire$ urcharge1 the ti'e !or !iling an oppo ition 'ay &e e3ten$e$ &y the Director o! Legal A!!air 1 5ho hall noti!y the applicant o!

uch e3ten ion, The Regulation oppo ition,

hall !i3 the 'a3i'u' perio$ o! ti'e 5ithin 5hich to !ile the

-ECTION 67F, Notice and =earing. R Upon the !iling o! an oppo ition1 the O!!ice hall er)e notice o! the !iling on the applicant1 an$ o! the $ate o! the hearing thereo! upon the applicant an$ the oppo itor an$ all other per on ha)ing any right1 title or intere t in the 'ar( co)ere$ &y the application1 a appear o! recor$ in the O!!ice, -ECTION 67>, Issuance and Pu(lication o- "erti-icate. R 9hen the perio$ !or !iling the oppo ition ha e3pire$1 or 5hen the Director o! Legal A!!air hall ha)e $enie$ the oppo ition1 the O!!ice upon pay'ent o! the re8uire$ !ee1 hall i ue the certi!icate o! regi tration, Upon i uance o! a certi!icate o! regi tration1 notice thereo! 'a(ing re!erence to the pu&lication o! the application hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette, -ECTION 67D, Registration o- 3ar/ and Issuance o- a "erti-icate to t&e O.ner or &is Assignee. R 67D,6, The O!!ice hall 'aintain a Regi ter in 5hich hall &e regi tere$ 'ar( 1 nu'&ere$ in the or$er o! their regi tration1 an$ all tran action in re pect o! each 'ar(1 re8uire$ to &e recor$e$ &y )irtue o! thi la5, 67D,4, The regi tration o! a 'ar( hall inclu$e a repro$uction o! the 'ar( an$ hall 'ention" it nu'&er% the na'e an$ a$$re o! the regi tere$ o5ner an$1 i! the regi tere$ o5nerJ a$$re i out i$e the country1 hi a$$re !or er)ice 5ithin the country% the $ate o! application an$ regi tration% i! priority i clai'e$1 an in$ication o! thi !act1 an$ the nu'&er1 $ate an$ country o! the application1 &a i o! the priority clai' % the li t o! goo$ or er)ice in re pect o! 5hich regi tration ha &een grante$1 5ith the in$ication o! the corre pon$ing cla or cla e % an$ uch other $ata a the Regulation 'ay pre cri&e !ro' ti'e to ti'e, 67D,7, A certi!icate o! regi tration o! a 'ar( 'ay &e i ue$ to the a ignee o! the applicant" Pro)i$e$1 That the a ign'ent i recor$e$ in the O!!ice, In ca e o! a change o! o5ner hip1 the O!!ice hall at the 5ritten re8ue t igne$ &y the o5ner1 or hi repre entati)e1 or &y the ne5 o5ner1 or hi repre entati)e an$ upon a proper ho5ing an$ the pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 i ue to uch a ignee a ne5 certi!icate o! regi tration o! the ai$ 'ar( in the na'e o! uch a ignee1 an$ !or the une3pire$ part o! the original perio$, 67D,., The O!!ice hall recor$ any change o! a$$re 1 or a$$re !or er)ice1 5hich hall &e noti!ie$ to it &y the regi tere$ o5ner, 67D,F, In the a& ence o! any pro)i ion to the contrary in thi Act1 co''unication to &e 'a$e to the regi tere$ o5ner &y )irtue o! thi Act hall &e ent to hi' at hi la t recor$e$ a$$re an$1 at the a'e1 at hi la t recor$e$ a$$re !or er)ice, SEC I"N 138. Certi"ic tes o" Re$istr tio!1 J A certificate of re,i-tration of a .ar@ -0a)) 5e 1ri.a facie evi/ence of t0e va)i/ity of t0e re,i-tration, t0e re,i-trantMo>ner-0i1 of t0e .ar@, an/ of t0e re,i-trantM- e?c)u-ive ri,0t to u-e t0e -a.e in connection >it0 t0e ,oo/- or -ervice- an/ t0o-e t0at are re)ate/ t0ereto -1ecifie/ in t0e certificate. -ECTION 67E, Pu(lication o- Registered 3ar/s, Inspection o- Register. R 67E,6, The O!!ice hall pu&li h1 in the !or' an$ 5ithin the perio$ !i3e$ &y the Regulation 1 the 'ar( regi tere$1 in the or$er o! their regi tration1 repro$ucing all the particular re!erre$ to in -u& ection 67D,4, 67E,4, ;ar( regi tere$ at the O!!ice 'ay &e in pecte$ !ree o! charge an$ any per on 'ay o&tain copie thereo! at hi o5n e3pen e, Thi pro)i ion hall al o &e applica&le to tran action recor$e$ in re pect o! any regi tere$ 'ar(, -ECTION 6.., "lassi-ication o- 9oods and Ser?ices. R 6..,6, Each regi tration1 an$ any pu&lication o! the O!!ice 5hich concern an application or regi tration e!!ecte$ &y the O!!ice hall in$icate the goo$ or er)ice &y their na'e 1 groupe$ accor$ing to the cla e o! the Nice Cla i!ication1 an$ each group hall &e prece$e$ &y the nu'&er o! the cla o! that Cla i!ication to 5hich that group o! goo$ or er)ice &elong 1 pre ente$ in the or$er o! the cla e o! the ai$ Cla i!ication,

6..,4, Goo$ or er)ice 'ay not &e con i$ere$ a &eing i'ilar or $i i'ilar to each other on the groun$ that1 in any regi tration or pu&lication &y the O!!ice1 they appear in $i!!erent cla e o! the Nice Cla i!ication, SEC I"N 7.2. 0e ter. Ftechnology tran !er arrange'ent F refer- to contract- or a,ree.ent- invo)vin, t0e tran-fer of -y-te.atic @no>)e/,e for t0e .anufacture of a 1ro/uct, t0e a11)ication of a 1roce--, or ren/erin, of a -ervice inc)u/in, .ana,e.ent contract-I an/ t0e tran-fer, a--i,n.ent or )icen-in, of a)) for.- of inte))ectua) 1ro1erty ri,0t-, inc)u/in, )icen-in, of co.1uter -oft>are e?ce1t co.1uter -oft>are /eve)o1e/ for .a-- .ar@et. SEC I"N 17E. 7ur tio!1 J A certificate of re,i-tration -0a)) re.ain in force for ten (1H) year-4 Provi/e/, 0at t0e re,i-trant -0a)) fi)e a /ec)aration of actua) u-e an/ evi/ence to t0at effect, or -0a)) -0o> va)i/ rea-on- 5a-e/ on t0e e?i-tence of o5-tac)eto -uc0 u-e, a- 1re-cri5e/ 5y t0e Re,u)ation-, >it0in one (1) year fro. t0e fift0 anniver-ary of t0e /ate of t0e re,i-tration of t0e .ar@. "t0er>i-e, t0e .ar@ -0a)) 5e re.ove/ fro. t0e Re,i-ter 5y t0e "ffice. -ECTION 6.A, "ancellation upon Application (0 Registrant, A'end'ent or Disclai'er o- Registration. R Upon application o! the regi trant1 the O!!ice 'ay per'it any regi tration to &e urren$ere$ !or cancellation1 an$ upon cancellation the appropriate entry hall &e 'a$e in the recor$ o! the O!!ice, Upon application o! the regi trant an$ pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee1 the O!!ice !or goo$ cau e 'ay per'it any regi tration to &e a'en$e$ or to &e $i clai'e$ in part" Pro)i$e$1 That the a'en$'ent or $i clai'er $oe not alter 'aterially the character o! the 'ar(, Appropriate entry hall &e 'a$e in the recor$ o! the O!!ice upon the certi!icate o! regi tration or1 i! ai$ certi!icate i lo t or $e troye$1 upon a certi!ie$ copy thereo!, -ECTION 6.4, "orrection o- 3ista/es 3ade (0 t&e O--ice. R 9hene)er a 'aterial 'i ta(e in a regi tration incurre$ through the !ault o! the O!!ice i clearly $i clo e$ &y the recor$ o! the O!!ice1 a certi!icate tating the !act an$ nature o! uch 'i ta(e hall &e i ue$ 5ithout charge1 recor$e$ an$ a printe$ copy thereo! hall &e attache$ to each printe$ copy o! the regi tration, -uch correcte$ regi tration hall therea!ter ha)e the a'e e!!ect a the original certi!icate% or in the $i cretion o! the Director o! the A$'ini trati)e1 /inancial an$ 0u'an Re ource De)elop'ent -er)ice Hureau a ne5 certi!icate o! regi tration 'ay &e i ue$ 5ithout charge, All certi!icate o! correction hereto!ore i ue$ in accor$ance 5ith the Regulation an$ the regi tration to 5hich they are attache$ hall ha)e the a'e !orce an$ e!!ect a i! uch certi!icate an$ their i uance ha$ &een authori2e$ &y thi Act, -ECTION 6.7, "orrection o- 3ista/es 3ade (0 Applicant. R 9hene)er a 'i ta(e i 'a$e in a regi tration an$ uch 'i ta(e occurre$ in goo$ !aith through the !ault o! the applicant1 the O!!ice 'ay i ue a certi!icate upon the pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee" Pro)i$e$1 That the correction $oe not in)ol)e any change in the regi tration that re8uire repu&lication o! the 'ar(, -ECTION 6.>, Rene.al. R 6.>,6, A certi!icate o! regi tration 'ay &e rene5e$ !or perio$ o! ten +6A# year at it e3piration upon pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee an$ upon !iling o! a re8ue t, The re8ue t hall contain the !ollo5ing in$ication " +a# An in$ication that rene5al i ought% +&# The na'e an$ a$$re o! the regi trant or hi ucce or*in*intere t1 herea!ter re!erre$ to a the Kright hol$erK% +c# The regi tration nu'&er o! the regi tration concerne$% +$# The !iling $ate o! the application 5hich re ulte$ in the regi tration concerne$ to &e rene5e$% +e# 9here the right hol$er ha a repre entati)e1 the na'e an$ a$$re o! that repre entati)e% +!# The na'e o! the recor$e$ goo$ or er)ice !or 5hich the rene5al i re8ue te$ or the na'e o! the recor$e$ goo$ or er)ice !or 5hich the rene5al i not re8ue te$1 groupe$ accor$ing to the cla e o! the Nice Cla i!ication to 5hich that group o!

goo$ or er)ice &elong an$ pre ente$ in the or$er o! the cla e o! the ai$ Cla i!ication% an$ +g# A ignature &y the right hol$er or hi repre entati)e, 6.>,4, -uch re8ue t hall &e in /ilipino or Engli h an$ 'ay &e 'a$e at any ti'e 5ithin i3 +># 'onth &e!ore the e3piration o! the perio$ !or 5hich the regi tration 5a i ue$ or rene5e$1 or it 'ay &e 'a$e 5ithin i3 +># 'onth a!ter uch e3piration on pay'ent o! the a$$itional !ee herein pre cri&e$, 6.>,7, I! the O!!ice re!u e to rene5 the regi tration1 it hall noti!y the regi trant o! hi re!u al an$ the rea on there!or, 6.>,., An applicant !or rene5al not $o'icile$ in the Philippine hall &e u&?ect to an$ co'ply 5ith the re8uire'ent o! thi Act, J. RI9=TS "ON*ERRED SEC I"N 17A. Ri$*ts Co!"erred1 J 17A.1. 0e o>ner of a re,i-tere/ .ar@ -0a)) 0ave t0e e?c)u-ive ri,0t to 1revent a)) t0ir/ 1artie- not 0avin, t0e o>nerM- con-ent fro. u-in, in t0e cour-e of tra/e i/entica) or -i.i)ar -i,n- or container- for ,oo/- or -ervice- >0ic0 are i/entica) or -i.i)ar to t0o-e in re-1ect of >0ic0 t0e tra/e.ar@ ire,i-tere/ >0ere -uc0 u-e >ou)/ re-u)t in a )i@e)i0oo/ of confu-ion. In ca-e of t0e u-e of an i/entica) -i,n for i/entica) ,oo/- or -ervice-, a )i@e)i0oo/ of confu-ion -0a)) 5e 1re-u.e/. 6.D,4, The e3clu i)e right o! the o5ner o! a 5ell*(no5n 'ar( $e!ine$ in -u& ection 647,6+e# 5hich i regi tere$ in the Philippine 1 hall e3ten$ to goo$ an$ er)ice 5hich are not i'ilar to tho e in re pect o! 5hich the 'ar( i regi tere$" Pro)i$e$1 That u e o! that 'ar( in relation to tho e goo$ or er)ice 5oul$ in$icate a connection &et5een tho e goo$ or er)ice an$ the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar(" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That the intere t o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( are li(ely to &e $a'age$ &y uch u e, SEC I"N 178. Use o" I!dic tio!s /# T*ird P rties "or Purposes Ot*er t* ! t*ose "or )*ic* t*e 8 r' is Used1 J Re,i-tration of t0e .ar@ -0a)) not confer on t0e re,i-tere/ o>ner t0e ri,0t to 1rec)u/e t0ir/ 1artie- fro. u-in, 5ona fi/e t0eir na.e-, a//re--e-, 1-eu/ony.-, a ,eo,ra10ica) na.e, or e?act in/ication- concernin, t0e @in/, 3ua)ity, 3uantity, /e-tination, va)ue, 1)ace of ori,in, or ti.e of 1ro/uction or of -u11)y, of t0eir ,oo/- or -ervice-4 Provi/e/, 0at -uc0 u-e i- confine/ to t0e 1ur1o-e- of .ere i/entification or infor.ation an/ cannot .i-)ea/ t0e 1u5)ic a- to t0e -ource of t0e ,oo/- or -ervice-. -ECTION 6.E, Assign'ent and Trans-er o- Application and Registration. R 6.E,6, An application !or regi tration o! a 'ar(1 or it regi tration1 'ay &e a igne$ or tran !erre$ 5ith or 5ithout the tran !er o! the &u ine u ing the 'ar(, 6.E,4, -uch a ign'ent or tran !er hall1 ho5e)er1 &e null an$ )oi$ i! it i lia&le to 'i lea$ the pu&lic1 particularly a regar$ the nature1 ource1 'anu!acturing proce 1 characteri tic 1 or uita&ility !or their purpo e1 o! the goo$ or er)ice to 5hich the 'ar( i applie$, 6.E,7, The a ign'ent o! the application !or regi tration o! a 'ar(1 or o! it regi tration1 hall &e in 5riting an$ re8uire the ignature o! the contracting partie , Tran !er &y 'erger or other !or' o! ucce ion 'ay &e 'a$e &y any $ocu'ent upporting uch tran !er, 6.E,., A ign'ent an$ tran !er o! regi tration o! 'ar( hall &e recor$e$ at the O!!ice on pay'ent o! the pre cri&e$ !ee% a ign'ent an$ tran !er o! application !or regi tration hall1 on pay'ent o! the a'e !ee1 &e pro)i ionally recor$e$1 an$ the 'ar(1 5hen regi tere$1 hall &e in the na'e o! the a ignee or tran !eree, 6.E,F, A ign'ent an$ tran !er hall ha)e no e!!ect again t thir$ partie until they are recor$e$ at the O!!ice, -ECTION 6FA, icense "ontracts. R 6FA,6, Any licen e contract concerning the regi tration o! a 'ar(1 or an application there!or1 hall pro)i$e !or e!!ecti)e control &y the licen or o! the 8uality o! the goo$ or er)ice o! the licen ee in connection 5ith 5hich the

