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EVIDENCE CASES (Escolin) DNA Case 1. Agustin vs. CA Wire-Tapping 2. G""n"n vs. IAC *. S"lce+o vs. CA ,. R"-i)e. v.

CA Judicial Admissions 5. /o))es vs. CA Judicial Notice 6. /"(uen" vs. CA 7. #uci+o v. C"lu2i3"n &. 4"guio v. De5"l"g"t On Tax Cases %. 46I$74 vs. CA 1!. C"l"-(" Steel Cente) vs. CIR

GR 162571 June 15 2!!5 GR #$6%&!% 'cto(e) 16 1%&6 G.R. No. 11!662. August , 1%%,. 2,& s 5%! G.R. No. #$*7,21. Jul0 *1

G.R. No. &5,2*. 1"0 6 1%%1 G.R. No. #$2&1!!. Nove-(e) 2% 1%71 G.R. No. 122,&!. A2)il 12 2!!! G.R. No. 151&57. A2)il 2& 2!!5

Rule 130 A. Ob ect !"idence Photographs 11. Sison v. 6eo2le 250 SCRA 58, November 6, 1995 #acts$ 'n Jul0 27 1%&6 in t3e "8te)-"t3 o8 t3e 1%&6 EDSA Revolution " )"ll0 9"s sc3e+ule+ to (e 3el+ "t t3e #unet" (0 t3e 1")cos lo0"lists. Des2ite (eing +enie+ " 2e)-it t3)ee t3ous"n+ o8 t3e- g"t3e)e+ "t t3e Ri."l 1onu-ent o8 t3e #unet" "n+ st")te+ "n i-2)o-2tu singing contest )ecite+ 2)"0e)s "n+ +elive)e+ s2eec3es in (et9een. :3en t3e "ut3o)ities "))ive+ "n+ no 2e)-it coul+ (e 2)o+uce+ t3e0 9e)e tol+ to +is2e)se. 'ne o8 t3e le"+e)s Att0. 'live) #o."no tu)ne+ to 3is g)ou2 "n+ s"i+ ; !"p#h#n n#n$o ang "ahat ng mga Cor$ #n%#"trators < "n+ " co--otion ensue+. /3e0 eventu"ll0 8le+ "n+ l"te) so-e o8 t3e- conve)ge+ "t t3e C3inese g")+en o8 #unet". Anot3e) co--otion ensue+ "n+ t3e lo0"lists st")te+ "tt"c=ing 2e)sons in 0ello9 t3e colo) o8 t3e ;Co)0ist"s < one o8 93ic3 9"s S"lce+o. >e 9"s c3"se+ (o?e+ =ic=e+ "n+ -"ule+. 'ne R"nul8o Su-il"ng 9"s "(le to to9 S"lce+o "9"0 8)o- t3e- (ut seve)"l "ccuse+ c"-e 8o)9")+ "n+ )esu-e+ -"uling S"lce+o +es2ite 3is 2le"s 8o) -e)c0. >e +ie+ u2on "))iv"l "t t3e 63ili22ine Gene)"l >os2it"l o8 ;3e-o))3"ge int)"c)"ni"l t)"u-"tic.< %ssue$ :e)e t3e 23otog)"23s o8 t3e inci+ent 2)esente+ 2)o2e)l0 given evi+enti")0 9eig3t +es2ite l"c= o8 2)o2e) i+enti8ic"tion (0 t3ei) )es2ective 23otog)"23e)s@ &eld$ Aes. 63otog)"23s 93en 2)esente+ in evi+ence -ust (e i+enti8ie+ (0 t3e 23otog)"23e) "s to its 2)o+uction "n+ testi8ie+ "s to t3e ci)cu-st"nces un+e) 93ic3 t3e0 9e)e 2)o+uce+. /3e v"lue o8 t3is =in+ o8 evi+ence lies in its (eing " co))ect )e2)esent"tion o) )e2)o+uction o8 t3e o)igin"l "n+ its "+-issi(ilit0 is +ete)-ine+ (0 its "ccu)"c0 in 2o)t)"0ing t3e scene "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e c)i-e. /3e 23otog)"23e) 3o9eve) is not t3e onl0 9itness 93o c"n i+enti80 t3e 2ictu)es 3e 3"s t"=en. /3e co))ectness o8 t3e 23otog)"23 "s " 8"it38ul )e2)esent"tion o8 t3e o(5ect 2o)t)"0e+ c"n (e 2)ove+ pr#ma %a&#e eit3e) (0 t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e 2e)son 93o -"+e it o) (0 ot3e) co-2etent 9itnesses "8te) 93ic3 t3e cou)t c"n "+-it it su(5ect to i-2e"c3-ent "s to its "ccu)"c0. 63otog)"23s t3e)e8o)e c"n (e i+enti8ie+ (0 t3e 23otog)"23e) o) (0 "n0 ot3e) co-2etent 9itnesses 93o c"n testi80 to its e?"ctness "n+ "ccu)"c0. In t3is c"se t3e counsel 8o) t9o o8 t3e "ccuse+ use+ t3e s"-e 23otog)"23s to 2)ove t3"t 3is clients 9e)e not in "n0 o8 t3e 2ictu)es "n+ t3e)e8o)e coul+ not 3"ve 2")tici2"te+ in t3e -"uling o8 t3e victi-. :3en t3e 2)osecution use+ t3e 23otog)"23s to c)oss$e?"-ine "ll t3e "ccuse+ no o(5ection 9"s -"+e (0 t3e +e8ense not until Att0. #".")o inte)2ose+ "t t3e t3i)+ 3e")ing " continuing o(5ection to t3ei) "+-issi(ilit0. /3e use o8 t3ese 23otog)"23s (0 so-e o8 t3e "ccuse+ to s3o9 t3ei) "llege+ non$2")tici2"tion in t3e c)i-e is "n "+-ission o8 t3e e?"ctness "n+ "ccu)"c0 t3e)eo8. /3"t t3e 23otog)"23s ")e 8"it38ul )e2)esent"tion o8 t3e -"uling inci+ent 9"s "88i)-e+ 93en so-e o8 t3e "ccuse+ i+enti8ie+ t3e-selves t3e)ein "n+ g"ve )e"sons 8o) t3ei) 2)esence t3e)e"t. /3e "(sence o8 t9o o8 t3e "ccuse+ in t3e 23otog)"23s -e"n93ile +oes not e?cul2"te t3e-. /3e 23otog)"23s +i+ not c"2tu)e t3e enti)e seBuence o8 t3e =illing o8 S"lce+o (ut onl0 seg-ents t3e)eo8. >o9eve) t3e "ccuse+ 9e)e uneBuivoc"ll0 i+enti8ie+ (0 t9o 9itnesses. Doctrine$ 63otog)"23s 93en 2)esente+ in evi+ence -ust (e i+enti8ie+ (0 t3e 23otog)"23e) "s to its 2)o+uction "n+ testi8ie+ "s to t3e ci)cu-st"nces un+e) 93ic3 t3e0 9e)e 2)o+uce+. /3e 23otog)"23e) 3o9eve) is not t3e onl0 9itness 93o c"n i+enti80 t3e 2ictu)es 3e 3"s t"=en. /3e0 c"n (e i+enti8ie+ (0 t3e 23otog)"23e) o) (0 "n0 ot3e) co-2etent 9itnesses 93o c"n testi80 to its e?"ctness "n+ "ccu)"c0.

12. A+"-s Sc3oo= v. >oll"9"0 (CS C"se) 1' A(2) 2 *19+0,

#acts$ /3e 2l"inti88s ()oug3t "n "ction in t)es2"ss "g"inst t3e +e8en+"nts 8o) 2e)son"l in5u)ies "n+ 2)o2e)t0 +"-"ge ")ising out o8 " collision (et9een " c") o9ne+ "n+ o2e)"te+ (0 2l"inti88 J"c= A+"-c.u= "n+ " c") o9en+ (0 +e8en+"nt 1o))is Co3en "n+ +)iven (0 El-e) >ollo9"0. A 23otog)"23 9"s 2)esente+ "s evi+ence 8o) t3e 2l"inti88s "n+ A+"-c.u= i+enti8ie+ t3e )o"+s "n+ (uil+ings "22e")ing in t3e 2ictu)e st"ting t3"t ;t3e con+itions 2)esente+ (0 t3"t 2ictu)e t)ul0 )e2)esent t3e con+itions o8 t3e c)ossing "t t3e ti-e o8 t3is "cci+ent e?ce2t 8o) t3e 8"ct o8 +"0lig3t o) +")=.< /3e 23otog)"23 9"s o88e)e+ in evi+ence seve)"l ti-es (ut in e"c3 c"se no 2)oo8 coul+ (e given "s to ;93o too= it o) "n0 i+entit0 "s to t3e 2ictu)e ot3e) t3"n t3e 230sic"l vie9 t3e)eon< o) ;93e)e t3e c"-e)" 9"s st"n+ing un+e) 93"t con+itions it 9"s t"=en "n+ 93et3e) it 9"s t"=en 9it3 " vie9 to +isto)ting it o) not.< /3e cou)t )ule+ "g"inst A+"-c.u= co--enting t3"t 3e 3"+ t9o +"0s ;since "+5ou)n-ent l"st 7)i+"0 to 2)ocu)e t3e o)igin"l t"=e) o8 t3is 23otog)"23 "n+ t3us est"(lis3 it in t3e leg"l 9"0 9it3 t3e )ig3t o8 c)oss$ e?"-in"tion to +e8en+"ntsD counsel o8 t3e 23otog)"23e).< %ssue$ :"s t3e 2ictu)e 2)esente+ in evi+ence 2)o2e)l0 +enie+ evi+enti")0 9eig3t +ue to t3e "(sence o8 2)oo8 "s to its 23otog)"23e) "n+ t3e con+itions un+e) 93ic3 it 9"s t"=en@ &eld$ No. /3e )ule is 9ell$settle+ t3"t " 23otog)"23 -"0 (e 2ut in evi+ence i8 )elev"nt to t3e issue "n+ i8 ve)i8ie+. It +oes not 3"ve to (e ve)i8ie+ (0 t3e t"=e). Its ve)i8ic"tion +e2en+s on t3e co-2etenc0 o8 t3e ve)i80ing 9itness "n+ "s to t3"t t3e t)i"l 5u+ge -ust in t3e 8i)st inst"nce +eci+e su(5ect to )eve)s"l 8o) su(st"nti"l e))o). /3e o(5ection t3"t " 23otog)"23 -"0 (e so -"+e "s to -is)e2)esent t3e o(5ect is genuinel0 +i)ecte+ "g"inst its testi-oni"l soun+nessE (ut it is o8 no v"li+it0. :3ile " 23otog)"23 c"n (e +eli(e)"tel0 so t"=en "s to conve0 t3e -ost 8"lse i-2)ession o8 t3e o(5ect so "lso c"n "n0 9itness lie in 3is 9o)+s. A 23otog)"23 c"n 8"lsi80 5ust "s -uc3 "n+ no -o)e t3"n t3e 3u-"n (eing 93o t"=es it o) ve)i8ies it. /3e)e is no -o)e )e"son to e?clu+e it on suc3 g)oun+. I8 " 9itness is 8"-ili") 9it3 t3e scene 23otog)"23e+ "n+ is co-2etent to testi80 t3"t t3e 23otog)"23 co))ectl0 )e2)esents it it s3oul+ i8 )elev"nt (e "+-itte+. Doctrine$ A 23otog)"23 -"0 (e 2ut in evi+ence i8 )elev"nt to t3e issue "n+ i8 ve)i8ie+. It +oes not 3"ve to (e ve)i8ie+ (0 t3e t"=e). Its ve)i8ic"tion +e2en+s on t3e co-2etenc0 o8 t3e ve)i80ing 9itness "n+ "s to t3"t t3e t)i"l 5u+ge -ust in t3e 8i)st inst"nce +eci+e su(5ect to )eve)s"l 8o) su(st"nti"l e))o). *6! 6 2n+ e+. 75, 1%61 5. Don9o)t3 #acts$ :illi"- /ousin o8 6"sco )eceive+ -ont3l0 9el8")e c3ec=s 8)o- t3e st"te o8 :"s3ington. In 7e()u")0 1%6! 3o9eve) /ousin +i+ not )eceive 3is c3ec= 93ic3 9"s usu"ll0 -"ile+ to "n+ le8t on " 9in+o9 le+ge in t3e 3"ll9"0 o8 t3e )oo-ing 3ouse 93e)e 3e )esi+e+. /3e c3ec= tu)ne+ out to 3"ve (een en+o)se+ "n+ c"s3e+ "t S3e)-"nDs 7oo+ Sto)e in 6"sco (0 so-eone ot3e) t3"n /ousin. C")oline 6entecost " e-2lo0ee "t t3e sto)e testi8ie+ t3"t t3e initi"ls "22e")ing on t3e c3ec= 9e)e 3e)s t3oug3 s3e coul+ not s2eci8ic"ll0 )ec"ll t3e "(ove$-entione+ t)"ns"ction. Acco)+ing to 3e) 93eneve) " c3ec= 9"s 2)esente+ to 3e) 8o) 2"0-ent "t t3e sto)e s3e 9"s inst)ucte+ (0 t3e sto)e -"n"ge) to initi"l it "n+ t3en inse)t it into " ;Regisco2e< -"c3ine 93ic3 is +esigne+ to si-ult"neousl0 23otog)"23 t3)oug3 t9o se2")"te lenses (ot3 t3e c3ec= "n+ t3e 2e)son 8"cing t3e -"c3ine. C2on +iscove)0 o8 t3e 8o)ge)0 o8 t3e en+o)se-ent on t3e c3ec= t3e Regisco2e 8il- o8 t3e t)"ns"ction 9"s sent to t3e Regisco2e +ist)i(uto) in 6o)tl"n+ to (e +evelo2e+. /3e 2)ocesse+ 8il- s3o9e+ (ot3 t3e c3ec= "n+ R"l23 /"tu- 93o live+ in t3e s"-e )oo-ing 3ouse "s /ousin 9it3 t3e 8oo+ sto)e in t3e ("c=g)oun+. 4ot3 t3e neg"tive "n+ t3e 2)int t3e)e8)o- 9e)e "+-itte+ in evi+ence "(ove /"tu-Ds o(5ection. %ssue$ :e)e t3e "ut3entic"te+ Regisco2e neg"tive "n+ 2)int 2)o2e)l0 "+-itte+ "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. 6entecost testi8ie+ t3"t t3e ("c=g)oun+ s3o9n in t3e 23otog)"23 9"s t3"t o8 t3e 8oo+ sto)e "n+ t3"t ;)egisco2ing< e"c3 in+ivi+u"l 93o c"s3e+ " c3ec= "t t3e sto)e 9"s its st"n+")+ 2)oce+u)e eve)0ti-e " c3ec= 9"s 2)esente+ 8o) enc"s3-ent. Anot3e) 9itness 63illi2 D"le -e"n93ile testi8ie+ "s to t3e Regisco2e 2)ocess. /3ese testi-onies "-ounte+ to " su88icient "ut3entic"tion to 9"))"nt t3e "+-ission o8 t3e neg"tive "n+ t3e 2)int into evi+ence. /"tu- 9"s not 2)eclu+e+ 8)o- "tte-2ting to 2)ove t3"t t3e in+ivi+u"l 2o)t)"0e+ in t3e Regisco2e 2)int 9"s not 3i- t3"t it 9"s in"ccu)"te in "n0 )es2ect "n+ t3"t 3e 9"s so-e93e)e else "t t3e ti-e t3e 23otog)"23 9"s t"=en. >o9eve) t3ese ")gu-ents go to t3e 9eig3t )"t3e) t3"n to t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 s"i+ neg"tive "n+ 2)int. /3e Regisco2e 8il-s cou2le+ 9it3 t3e ot3e) evi+ence 2)esente+ ")e su88icient to est"(lis3 " pr#ma %a&#e c"se o8 8i)st +eg)ee 8o)ge)0. Doctrine$ /3e "+-ission "n+ use o8 +e-onst)"tive evi+ence inclu+ing 23otog)"23s 3"ve 8o) -"n0 0e")s (een encou)"ge+. Suc3 "+-ission o) )e5ection o8 23otog)"23s "s evi+ence lies 9it3in t3e soun+ +isc)etion o8 t3e t)i"l cou)t. Suc3 +isc)etion e?ten+s to t3e su88icienc0 o8 i+enti8ic"tion. As to t3e )eBui)e+ Bu"ntu- o8 "ut3entic"tion o8 " 23otog)"23 so-e 9itness (not necess")il0 t3e 23otog)"23e)) -"0 (e "(le to give so-e in+ic"tion "s to 93en 93e)e "n+ un+e) 93"t ci)cu-st"nces t3e 23otog)"23 9"s t"=en "n+ t3"t t3e

1*. St"te o8 :"s3ington v. /"tu-

23otog)"23 "ccu)"tel0 2o)t)"0 t3e su(5ect o) su(5ects illust)"te+. /3e 23otog)"23 nee+ onl0 (e su88icientl0 "ccu)"te to (e 3el28ul to t3e cou)t "n+ t3e 5u)0. 1,. 1en+o." vs. Al")-" G.R. No. 151%7!. 1"0 7 2!!& #acts$ /3e "ccuse+ in " c)i-in"l c"se 8"ile+ to "22e") in 2e)son (e8o)e t3e cou)t. Acco)+ingl0 t3e t)i"l cou)t +ecl")e+ 3is ("il 8o)8eite+. /3e t)i"l cou)t g"ve t3e (on+s-en " *!$+"0 2e)io+ to 2)o+uce t3e "ccuse+ o) " )e"son"(le e?2l"n"tion 8o) t3ei) non$2)o+uction. >o9eve) t9o 0e")s 3"+ 2"sse+ 8)o- t3e ti-e t3e cou)t o)+e)e+ t3e 8o)8eitu)e "n+ still no 5u+g-ent 3"+ (een )en+e)e+ "g"inst t3e (on+s-en 8o) t3e "-ount o8 t3e ("il. Inste"+ "no)+e) o8 e?ecution 9"s issue+ "n+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 9"s 2ut u2 8o) s"le "n+ 9"s "9")+e+ to t3e 3ig3est (i++e)s in goo+ 8"it3. %ssue'Ans(erF :'N t3e (on+s-en still go "8te) t3e 2)o2e)t0 on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e t)i"l cou)t +i+ not )en+e) " 5u+g-ent "g"inst t3e-GAes. RatioF Section 21 Rule 11, o8 t3e Revise+ Rules on C)i-in"l 6)oce+u)e cle")l0 2)ovi+es 8o) t3e 2)oce+u)e to (e 8ollo9e+ (e8o)e " ("il (on+ -"0 (e 8o)8eite+ "n+ " 5u+g-ent on t3e (on+ )en+e)e+ "g"inst t3e su)et0. /3e)e ")e t9o )eBuisites (e8o)e t3e t)i"l cou)t 5u+ge -"0 )ule "+ve)sel0 "g"inst t3e (on+s-en in c"ses 93en t3e "ccuse+ 8"ils to "22e") in cou)t. 7i)st t3e non$"22e")"nce (0 t3e "ccuse+ is c"use 8o) t3e 5u+ge to su--")il0 +ecl")e t3e (on+ "s 8o)8eite+. Secon+ t3e (on+s-en "8te) t3e su--")0 8o)8eitu)e o8 t3e (on+ ")e given *! +"0s 9it3in 93ic3 to 2)o+uce t3e 2)inci2"l "n+ to s3o9 c"use 930 " 5u+g-ent s3oul+ not (e )en+e)e+ "g"inst t3e- 8o) t3e "-ount o8 t3e (on+. It is onl0 "8te) t3is *!$+"0 2e)io+ (+u)ing 93ic3 t3e (on+s-en ")e "88o)+e+ t3e o22o)tunit0 to (e 3e")+ (0 t3e t)i"l cou)t) t3"t t3e t)i"l cou)t -"0 )en+e) " 5u+g-ent on t3e (on+ "g"inst t3e (on+s-en. Ju+g-ent "g"inst t3e (on+s-en c"nnot (e ente)e+ unless suc3 5u+g-ent is 2)ece+e+ (0 t3e o)+e) o8 8o)8eitu)e "n+ "n o22o)tunit0 given to t3e (on+s-en to 2)o+uce t3e "ccuse+ o) to "++uce s"tis8"cto)0 )e"son 8o) t3ei) in"(ilit0 to +o so. In t3is c"se no suc3 5u+g-ent 9"s eve) issue+ "n+ neit3e) 3"s "n "-ount (een 8i?e+ 8o) 93ic3 t3e (on+s-en -"0 (e 3el+ li"(le. /3e l"9 9"s not st)ictl0 o(se)ve+ "n+ t3is viol"te+ t3e (on+s-enDs )ig3t to 2)oce+u)"l +ue 2)ocess. /3e issue o8 goo+ 8"it3 in (u0ing t3e 2)o2e)t0 "t t3e "uction s"le is not -"te)i"l. Since t3e e?ecution "n+ s"le o8 t3e l"n+ 9"s inv"li+ t3e ("sis 8o) 93ic3 title to t3e l"n+ 3"+ (een issue+ 3"s no more leg to stand on. 15. 6eo2le vs. /"n G.R. No. #$1,257. Jul0 *1 1%5% #acts$ 6"cit" 1"+)ig"l$Gon."les "n+ 3e) co$"ccuse+ 9e)e c3")ge+ 9it3 t3e c)i-e o8 8"lsi8ic"tion o8 2u(lic +ocu-ents in t3ei) c"2"cities "s 2u(lic o88ici"ls "n+ e-2lo0ees 8o) 3"ving -"+e it "22e") t3"t ce)t"in )elie8 su22lies "n+Go) -e)c3"n+ise 9e)e 2u)c3"se+ (0 Gon."les 8o) +ist)i(ution to c"l"-it0 in+igents in suc3 Bu"ntities "n+ "t suc3 2)ices "n+ 8)o- suc3 (usiness est"(lis3-ents o) 2e)sons "s 9)itten in s"i+ 2u(lic +ocu-ents. /3e t)ut3 9"s no suc3 +ist)i(utions o8 suc3 )elie8 "n+ su22lies "s v"lue+ "n+ "s su22ose+l0 2u)c3"se+ 3"+ eve) (een -"+e. /3e 2)osecution 2)esente+ "s evi+ence " (oo=let o8 )ecei2ts 8)o- t3e 1et)o D)ug Co)2o)"tion in 1"g"ll"nes Ce(u Cit0. S"i+ (oo=let cont"ine+ t)i2lic"te co2ies t3e o)igin"l invoices o8 93ic3 9e)e sent to t3e co-2"n0Ds 1"nil" o88ice t3e +u2ic"tes given to custo-e)s "n+ t3e t)i2lic"tes le8t "tt"c3e+ to t3e (oo=let. 'ne o8 t3e 1et)o D)ugDs s"les-en 93o issue+ " )ecei2t 8u)t3e) e?2l"ine+ t3"t in 2)e2")ing )ecei2ts 8o) s"les t9o c")(on co2ies 9e)e use+ (et9een t3e t3)ee s3eets so t3"t t3e +u2lic"tes "n+ t3e t)i2lic"tes 9e)e 8ile+ out o8 t3e use o8 t3e c")(ons in t3e cou)se o8 t3e 2)e2")"tion "n+ signing o8 t3e o)igin"ls. /3e t)i"l cou)t 5u+ge >on. 4ienveni+o /"n inte))u2te+ t3e 2)ocee+ing 3ol+ing t3"t t3e t)i2lic"tes 9e)e not "+-issi(le unless it 9"s 2)oven t3"t t3e o)igin"ls 9e)e lost "n+ c"nnot (e 2)o+uce+. Anot3e) 9itness 9"s 2)esente+ "n+ 3e "llege+ t3"t t3e 8o)-e) 2)"ctice o8 =ee2ing t3e o)igin"l 93ite co2ies no longe) 2)ev"ils "s t3e o)igin"ls ")e given to t3e custo-e)s 93ile onl0 t3e +u2lic"tes ")e su(-itte+ to t3e 1"nil" o88ice. %ssue$ A)e t3e t)i2lic"tes o8 t3e )ecei2ts "+-issi(le "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. Cn+e) t3e l"9 on evi+ence t3e (est evi+ence )ule is t3"t )ule 93ic3 )eBui)es t3e 3ig3est g)"+e o8 evi+ence o(t"in"(le to 2)ove " +is2ute+ 8"ct. /3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 +u2lic"tes o) t)i2lic"tes un+e) t3is )ule 3"s long (een settle+. ;:3en c")(on s3eets ")e inse)te+ (et9een t9o o) -o)e s3eets o8 9)iting 2"2e) so t3"t t3e 9)iting o8 " cont)"ct u2on t3e outsi+e s3eet inclu+ing t3e sign"tu)e o8 t3e 2")t0 to (e c3")ge+ t3e)e(0 2)o+uce+ 2 %a&s#m#"e u2on t3e s3eets (ene"t3 suc3 sign"tu)es (eing t3us )e2)o+uce+ (0 t3e s"-e st)o=e o8 t3e 2en 93ic3 -"+e t3e su)8"ce o) e?2ose+ i-2)ession "ll o8 t3e s3eets so 9)itten on ")e )eg")+e+ "s +u2lic"te o)igin"ls "n+ eit3e) o8 t3e- -"0 (e int)o+uce+ in evi+ence "s suc3 9it3out "ccounting 8o) t3e non2)o+uction o8 t3e ot3e)s.<

