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Cloud computing

Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. The concept incorporates infrastructure as a service (IaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) as well as other recent (ca. 2007–2009)[6][7]technology trends that have the common theme of reliance on the Internet for satisfying the computing needs of the users. Cloud computing services usually provide common business applications online that are accessed from a web browser, while the software and data are stored on the servers. The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on how the Internet is depicted in computer network diagrams, and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals.

Brief
Comparisons
Cloud computing is often confused with grid computing ("a form of distributed computing whereby a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of networked, loosely-coupled computers, acting in concert to perform very large tasks"), utility computing (the "packaging of computing, such as computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public utility such as electricity") and autonomic ("computer systems capable of self-management"). Indeed many cloud computing deployments as of 2009 depend on grids, have autonomic characteristics and bill like utilities — but cloud computing can be seen as a natural next step from the grid-utility model. Some successful cloud architectures have little or no centralized infrastructure or billing systems whatsoever, including peer-to-peer networks like BitTorrent and Skype and volunteer computing like http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SETI@home.[12][13]

Architecture
The majority of cloud computing infrastructure, as of 2009, consists of reliable services delivered through data centers and built on servers with different levels of virtualization technologies. The services are accessible anywhere that has access to networking infrastructure. The Cloud appears as a single point of access for all the computing needs of consumers. Commercial offerings need to meet the quality of service requirements of customers and typically offer service level agreements. Open standards are critical to the growth of cloud computing and open source software has provided the foundation for many cloud computing implementations.

including capital expenditure (CapEx) and operational expenditure (OpEx) Cloud computing users can avoid capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware. software and services. It is being adopted by individual users through large enterprises including General Electric and Procter & Gamble History . resources consumed. shared infrastructure and costs. Companies IBM. while others are billed on a subscription basis. they avoid capital expenditure by renting usage from a third-party provider. as servers are not left idle. like a newspaper) basis with little or no upfront cost. time based. Sharing "perishable and intangible" computing power among multiple tenants can improve utilization rates. He argues that the cloud computing paradigm shift is similar to the displacement of electricity generators by electricity early in the 20th century. Users can generally terminate the contract at any time (thereby avoiding return on investment risk and uncertainty) and the services are often covered by service level agreements with financial penalties. Microsoft and Yahoo are some of the major cloud computing service providers. Instead. like electricity) or subscription (e. Adoption has been enabled by "increased high-speed bandwidth" which makes it possible to receive the same response times from centralized infrastructure at other sites. which can reduce costs significantly while increasing the speed of application development. low management overhead and immediate access to a broad range of applications. According to Nicholas Carr the strategic importance of information technology is diminishing as it becomes standardized and cheaper.Characteristics The customers engaging in cloud computing do not own the physical infrastructure serving as host to the software platform in question.g. Amazon. Many cloudcomputing offerings have adopted the utility computing model.g. Economics Diagram showing economics of cloud computing versus traditional IT. rather paying a provider only for what they use. Consumption is billed on a utility (e. Goggle. Other benefits of this time sharing style approach are low barriers to entry. A side effect of this approach is that "computer capacity rises dramatically" as customers do not have to engineer for peak loads. which is analogous to how traditional utilities like electricity are consumed. They consume resources as a service. paying instead for only the resources they use.