'ar( i u e$, I! the licen e contract $oe not pro)i$e !or uch 8uality control1 or i! uch 8uality control i not e!!ecti)ely carrie$ out1 the licen e contract hall not &e )ali$, 6FA,4, A licen e contract hall &e u&'itte$ to the O!!ice 5hich hall (eep it content con!i$ential &ut hall recor$ it an$ pu&li h a re!erence thereto, A licen e contract hall ha)e no e!!ect again t thir$ partie until uch recor$ing i e!!ecte$, The Regulation hall !i3 the proce$ure !or the recor$ing o! the licen e contract,
1 Is t*ere i!"ri!$eme!t eve! i" t*e $oods re !ot competi!$K

AN9 TIBA! ?s. TEODORO BG,R, No, .G44>, Dece'&er 6.1 6E.4C Although t5o non*co'peting article 'ay &e cla i!ie$ un$er t5o $i!!erent cla e &y the Patent O!!ice &ecau e they are $ee'e$ not to po e the a'e $e cripti)e propertie 1 they 5oul$ ne)erthele &e hel$ &y the court to &elong to the a'e cla i! the i'ultaneou u e on the' o! i$entical or clo ely i'ilar tra$e*'ar( 5oul$ &e li(ely to cau e con!u ion a to the origin1 or per onal ource1 o! the econ$ u er@ goo$ , STA. ANA ?s. 3A IWAT BG,R, No, L*47A47, Augu t 761 6E>GC ;o$ern la5 recogni2e that the protection to 5hich the o5ner o! a tra$e'ar( i entitle$ i not li'ite$ to guar$ing hi goo$ or &u ine !ro' actual 'ar(et co'petition 5ith i$entical or i'ilar pro$uct o! the partie 1 &ut e3ten$ to all ca e in 5hich the u e &y a ?unior appropriator o! a tra$e*'ar( or tra$e*na'e i li(ely to lea$ to a con!u ion o! ource1 a 5here pro pecti)e purcha er 5oul$ &e 'i le$ into thin(ing that the co'plaining party ha e3ten$e$ hi &u ine into the !iel$ or i in any 5ay connecte$ 5ith the acti)itie o! the in!ringer or 5hen it !ore tall the nor'al potential e3pan ion o! hi &u ine , -ec, .1 Rep, Act No, 6>> $oe not re8uire that the article o! 'anu!acture o! the pre)iou u er an$ the late u er o! the 'ar( houl$ po e the a'e $e cripti)e propertie or houl$ !all into the a'e categorie a to &ar the latter !ro' regi tering hi 'ar( in the principal regi ter +Chua Che ) , Phil, Patent O!!ice1 et al,1 L*6G77D1 7A Pan, 6E>F#, The 'eat o! the 'atter i the li(elihoo$ o! con!u ion1 'i ta(e or $eception upon purcha er o! the goo$ o! the ?unior u er o! the 'ar( an$ the goo$ 'anu!acture$ &y the pre)iou u er, P=I IPPINE RE*ININ9 "O.6 IN" ?s. N9 SA3 BG,R, No, L*4>>D>, Puly 7A1 6EG4C E'pha i houl$ &e on the i'ilarity o! the pro$uct in)ol)e$ an$ on the ar&itrary cla i!ication or general $e cription o! their propertie or characteri tic , The particular goo$ o! the partie are o unrelate$ that con u'er 5oul$ not in any pro&a&ility 'i ta(e one a the ource or origin o! the pro$uct o! the other, In a$$ition1 the goo$ o! petitioner are &a ically $eri)e$ !ro' )egeta&le oil an$ ani'al !at 1 5hile the pro$uct o! re pon$ent i proce e$ !ro' pigJ leg , A con u'er 5oul$ not rea ona&ly a u'e that petitioner ha o $i)er i!ie$ it &u ine a to inclu$e the pro$uct o! re pon$ent, Thu 1 the &u ine e o! the partie are non*co'petiti)e an$ their pro$uct o unrelate$ that the u e o! i$entical tra$e'ar( i not li(ely to gi)e ri e to con!u ion1 'uch le cau e $a'age to petitioner, ESSO STANDARD EASTERN6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*4EED6, Augu t 761 6EG4C A to 5hether tra$e'ar( in!ringe'ent e3i t $epen$ !or the 'o t part upon 5hether or not the goo$ are o relate$ that the pu&lic 'ay &e1 or i actually1 $ecei)e$ an$ 'i le$ that they ca'e !ro' the a'e 'a(er or 'anu!acturer, /or non*co'peting goo$ 'ay &e tho e 5hich1 though they are not in actual co'petition1 are o relate$ to each other that it 'ight rea ona&ly &e a u'e$ that they originate !ro' one 'anu!acturer, Non*co'peting goo$ 'ay al o &e tho e 5hich1 &eing entirely unrelate$1 coul$ not rea ona&ly &e a u'e$ to ha)e a co''on ource, Goo$ are relate$ 5hen they &elong to the a'e cla or ha)e the a'e $e cripti)e

propertie % 5hen they po e the a'e phy ical attri&ute or e ential characteri tic re!erence to their !or'1 co'po ition1 te3ture or 8uality, They 'ay al o &e relate$ &ecau e er)e the a'e purpo e or are ol$ in the a'e channel , The 'ere !act that one per on ha a$opte$ an$ u e$ a tra$e'ar( on hi goo$ $oe pre)ent the a$option an$ u e o! the a'e tra$e'ar( &y other on unrelate$ article $i!!erent (in$,

5ith they not o! a

=I"2O2 3ANU*A"TURIN9 "O.6 IN". ?s. "A BG,R, No, L*..DAD, Augu t 761 6EG4C Ta(ing into account the !act o! recor$ that petitioner1 a !oreign corporation regi tere$ the tra$e'ar( !or it $i)er e article o! 'enJ 5ear uch a 5allet 1 &elt 1 an$ 'enJ &rie! 5hich are all 'anu!acture$ here in the Philippine &y licen ee Nuality 0ou e1 Inc,1 &ut are o la&elle$ a to gi)e the 'i i'pre ion that ai$ goo$ are o! !oreign 'anu!acture an$ that re pon$ent ecure$ it tra$e'ar( regi tration e3clu i)ely !or hoe an$ 5hich are clearly la&elle$ in &loc( letter a J'a$e in ;ari(ina1 Ri2al1 Philippine J1 no error can &e attri&ute$ to the appellate court in uphol$ing re pon$entJ regi tration o! the a'e tra$e'ar( !or hi unrelate$ an$ non* co'peting pro$uct o! ;ari(ina hoe , *ABER9E6 IN". ?s. INTER3EDIATE APPE 6EE4C ATE "OURT BG,R, No, D66GE, No)e'&er .1

The certi!icate o! regi tration i ue$ &y the Director o! Patent can con!er upon petitioner the e3clu i)e right to u e it o5n y'&ol only to tho e goo$ peci!ie$ in the certi!icate1 u&?ect to any con$ition an$ li'itation tate$ therein, "ANON 2ABUS=I2I 2AIS=A ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 64AEAA, Puly 4A1 4AAAC The paint 1 che'ical pro$uct 1 toner an$ $ye tu!! o! petitioner that carry the tra$e'ar( CANON are unrelate$ to an$al 1 the pro$uct o! pri)ate re pon$ent, 9e agree 5ith the HPTTT1 !ollo5ing the E o $octrine1 5hen it note$ that the t5o cla e o! pro$uct in thi ca e !lo5 through $i!!erent tra$e channel ,
5. I--ue of Para))e) I.1ortation

!U ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, G>>G7, Panuary 461 6EE7C The right to per!or' an e3clu i)e $i tri&utor hip agree'ent an$ to reap the pro!it re ulting !ro' uch per!or'ance are proprietary right 5hich a party 'ay protect 5hich 'ay other5i e not &e $i 'i e$1 nay1 ren$ere$ illu ory &y the e3pe$ient act o! utili2ing or interpo ing a per on or !ir' to o&tain goo$ !ro' the upplier to $e!eat the )ery purpo e !or 5hich the e3clu i)e $i tri&utor hip 5a conceptuali2e$1 at the e3pen e o! the ole authori2e$ $i tri&utor +citation o'itte$#, A. RE%E#IES -ECTION 7, International "on?entions and Reciprocit0. R Any per on 5ho i a national or 5ho i $o'icile$ or ha a real an$ e!!ecti)e in$u trial e ta&li h'ent in a country 5hich i a party to any con)ention1 treaty or agree'ent relating to intellectual property right or the repre ion o! un!air co'petition1 to 5hich the Philippine i al o a party1 or e3ten$ reciprocal right to national o! the Philippine &y la51 hall &e entitle$ to &ene!it to the e3tent nece ary to gi)e e!!ect to any pro)i ion o! uch con)ention1 treaty or reciprocal la51 in a$$ition to the right to 5hich any o5ner o! an intellectual property right i other5i e entitle$ &y thi Act, -ECTION 6>A, Rig&t o- *oreign "orporation to Sue in Trade'ar/ or Ser?ice 3ar/ En-orce'ent Action. R Any !oreign national or ?uri$ical per on 5ho 'eet the re8uire'ent

o! -ection 7 o! thi Act an$ $oe not engage in &u ine in the Philippine 'ay &ring a ci)il or a$'ini trati)e action hereun$er !or oppo ition1 cancellation1 in!ringe'ent1 un!air co'petition1 or !al e $e ignation o! origin an$ !al e $e cription1 5hether or not it i licen e$ to $o &u ine in the Philippine un$er e3i ting la5 , -ECTION 476, Re?erse Reciprocit0 o- *oreign a.s. R Any con$ition1 re triction1 li'itation1 $i'inution1 re8uire'ent1 penalty or any i'ilar &ur$en i'po e$ &y the la5 o! a !oreign country on a Philippine national ee(ing protection o! intellectual property right in that country1 hall reciprocally &e en!orcea&le upon national o! ai$ country1 5ithin Philippine ?uri $iction,

EVITON INDUSTRIES6 et al. ?s. SA VADOR BG,R, No, L*.A6>7, Pune 6E1 6EG4C Un$ou&te$ly1 -ection 46*A o! the Tra$e'ar( La5 +Repu&lic Act No, 6>># grant to a !oreign corporation1 5hether or not licen e$ to $o &u ine in the Philippine 1 the right to ee( re$re !or un!air co'petition &e!ore Philippine court , Hut the ai$ la5 i not 5ithout 8uali!ication , It literal tenor in$icate a a con$ition ine 8ua non the regi tration o! the tra$e'ar( o! the uing !oreign corporation 5ith the Philippine Patent O!!icer or1 in the lea t1 that it &ean a ignee o! uch regi tere$ tra$e'ar(, The ai$ ection !urther re8uire that the country1 o! 5hich the plainti!! !oreign corporation or ?uri tic per on i a citi2en or $o'icilliary1 grant to /ilipino corporation or ?uri tic entitie the a'e reciprocal treat'ent1 either thru treaty1 con)ention or la5, PU3A ?s. INTER3EDIATE APPE ATE "OURT BG,R, No, DFA>D, /e&ruary 4>1 6EGGC

A !oreign corporation not $oing &u ine in the Philippine nee$ no licen e to ue &e!ore Philippine court !or in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( an$ un!air co'petition, A !oreign corporation 5hich ha ne)er $one any &u ine in the Philippine an$ 5hich i unlicen e$ an$ unregi tere$ to $o &u ine here1 &ut i 5i$ely an$ !a)ora&ly (no5n in the Philippine through the u e therein o! it pro$uct &earing it corporate an$ tra$e na'e1 ha a legal right to 'aintain an action in the Philippine to re train the re i$ent an$ inha&itant thereo! !ro' organi2ing a corporation therein &earing the a'e na'e a the !oreign corporation1 5hen it appear that they ha)e per onal (no5le$ge o! the e3i tence o! uch a !oreign corporation1 an$ it i apparent that the purpo e o! the propo e$ $o'e tic corporation i to $eal an$ tra$e in the a'e goo$ a tho e o! the !oreign corporation +citation o'itte$#, A "=E3ISE A"OSTE6 S. A. ?s. *ERNANDED BG,R, No , >7DE>*ED, ;ay 461 6EG.C That co'pany i not here ee(ing to en!orce any legal or control right ari ing !ro'1 or gro5ing out o!1 any &u ine 5hich it ha tran acte$ in the Philippine I lan$ , The ole purpo e o! the action i to protect it reputation1 it corporate na'e1 it goo$5ill1 5hene)er that reputation1 corporate na'e or goo$5ill ha)e1 through the natural $e)elop'ent o! it tra$e1 e ta&li he$ the' el)e , It right to the u e o! it corporate an$ tra$e na'e i a property right1 a right in re'1 5hich it 'ay a ert an$ protect again t all the 5orl$1 in any o! the court o! the 5orl$ R e)en in ?uri $iction 5here it $oe not tran act &u ine R ?u t the a'e a it 'ay protect it tangi&le property1 real or per onal1 again t tre pa 1 or con)er ion, -ince it i the tra$e an$ not the 'ar( that i to &e protecte$1 a tra$e*'ar( ac(no5le$ge no territorial &oun$arie o! 'unicipalitie or tate or nation 1 &ut e3ten$ to e)ery 'ar(et 5here the tra$erJ goo$ ha)e &eco'e (no5n an$ i$enti!ie$ &y the u e o! the 'ar( +citation o'itte$#,, In uphol$ing the right o! the petitioner to 'aintain the pre ent uit &e!ore our court !or un!air co'petition or in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( o! a !oreign corporation1 5e are 'oreo)er recogni2ing our $utie an$ the right o! !oreign tate un$er the Pari Con)ention !or the Protection o! In$u trial Property to 5hich the Philippine an$ /rance are partie , 9e are

o&ligate$ to a ure to national o! Kcountrie o! the UnionK an e!!ecti)e protection again t un!air co'petition in the a'e 5ay that they are o&ligate$ to i'ilarly protect /ilipino citi2en an$ !ir' , Pur uant to thi o&ligation1 the ;ini try o! Tra$e on No)e'&er 4A1 6EGA i ue$ a 'e'oran$u' a$$re e$ to the Director o! the Patent O!!ice $irecting the latter R K, , , re?ect all pen$ing application !or Philippine regi tration o! ignature an$ other 5orl$ !a'ou tra$e'ar( &y applicant other than it original o5ner or u er , :The con!licting clai' o)er internationally (no5n tra$e'ar( in)ol)e uch na'e &ran$ a Laco te1 Por$ache1 Gloria Van$er&ilt1 -a on1 /ila1 Pierre Car$inU KIt i !urther $irecte$ that1 in ca e 5here 5arrante$1 Philippine regi trant o! uch tra$e'ar( houl$ &e a (e$ to urren$er their certi!icate o! regi tration1 i! any1 to a)oi$ uit !or $a'age an$ other legal action &y the tra$e'ar( J !oreign or local o5ner or original u er ,K The 'e'oran$u' create a legally &in$ing o&ligation on the partie !oun$e$ on the generally accepte$ principle o! international la5 o! pacta unt er)an$a 5hich ha &een a$opte$ a part o! the la5 o! our lan$, The 'e'oran$u' re'in$ the Director o! Patent o! hi legal $uty to o&ey &oth la5 an$ treaty, It 'u t al o &e o&eye$,
a. A/.ini-trative

i.