Doctrine$ /3e (est evi+ence )ule is t3"t )ule 93ic3 )eBui)es t3e 3ig3est g)"+e o8 evi+ence o(t"in"(le to 2)ove " +is2ute+ 8"ct. C")(on co2ies 3o9eve) 93en -"+e "t t3e s"-e ti-e "n+ on t3e s"-e -"c3ine "s t3e o)igin"l ")e +u2lic"te o)igin"ls "n+ 3"ve (een 3el+ to (e "s -uc3 2)i-")0 evi+ence "s t3e o)igin"ls. -est .v#)en&e R!"e 16. 6eo2le vs. /"n+o0 G.R. No. &!5!5. Dece-(e) , 1%%! #acts$ 'n 1"0 27 1%&6 1"="ti 6olice +etectives o)g"ni.e+ " (u0$(ust o2e)"tion 93e)e(0 Detective Sing"0"n 9"s to 2ose "s t3e (u0e). /3e t")get ")e" 9"s " sto)e "long Solc3u"g" St. in 4")"ng"0 Sing="-"s 1"="ti. Detective Sing"0"n stoo+ "lone ne") t3e sto)e 9"iting until t3)ee -en "22)o"c3e+ 3i-. 'ne o8 t3e- 1")io /"n+o0 "s=e+ ; Pare, g!sto mo bang !m#s/or0< /o t3is Detective Sing"0"n "sn9e)e+ 0es. /9o 65.!! (ills e"c3 -")=e+ ANC (Anti$N")cotics Cnit) 9e)e e?c3"nge+ 8o) t9o )olls o8 -")i5u"n". C2on consu--"tion o8 t3e +e"l t3e te"- -ove+ in "n+ "))este+ /"n+o0. /3e -")=e+ -one0 "s 9ell "s eig3t 8oils o8 -")i5u"n" 9e)e con8isc"te+ 8)o- /"n+o0 "n+ "n in8o)-"tion 9"s 8ile+ "g"inst 3i-. /"n+o0 9"s 8oun+ guilt0 o8 viol"tion o8 R.A. 6,25. >ence 3e "22e"le+ "lleging t3"t t3e -one0 9"s "ctu"ll0 (et -one0 "n+ t3"t un+e) t3e (est evi+ence )ule t3e He)o? co20 o8 t3e -")=e+ (ills 9e)e in"+-issi(le in cou)t. %ssue$ Does t3e (est evi+ence )ule "22l0 to t3e -")=e+ (ills@ &eld$ No. /3e (est evi+ence )ules "22lies onl0 93en t3e contents o8 t3e +ocu-ent ")e t3e su(5ect o8 inBui)0. :3e)e t3e issue is onl0 "s to 93et3e) o) not suc3 +ocu-ent 9"s "ctu"ll0 e?ecute+ o) e?ists o) in t3e ci)cu-st"nces )elev"nt to o) su))oun+ing its e?ecution t3e (est evi+ence )ule +oes not "22l0 "n+ testi-oni"l evi+ence is "+-issi(le. /3e -")=e+ -one0 is not "n o)+in")0 +ocu-ent 8"lling un+e) Sec. 2 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t 93ic3 e?clu+es t3e int)o+uction o8 secon+")0 evi+ence e?ce2t in 8ive s2eci8ie+ inst"nces. In t3is c"se t3e -")=e+ -one0 9"s 2)esente+ solel0 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 est"(lis3ing its e?istence "n+ not its contents. /3e)e8o)e ot3e) su(stitution")0 evi+ence suc3 "s " He)o? co20 is "+-issi(le 9it3out nee+ 8o) t3e "ccounting o8 t3e o)igin"l. 4esi+es t3e 2)esent"tion "t t3e t)i"l o8 t3e (u0$(ust -one0 9"s not in+is2ens"(le to t3e conviction o8 /"n+o0 since t3e s"le o8 t3e -")i5u"n" 3"+ (een su88icientl0 2)oven (0 t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e 2olice o88ice)s involve+ in t3e o2e)"tion "n+ t3e -")i5u"n" "ctu"ll0 sol+ 3"+ (een su(-itte+ "s evi+ence. Doctrine$ /3e (est evi+ence )ules "22lies onl0 93en t3e contents o8 t3e +ocu-ent ")e t3e su(5ect o8 inBui)0. :3e)e t3e issue is onl0 "s to 93et3e) o) not suc3 +ocu-ent 9"s "ctu"ll0 e?ecute+ o) e?ists o) in t3e ci)cu-st"nces )elev"nt to o) su))oun+ing its e?ecution t3e (est evi+ence )ule +oes not "22l0 "n+ testi-oni"l evi+ence is "+-issi(le.

17. 1e0e)s v. CS

171 7. 2n+ E+. 6"ge &!! Nov. & 1%,&

1&. S0lle) v. Geo)ge #uc"s "n+ Co. #t+. 7%7 7. 2n+ e+ 15!, "ugust 26 1%&6
1%. CS v. 4"listo0 G.R. No. 57%1 Dece-(e) 17 1%1! #acts$ 6e+)o S"l".") 8ile+ " suit 8o) t3e collection o8 " su- o8 -one0 "g"inst Eust"Buio 4"listo0. Ju+g-ent 9"s )en+e)e+ in 8"vo) o8 t3e 8o)-e) "n+ 4"listo0 9"s o)+e)e+ to 2"0 3i- 6275.%2 2lus inte)est. /9o )u)"l 2)o2e)ties (elonging to 4"listo0 9e)e "tt"c3e+ "n+ set 8o) s"le "t " 2u(lic "uction on 1"0 27 1%!&. 4e8o)e t3e "uction 4e)n")+o G)ego)io )eBueste+ t3e +e2ut0 s3e)i88 to e?clu+e one o8 t3e 2)o2e)ties 8)o"tt"c3-ent "s 3e o9ne+ s"i+ 2)o2e)t0 3"ving "cBui)e+ it (0 2u)c3"se 8)o- 4"listo0 in 1%!5 2)io) to t3e 8iling o8 t3e co-2l"int. G)ego)io 2)esente+ to t3e s3e)i88 " +ocu-ent "t t3e en+ o8 93ic3 "22e")s " -e-o)"n+u- st"ting t3"t 4"listo0 (oug3t t3e l"n+ )e8e))e+ to 8)o- #uis 4"listo0 "n+ su(seBuentl0 sol+ it to G)ego)io. S"l".") 8ile+ " co-2l"int 8o) 8"lsi8ic"tion "g"inst G)ego)io "n+ 4"listo0 8o) 3"ving si-ul"te+ t3e conve0"nce o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 in 8"vo) o8 G)ego)io in o)+e) to "voi+ its "tt"c3-ent "n+ s"le. S"l".") 8u)t3e) "llege+ t3"t t3oug3 t3e s"i+ -e-o)"n+u- 9"s +"te+ 7e()u")0 1%!5 it 9"s "ctu"ll0 9)itten in A2)il 1%!&. >o9eve) t3e o)igin"l +ocu-ent setting 8o)t3 t3e -e-o)"n+u- 9"s not 2)esente+ "n+ onl0 " co20 t3e)eo8 9"s 2)o+uce+ in cou)t. %ssue$ C"n " 2e)son (e convicte+ o8 8"lsi8ic"tion o8 " +ocu-ent 9it3out t3e o)igin"l o8 s"i+ 8"lsi8ie+ +ocu-ent@ &eld$ No. /3e issue in t3is c"se is 93et3e) t3e su(5ect -e-o)"n+u- 9"s 8"lsi8ie+ 3"ving (een -"+e to "22e") to 3"ve (een 9)itten on " +"te 2)io) to t3e one 93en it 9"s "ctu"ll0 2)e2")e+ "n+ si-ul"ting t3e s"le to " t3i)+ 2")t0 o8 " l"n+ 9it3 t3e intent to +e8)"u+ t3e c)e+ito) 93o t3)oug3 2)o2e) 5u+ici"l 2)ocess solicite+ "n+ o(t"ine+ t3e "tt"c3-ent "n+ s"le o8 s"i+ l"n+. /3oug3 t3e s3e)i88 testi8ie+ to 3"ving seen t3e o)igin"l o8 t3e +ocu-ent 93e)ein t3e -e-o)"n+u- 9"s 9)itten o) "t le"st t3e o)igin"l -e-o)"n+u- o8 t3e conve0"nce t3e -e)e e?3i(ition o8 " co20 o8 "n un"ut3entic"te+ 2)iv"te +ocu-ent c"nnot leg"ll0 2)o+uce t3e e88ect o8 sus2en+ing t3e s"le o8 s"i+ l"n+ in"s-uc3 "s suc3 co20 is not su88icient 2)oo8 o8 t3e )ig3t o8 G)ego)io (eing " -e)e co20 o8 " 2)iv"te

+ocu-ent 93ose leg"lit0 3"s not (een 2)oven. >e 9"s not "(le to co-2")e t3e co20 o8 t3e -e-o)"n+u9it3 t3"t 9)itten on t3e o)igin"l +ocu-ent 3"ving onl0 seen t3e o)igin"l 8o) " 8e9 -o-ents. As t3e o)igin"l +ocu-ent setting 8o)t3 s"i+ -e-o)"n+u- 9"s not 2)esente+ (ut -e)el0 " co20 t3e)eo8 "n+ "s it coul+ not (e "sce)t"ine+ 93o 3"+ t3e o)igin"l o8 s"i+ +ocu-ent no) t3e e?"ct +"te 93en it 9"s 9)itten +ou(t ")ises "s to 93et3e) t3e o)igin"l o8 t3e +ocu-ent )e"ll0 e?iste+ "t "ll "n+ 93et3e) t3e -e-o)"n+u- is "n e?"ct co20 o8 t3"t "llege+ to 3"ve (een 9)itten "t t3e en+ o8 s"i+ o)igin"l +ocu-ent. ConseBuentl0 G)ego)io "n+ 4"listo0 c"nnot (e convicte+ o8 its 8"lsi8ic"tion. Doctrine$ In " c)i-in"l c"se 8o) t3e 8"lsi8ic"tion o8 " +ocu-ent it is in+is2ens"(le t3"t t3e 5u+ges "n+ t3e cou)ts 3"ve (e8o)e t3e- t3e +ocu-ent "llege+ to 3"ve (een si-ul"te+ counte)8eite+ o) 8"lsi8ie+ in o)+e) t3"t t3e0 -"0 8in+ 2u)su"nt to t3e evi+ence 2)o+uce+ "t t)i"l 93et3e) o) not t3e c)i-e o8 8"lsi8ic"tion 9"s "ctu"ll0 co--itte+E in t3e "(sence o8 t3e o)igin"l +ocu-ent it is i-2)o2e) to conclu+e 9it3 onl0 " co20 o8 s"i+ o)igin"l in vie9 t3"t t3e)e 3"s (een " 8"lsi8ic"tion o8 " +ocu-ent 93ic3 9"s neit3e) 8oun+ no) e?3i(ite+ (ec"use in suc3 " c"se even t3e e?istence o8 suc3 o)igin"l -"0 (e +ou(te+ 2!. Co-2"ni" 1")iti-" vs. Allie+ 7)ee :o)=s Cnion G.R. No. #$2&%%%. 1"0 2, 1%77 #acts$ 'n August 11 1%52 t3e Co-2"Ii" 1")iti-" "n+ t3e Allie+ 7)ee :o)=e)s Cnion ente)e+ into " 9)itten cont)"ct 93e)e(0 t3e union "g)ee+ to 2e)8o)- "))"st)e "n+ steve+o)ing 9o)= 8o) Co-2"Ii" 1")iti-"Ds vessels "t Ilig"n Cit0. /3e cont)"ct 9"s to (e e88ective 8o) one -ont3. /3e co-2"n0 coul+ )evo=e t3e cont)"ct (e8o)e its e?2i)"tion i8 t3e union 8"ile+ to )en+e) 2)o2e) se)vice "n+ it coul+ (e )ene9e+ (0 "g)ee-ent o8 t3e 2")ties. /3e co-2"n0 9oul+ "lso not (e li"(le 8o) t3e 2"0-ent o8 t3e se)vices o8 t3e union ;8o) t3e lo"+ing unlo"+ing "n+ +elive)0 o8 c")goes < 93ic3 s3oul+ (e 2"i+ 8o) ;(0 t3e o9ne)s "n+ consignees o8 t3e c")goes.< /3e s3i22e)s "n+ consignees 2"i+ t3e union onl0 8o) t3e "))"st)e 9o)= (3"n+ling "n+ 3"uling o8 c")go on t3e 93")8 o) (et9een t3e est"(lis3-ent o8 t3e consignee o) s3i22e) "n+ t3e s3i2Ds t"c=le) (ut )e8use+ to 2"0 8o) t3e steve+o)ing se)vice (3"n+ling o8 t3e c")go in t3e 3ol+s o8 t3e vessel o) (et9een t3e s3i2Ds t"c=le "n+ t3e 3ol+s o8 t3e vessel). /3e0 cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e s3i2o9ne) 9"s t3e one o(lig"te+ to 2"0 8o) t3e steve+o)ing se)vice (ec"use t3e (ill o8 l"+ing 2)ovi+e+ t3"t t3e unlo"+ing o8 t3e c")go 9"s "t t3e s3i2o9ne)Ds e?2ense. >o9eve) t3e co-2"n0 )e8use+ to 2"0 8o) t3e steve+o)ing se)vice on t3e ("sis o8 t3e cont)"ct. As t3e union 9o)=e)s 9e)e in +i)e nee+ o8 9o)= t3e cont)"ct 9"s not te)-in"te+ "n+ 9"s ve)("ll0 )ene9e+ u2on its e?2i)"tion. /3e union )eBueste+ )ecognition "s t3e e?clusive (")g"ining unit (ut 9"s +enie+. >ence t3e union 8ile+ 9it3 t3e CIR " 2etition 8o) ce)ti8ic"tion. /3e co-2"n0 te)-in"te+ t3e cont)"ct "n+ ente)e+ into " ne9 steve+o)ing cont)"ct 9it3 Ilig"n Steve+o)ing Associ"tion. /3e union 8ile+ "n Cn8"i) #"(o) 6)"ctice suit "n+ 2ic=ete+ t3e 93")8 to 2)event t3e Ilig"n Steve+o)ing 8)o- 2e)8o)-ing t3e "))"st)e "n+ steve+o)ing 9o)=. /3e co-2"n0 t3en sue+ t3e union "n+ t3e t)i"l cou)t "9")+e+ in 8"vo) o8 t3e co-2"n0 "ctu"l +"-"ges "n+ ot3e) +"-"ges ("se+ on "u+ito)Ds )e2o)ts s3o9ing "llege+ losses sust"ine+ (0 t3e co-2"n0 +ue to t3e "cts o8 t3e union -e-(e)s. /3e union "ss"ile+ t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 s"i+ )e2o)ts "lleging t3"t t3e0 9e)e 3e")s"0 evi+ence. %ssue$ :e)e t3e "u+ito)Ds )e2o)ts "+-issi(le in evi+ence "s 2)oo8 o8 t3e o)igin"l )eco)+s (oo=s o8 "ccounts )e2o)ts o) t3e li=e@ &eld$ No. /3e e?ce2tion to t3e (est evi+ence )ule 93ic3 st"tes t3"t ;93en t3e o)igin"l consists o8 nu-e)ous "ccounts o) ot3e) +ocu-ents 93ic3 c"nnot (e e?"-ine+ in cou)t 9it3out g)e"t loss o8 ti-e "n+ t3e 8"ct soug3t to (e est"(lis3e+ 8)o- t3e- is onl0 t3e gene)"l )esult o8 t3e 93ole t3e o)igin"l 9)itings nee+ not (e 2)o+uce+ < c"nnot (e "22lie+ in t3is c"se. /3e volu-inou) c3")"cte) o8 t3e )eco)+s on 93ic3 t3e "ccount"ntDs )e2o)ts 9e)e ("se+ 9"s not +ul0 est"(lis3e+. 1o)eove) in o)+e) 8o) s"i+ )ule to (e "22lie+ t3e )eco)+s "n+ "ccounts s3oul+ (e -"+e "ccessi(le to t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 so t3"t t3e co))ectness o8 t3e su--")0 -"0 (e teste+ on c)oss$e?"-in"tion. /3e gene)"l )ule is t3"t ;"n "u+it -"+e (0 o) t3e testi-on0 o8 " 2)iv"te "u+ito) is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence "s 2)oo8 o8 t3e o)igin"l )eco)+s (oo=s o8 "ccounts )e2o)ts o) t3e li=e.< /3e co-2"n0 8"ile+ to s3o9 t3e +i88icult0 o) i-2ossi(lit0 o8 2)o+ucing t3e )eco)+s in cou)t "n+ t3ei) e?"-in"tion "n+ "n"l0sis "s evi+ence (0 t3e cou)t. Doctrine$ /3e gene)"l )ule is t3"t "n "u+it -"+e (0 o) t3e testi-on0 o8 " 2)iv"te "u+ito) is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence "s 2)oo8 o8 t3e o)igin"l )eco)+s (oo=s o8 "ccounts )e2o)ts o) t3e li=e unless it is 2)ove+ t3"t t3e)e 9oul+ (e +i88icult0 o) i-2ossi(ilit0 in 2)o+ucing t3e )eco)+s in cou)t "n+ t3e e?"-in"tion "n+ "n"l0sis t3e)eo8.

21. Vill")e0 /)"nsit v. 7e))e) G.R. No. #$2*&%* 'ct 2% 1%6& #acts$ Jose Vill")"-" t3e o2e)"to) o8 t3e Vill" Re0 /)"nsit (us co-2"n0 2u)su"nt to ce)ti8ic"tes o8 2u(lic convenience (C6C) g)"nte+ to 3i- (0 t3e 6u(lic Se)vice Co--ission sol+ t9o o8 t3e C6Cs to t3e 6"ng"sin"n /)"ns2o)t"tion Co-2"n0 (6"nt)"nco) 9it3 t3e con+ition t3"t Vill")"-" s3"ll not 8o) 1! 0e")s "22l0 8o) "n0 /6C se)vice i+entic"l o) co-2eting 9it3 t3e (u0e). /3)ee -ont3s l"te) t3e Vill" Re0 /)"nsit Inc. (VR/I) 9"s 8o)-e+ 9it3 Vill")"-"Ds 9i8e "n+ )el"tives "s stoc=3ol+e)s "n+ inco)2o)"to)s. VR/I (oug3t 5 C6Cs 8)o- V"lentin 7e)n"n+o t9o o8 93ic3 9"s levie+ 2u)su"nt to " 9)it o8 e?ecution in 8"vo) o8 Euse(io 7e))e) " c)e+ito) o8 7e)n"n+o. /3e C6Cs 9e)e sol+ "t "uction o8 93ic3 7e))e) 9"s t3e 3ig3est (i++e).

7e))e) t3en sol+ t3e C6Cs to 6"nt)"nco. VR/I 8ile+ " co-2l"int 8o) "nnul-ent o8 t3e s3e)i88Ds s"le in 8"vo) o8 7e))e) "n+ t3e su(seBuent s"le o8 t3e C6Cs to 6"nt)"nco. 6"nt)"nco on its 2")t "llege+ t3"t Jose Vill")"-" "n+ VR/I 9e)e one "n+ t3e s"-eE 3ence t3e non$co-2etition cl"use in t3e "(ove-entione+ +ee+ o8 s"le e?ecute+ (0 Vill")"-" is "lso (in+ing to VR/I. As evi+ence 6"nt)"nco 2)esente+ 23otost"tic co2ies o8 le+ge) ent)ies "n+ vouc3e)s t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 93ic3 9"s "ss"ile+ (0 Vill")"-" on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e (est evi+ence 9e)e t3e o)igin"ls t3e-selves. %ssue$ :e)e t3e 23otost"tic co2ies o8 t3e le+ge) ent)ies "n+ vouc3e)s o8 VR/I su88icient to 2)ove 6"nt)"ncoDs "lleg"tions "n+ t3e)e(0 ")e "+-issi(le "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. /3e 23otost"tic co2ies o8 t3e le+ge) ent)ies "n+ vouc3e)s s3o9ing t3"t Vill")"-" 3"+ co$ -ingle+ 3is 2e)son"l 8un+s "n+ t)"ns"ctions 9it3 t3ose -"+e in t3e n"-e o8 VR/I ")e ve)0 illu-in"ting evi+ence. /3e )eBuisites 8o) t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 secon+")0 evi+ence 93en t3e o)igin"l is in t3e custo+0 o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 ")eF ") t3e "+ve)se 2")t0Ds 2ossession o8 t3e o)igin"lE () )e"son"(le notice to t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 to 2)o+uce t3e s"-eE c) s"tis8"cto)0 2)oo8 o8 its e?istenceE "n+ +) t3e 8"ilu)e o) )e8us"l o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 to 2)o+uce t3e o)igin"l in cou)t. Vill")"-" 3i-sel8 "+-itte+ t3e 2)evious e?istence o8 t3e 8iles o8 VR/I. >e s"i+ t3"t t3e o)igin"ls 9e)e -issing "n+ t3"t VR/I 9"s no longe) in 2ossession o8 t3e s"-e. >o9eve) it is not necess")0 8o) " 2")t0 see=ing to int)o+uce secon+")0 evi+ence o s3o9 t3"t t3e o)igin"l is in t3e "ctu"l 2ossession o8 t3e "+ve)s")0. It is enoug3 t3"t ci)cu-st"nces s3o9 t3"t t3e 9)iting is in 3is 2ossession o) un+e) 3is cont)ol. It is "lso not )eBui)e+ t3"t t3e 2")t0 entitle+ to t3e custo+0 o8 t3e inst)u-ent u2on notice to 2)o+uce it "+-it 3"ving it in 3is 2ossession. /3e 2")t0 see=ing its 2)o+uction -"0 int)o+uce " co20 t3e)eo8 "s in t3e c"se o8 loss (ec"use "-ong t3e e?ce2tions to t3e (est evi+ence )ule is ;93en t3e o)igin"l 3"s (een lost +est)o0e+ o) c"nnot (e 2)o+uce+ in cou)t.< /3e o)igin"l o8 t3e vou)c3e)s in t3is c"se -ust (e +ee-e+ to 3"ve (een lost t3us secon+")0 evi+ence ")e "+-issi(le. Doctrine$ /3e )eBuisites 8o) t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 secon+")0 evi+ence 93en t3e o)igin"l is in t3e custo+0 o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 ")eF ") t3e "+ve)se 2")t0Ds 2ossession o8 t3e o)igin"lE () )e"son"(le notice to t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 to 2)o+uce t3e s"-eE c) s"tis8"cto)0 2)oo8 o8 its e?istenceE "n+ +) t3e 8"ilu)e o) )e8us"l o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 to 2)o+uce t3e o)igin"l in cou)t. >o9eve) it is not necess")0 8o) " 2")t0 see=ing to int)o+uce secon+")0 evi+ence o s3o9 t3"t t3e o)igin"l is in t3e "ctu"l 2ossession o8 t3e "+ve)s")0. Neit3e) is it )eBui)e+ t3"t t3e 2")t0 entitle+ to t3e custo+0 o8 t3e inst)u-ent u2on notice to 2)o+uce it "+-it 3"ving it in 3is 2ossession. 22. De Ve)" v. Aguil") GR &**77E 7e()u")0 % 1%&* #acts$ 1")cos" 4e)n"(eDs c3il+)en -o)tg"ge+ 4e)n"(eDs l"n+. C2on -"tu)it0 o8 t3e -o)tg"ge t3e S2ouses 1")i"no "n+ #eon" Aguil") )e+ee-e+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 "n+ 9e)e "(le to "cBui)e " title to s"i+ 2)o2e)t0. /3e title in t3e n"-e o8 4e)n"(e -e"n93ile 9"s c"ncelle+. /3)ee 0e")s l"te) 3o9eve) 4e)n"(eDs 3ei)s 9)ote to t3e S2ouses Aguil") cl"i-ing t3"t "s 4e)n"(eDs c3il+)en t3e0 9e)e co$o9ne)s o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 "n+ 3ence entitle+ to t3e 2")tition t3e)eo8. /3e0 "lso cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e S2s. Aguil") 3"+ )esol+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 to 4e)n"(e. /3e0 8ile+ " suit 8o) )econve0"nce o8 t3e lot "n+ 2)esente+ " He)o? co20 o8 "n "llege+ +ee+ o8 s"le e?ecute+ (0 t3e S2s. Aguil") selling t)"ns8e))ing "n+ conve0ing ("c= to 4e)n"(e t3e +is2ute+ lot. /3e t)i"l cou)t )ule+ in t3ei) 8"vo). /3e S2s. Aguil") "ss"ile+ t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 t3e He)o? co20 o8 t3e +ee+ o8 s"le on t3e g)oun+ t3"t it 9"s not t3e (est evi+ence o8 t3e "llege+ s"le "n+ 3ence s3oul+ (e e?clu+e+. %ssue$ :"s t3e He)o? co20 o8 t3e +ee+ o8 s"le 2)o2e)l0 "+-itte+ "s evi+ence@ &eld$ No. Cn+e) t3e Rules o8 Cou)t ;93en t3e o)igin"l 9)iting 3"s (een lost o) +est)o0e+ o) c"nnot (e 2)o+uce+ in cou)t u2on 2)oo8 o8 its e?ecution "n+ loss o) +est)uction o) un"v"il"(ilit0 its contents -"0 (e 2)ove+ (0 " co20 o) (0 " )ecit"l o8 its contents in so-e "ut3entic +ocu-ent o) (0 t3e )ecollection o8 9itnesses.< 6)io) to t3e int)o+uction o8 secon+")0 evi+ence t3e)e8o)e t3e 2)o2onent -ust 8i)st est"(lis3 t3e 8o)-e) e?istence o8 t3e inst)u-ent. /3e co))ect o)+e) o8 2)oo8 is "s 8ollo9sF e?istence e?ecution loss contents "lt3oug3 t3is o)+e) -"0 (e c3"nge+ i8 necess")0 in t3e +isc)etion o8 t3e cou)t. /3e su88icienc0 o8 2)oo8 8o) t3e "+-ission o8 "n "llege+ lost +ee+ lies 9it3in t3e 5u+ici"l +isc)etion o8 t3e t)i"l cou)t. In t3is c"se t3e t)i"l cou)t -e)el0 )ule+ on t3e e?istence "n+ +ue e?ecution o8 t3e "llege+ +ee+ o8 s"le. E?istence 9"s su88icientl0 2)ove+ (0 t3e ?e)o?e+ co20 o8 t3e "llege+ +ee+ o8 "(solute s"le. E?ecution -e"n93ile -"0 (e est"(lis3e+ (0 t3e 2e)son o) 2e)sons 93o e?ecute+ it (0 t3e 2e)son (e8o)e 93o- its e?ecution 9"s "c=no9le+ge+ o) (0 "n0 2e)son 93o 9"s 2)esent "n+ s"9 it e?ecute+ o) 93o "8te) its e?ecution s"9 it "n+ )ecogni.e+ t3e sign"tu)esE o) (0 " 2e)son to 93o- t3e 2")ties to t3e inst)u-ent 3"+ 2)eviousl0 con8esse+ t3e e?ecution t3e)eo8. >o9eve) t3e loss o) +est)uction o8 t3e o)igin"ls 9e)e not 2)ove+. /3is -"0 (e +one t3)oug3 t3e testi-on0 o8 "n0 2e)son 93o =ne9 t3e 8"ct o8 its loss o) (0 "n0one 93o 3"+ -"+e in t3e 5u+g-ent o8 t3e cou)t " su88icient e?"-in"tion in t3e 2l"ce(s) 93e)e 2"2e)s o8 si-il") c3")"cte) ")e usu"ll0 =e2t (0 t3e 2e)son in 93ose custo+0 t3e +ocu-ent lost 9"s "n+ 3"s (een un"(le to 8in+ itE o) 93o 3"s -"+e "n0 ot3e) investig"tion 93ic3 is su88icient to s"tis80 t3e cou)t t3"t t3e inst)u-ent is in+ee+ lost. >o9eve) "ll +u2lic"tes o8 suc3 +ocu-ent -ust 8i)st (e "ccounte+ 8o) (e8o)e using co2ies. Since "ll t3e +u2lic"tes ")e 2")ts o8 t3e 9)iting itsel8 to (e 2)ove+ no e?cuse 8o) non$2)o+uction o8 t3e 9)iting itsel8 c"n (e )eg")+e+