Business users have enthusiastically welcomed the resulting flexibility and speed. The underlying concept dates back to 1960 when John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility". and a number of universities embarking on a large scale cloud computing research project. and other system elements that can be virtualized across an enterprise. They also provided the concept of "On demand" and "SaaS" (Software as a Service) with their real business and successful customers.[25]around the time the term started gaining popularity in the mainstream press. A common depiction in network diagrams is a cloud outline. having found that the new cloud architecture resulted in significant internal efficiency improvements. much like a cloud network. self-configuring. Parker Harris. applications. the term "cloud computing" had started to appear. indeed it shares characteristics with service bureaus which date back to the 1960s. It was a hot topic by mid-2008 and numerous cloud computing events had been scheduled.The Cloud is a term that borrows from telephony. The term "telecom cloud" was used to describe this type of networking. servers. Cloud Computing is very similar. and self-optimizing in the management of complex IT systems with heterogeneous storage.[23]although most of the focus at this time was on Software as a service (SaaS). In the '90s long haul telephone companies began offering Virtual Private Network service for data communications. it is impossible to determine how many such VMs are going to be running at any given time. Amazon. Gartner Research observed that "organizations are switching from company-owned hardware and software assets to per-use service-based models" and that the "projected shift to cloud computing will result in dramatic growth in IT products in some areas and in significant reductions in other areas. IBM. Up until the '90s data circuits (including those that carried Internet traffic) were hard-wired between destinations. they are location in-specific as well.com was established by Marc Benioff. In 1999. In the early 2000s. networks. IBM detailed these concepts in 2001 in the Autonomic Computing Manifesto -.[26] In August 2008. The telephone companies were able to offer these VPN based services with the same guaranteed bandwidth as fixed circuits at a lower cost because they maintained the ability to switch traffic to balance utilization as they saw fit. Because these virtual instances are spawned on demand. security mechanisms. 2007 saw increased activity. Microsoft extended the concept of SaaS through the development of web services. The key for SaaS is being customizable by customer alone or with a small amount of help.which described advanced automation techniques such as self-monitoring. They applied many technologies of consumer web sites like Google and Yahoo! to business applications. Salesforce. providing access to their systems by way of Amazon Web Services in 2005 on a utility computing basis. Cloud computing relies heavily on virtual machines (VMs) that are spawned on demand to meet the user's needs. and his fellows. thus utilizing their overall network bandwidth more effectively. It is indeed only possible to use applications or services that the provider is . self-healing. As these VMs can be spawned on any given computer as conditions demand. As a result of this arrangement it was thus impossible to determine in advance precisely what the path was going to be.[22] By the turn of the 21st century.com played a key role in the development of cloud computing by modernizing their data centers after the dot-com bubble and."[27] Vendor lock-in concerns Cloud computing has been criticized for limiting the freedom of users and making them dependent on the cloud computing provider. with Goggle. The term cloud had already come into commercial use in the early 1990s to refer to large ATM networks.

[28] Similarly. as of 2009 providers such as Amazon Web Services cater to the major markets (typically the United States and the European Union) zones. believes that cloud computing endangers liberties because users sacrifice their privacy and personal data to a third party. Users had no freedom to install new applications and needed approval from the administrator to achieve certain tasks. Thus The Times compares cloud computing to old mainframes of the 1950s and 60s. Trademark 77. it limited both freedom and creativity. Despite efforts (such as US-EU Safe Harbor) to harmonize the legal environment. proprietary systems that would cost them more and more over time. The Times argues that cloud computing is a regression to that time. On September 30.287) for "CloudOS". lists seven security issues which one should discuss with a cloud-computing vendor: . USPTO issued a "Notice of Allowance" to CGactive LLC (U.g. where libertarian thinkers felt that "cyberspace was a distinct place calling for laws and legal institutions of its own".S. Legal issues In March 2007. author Neal Stephenson envisaged this as a tiny island data haven called Kinakuta in his classic sciencefiction novel Cryptonomicon. the USA PATRIOT Act and use of national security letters and the Electronic Communications Privacy Act's Stored Communications Act."[30] As such it becomes subject to complex geopolitical issues: providers must satisfy myriad regulatory environments in order to deliver service to a global market. a version of GPLv3 designed to close a perceived legal loophole associated with Free software designed to be run over a network."[29] Political issues The Cloud spans many borders and "may be the ultimate form of globalization.139. 2008. such as Microsoft Azure[32].355.S. founder of the Free Software Foundation. Richard Stallman. Trademark 77. One technology analyst and consulting firm. the Free Software Foundation released the Affero General Public License. there are still concerns about security and privacy from individual through governmental level. He stated that cloud computing "was simply a trap aimed at forcing more people to buy into locked..willing to offer. Dell applied to trademark the term "cloud computing" (U. An application service provider is required to release any changes they make to Affero GPL open source code. 2008[33]. The "Notice of Allowance" it received in July 2008 was canceled on August 6. Gartner. A cloud operating system is a generic operating system that "manage[s] the relationship between software inside the computer and on the Web". to which users connected via "dumb" terminals. resulting in a formal rejection of the trademark application less than a week later. This dates back to the early days of the Internet.082) in the United States. Good OS LLC also announced their "Cloud" operating system on December 1st.[citation needed] Risk mitigation Corporations or end-users wishing to avoid not being able to access their data — or even losing it — should research vendors' policies on data security before using vendor services. e. In November 2007. particularly software as a service." by [31] deploying local infrastructure and allowing customers to select "availability Nonetheless. Overall.