Cance))ation

-ECTION 6F6, "ancellation. R 6F6,6, A petition to cancel a regi tration o! a 'ar( un$er thi Act 'ay &e !ile$ 5ith the Hureau o! Legal A!!air &y any per on 5ho &elie)e that he i or 5ill &e $a'age$ &y the regi tration o! a 'ar( un$er thi Act a !ollo5 " +a# 9ithin !i)e +F# year !ro' the $ate o! the regi tration o! the 'ar( un$er thi Act, +&# At any ti'e1 i! the regi tere$ 'ar( &eco'e the generic na'e !or the goo$ or er)ice 1 or a portion thereo!1 !or 5hich it i regi tere$1 or ha &een a&an$one$1 or it regi tration 5a o&taine$ !rau$ulently or contrary to the pro)i ion o! thi Act1 or i! the regi tere$ 'ar( i &eing u e$ &y1 or 5ith the per'i ion o!1 the regi trant o a to 'i repre ent the ource o! the goo$ or er)ice on or in connection 5ith 5hich the 'ar( i u e$, I! the regi tere$ 'ar( &eco'e the generic na'e !or le than all o! the goo$ or er)ice !or 5hich it i regi tere$1 a petition to cancel the regi tration !or only tho e goo$ or er)ice 'ay &e !ile$, A regi tere$ 'ar( hall not &e $ee'e$ to &e the generic na'e o! goo$ or er)ice olely &ecau e uch 'ar( i al o u e$ a a na'e o! or to i$enti!y a uni8ue pro$uct or er)ice, The pri'ary igni!icance o! the regi tere$ 'ar( to the rele)ant pu&lic rather than purcha er 'oti)ation hall &e the te t !or $eter'ining 5hether the regi tere$ 'ar( ha &eco'e the generic na'e o! goo$ or er)ice on or in connection 5ith 5hich it ha &een u e$, +n# At any ti'e1 i! the regi tere$ o5ner o! the 'ar( 5ithout legiti'ate rea on !ail to u e the 'ar( 5ithin the Philippine 1 or to cau e it to &e u e$ in the Philippine &y )irtue o! a licen e $uring an uninterrupte$ perio$ o! three +7# year or longer, 6F6,4, Not5ith tan$ing the !oregoing pro)i ion 1 the court or the a$'ini trati)e agency )e te$ 5ith ?uri $iction to hear an$ a$?u$icate any action to en!orce the right to a regi tere$ 'ar( hall li(e5i e e3erci e ?uri $iction to $eter'ine 5hether the regi tration o! ai$ 'ar( 'ay &e cancelle$ in accor$ance 5ith thi Act, The !iling o! a uit to en!orce the regi tere$ 'ar( 5ith the proper court or agency hall e3clu$e any other court or agency !ro' a u'ing ?uri $iction o)er a u& e8uently !ile$ petition to cancel the a'e 'ar(, On the other han$1 the earlier !iling o! petition to cancel the 'ar( 5ith the Hureau o! Legal A!!air hall not con titute a pre?u$icial 8ue tion that 'u t &e re ol)e$ &e!ore an action to en!orce the right to a'e regi tere$ 'ar( 'ay &e $eci$e$, -ECTION 6F4, Non%use o- a 3ar/ W&en E+cused. R 6F4,6, Non*u e o! a 'ar( 'ay &e e3cu e$ i! cau e$ &y circu' tance ari ing in$epen$ently o! the 5ill o! the tra$e'ar( o5ner, Lac( o! !un$ hall not e3cu e non*u e o! a 'ar(, +c#

1E2.2. 0e u-e of t0e .ar@ in a for. /ifferent fro. t0e for. in >0ic0 it i- re,i-tere/, >0ic0 /oe- not a)ter it- /i-tinctive c0aracter, -0a)) not 5e ,roun/ for cance))ation or re.ova) of t0e .ar@ an/ -0a)) not /i.ini-0 t0e 1rotection ,rante/ to t0e .ar@. 6F4,7, The u e o! a 'ar( in connection 5ith one or 'ore o! the goo$ or er)ice &elonging to the cla in re pect o! 5hich the 'ar( i regi tere$ hall pre)ent it cancellation or re'o)al in re pect o! all other goo$ or er)ice o! the a'e cla , 1E2.7. 0e u-e of a .ar@ 5y a co.1any re)ate/ >it0 t0e re,i-trant or a11)icant -0a)) inure to t0e )atterM- 5enefit, an/ -uc0 u-e -0a)) not affect t0e va)i/ity of -uc0 .ar@ or of it- re,i-tration4 Provi/e/, 0at -uc0 .ar@ i- not u-e/ in -uc0 .anner a- to /eceive t0e 1u5)ic. If u-e of a .ar@ 5y a 1er-on i- contro))e/ 5y t0e re,i-trant or a11)icant >it0 re-1ect to t0e nature an/ 3ua)ity of t0e ,oo/- or -ervice-, -uc0 u-e -0a)) inure to t0e 5enefit of t0e re,i-trant or a11)icant. -ECTION 6F7, ReIuire'ents o- Petition, Notice and =earing. R In o!ar a applica&le1 the petition !or cancellation hall &e in the a'e !or' a that pro)i$e$ in -ection 67. hereo!1 an$ notice an$ hearing hall &e a pro)i$e$ in -ection 67F hereo!, -ECTION 6F., "ancellation o- Registration. R I! the Hureau o! Legal A!!air !in$ that a ca e !or cancellation ha &een 'a$e out1 it hall or$er the cancellation o! the regi tration, 9hen the or$er or ?u$g'ent &eco'e !inal1 any right con!erre$ &y uch regi tration upon the regi trant or any per on in intere t o! recor$ hall ter'inate, Notice o! cancellation hall &e pu&li he$ in the IPO Ga2ette, SEC I"N 23H. E>uit /le Pri!ciples to Gover! Proceedi!$s1 J In a)) inter 1arte1rocee/in,- in t0e "ffice un/er t0i- Act, t0e e3uita5)e 1rinci1)e- of )ac0e-, e-to11e), an/ ac3uie-cence >0ere a11)ica5)e, .ay 5e con-i/ere/ an/ a11)ie/. -ECTION 474, Appeals. R 474,6, Appeal !ro' $eci ion o! regular court hall &e go)erne$ &y the Rule o! Court, Unle re traine$ &y a higher court1 the ?u$g'ent o! the trial court hall &e e3ecutory e)en pen$ing appeal un$er uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e, 474,4, Unle e3pre ly pro)i$e$ in thi Act or other tatute 1 appeal !ro' $eci ion o! a$'ini trati)e o!!icial hall &e pro)i$e$ in the Regulation , RO3ERO ?s. 3AIDEN *OR3 BRASSIERE "O.6 IN". BG,R, No, L*6G4GE, ;arch 761 6E>.C There1 &eing no e)i$ence o! u e o! the 'ar( &y other &e!ore 6E741 or that appellee a&an$one$ u e thereo!1 the regi tration o! the 'ar( 5a 'a$e in accor$ance 5ith the Tra$e'ar( La5, Granting that appellant u e$ the 'ar( 5hen appellee toppe$ u ing it $uring the perio$ o! ti'e that the Go)ern'ent i'po e$ re triction on i'portation o! re pon$entJ &ra iere &earing the tra$e'ar(1 uch te'porary non*u e $i$ not a!!ect the right o! appellee &ecau e it 5a occa ione$ &y go)ern'ent re triction an$ 5a not per'anent1 intentional1 an$ )oluntary, To 5or( an a&an$on'ent1 the $i u e 'u t &e per'anent an$ not ephe'eral% it 'u t &e intentional an$ )oluntary1 an$ not in)oluntary or e)en co'pul ory, There 'u t &e a thoroughgoing $i continuance o! any tra$e*'ar( u e o! the 'ar( in 8ue tion, The u e o! the tra$e'ar( &y other 'anu!acturer $i$ not in$icate an intention on the part o! appellee to a&an$on it, To e ta&li h the $e!en e o! a&an$on'ent1 it i nece ary to ho5 not only act in$icating a practical a&an$on'ent1 &ut an actual intent to a&an$on, BATA INDUSTRIES6 TD. ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*F7>D4, ;ay 761 6EG4C /ro' the e)i$ence1 any light goo$5ill generate$ &y the C2echo lo)a(ian pro$uct $uring the Co''on5ealth year 5a co'pletely a&an$one$ an$ lo t in the 'ore than 7F year that ha)e pa e$ ince the li&eration o! ;anila !ro' the Papane e troop +a$opting the !in$ing o! the Court o! Appeal #,

P=I IPPINE NUT INDUSTR!6 IN". ?s. STANDARD BRANDS IN". BG,R, No, L*47A7F, Puly 761 6EDFC In ca e in)ol)ing in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( 1 it ha &een hel$ that there i in!ringe'ent 5hen the u e o! the 'ar( in)ol)e$ 5oul$ &e li(ely to cau e con!u ion or 'i ta(e in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic or to $ecei)e purcha er a to the origin or ource o! the co''o$ity% that 5hether or not a tra$e'ar( cau e con!u ion an$ li(ely to $ecei)e the pu&lic i a 8ue tion o! !act 5hich i to &e re ol)e$ &y applying the Kte t o! $o'inancy1K 'eaning1 i! the co'peting tra$e'ar( contain the 'ain or e ential or $o'inant !eature o! another &y rea on o! 5hich con!u ion an$ $eception are li(ely to re ult1 then in!ringe'ent ta(e place% an$ that $uplication or i'itation i not nece ary1 a i'ilarity o! the $o'inant !eature o! the tra$e'ar( 5oul$ &e u!!icient, In ca e in)ol)ing in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( 1 there can &e no &etter e)i$ence a to 5hat $o'inant !eature o! a la&el an$ a to 5hether there i a con!u ing i'ilarity in the conte ting tra$e'ar( than the la&el the' el)e , A )i ual an$ graphic pre entation o! the la&el 5ill con titute the &e t argu'ent !or one or the other, A$'itte$ly1 no pro$ucer or 'anu!acturer 'ay ha)e a 'onopoly o! any color che'e or !or' o! 5or$ in a la&el, Hut 5hen a co'petitor a$opt a $i tincti)e or $o'inant 'ar( or !eature o! anotherJ tra$e'ar( an$ 5ith it 'a(e u e o! the a'e color en e'&le1 e'ploy i'ilar 5or$ 5ritten in a tyle1 type an$ i2e o! lettering al'o t i$entical 5ith tho e !oun$ in the other tra$e'ar(1 the intent to pa to the pu&lic hi pro$uct a that o! the other i 8uite o&)iou , The non*u e o! a tra$e'ar( or an article o! 'erchan$i e $ue to legal re triction or circu' tance &eyon$ oneJ control i not to &e con i$ere$ a an a&an$on'ent, -ai$ rule 5a correctly applie$ to the ca e at &ar 5here the u e o! the tra$e'ar( 5a interrupte$ $uring the Papane e occupation an$ in !act 5a $i continue$ 5hen the i'portation o! the pro$uct co)ere$ &y the tra$e'ar( 5a prohi&ite$ &y the Central Han( Regulation , PA9ASA INDUSTRIA "ORPORATION ?s. "A BG,R, No, L*F.6FG, No)e'&er 6E1 6EG4C The Tra$e'ar( La5 i )ery clear, It re8uire actual co''ercial u e o! the 'ar( prior to it regi tration, There i no $i pute that re pon$ent corporation 5a the !ir t regi trant1 yet it !aile$ to !ully u& tantiate it clai' that it u e$ in tra$e or &u ine in the Philippine the u&?ect 'ar(% it $i$ not pre ent proo! to in)e t it 5ith e3clu i)e1 continuou a$option o! the tra$e'ar( 5hich houl$ con i t a'ong other 1 o! con i$era&le ale ince it !ir t u e, The in)oice u&'itte$ &y re pon$ent 5hich 5ere $ate$ 5ay &ac( in 6EFD ho5 that the 2ipper ent to the Philippine 5ere to &e u e$ a K a'ple K an$ Ko! no co''ercial )alue,K The e)i$ence !or re pon$ent 'u t &e clear1 $e!inite an$ !ree !ro' incon i tencie , K-a'ple K are not !or ale an$ there!ore1 the !act o! e3porting the' to the Philippine cannot &e con i$ere$ to &e e8ui)alent to the Ku eK conte'plate$ &y the la5, Re pon$ent $i$ not e3pect inco'e !ro' uch K a'ple ,K There 5ere no receipt to e ta&li h ale1 an$ no proo! 5ere pre ente$ to ho5 that they 5ere u& e8uently ol$ in the Philippine , It appear that it 5a only a!ter 'ore than e)en +D# year 5hen re pon$ent ought the cancellation o! the tra$e'ar(, An unrea ona&le length o! ti'e ha$ alrea$y pa e$ &e!ore re pon$ent a erte$ it right to the tra$e'ar(, There i a pre u'ption o! neglect alrea$y a'ounting to Ka&an$on'entK o! a right a!ter a party ha$ re'aine$ ilent !or 8uite a long ti'e $uring 5hich petitioner ha$ &een openly u ing the tra$e'ar( in 8ue tion, -uch inaction on the part o! re pon$ent entitle petitioner to the e8uita&le principle o! lache , WO VERINE WOR DWIDE6 IN".?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, DG4EG, Panuary 7A1 6EGEC Het5een the earlier petition an$ the pre ent one there i u& tantial i$entity o! partie 1 u&?ect 'atter1 an$ cau e o! action, The petitioner in all o! the e ca e i 9ol)erine 9orl$5i$e1 Inc, The re pon$ent*regi trant in thi ca e i the a ignee o! Ran$el on Agro*In$u trial De)elop'ent1 Inc, +!or'erly (no5n a Ran$el on -hoe 1 Inc,# 5hich in turn1 ac8uire$ it right