"s est"(lis3e+ until it "22e")s t3"t "ll o8 its 2")ts ")e un"v"il"(le. >e)e t3e not")0 2u(lic testi8ie+ t3"t t3e)e 9e)e , o) 5 o)igin"l co2ies o8 t3e "llege+ +ee+ o8 s"le. /3e 2etitione)s 3o9eve) 8"ile+ to "ccount 8o) "ll t3ese co2ies. /3e)e8o)e secon+")0 evi+ence c"nnot (e "+-itte+. Doctrine$ 6)io) to t3e int)o+uction o8 secon+")0 evi+ence t3e)e8o)e t3e 2)o2onent -ust 8i)st est"(lis3 t3e 8o)-e) e?istence o8 t3e inst)u-ent. /3e co))ect o)+e) o8 2)oo8 is "s 8ollo9sF e?istence e?ecution loss contents "lt3oug3 t3is o)+e) -"0 (e c3"nge+ i8 necess")0 in t3e +isc)etion o8 t3e cou)t.

2*. 1"g+"0"o v. 6eo2le G.R. No. 152&&1 17 August 2!!, #acts$ 'n Se2te-(e) 16 1%%* Eng). 1"g+"0"o 9"s c3")ge+ 9it3 viol"tion o8 4.6. 4lg. 22 8o) 3"ving issue+ to Ric=0 'lvis " c3ec= +"tes Se2te-(e) *! 1%%1 in t3e "-ount o8 66!! !!!.!! +es2ite not 3"ving su88icient 8un+s in o) c)e+it 9it3 t3e +)"9ee ("n= t3e 63ili22ine N"tion"l 4"n= Di2olog 4)"nc3. 'lvis "llege+ t3"t u2on le")ning t3"t t3e c3ec= 9"s +is3ono)e+ 1"g+"0"o 2le"+e+ 8o) ti-e to 2"0 t3e "-ount (0 )et)ieving t3e c3ec= "n+ )e2l"cing it 9it3 t9o ot3e) c3ec=s. 1"g+"0"o 3o9eve) )enege+ on 3is 2)o-ise. Des2ite )e2e"te+ +e-"n+s (0 'lvis 1"g+"0"o 8"ile+ to -"=e goo+ t3e c3ec=Ds v"lue. As evi+ence 8o) t3e 2)osecution " 23otoco20 o8 6N4 C3ec= No. *%%%67 9"s "+-itte+ (0 t3e cou)t. /3e t)i"l cou)t eventu"ll0 )ule+ in 8"vo) o8 'lvis.
%ssue$ :"s t3e 23otoco20 o8 t3e su(5ect c3ec= in"+-issi(le in evi+ence 8o) 8"ilu)e o8 t3e 2)osecution to 2)o+uce t3e o)igin"l +is3ono)e+ c3ec=@ &eld$ No. /3e l"9 s"0s t3"t ;t3e -"=ing +)"9ing "n+ issu"nce o8 " c3ec= 2"0-ent o8 93ic3 is )e8use+ (0 t3e +)"9ee (ec"use o8 insu88icient 8un+s in o) c)e+it 9it3 suc3 ("n= 93en 2)esente+ 9it3in ninet0 (%!) +"0s 8)o- t3e +"te o8 t3e c3ec= s3"ll (e pr#ma %a&#e evi+ence o8 =no9le+ge o8 suc3 insu88icienc0 o8 8un+s o) c)e+it unless suc3 -"=e) o) +)"9e) 2"0s t3e 3ol+e) t3e)eo8 t3e "-ount +ue t3e)eon o) -"=es "))"nge-ents 8o) 2"0-ent in 8ull (0 t3e +)"9ee o8 suc3 c3ec= 9it3in 8ive (5) ("n=ing +"0s "8te) )eceiving notice t3"t suc3 c3ec= 3"s not (een 2"i+ (0 t3e +)"9ee.< It 9"s incu-(ent u2on t3e 2)osecution to "++uce in evi+ence t3e o)igin"l co20 o8 6N4 C3ec= No. *%%%67 to 2)ove t3e contents t3e)eo8 es2eci"ll0 t3e n"-es o8 t3e +)"9e) "n+ en+o)see t3e +"te "n+ "-ount "n+ t3e +is3ono) t3e)eo8 "s 9ell "s t3e )e"son 8o) suc3 +is3ono). Cn+e) t3e Rules on Evi+ence 93en t3e su(5ect o8 inBui)0 is t3e contents o8 t3e +ocu-ent no evi+ence s3"ll (e "+-issi(le ot3e) t3"n t3e o)igin"l t3e)eo8. /3is )ule )eBui)ing t3e 2)o+uction o8 t3e (est evi+ence is to 2)event 8)"u+. I8 " 2")t0 is in 2ossession o8 suc3 evi+ence "n+ 9it33ol+s it "n+ 2)esents in8e)io) o) secon+")0 evi+ence in its 2l"ce t3e 2)esu-2tion is t3"t t3e (est evi+ence 9"s 9it33el+ 8)o- t3e cou)t "n+ t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 8o) " 8)"u+ulent o) +evious 2u)2ose 93ic3 its 2)o+uction 9oul+ e?2ose "n+ +e8e"t. In c"se t3e o)igin"l is in t3e custo+0 o) cont)ol o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 t3e l"tte) -ust (e given )e"son"(le notice "n+ i8 3e still 8"ils o) )e8uses to 2)o+uce t3e o)igin"l in cou)t onl0 t3en -"0 secon+")0 evi+ence (e 2)esente+. In t3is c"se 1"g+"0"o neve) 2)o+uce+ t3e o)igin"l o8 t3e c3ec= -uc3 less o88e)e+ to 2)o+uce t3e s"-e. >e +eli(e)"tel0 9it33el+ t3e o)igin"l o8 t3e c3ec= "s " (")g"ining c3i2 8o) t3e cou)t to g)"nt 3i- "n o22o)tunit0 to "++uce evi+ence in 3is +e8ense 93ic3 3e 3"ile+ to +o +ue to nu-e)ous un5usti8ie+ 2ost2one-ents. Doctrine$ As long "s t3e o)igin"l evi+ence c"n (e 3"+ t3e cou)t s3oul+ not )eceive in evi+ence t3"t 93ic3 is su(stitution")0 in n"tu)e suc3 "s 23otoco2ies in t3e "(sence o8 "n0 cle") s3o9ing t3"t t3e o)igin"l 9)iting 3"s (een lost o) +est)o0e+ o) c"nnot (e 2)o+uce+ in cou)t. /o 9"))"nt t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 secon+")0 evi+ence 93en t3e o)igin"l o8 " 9)iting is in t3e custo+0 o) cont)ol o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 Section 6 o8 Rule 1*! 2)ovi+es t3"t t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 -ust (e given )e"son"(le notice t3"t 3e 8"ils o) )e8uses to 2)o+uce t3e s"-e in cou)t.

2,. >utc3ison v. 4usc"s G.R. No. 15&55, 1"0 26 2!!5 #acts$ 'n 'cto(e) 1 1%&7 t3e S2ouses Ron"l+ "n+ V"lentine >utc3ison (oug3t 8)o- V.A. Develo2-ent Ente)2)ises Inc. " l"n+ in S"n Ju"n #u("o 6"-2"ng" "n+ occu2ie+ s"i+ l"n+ "8te) " title 9"s issue+ in t3ei) n"-es. 'n August 2 1%&% Ju"nit" A))"sti" t3e o9ne) o8 t3e "+5"cent lot sol+ " 2o)tion o8 3e) l"n+ to En)iBue 4usc"s "s evi+ence+ (0 " Juitcl"i- Dee+ in 8"vo) o8 4usc"s. /3oug3 4usc"s occu2ie+ s"i+ l"n+ 3e 8"ile+ to )egiste) 3is 2o)tion in 3is n"-e "n+ title )e-"ine+ in t3e n"-e o8 A))"sti".
'n J"nu")0 1! 1%%5 4usc"s co--issione+ geo+etic enginee) N")ciso 1"n"ns"l" to su)ve0 3is 2)o2e)t0. /3e su)ve0 )eve"le+ t3"t " 2o)tion o8 4usc"s l"n+ 9"s occu2ie+ t3e S2s. >utc3ison. Des2ite " +e-"n+ l"tte) to v"c"te sent to t3e S2s. >utc3ison 3o9eve) t3e l"tte) )e8use+ "n+ insiste+ t3"t t3e ")e" 9"s 2")t o8 t3ei) l"n+. A co-2l"int 8o) a&&#on re#nv#n)#&ator#a 9"s 8ile+. 4usc"s 2)esente+ in evi+ence t3e Juitcl"iDee+ to 2)ove 3is title ove) t3e +is2ute+ ")e" "s 9ell "s testi8ie+ on t3e su)ve0 con+ucte+ (0 1"n"ns"l". Anot3e) geo+etic enginee) con8i)-e+ t3e 8i)st su)ve0 9it3 " ve)i8ic"tion 2l"n "n+ )e2o)t 93ic3 3"+ (een -"+e "s +i)ecte+ (0 t3e 1/C 5u+ge in t3e 2)evious unl"98ul +et"ine) c"se 93ic3 3"+ (een +is-isse+. %ssue$ :"s t3e Juitcl"i- Dee+ su88icient to 2)ove 4usc"s o9ne)s3i2 o8 t3e +is2ute+ ")e"@ &eld$ No. /3e l"9 )eBui)es t3"t t3e 2")t0 93o "lleges " 8"ct "n+ su(st"nti"ll0 "sse)ts t3e "88i)-"tive o8 t3e issue 3"s t3e (u)+en o8 2)oving it. A)t. ,*, o8 t3e Ne9 Civil Co+e 2)ovi+es t3"t ;to success8ull0 -"int"in "n "ction to )ecove) t3e o9ne)s3i2 o8 " )e"l 2)oe2)t0 t3e 2e)son 93o cl"i-s " (ette) )ig3t to it

-ust 2)ove t9o t3ingsF 8i)st t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e l"n+ cl"i-e+ "n+E secon+ 3is title t3e)eto.< In t3is c"se 4usc"s 8"ile+ to est"(lis3 (ot3 )eBui)e-ents. A cu)so)0 )e"+ing o8 t3e Juitcl"i- Dee+ )eve"ls t3"t it s2eci8ie+ onl0 t3e e?tent o8 t3e ")e" sol+. Anne? ;A< o8 t3e Dee+ 93e)e t3e enti)e lot o8 A))"sti" 9"s 2")ticul")l0 +esc)i(e+ "n+ 93e)e t3e s2eci8ic 2o)tion o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 sol+ to 4usc"s 9"s -")=e+ 9"s not 2)esente+ "t t3e t)i"l. /3e Dee+ itsel8 8"ile+ to -ention t3e -etes "n+ (oun+s o8 t3e l"n+ su(5ect o8 t3e s"le. /3e8o)e it c"nnot (e success8ull0 use+ to i+enti80 t3e ")e" 4usc"s 9"s cl"i-ing "n+ 2)ove 3is o9ne)s3i2 t3e)eo8. /3e 2)esent"tion o8 t3e Anne? ;A< is essenti"l "s 93"t +e8ines " 2iece o8 l"n+ is not t3e si.e -entione+ in t3e inst)u-ent (ut t3e (oun+")ies t3e)eo8 93ic3 enclose t3e l"n+ "n+ in+ic"te its e?"ct li-its. /3e su)ve0s c"nnot (e given evi+enti")0 9eig3t to 2)ove t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e l"n+ sol+ to 4usc"s "n+ 3is o9ne)s3i2 t3e)eo8 "s t3e0 -e)el0 )elie+ on t3e sel8$se)ving st"te-ent o8 4usc"s t3"t 3e o9ns t3e 2o)tion o8 t3e lot "+5"cent to t3"t o8 t3e S2s. >utc3ison. 1o)eove) t3e )ules on evi+ence 2)ovi+e t3"t 93e)e t3e contents o8 t3e +ocu-ent ")e t3e 8"cts in issue t3e (est evi+ence is t3e inst)u-ent itsel8. >e)e t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e l"n+ cl"i-e+ "n+ 4usc"sD o9ne)s3i2 t3e)eo8 ")e t3e ve)0 8"cts in issue. /3e (est evi+ence to 2)ove suc3 is t3e Juitcl"i- Dee+ "n+ its Anne? ;A< 93e)e 4usc"s +e)ives 3is title "n+ 93e)e t3e l"n+ 8)o- 93ic3 3e 2u)c3"se+ " 2")t 9"s +esc)i(e+ 9it3 2")ticul")it0 in+ic"ting t3e -etes "n+ (oun+s t3e)eo8. 7"ilu)e to "++uce Anne? ;A< in evi+ence o) 2)o+uce secon+")0 evi+ence "8te) 2)oo8 o8 t3e loss o8 t3e 8o)-e) is 8"t"l to 3is c"use. Doctrine$ /3e )ules on evi+ence 2)ovi+e t3"t 93e)e t3e contents o8 t3e +ocu-ent ")e t3e 8"cts in issue t3e (est evi+ence is t3e inst)u-ent itsel8. 7"ilu)e to "++uce suc3 in evi+ence o) to 2)o+uce secon+")0 evi+ence u2on 2)oo8 o8 loss o) +est)uction o8 t3e 8o)-e) is 8"t"l to t3e c"use o8 "ction. 25. 6)ovinci"l 7isc"l o8 6"-2"ng" vs. Re0es G.R. No. *5*66. August 5 1%*1 #acts$ /3e 2)ovinci"l 8isc"l o8 6"-2"ng" 8ile+ t9o in8o)-"tions 8o) li(el "g"inst An+)es Guev"))" "lleging t3"t t3e l"tte) 9it3 -"licious intent 2u(lis3e+ on 2"ge % o8 t3e Jul0 1* 1%*! issue o8 t3e 9ee=l0 2"2e) 1ng 2ag!mas#) " sBi( in ve)se o8 93ic3 " S2"nis3 t)"nsl"tion 9"s inclu+e+ inten+e+ to i-2e"c3 t3e 3onest0 integ)it0 "n+ )e2ut"tion o8 Cle-ente D"0)it "n+ o8 1")i"no Ne2o-uceno. /3e c)i-in"l c"ses 9e)e set 8o) " 5oint t)i"l. As evi+ence t3e 8isc"l "tte-2te+ to 2)esent co2ies o8 t3e 1ng 2ag!mas#) issue 93ic3 cont"ine+ t3e li(elous ")ticle 9it3 t3e innuen+o "not3e) ")ticle in t3e ve)n"cul") 2u(lis3e+ in t3e s"-e 9ee=l0 "n+ its t)"nsl"tion into S2"nis3. /3e t)i"l cou)t 3el+ t3e co2ies "s in"+-issi(le s"0ing t3"t in"s-uc3 "s t3e li(elous ")ticles 9e)e not Buote+ in t3e in8o)-"tion s"i+ evi+ence c"nnot (e "+-itte+ 9it3out "-en+ing t3e in8o)-"tion. /3e cou)t +enie+ t3e 2etition to "-en+ t3e in8o)-"tion on t3e g)oun+ t3"t it 9oul+ i-2"i) t3e )ig3ts o8 Guev"))" 3ol+ing t3"t t3e o-ission o8 t3e li(elous ")ticle in t3e o)igin"l 9"s 8"t"l to t3e 2)osecution. %ssue$ A)e t3e co2ies o8 t3e 9ee=l0 93e)e t3e li(elous ")ticle 9"s 2u(lis3e+ t3e (est evi+ence o8 t3e c)i-e o8 li(el@ &eld$ Aes. /3e gene)"l )ules )eg")+ing "+-issi(ilit0 o8 evi+ence ")e "22lic"(le to c"ses o8 li(el o) sl"n+e). /3e evi+ence -ust (e )elev"nt "n+ not 3e")s"0. /3is (eing so t3e )ule o8 2)oce+u)e 93ic3 )eBui)es t3e 2)o+uction o8 t3e (est evi+ence is "22lic"(le to t3e 2)esent c"se. /3e co2ies o8 t3e 9ee=l0 93e)e t3e li(elous ")ticle 9"s 2u(lis3e+ "n+ its t)"nsl"tion constitute t3e (est evi+ence o8 t3e li(el c3")ge+. /3e ne9s2"2e) itsel8 is t3e (est evi+ence o8 " 2u(lis3e+ ")ticle. Doctrine$ /3e gene)"l )ules )eg")+ing "+-issi(ilit0 o8 evi+ence ")e "22lic"(le to c"ses o8 li(el o) sl"n+e). /3e co2ies o8 t3e 9ee=l0 93e)e t3e li(elous ")ticle 9"s 2u(lis3e+ "n+ its t)"nsl"tion constitute t3e (est evi+ence o8 t3e li(el c3")ge+. 26. E()eo v. E()eo GR 16!!65 7e(. 2& 2!!6 #acts$ 7eli2e E()eo +ie+ intest"te in 1%26 le"ving (e3in+ "s 3is 3ei)s 3is 5 c3il+)en Gil 7l"vi"no 7elino Ign"cio "n+ 7eli2". >e "lso le8t (e3in+ "n untitle+ 2")cel o8 l"n+ in 4")"ng"0 S"-2"g" 4"t"ng"s Cit0 93ic3 2u)su"nt to t3e su(+ivision -"+e (0 3i- 9"s su(+ivi+e+ into si? lots i+enti8ie+ "s #ots A 4 C D E "n+ 7. 'n Se2te-(e) 11 1%67 7eli2eDs 3ei)s e?ecute+ "n+ "signe+ " +ocu-ent entitle+ ; 3as!"atan ng Pagbabahag# ng 4!pa < 93e)e(0 t3e0 e?t)"5u+ici"ll0 2")titione+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 e?ce2t t3e 2o)tion =no9n "s #ot No. %!,6$7. /3e0 "g)ee+ t3"t s"i+ #ot 7 9oul+ )e-"in un+e) t3e co$o9ne)s3i2 o8 Gil 7l"vi"no 7elino Ign"cio "n+ t3e 3ei)s o8 7eli2" 93o 3"+ "l)e"+0 +ie+. >o9eve) t3e 2l"inti88s 9e)e su)2)ise+ to +iscove) t3"t #ot 7 9"s +ecl")e+ 8o) t"?"tion 2u)2oses in t3e n"-e o8 Antonio E()eo 7elinoDs son. /3e +e8en+"nts "llege+ t3"t "8te) t3e e?ecution o8 t3e 2")tition "g)ee-ent #ot 7 9"s sol+ (0 t3e 3ei)s to S"nti"go 6u0o (0 vi)tue o8 93ic3 t3e co))es2on+ing Re"l 6)o2e)t0 /"? Decl")"tion 9"s t)"ns8e))e+ in t3e l"tte)Ds n"-e. /3e lot 9"s "llege+l0 su(seBuentl0 sol+ (0 6u0o to Antonio E()eo 8o) 93ic3 " ne9 t"? +ecl")"tion 9"s issue+. >o9eve) t3e +ee+ o8 s"le evi+encing t3e "llege+ t)"ns"ction (et9een t3e 3ei)s "n+ 6u0o 93ic3 9"s cl"i-e+ to 3"ve (een e?ecute+ "n+ )"ti8ie+ in 1%6& (e8o)e Att0. Do)oteo C3"ve. 9"s neve) 2)esente+.