electricity. Security typically improves due to centralization of data. then regardless of the service provider's security and encryption policies.[37] Device and location independence enable users to access systems using a web browser regardless of their location or what device they are using.. Regulatory compliance—make sure a vendor is willing to undergo external audits and/or security certifications 3.1. If you encrypt the data using a trusted algorithm. Determining data security is harder. self-service basis near real-time. PC. as infrastructure is typically provided by a third-party and does not need to be purchased for one-time or infrequent intensive computing tasks. Nonetheless. increased security-focused resources. seeing how long it takes. Privileged user access—inquire about who has specialized access to data and about the hiring and management of such administrators 2. etc. mobile. Pricing on a utility computing basis is fine-grained with usage-based options and minimal or no IT skills are required for implementation.g. the data will only be accessible with the decryption keys. e. without users having to engineer for peak loads.. As infrastructure is off-site (typically provided by a third-party) and accessed via the Internet the users can connect from anywhere. Investigative Support—inquire whether a vendor has the ability to investigate any inappropriate or illegal activity 7. which makes it suitable for business continuity and disaster recovery. allowing for: Centralization of infrastructure in areas with lower costs (such as real estate.[37] Multi-tenancy enables sharing of resources and costs among a large pool of users. one can best determine data-recovery capabilities by experiment: asking to get back old data. Data location—ask if a provider allows for any control over the location of data 4. This lowers barriers to entry. most major cloud computing services have suffered outages and IT and business managers are able to do little when they are affected. and verifying that the checksums match the original data. This leads to a follow-on problem: managing private keys in a pay-on-demand computing infrastructure. but raises concerns about loss of control over certain sensitive data. Cost is greatly reduced and capital expenditure is converted to operational expenditure. how will data be returned and in what format In practice. etc. Reliability improves through the use of multiple redundant sites. do they offer complete restoration and. Long-term viability—ask what will happen to data if the company goes out of business. Performance is monitored and consistent and loosely-coupled architectures are constructed using web services as the system interface. Recovery—find out what will happen to data in the case of a disaster. A tactic not covered by Gartner is to encrypt the data yourself. how long that would take 6. Security is often as good as or . Scalability via dynamic ("on-demand") provisioning of resources on a fine-grained. Key characteristics Agility improves with users able to rapidly and inexpensively re-provision technological infrastructure resources. if so. Data segregation—make sure that encryption is available at all stages and that these "encryption schemes were designed and tested by experienced professionals" 5.) Peak-load capacity increases (users need not engineer for highest possible load-levels) Utilization and efficiency improvements for systems that are often only 10-20% utilized.

is essentially useless without it. and support. in either case. but accessing the audit logs themselves can be difficult or impossible. Providers typically log accesses.[46] Components Six layers components of cloud computing Application A cloud application leverages the Cloud in software architecture. thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance. For example: Peer-to-peer / volunteer computing (Bittorrent. more efficient systems. computers and associated infrastructure are major consumers of energy. SAP and Salesforce) Software plus services (Microsoft Online Services) Client A cloud client consists of computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on cloud computing for application delivery. Skype) Web application (Facebook) Software as a service (Google Apps. often eliminating the need to install and run the application on the customer's own computer. and carbon neutrality. For example: Mobile (Android. ongoing operation. iPhone. BOINC Projects. Mozilla Firefox) Infrastructure . Zonbu. in part because providers are able to devote resources to solving security issues that many customers cannot afford. Windows Mobile) Thin client (CherryPal. or which is specifically designed for delivery of cloud services and which. gOS-based systems) Thick client / Web browser (Google Chrome.[44][45] Nonetheless.better than traditional systems. Sustainability comes about through improved resource utilization.

Google Checkout. typically a platform virtualization environment. Google App Engine's BigTable datastore) Network attached storage (MobileMe iDisk. Nirvanix SDN) Backup (Backup Direct. or end users directly. For example: Web application frameworks Python Django (Google App Engine) Ruby on Rails (Heroku) . as a service. and/or solution stack as a service. Software plus services. the delivery of a computing platform. including database-like services. such as Infrastructure as a service.NET (Azure Services Platform) Web hosting (Mosso) Proprietary (Force.Cloud infrastructure.g. The SNIA is creating standards for Cloud Storage. often billed on a utility computing basis. e.g. Nirvanix CloudNAS) Synchronization (Live Mesh Live Desktop component.[55] For example: Full virtualization (GoGrid. For example: Database (Amazon SimpleDB. Iron Mountain Inc services) Cloud storage can be delivered as a service to cloud computing. For example.com) Platform A cloud platform. Web Services ("software system[s] designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network") which may be accessed by other cloud computing components. e. such as Platform as a service. Skytap) Grid computing (Sun Grid) Management (RightScale) Compute (Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud) Platform (Force. is the delivery of computer infrastructure. Yahoo! Maps) Search (Alexa. Architecture . facilitates deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers. software. Yahoo! BOSS) Others (Amazon Mechanical Turk) Storage Cloud storage involves the delivery of data storage as a service.[58] Specific examples include: Identity (OAuth. PayPal) Mapping (Google Maps. or can be delivered to end points directly. MobileMe push functions) Web service (Amazon Simple Storage Service...com) Service A cloud service includes "products. per gigabyte per month. services and solutions that are delivered and consumed in real-time over the Internet". OpenID) Integration (Amazon Simple Queue Service) Payments (Amazon Flexible Payments Service. Google Custom Search.