!ro' Ra'on Angele 1 the original re pon$ent *regi trant, A regar$ the u&?ect 'atter1 all o! the e ca e re!er to the cancellation o! regi tration o! the tra$e'ar( 0U-0 PUPPIE- an$ DEVICE o! a Dog, /inally1 there i i$entity o! cau e o! action1 5hich i the allege$ 5rong!ul or erroneou regi tration o! the tra$e'ar( re ?u$icata no5 &ar the petitioner !ro' reopening1 &y 5ay o! , KRe ?u$icata no5 &ar the petitioner !ro' reopening1 &y 5ay o! another petition !or cancellation +the pre ent Inter Parte Ca e No, 6GAD#1 the i ue o! o5ner hip o! the tra$e'ar( 0U-0 PUPPIE-, Other5i e1 there 5ill ne)er &e an en$ to litigation, 3IRPURI ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66.FAG, No)e'&er 6E1 6EEEC IPC No, 4A.E rai e$ the i ue o! o5ner hip o! the tra$e'ar(1 the !ir t regi tration an$ u e o! the tra$e'ar( in the Unite$ -tate an$ other countrie 1 an$ the international recognition an$ reputation o! the tra$e'ar( e ta&li he$ &y e3ten i)e u e an$ a$)erti e'ent o! pri)ate re pon$entJ pro$uct !or o)er !orty year here an$ a&roa$, The e are $i!!erent !ro' the i ue o! con!u ing i'ilarity an$ $a'age in IPC No, >G>, The i ue o! prior u e 'ay ha)e &een rai e$ in IPC No, >G> &ut thi clai' 5a li'ite$ to prior u e in the Philippine only, Prior u e in IPC No, 4A.E te' !ro' pri)ate re pon$entJ clai' a originator o! the 5or$ an$ y'&ol KHar&i2on1K a the !ir t an$ regi tere$ u er o! the 'ar( attache$ to it pro$uct 5hich ha)e &een ol$ an$ a$)erti e$ 5orl$5i$e !or a con i$era&le nu'&er o! year prior to petitionerJ !ir t application !or regi tration o! her tra$e'ar( in the Philippine , In$ee$1 the e are u& tantial allegation that rai e$ ne5 i ue an$ nece arily ga)e pri)ate re pon$ent a ne5 cau e o! action, Re ?u$icata $oe not apply to right 1 clai' or $e'an$ 1 although gro5ing out o! the a'e u&?ect 'atter1 5hich con titute eparate or $i tinct cau e o! action an$ 5ere not put in i ue in the !or'er action, Re pon$ent corporation al o intro$uce$ in the econ$ ca e a !act that $i$ not e3i t at the ti'e the !ir t ca e 5a !ile$ an$ ter'inate$, The cancellation o! petitionerJ certi!icate o! regi tration !or !ailure to !ile the a!!i$a)it o! u e aro e only a!ter IPC No, >G>, It $i$ not an$ coul$ not ha)e occurre$ in the !ir t ca e1 an$ thi ga)e re pon$ent another cau e to oppo e the econ$ application, Re ?u$icata e3ten$ only to !act an$ con$ition a they e3i te$ at the ti'e ?u$g'ent 5a ren$ere$ an$ to the legal right an$ relation o! the partie !i3e$ &y the !act o $eter'ine$, It i al o note$ that the oppo ition in the !ir t an$ econ$ ca e are &a e$ on $i!!erent la5 , The oppo ition in IPC No, >G> 5a &a e$ on peci!ic pro)i ion o! the Tra$e'ar( La51 i,e,1 -ection . +$# DA on con!u ing i'ilarity o! tra$e'ar( an$ -ection G on the re8ui ite $a'age to !ile an oppo ition to a petition !or regi tration, The oppo ition in IPC No, 4A.E in)o(e$ the Pari Con)ention1 particularly Article >&i thereo!1 E,O, No, E67 an$ the t5o ;e'oran$a o! the ;ini ter o! Tra$e an$ In$u try, Thi oppo ition al o in)o(e$ Article 6GE o! the Re)i e$ Penal Co$e 5hich i a tatute totally $i!!erent !ro' the Tra$e'ar( La5, Cau e o! action 5hich are $i tinct an$ in$epen$ent !ro' each other1 although ari ing out o! the a'e contract1 tran action1 or tate o! !act 1 'ay &e ue$ on eparately1 reco)ery on one &eing no &ar to u& e8uent action on other , S=AN9RI% A ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 666FGA, Pune 461 4AA6C The earlier in titution o! an Inter Parte ca e &y the -hangri*La Group !or the cancellation o! the K-hangri*LaK 'ar( an$ K-K $e)iceIlogo 5ith the HPTTT cannot e!!ecti)ely &ar the u& e8uent !iling o! an in!ringe'ent ca e &y regi trant De)eloper Group, The rationale i plain" Certi!icate o! Regi tration No, 76EA.1 upon 5hich the in!ringe'ent ca e i &a e$1 re'ain )ali$ an$ u& i ting !or a long a it ha not &een cancelle$ &y the Hureau or &y an in!ringe'ent court, A uch1 De)eloper GroupJ Certi!icate o! Regi tration in the principal regi ter continue a Kpri'a !acie e)i$ence o! the )ali$ity o! the regi tration1 the regi trantJ o5ner hip o! the 'ar( or tra$e*na'e1 an$ o! the regi trantJ e3clu i)e right to u e the a'e in connection 5ith the goo$ 1 &u ine or er)ice peci!ie$ in the certi!icate,K -ince the certi!icate till u& i t 1 De)eloper Group 'ay thu !ile a corre pon$ing in!ringe'ent uit

an$ reco)er $a'age !ro' any per on 5ho in!ringe upon the !or'erJ right , /urther'ore1 the i ue rai e$ &e!ore the HPTTT i 8uite $i!!erent !ro' that rai e$ in the trial court, The i ue rai e$ &e!ore the HPTTT 5a 5hether the 'ar( regi tere$ &y De)eloper Group i u&?ect to cancellation1 a the -hangri*La Group clai' prior o5ner hip o! the $i pute$ 'ar(, On the other han$1 the i ue rai e$ &e!ore the trial court 5a 5hether the -hangri*La Group in!ringe$ upon the right o! De)eloper Group 5ithin the conte'plation o! -ection 44 o! Repu&lic Act 6>>, 9ith the $eci ion o! the Regional Trial Court uphol$ing the )ali$ity o! the regi tration o! the er)ice 'ar( K-hangri*LaK an$ K-K logo in the na'e o! De)eloper Group1 the cancellation ca e !ile$ 5ith the Hureau hence &eco'e 'oot, To allo5 the Hureau to procee$ 5ith the cancellation ca e 5oul$ lea$ to a po i&le re ult contra$ictory to that 5hich the Regional Trial Court ha ren$ere$1 al&eit the a'e i till on appeal, -uch a ituation i certainly not in accor$ 5ith the or$erly a$'ini tration o! ?u tice, In any e)ent1 the Court o! Appeal ha the co'petence an$ ?uri $iction to re ol)e the 'erit o! the ai$ RTC $eci ion, ii. Procee/in,- 5efore t0e *ureau of +e,a) Affair-ECTION 6A,4, +a# E3erci e original ?uri $iction in a$'ini trati)e co'plaint !or )iolation o! la5 in)ol)ing intellectual property right " Pro)i$e$1 That it ?uri $iction i li'ite$ to co'plaint 5here the total $a'age clai'e$ are not le than T5o hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +P4AA1AAA#" Pro)i$e$ !urther1 That a)ail'ent o! the pro)i ional re'e$ie 'ay &e grante$ in accor$ance 5ith the Rule o! Court, The Director o! Legal A!!air hall ha)e the po5er to hol$ an$ puni h !or conte'pt all tho e 5ho $i regar$ or$er or 5rit i ue$ in the cour e o! the procee$ing , +&# A!ter !or'al in)e tigation1 the Director !or Legal A!!air 'ay i'po e one +6# or 'ore o! the !ollo5ing a$'ini trati)e penaltie " +i# The i uance o! a cea e an$ $e i t or$er 5hich hall peci!y the act that the re pon$ent hall cea e an$ $e i t !ro' an$ hall re8uire hi' to u&'it a co'pliance report 5ithin a rea ona&le ti'e 5hich hall &e !i3e$ in the or$er% +ii# The acceptance o! a )oluntary a urance o! co'pliance or $i continuance a 'ay &e i'po e$, -uch )oluntary a urance 'ay inclu$e one or 'ore o! the !ollo5ing" +6# An a urance to co'ply 5ith the pro)i ion o! the intellectual property la5 )iolate$% +4# +7# +.# An a urance to re!rain !ro' engaging in unla5!ul an$ un!air act an$ practice u&?ect o! the !or'al in)e tigation% An a urance to recall1 replace1 repair1 or re!un$ the 'oney )alue o! $e!ecti)e goo$ $i tri&ute$ in co''erce% an$ An a urance to rei'&ur e the co'plainant the e3pen e an$ co t incurre$ in pro ecuting the ca e in the Hureau o! Legal A!!air ,

The Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay al o re8uire the re pon$ent to u&'it perio$ic co'pliance report an$ !ile a &on$ to guarantee co'pliance o! hi un$erta(ing% +iii# The con$e'nation or ei2ure o! pro$uct 5hich are u&?ect o! the o!!en e, The goo$ ei2e$ hereun$er hall &e $i po e$ o! in uch 'anner a 'ay &e $ee'e$ appropriate &y the Director o! Legal A!!air 1 uch a &y ale1 $onation to $i tre e$ local go)ern'ent or to charita&le or relie! in titution 1 e3portation1 recycling into other goo$ 1 or any co'&ination thereo!1 un$er uch gui$eline a he 'ay pro)i$e% +i)# The !or!eiture o! paraphernalia an$ all real an$ per onal propertie 5hich ha)e &een u e$ in the co''i ion o! the o!!en e% +)# The i'po ition o! a$'ini trati)e !ine in uch a'ount a $ee'e$ rea ona&le &y the Director o! Legal A!!air 1 5hich hall in no ca e &e le than /i)e thou an$ pe o +PF1AAA# nor 'ore than One hun$re$ !i!ty thou an$ pe o +P6FA1AAA#, In a$$ition1 an a$$itional !ine o! not 'ore than One thou an$ pe o +P61AAA# hall &e i'po e$ !or each $ay o! continuing )iolation% +)i# The cancellation o! any per'it1 licen e1 authority1 or regi tration 5hich 'ay ha)e &een grante$ &y the O!!ice1 or the u pen ion o! the )ali$ity thereo! !or uch perio$ o! ti'e

a the Director o! Legal A!!air 'ay $ee' rea ona&le 5hich hall not e3cee$ one +6# year% +)ii# The 5ithhol$ing o! any per'it1 licen e1 authority1 or regi tration 5hich i &eing ecure$ &y the re pon$ent !ro' the O!!ice% +)iii# The a e 'ent o! $a'age % +i3# Cen ure% an$Other analogou penaltie or anction , -ECTION 474, Appeals. R 474,6, Appeal !ro' $eci ion o! regular court hall &e go)erne$ &y the Rule o! Court, Unle re traine$ &y a higher court1 the ?u$g'ent o! the trial court hall &e e3ecutory e)en pen$ing appeal un$er uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e, 474,4, Unle e3pre ly pro)i$e$ in thi Act or other tatute 1 appeal !ro' $eci ion o! a$'ini trati)e o!!icial hall &e pro)i$e$ in the Regulation , iii. Pro0i5ition on i.1ortation -ECTION 6>>, 9oods Bearing In-ringing 3ar/s or Trade Na'es. R No article o! i'porte$ 'erchan$i e 5hich hall copy or i'ulate the na'e o! any $o'e tic pro$uct1 or 'anu!acturer1 or $ealer1 or 5hich hall copy or i'ulate a 'ar( regi tere$ in accor$ance 5ith the pro)i ion o! thi Act1 or hall &ear a 'ar( or tra$e na'e calculate$ to in$uce the pu&lic to &elie)e that the article i 'anu!acture$ in the Philippine 1 or that it i 'anu!acture$ in any !oreign country or locality other than the country or locality 5here it i in !act 'anu!acture$1 hall &e a$'itte$ to entry at any cu to'hou e o! the Philippine , In or$er to ai$ the o!!icer o! the cu to' er)ice in en!orcing thi prohi&ition1 any per on 5ho i entitle$ to the &ene!it o! thi Act1 'ay re8uire that hi na'e an$ re i$ence1 an$ the na'e o! the locality in 5hich hi goo$ are 'anu!acture$1 a copy o! the certi!icate o! regi tration o! hi 'ar( or tra$e na'e1 to &e recor$e$ in &oo( 5hich hall &e (ept !or thi purpo e in the Hureau o! Cu to' 1 un$er uch regulation a the Collector o! Cu to' 5ith the appro)al o! the -ecretary o! /inance hall pre cri&e1 an$ 'ay !urni h to the ai$ Hureau !ac i'ile o! hi na'e1 the na'e o! the locality in 5hich hi goo$ are 'anu!acture$1 or hi regi tere$ 'ar( or tra$e na'e1 an$ thereupon the Collector o! Cu to' hall cau e one +6# or 'ore copie o! the a'e to &e tran 'itte$ to each collector or to other proper o!!icer o! the Hureau o! Cu to' ,
5. Civi)