%ssue$ :"s t3e +e8en+"ntsD 8"ilu)e to 2)esent t3e Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le o8 t3e l"n+ to 6u0o 8"t"l to t3ei) cl"i-s@ &eld$ Aes. /3e +e8en+"nts cl"i- t3"t t3e Dee+ o8 S"le coul+ not (e 2)esente+ (ec"use t3e co20 on 8ile 9it3 t3e '88ice o8 t3e Cit0 Assesso) 9"s lost in t3e 8i)e 93ic3 occu))e+ in 1"0 2* 1%7%. /3e0 2)esente+ t3e testi-onies o8 Antonio 6"5il"n "n e-2lo0ee "t t3e Cit0 Assesso)Ds '88ice 7elino E()eo "n+ Asuncion Agu"+o t3e ste2+"ug3te) o8 S"nti"go 6u0o. >o9eve) t3e testi-onies ")e "t -ost secon+")0 evi+ence 93ic3 ")e in"+-issi(le consi+e)ing t3"t t3e +e8en+"nts 8"ile+ to 2)ove "n0 o8 t3e e?ce2tions 2)ovi+e+ in Section * Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t "n+ to est"(lis3 con+itions 8o) t3ei) "+-issi(ilit0. Cn+e) t3is )ule (e8o)e " 2")t0 is "llo9e+ to "++uce secon+")0 evi+ence to 2)ove t3e contents o8 t3e o)igin"l o8 " +ee+ o) +ocu-ent t3e 2")t0 3"s to 2)ove 9it3 t3e )eBuisite Bu"ntu- o8 evi+ence t3e loss o) +est)uction o) un"v"il"(ilit0 o8 "ll t3e co2ies o8 t3e o)igin"l o8 s"i+ +ee+ o) +ocu-ent. /3e o88e)o) -ust 2)ove ") t3e e?ecution "n+ e?istence o8 t3e o)igin"lE () t3e loss "n+ +est)uction o8 t3e o)igin"l o) its non$2)o+uction in cou)tE "n+ c) un"v"il"(ilit0 o8 t3e o)igin"l is not +ue to ("+ 8"it3 on t3e 2")t o8 t3e o88e)o). /3e "nnot"tion o8 t3e Dee+ o8 S"le in " t"? +ecl")"tion is not su88icient 2)oo8 o8 t3e t)"ns8e) o8 2)o2e)t0 "n+ in"s-uc3 "s t3e su(5ect o8 inBui)0 is t3e Dee+ o8 S"le it 9"s incu-(ent on t3e +e8en+"nts to "++uce in evi+ence t3e o)igin"l o) " co20 o8 t3e +ee+ consistent 9it3 Sec. * Rule 1*! o8 t3e Ruloes o8 Cou)t. Doctrine$ Cn+e) Section * Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t (e8o)e " 2")t0 is "llo9e+ to "++uce secon+")0 evi+ence to 2)ove t3e contents o8 t3e o)igin"l o8 " +ee+ o) +ocu-ent t3e 2")t0 3"s to 2)ove 9it3 t3e )eBuisite Bu"ntu- o8 evi+ence t3e loss o) +est)uction o) un"v"il"(ilit0 o8 "ll t3e co2ies o8 t3e o)igin"l o8 s"i+ +ee+ o) +ocu-ent. /3e "nnot"tion o8 t3e Dee+ o8 S"le in " t"? +ecl")"tion is not su88icient 2)oo8 o8 t3e t)"ns8e) o8 2)o2e)t0. )ARO* !+%D!NC! 27. Au /e= v. Gon."les GR No. %%*5 7e(. 1 1%15 #acts$ Au /e= K Co. "n+ 4"silio Gon."les ente)e+ into " 6u)c3"se Ag)ee-ent cove)ing 6!! 2iculs o8 sug") "t "n0 2l"ce 9it3in t3e -unici2"lit0 o8 S"nt" Ros" 8o) 6* !!! to (e 2"i+ in "+v"nce. /3e v"li+it0 o8 t3e 6u)c3"se Ag)ee-ent 9"s 8)o- J"nu")0 1 1%12 u2 to 1")c3 *1 1%12 onl0. It 9"s "lso sti2ul"te+ t3"t 8"ilu)e o8 Gon."les to +elive) t3e 6!! 2iculs o8 sug") 9it3in * -ont3s 9oul+ )escin+ t3e cont)"ct t3e)e(0 o(lig"ting Gon."les to )etu)n t3e 6* !!! to Au /e= K Co. "long 9it3 "not3e) 61 2!! "s in+e-nit0 8o) loss "n+ +"-"ges. Due to tot"l 8"ilu)e o8 3is sug") c)o2 t3"t 0e") Gon."les 8"ile+ to co-2l0 9it3 3is o(lig"tion. As " +e8ense 3e cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e "g)ee-ent (et9een 3i- "n+ Au /e= )eBui)e+ +elive)0 o8 t3e sug") 8)o- 3is o9n 2l"nt"tion "n+ no93e)e else. Au /e= K Co. 3o9eve) cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e)e 9"s no suc3 )est)iction "s to t3e sou)ce o8 t3e sug") to (e +elive)e+. Gon."les 9"s 8)ee to (u0 t3e sug") 8)o- t3e -")=et o) )"ise it 3i-sel8 so long "s 3e co-2lie+ 9it3 3is o(lig"tion. %ssue$ S3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence (e "llo9e+ to +ete)-ine t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e "g)ee-ent (et9een Au /e= K Co. "n+ Gon."les@ &eld$ No. /3is c"se "22e")s to (e one to 93ic3 t3e )ule e?clu+ing 2")ol evi+ence to "++ to o) v")0 t3e te)-s o8 " 9)itten cont)"ct is +eci+e+l0 "22lic"(le. /3e)e is not t3e slig3test inti-"tion in t3e cont)"ct t3"t t3e sug") 9"s to (e )"ise+ (0 t3e +e8en+"nt. 6")ties ")e 2)esu-e+ to 3"ve )e+uce+ to 9)iting "ll t3e essenti"l con+itions o8 t3ei) cont)"ct. :3ile 2")ole evi+ence is "+-issi(le in " v")iet0 o8 9"0s to e?2l"in t3e -e"ning o8 9)itten cont)"cts it c"nnot se)ve t3e 2u)2ose o8 inco)2o)"ting into t3e cont)"ct "++ition"l conte-2o)"neous con+itions not -entione+ "t "ll in t3e cont)"ct in t3e "(sence o8 8)"u+ o) -ist"=e. In t3is c"se Gon."les un+e)too= to +elive) " s2eci8ie+ Bu"ntit0 o8 sug") 9it3in " s2eci8ie+ ti-e. No )est)iction 9"s 2l"ce+ "s to -"tte) o8 o(t"ining t3e sug"). >e 9"s eBu"ll0 "t li(e)t0 to 2u)c3"se it on t3e -")=et o) )"ise it 3i-sel8. /3oug3 Gon."les o9ne+ " 2l"nt"tion "n+ e?2ecte+ to )"ise t3e sug") 3i-sel8 3e +i+ not li-it 3is o(lig"tion to 3is o9n c)o2 o8 sug"). /3e)e8o)e t3e con+ition 93ic3 Gon."les see=s to "++ to t3e cont)"ct (0 2")ole evi+ence c"nnot (e consi+e)e+. /3e )ig3ts o8 t3e 2")ties -ust (e +ete)-ine+ (0 t3e 9)iting itsel8. Doctrine$ 6")ties ")e 2)esu-e+ to 3"ve )e+uce+ to 9)iting "ll t3e essenti"l con+itions o8 t3ei) cont)"ct. :3ile 2")ol evi+ence is "+-issi(le in " v")iet0 o8 9"0s to e?2l"in t3e -e"ning o8 9)itten cont)"cts it c"nnot se)ve t3e 2u)2ose o8 inco)2o)"ting into t3e cont)"ct "++ition"l conte-2o)"neous con+itions 93ic3 ")e not -entione+ "t "ll in t3e 9)iting unless t3e)e 3"s (een 8)"u+ o) -ist"=e. 2&. 2%. *!. ')t"ne. v. Inocentes 6"sto) v. G"s2") GR No. 1!7*72 J"n. 2* 1%%7 GR No. 1256 GR No. ,%76 Nov. 27 1%!%

Evel"n+ v. E"ste)n 1ining Co-2"n0

*1.

C3iu C3iong v. N"tion"l Cit0 4"n=

GR No. #$7,&5 August 2* 1%56

CO**AT!RA* A,R!!-!NT *2. L"c")i"s Ro(les v. #i."))"g" >e)-"nos GR No. 2617* Jul0 1* 1%27 #acts$ As "+-inist)"t)i? o8 t3e est"te o8 3e) 3us("n+ L"c")i"s Ro(les S). An"st"ci" +e l" R"-" s3e le"se+ t3e 3"cien+" ;N"3"lin"n< to L"c")i"s Ro(les J). 8o) si? 0e")s. Ro(les J). "t 3is e?2ense "n+ 9it3out "n0 )ig3t o8 in+e-nit0 "t t3e en+ o8 t3e te)- -"+e v")ious i-2)ove-ents "n+ "++itions to t3e 2l"nt suc3 "s ne9 30+)"ulic 2)ess )econst)uction o8 +9elling 3ouse (uil+ing o8 c"-")ins )econst)uction o8 ovens "n+ ot3e)s. /3)ee 0e")s (e8o)e t3e le"se 9"s to e?2i)e #i."))"g" >e)-"nos " -e)c"ntile 2")tne)s3i2 2)o2ose+ to (u0 "ll o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 (elonging to t3e 3"cien+". As Ro(les J). still 3"+ ove) t9o 0e")s in 3is le"se cont)"ct 3e 9"s "s=e+ to su))en+e) suc3 l"st t9o 0e")s "n+ 2e)-it #i."))"g" >e)-"nos to t"=e 2ossession "s (u0e). #i."))"g" >e)-"nos "g)ee+ to 2"0 3i- t3e v"lue o8 "ll (ette)-ents -"+e on t3e 3"cien+" "n+ to (u0 8)o- 3i- "ll t3"t (elonge+ to 3i- 2e)son"ll0 on t3e 3"cien+". >o9eve) no )e8e)ence o8 suc3 su))en+e) o8 Ro(lesD )ig3ts "s lessee e?ce2t in 8i?ing t3e +"te 93en t3e le"se s3oul+ en+ no) o8 "n0t3ing s"i+ conce)ning t3e i-2)ove-ents o) 2)o2e)t0 o8 " 2e)son"l n"tu)e 9"s 2l"ce+ in t3e inst)u-ent o8 conve0"nce l"te) e?ecute+. Ro(les J). eventu"ll0 8ile+ " co-2l"int "g"inst #i."))"g" >e)-"nos 8o) t3e )ecove)0 o8 co-2ens"tion 8o) i-2)ove-ents -"+e (0 3i- on t3e 3"cien+" "n+ t3e v"lue o8 i-2le-ents "n+ 8")-ing eBui2-ent su22lie+ (0 3i- "s 9ell "s +"-"ges 8o) ()e"c3 o8 cont)"ct. As evi+ence 3e 2)esente+ " lette) 9)itten (0 Seve)i"no #i."))"g" to 3i- in 93ic3 " )e8e)ence is -"+e to "n "22)"is"l "n+ liBui+"tion. #i."))"g" >e)-"nos 3o9eve) "ss"ile+ t3e "+-ission o8 t3e lette) "s (eing 2)o3i(ite+ 2")ole evi+ence. %ssue$ Is t3e lette) "+-issi(le "s evi+ence "2")t 8)o- t3e inst)u-ent o8 conve0"nce@ &eld$ Aes. /3e 2u)2ose o8 t3e 2")ole evi+ence is to en8o)ce "n in+e2en+ent o) coll"te)"l "g)ee-ent constituting "n in+uce-ent ot t3e -"=ing o8 t3e s"le o) 2")t o8 t3e consi+e)"tion t3e)e8o). /3e)e is no )ule o8 evi+ence o8 9i+e) "22lic"tion t3"n t3"t 93ic3 +ecl")es int)insic evi+ence in"+-issi(le eit3e) to cont)"+ict o) v")0 t3e te)-s o8 " 9)itten cont)"ct suc3 (eing +ee-e+ to su2e)se+e "ll o)"l negoti"tions o) sti2ul"tions conce)ning its te)-s "n+ t3e su(5ect$-"tte) 93ic3 2)ece+e+ t3e e?ecution o8 t3e inst)u-ent in t3e "(sence o8 "cci+ent 8)"u+ o) -ist"=e o8 8"ct. >o9eve) suc3 )ule +oes not e?ten+ so 8") "s to 2)eclu+e t3e "+-ission o8 e?t)insic evi+ence to s3o9 2)io) o) conte-2o)"neous coll"te)"l 2")ole "g)ee-ents (et9een t3e 2")ties (ut suc3 evi+ence -"0 (e )eceive+ )eg")+less o8 93et3e) o) not t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent cont"ins "n0 )e8e)ence to suc3 coll"te)"l "g)ee-ent "n+ 93et3e) t3e "ction is "t l"9 o) in eBuit0. In t3is c"se t3e +ee+ o8 conve0"nce 2u)2o)ts to t)"ns8e) to #i."))"g" >e)-"nos onl0 suc3 inte)ests in ce)t"in 2)o2e)ties "s 3"+ co-e to t3e conve0o)s (0 in3e)it"nce not t3ose 93ic3 Ro(les J). 3"+ "cBui)e+ (0 le"se o) 2u)c3"se o) t3ose t3"t 3e 3"+ 2l"ce+ t3e)eon (0 9"0 o8 i-2)ove-ent. /3e ve)("l cont)"ct est"(lis3e+ in t3is c"se is t3e)e8o)e cle")l0 in+e2en+ent o8 t3e -"in cont)"ct o8 conve0"nce "n+ evi+ence o8 suc3 is "+-issi(le un+e) t3e +oct)ine "(ove st"te+. /3e 9)itten cont)"ct is co-2lete in itsel8 t3e o)"l "g)ee-ent is "lso co-2lete in itsel8 "n+ it is " coll"te)"l to t3e 9)itten cont)"ct not9it3st"n+ing t3e 8"ct t3"t it +e"ls 9it3 )el"te+ -"tte)s. Doctrine$ /3e )ule "g"inst t3e "+-ission o8 2")ole evi+ence +oes not e?ten+ so 8") "s to 2)eclu+e t3e "+-ission o8 e?t)insic evi+ence to s3o9 2)io) o) conte-2o)"neous coll"te)"l 2")ole "g)ee-ents (et9een t3e 2")ties (ut suc3 evi+ence -"0 (e )eceive+ )eg")+less o8 93et3e) o) not t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent cont"ins "n0 )e8e)ence to suc3 coll"te)"l "g)ee-ent "n+ 93et3e) t3e "ction is "t l"9 o) in eBuit0. **. 6N4 v. 4enito Seeto GR #$,*&& August 1* 1%52 #acts$ 'n 1")c3 1* 1%,& 4enito Seeto 2)esente+ to t3e 63ili22ine N"tion"l 4"n= "t Su)ig"o " c3ec= in t3e "-ount o8 65 !!! 2"0"(le to c"s3 o) (e")e) "n+ +)"9n (0 one G"n Ae= Mi"o "g"inst t3e Ce(u ()"nc3 o8 t3e 63ili22ine N"tion"l 4"n= o8 Co--unic"tions. A8te) consult"tion 9it3 t3e ("n= e-2lo0ees Seeto -"+e " gene)"l "n+ unBu"li8ie+ en+o)se-ent o8 t3e c3ec= 93ic3 9"s "cce2te+ (0 6N4Ds "genc0 93ic3 2"i+ Seeto t3e v"lue o8 t3e c3ec= t3e)e8o)e. C2on (eing 2)esente+ to t3e +)"9ee ("n= 8o) 2"0-ent 3o9eve) t3e c3ec= 9"s +is3ono)e+ 8o) ;insu88icient 8un+s.< 6N4 +e-"n+e+ )e8un+ 8)o- Seeto. Seeto 3o9eve) )e8use+ cl"i-ing t3"t "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e negoti"tion o8 t3e c3ec= t3e +)"9e) 3"+ su88icient 8un+s in t3e +)"9ee ("n= "n+ 3"+ not 6N4 +el"0e+ in 8o)9")+ing t3e c3ec= until t3e +)"9e)Ds 8un+s 9e)e e?3"uste+ t3e s"-e 9oul+ 3"ve (een 2"i+. 6N4 "llege+ t3"t Seeto g"ve "ssu)"nces t3"t t3e +)"9e) o8 t3e c3ec= 3"+ su88icient 8un+s 9it3 t3e ("n= "n+ t3"t Seeto 3"+ -"+e " gene)"l "n+ unBu"li8ie+ in+o)se-ent t3e)eon. As evi+ence 6N4 2)esente+ t9o 9itnesses "t t3e t)i"l 93o testi8ie+ t3"t t3e c3ec= 9"s c"s3e+ +ue to "ssu)"nces given (0 Seeto "n+ t3e 2)o-ise t3"t 3e 9oul+ )e8un+ t3e "-ount 2"i+ (0 6N4 s3oul+ t3e c3ec= (e +is3ono)e+.

10

%ssue$ S3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence 9it3 )es2ect to t3e ve)("l "ssu)"nces -"+e (0 Seeto (e "+-itte+ "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. It 3"s (een 3el+ t3"t "n0 2)io) o) conte-2o)"neous conve)s"tion in connection 9it3 " note o) its in+o)se-ent -"0 (e 2)ove+ (0 2")ole evi+ence. An e?t)insic "g)ee-ent (et9een in+o)se) "n+ in+o)see 93ic3 c"nnot (e e-(o+ie+ in t3e inst)u-ent 9it3out i-2"i)ing its c)e+it is 2)ov"(le (0 2")ole. I8 t3e)e8o)e t3e su22ose+ "ssu)"nces t3"t t3e +)"9e) 3"+ 8un+s "n+ t3"t t3e Seeto 9oul+ )e8un+ t3e "-ount o8 t3e c3ec= i8 t3e +)"9e) 3"+ no 8un+s 9e)e t3e consi+e)"tions o) )e"sons t3"t in+uce+ t3e ()"nc3 "genc0 o8 6N4 to go out o8 its o)+in")0 2)"ctice o8 not c"s3ing out o8 to9n c3ec=s "n+ "cce2t t3e c3ec= "n+ to 2"0 its 8"ce v"lue t3e s"-e 9oul+ (e 2)ov"(le (0 2")ole 2)ovi+e+ o8 cou)se t3"t t3e "ssu)"nces o) in+uce-ents o88e)e+ 9oul+ not v")0 "lte) o) +est)o0 t3e o(lig"tions "tt"c3e+ (0 l"9 to t3e in+o)se-ent. >o9eve) in t3is c"se t3e)e 9"s no e?2)ess o(lig"tion "ssu-e+ (0 Seeto t3"t t3e +)"9e) 9oul+ "l9"0s 3"ve 8un+s o) t3"t 3e 9oul+ )e8un+ t3e "-ount o8 t3e c3ec= even i8 t3e)e 9"s +el"0 in its 2)esent"tion. /3e)e8o)e t3oug3 t3e su22ose+ "ssu)"nces given 9e)e 2")t o8 SeetoDs o(lig"tion "s "n in+o)se) suc3 "ssu)"nces 9e)e +isc3")ge+ (0 t3e un)e"son"(le +el"0 in t3e 2)esent"tion o8 t3e c3ec= 8o) 2"0-ent. Doctrine$ An0 2)io) o) conte-2o)"neous conve)s"tion in connection 9it3 " note o) its in+o)se-ent -"0 (e 2)ove+ (0 2")ole evi+ence. An e?t)insic "g)ee-ent (et9een in+o)se) "n+ in+o)see 93ic3 c"nnot (e e-(o+ie+ in t3e inst)u-ent 9it3out i-2"i)ing its c)e+it is 2)ov"(le (0 2")ole. *,. C3")les :oo+3ouse v. 7o)tun"to >"lili GR #$,&11 Jul0 *1 1%5* #acts$ C3")les :oo+3ouse "n+ 7o)tun"to >"lili ente)e+ into " 9)itten "g)ee-ent o)g"ni.ing " 2")tne)s3i2 8o) t3e (ottling "n+ +ist)i(ution o8 1ission So8t D)in=s. :oo+3ouse 9"s to secu)e t3e 1ission So8t D)in=s 8)"nc3ise 8o) "n+ in (e3"l8 o8 t3e 2)o2ose+ 2")tne)s3i2 3"ving 3"+ "l)e"+0 in8o)-e+ t3e 1ission D)0 Co)2o)"tion o8 C"li8o)ni" (e8o)e t3e "g)e-eent t3"t >"lili 9"s 9illing to invest in t3e (ottling "n+ +ist)i(ution o8 s"i+ (eve)"ges. :oo+3ouse 9"s give ;" t3i)t0 +"0sD o2tion on e?clusive (ottling "n+ +ist)i(ution )ig3ts 8o) t3e 63ili22ines.< 7o)-"l negoti"tions (et9een :oo+3ouse "n+ >"lili (eg"n "n+ >"lili 9"s eventu"ll0 g)"nte+ e?clusive )ig3t license "n+ "ut3o)it0 to 2)o+uce (ottle +ist)i(ute "n+ sell t3e (eve)"ges in t3e 63ili22ines. C2on o2e)"tion o8 t3e (ottling 2l"nt :oo+3ouse +e-"n+e+ t3"t t3e 2")tne)s3i2 2"2e)s (e e?ecute+. >"lili 3e+ge+ 2)o-ising to +o so "8te) t3e s"les o8 t3e 2)o+ucts 3"+ (een inc)e"se+. >"lili =e2t +el"0ing "n+ )e8using to give 8u)t3e) "llo9"nces to :oo+3ouse. >e "llege+ t3"t 3is consent to t3e "g)ee-ent 9"s secu)e+ (0 t3e )e2)esent"tion o8 :oo+3ouse t3"t 3e o9ne+ o) 9"s "(out t3e o9n "n e?clusive (ottling 8)"nc3ise. Suc3 )e2)esent"tion 9"s 8"lse since t3e 8)"nc3ise 3"+ "l)e"+0 e?2i)e+ "n+ 9"s given to >"lili 3i-sel8 93o cl"i-e+ 3is consent to t3e "g)ee-ent 9"s viti"te+ (0 8)"u+. As evi+ence >"lili 2)esente+ "-ong ot3e)s +)"8ts o8 t3e "g)ee-ent 2)io) to t3e 8in"l one 93ic3 +)"8ts ")e 2)esu-e+ to 3"ve "l)e"+0 (een integ)"te+ in t3e 8in"l "g)ee-ent. /3e 2)io) +)"8ts "llegel+0 s3o9e+ t3"t :oo+3ouse 2)esente+ 3i-sel8 "s t3e e?clusive g)"ntee o8 t3e 8)"nc3ise. %ssue$ Do t3e 2)io) +)"8ts 8"ll un+e) t3e 2)o3i(ition "g"inst 2")ole evi+ence@ &eld$ No. As t3e 2u)2ose o8 consi+e)ing t3e 2)io) +)"8ts is not to v")0 "lte) o) -o+i80 t3e "g)ee-ent (ut to +iscove) t3e intent o8 t3e 2")ties t3e)eto "n+ t3e ci)cu-st"nces su))oun+ing t3e e?ecution o8 t3e cont)"ct t3e 2)inci2le o8 integ)"tion o8 5u)"l "cts is in"22lic"(le in t3is c"se. /3e 8"ctu"l issue in t3is c"se is 93et3e) :oo+3ouse -is)e2)esente+ 3i-sel8 to >"lili. >ence 3is "cts o) st"te-ents 2)io) to t3e "g)ee-ent ")e essenti"l "n+ )elev"nt to t3e +ete)-in"tion o8 t3e issue. 6)evious "cts o) st"te-ents ")e not (eing int)o+uce+ "s evi+ence to c3"nge o) "lte) t3e te)-s o8 t3e "g)ee-ent (ut to 2)ove 3o9 :oo+3ouse in+uce+ >"lili to ente) into it to 2)ove t3e )e2)esent"tions o) in+uce-ents o) 8)"u+ 9it3 93ic3 o) (0 93ic3 3e secu)e+ t3e ot3e) 2")t0Ds consent t3e)eto. Suc3 ")e e?2)essl0 e?clu+e+ 8)o- t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule. 7)"u+ "n+ 8"lse )e2)esent"tion ")e "n inci+ent to t3e c)e"tion o8 " 5u)"l "ct not to its integ)"tion "n+ ")e not gove)ne+ (0 t3e )ules on integ)"tion. :e)e 2")ties 2)o3i(ite+ 8)o- 2)oving s"i+ )e2)esent"tions o) in+uce-ents on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e "g)ee-ent 3"+ "l)e"+0 (een ente)e+ into it 9oul+ (e i-2ossi(le to 2)ove -is)e2)esent"tion o) 8)"u+. 7u)t3e)-o)e t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule e?2)essl0 "llo9s t3e evi+ence to (e int)o+uce+ 93en t3e v"li+it0 o8 t3e inst)u-ent is 2ut in issue (0 t3e 2le"+ings. Doctrine$ 7)"u+ "n+ 8"lse )e2)esent"tion (eing "n inci+ent to t3e c)e"tion o8 " 5u)"l "ct not to its integ)"tion ")e not gove)ne+ (0 t3e )ules on integ)"tion. 7u)t3e)-o)e t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule e?2)essl0 "llo9s t3e evi+ence to (e int)o+uce+ 93en t3e v"li+it0 o8 t3e inst)u-ent is 2ut in issue (0 t3e 2le"+ings. !.C!)T%ON/ TO )ARO* !+%D!NC! R0*! *5. C"nuto v. 1")i"no GR #$11*,6 1")c3 21 1%1& #acts$ Es2i)i+oni" C"nuto "n+ Ju"n 1")i"no ente)e+ into " cont)"ct o8 s"le 9it3 " )ig3t to )e2u)c3"se ove) " 2")cel o8 l"n+ 8o) 6*6!. Suc3 )ig3t o8 )e2u)c3"se 9"s to e?2i)e on Dece-(e) , 1%1, one 0e") "8te). /9o