comprises hardware and software designed by a cloud architect who typically works for a cloud integrator. where web browsers and/or software applications access cloud applications. This closely resembles the Unix philosophy of having multiple programs doing one thing well and working together over universal interfaces. Cloud architecture extends to the client. Cloud storage architecture is loosely coupled. via web applications/web services.Cloud computing sample architecture Cloud architecture. self-service basis over the Internet. Hybrid cloud . Complexity is controlled and the resulting systems are more manageable than their monolithic counterparts. usually web services. from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a finegrained utility computing basis. It typically involves multiple cloud components communicating [61] with each other over application programming interfaces. where metadata operations are centralized enabling the data nodes to scale into the hundreds.[60] the systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of cloud computing. each independently delivering data to applications or users. whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained. Types Cloud computing types Public cloud Public cloud or external cloud describes cloud computing in the traditional mainstream sense.

build. They have been criticized on the basis that users "still have to buy.A hybrid cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers "will be typical for most enterprises".com was the first such provider. fast-moving groups to add new features faster and easier. though such offerings including Microsoft's Azure Services Platform are not available for on-premises deployment. and they went on to open it up to outsiders as Amazon Web Services in 2002 on a utility computing basis. were using as little as 10% of its capacity at any one time just to leave room for occasional spikes. and reliability concerns. User A user is a consumer of cloud computing. These (typically virtualization automation) products claim to "deliver some benefits of cloud computing without the pitfalls". The barrier to entry is also significantly higher with capital expenditure required and billing and management creates some overhead. essentially "[lacking] the economic model that makes cloud computing such an intriguing concept".[24] The companies listed in the Components section are providers. This allowed small. and manage them" and as such do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management. for example in reference to platform as a service offerings. Analysts have reported on Platform's view that private clouds are a stepping stone to external clouds. although they do not benefit from the same economies of scale and still have to engineer for peak loads. The term has also been used in the logical rather than physical sense. there is some uncertainty whether they are a reality even within the same firm. The privacy of users in cloud computing has become of increasing concern. Nonetheless. and that future datacenters will look like internal clouds. The rights of users is also an issue. capitalizing on data security. like most computer networks. particularly for the financial services. Usually this requires significant resources and expertise in building and managing next-generation data centers. significant operational efficiency and agility advantages can be realized. Roles Provider A cloud computing provider or cloud computing service provider owns and operates live cloud computing systems to deliver service to third parties. Analysts also claim that within five years a "huge percentage" of small and medium enterprises will get most of their computing resources from external cloud computing providers as they "will not have economies of scale to make it worth staying in the IT business" or be able to afford private clouds. Amazon. which is being addressed via a community effort to create a bill of rights. modernizing its data centers which. corporate governance. even by small organizations. While an analyst predicted in 2008 that private cloud networks would be the future of corporate IT. Vendor . Private cloud Private cloud and internal cloud are neologisms that some vendors have recently used to describe offerings that emulate cloud computing on private networks. and server consolidation and virtualization rollouts are already well underway. Some organizations realize a subset of the benefits of cloud computing by becoming "internal" cloud providers and servicing themselves.

Xen) Standards Cloud standards. Linux KVM. IBM. Linux including Red Hat[80] and Ubuntu[81]) Platform virtualization (Citrix. Juniper Networks. XMPP) Security (OAuth. Hadoop) Operating systems (Solaris. IBM. HP. adoption and use of cloud computing. Sun xVM. Brocade Communications) Computer software (3tera. open standards. a number of existing. IBM) Infrastructure (Cisco Systems. Microsoft. have facilitated the growth of cloud computing. VMware. g-Eclipse. EMC. including:[82] Application Communications (HTTP. For example: Computer hardware (Dell. AIX. OpenID. JSON) Web Services (REST) Storage . Sun Microsystems) Storage (Sun Microsystems. typically lightweight.Some vendors sell or give products and services that facilitate the delivery. Eucalyptus. SSL/TLS[83]) Syndication (Atom) Client Browsers (AJAX) Offline (HTML 5) Implementations Virtualization (OVF[84]) Platform Solution stacks (LAMP) Service Data (XML.