i. Infrin,e.ent -ECTION 6FF, Re'edies, In-ringe'ent. R Any per on 5ho hall1 5ithout the con ent o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar(" 6FF,6, U e in co''erce any repro$uction1 counter!eit1 copy1 or colora&le i'itation o! a regi tere$ 'ar( or the a'e container or a $o'inant !eature thereo! in connection 5ith the ale1 o!!ering !or ale1 $i tri&ution1 a$)erti ing o! any goo$ or er)ice inclu$ing other preparatory tep nece ary to carry out the ale o! any goo$ or er)ice on or in connection 5ith 5hich uch u e i li(ely to cau e con!u ion1 or to cau e 'i ta(e1 or to $ecei)e% or 6FF,4, Repro$uce1 counter!eit1 copy or colora&ly i'itate a regi tere$ 'ar( or a $o'inant !eature thereo! an$ apply uch repro$uction1 counter!eit1 copy or colora&le i'itation to la&el 1 ign 1 print 1 pac(age 1 5rapper 1 receptacle or a$)erti e'ent inten$e$ to &e u e$ in co''erce upon or in connection 5ith the ale1 o!!ering !or ale1 $i tri&ution1 or a$)erti ing o! goo$ or er)ice on or in connection 5ith 5hich uch u e i li(ely to cau e con!u ion1 or to cau e 'i ta(e1 or to $ecei)e1 hall &e lia&le in a ci)il action !or in!ringe'ent &y the regi trant !or the re'e$ie hereina!ter et !orth" Pro)i$e$1 That the in!ringe'ent ta(e place at the 'o'ent any o! the act tate$ in -u& ection 6FF,6 or thi u& ection are co''itte$ regar$le o! 5hether there i actual ale o! goo$ or er)ice u ing the in!ringing 'aterial, SEC I"N 1ED. Actio!s% !d 7 m $es !d I!6u!ctio! "or I!"ri!$eme!t1 J 1ED.1. 0e o>ner of a re,i-tere/ .ar@ .ay recover /a.a,e- fro. any 1er-on >0o infrin,e- 0i-

ri,0t-, an/ t0e .ea-ure of t0e /a.a,e- -uffere/ -0a)) 5e eit0er t0e rea-ona5)e 1rofit >0ic0 t0e co.1)ainin, 1arty >ou)/ 0ave .a/e, 0a/ t0e /efen/ant not infrin,e/ 0iri,0t-, or t0e 1rofit >0ic0 t0e /efen/ant actua))y .a/e out of t0e infrin,e.ent, or in t0e event -uc0 .ea-ure of /a.a,e- cannot 5e rea/i)y a-certaine/ >it0 rea-ona5)e certainty, t0en t0e court .ay a>ar/ a- /a.a,e- a rea-ona5)e 1ercenta,e 5a-e/ u1on t0e a.ount of ,ro-- -a)e- of t0e /efen/ant or t0e va)ue of t0e -ervice- in connection >it0 >0ic0 t0e .ar@ or tra/e na.e >a- u-e/ in t0e infrin,e.ent of t0e ri,0t- of t0e co.1)ainin, 1arty. 6F>,4, On application o! the co'plainant1 the court 'ay i'poun$ $uring the pen$ency o! the action1 ale in)oice an$ other $ocu'ent e)i$encing ale , 6F>,7, In ca e 5here actual intent to 'i lea$ the pu&lic or to $e!rau$ the co'plainant i ho5n1 in the $i cretion o! the court1 the $a'age 'ay &e $ou&le$, 6F>,., The co'plainant1 upon proper ho5ing1 'ay al o &e grante$ in?unction, -ECTION 6FD, Po.er o- "ourt to Order In-ringing 3aterial Destro0ed. R 6FD,6 In any action ari ing un$er thi Act1 in 5hich a )iolation o! any right o! the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( i e ta&li he$1 the court 'ay or$er that goo$ !oun$ to &e in!ringing &e1 5ithout co'pen ation o! any ort1 $i po e$ o! out i$e the channel o! co''erce in uch a 'anner a to a)oi$ any har' cau e$ to the right hol$er1 or $e troye$% an$ all la&el 1 ign 1 print 1 pac(age 1 5rapper 1 receptacle an$ a$)erti e'ent in the po e ion o! the $e!en$ant1 &earing the regi tere$ 'ar( or tra$e na'e or any repro$uction1 counter!eit1 copy or colora&le i'itation thereo!1 all plate 1 'ol$ 1 'atrice an$ other 'ean o! 'a(ing the a'e1 hall &e $eli)ere$ up an$ $e troye$, 6FD,4, In regar$ to counter!eit goo$ 1 the i'ple re'o)al o! the tra$e'ar( a!!i3e$ hall not &e u!!icient other than in e3ceptional ca e 5hich hall &e $eter'ine$ &y the Regulation 1 to per'it the relea e o! the goo$ into the channel o! co''erce, -ECTION 6FG, Da'ages, ReIuire'ent o- Notice. R In any uit !or in!ringe'ent1 the o5ner o! the regi tere$ 'ar( hall not &e entitle$ to reco)er pro!it or $a'age unle the act ha)e &een co''itte$ 5ith (no5le$ge that uch i'itation i li(ely to cau e con!u ion1 or to cau e 'i ta(e1 or to $ecei)e, -uch (no5le$ge i pre u'e$ i! the regi trant gi)e notice that hi 'ar( i regi tere$ &y $i playing 5ith the 'ar( the 5or$ JKRegi tere$ ;ar(K or the letter R 5ithin a circle or i! the $e!en$ant ha$ other5i e actual notice o! the regi tration, -ECTION 6FE, i'itations to Actions -or In-ringe'ent. R Not5ith tan$ing any other pro)i ion o! thi Act1 the re'e$ie gi)en to the o5ner o! a right in!ringe$ un$er thi Act hall &e li'ite$ a !ollo5 " 6FE,6, Not5ith tan$ing the pro)i ion o! -ection 6FF hereo!1 a regi tere$ 'ar( hall ha)e no e!!ect again t any per on 5ho1 in goo$ !aith1 &e!ore the !iling $ate or the priority $ate1 5a u ing the 'ar( !or the purpo e o! hi &u ine or enterpri e" Pro)i$e$1 That hi right 'ay only &e tran !erre$ or a igne$ together 5ith hi enterpri e or &u ine or 5ith that part o! hi enterpri e or &u ine in 5hich the 'ar( i u e$, 6FE,4, 9here an in!ringer 5ho i engage$ olely in the &u ine o! printing the 'ar( or other in!ringing 'aterial !or other i an innocent in!ringer1 the o5ner o! the right in!ringe$ hall &e entitle$ a again t uch in!ringer only to an in?unction again t !uture printing, 6FE,7, 9here the in!ringe'ent co'plaine$ o! i containe$ in or i part o! pai$ a$)erti e'ent in a ne5 paper1 'aga2ine1 or other i'ilar perio$ical or in an electronic co''unication1 the re'e$ie o! the o5ner o! the right in!ringe$ a again t the pu&li her or $i tri&utor o! uch ne5 paper1 'aga2ine1 or other i'ilar perio$ical or electronic co''unication hall &e li'ite$ to an in?unction again t the pre entation o! uch a$)erti ing 'atter in !uture i ue o! uch ne5 paper 1 'aga2ine 1 or other i'ilar perio$ical or in !uture tran 'i ion o! uch electronic co''unication , The li'itation o! thi u&paragraph hall apply only to innocent in!ringer " Pro)i$e$1 That uch in?uncti)e relie! hall not &e a)aila&le to the o5ner o! the right in!ringe$ 5ith re pect to an i ue o! a ne5 paper1 'aga2ine1 or other i'ilar perio$ical or an electronic co''unication containing in!ringing 'atter 5here re training the $i e'ination o! uch in!ringing 'atter in any particular i ue o! uch perio$ical or in an electronic co''unication 5oul$ $elay the $eli)ery o! uch i ue or tran 'i ion o! uch electronic co''unication i cu to'arily

con$ucte$ in accor$ance 5ith the oun$ &u ine practice1 an$ not $ue to any 'etho$ or $e)ice a$opte$ to e)a$e thi ection or to pre)ent or $elay the i uance o! an in?unction or re training or$er 5ith re pect to uch in!ringing 'atter, SEC I"N 1D1. Aut*orit# to 7etermi!e Ri$*t to Re$istr tio!1 J In any action invo)vin, a re,i-tere/ .ar@, t0e court .ay /eter.ine t0e ri,0t to re,i-tration, or/er t0e cance))ation of a re,i-tration, in >0o)e or in 1art, an/ ot0er>i-e rectify t0e re,i-ter >it0 re-1ect to t0e re,i-tration of any 1arty to t0e action in t0e e?erci-e of t0i-. Ju/,.ent an/ or/er-0a)) 5e certifie/ 5y t0e court to t0e #irector, >0o -0a)) .a@e a11ro1riate entry u1on t0e recor/- of t0e *ureau, an/ -0a)) 5e contro))e/ t0ere5y. -ECTION 6>7, Jurisdiction o- "ourt. R All action un$er -ection 6FA1 6FF1 6>.1 an$ 6>> to 6>E hall &e &rought &e!ore the proper court 5ith appropriate ?uri $iction un$er e3i ting la5 , -ECTION 6>., Notice o- *iling Suit 9i?en to t&e Director. R It hall &e the $uty o! the cler( o! uch court 5ithin one +6# 'onth a!ter the !iling o! any action1 uit1 or procee$ing in)ol)ing a 'ar( regi tere$ un$er the pro)i ion o! thi Act1 to noti!y the Director in 5riting etting !orth" the na'e an$ a$$re e o! the litigant an$ $e ignating the nu'&er o! the regi tration or regi tration an$ 5ithin one +6# 'onth a!ter the ?u$g'ent i entere$ or an appeal i ta(en1 the cler( o! court hall gi)e notice thereo! to the O!!ice1 an$ the latter hall en$or e the a'e upon the !ile5rapper o! the ai$ regi tration or regi tration an$ incorporate the a'e a a part o! the content o! ai$ !ile5rapper, -ECTION 474, Appeals. R 474,6, Appeal !ro' $eci ion o! regular court hall &e go)erne$ &y the Rule o! Court, Unle re traine$ &y a higher court1 the ?u$g'ent o! the trial court hall &e e3ecutory e)en pen$ing appeal un$er uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e, 474,4, Unle e3pre ly pro)i$e$ in thi Act or other tatute 1 appeal !ro' $eci ion o! a$'ini trati)e o!!icial hall &e pro)i$e$ in the Regulation , "ONRAD AND "O3PAN!6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66F66F, Puly 6G1 6EEFC 9hile an application !or the a$'ini trati)e cancellation o! a regi tere$ tra$e'ar( on any o! the groun$ enu'erate$ in -ection 6D o! Repu&lic Act No, 6>>1 a a'en$e$1 other5i e (no5n a the Tra$e*;ar( La51 !all un$er the e3clu i)e cogni2ance o! HPTTT1 an action1 ho5e)er1 !or in!ringe'ent or un!air co'petition1 a 5ell a the re'e$y o! in?unction an$ relie! !or $a'age 1 i e3plicitly an$ un8ue tiona&ly 5ithin the co'petence an$ ?uri $iction o! or$inary court , Regi tration in the Principal Regi ter gi)e ri e to a pre u'ption o! )ali$ity o! the regi tration an$ o! the regi trantJ o5ner hip an$ right to the e3clu i)e u e o! the 'ar(, It i preci ely uch a regi tration that can er)e a the &a i !or an action !or in!ringe'ent, An in)a ion o! thi right entitle the regi trant to court protection an$ relie!, ETEP=A ?s. DIRE"TOR O* PATENTS BG,R, No, L*4A>7F, ;arch 761 6E>>C The )ali$ity o! a cau e !or in!ringe'ent i pre$icate$ upon colora&le i'itation, The phra e Kcolora&le i'itationK $enote uch a clo e or ingeniou i'itation a to &e calculate$ to $ecei)e or$inary per on 1 or uch a re e'&lance to the original a to $ecei)e an or$inary purcha er gi)ing uch attention a a purcha er u ually gi)e 1 an$ to cau e hi' to purcha e the one uppo ing it to &e the other +citation o'itte$#, A practical approach to the pro&le' o! i'ilarity or $i i'ilarity i to go into the 5hole o! the t5o tra$e'ar( picture$ in their 'anner o! $i play, In pection houl$ &e un$erta(en !ro' the )ie5point o! pro pecti)e &uyer, The tra$e'ar( co'plaine$ o! houl$ &e co'pare$ an$ contra te$ 5ith the purcha erJ 'e'ory +not in ?u3tapo ition# o! the tra$e 'ar( ai$ to &e in!ringe$, -o'e uch !actor a oun$% appearance% !or'1 tyle1 hape1 i2e or !or'at% color%

i$ea connote$ &y 'ar( % the 'eaning1 pelling1 an$ pronunciation o! 5or$ u e$% an$ the etting in 5hich the 5or$ appear 'ay &e con i$ere$, /or1 in$ee$1 tra$e'ar( in!ringe'ent i a !or' o! un!air co'petition +citation o'itte$#, Con!u ion i li(ely &et5een tra$e'ar( only i! their o)er*all pre entation in any o! the particular o! oun$1 appearance1 or 'eaning are uch a 5oul$ lea$ the purcha ing pu&lic into &elie)ing that the pro$uct to 5hich the 'ar( are applie$ e'anate$ !ro' the a'e ource, In the olution o! a tra$e'ar( in!ringe'ent pro&le'1 regar$ too houl$ &e gi)en to the cla o! per on 5ho &uy the particular pro$uct an$ the circu' tance or$inarily atten$ant to it ac8ui ition, *RUIT O* T=E OO36 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*74D.D, No)e'&er 4E1 6EG.C In!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( 5hen the u e o! the 'ar( in)ol)e$ 5oul$ &e li(ely to cau e con!u ion or 'i ta(e in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic or to $ecei)e purcha er a to the origin or ource o! the co''o$ity In ca e o! thi nature1 there can &e no &etter e)i$ence a to 5hether there i a con!u ing i'ilarity in the conte ting tra$e'ar( than the la&el or hang tag the' el)e , A )i ual pre entation o! the la&el or hang tag i the &e t argu'ent !or one or the other ASIA BREWER!6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 6A7F.7, Puly F1 6EE7C In!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( i a !or' o! un!air co'petition, In!ringe'ent i $eter'ine$ &y the Kte t o! $o'inancyK rather than &y $i!!erence or )ariation in the $etail o! one tra$e'ar( an$ o! another, -i'ilarity in i2e1 !or' an$ color1 5hile rele)ant1 i not conclu i)e, I! the co'peting tra$e'ar( contain the 'ain or e ential or $o'inant !eature o! another1 an$ con!u ion an$ $eception i li(ely to re ult1 in!ringe'ent ta(e place, Duplication or i'itation i not nece ary% not it i nece ary that the in!ringing la&el houl$ ugge t an e!!ort to i'itate, The 8ue tion at i ue in ca e o! in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( i 5hether the u e o! the 'ar( in)ol)e$ 5oul$ &e li(ely to cau e con!u ion or 'i ta(e in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic or $ecei)e purcha er +citation o'itte$#, No&o$y can ac8uire any e3clu i)e right to 'ar(et article upplying i'ple hu'an nee$ in container or 5rapper o! the general !or'1 i2e an$ character co''only an$ i''e$iately u e$ in 'ar(eting uch article A 'erchant cannot &e en?oine$ !ro' u ing a type or color o! &ottle 5here the a'e ha the u e!ul purpo e o! protecting the content !ro' the $eleteriou e!!ect o! light ray , 9hat i all i'portant i the na'e o! the pro$uct 5ritten on the la&el o! the &ottle !or that i ho5 one &eer 'ay &e $i tingui he$ !ro' the other +citation o'itte$#, Di ent +Cru2#" The 8ue tion i not 5hether the t5o article are $i tingui ha&le &y their la&el 5hen et i$e &y i$e &ut 5hether the general con!u ion 'a$e &y the article upon the eye o! the ca ual purcha er 5ho i un u piciou an$ o!! hi guar$1 i uch a to li(ely re ult in hi con!oun$ing it 5ith the original, =EIRS O* A 3ORADIE ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, E67GF, Panuary .1 6EE.C Glaring i the !act that the only $i!!erence in the a&o)e !igure +re!erring to the pac(aging# i the K uppo e$ originK o! the pro$uct +KDr, Pere2K a again t KC,Y, Ga&rielK# 5hich are not e)en a eye catching a the 5or$ K9ONDERK it el!, Apparently1 Ga&riel ne)er u e$ or a$opte$ the tra$e'ar( o! Go 0ay in her pro$uct 1 in tea$ he ha all along &een u ing the tra$e'ar( regi tere$ in the na'e o! Pere2, 9hat i 5or e i that there i o&)iou &a$ !aith on the part o! Ga&riel in ac8uiring the 'ar( K9on$er G0,K