11

+"0s (e8o)e suc3 e?2i)"tion C"nuto (egge+ "n e?tension o8 tie- to )e2u)c3"se t3e l"n+ "s s3e 9oul+ onl0 (e "(le to get t3e -one0 to 2"0 1")i"no 9it3in t3e en+ o8 t3e -ont3. 1")i"no "g)ee+ to e?ten+ it till Dece-(e) *1 "s 9itnesse+ (0 Seve)ino 6"scu"l. /3e 8ollo9ing Sun+"0 C"nuto 9ent to t3e 3ouse o8 1")i"no 93o 2)o-ise+ to -eet 3e) "t t3e 3ouse o8 "n Att0. 1e)c"+o t3e ne?t "8te)noon. >o9eve) 93en C"nuto 9ent to t3e -eeting 2l"ce t3e ne?t +"0 1")i"no +i+nDt s3o9 u2. Since t3en 1")i"no 3"s )e8use+ to c"))0 out t3e "llege+ o)"l "g)ee-ent insisting t3"t t3e )e+e-2tion 2e)io+ "s set in t3e +ee+ o8 s"le. %ssue$ :"s t3e)e "n o)"l "g)ee-ent e?ten+ing t3e )e+e-2tion 2e)io+ "n+ s3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence "s to suc3 e?tension (e "llo9e+@ &eld$ Aes. 1")i"no 3"+ e?ten+e+ t3e ti-e 9it3in 93ic3 C"nuto coul+ )e2u)c3"se t3e l"n+ on t3e con+ition t3"t s3e 9oul+ 8in+ t3e -one0 "n+ -"=e )e2u)c3"se 9it3in t3e e?ten+e+ 2e)io+. >e c"nnot (e 2e)-itte+ to )e2u+i"te 3is 2)o-ise it "22e")ing t3"t C"nuto stoo+ )e"+0 to -"=e t3e 2"0-ent 9it3in t3e e?ten+e+ 2e)io+ "n+ 9"s onl0 2)evente+ 8)o- +oing so (0 t3e con+uct o8 1")i"no 3i-sel8. /3e )ule 8o)(i++ing t3e "+-ission o8 2")ole o) e?t)insic evi+ence to "lte) v")0 o) cont)"+ict " 9)itten inst)u-ent +oes not "22l0 so "s to 2)o3i(it t3e est"(lis3-ent (0 2")ole o8 "n "g)ee-ent (et9een t3e 2")ties to " 9)iting ente)e+ into su(seBuent to t3e ti-e 93en t3e 9)itten inst)u-ent 9"s e?ecute+ not9it3st"n+ing suc3 "g)ee-ent -"0 3"ve t3e e88ect o8 "++ing to c3"nging -o+i80ing o) even "ltoget3e) "()og"ting t3e cont)"ct o8 t3e 2")ties "s evi+ence+ (0 t3e 9)iting. Suc3 2")ole evi+ence +oes not in "n0 9"0 +en0 t3"t t3e o)igin"l "g)ee-ent o8 t3e 2")ties 9"s t3"t 93ic3 t3e 9)iting 2u)2o)ts to e?2)ess (ut -e)el0 goes to s3o9 t3"t t3e 2")ties 3"ve e?e)cise+ t3ei) )ig3t to c3"nge o) "()og"te t3e s"-e o) to -"=e " ne9 "n+ in+e2en+ent cont)"ct. It is i--"te)i"l 3o9 soon "8te) t3e e?ecution o8 t3e 9)itten cont)"ct t3e 2")ole "g)ee-ent 9"s -"+e. I8 it 9"s in 8"ct su(seBuent "n+ is ot3e)9ise uno(5ection"(le it -"0 (e 2)ove+ "n+ en8o)ce+. Doctrine$ /3e )ule 8o)(i++ing t3e "+-ission o8 2")ole o) e?t)insic evi+ence to "lte) v")0 o) cont)"+ict " 9)itten inst)u-ent +oes not "22l0 to "n "g)ee-ent (et9een t3e 2")ties ente)e+ into su(seBuent to t3e ti-e 93en t3e 9)itten inst)u-ent 9"s e?ecute+. *6. En)iBue. vs. R"-os G.R. No. #$1&!77. Se2te-(e) 2% 1%62 #acts$ 6l"inti88s ente)e+ into " cont)"ct o8 con+ition"l s"le 9it3 6e+)o +el Ros")io ove) " l"n+ in JC 8o) 66!!M to (e 2"i+ 9it3in 2 0e")s. C2on " 2e)8o)-"nce (on+ Del Ros")io 9"s given 2ossession o8 t3e l"n+ 8o) +evelo2-ent "s " su(+ivision. >e "lso un+e)too= to 2"0 8o) t3e su(+ivision su)ve0 t3e const)uction o8 )o"+s t3e inst"ll"tion o8 lig3t "n+ 9"te) "n+ t3e 2"0-ent o8 93"teve) inco-e t"? -"0 (e )eBui)e+. Cn"(le to 2"0 "n+ to "voi+ cou)t litig"tion " cont)"ct o8 )escission 9"s ente)e+ into. /o )ele"se t3e 2e)8o)-"nce (on+ Del Ros")ioDs 2")tne) Soco))o R"-os 9"s "llo9e+ to (u0 2! o8 t3e lots on con+ition t3"t s3e "ssu-e t3e 2"0-ent o8 65!M "s 3e) s3")e in t3e const)uction o8 )o"+s "n+ ot3e) i-2)ove-ents )eBui)e+ in t3e su(+ivision. A ne9 +ee+ o8 s"le 9"s e?ecute+ in consi+e)"tion o8 62*5 !56.!! o8 93ic3 "n initi"l 2"0-ent o8 6*5 !56 9"s -"+e t3e ("l"nce secu)e+ (0 " Re"l Est"te 1o)tg"ge ove) t3e 2! lots "n+ " N inte)est on " 2")cel o8 l"n+ in 4ul"c"n. R"-os 8"ile+ to 2"0 t3e ("l"nce. R"-os cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e cont)"ct 8"ile+ to -ention ce)t"in i-2o)t"nt con+itions "g)ee+ u2on suc3 "s t3e 2l"inti88sD 2)o-ise to const)uct )o"+s in t3e l"n+s to (e su(+ivi+e+ 8o) s"le. Suc3 con+ition 9"s "llege+l0 " su2e)8luit0 t3e)e (eing "n o)+in"nce in JC )eBui)ing t3e const)uction o8 )o"+s in " su(+ivision (e8o)e lots t3e)ein coul+ (e sol+ "n+ s"i+ o)+in"nce 9"s +ee-e+ 2")t o8 t3e cont)"ct. R"-os "lso cl"i-s t3"t t3e t)ue 2u)c3"se 2)ice o8 t3e s"le 9"s 61&5 !!!.!! not 62*5 !56.!! t3e +i88e)ence (eing t3e volunt")0 cont)i(ution o8 R"-os to t3e cost o8 t3e const)uction o8 t3e )o"+s 93ic3 2l"inti88s "llege+l0 "ssu-e+ to +o. %ssue$ :"s t3e)e "n o)"l "g)ee-ent o) un+e)st"n+ing (et9een t3e 2")ties "s cl"i-e+ (0 R"-os "n+ s3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence )eg")+ing suc3 "g)ee-ent (e "llo9e+@ &eld$ Aes. /3e const)uction o8 t3e )o"+s 9"s " con+ition 2)ece+ent to t3e en8o)ce-ent o8 t3e te)-s o8 t3e +ee+ o8 s"le 8o) t3e )e"son t3"t t3e su(+ivision )egul"tions o8 JC )eBui)es "s " -"tte) o8 l"9 t3"t t3e selle)s o8 l"n+ t3e)ein to (e conve)te+ into su(+ivision lots const)uct t3e )o"+s in s"i+ su(+ivision (e8o)e t3e lots coul+ (e sol+. /3e const)uction o8 )o"+s in t3e 2)os2ective su(+ivision -ust 3"ve (een u22e)-ost in t3e -in+ o8 R"-os 8o) 3e) 2u)2ose in 2u)c3"sing t3e 2)o2e)t0 9"s to +evelo2 it into " su(+ivision. Suc3 is 2)oven (0 t3e e?ecution (0 t3e 2l"inti88s o8 " so$c"lle+ ;E?2l"n"tion< "long 9it3 t3e +ee+ o8 s"le st"ting t3"t 65!M 9"s "+v"nce+ "s R"-osD cont)i(ution to t3e const)uction o8 t3e )o"+s. /3e +ocu-ent s2eci8ic"ll0 st"tes t3"t t3e 65!M 9oul+ (e +e+ucte+ 8)o- t3e 2u)c3"se 2)ice "22e")ing in t3e +ee+ o8 s"le. /3e Rules 2)ovi+e t3"t 93en t3e te)-s o8 "n "g)ee-ent 3"+ (een )e+uce+ to 9)iting it is to (e consi+e)e+ "s cont"ining "ll t3"t 3"s (een "g)ee+ u2on "n+ t3"t no evi+ence ot3e) t3"n t3e te)-s t3e)e c"n (e "+-itte+ (et9een t3e 2")ties. /3is 3ol+s t)ue onl0 i8 t3e)e is no "lleg"tion t3"t t3e "g)ee-ent +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties. I8 t3e)e is "n+ t3is cl"i- is in issue in t3e 2le"+ings t3e s"-e -"0 (e t3e su(5ect 2")ole evi+ence. R"-os 3"s s2eci8ic"ll0 2le"+e+ in 3e) "ns9e) t3"t t3e cont)"ct o8 s"le in Buestion +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties 9it3 )eg")+ to t3e const)uction o8 t3e )o"+s. Doctrine$ :3en t3e te)-s o8 "n "g)ee-ent 3"s (een )e+uce+ to 9)iting it is to (e consi+e)e+ "s cont"ining "ll t3"t 3"s (een "g)ee+ u2on "n+ no evi+ence ot3e) t3"n t3e te)-s t3e)e c"n (e "+-itte+

12

(et9een t3e 2")ties. >o9eve) t3is 3ol+s t)ue onl0 i8 t3e)e is no "lleg"tion t3"t t3e "g)ee-ent +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties. *7. 1"+)ig"l v. CA GR No. 1,2%,, A2)il 15 2!!5 #acts$ In o)+e) to 8in"nce 3is 9i8e 7e)-in"Ds t)"vel to t3e C.S. Jose 1"ll")i "ssigne+ to 3is son Vi)gilio " 2o)tion o8 " )esi+enti"l 2)o2e)t0 situ"te+ "t 'long"2o Cit0 u2on "ssu)"nce (0 t3e l"tte) t3"t Jose coul+ )e-"in in t3e 2)o2e)t0 "n+ t3"t 3is siste) Eli."(et3 coul+ continue o2e)"ting " sto)e t3e)e"t. Vi)gilio 9oul+ occu20 one o8 t3e )oo-s in t3e 3ouse 93eneve) 3e 9oul+ go to 'long"2o Cit0 on v"c"tion "n+ 3e 9oul+ )enov"te t3e ot3e) )oo- "n+ )ese)ve it 8o) 3is -ot3e) 93en s3e co-es ("c= 8)o- t3e C.S. It 9"s "lso "g)ee+ u2on t3"t t3e 2)o2e)t0 9oul+ not (e +is2ose+ o8 9it3out JoseDs consent "n+ t3"t Jose coul+ )e+eet3e s"-e "s soon "s 3e coul+. A Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le 9"s e?ecute+ conve0ing to Vi)gilio t3e s"i+ 2)o2e)t0 8o) 65! !!!.!! t3oug3 it 9"s 9o)t3 -uc3 -o)e "t t3"t ti-e. :o)se t3e +ee+ +esc)i(e+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 "s " one$sto)e0 )esi+enti"l 3ouse sitting on " 1*5$sBu")e -ete) lot t3oug3 it 9"s "ctu"ll0 " 2$ sto)e0 )esi+enti"l 3ouse sitting on " *,!$sBu")e -ete) l"n+. Eig3t -ont3s l"te) 9it3out JoseDs =no9le+ge Vi)gilio (0 vi)tue o8 " Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le sol+ t3e s"-e 2)o2e)t0 8o) 65! !!!.!! to E+en(e)t 1"+)ig"l " longti-e neig3(o) o8 t3e 1"ll")is. Jose 9"s s3oc=e+ 93en 1"+)ig"l +e-"n+e+ t3"t 3e v"c"te s"i+ 2)o2e)t0. Jose t3en 8ile+ "gi"nst Vi)gilio "n+ 1"+)ig"l " co-2l"int 8o) "nnul-ent o8 t3e Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le e?ecute+ (0 3i- "n+ 3is 9i8e o) 8o) )e+e-2tion o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 "t " )e"son"(le 2)ice. %ssue$ Di+ t3e cou)t e)) in )eceiving 2")ole evi+ence to est"(lis3 t3"t t3e Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le is "ctu"ll0 one o8 eBuit"(le -o)tg"ge@ &eld$ No. /3e Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le c"nnot (e vie9e+ in isol"tion o8 t3e ci)cu-st"nces un+e) 93ic3 t3e s"-e 9"s e?ecute+ (0 Vi)gilioDs 2")ents -o)e so in t3e lig3t o8 JoseDs +is"vo9"l o8 93"t t3e +ocu-ent on its 8"ce 2u)2o)ts to st"te. It 3"s (een 3el+ t3"t even i8 t3e +ocu-ent "22e")s to (e " s"le 2")ole evi+ence -"0 (e )eso)te+ to i8 t3e s"-e +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties. ;Even 93en " +ocu-ent "22e")s on its 8"ce to (e " s"le t3e o9ne) o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 -"0 2)ove t3"t t3e cont)"ct is )e"ll0 " lo"n 9it3 -o)tg"ge (0 )"ising "s "n issue t3e 8"ct t3"t t3e +ocu-ent +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties. 6")ole evi+ence t3en (eco-es co-2etent "n+ "+-issi(le to 2)ove t3"t t3e inst)u-ent 9"s in t)ut3 "n+ in 8"ct given -e)el0 "s " secu)it0 8o) t3e )e2"0-ent o8 " lo"n. An+ u2on 2)oo8 o8 t3e t)ut3 o8 suc3 "lleg"tions t3e cou)t 9ill en8o)ce t3e "g)ee-ent o) un+e)st"n+ing in conson"nce 9it3 t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e e?ecution o8 t3e cont)"ct.< (4!stan v( CA) Doctrine$ Even i8 t3e +ocu-ent "22e")s to (e " s"le 2")ole evi+ence -"0 (e )eso)te+ to i8 t3e s"-e +oes not e?2)ess t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties. 6")ole evi+ence (eco-es co-2etent "n+ "+-issi(le to 2)ove t3"t t3e inst)u-ent 9"s in t)ut3 "n+ in 8"ct given -e)el0 "s " secu)it0 8o) t3e )e2"0-ent o8 " lo"n. *&. 1"ulini v. Se))"no GR No. &&,, Dec. 16 1%1, #acts$ Don Antonio Se))"no lo"ne+ 6* !!! to 6"+e)n 1o)eno K Co. in (e3"l8 o8 Don 7e)n"n+o 1"ulini. /3e lo"n 9"s cove)e+ (0 " 2)o-isso)0 note signe+ (0 7. 1o)eno in (e3"l8 o8 3is o9n (e3"l8 "n+ in (e3"l8 o8 3is 2")tne) Jose 6"+e)n 2"0"(le to Se))"no. S"i+ 2)o-isso)0 note 9"s in+o)se+ (0 Se))"no in 8"vo) o8 1"ulini 93o is t3e )e"l c)e+ito). 6"+e)n K Co. 8"ile+ to 2"0 "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e +ue +"te so 1"ulini institute+ "n "ction "g"inst t3e t3e co-2"n0 "n+ Se))"no 8o) t3e collection o8 " su- o8 -one0. Se))"no 2)esente+ 2")ole evi+ence cl"i-ing t3"t 3e 9"s -e)el0 negoti"ting "s "gent in (e3"l8 o8 1"ulini to lo"n -one0 to t3e co-2"n0 "n+ t3"t 3e )eceive+ no ot3e) consi+e)"tion 8o) t3e s"i+ note ot3e) t3"n " s-"ll "-ount 8o) 3is se)vices. >ence 3e coul+ not (e 3el+ li"(le "s "n in+o)se). As t3e)e 9"s no consi+e)"tion Se))"no coul+ not (e +ee-e+ "n in+o)se). 1"ulini cl"i-e+ t3"t "ll 2")ole evi+ence s3oul+ not 3"ve (een "+-itte+ t3e te)-s o8 t3e "g)ee-ent 3"ving (een +ee-e+ )e+uce+ to 9)iting. /3e 2)o-isso)0 note "s it se)ves "s evi+ence t3"t t3e)e 9"s " cont)"ct o8 in+o)se-ent s3oul+ (e t3e onl0 evi+ence "+-itte+ to +ete)-ine t3e 8"cts "n+ ci)cu-st"nces o8 t3e c"se. %ssue$ S3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence (e "+-itte+ to s3o9 t3e t)ue intent o8 t3e 2")ties@ &eld$ Aes. /3e 2)o3i(ition in Section 2&5 o8 t3e Co+e o8 Civil 6)oce+u)e +oes not "22l0 to t3is c"se. /3e 2u)2ose o8 t3"t 2)o3i(ition is to 2)event "lte)"tion c3"nge -o+i8ic"tion o) cont)"+iction o8 t3e te)-s o8 " 9)itten inst)u-ent "+-itte+l0 e?isting (0 t3e use o8 2")ole evi+ence e?ce2t in t3e c"ses s2eci8ic"ll0 n"-e+ in t3e section. In t3is c"se t3e evi+ence o88e)e+ 9"s not 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 v")0ing "lte)ing -o+i80ing o) cont)"+icting t3e te)-s o8 t3e cont)"ct o8 in+o)se-ent "+-itte+l0 e?isting (et9een t3e 2")ties (ut to +en0 t3"t t3e)e eve) e?iste+ "n0 "g)ee-ent 93"teve). In ot3e) 9o)+s t3e 2u)2ose o8 t3e 2")ole evi+ence 9"s to +e-onst)"te t3"t " )el"tion o8 "n0 =in+ 93"teve) 9"s c)e"te+ o) e?iste+ (et9een 3i- "n+ t3e in+o)see (0 )e"son o8 t3e 9)iting on t3e ("c= o8 t3e inst)u-ent "n+ t3"t no consi+e)"tion eve) 2"sse+ to sust"in "n in+o)se-ent o8 "n0 =in+ 93"tsoeve).

13

:3e)e "n in+o)se) cl"i-s t3"t 3is n"-e 9"s 8o)ge+ it is cle") t3"t 2")ole evi+ence is "+-issi(le to 2)ove t3"t 8"ct "n+ i8 3e 2)oves it it is " co-2lete +e8ense t3e 8"ct (eing t3"t t3e in+o)se) neve) -"+e "n0 suc3 cont)"ct t3"t no suc3 )el"tion eve) e?iste+ (et9een 3i- "n+ t3e in+o)see "n+ t3"t t3e)e 9"s no consi+e)"tion 93"teve) to sust"in suc3 " cont)"ct. In t3is c"se 93ile t3e in+o)se) +oes not cl"i- t3"t 3is n"-e 9"s 8o)ge+ 3e +oes cl"i- t3"t it 9"s o(t"ine+ 8)o- 3i- in " -"nne) 93ic3 (et9een t3e 2")ties t3e-selves )en+e)s t3e cont)"ct "s co-2letel0 ino2e)"tive "s i8 it 3"+ (een 8o)ge+. Doctrine$ /3e 2u)2ose o8 t3e 2)o3i(ition "g"inst 2")ole evi+ence is to 2)event "lte)"tion c3"nge -o+i8ic"tion o) cont)"+iction o8 t3e te)-s o8 " 9)itten inst)u-ent "+-itte+l0 e?isting (0 t3e use o8 2")ole evi+ence e?ce2t in t3e c"ses s2eci8ic"ll0 n"-e+ in t3e section. :3e)e "n in+o)se) cl"i-s t3"t 3is n"-e 9"s 8o)ge+ 3o9eve) it is cle") t3"t 2")ole evi+ence is "+-issi(le to 2)ove t3"t 8"ct "n+ i8 3e 2)oves it it is " co-lete +e8ense.

*%. Inciong v. CA 64CoG.R. No. %6,!5. June 26 1%%6 #acts$ 4"l+o-e)o Inciong J). "long 9it3 Rene N"0(e "n+ G)ego)io 6"nt"nos"s signe+ " 2)o-isso)0 note in t3e "-ount o8 65! !!!.!! 3ol+ing t3e-selves 5ointl0 "n+ seve)"ll0 li"(le to t3e 63ili22ine 4"n= o8 Co--unic"tions (64C). >"ving 8"ile+ to 2"0 t3ei) o(lig"tion on t3e e?2i)"tion +"te o8 t3e note 64C sent lette)s to (ot3 Inciong "n+ N"0(e +e-"n+ing 2"0-ent o8 t3e +e(t. :3en neit3e) Inciong no) N"0(e )es2on+en+ 64C 8ile+ " co-2l"int 8o) t3e collection o8 " su- o8 -one0 "g"inst t3e t3)ee +e(to)s o8 93oonl0 Inciong 9"s se)ve+ su--ons.
In 3is "ns9e) Inciong "tte-2te+ to "++uce evi+ence in o)+e) to +e8e"t t3e te)-s o8 t3e 2)o-isso)0 note cl"i-ing t3"t 2")ole evi+ence -"0 s3oul+ (e "llo9e+ "s t3e note 9"s not " 2u(lic +ee+ (ut " -e)e co--e)ci"l 2"2e) 93ic3 +i+ not (e") t3e sign"tu)e o8 "ttesting 9itnesses. Inciong "llege+ t3"t 3e 9"s onl0 2e)su"+e+ (0 t3i)+ 2")ties to "ct "s " co$-"=e) to t3e lo"n incu))e+ (0 N"0(e 93o 9"s "llege+l0 inte)este+ in" ce)t"in 8"lc"t" logs o2e)"tion (usiness (ut 9"s un"(le to 2)ocu)e -one0 to (u0 " c3"ins"9 to (e cont)i(ute+ t3e)eto. Inciong cl"i-e+ 3e onl0 signe+ "s co$-"=e) 8o) t3e lo"n o8 65 !!!.!! not 65! !!!.!! st)essing t3"t 3e in+ic"te+ suc3 in one o8 t3e 8ive co2ies o8 t3e (l"n= 2)o-isso)0 note 93ic3 3e signe+. >e cl"i-e+ t3"t t3)oug3 t)ic=e)0 8)"u+ "n+ -is)e2)esent"tion 3e 9"s -"+e li"(le 8o) 65! !!!.!!. %ssue$ Does " 2)o-isso)0 note 8"ll un+e) t3e 6")ole Evi+ence Rule@ &eld$ Aes. /3e 8i)st 2")"g)"23 o8 t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule st"tesF ;:3en t3e te)-s o8 "n "g)ee-ent 3"ve (een )e+uce+ to 9)iting it is consi+e)e+ "s cont"ining "ll t3e te)-s "g)ee+ u2on "n+ t3e)e c"n (e (et9een t3e 2")ties "n+ t3ei) successo)s in inte)est no evi+ence o8 suc3 te)-s ot3e) t3"n t3e contents o8 t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent.< Cle")l0 t3e )ule +oes not s2eci80 t3"t t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent (e " 2u(lic +ocu-ent. :3"t is )eBui)e+ is t3"t suc3 (e in 9)iting. /3us 8o) t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule to "22l0 " 9)itten cont)"ct nee+ not (e in "n0 2")ticul") 8o)- o) signe+ (0 (ot3 2")tes. As " gene)"l )ule (ills notes "n+ ot3e) inst)u-ents o8 " si-il") n"tu)e ")e not su(5ect ot (e v")ie+ o) cont)"+icte+ (0 2")ole o) e?t)insic evi+ence. In t3is c"se 3o9eve) Inciong c"n "++uce 2")ole evi+ence to 2)ove " conte-2o)"neous "g)ee-ent t3"t 9"s t3e in+ucing "n+ -oving c"use o8 t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent. Inciong c"n 2)ove (0 "lleging 8)"u+ t3"t 3e "g)ee+ to " lo"n o8 onl0 65 !!!.!!. >o9eve) 8)"u+ -ust (e est"(lis3e+ (0 cle") "n+ convincing evi+ence 93ic3 Inciong 8"ile+ to +o. Doctrine$ 7o) t3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule to "22l0 " 9)itten cont)"ct nee+ not (e in "n0 2")ticul") 8o)- o) signe+ (0 (ot3 2")tes. As " gene)"l )ule (ills notes "n+ ot3e) inst)u-ents o8 " si-il") n"tu)e ")e not su(5ect ot (e v")ie+ o) cont)"+icte+ (0 2")ole o) e?t)insic evi+ence. ,!. C)u. vs. CA G.R. No. 7%%62. Dece-(e) 1! 1%%! #acts$ S"long" 8ile+ " co-2l"int 8o) collection o8 " su- o8 -one0 in t3e "-ount o8 6*5 !!! 93ic3 C)u. "llege+l0 (o))o9e+ "n+ o8 93ic3 lo"n onl0 62! !!! 3"+ (een 2"i+. C)u. "lso "llege+l0 8"ile+ to co-2l0 9it3 3is 2")t o8 " ;2"=0"9"n< "g)ee-ent 93e)e(0 S"long" 9oul+ (e given "n e?clusive )ig3t to 2u)c3"se t3e 3")vest o8 ce)t"in 8is32on+s (eing le"se+ (0 C)u.. C)u. 3o9eve) cl"i-s t3"t t3e 6*5 !!! 3"+ (een )eceive+ not "s " lo"n (ut "s consi+e)"tion 8o) t3ei) ;2"=0"9< "g)ee-ent. It 9"s S"long" 93o o9e+ 3i-one0 8o) "ctu"ll0 occu20ing t3e 8is32on+ (ut 8"iling to 2"0 )ent"ls 8o) t3e 1!$-ont3 2e)io+. S"long" +enie+ t3is cl"i-ing t3"t "si+e 8)o- t3e 6*5 !!! 93ic3 3e g"ve C)u. 3e "lso 2"i+ 62& !!! "s consi+e)"tion 8o) t3e ;2"=0"9< "g)ee-ent 93ic3 9"s evi+ence+ (0 " )ecei2t. C)u. "s 9ell "s t9o ot3e) 9itnesses testi8ie+ t3"t t3e )ecei2t e?2l"ine+ t3e t)"ns"ction (e3in+ t3e ;2"=0"9"n< "g)ee-ent. >o9eve) it 9"s ")gue+ t3"t t3e )ecei2t (eing ve)0 cle") in its l"ngu"ge in its non$)e8e)ence to t3e t)"ns"ction )e8e))ing to t3e "g)ee-ent its teno) -ust not (e clou+e+ (0 "n0 2")ole evi+ence 93ic3 -"0 (e int)o+uce+ (0 C)u.. %ssue$ S3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence (e "+-itte+ to e?2l"in t3e )el"tions3i2 (et9een t3e )ecei2t "n+ t3e ;2"=0"9"n< "g)ee-ent@ &eld$ No. /3e 2")ole evi+ence )ule is 2)e+ic"te+ on t3e e?istence o8 " +ocu-ent e-(o+0ing t3e te)-s o8 "n "g)ee-ent. As t3e )ecei2t onl0 "tteste+ to C)u.Ds )ecei2t o8 6*5 !!! 8)o- S"long" 9it3out even

