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Sparrow History 24 September 2013 Japanese Internment Camps

Primary
Casualties of War Americas Historical News 1690-2000, Readex 1942, September 30 2013. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin signed The Executive Order 9066, That moved over 110,000 Japanese Americans into Internment camps all around the west coast, in Oregon, California, and Washington. They were only allowed to take what they could carry to the Internment camps. Most of the camps were hastily made into barracks with a toilets and a dining room, they offered little to no heat. After the war ended many went home and acted like nothing happened while some wanted compensation, in 1988 the congress passed The Civil Liberties act of 1988 apologizing to Japanese Americans by giving each one who wanted compensation 20,000 dollars.

Roger Daniels, Asian America: Chinese and Japanese in the United States since 1850 Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988 Historylink Web September 30, 2013. The assembly centers that was what washington was mostly used for and the evacuation of the Japanese americans out of seattle.

Secondary

Takagi, Midori. "Japanese American Internment Camps." St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture. Ed. Sara Pendergast and Tom Pendergast. Vol. 2. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 525526. U.S. History In Context. Web. 30 Sept. 2013. The states that took part in the internment camps Gila River, Arizona; Granada, Colorado; Heart Mountain, Wyoming; Jerome, Arkansas; Manzanar, California; Minidoka, Idaho; Poston, Arizona; Rohwer, Arkansas; Topaz, and California; Tule Lake. Tule Lake had the largest Japanese Americans being held, it held 19,000 internes, while Grenada only held 7,000. The internment camps had barbed wire and armed guards surrounding the outside perimeter of the camps. Executive Order 9066 was put into place after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that brought us into WWII.

Richard Berner. Seattle Transformed: World War II to the Cold War. Seattle, WA: Charles Press, 1999. Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project p. 29. The movement of the first 300 Japanese Americans moved to camp Harmony from Bainbridge Island then the 2,000 more from Seattle and the Effects of pearl harbor on the Japanese Americans

Washington state fair TheFair.com : Site Information : About Us : History Puyallup, Wa. How the Government took over the fairgrounds and made it into a relocation area where Japanese Americans would be transferred from there to other internment camps.

PBS.org Children of the camps Copyright Satsuki Ina 1999, october 9, 2013. The children of that were moved into the internment camps, most of the 110,00 moved were under age. The living environments, where they lived, how was it, and how many people lived there.

Japanese Internment Camps Copyright 2008-2013 ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942. The areas of the internment camps, About Franklin D. Roosevelt when he approved 9066, and the number of people moved into and out of Camps Harmony and other detention centers.

Information Please Database, 2007 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 20002013 Pearson Education. The U.S. Government paying reparations to the 60,000 internees wanting compensation. During this many people said that this was breaking their fifth amendment right, but the supreme court ruled in favor of the U.S. Government. Many people were put into tapered together bunkers from military bases. ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942. Despite any evidence almost all Japanese Americans were considered loyal spies to Japan still. Fred Korematsu challenged the legality of Executive Order 9066 but the Supreme Court ruled the action was justified as a wartime necessity. It was not until 1988 that the U.S. government attempted to apologize to those who had been interned.

"Japanese Internment in America." Prejudice in the Modern World Reference Library. Vol. 2: Almanac. Detroit: UXL, 2007. 259-278. World History In Context. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. By 1900 there were over 20,000 Issea (first generation immigrants from Japan) in North America. After Pearl Harbor Many speculated that the Japanese Army would attack America from the West coast. Those living in California, Oregon, Washington, and Arizona were removed from their homes and placed in internment camps throughout the United States.

Showalter, Dennis, and F. H. Min Min Lo. "Japanese Internment: Was the Internment of Japanese Americans and Japanese Canadians During the War Justified?"History in Dispute. Ed. Dennis Showalter. Vol. 5: World War II, 1943-1945. Detroit: St. James Press, 2000. 183-190. World History In Context. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. The Governments main concern at the time was preventing a second Pearl Harbor. The 1940 U.S. census recorded that the Japanese population totaled 126,948, constituting about .02 percent of the total population and .1 percent of the population of California. The FBI found no evidence of espionage on any of the Japanese Internees.

"Franklin D. Roosevelt Authorizes Japanese Internment: February 19, 1942." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Vol. 6: North America. Detroit: Gale, 2013. World History In Context. Web. 23 Oct. 2013. On the morning of December 7, 1941 A day that live in infamy the Japanese Naval force launched an attack on Pearl Harbor. Their aim was to crush the U.S. Naval fleet so they could not attack them by sea. Four American battleships in harbor were sunk; four others were

badly damaged. Three cruisers and three destroyers were also sunk, and 2,402 Americans were killed. One of the Battleships the Arizona is sunk but still used as a monument to remember all the lives lost.

Lisa Kinoshito, Seattle Remembers the Japanese Internment, February 2012, History Seattlemag.com, Web November 5, 2013. Before World War II, immigrants from Scandinavia and other parts of Europe lived and worked alongside those from Japan, China, Hawaii and the Philippines to make their living on Bainbridge Island. During the internment, many Bainbridge Islanders cared for their evacuated neighbors property while they were away.

The Japanese American Legacy Project, Densho.org, 1997-2012, Densh, Web November 5, 2013. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt cited military necessity as the basis for incarcerating 120,000 Japanese Americans. In 1983, however, a U.S. congressional commission uncovered evidence from the 1940s proving that there had been no military necessity for the unequal, unjust treatment of Japanese Americans during WWII.

Abundant Dreams Diverted, seattletimes.com, 1996, Web, November 5 2013. Camp Harmony, at the Puyallup fairgrounds, was a temporary detention center for Japanese "evacuees" on their way to camps farther inland. Japanese farmers turned hundreds of acres in Bellevue and the White River Valley into a lush farmland.