Un$ou&te$ly her intent in ha)ing the 'ar( a igne$ to her i 'erely to gi)e color to the u e o! the 'ar( K9ONDERK on her pro$uct , Particularly o ince the Director o! Patent $enie$ the regi tration to Ga&riel o! the tra$e'ar( K9ONDERK &ecau e it 5a !oun$ that the 'ar( 5a alrea$y in u e an$ i o5ne$ &y Dr, Po e Pere2, PetitionerJ argu'ent that the 5or$ K9on$erK coul$ not &e appropriate$ e3clu i)ely a a tra$e'ar( &y pri)ate re pon$ent ha no leg to tan$ on, The 'atter re tricting the e3clu i)e u e o! a tra$e'ar( i only true o)er unrelate$ goo$ , The la5 re8uire that in the a$option o! a 'ar( there houl$ not &e any li(elihoo$ o! con!u ion1 'i ta(e or $eception to the con u'er, The only e!!ect o! cancellation i in!ringe'ent, that it 5oul$ $epri)e the regi trant protection !ro'

A3I9O 3ANU*A"TURIN9 ?s. " UETT PEABOD! "O.6 IN". BG,R, No, 67E7AA, ;arch 6.1 4AA6C A re ort to either the Do'inancy Te t or the 0oli tic Te t ho5 that colora&le i'itation e3i t &et5een re pon$entJ KGol$ ToeK an$ petitionerJ KGol$ Top,K A glance at petitionerJ 'ar( ho5 that it $e!initely ha a lot o! i'ilaritie an$ in !act loo( li(e a co'&ination o! the tra$e'ar( an$ $e)ice that re pon$ent ha alrea$y regi tere$% na'ely1 KGol$ Toe1K the repre entation o! a oc( 5ith a 'agni!ying gla 1 the KGol$ ToeK repre entation an$ Klineni2e$,K A$'itte$ly1 there are o'e 'inor $i!!erence &et5een the t5o et o! 'ar( , The i'ilaritie 1 ho5e)er1 are o! uch $egree1 nu'&er an$ 8uality that the o)erall i'pre ion gi)en i that the t5o &ran$ o! oc( are $ecepti)ely the a'e1 or at lea t )ery i'ilar to each another, The na'e o! the &ran$ are i'ilar R KGol$ TopK an$ KGol$ Toe,K ;oreo)er1 it 'u t al o &e con i$ere$ that petitioner an$ re pon$ent are engage$ in the a'e line o! &u ine , In a$$ition1 the e repre entation are at the a'e location1 either in the oc( it el! or on the la&el, Let it &e re'e'&ere$ that $uly regi tere$ tra$e'ar( are protecte$ &y la5 a intellectual propertie an$ cannot &e appropriate$ &y other 5ithout )iolating the $ue proce clau e, An in!ringe'ent o! intellectual right i no le )iciou an$ con$e'na&le a the!t o! 'aterial property1 5hether per onal or real, E3ERA D 9AR3ENT ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 6AAAEG, Dece'&er 4E1 6EEFC The e ential ele'ent o! in!ringe'ent i colora&le i'itation, Thi ter' ha &een $e!ine$ a uch a clo e or ingeniou i'itation a to &e calculate$ to $ecei)e or$inary purcha er 1 or uch re e'&lance o! the in!ringing 'ar( to the original a to $ecei)e an or$inary purcha er gi)ing uch attention a a purcha er u ually gi)e 1 an$ to cau e hi' to purcha e the one uppo ing it to &e the other, Colora&le i'itation $oe not 'ean uch i'ilitu$e a a'ount to i$entity, Nor $oe it re8uire that all the $etail &e literally copie$, Colora&le i'itation re!er to uch i'ilarity in !or'1 content1 5or$ 1 oun$1 'eaning1 pecial arrange'ent1 or general appearance o! the tra$e'ar( or tra$ena'e 5ith that o! the other 'ar( or tra$ena'e in their o)er*all pre entation or in their e ential1 u& tanti)e an$ $i tincti)e part a 5oul$ li(ely 'i lea$ or con!u e per on in the or$inary cour e o! purcha ing the genuine article +citation o'itte$#, In $eter'ining 5hether colora&le i'itation e3i t 1 ?uri pru$ence ha $e)elope$ t5o (in$ o! te t R the Do'inancy Te t applie$ in A ia Hre5ery1 Inc, ), Court o! Appeal an$ the 0oli tic Te t $e)elope$ in Del ;onte Corporation ), Court o! Appeal proponent ca e , A it title i'plie 1 the te t o! $o'inancy !ocu e on the i'ilarity o! the pre)alent !eature o! the co'peting tra$e'ar( 5hich 'ight cau e con!u ion or $eception an$ thu con titute in!ringe'ent, I! the co'peting tra$e'ar( contain the 'ain or e ential or $o'inant !eature o! another1 an$ con!u ion an$ $eception i li(ely to re ult1 in!ringe'ent ta(e place, Duplication or i'itation i not nece ary% nor it i nece ary that the in!ringing la&el houl$

ugge t an e!!ort to i'itate, The 8ue tion at i ue in ca e o! in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( i 5hether the u e o! the 'ar( in)ol)e$ 5oul$ &e li(ely to cau e con!u ion or 'i ta(e in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic or $ecei)e purcha er , On the other i$e o! the pectru'1 the holi tic te t 'an$ate that the entirety o! the 'ar( in 8ue tion 'u t &e con i$ere$ in $eter'ining con!u ing i'ilarity, In $eter'ining 5hether the tra$e'ar( are con!u ingly i'ilar1 a co'pari on o! the 5or$ i not the only $eter'inant !actor, The tra$e'ar( in their entirety a they appear in their re pecti)e la&el or hang tag 'u t al o &e con i$ere$ in relation to the goo$ to 5hich they are attache$, The $i cerning eye o! the o& er)er 'u t !ocu not only on the pre$o'inant 5or$ &ut al o on the other !eature appearing in &oth la&el in or$er that he 'ay $ra5 hi conclu ion 5hether one i con!u ingly i'ilar to the other, The pro$uct in)ol)e$ in the ca e at &ar are1 in the 'ain1 )ariou (in$ o! ?ean , The e are not your or$inary hou ehol$, Accor$ingly1 the ca ual &uyer i pre$i po e$ to &e 'ore cautiou an$ $i cri'inating in an$ 5oul$ pre!er to 'ull o)er hi purcha e, Con!u ion an$ $eception1 then1 i le li(ely, The a)erage /ilipino con u'er generally &uy hi ?ean &y &ran$, 0e $oe not a ( the ale cler( !or generic ?ean &ut !or1 ay1 a Le)i 1 Gue 1 9rangler or e)en an Ar'ani, 0e i 1 there!ore1 'ore or le (no5le$gea&le an$ !a'iliar 5ith hi pre!erence an$ 5ill not ea ily &e $i tracte$, ;ore cre$it houl$ &e gi)en to the Kor$inary purcha er,K Ca t in thi particular contro)er y1 the or$inary purcha er i not the Kco'pletely un5ary con u'erK &ut i the Kor$inarily intelligent &uyerK con i$ering the type o! pro$uct in)ol)e$, The Kor$inary purcha erK i $e!ine$ a one accu to'e$ to &uy1 an$ there!ore to o'e e3tent !a'iliar 5ith1 the goo$ in 8ue tion +citation o'itte$#, The te t o! !rau$ulent i'ulation i to &e !oun$ in the li(elihoo$ o! the $eception o! o'e per on in o'e 'ea ure ac8uainte$ 5ith an e ta&li he$ $e ign an$ $e irou o! purcha ing the co''o$ity 5ith 5hich that $e ign ha &een a ociate$, The te t i not !oun$ in the $eception1 or the po i&ility o! $eception1 o! the per on 5ho (no5 nothing a&out the $e ign 5hich ha &een counter!eite$1 an$ 5ho 'u t &e in$i!!erent &et5een that an$ the other, The i'ulation1 in or$er to &e o&?ectiona&le1 'u t &e uch a appear li(ely to 'i lea$ the or$inary intelligent &uyer 5ho ha a nee$ to upply an$ i !a'iliar 5ith the article that he ee( to purcha e, KLEEK i pri'arily a urna'e, Pri)ate re pon$ent cannot1 there!ore1 ac8uire e3clu i)e o5ner hip o)er an$ ingular u e o! ai$ ter', It ha &een hel$ that a per onal na'e or urna'e 'ay not &e 'onopoli2e$ a a tra$e'ar( or tra$ena'e a again t other o! the a'e na'e or urna'e, /or in the a& ence o! contract1 !rau$1 or e toppel1 any 'an 'ay u e hi na'e or urna'e in all legiti'ate 5ay , DE 3ONTE "ORPORATION ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, DG74F, Panuary 4F1 6EEAC The 8ue tion i not 5hether the t5o article are $i tingui ha&le &y their la&el 5hen et i$e &y i$e &ut 5hether the general con!u ion 'a$e &y the article upon the eye o! the ca ual purcha er 5ho i un u piciou an$ o!! hi guar$1 i uch a to li(ely re ult in hi con!oun$ing it 5ith the original, The general i'pre ion o! the or$inary purcha er1 &uying un$er the nor'ally pre)alent con$ition in tra$e an$ gi)ing the attention uch purcha er u ually gi)e in &uying that cla o! goo$ i the touch tone, It ha &een hel$ that in 'a(ing purcha e 1 the con u'er 'u t $epen$ upon hi recollection o! the appearance o! the pro$uct 5hich he inten$ to purcha e, The &uyer ha)ing in 'in$ the 'ar(Ila&el o! the re pon$ent 'u t rely upon hi 'e'ory o! the petitionerJ 'ar(, Unli(e the ?u$ge 5ho ha a'ple ti'e to 'inutely e3a'ine the la&el in 8ue tion in the co'!ort o! hi ala1 the or$inary hopper $oe not en?oy the a'e opportunity, It ha al o &een hel$ that it i not the !unction o! the court in ca e o! in!ringe'ent an$ un!air co'petition to e$ucate purcha er &ut rather to ta(e their carele ne !or grante$1 an$ to &e e)er con ciou o! the !act that 'ar( nee$ not &e i$entical, A con!u ing i'ilarity 5ill ?u ti!y the inter)ention o! e8uity, The ?u$ge 'u t al o &e a5are o! the !act that u ually a $e!en$ant in

ca e o! in!ringe'ent $oe not nor'ally copy &ut 'a(e only colora&le change , 9ell ha it &een ai$ that the 'o t ucce !ul !or' o! copying i to e'ploy enough point o! i'ilarity to con!u e the pu&lic 5ith enough point o! $i!!erence to con!u e the court , 9hat e entially $eter'ine the attitu$e o! the purcha er1 peci!ically hi inclination to &e cautiou 1 i the co t o! the goo$ , E3pen i)e an$ )alua&le ite' are nor'ally &ought only a!ter $eli&erate1 co'parati)e an$ analytical in)e tigation, Hut 'a pro$uct 1 lo5 price$ article in 5i$e u e1 an$ 'atter o! e)ery$ay purcha e re8uiring !re8uent replace'ent are &ought &y the ca ual con u'er 5ithout great care, At that1 e)en i! the la&el 5ere analy2e$ together it i not $i!!icult to ee that the -un hine la&el i a colora&le i'itation o! the Del ;onte tra$e'ar(, It ha &een aptly o& er)e$ that the ulti'ate ratio in ca e o! gra)e $ou&t i the rule that a &et5een a ne5co'er 5ho &y the con!u ion ha nothing to lo e an$ e)erything to gain an$ one 5ho &y hone t $ealing ha alrea$y achie)e$ !a)or 5ith the pu&lic1 any $ou&t houl$ &e re ol)e$ again t the ne5co'er ina 'uch a the !iel$ !ro' 5hich he can elect a $e ira&le tra$e'ar( to in$icate the origin o! hi pro$uct i o&)iou ly a large one +citation o'itte$#, SO"IETE DES PRODUITS NEST E6 S.A. ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 664A64, April .1 4AA6C The te t o! i'ilarity i to con i$er the t5o 'ar( in their entirety1 a they appear in the re pecti)e la&el 1 in relation to the goo$ to 5hich they are attache$, The 'ar( 'u t &e con i$ere$ a a 5hole an$ not a $i ecte$, I! the &uyer i $ecei)e$1 it i attri&uta&le to the 'ar( a a totality1 not u ually to any part o! it, He it !urther e'pha i2e$ that the $i cerning eye o! the o& er)er 'u t !ocu not only on the pre$o'inant 5or$ &ut al o on the other !eature appearing in &oth la&el in or$er that he 'ay $ra5 hi conclu ion 5hether one i con!u ingly i'ilar to the other, The application o! the totality or holi tic te t i i'proper ince the or$inary purcha er 5oul$ not &e incline$ to notice the peci!ic !eature 1 i'ilaritie or $i i'ilaritie 1 con i$ering that the pro$uct i an ine3pen i)e an$ co''on hou ehol$ ite', It 'u t &e e'pha i2e$ that the pro$uct &earing the tra$e'ar( in 8ue tion are Kine3pen i)e an$ co''onK hou ehol$ ite' &ought o!! the hel! &y Kun$i cerningly ra hK purcha er , A uch1 i! the or$inary purcha er i Kun$i cerningly ra hK1 then he 5oul$ not ha)e the ti'e nor the inclination to 'a(e a (een an$ percepti)e e3a'ination o! the phy ical $i crepancie in the tra$e'ar( o! the pro$uct in or$er to e3erci e hi choice, Thi Court &elie)e that the $o'inancy te t i 'ore uita&le to thi ca e in light o! it peculiar !actual 'ilieu, ;oreo)er1 the totality or holi tic te t i contrary to the ele'entary po tulate o! the la5 on tra$e'ar( an$ un!air co'petition that con!u ing i'ilarity i to &e $eter'ine$ on the &a i o! )i ual1 aural1 connotati)e co'pari on an$ o)erall i'pre ion engen$ere$ &y the 'ar( in contro)er y a they are encountere$ in the realitie o! the 'ar(etplace, The totality or holi tic te t only relie on )i ual co'pari on &et5een t5o tra$e'ar( 5herea the $o'inancy te t relie not only on the )i ual &ut al o on the aural an$ connotati)e co'pari on an$ o)erall i'pre ion &et5een the t5o tra$e'ar( , Ca-e- on 5ott)e- an/ container"A9A!AN VA E! ENTERPRISES6 IN" ?s. "A BG,R, No, DG.67, No)e'&er G1 6EGEC