14

-entioning t3e t)"ns"ction 93ic3 g"ve )ise to its issu"nce it is not "n+ coul+ not 3"ve (een inten+e+ (0 t3e 2")ties to (e t3e sole -e-o)i"l o8 t3ei) "g)ee-ent. At -ost it c"n onl0 (e consi+e)e+ " c"su"l -e-o)"n+u- o8 " t)"ns"ction (et9een t3e 2")ties "n+ "n "c=no9le+ge-ent o8 t3e )ecei2t o8 -one0 e?ecute+ (0 C)u. in 8"vo) o8 S"long". Csu"ll0 " )ecei2t is -e)el0 " 9)itten "+-ission o8 " t)"ns"ction in+e2en+entl0 e?isting "n+ is not conclusive. 4esi+es C)u. "n+ 3is 9itnesses testi8ie+ to s3o9 93en "n+ un+e) 93"t ci)cu-st"nces t3e "-ount 9"s )eceive+. /3oug3 t3e 9o)+ ;2"=0"9< +oes "22e") on t3e )ecei2t suc3 testi-onies +o not in "n0 9"0 v")0 o) cont)"+ict t3e te)-s o8 t3e )ecei2t. A +ee+ is not conclusive o8 eve)0 8"ct st"te+ t3e)ein. A +istinction s3oul+ (e -"+e (et9een " st"te-ent o8 8"ct e?2)esse+ in t3e inst)u-ent "n+ t3e te)-s o8 t3e cont)"ctu"l "ct. :3ile t3e 8o)-e) -"0 (e v")ie+ (0 2")ole evi+ence t3e l"tte) -"0 not. /3e 6")ole Evi+ence Rule )e8e)s to t3e te)-s o8 t3e "g)ee-ent o) t3e cont)"ctu"l "ct. In t3is c"se t3e st"te-ent in t3e )ecei2t is 5ust " st"te-ent o8 8"ct " -e)e "c=no9le+g-ent o8 t3e +istinct "ct o8 2"0-ent -"+e (0 S"long". Its )e8e)ence to t3e "-ount "s consi+e)"tion o8 t3e ;2"=0"9< cont)"ct +oes not -"=e it 2")t o8 t3e te)-s o8 t3e "g)ee-ent. 6")ole evi+ence -"0 t3e)e8o)e (e int)o+uce+ to e?2l"in t3e )ecei2t 2")ticul")l0 9it3 )es2ect to t3e +"te 93en t3e -one0 9"s )eceive+. 4esi+es no o(5ection 9"s -"+e (0 S"long" 93en C)u. int)o+uce+ evi+ence to e?2l"in t3e ci)cu-st"nces (e3in+ t3e e?ecution "n+ issu"nce o8 t3e inst)u-ent. Doctrine$ A +ee+ is not conclusive o8 eve)0 8"ct st"te+ t3e)ein. A +istinction s3oul+ (e -"+e (et9een " st"te-ent o8 8"ct e?2)esse+ in t3e inst)u-ent 93ic3 -"0 (e v")ie+ (0 2")ole evi+ence "n+ t3e te)-s o8 t3e cont)"ctu"l "ct 93ic3 -"0 not (e v")ie+ (0 suc3. A )ecei2t is -e)el0 " 9)itten "+-ission o8 " t)"ns"ction in+e2en+entl0 e?isting "n+ is not conclusive. >ence it +oes not 8"ll un+e) t3e 6")ole Evi+ence Rule. ,1. Victo)i" #ec3ug"s v. CA #o." et."l GR No. #$*%%72 K #$,!*!! August 6 1%&6 #acts$ Victo)i" #ec3ug"s "llege+l0 (oug3t t3e su(5ect 2)o2e)ties 8)o- #eonci" #"s"ngue "s evi+ence+ (0 " 2u(lic ;Dee+ o8 A(solute S"le< 93ic3 9"s )egiste)e+ 9it3 t3e Registe) o8 Dee+s. #ec3ug"s cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e #o."s (0 -e"ns o8 8)"u+ inti-i+"tion st)"teg0 "n+ ste"lt3 unl"98ull0 ente)e+ s"i+ 2)o2e)ties "n+ "22)o2)i"te+ t3e 2)o+uce t3e)eo8 8o) t3e-selves )e8using to su))en+e) t3e s"-e +es2ite +e-"n+s. /3e #o."s 3o9eve) +en0 t3"t t3e 2)o2e)ties 93ic3 #ec3ug"s (oug3t 8)o- #"s"ngue in 1%5! 9"s t3e s"-e su(5ect l"n+. /3e0 cl"i-e+ t3"t t3ei) 2)e+ecesso) >ugo #o." 3"+ (oug3t " 2")cel o8 l"n+ 8)o- one Victo)in" #i-o) "n+ "not3e) "+5oining l"n+ 8)o- one E-ete)io #"s"ngue. /3e )e-"ining 2o)tion o8 t3e lot (oug3t 8)o- #i-o) 9"s "llege+l0 t3e one (oug3t (0 #ec3ug"s. /3is 9"s co))o(o)"te+ (0 #"s"ngue in 3e) testi-on0 93o "lt3oug3 illite)"te 9"s "(le to s2eci8ic"ll0 2oint out t3e l"n+ sol+ to #ec3ug"s. Suc3 testi-on0 3o9eve) 9"s cont)")0 to t3e contents o8 t3e +ee+ o8 s"le e?ecute+ (et9een #"s"ngue "n+ #ec3ug"s. %ssue$ S3oul+ 2")ole evi+ence 3"ve (een "+-itte+ to +ete)-ine t3e l"n+ (oug3t (0 #ec3ug"s@ &eld$ Aes. /3e 6")ole Evi+ence Rule +oes not "22l0 93e)e t3e cont)ove)s0 is (et9een one o8 t3e 2")ties to t3e +ocu-ent "n+ t3i)+ 2e)sons. :3ile t3e +ee+ o8 s"le 9"s e?ecute+ (et9een #"s"ngue "n+ #ec3ug"s t3e +is2ute ove) 93"t 9"s "ctu"ll0 sol+ 9"s (et9een #ec3ug"s "n+ t3e #o."s. #"s"ngue t3e)e8o)e is " st)"nge) to t3e +is2ute "n+ is not (oun+ (0 t3e )ule. /3e 6")ole Evi+ence Rule "22lies onl0 "s (et9een 2")ties to t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent o) t3ei) 2)ivies "n+ not to st)"nge)s. It +oes not "22l0 93e)e eit3e) one o8 t3e 2")ties (et9een 93o- t3e Buestion ")ises is " st)"nge) to t3e 9)itten "g)ee-ent "n+ +oes not cl"i- un+e) o) t3)oug3 one 93o is 2")t0 to it. Doctrine$ /3e 2")ol evi+ence )ule +oes not "22l0 "n+ -"0 not 2)o2e)l0 (e invo=e+ (0 eit3e) 2")t0 to t3e litig"tion "g"inst t3e ot3e) 93e)e "t le"st one o8 t3e 2")ties to t3e suit is not 2")t0 o) " 2)iv0 o8 " 2")t0 to t3e 9)itten inst)u-ent in Buestion "n+ +oes not ("se " cl"i- on t3e inst)u-ent o) "sse)t " )ig3t o)igin"ting in t3e inst)u-ent o) t3e )el"tion est"(lis3e+ t3e)e(0.

,2. 6ionee) S"vings v. CA

GR No. 1!5,1% Se2te-(e) 27 1%%*

T!/T%-ON%A* !+%D!NC! JCA#I7ICA/I'NS '7 :I/NESSES 5!sban) an) 6#%e7 Sec. 22E E?ce2tion to t3e -")it"l +isBu"li8ic"tion )ule ,*. ')+ono v. D"Buig"n GR No. #$*%!12 J"n. *1 1%75 ,,. 6eo2le vs. C"st"ne+" G.R. No. #$,6*!6. 7e()u")0 27 1%7%

,5. #e."-" vs. Ro+)igue. G.R. No. #$256,*. June 27 1%6& #acts$ Jose Dine)os "s )eceive) o8 t3e #" 6". Ice 6l"nt K Col+ Sto)"ge Co. 8ile+ "n "ction 8o) t3e "nnul-ent o8 " 5u+g-ent )en+e)e+ "g"inst #" 6". in 8"vo) o8 1")ci"no RoBue "n+ t3e S2ouses #e."-". It 9"s "llege+ t3"t +ue to t3e -is-"n"ge-ent (0 t3e #e."-"s #" 6". 9"s 2l"ce+ un+e) )eceive)s3i2 +u)ing 93ic3 RoBue ()oug3t "n "ction "g"inst #" 6". 8o) t3e collection o8 615! !!!.!! 93ic3 9"s su22ose+l0 lo"ne+ to #" 6".. Dine)os "ccuse+ t3e S2s. #e."-" o8 ente)ing into collusion 9it3 RoBue in o(t"ining " 5u+g-ent (0 +e8"ult "g"inst #" 6".. /3e S2s. #e."-" +enie+ t3is cl"i-ing t3"t t3e0 +i+ not

15

contest RoBueDs co-2l"int =no9ing it to (e " legiti-"te o(lig"tion 2u)su"nt to " )esolution o8 t3e (o")+ o8 +i)ecto)s. Du)ing t)i"l Dine)os 2)"0e+ 8o) 1)s. #e."-" to (e issue+ " su(2oen" to testi80 "s " 9itness. Suc3 su(2oen" in+ic"te+ t3"t 1)s. #e."-" 9"s to +o no -o)e t3"n testi80 "s "n "+ve)se 2")t0 in t3e c"se "n+ t3"t s3e 9oul+ (e +oing so "s sec)et")0 o8 t3e co-2"n0 93o signe+ t3e -inutes o8 t3e -eeting 93e)e 3e) 3us("n+ 9"s "ut3o)i.e+ to negoti"te t3e lo"n. %ssue$ Does t3e -")it"l +isBu"li8ic"tion )ule "22l0 in t3is c"se@ &eld$ Aes. /3e co-2l"int c3")ges ;8)"u+ulent cons2i)"c0< on t3e 2")t o8 t3e S2ouses "n+ RoBue to -"=e it "22e") t3"t #" 6". 9"s in+e(te+ to RoBue. 1)s. #e."-" 9"s (eing c"lle+ to testi80 "s "n "+ve)se 2")t0 9itness on t3e ("sis o8 3e) 2")tici2"tion in t3e "llege+ 8)"u+ulent sc3e-e 93ic3 9"s "s sec)et")0 o8 t3e co-2"n0 93o signe+ t3e -inutes o8 t3e -eeting +u)ing 93ic3 3e) 3us("n+ 9"s "llege+l0 "ut3o)i.e+ to negoti"te t3e lo"n "n+ 93o -"+e t3e ent)0 in t3e (oo=s o8 t3e co)2o)"tion. Evi+entl0 1)s. #e."-" 9ill (e "s=e+ to testi80 on 93"t "ctu"ll0 t)"ns2i)e+ +u)ing t3e -eeting "n+ 9ill (e "s=e+ Buestions on t3e "-tte) o8 t3e ve)"cit0 o) 8"lsit0 o8 t3e ent)0 in t3e (oo=s o8 t3e co)2o)"tion. :3et3e) 3e) testi-on0 9ill tu)n out to (e "+ve)se o) (ene8ici"l to 3e) inte)est t3e inevit"(le )esult 9oul+ (e to 2it 3e) "g"inst 3e) 3us("n+. /3e inte)ests o8 3us("n+ "n+ 9i8e in t3is c"se ")e necess")il0 inte))el"te+. /esti-on0 "+ve)se to t3e 9i8eDs o9n inte)ests 9oul+ ten+ to s3o9 t3e e?istence o8 collusive 8)"u+ (et9een t3e s2ouses "n+ 9oul+ t3en 9o)= 3"voc u2on t3ei) co--on +e8ense t3"t t3e lo"n 9"s not 8ictitious. /3e)e is t3e 2ossi(ilit0 too t3"t t3e 9i8e to so8ten 3e) o9n guilt i8 guilt0 s3e is -"0 un9ittingl0 testi80 in " -"nne) enti)el0 +is2")"ging to t3e inte)ests o8 t3e 3us("n+. It is ")gue+ t3"t 93en t3e s2ouses ")e 2")ties to "n "ction t3e)e is no )e"son 930 eit3e) -"0 not (e e?"-ine+ "s " 9itness 8o) o) "g"inst 3i-sel8 o) 3e)sel8 "lone "n+ 3is o) 3e) testi-on0 coul+ o2e)"te onl0 "gi"nst 3i-sel8 o) 3e)sel8. Even i8 suc3 vie9 9e)e "cce2te+ "s "n e?ce2tion to t3e -")it"l +isBu"li8ic"tion )ule o) even "s " se2")"te +oct)ine it 9oul+ (e in"22lic"(le in t3is c"se 93e)e t3e -"in c3")ge is collusive 8)"u+ (et9een t3e s2ouses "n+ " t3i)+ 2e)son "n+ t3e evi+ent 2u)2ose o8 e?"-in"tion o8 t3e 9i8e is to 2)ove t3"t c3")ge. Doctrine$ A 3us("n+ c"nnot (e e?"-ine+ 8o) o) "g"inst 3is 9i8e 9it3out 3e) consentE no) " 9i8e 8o) o) "g"inst 3e) 3us("n+ 9it3out 3is consent e?ce2t in " civil c"se (0 one "g"inst t3e ot3e) o) in " c)i-in"l c"se 8o) " c)i-e co--itte+ (0 one "g"inst t3e ot3e) o) in " c)i-in"l c"se 8o) " c)i-e co--itte+ (0 one "g"inst t3e ot3e). 8ea) 2an9s Stat!te ,6. Re0es vs. :ells G.R. No. *!5&7. Dece-(e) , 1%2%

,7. Gue))e)o vs. St. Cl")eDs Re"lt0 G.R. No. #$5&16,. Se2te-(e) 2 1%&* #acts$ Isi+)o Gue))e)o ve)("ll0 9ille+ t3"t t3e su(5ect 2")cel o8 l"n+ (e "+5u+ic"te+ in 8"vo) o8 3is son An+)es. 40 vi)tue o8 t3is ve)("l 9ill "n+ u2on 3is 8"t3e)Ds +e"t3 An+)es 2ossesse+ s"i+ "ln+ "n+ cultiv"te+ t3e s"-e t3)oug3 3is ten"nt Do-in"+o) R"-i)e.. A8te) t3e J"2"nese occu2"tion 3e ent)uste+ s"i+ l"n+ to 3is siste) C)istin" 9it3 Do-in"+o) continuing 3is ten"nc0 until An+)esD +e"t3. An+)esD 3ei)s su(seBuentl0 +iscove)e+ t3"t t3e l"n+ 9"s in t3e n"-e o8 t3ei) cousin 1"nuel Gue))e)o (0 vi)tue o8 " +ee+ o8 s"le "llege+l0 e?ecute+ (0 C)istin" in 3is 8"vo). 1"nuelDs 3ei)s t3e Gue))e)os su(seBuentl0 sol+ t3e s"-e l"n+ to St. Cl")eDs Re"lt0 Co-2"n0. An+)esD 3ei)s ")e no9 "s=ing t3e cou)t ot "nnul t3e "8o)e-entione+ s"les "n+ to "9")+ t3e o9ne)s3i2 o8 t3e l"n+ to t3e-. As 9itness #"u)" Ce)v"ntes testi8ie+ "s to 3e) -ot3e) C)istin"Ds illness "s to " lo"n 93ic3 1"nuel 3"+ g)"nte+ C)istin" "n+ "s to t3e 8"ct t3"t t3e l"n+ 9"s lent to C)istin" (0 An+)es. /3e +e8en+"ntsD counsel o(5ecte+ to #"u)"Ds testi-on0 on t3e g)oun+ o8 Section 2!(") Rule 1*! 9it3 )es2ect to t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute. %ssue$ Does t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute "22l0 in t3is c"se@ &eld$ No. In t3is c"se no cl"i- o) +e-"n+ is (eing -"+e "g"inst t3e est"te o8 1"nuel Gue))e)o "n+ t3e Gue))e)os ")e not t3e e?ecuto)s o) "+-inist)"to)s o) )e2)esent"tives o8 suc3 +ece"se+. /3e Gue))e)os ")e (eing sue+ in t3ei) in+ivi+u"l c"2"cities "s cl"i-"nts o8 o9ne)s3i2 o8 t3e su(5ect lot 93ic3 is not " 2")t o8 1"nuelDs est"te. /3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute c"nnot "22l0. St"tutes 93ic3 2)ovi+e t3"t " 2")t0 in inte)est is inco-2etent to testi80 93e)e t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 is +e"+ o) ins"ne -ust (e "22lie+ st)ictl0 in "cco)+"nce 9it3 t3ei) e?2)ess 9o)+ing i))es2ective o8 t3ei) s2i)it. Section 2!(") Rule 1*! e?2)essl0 uses t3e 23)"se ;"g"inst "n e?ecuto) o) "+-inist)"to) o) ot3e) )e2)esent"tive o8 t3e +ece"se+ 2e)son.< /3e ;ot3e) )e2)esent"tives< in t3e st"tute -e"ns onl0 t3ose 93o li=e t3e e?ecuto) o) "+-inist)"to) ")e (eing sue+ in t3ei) )e2)esent"tive "n+ not 2e)son"l c"2"cit0 "s e-23"si.e+ (0 t3e use o8 t3e l"9 o8 t3e 9o)+s ;"g"inst t3e est"te o8 suc3 +ece"se+ 2e)sons.< /3e l"st 23)"se conve0 t3e i+e" o8 "n est"te "ctu"ll0 o9ne+ (0 t3e +ece"se+ "t t3e ti-e t3e c"se 9"s ()oug3t "n+ t3"t t3e)e8o)e it is onl0 3is )ig3ts t3"t ")e to (e "sse)te+ "n+ +e8en+e+ in t3e litig"tion (0 t3e 2e)son )e2)esenting 3i- not t3e 2e)son"l )ig3ts o8 suc3 )e2)esent"tives.

16

Doctrine$ /3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute "22lies onl0 "g"inst "n e?ecuto) o) "+-inist)"to) o) ot3e) )e2)esent"tive o8 " +ece"se+ 2e)son 93ose est"te is (eing su(5ecte+ to cl"i-s "n+ +e-"n+s. ,&. A()"3"- vs. Recto$M"sten G.R. No. #$167,1. J"nu")0 *1 1%62 #acts$ Ju"n As-"el o(t"ine+ " lo"n 8)o- Al8onso A()"3"- S). in t3e "-ount o8 612 5!!.!! in J"2"nese cu))enc0 8o) 93ic3 t3e 8o)-e) e?ecute+ " 2)o-isso)0 note in 8"vo) o8 t3e l"tte) 2)o-ising to 2"0 t3e lo"n 9i3tin %! +"0s 2lus inte)est. Al8onsoDs 9i8e 7lo)encio "88i?e+ 3e) sign"tu)e "t t3e (otto- o8 t3e note "s " 9itness t3e)eto. C2on -"tu)it0 o8 t3e note "n+ +es2ite +e-"n+s 3o9eve) As-"el 8"ile+ to 2"0. 4ot3 As-"el "n+ Al8onso +ie+ le"ving t3e note still un2"i+. In t3e settle-ent o8 t3e intest"te est"te o8 Ju"n As-"el 7lo)enci" "n+ 3e) sons 8ile+ " Recl"-"tion +e-"n+ing 2"0-ent o8 t3e "-ount )e2)esente+ (0 t3e note. 6)iscill" Recto$M"sten 9"s "22ointe+ "+-inist)"t)i? "n+ +u)ing t3e 3e")ing (e8o)e " co--issione) s3e o(5ecte+ to t3e testi-on0 o8 7lo)encio invo=ing t3e 2)ovisions o8 t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute. %ssue$ S3oul+ 7lo)enci"Ds testi-on0 3"ve (een )e5ecte+ 8o) (eing viol"tive o8 t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute@ &eld$ No. It is t)ue t3"t t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute un+e) t3e Rules o8 Cou)t 2)ovi+es t3"t ;2")ties o) "ssigno)s o8 2")ties to " c"se o) 2e)sons in 93ose (e3"l8 " c"se is 2)osecute+ "g"inst "n e?ecuto) "+-inist)"to) o) ot3e) )e2)esent"tive o8 " +ece"se+ 2e)son o) "g"inst suc3 2e)son o8 unsoun+ -in+ c"nnot testi80 "s to "n0 -"tte) o8 8"ct occu))ing (e8o)e t3e +e"t3 o8 suc3 +ece"se+ 2e)son o) (e8o)e suc3 2e)son (ec"-e o8 unsoun+ -in+.< >o9eve) in t3is c"se t3e 2)o3i(ition is +ee-e+ 9"ive+ 93en t3e counsel 8o) Recto$M"sen e?tensivel0 c)oss$e?"-ine+ 7lo)enci" on t3e ve)0 -"tte)s su(5ect o 8t3e 2)o3i(ition. 7u)t3e)-o)e it is +i88icult to (elieve t3"t t3e counselDs lengt30 c)oss$e?"-in"tion on t3e 2)o3i(ition -"tte) 9"s -e)el0 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 est"(lis3ing t3e ;-otive 2)e5u+ices "n+ 2)e+ilection< o8 t3e 9itness. Doctrine$ :3en t3e 2")t0 invo=ing t3e De"+ 1"nDs St"tute e?tensivel0 c)oss$e?"-ines t3e "llege+l0 2)o3i(ite+ 9itness t3e 2)o3i(ition un+e) t3e St"tute is +ee-e+ 9"ive+. ,%. 6eo2le v. 7)"ncisco (7& 63il 6%,) GR No. #$56& Jul0 16 1%,7 #acts$ Ju"n 7)"ncisco 93o 3"+ (een 2)eviousl0 "))este+ on c3")ges o8 )o((e)0 9"s +et"ine+ in t3e -unici2"l 5"il o8 1"ns"l"0 1in+o)o. C2on "s=ing 2e)-ission 8)o- t3e c3ie8 o8 2olice 3e 9"s "llo9e+ to go 9it3 Se)ge"nt 6"ci8ico 6i-entel to see 3is 9i8e. :3ile 9"iting "t t3e 8oot o8 t3e st"i)s "t t3e 3ouse o8 7)"ncisco 6i-entel 3e")+ " 9o-"n sc)e"-. Running u2st"i)s 3e s"9 7)"nciscoDs 9i8e )unning out o8 t3e )oo- "n+ 3ol+ing 3e) (lee+ing )ig3t ()e"st. 1o-ents l"te) 6i-entel s"9 7)"ncisco l0ing +o9n 9it3 3is 1 N 0e")$ol+ son Ro-eo on 3is ()e"st. 7)"ncisco 3"+ " 9oun+ on 3is (ell0 93ile Ro-eo 9"s +e"+ 9it3 " 9oun+ in t3e ("c=. 7)"ncisco con8esse+ to t3e c)i-e in "n "88i+"vit signe+ "n+ s9o)n to (0 3i- (e8o)e t3e 5ustice o8 t3e 2e"ce st"ting t3"t 3e 3"+ lost 3is senses "n+ t)ie+ to 9i2e out 3is 8"-il0 (ec"use 3e )e-e-(e)e+ t3"t 3is uncle 3"+ t3)e"tene+ to o)+e) so-eone to =ill 3i- 8o) (eing " s3"-e "n+ " +is3ono) to t3e 8"-il0. /3is 9"s co))o(o)"te+ (0 (ot3 Se)ge"nt 6i-entel "n+ 3is 9i8e E-ili" /"l"+t"+. 7)"ncisco l"te) )et)"cte+ 3is st"te-ent "n+ i-2ute+ t3e c)i-e to 3is 9i8e. %ssue$ S3oul+ E-ili"Ds testi-on0 "g"inst 3e) 3us("n+ 3"ve (een "+-itte+ "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. /3e )e"sons 930 neit3e) " 3us("n+ no) " 9i8e s3"ll (e in "n0 c"se " 9itness "g"inst t3e ot3e) e?ce2t in " c)i-in"l 2)osecution 8o) " c)i-e co--itte+ (0 one "g"inst t3e ot3e) ")eF 1) i+entit0 o8 inte)estsE 2) t3e conseBuent +"nge) o8 2e)5u)0E *) t3e 2olic0 o8 t3e l"9 93ic3 +ee-s it necess")0 to gu")+ t3e secu)it0 "n+ con8ences o8 2)iv"te li8e even "t t3e )is= o8 "n occ"sion"l 8"ilu)e o8 5ustice "n+ 93ic3 )e5ects suc3 evi+ence (ec"use its "+-ission 9oul+ le"+ to +o-estic +isunion "n+ un3"22inessE "n+ ,) t3e +"nge) o8 2unis3ing one s2ouse t3)oug3 t3e 3ostile testi-on0 o8 t3e ot3e). /3is )ule 3o9eve) 3"s e?ce2tions (ot3 in civil "ctions (et9een t3e s2ouses "n+ in c)i-in"l c"ses 8o) o88enses co--itte+ (0 one "g"inst t3e ot3e). :3e)e t3e -")it"l "n+ +o-estic )el"tions ")e so st)"ine+ t3"t t3e)e is no -o)e 3")-on0 to (e 2)ese)ve+ 2e"ce "n+ t)"nBuilit0 o8 inte)ests +is"22e")s "n+ t3e conseBuent +"nge) o8 2e)5u)0 ("se+ on t3"t i+entit0 is non$e?istent. In suc3 " c"se t3e secu)it0 "n+ con8i+ences o8 2)iv"te li8e 93ic3 t3e l"9 "i-s "t 2)otecting 9ill (e not3ing (ut i+e"ls 93ic3 t3)oug3 t3ei) "(sence -e)el0 le"ve " voi+ in t3e un3"220 3o-e. 1o)eove) in t3is c"se t3e 9i8e +i+ not testi80 in t3e +i)ect evi+ence 8o) t3e 2)osecution (ut onl0 "8te) 7)"ncisco testi8ie+ in 3is o9n +e8esne i-2uting u2on 3e) t3e =illing o8 t3ei) son. 40 "ll )ules o8 5ustice "n+ )e"son t3is g"ve t3e 2)osecution 93ic3 3"+ t3e)e8o)e )e8)"ine+ 8)o- 2)esenting t3e 9i8e "s " 9itness "g"inst 3e) 3us("n+ t3e )ig3t to +o so "s it +i+ in t3e )e(utt"l "n+ t3e 9i8e 3e)sel8 t3e )ig3t to testi80 "t le"st in sel8$+e8ense not o8 cou)se "g"inst (eing su(5ecte+ to 2unis3-ent in t3e c"se in 93ic3 s3e 9"s not " +e8en+"nt (ut "g"inst "n0 o) "ll o8 v")ious 2ossi(le conseBuences 93ic3 -ig3t 8lo9 8)o- 3e) silence. In giving suc3 testi-on0 t3e 3us("n+ -ust in "ll 8"i)ness (e 3el+ to 3"ve inten+e+ "ll suc3 n"tu)"l "n+ necess")0 conseBuences. 40 3is s"i+ "ct t3e 3us("n+ 3i-sel8 e?e)cising t3e ve)0 )ig3t 93ic3 3e 9oul+ +en0 to 3is 9i8e u2on t3e g)oun+ o8 t3ei) -")it"l )el"tions -ust (e t"=en to 3"ve 9"ive+ "ll o(5ection to