The 'ere u e o! regi tere$ &ottle or container 5ithout the 5ritten con ent o! the 'anu!acturer i prohi&ite$1 the only e3ception &eing 5hen they are u e$ a container !or K i i1K K&agoong1K Kpati K an$ i'ilar nati)e pro$uct , The o'itte$ 5or$ Kproperty o!K are not o! uch )ital in$i pen a&ility uch that the o'i ion

thereo! 5ill re'o)e the &ottle !ro' the protection o! the la5, The o5ner o! a tra$e*'ar( or tra$e*na'e1 an$ in thi ca e the 'ar(e$ container 1 $oe not a&an$on it &y 'a(ing 'inor 'o$i!ication in the 'ar( or na'e it el!, 9ith 'uch 'ore rea on 5ill thi &e true 5here 5hat i in)ol)e$ i the 'ere o'i ion o! the 5or$ Kproperty o!K ince e)en 5ithout ai$ 5or$ the o5ner hip o! the &ottle i ea ily i$enti!ia&le, The 5or$ KLa Ton$eVa, Inc,K an$ KGine&ra -an ;iguelK ta'pe$ on the &ottle 1 e)en 5ithout the 5or$ Kproperty o!1K are u!!icient notice to the pu&lic that tho e &ottle o 'ar(e$ are o5ne$ &y LTI, DISTI ERIA WAS=IN9TON6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 64AE>6, Octo&er 6D1 6EE>C -carcely $i pute$ are certain an$ peci!ic in$u try practice in the ale o! gin" The 'anu!acturer ell the pro$uct in 'ar(e$ container 1 through $ealer 1 to the pu&lic in uper'ar(et 1 grocery hop 1 retail tore an$ other ale outlet , The &uyer ta(e the ite'% he i neither re8uire$ to return the &ottle nor re8uire$ to 'a(e a $epo it to a ure it return to the eller, 0e coul$ return the &ottle an$ get a re!un$, A nu'&er o! &ottle at ti'e !in$ their 5ay to co''ercial u er , It cannot &e gain ai$ that o5ner hip o! the container $oe pa on to the con u'er al&eit u&?ect to the tatutory li'itation on the u e o! the regi tere$ container an$ to the tra$e'ar( right o! the regi trant, LTDIJ ale in)oice1 tipulating that the K ale $oe not inclu$e the &ottle 5ith the &lo5n*in 'ar( o! o5ner hip o! La Ton$eVa Di tiller 1K cannot a!!ect tho e 5ho are not pri)ie thereto, DISTI ERIA WAS=IN9TON6 IN". ?s. A TONDELA DISTI Octo&er 41 6EEDC ERS6 IN". BG,R, No, 64AE>6,

La Ton$eVa not only ol$ it gin pro$uct &ut al o the 'ar(e$ &ottle or container 1 a 5ell, An$ 5hen the e pro$uct 5ere tran !erre$ &y 5ay o! ale1 then o5ner hip o)er the &ottle an$ all it attri&ute +?u uten$i1 ?u a&uten$i1 ?u !ruen$i1 ?u $i ponen$i# pa e$ to the &uyer, It nece arily !ollo5 that the tran !eree ha the right to po e ion o! the &ottle unle he u e the' in )iolation o! the original o5nerJ regi tere$ or incorporeal right , -ince the Court ha !oun$ that the &ottle ha)e &een tran !erre$ &y 5ay o! ale1 then La Ton$eVa ha relin8ui he$ all it proprietary right o)er the &ottle in !a)or o! Di tilleria 9a hington 5ho ha o&taine$ the' in $ue cour e, No5 a o5ner1 it can e3erci e all attri&ute o! o5ner hip o)er the &ottle , Thi i the i'port o! the $eci ion that La Ton$eVa ha$ tran !erre$ o5ner hip o)er it 'ar(e$ &ottle or container 5hen it ol$ it gin pro$uct to the pu&lic, TWIN A"E =O DIN9S "ORPORATION ?s. "A BG,R, No, 6474.G, Octo&er 6>1 6EEDC Repu&lic Act No, >471 KAn Act to Regulate the U e o! Duly -ta'pe$ or ;ar(e$ Hottle 1 Ho3e 1 Ca ( 1 Oeg 1 Harrel an$ Other -i'ilar Container 1K a a'en$e$ &y RA No, FDAA1 5a 'eant to protect the intellectual property right o! the regi trant o! the container an$ pre)ent un!air tra$e practice an$ !rau$ on the pu&lic, 0o5e)er1 the e3e'ption grante$ in -ec, > thereo! 5a $ee'e$ e3tre'ely nece ary to pro)i$e a i tance an$ incenti)e to the &ac(yar$1 cottage an$ 'all* cale 'anu!acturer o! in$igenou nati)e pro$uct uch a pati 1 i i an$ toyo 5ho $o not ha)e the capital to &uy &ran$ ne5 &ottle a container nor a!!or$ to pa the a$$e$ co t to the 'a?ority o! poor /ilipino 5ho u e the pro$uct a their $aily con$i'ent or )ian$ , Petitioner cannot ee( re!uge in -ec, F 64 o! RA No, >47 to upport it clai' o! continuing o5ner hip o)er the u&?ect &ottle , In Unite$ -tate ), ;anuel 5e hel$ that ince the purcha er at hi $i cretion coul$ either retain or return the &ottle 1 the tran action 'u t &e regar$e$ a a ale o! the &ottle 5hen the purcha er actually e3erci e$ that $i cretion an$ $eci$e$ not to return the' to the )en$or, 9e al o ta(e ?u$icial notice o! the tan$ar$ practice to$ay that the co t o! the container i inclu$e$ in the elling price o! the pro$uct uch that the &uyer o! li8uor or any uch pro$uct !ro' any tore i not re8uire$ to return the &ottle nor i the li8uor place$ in a pla tic container that po e ion o! the &ottle i retaine$ &y the tore,

ii. 'nfair co.1etition -ECTION 6>G, Un-air "o'petition6 Rig&ts6 Regulation and Re'edies. R 6>G,6, A per on 5ho ha i$enti!ie$ in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic the goo$ he 'anu!acture or $eal in1 hi &u ine or er)ice !ro' tho e o! other 1 5hether or not a regi tere$ 'ar( i e'ploye$1 ha a property right in the goo$5ill o! the ai$ goo$ 1 &u ine or er)ice o i$enti!ie$1 5hich 5ill &e protecte$ in the a'e 'anner a other property right , 6>G,4, Any per on 5ho hall e'ploy $eception or any other 'ean contrary to goo$ !aith &y 5hich he hall pa o!! the goo$ 'anu!acture$ &y hi' or in 5hich he $eal 1 or hi &u ine 1 or er)ice !or tho e o! the one ha)ing e ta&li he$ uch goo$5ill1 or 5ho hall co''it any act calculate$ to pro$uce ai$ re ult1 hall &e guilty o! un!air co'petition1 an$ hall &e u&?ect to an action there!or, 6>G,7, In particular1 an$ 5ithout in any 5ay li'iting the cope o! protection again t un!air co'petition1 the !ollo5ing hall &e $ee'e$ guilty o! un!air co'petition" +a# Any per on1 5ho i elling hi goo$ an$ gi)e the' the general appearance o! goo$ o! another 'anu!acturer or $ealer1 either a to the goo$ the' el)e or in the 5rapping o! the pac(age in 5hich they are containe$1 or the $e)ice or 5or$ thereon1 or in any other !eature o! their appearance1 5hich 5oul$ &e li(ely to in!luence purcha er to &elie)e that the goo$ o!!ere$ are tho e o! a 'anu!acturer or $ealer1 other than the actual 'anu!acturer or $ealer1 or 5ho other5i e clothe the goo$ 5ith uch appearance a hall $ecei)e the pu&lic an$ $e!rau$ another o! hi legiti'ate tra$e1 or any u& e8uent )en$or o! uch goo$ or any agent o! any )en$or engage$ in elling uch goo$ 5ith a li(e purpo e% +&# Any per on 5ho &y any arti!ice1 or $e)ice1 or 5ho e'ploy any other 'ean calculate$ to in$uce the !al e &elie! that uch per on i o!!ering the er)ice o! another 5ho ha i$enti!ie$ uch er)ice in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic% or +c# Any per on 5ho hall 'a(e any !al e tate'ent in the cour e o! tra$e or 5ho hall co''it any other act contrary to goo$ !aith o! a nature calculate$ to $i cre$it the goo$ 1 &u ine or er)ice o! another, 6>G,., The re'e$ie pro)i$e$ &y -ection 6F>1 6FD an$ 6>6 hall apply 'utati 'utan$i , -ECTION 474, Appeals. R 474,6, Appeal !ro' $eci ion o! regular court hall &e go)erne$ &y the Rule o! Court, Unle re traine$ &y a higher court1 the ?u$g'ent o! the trial court hall &e e3ecutory e)en pen$ing appeal un$er uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e, 474,4, Unle e3pre ly pro)i$e$ in thi Act or other tatute 1 appeal !ro' $eci ion o! a$'ini trati)e o!!icial hall &e pro)i$e$ in the Regulation , DE 3ONTE "ORPORATION ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, DG74F, Panuary 4F1 6EEAC

7isti!ctio!s /et)ee! i!"ri!$eme!t o" tr dem r' !d u!" ir competitio! " In!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar( i the unauthori2e$ u e o! tra$e'ar(1 5herea un!air co'petition i the pa ing o!! o! one@ goo$ a tho e o! another% In in!ringe'ent !rau$ulent intent i unnece ary1 5herea in un!air co'petition !rau$ulent intent i nece ary% an$ In in!ringe'ent the prior regi tration o! the tra$e'ar( i a prere8ui ite to the action1 5herea in un!air co'petition regi tration i not nece ary, PRO INE SPORTS "ENTER6 IN". ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, 66G6E4, Octo&er 471 6EEDC The e3i tence o! pro&a&le cau e !or un!air co'petition &y UNIVER-AL i $eri)a&le !ro', the !act an$ circu' tance o! the ca e, The a!!i$a)it o! Graciano Lacanaria1 a !or'er e'ployee o! UNIVER-AL1 atte ting to the illegal ale an$ 'anu!acture o! K-pal$ingK &all an$ ei2e$

K-pal$ingK pro$uct an$ in tru'ent !ro' UNIVER-ALJ !actory 5a u!!icient pri'a !acie e)i$ence to 5arrant the pro ecution o! pri)ate re pon$ent , That a corporation other than the certi!ie$ o5ner o! the tra$e'ar( i engage$ in the unauthori2e$ 'anu!acture o! pro$uct &earing the a'e tra$e'ar( engen$er a rea ona&le &elie! that a cri'inal o!!en e !or un!air co'petition i &eing co''itte$, UNIVERSA RUBBER PRODU"TS6 IN". ?s. "A BG,R, No, L*7A4>>, Pune 4E1 6EG.C A a general rule1 on o&taining an in?unction !or in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar(1 co'plainant i entitle$ to an accounting an$ reco)ery o! $e!en$antJ pro!it on the goo$ ol$ un$er that 'ar(1 a inci$ent to1 an$ a part o!1 hi property right1 an$ thi rule applie in ca e o! un!air co'petition, In uch ca e1 the in!ringer or un!air tra$er i re8uire$ in e8uity to account !or an$ yiel$ up hi gain on a principal analogou to that 5hich charge a tru tee 5ith the pro!it ac8uire$ &y the 5rong!ul u e o! the property o! the ce tui 8ue tru t1 an$ $e!en$antJ pro!it are regar$e$ a an e8uita&le 'ea ure o! the co'pen ation plainti!! houl$ recei)e !or the pa t har' u!!ere$ &y hi', The co'plaint !or un!air co'petition i &a ically a uit !or Kin?unction an$ $a'age K +-ec, 471 R,A, 6>>#, In?unction !or the purpo e o! en?oining the unla5!ul co'petitor !ro' procee$ing !urther 5ith the unla5!ul co'petition an$ $a'age 1 in or$er to allo5 the aggrie)e$ party to reco)er the $a'age he ha u!!ere$ &y )irtue o! the ai$ unla5!ul co'petition, "ONVERSE RUBBER "ORP. ?s. JA"INTO RUBBER F P ASTI"S "O.6 IN". BG,R, No , L* 4D.4F T L*7AFAF, April 4G1 6EGAC 9e !in$ the hoe 'anu!acture$ &y $e!en$ant to contain1 a !oun$ &y the trial court1 practically all the !eature o! tho e o! the plainti!! Con)er e Ru&&er Corporation an$ 'anu!acture$1 ol$ or 'ar(ete$ &y plainti!! E$5ar$ on ;anu!acturing Corporation1 e3cept !or their re pecti)e &ran$ 1 o! cour e, The re pecti)e $e ign 1 hape 1 the color o! the an(le patche 1 the &an$ 1 the toe patch an$ the ole o! the t5o pro$uct are e3actly the a'e uch that at a $i tance o! a !e5 'eter 1 it i i'po i&le to $i tingui h KCu to'&uiltK !ro' KChuc( TaylorK, The e ele'ent are 'ore than u!!icient to er)e a &a i !or a charge o! un!air co'petition, E)en i! not all the $etail ?u t 'entione$ 5ere i$entical1 5ith the general appearance alone o! the t5o pro$uct 1 any or$inary1 or e)en perhap e)en a not too percepti)e an$ $i cri'inating cu to'er coul$ &e $ecei)e$1 an$1 there!ore1 Cu to'&uilt coul$ ea ily &e pa e$ o!! !or Chuc( Taylor, A tra$e ha $e)elope$ an$ co''ercial change ha)e co'e a&out1 the la5 o! un!air co'petition ha e3pan$e$ to (eep pace 5ith the ti'e an$ the ele'ent o! trict co'petition in it el! ha cea e$ to &e the $eter'ining !actor, The o5ner o! a tra$e'ar( or tra$e*na'e ha property right in 5hich he i entitle$ to protection1 ince there i $a'age to hi' !ro' con!u ion o! reputation or goo$5ill in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic a 5ell a !ro' con!u ion o! goo$ , The 'o$ern tren$ i to gi)e e'pha i to the un!airne o! the act an$ to cla i!y an$ treat the i ue a !rau$ +citation o'itte$#, SO ID TRIAN9 E SA ES "ORPORATION ?s. S=ERI** BG,R, No, 6..7AE, No)e'&er 471 4AA6C The e)i$ence pre ente$ &e!ore the trial court $oe not pro)e un!air co'petition un$er -ection 6>G o! the Intellectual Property Co$e, -anly Corporation $i$ not pa o!! the u&?ect goo$ a that o! another, In$ee$1 it a$'it that the goo$ are genuine ;it u&i hi photographic paper1 5hich it purcha e$ !ro' a upplier in 0ong Oong, iii. Action for fa)-e or frau/u)ent #ec)aration -ECTION 6>4, Action -or *alse or *raudulent Declaration. R Any per on 5ho hall procure regi tration in the O!!ice o! a 'ar( &y a !al e or !rau$ulent $eclaration or