17

t3e l"tte)Ds testi-on0 u2on )e(utt"l even consi+e)ing t3"t suc3 o(5ection 9oul+ 3"ve (een "v"il"(le "t t3e outset. It is 9ell$settle+ t3"t t3e )ule o8 -")it"l inco-2etenc0 -"0 (e 9"ive+. Doctrine$ A 2")t0 -"0 9"ive 3is o(5ection to t3e co-2etenc0 o8 " 9itness "n+ 2e)-it 3i- to testi80. Ph$s#&#an:Pat#ent Pr#v#"ege Comm!n#&at#on 5!. 6eo2le v. C")los (,7 63il 626) GR No. 22%,& 1")c3 17 1%25 #acts$ 'n 1")c3 * 1%2, D). 6"(lo Sit0") o8 1")0 C3iles >os2it"l 2e)8o)-e+ " su)gic"l o2e)"tion u2on C")losD 9i8e 8o) "22en+icitis "n+ ce)t"in ot3e) "il-ents. S3e 9"s eventu"ll0 )ele"se+ 8)o- t3e 3os2it"l (ut 9"s )eBui)e+ to go seve)"l ti-es to D). Sit0")Ds clinic to +)ess t3e 9oun+s c"use+ (0 t3e o2e)"tion. Du)ing one o8 t3e visits C")los 9"s sent (0 t3e +octo) to (u0 so-e -e+icine "n+ 93ile out on suc3 e))"n+ D). Sit0") out)"ge+ 3is 9i8e. Des2ite 3"ving (een in8o)-e+ o8 t3e inci+ent C")los 9ent ("c= to t3e clinic to consult 9it3 t3e +octo) )eg")+ing so-e lung t)ou(le. :3ile con8ine+ "t t3e 3os2it"l " lette) 9"s sent to 3i- +e-"n+ing i--e+i"te settle-ent o8 3is 9i8eDs "ccount 8o) 2)o8ession"l se)vices )en+e)e+ (0 D). Sit0"). C")los 9"s )ele"se+ 8)o- t3e 3os2it"l (ut 93en one +"0 3e 9ent ("c= to t3e clinic 3e 9it3out "n0 2)io) Bu"))el (et9een 3i- "n+ D). Sit0") "tt"c=e+ t3e l"tte) 9it3 " 8"n$=ni8e "n+ st"((e+ 3i- t9ice =illing t3e +octo). 'n t)i"l C")los cl"i-e+ 3e =ille+ t3e +ece"se+ (ut invo=e+ sel8$+e8ense. C")los 9"s 3o9eve) convicte+ 8o) -u)+e) +ue to 2)e-e+it"tion u2on evi+ence in t3e 8o)- o8 " lette) "llege+l0 9)itten to C")los (0 3is 9i8e t9o +"0s (e8o)e t3e co--ission o8 t3e c)i-e t3e lette) )eve"ling C")losDs 9i8eDs 8e") t3"t C")los 9oul+ )eso)t to violence in +e"ling 9it3 t3e "ccuse+. %ssue$ C"n t3e lette) (e +ee-e+ " 2)ivilege+ co--unic"tion 3ence not "+-issi(le "s evi+ence@ &eld$ Aes. :3e)e " 2)ivilege+ co--unic"tion 8)o- one s2ouse to t3e ot3e) co-es into t3e 3"n+s o8 " t3i)+ 2")t0 93et3e) leg"ll0 o) not 9it3out collusion "n+ volunt")0 +isclosu)e on t3e 2")t o8 eit3e) s2ouse t3e 2)ivilege is t3e)e(0 e?tinguis3e+ "n+ t3e co--unic"tion i8 ot3e)9ise co-2etent (eco-es "+-issi(le. I8 s"i+ +ocu-ents o8 co--unic"tions 9e)e o(t"ine+ 8)o- t3e "++)essee (0 volunt")0 +elive)0 t3e0 s3oul+ still (e 2)ivilege+ 8o) ot3e)9ise t3e 2)ivilege coul+ (0 collusion (e 2)"ctic"ll0 nulli8ie+ 8o) 9)itten co--unic"tionsE (ut i8 t3e0 9e)e o(t"ine+ su))e2titiousl0 o) ot3e)9ise 9it3out t3e "++)esseeDs consent t3e 2)ivilege s3oul+ ce"se. In t3is c"se t3e lette) s3oul+ (e e?clu+e+ "s suc3 9"s 9)itten (0 C")losDs 9i8e. I8 s3e 3"+ testi8ie+ "t t3e t)i"l t3e lette) -ig3t 3"ve (een "+-issi(le to i-2e"c3 3e) testi-on0. >o9eve) s3e 9"s not 2ut on t3e 9itness st"n+ 3ence t3e lette) 9"s not o88e)e+ 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 i-2e"c3ing suc3 testi-on0. I8 C")los (0 vi)tue o8 "n "ns9e) o) (0 ot3e) -e"ns 3"+ in+ic"te+ 3is "ssent to t3e st"te-ents in t3e lette) suc3 lette) -ig3t "lso 3"ve (een "+-issi(le. >o9eve) suc3 is not t3e c"se 3e)e t3e)e (eing no in+ic"tion o8 "cBuiescence o) "ssent on 3is 2")t. /3e lette) is t3e)e8o)e not3ing (ut 3e")s"0 "n+ its "+-ission in evi+ence viol"tes t3e constitution"l )ig3t o8 C")los in t3e c)i-in"l c"se to (e con8)onte+ 9it3 t3e 9itnesses 8o) t3e 2)osecution "n+ 3"ve t3e o22o)tunit0 to c)oss$e?"-ine. Doctrine$ :3e)e t3e s2ouse +i+ not testi80 in t3e 9itness st"n+ "n+ " co--unic"tion (et9een t3e s2ouses 9"s not o88e)e+ "s " -e"ns o8 i-2e"c3ing suc3 testi-on0 "n+ 93e)e t3e s2ouse "g"inst 93ot3e co--unic"tion is o88e)e+ "s evi+ence +oes not give 3is consent suc3 -")it"l co--unic"tion is +ee-e+ 2)ivilege+. >ence it is not "+-issi(le "s evi+ence. 51. M)o3n vs. CA G.R. No. 1!&&5, June 1, 1%%, #acts$ 1". 6". 7e)n"n+e. un+e)9ent 2s0c3ologic"l testing to e"se 3e) -ent"l st)"in. In 1%7* s3e "n+ 3e) 3us("n+ E+g") M)o3n 9it3 93o- s3e 3"+ t3)ee =i+s se2")"te+. M)o3n 9"s "(le to o(t"in " co20 o8 t3e 6s0c3i"t)ic Ev"lu"tion Re2o)t signe+ (0 one D). 4"n"eg "n+ one D). Re0es. 40 vi)tue o8 suc3 )e2o)t 3e 9"s "(le to o(t"in " +ec)ee nulli80ing 3is c3u)c3 -"))i"ge to 7e)n"n+e.. A volunt")0 +issolution o8 t3e con5ug"l 2")tne)s3i2 9"s g)"nte+ (0 t3e 6"sig R/C "n+ in 1%%! M)o3n 8ile+ 8o) t3e "nnul-ent o8 3is -"))i"ge 9it3 t3e 1"="ti R/C. M)o3n use+ t3e contents o8 t3e "8o)es"i+ Con8i+enti"l 6s0c3i"t)ic Ev"lu"tion Re2o)t in 3is testi-on0 to 93ic3 7e)n"n+e. o(5ecte+ on t3e g)oun+ o8 630sici"n$6"tient 2)ivilege. %ssue$ Is t3e 6s0c3i"t)ic Ev"lu"tion Re2o)t 2)o3i(ite+ "s evi+ence 8o) (eing viol"tive o8 t3e 630sici"n$ 6"tient 2)ivilege@ &eld$ No. /3e 2e)son "g"inst 93o- t3e 2)ivilege is (eing cl"i-e+ is not one +ul0 "ut3o)i.e+ to 2)"ctice -e+icine su)ge)0 o) o(stet)ics "s 3e is si-2l0 7e)n"n+e.Ds 3us("n+ 93o 9is3es to testi80 on " +ocu-ent e?ecute+ (0 -e+ic"l 2)"ctitione)s. >e is t3e)e8o)e not ("))e+ (0 t3e 2)ivilege "n+ neit3e) c"n 3is testi-on0 (e +ee-e+ " ci)cu-vention o8 t3e 2)o3i(ition "s 3is testi-on0 c"nnot 3"ve t3e s"-e 8o)ce "n+ e88ect "s " testi-on0 -"+e (0 " 230sici"n 93o e?"-ine+ t3e 2"tient "n+ e?ecute+ t3e )e2o)t. Doctrine$ A 2e)son not +ul0 "ut3o)i.e+ to 2)"ctice -e+icine su)ge)0 o) o(stet)ics 93o 9is3es to testi80 on " +ocu-ent e?ecute+ (0 +ul0 license+ -e+ic"l 2)"ctitione)s is not ("))e+ (0 t3e 630sici"n$6"tient 6)ivilege. 52. #i- v. CA (21, SCRA 27*) GR No. %111, Se2t. 25 1%%2

18

#acts$ Ju"n Si- 8ile+ " suit 8o) "nnul-ent "g"inst Nell0 #i- on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e l"tte) 3"s (een su88e)ing 8)o- sc3i.o23)eni" (e8o)e +u)ing o) "n+ "8te) t3e -"))i"ge. As "n e?2e)t 9itness Si"nnounce+ 3is intention to 2)esent D). Ac"-2"+o t3e C3ie8 o8 t3e 7e-"le Se)vices o8 t3e N"tion"l 1ent"l >os2it"l. #i-Ds counsel o22ose+ t3e int)o+uction o8 s"i+ 9itness "s D). Ac"-2"+o 3"+ e?"-ine+ "n+ +i"gnose+ #i- "n+ 3ence 9"s (oun+ (0 t3e 230sici"n$2"tient con8i+enti"lit0 )ule. Si-Ds counsel 3o9eve) cl"i-e+ t3"t D). Ac"-2"+o 9"s t3e)e "s "n e?2e)t 9itness "n+ not to testi80 on "n0 in8o)-"tion "cBui)e+ +u)ing #i-Ds e?"-in"tion. /3e R/C 5u+ge "llo9e+ D). Ac"-2"+o to testi80 (ut t3e l"tte) 9"s Bu"li8ie+ (0 Si-Ds counsel "s "n e?2e)t 9itness "n+ "s=e+ 302ot3etic"l Buestions. D). Ac"-2"+o neit3e) )eve"le+ 93"t illness s3e e?"-ine+ "n+ t)e"te+ #i- 8o) no) +isclose+ t3e )esults o8 #i-Ds e?"-in"tions "n+ t3e -e+icines 2)esc)i(e+. %ssue$ Is D). Ac"-2"+oDs testi-on0 viol"tive o8 t3e 630sici"n$6"tient 6)ivilege@ &eld$ No. /3e )ule on t3e 230sici"n$2"tient 2)ivilege is inten+e+ to 8"cilit"te "n+ -"=e s"8e 8ull "n+ con8i+enti"l +isclosu)e (0 t3e 2"tient to t3e 230sici"ns o8 "ll 8"cts ci)cu-st"nces "n+ s0-2to-s unt)"--ele+ (0 "22)e3ension o8 t3ei) su(seBuent "n+ en8o)ce+ +isclosu)e "n+ 2u(lic"tion on t3e 9itness st"n+ to t3e en+ t3"t t3e 230sici"n -"0 8o)- " co))ect o2inion "n+ (e en"(le+ to s"8el0 "n+ e88ic"ciousl0 t)e"t 3is 2"tient. /3e )eBuisites o8 t3e 2)ivilege ")e t3"tF 1) t3e 2)ivilege is cl"i-e+ in " civil c"seE 2) t3e 2e)son "g"inst 93o- s"i+ 2)ivilege is cl"i-e+ is one +ul0 "ut3o)i.e+ to 2)"ctice -e+icine su)ge)0 o) o(stet)icsE *) suc3 2e)son "cBui)e+ t3e in8o)-"tion 93ile "tten+ing to t3e 2"tient in 3is 2)o8ession"l c"2"cit0E ,) s"i+ in8o)-"tion 9"s necess")0 to en"(le 3i- to "ct in t3"t c"2"cit0E "n+ 5) s"i+ in8o)-"tion 9"s con8i+enti"l "n+ i8 +isclose+ 9oul+ (l"c=en t3e )e2ut"tion o8 t3e 2"tient. /3e 2)ivilege t3oug3 +ul0 cl"i-e+ is not viol"te+ (0 2e)-itting " 230sici"n to give e?2e)t o2inion testi-on0 in )es2onse to " st)ictl0 302ot3etic"l Buestion in " l"9suit involving t3e 230sic"l "n+ -ent"l con+ition o8 " 2"tient 93o- 3e 3"s "tten+e+ 2)o8ession"ll0 93e)e 3is o2inion is ("se+ st)ictl0 u2on t3e 302ot3etic"l 8"cts st"te+ e?clu+ing "n+ +is)eg")+ing "n0 2e)son"l 2)o8ession"l =no9le+ge 3e -"0 3"ve conce)ning suc3 2"tient. 1o)eove) "ssu-ing t3"t D). Ac"-2"+oDs testi-on0 is 2)ivilege+ t3e 8"ilu)e to se"son"(l0 o(5ect t3e)eto constitutes " 9"ive) t3e)eo8. Doctrine$ /3e 230sici"n$2"tient 2)ivilege is not viol"te+ (0 2e)-itting " 230sici"n to give e?2e)t o2inion testi-on0 in )es2onse to " st)ictl0 302ot3etic"l Buestion in " l"9suit involving t3e 230sic"l "n+ -ent"l con+ition o8 " 2"tient 93o- 3e 3"s "tten+e+ 2)o8ession"ll0 93e)e 3is o2inion is ("se+ st)ictl0 u2on t3e 302ot3etic"l 8"cts st"te+ e?clu+ing "n+ +is)eg")+ing "n0 2e)son"l 2)o8ession"l =no9le+ge 3e -"0 3"ve conce)ning suc3 2"tient. 4a;$er:C"#ent 5*. 4")ton v. #e0te As23"lt "n+ 1ine)"l 'il Co-2"n0 (,6 63il %*&) GR #$212*7 1")c3 22 1%2, #acts$ In 1%2! :illi"- An+e)son 2)esi+ent "n+ gene)"l -"n"ge) o8 #e0te As23"lt K 1ine)"l 'il Co. t3e o9ne) o8 " v"lu"(le +e2osit o8 (itu-inous li-estone "n+ ot3e) "s23"lt 2)o+ucts =no9n "s t3e #ucio -ine "++)esse+ " lette) to 4")ton "ut3o)i.ing 3i- to sell t3e 2)o+ucts o8 s"i+ -ine in Aust)"li" "n+ Ne9 Le"l"n+ in "cco)+"nce 9it3 " sc"le o8 2)ices 2)ovi+e+ 8o) in s"i+ lette). 4")ton su(seBuentl0 8ile+ "n "ction to )ecove) +"-"ges cl"i-ing t3"t t3e)e 9"s ()e"c3 o8 cont)"ct "n+ "s=ing 8o) "n e?tension o8 t3e s"les "genc0 cont)"ct. Du)ing t)i"l 3e o88e)e+ "s evi+ence " c")(on co20 o8 " lette) 9)itten (0 3i- to 3is l"90e) Att0. 7)"n=. Inge)soll in 93ic3 4")ton st"te+ "-ong ot3e) t3ings t3"t 3is 2)o8its 8)o- t3e S"n 7)"ncisco cont)"ct 9oul+ 3"ve (een "t t3e )"te o8 &5 cents (gol+) 2e) ton. /3is 9"s "lso su(seBuentl0 o88e)e+ in evi+enc0 (0 #e0te As23"ltDs l"90e) to 93ic3 4")tonDs l"90e) +i+ not o(5ect so long "s t3e #e0te As23"ltDs l"90e) e?2l"ine+ 93e)e t3e co20 9"s secu)e+. /3e l"tte) e?2l"ine+ t3"t 3e )eceive+ t3e lette) 8)o- 2)evious l"90e)s o8 #e0te As23"lt 9it3out e?2l"n"tion o8 t3e -"nne) in 93ic3 t3e +ocu-ent 3"+ co-e into t3ei) 2ossession. %ssue$ :"s t3e lette) 2)o2e)l0 e?clu+e+ 8o) (eing 2)ivilege+ co--unic"tion (et9een client "n+ "tto)ne0@ &eld$ No. Assu-ing t3"t t3e lette) 9"s cove)e+ (0 t3e 2)ivilege suc3 2)ivilege 9"s lost 93en t3e lette) c"-e to t3e 3"n+s o8 t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 no -"tte) 3o9 t3e l"tte) "cBui)e+ 2ossession o8 it. /3e l"9 2)otects t3e client 8)o- t3e e88ect o8 +isclosu)es -"+e (0 3i- to 3is "tto)ne0 in t3e con8i+ence o8 leg"l )el"tion (ut 93en suc3 " +ocu-ent cont"ining "+-issions o8 t3e client co-es to t3e 3"n+ o8 " t3i)+ 2")t0 "n+ )e"c3es t3e "+ve)s")0 it is "+-issi(le in evi+ence. /3e 2)ivilege is " +e)og"tion 8)o- t3e gene)"l testi-oni"l +ut0 "n+ s3oul+ (e st)ictl0 const)ue+. It 9oul+ (e i-2)o2e) t3e)e8o)e to e?ten+ its 2)o3i(ition to t3i)+ 2e)sons 93o o(t"in =no9le+ge o8 t3e co--unic"tions. 'ne 93o ove)3e")s t3e co--unic"tions 9it3 o) 9it3out t3e clientDs =no9le+ge is not 9it3in t3e 2)otection o8 t3e 2)ivilege. /3e s"-e )ule oug3t to "22l0 to one 93o su))e2titiousl0 )e"+s o) o(t"ins 2ossession o8 " +ocu-ent in o)igin"l o) co20.

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:3en 2"2e)s ")e o88e)e+ in evi+ence " cou)t 9ill t"=e no notice o8 3o9 t3e0 9e)e o(t"ine+ 93et3e) leg"ll0 o) illeg"ll0 2)o2e)l0 o) i-2)o2e)l0E no) 9ill it t"=e 8)o- " coll"te)"l issue to t)0 t3"t Buestion. Doctrine$ /3e l"9 2)otects t3e client 8)o- t3e e88ect o8 +isclosu)es -"+e (0 3i- to 3is "tto)ne0 in t3e con8i+ence o8 leg"l )el"tion (ut 93en suc3 " +ocu-ent cont"ining "+-issions o8 t3e client co-es to t3e 3"n+ o8 " t3i)+ 2")t0 "n+ )e"c3es t3e "+ve)s")0 it is "+-issi(le in evi+ence. 5,. ')ient Insu)"nce Co. v. Revill" "n+ /e"l 1oto) Co. (5, 63il %1%) GR No. *,!%& Se2t. 17 1%*! #acts$ /e"l 1oto) Co. 8ile+ " civil "ction to )ecove) u2on 2 8i)e insu)"nce 2olicies issue+ (0 t3e ')ient Insu)"nce Co-2"n0 u2on " stoc= o8 -e)c3"n+ise 93ic3 9"s "llege+l0 +est)o0e+ (0 " 8i)e. As " +e8ense ')ient cl"i-e+ t3"t t3oug3 it 3"+ sent notice )e5ecting /e"lDs cl"i- t3e l"tte) 8"ile+ to institute "ction 9it3in * -ont3s 8)o- suc3 notice t3e)e(0 8o)8eiting "ll (ene8its un+e) t3e te)-s o8 t3e cont)"ct. 'n t3e ot3e) 3"n+ /e"l "llege+ t3"t one E.E. Else) " )e2)esent"tive o8 t3e co-2"n0 e?2)essl0 )eBueste+ /e"l to +e8e) 5u+ici"l "ction "s t3e)e 9e)e 2ossi(ilities 8o) "n e?t)"5u+ici"l co-2)o-ise. Du)ing t)i"l E.1. 4"c3)"c3 2)esi+ent o8 /e"l 1oto) s"i+ t3"t 3e )eceive+ " lette) 8)o- t3ei) "tto)ne0s Att0s. Guev"))" 7)"ncisco "n+ Recto u)ging 3i- to 8ile t3e c"se. ')ient -ove+ 8o) t3e )e"+ing o8 s"i+ lette) 3o9eve) u2on o(5ection (0 /e"l t3e t)i"l 5u+ge "llo9e+ onl0 t3e )e"+ing o8 t3e 2")t on 93ic3 4"c3)"c3 testi8ie+. ')ient t)ie+ "g"in to 3"ve t3e 93ole lette) )e"+ (ut 9"s +enie+. ')ient t3en 2)ocu)e+ " su(2oen" )!&es te&!m )eBui)ing t3e "8o)es"i+ "tto)ne0s to 2)o+uce in cou)t ce)t"in 2"2e)s inclu+ing t3e "8o)es"i+ lette). C2on -otion (0 s"i+ "tto)ne0s s"i+ su(2oen" 9"s Bu"s3e+. %ssue$ :oul+ t3e )e"+ing o8 t3e 93ole lette) viol"te t3e "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege@ &eld$ No. Acco)+ing to /e"l t3e ot3e) un)e"+ 2o)tions o8 t3e lette) 9e)e 2)ivilege+ "s t3e0 9e)e )el"te+ to t3e te)-s o8 e-2lo0-ent (et9een "tto)ne0 "n+ client. I))elev"nt it -ig3t (e un+e) ce)t"in ci)cu-st"nces it is not 2)ivilege+. 'n t3e ot3e) 3"n+ "ssu-ing t3e -"tte) cont"ine+ in t3e lette) "n+ 9it33el+ 8)o- t3e ins2ection o8 ')ient 9"s o8 " 2)ivilege+ n"tu)e t3e 2)ivilege 9"s 9"ive+ (0 t3e int)o+uction in evi+ence o8 2")t o8 t3e lette). Section 2&* o8 t3e Co+e o8 Civil 6)oce+u)e -"=es no e?ce2tion "s to 2)ivilege+ -"tte). :3en " 2")t o8 " 9)iting is int)o+uce+ in evi+ence (0 one litig"nt 3is "+ve)s")0 is entitle+ to use t3e ot3e) 2")ts o8 t3e s"-e 9)iting so 8") "s is )elev"nt to t3e issues in t3e c"se. /o t3is en+ t3e "+ve)s")0 2")t0Ds "tto)ne0 3"s " )ig3t to ins2ect t3e 9)iting "n+ to )eBui)e its 2)o+uction in cou)t. /3e int)o+uction in evi+ence o8 2")t o8 " 2"2e) 9)iting (0 one 2")t0 9"ives 2)ivilege "s to t3e ot3e) 2")ts o8 t3e s"-e 9)iting. Doctrine$ :3en " 2")t o8 " 9)iting is int)o+uce+ in evi+ence (0 one litig"nt 3is "+ve)s")0 is entitle+ to use t3e ot3e) 2")ts o8 t3e s"-e 9)iting so 8") "s is )elev"nt to t3e issues in t3e c"se. /o t3is en+ t3e "+ve)s")0 2")t0Ds "tto)ne0 3"s " )ig3t to ins2ect t3e 9)iting "n+ to )eBui)e its 2)o+uction in cou)t. 55. >ic=-"n v. /"0lo) 56. C2Jo3n Co. v. CS *2% CS ,%5 J"nu")0 1* 1%,7 ,,% CS *&* J"n.1* 1%&1