repre entation1 5hether oral or in 5riting1 or &y any !al e 'ean 1 hall &e lia&le in a ci)il action &y any per on in?ure$ there&y !or any $a'age u taine$ in con e8uence thereo!, -ECTION 6>7, Jurisdiction o- "ourt, R All action un$er -ection 6FA1 6FF1 6>.1 an$ 6>> to 6>E hall &e &rought &e!ore the proper court 5ith appropriate ?uri $iction un$er e3i ting la5 , -ECTION 6>., Notice o- *iling Suit 9i?en to t&e Director. R It hall &e the $uty o! the cler( o! uch court 5ithin one +6# 'onth a!ter the !iling o! any action1 uit1 or procee$ing in)ol)ing a 'ar( regi tere$ un$er the pro)i ion o! thi Act1 to noti!y the Director in 5riting etting !orth" the na'e an$ a$$re e o! the litigant an$ $e ignating the nu'&er o! the regi tration or regi tration an$ 5ithin one +6# 'onth a!ter the ?u$g'ent i entere$ or an appeal i ta(en1 the cler( o! court hall gi)e notice thereo! to the O!!ice1 an$ the latter hall en$or e the a'e upon the !ile5rapper o! the ai$ regi tration or regi tration an$ incorporate the a'e a a part o! the content o! ai$ !ile5rapper, -ECTION 474, Appeals. R 474,6, Appeal !ro' $eci ion o! regular court hall &e go)erne$ &y the Rule o! Court, Unle re traine$ &y a higher court1 the ?u$g'ent o! the trial court hall &e e3ecutory e)en pen$ing appeal un$er uch ter' an$ con$ition a the court 'ay pre cri&e, 474,4, Unle e3pre ly pro)i$e$ in thi Act or other tatute 1 appeal !ro' $eci ion o! a$'ini trati)e o!!icial hall &e pro)i$e$ in the Regulation ,
c. Cri.ina)

-ECTION 6DA, Penalties. R In$epen$ent o! the ci)il an$ a$'ini trati)e anction i'po e$ &y la51 a cri'inal penalty o! i'pri on'ent !ro' t5o +4# year to !i)e +F# year an$ a !ine ranging !ro' /i!ty thou an$ pe o +PFA1AAA# to T5o hun$re$ thou an$ pe o +P4AA1AAA#1 hall &e i'po e$ on any per on 5ho i !oun$ guilty o! co''itting any o! the act 'entione$ in -ection 6FF1 -ection 6>G an$ -u& ection 6>E,6, S! ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, L*7D.E., ;arch 7A1 6EG4C In the opinion o! the trial court1 the !ir t in!or'ation $i$ not properly charge the o!!en e o! in!ringe'ent o! tra$e'ar(1 !or 5hat 5a e3pre ly charge$ 5a un!air co'petition, There!ore1 there i no $ou&le ?eopar$y e)en on the pre'i e tat :regi tration< i not an e ential ele'ent o! the o!!en e charge$,

RA#ENA%ES

1. #E$INI I"N -ECTION 646,7, K ra/e na.eK 'ean the na'e or $e ignation i$enti!ying or $i tingui hing an enterpri e% +-ec, 7G1 R,A, No, 6>>a# "ONVERSE RUBBER ?s. UNIVERSA RUBBER BG,R, No, L*4DEA>, Panuary G1 6EGDC A tra/e na.e i any in$i)i$ual na'e or urna'e1 !ir' na'e1 $e)ice or 5or$ u e$ &y

'anu!acturer 1 in$u triali t 1 'erchant an$ other to i$enti!y their &u ine e 1 )ocation or occupation , A the tra$e na'e re!er to the &u ine an$ it goo$5ill the tra$e'ar( re!er to the goo$ , The o5ner hip o! a tra$e'ar( or tra$ena'e i a property right 5hich the o5ner i entitle$ to protect ince there i $a'age to hi' !ro' con!u ion or reputation or goo$5ill in the 'in$ o! the pu&lic a 5ell a !ro' con!u ion o! goo$ , The 'o$ern tren$ i to gi)e e'pha i to the un!airne o! the act an$ to cla i!y an$ treat the i ue a !rau$ +citation o'itte$#, 2. 2(A %A: N" *E 'SE# AS A RA#E NA%E; -ECTION 6>F, Trade Na'es or Business Na'es. R 6>F,6, A na'e or $e ignation 'ay not &e u e$ a a tra$e na'e i! &y it nature or the u e to 5hich uch na'e or $e ignation 'ay &e put1 it i contrary to pu&lic or$er or 'oral an$ i!1 in particular1 it i lia&le to $ecei)e tra$e circle or the pu&lic a to the nature o! the enterpri e i$enti!ie$ &y that na'e, 3. RI&( S "$ RA#E NA%E "2NER -ECTION 6>F,4, +a# Not5ith tan$ing any la5 or regulation pro)i$ing !or any o&ligation to regi ter tra$e na'e 1 uch na'e hall &e protecte$1 e)en prior to or 5ithout regi tration1 again t any unla5!ul act co''itte$ &y thir$ partie , +&# In particular1 any u& e8uent u e o! the tra$e na'e &y a thir$ party1 5hether a a tra$e na'e or a 'ar( or collecti)e 'ar(1 or any uch u e o! a i'ilar tra$e na'e or 'ar(1 li(ely to 'i lea$ the pu&lic1 hall &e $ee'e$ unla5!ul, 6>F,7, The re'e$ie pro)i$e$ !or in -ection 6F7 to 6F> an$ -ection 6>> an$ 6>D hall apply 'utati 'utan$i , 6>F,., Any change in the o5ner hip o! a tra$e na'e hall &e 'a$e 5ith the tran !er o! the enterpri e or part thereo! i$enti!ie$ &y that na'e, The pro)i ion o! -u& ection 6.E,4 to 6.E,. hall apply 'utati 'utan$i , P=I IPS E$PORT B.V. ?s. "OURT O* APPEA S BG,R, No, E>6>6, /e&ruary 461 6EE4C A corporationJ right to u e it corporate an$ tra$e na'e i a property right1 a right in re'1 5hich it 'ay a ert an$ protect again t the 5orl$ in the a'e 'anner a it 'ay protect it tangi&le property1 real or per onal1 again t tre pa or con)er ion, It i regar$e$1 to a certain e3tent1 a a property right an$ one 5hich cannot &e i'paire$ or $e!eate$ &y u& e8uent appropriation &y another corporation in the a'e !iel$, A na'e i peculiarly i'portant a nece ary to the )ery e3i tence o! a corporation, It na'e i one o! it attri&ute 1 an ele'ent o! it e3i tence1 an$ e ential to it i$entity, The general rule a to corporation i that each corporation 'u t ha)e a na'e &y 5hich it i to ue an$ &e ue$ an$ $o all legal act , The na'e o! a corporation in thi re pect $e ignate the corporation in the a'e 'anner a the na'e o! an in$i)i$ual $e ignate the per on% an$ the right to u e it corporate na'e i a 'uch a part o! the corporate !ranchi e a any other pri)ilege grante$, The right to the e3clu i)e u e o! a corporate na'e 5ith !ree$o' !ro' in!ringe'ent &y i'ilarity i $eter'ine$ &y priority o! a$option, In $eter'ining the e3i tence o! con!u ing i'ilarity in corporate na'e 1 the te t i 5hether the i'ilarity i uch a to 'i lea$ a per on u ing or$inary care an$ $i cri'ination, In o $oing1 the Court 'u t loo( to the recor$ a 5ell a the na'e the' el)e , It i ettle$1 ho5e)er1 that proo! o! actual con!u ion nee$ not &e ho5n, It u!!ice that con!u ion i pro&a&ly or li(ely to occur, The u& e8uent appropriator o! the na'e or one con!u ingly i'ilar thereto u ually ee( an un!air a$)antage1 a !ree ri$e on anotherJ goo$5ill, A corporation ha an e3clu i)e right to the u e o! it na'e1 5hich 'ay &e protecte$ &y in?unction upon a principle i'ilar to that upon 5hich per on are protecte$ in the u e o!

tra$e'ar( an$ tra$ena'e , -uch principle procee$ upon the theory that it i a !rau$ on the corporation 5hich ha ac8uire$ a right to that na'e an$ perhap carrie$ on it &u ine thereun$er1 that another houl$ atte'pt to u e the a'e na'e1 or the a'e na'e 5ith a light )ariation in uch a 5ay a to in$uce per on to $eal 5ith it in the &elie! that they are $ealing 5ith the corporation 5hich ha gi)en a reputation to the na'e, AR3"O STEE "ORPORATION ?s. SE" BG,R, No, L*F.FGA, Dece'&er 4E1 6EGDC The Court !in$ that the ai$ a'en$'ent in the corporate na'e o! petitioner i not in u& tantial co'pliance 5ith the or$er o! /e&ruary 6.1 6EDF, In$ee$ it i in contra)ention there5ith, To repeat1 the or$er 5a !or the re'o)al o! the 5or$ KAR;COK !ro' the corporate na'e o! the petitioner 5hich it !aile$ to $o, An$ e)en i! thi change o! corporate na'e 5a erroneou ly accepte$ an$ appro)e$ in the -EC it cannot there&y legali2e nor change 5hat i clearly unauthori2e$ i! not conte'ptuou act o! petitioner in ecuring the regi tration o! a ne5 corporate na'e again t the )ery or$er o! the -EC o! /e&ruary 6.1 6EDF, Certainly the ai$ or$er o! /e&ruary 6.1 6EDF i not ren$ere$ !unctu o!icio there&y, 0a$ petitioner re)eale$ at the ti'e o! the regi tration o! it a'en$e$ corporate na'e that there 5a the ai$ or$er1 the regi tration o! the a'en$e$ corporate na'e coul$ not ha)e &een accepte$ an$ appro)e$ &y the per on in*charge o! the regi tration, The actuation in thi re pect o! petitioner are !ar !ro' regular 'uch le in goo$ !aith, AR;CO -TEEL*P0ILIPPINE-1 ha not only an i$entical na'e &ut al o a i'ilar line o! &u ine 1 a ho5n a&o)e1 a that o! AR;CO -TEEL*O0IO, People 5ho are &uying an$ u ing pro$uct &earing the tra$e'ar( JAr'coJ 'ight &e le$ to &elie)e that uch pro$uct are 'anu!acture$ &y the re pon$ent1 5hen in !act1 they 'ight actually &e pro$uce$ &y the petitioner , Thu 1 the goo$5ill that houl$ gro5 an$ inure to the &ene!it o! petitioner coul$ &e i'paire$ an$ pre?u$ice$ &y the continue$ u e o! the a'e ter' &y the re pon$ent +8uoting the -EC#, WESTERN E<UIP3ENT AND SUPP ! "O3PAN! ?s. RE!ES BG,R, No, 4DGED, Dece'&er 41 6E4DC The right to the u e o! the corporate an$ tra$e na'e o! a !oreign corporation i a property right1 a right in re'1 5hich it 'ay a ert an$ protect in any o! the court o! the 5orl$ e)en in countrie 5here it $oe not per onally tran act any &u ine , In uch a ca e1 it i the tra$e an$ not the 'ar( that i to &e protecte$1 an$ a tra$e*'ar( $oe not ac(no5le$ge any territorial &oun$arie 1 &ut e3ten$ to e)ery 'ar(et 5here the tra$erJ goo$ ha)e &eco'e (no5n an$ i$enti!ie$ &y the u e o! the 'ar(,

COLLECTIVE 8AR@S

1. #E$INI I"N -ECTION 646,4, KCo))ective .ar@K 'ean any )i i&le ign $e ignate$ a uch in the application !or regi tration an$ capa&le o! $i tingui hing the origin or any other co''on characteri tic1 inclu$ing the 8uality o! goo$ or er)ice o! $i!!erent enterpri e 5hich u e the ign un$er the control o! the regi tere$ o5ner o! the collecti)e 'ar(, 2. RE&IS RA I"N -ECTION 6>D, "ollecti?e 3ar/s. R 6>D,6, -u&?ect to -u& ection 6>D,4 an$ 6>D,71 -ection 644 to 6>. an$ 6>> hall apply to collecti)e 'ar( 1 e3cept that re!erence therein to K'ar(K hall &e rea$ a Kcollecti)e 'ar(K, 6>D,4, +a# An application !or regi tration o! a collecti)e 'ar( hall $e ignate the 'ar( a a collecti)e 'ar( an$ hall &e acco'panie$ &y a copy o! the agree'ent1 i! any1 go)erning the u e o! the collecti)e 'ar(, +&# The regi tere$ o5ner o! a collecti)e 'ar( hall noti!y the Director o! any change 'a$e in re pect o! the agree'ent re!erre$ to in paragraph +a#, 6>D,7, In a$$ition to the groun$ pro)i$e$ in -ection 6.E1 the Court hall cancel the regi tration o! a collecti)e 'ar( i! the per on re8ue ting the cancellation pro)e that only the regi tere$ o5ner u e the 'ar(1 or that he u e or per'it it u e in contra)ention o! the agree'ent re!erre$ to in -u& ection 6>>,4 or that he u e or per'it it u e in a 'anner lia&le to $ecei)e tra$e circle or the pu&lic a to the origin or any other co''on characteri tic o! the goo$ or er)ice concerne$, 6>D,., The regi tration o! a collecti)e 'ar(1 or an application there!or hall not &e the u&?ect o! a licen e contract,