57. 6eo2le vs. S"n+ig"n("0"n G.R. Nos. 115,*%$,1 Jul0 16 1%%7 #acts$ In 1%76 6")e+es "22lie+ 8o) "n+ 9"s g)"nte+ " 8)ee 2"tent ove) " ce)t"in lot in S"n 7)"ncisco Agus"n +el Su). In 1%&5 suc3 2"tent 9"s nulli8ie+ t3)oug3 " cou)t "ction institute+ (0 t3e Di)ecto) #"n+s on t3e g)oun+ t3"t 6")e+es 3"+ -"+e 8)"u+ulent )e2)esent"tions to secu)e s"i+ 2"tent. A c"se 8o) 2e)5u)0 9"s su(seBuentl0 8ile+ "g"inst 3i- t3oug3 it 9"s l"te) +is-isse+ 8o) 3"ving 2)esc)i(e+. >o9eve) " 2)eli-in")0 investig"tion 8o) t3e viol"tion o8 t3e Anti$G)"8t l"9 9"s co--ence+ (e8o)e t3e /"no+("0"n on t3e g)oun+ t3"t 6")e+es "llege+l0 use+ 3is 2osition "s 6)ovinci"l Atto)ne0 to secu)e t3e 2"tent. /3e /"no+("0"n issue+ " )esolution )eco--en+ing t3e 8iling o8 c3")ges "g"inst 6")e+es. A c)i-in"l c"se 8o) viol"tion o8 t3e Anti$G)"8t #"9 9"s 8ile+ 9it3 t3e S"n+ig"n("0"n (ut t3e s"-e 9"s l"te) +is-isse+ on t3e g)oun+ o8 2)esc)i2tion. Gel"cio 93o initi"te+ t3e 2e)5u)0 "n+ g)"8t c3")ges "g"inst 6")e+es soug3t t3e investig"tion o8 6")e+es 3is counsel Att0. S"ns"et "n+ one >on)"+" )eg")+ing "llege+ 8"lsi8ic"tion o8 2u(lic +ocu-ents "-ong 93ic3 ")e t3e notice o8 "))"ign-ents "n+ t)"nsc)i2ts o8 stenog)"23ic notes su22ose+l0 t"=en +u)ing t3e "))"ign-ent o8 6")e+es in t3e 2e)5u)0 c"se 2)eviousl0 +is-isse+. /o ev"+e li"(ilit0 Att0. S"ns"et )eve"le+ t3"t s"i+ 8"lsi8ic"tion 9"s -"+e u2on t3e isntig"tion "n+ in+uce-ent o8 6")e+es 93o cont)ive+ t3e sc3e-e to +is-iss t3e "nti$g)"8t c"se. /3e '-(u+s-"n )e5ecte+ t3e gove)n-entsD -otion 8o) t3e +isc3")ge o8 Att0. S"ns"et "s st"te 9itness "n+ c"use+ 8"lsi8ic"tion c3")ges to (e 8ile+ "g"inst "ll t3e +e8en+"nts. Anot3e) -otion 8ile+ 9it3 S"n+ig"n("0"n 8o) t3e +isc3")ge o8 S"ns"et "s st"te 9itness 9"s +enie+ (0 t3e S"n+ig"n("0"n on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e 2)o2ose+ testi-on0 9oul+ 8"ll un+e) t3e Atto)ne0$ Client 2)ivilege. %ssue$ Is t3e 2)o5ecte+ testi-on0 o8 Att0. S"ns"et cove)e+ (0 t3e Atto)ne0$Client 2)ivilege@ &eld$ No. /3e)e is " +istinction (et9een con8i+enti"l co--unic"tions )el"ting to 2"st c)i-es "l)e"+0 co--itte+ "n+ 8utu)e c)i-es inten+e+ to (e co--itte+ (0 t3e client. I8 t3e client see=s 3is l"90e)Ds

20

"+vice 9it3 )es2ect to " c)i-e t3"t t3e 8o)-e) 3"s t3e)eto8o)e co--itte+ 3e is given t3e 2)otection o8 " vi)tu"l con8ession"l se"l 93ic3 t3e "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege +ecl")es c"nnot (e ()o=en (0 t3e "tto)ne0 9it3out t3e clientDs consent. /3e s"-e 2)ivilege+ con8i+enti"lit0 3o9eve) +oes not "tt"c3 9it3 )eg")+ to " c)i-e 93ic3 " client inten+s to co--it t3e)e"8te) o) in t3e 8utu)e "n+ 8o) 2u)2oses o8 93ic3 3e see=s t3e l"90e)Ds "+vice. >e)e t3e testi-on0 soug3t 8)o- Att0. S"ns"et "s st"te 9itness ")e co--unic"tions -"+e to 3i- (0 t3e 230sic"l "cts "n+Go) "cco-2"n0ing 9o)+s o8 6")e+es "t t3e ti-e 3e "n+ >on)"+" eit3e) 9it3 "ctive o) 2"ssive 2")tici2"tion o8 S"ns"et 9e)e "(out to 8"lsi80 o) 9e)e in t3e 2)ocess o8 8"lsi80ing t3e +ocu-ents 93ic3 9e)e l"te) 8ile+ 9it3 t3e /"no+("0"n. Cle")l0 t3e)e8o)e t3e con8i+enti"l co--unic"tions -"+e (0 6")e+es to Att0. S"ns"et 9e)e 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 " c)i-e not 0et co--itte+ "n+ 3ence ")e not ("))e+ (0 t3e "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege. Doctrine$ Con8i+enti"l co--unic"tions -"+e (0 " client to 3is "tto)ne0 9it3 " )es2ect to " c)i-e 93ic3 t3e client inten+s to co--it in t3e 8utu)e "n+ 8o) 93ic3 s"i+ client soug3t t3e "tto)ne0Ds "+vice ")e not 2)otecte+ (0 t3e "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege.

5&. C0 C3ico v. Cnion #i8e Insu)"nce Societ0 (2% 63il 16*) GR No. %2*1 J"n. 6 1%15 #acts$ C0 C3ico is t3e son o8 C0 #"0co 93o 9"s con+ucting " (usiness un+e) 3is o9n n"-e. In 1&%7 C0 #"0co +ie+ "n+ C0 C3ico "n+ 3is ()ot3e) too= ove) t3e (usiness "n+ continue+ it un+e) t3e s"-e n"-e. C0 C3ico eventu"ll0 2u)c3"se+ 3is ()ot3e)Ds s3")e "n+ continue+ t3e (usiness. /3en t3e (usiness (u)ne+ +o9n. At t3"t ti-e C0 #"0co 9"s 3e"vil0 in+e(te+ "n+ 3is c)e+ito)s 2etitione+ 8o) t3e "22oint-ent o8 "n "+-inist)"to). :3ile t3e 2)ocee+ings 9e)e ongoing C0 C3icoDs "tto)ne0 su))en+e)e+ t3e 2olicies o8 insu)"nce issue+ (0 Cnion #i8e Insu)"nce Su)et0 to t3e "+-inist)"to) o8 t3e est"te 93o co-2)o-ise+ 9it3 t3e insu)"nce co-2"n0 8o) N t3ei) 8"ce v"lue. C0 C3ico 8ile+ t3e 2)esent "ction cl"i-ing t3"t t3e 2olicies "n+ goo+s insu)e+ (elonge+ to 3i- "n+ not to t3e est"te o8 C0 #"0co "n+ t3"t 3e 9"s not (oun+ (0 t3e co-2)o-ise e88ecte+ (0 t3e "+-inist)"to) o8 C0 #"0co est"te. Cnion #i8e int)o+uce+ evi+ence in+ic"ting t3"t C0 C3icoDs "tto)ne0 3"+ su))en+e)e+ t3e 2olicies to t3e "+-inist)"to) 9it3 t3e un+e)st"n+ing t3"t suc3 co-2)o-ise 9"s to (e e88ecte+. C0 C3ico +i+ not o(5ect to t3e "tto)ne0Ds testi-on0 +es2ite (eing "s=e+ 93ile on t3e 9itness st"n+ 93et3e) 3e 9is3e+ to +o so. /3e "tto)ne0 9"s c"lle+ 8o) t3"t 2)u2ose (ut C0 C3icoDs counsel 8o)-"ll0 9it3+)e9 t3e 9"ive) "n+ o(5ecte+ to t3e "tto)ne0Ds testi-on0. %ssue$ :"s t3e "tto)ne0Ds testi-on0 2)ivilege+@ &eld$ No. It is t)ue t3"t " l"90e) -ust st)ictl0 -"int"in inviol"te t3e con8i+ence "n+ 2)ese)ve t3e sec)ets o8 3is client. >e s3"ll not (e 2e)-ite+ in "n0 cou)t 9it3out 3is clientDs consent given in o2en cou)t to testi80 "s to "n0 8"cts i-2")te+ to 3i- (0 s"i+ client in 2)o8ession"l consult"tion o) 8o) t3e 2)u2ose o8 o(t"ining "+vice u2on leg"l -"tte)s. /3e ve)0 essence o8 t3e veil o8 sec)ec0 93ic3 su))oun+s co--unic"tions -"+e (et9een "tto)ne0 "n+ t3e client is t3"t suc3 co--unic"tions -"+e (et9een "tto)ne0 "n+ client ")e not inten+e+ 8o) t3e in8o)-"tion o8 t3e t3i)+ 2e)sons o) to (e "cte+ u2on (0 t3e- (ut 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 "+vising "s to 3is )ig3t. In t3is c"se t3e testi-on0 9"s to t3e e88ect t3"t 93en t3e l"90e) +elive)e+ s"i+ 2olicies to t3e "+-inist)"to) 3e is +ee-e+ to 3"ve un+e)stoo+ t3"t " co-2)o-ise 9"s to (e e88ecte+. /3e 8"ct t3"t C0 C3ico -"+e no o(5ection u2on (eing in8o)-e+ o8 t3e su))en+e) o8 t3e 2olicies is su88icient to s3o9 t3"t C0 C3ico "g)ee+ to (e co-2)o-ise+. Co--unic"tions -"+e (0 " client to 3is "tto)ne0 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 (eing co--unic"te+ to ot3e)s ")e not 2)ivilege+ "8te) t3e0 3"ve (een so co--unic"te+ "n+ -"0 (e 2)ove+ (0 t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e "tto)ne0. /3e )ule "22lies to " co-2)o-ise "g)ee-ent 2e)8ecte+ (0 t3e "tto)ne0 9it3 t3e "ut3o)it0 "n+ un+e) t3e inst)uctions o8 3is client Doctrine$ Co--unic"tions -"+e (0 " client to 3is "tto)ne0 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 (eing co--unic"te+ to ot3e)s ")e not 2)ivilege+ "8te) t3e0 3"ve (een so co--unic"te+ "n+ -"0 (e 2)ove+ (0 t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e "tto)ne0. P!b"#& O%%#&er 5%. 4"nco 7ili2ino vs. 14 G.R. No. #$7!!5, Jul0 & 1%&6 #acts$ R/C 1"="ti issue+ "n o)+e) g)"nting t3e -otion o8 4"nco 7ili2ino 8o) t3e 2)o+uction ins2ection "n+ co20ing o8 ce)t"in 2"2e)s "n+ )eco)+s "llege+l0 nee+e+ (0 4"nco 7ili2ino 8o) t3e 2)e2")"tion o8 tis co--ents o(5ections "n+ e?ce2tions to t3e Conse)v"to)Ds )e2o)t +"te+ J"nu")0 & 1%&5 "n+ Receive)Ds Re2o)t +"te+ 1")c3 1% 1%&5. /3e +ocu-ents "s=e+ to (e 2)o+uce+ ins2ecte+ "n+ co2ie+ inclu+e+ t"2es "n+ t)"nsc)i2ts o8 t3e 1onet")0 4o")+ +eli(e)"tions on t3e closu)e o8 4"nco 7ili2ino "n+ its -eeting on Jul0 27 1%&, "n+ 1")c3 22 1%&5.

21

/3e 1onet")0 4o")+ "ss"ile+ t3e o)+e) cl"i-ing t3"t t3e t"2es "n+ t)"nsc)i2ts o8 its +eli(e)"tions ")e con8i+enti"l 2u)su"nt to Sec. 1* "n+ 15 o8 t3e Cent)"l 4"n= Act "n+ t3"t t3e +eli(e)"tions 9e)e 3el+ "8te) t3e su(-ission o8 t3e Cent)"l 4"n= )e2o)tsE 3ence t3e0 +i+ not ente) into t3e -"=ing o8 t3ose )e2o)ts "n+ c"n 3"ve no -"te)i"lit0 to "n0 Buestion o8 8"ct t3"t -"0 (e )"ise+ in )el"tion to t3ei) contents. 4"nco 7ili2ino -e"n93ile "sse)te+ t3"t t3e 1onet")0 4o")+ c"nnot cl"i- 2)ivilege in )e8using to 2)o+uce t3e Cent)"l 4"n= )eco)+s "s it is ("se+ solel0 on t3e gene)"li.e+ inte)est in con8i+enti"lit0. <(S( v( N#xon 9"s cite+ 93ic3 st"tes t3"t ;93en t3e g)oun+ 8o) "sse)ting 2)ivilege "s to su(2oen"e+ -"te)i"ls soug3t 8o) use in " c)i-in"l c"se is ("se+ onl0 on t3e gene)"li.e+ inte)est in con8i+enti"lit0 it c"nnot 2)ev"il ove) t3e 8un+"-ent"l +e-"n+s o8 +ue 2)ocess o8 l"9. %//0!$ A)e t3e t"2es "n+ t)"nsc)i2ts o8 t3e 1onet")0 4o")+ +eli(e)"tions 2)ivilege+ co--unic"tions 2u)su"nt to Sec. 21 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t "n+ un+e) Sections 1* "n+ 15 o8 t3e Cent)"l 4"n= Act@ &eld$ No. /3e +eli(e)"tions -"0 (e con8i+enti"l (ut not necess")il0 "(solute "n+ 2)ivilege+. /3e)e is no s2eci8ic 2)ovision in t3e Cent)"l 4"n= Act even in Secs. 1* "n+ 15 t3e)eo8 93ic3 2)o3i(its "(solutel0 t3e cou)ts 8)o- con+ucting "n inBui)0 on s"i+ +eli(e)"tions 93en t3ese ")e )elev"nt o) -"te)i"l to " -"tte) su(5ect o8 " suit 2en+ing (e8o)e it. Disclosu)e is not (eing soug3t 3e)e to o(t"in in8o)-"tion 8o) 2e)son"l g"in "n+ t3e)e is no in+ic"tion t3"t suc3 +isclosu)e 9oul+ (e +et)i-ent"l to t3e gove)n-ent to t3e ("n= o) to t3i)+ 2")ties. As " -"tte) o8 8"ct it is t3e ("n= itsel8 t3"t is inte)este+ in o(t"ining 93"t it consi+e)s "s in8o)-"tion use8ul "n+ in+is2ens"(l0 nee+e+ (0 it to su22o)t its 2osition in t3e -"tte) (eing inBui)e+ to (0 t3e cou)t (elo9. It is t)ue t3"t Sec. 21(e) Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t st"tes t3"t ;" 2u(lic o88ice) c"nnot (e e?"-ine+ +u)ing 3is te)- o8 o88ice o) "8te)9")+s "s to co--unic"tions -"+e to 3i- in o88ici"l con8i+ence 93en t3e cou)t 8in+s t3"t t3e 2u(lic inte)est 9oul+ su88e) (0 +isclosu)e.< >o9eve) t3is 2)ivilege is not 8o) t3e 2)otection o8 2u(lic o88ice)s (ut 8o) t3e 2)otection o8 2u(lic inte)est. :3e)e t3e)e is no 2u(lic inte)est t3"t 9oul+ (e 2)e5u+ice+ t3e )ule 9ill not (e "22lic"(le. >e)e t3e 1onet")0 4o")+ 3"s 8"ile+ to est"(lis3 t3"t 2u(lic inte)est 9oul+ su88e) (0 t3e +isclosu)e o8 t3e 2"2e)s "n+ +ocu-ents soug3t (0 4"nco 7ili2ino. As t3e ("n= 9"s "l)e"+0 close+ "s o8 J"nu")0 25 1%&5 "n0 +isclosu)e o8 t3e "8o)e-entione+ lette)s )e2o)ts "n+ t)"nsc)i2ts "t t3is ti-e 2ose no +"nge) o) 2e)il to ou) econo-0. Neit3e) 9ill it t)igge) "n0 ("n= )un no) co-2)o-ise st"te sec)ets. 'n t3e cont)")0 2u(lic inte)ests 9ill (e (est se)ve+ (0 t3e +isclosu)e o8 t3e +ocu-ents. Not onl0 t3e ("n=s "n+ its e-2lo0ees (ut "lso its nu-e)ous +e2osito)s "n+ c)e+ito)s ")e entitle+ to (e in8o)-e+ "s to 93et3e) o) not t3e)e 9"s " v"li+ "n+ leg"l 5usti8ic"tion 8o) t3e ("n=Ds closu)e. Doctrine$ Sec. 21(e) Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t is not 8o) t3e 2)otection o8 2u(lic o88ice)s (ut 8o) t3e 2)otection o8 2u(lic inte)est. :3e)e t3e)e is no 2u(lic inte)est t3"t 9oul+ (e 2)e5u+ice+ t3e )ule 9ill not (e "22lic"(le. 6!. CS v. Nic=son ,1& CS 6&* Jul0 2, 1%7,

61. 6eo2le v. 'ng ,*2 SCRA ,7! #acts$ 'n Jul0 2* 1%%& " con8i+enti"l in8o)-"nt o8 t3e S2eci"l '2e)"tions Division 6N6 N")cotics G)ou2 )e2o)te+ to C3ie8 Ins2ecto) Al(e)t 7e))o "(out t3e "llege+ illicit +)ug "ctivities o8 " ce)t"in :illi"- 'ng "n+ "n uni+enti8ie+ C3inese -"le 2")tne). C2on ev"lu"tion o8 t3e in8o)-"tion 7e))o +eci+e+ to con+uct " (u0$ (ust o2e)"tion 9it3 S6'1 Gon."les se)ving "s 2oseu)$(u0e). /3e (u0$(ust o2e)"tion 9"s con+ucte+ "n+ :illi"- 'ng "n+ C3ing +e 1ing ".=.". Ro(e)t /iu 9e)e su(seBuentl0 c3")ge+ 9it3 viol"tion o8 t3e D"nge)ous D)ugs Act o8 1%72 8o) t3e "llege+ illeg"l s"le o8 s3"(u. Du)ing t)i"l 3o9eve) t3e con8i+enti"l in8o)-"nt 93o 3"+ sole =no9le+ge o8 3o9 t3e selling o8 s3"(u st")te+ "n+ 3o9 it 9"s 2e)8ecte+ 9"s not 2)esente+ "s " 9itness. >is testi-on0 9"s given inste"+ (0 S6'1 Gon."les 93o 3i-sel8 3"+ no 2e)son"l =no9le+ge o8 t3e s"-e. :3en "s=e+ 3o9eve) t3e 2)osecution cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e con8i+enti"l in8o)-"nt 9"s 2)ivilege+. %ssue$ Is t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e con8i+enti"l in8o)-"nt consi+e)e+ 2)ivilege+@ &eld$ Aes. /3e Cou)t )ecogni.es t3e co-2elling consi+e)"tions "s to 930 con8i+enti"l in8o)-"nts ")e usu"ll0 not 2)esente+ (0 t3e 2)osecution. 'ne is t3e nee+ to 3i+e t3ei) i+entit0 "n+ to 2)ese)ve t3ei) inv"lu"(le se)vice to t3e 2oliceE 93ile "not3e) is t3e necessit0 to 2)otect t3e- 8)o- (eing o(5ects o) t")gets o8 )evenge (0 t3e c)i-in"ls t3e0 i-2lic"te once t3e0 (eco-e =no9n. All t3ese consi+e)"tions 39oeve) 3"ve to (e ("l"nce+ 9it3 t3e )ig3t o8 "n "ccuse+ to " 8"i) t)i"l. :3"t is usu"ll0 )e8e))e+ to "s t3e in8o)-e)Ds 2)ivilege is in )e"lit0 t3e Gove)n-entDs 2)ivilege to 9it33ol+ 8)o- +isclosu)e t3e i+entit0 o8 2e)sons 93o 8u)nis3 in8o)-"tion o8 viol"tions o8 l"9 to o88ice)s c3")ge+ 9it3 en8o)ce-ent o8 t3"t l"9. /3e 2u)2ose is t3e 8u)t3e)"nce "n+ 2)otection o8 t3e 2u(lic inte)est in e88ective l"9 en8o)ce-ent. /3e 2)ivilege )ecogni.es t3e o(lig"tion o8 citi.ens to co--unic"te t3ei) =no9le+ge o8 t3e co--ission o8 c)i-es to l"9$en8o)ce-ent o88ici"ls "n+ (0 2e)se)ving t3ei) "non0-it0 encou)"ges t3e- to 2e)8o)- t3"t o(lig"tion. /3e sco2e o8 t3e 2)ivilege 3o9eve) is li-ite+ (0 its un+e)l0ing 2u)2ose. :3e)e t3e +isclosu)e o8 t3e contents o8 t3e co--unic"tion 9ill not ten+ to )eve"l t3e i+entit0 o8 "n in8o)-e) t3e contents ")e not 2)ivilege+. #i=e9ise once t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e in8o)-e) 3"s (een +isclose+ to t3ose 93o 9oul+ 3"ve c"use to )esent t3e co--unic"tion t3e 2)ivilege is no longe) "22lic"(le. 1o)eove)

22

93e)e t3e +isclosu)e o8 "n in8o)-e)Ds i+entit0 o) t3e contents o8 3is co--unic"tion is )elev"nt "n+ 3el28ul to t3e +e8ense o8 "n "ccuse+ o) is essenti"l to " 8"i) +ete)-in"tion o8 " c"use t3e 2)ivilege -ust give 9"0. So-e o8 t3e 8"cto)s 93ic3 -"0 (e consi+e)e+ in ("l"ncing t3e st"te inte)est "g"inst t3e in+ivi+u"lDs )ig3t to 2)e2")e 3is +e8ense ")eF 1) t3e c)i-e c3")ge+ 2) t3e 2ossi(le +e8enses *) t3e 2ossi(le signi8ic"nce o8 t3e in8o)-e)Ds testi-on0 "n+ ,) ot3e) )elev"nt 8"cto)s. In t3is c"se t3e c)i-e c3")ge+ "g"inst 'ng "n+ /iu is c"2it"l in c3")"cte) "n+ c"n )esult in t3e i-2osition o8 t3e +e"t3 2en"lt0. /3e0 3"ve 8oiste+ t3e +e8ense o8 instig"tion in s3")2 cont)"st to t3e cl"i- o8 ent)"2-ent (0 t3e 2)osecution. /3e l"tte) 3"s to 2)ove "ll t3e -"te)i"l ele-ents o8 t3e "llege+ s"le o8 s3"(u "n+ t3e )esulting (u0$(ust o2e)"tion. :3e)e t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e in8o)-e) is in+is2ens"(le it s3oul+ (e +isclose+. /3e li(e)t0 "n+ t3e li8e o8 " 2e)son en5o0 3ig3 i-2o)t"nce in ou) sc"le o8 v"lues. It c"nnot (e +i-inis3e+ e?ce2t (0 " v"lue o8 3ig3e) signi8ic"nce. Doctrine$ /3e sco2e o8 t3e in8o)-e)Ds 2)ivilege is li-ite+ (0 its un+e)l0ing 2u)2ose. :3e)e t3e +isclosu)e o8 t3e contents o8 t3e co--unic"tion 9ill not ten+ to )eve"l t3e i+entit0 o8 "n in8o)-e) t3e contents ")e not 2)ivilege+. #i=e9ise once t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e in8o)-e) 3"s (een +isclose+ to t3ose 93o 9oul+ 3"ve c"use to )esent t3e co--unic"tion t3e 2)ivilege is no longe) "22lic"(le. 1o)eove) 93e)e t3e +isclosu)e o8 "n in8o)-e)Ds i+entit0 o) t3e contents o8 3is co--unic"tion is )elev"nt "n+ 3el28ul to t3e +e8ense o8 "n "ccuse+ o) is essenti"l to " 8"i) +ete)-in"tion o8 " c"use t3e 2)ivilege -ust give 9"0. RA 1477 62. In t3e 1"tte) o8 7")(e) AD-%//%ON AND CON#!//%ON/ Se&t#on '0 A)m#ss#on b$ &onsp#rator 57 S 71, #acts$ 'n J"nu")0 17 1%72 6olice Sgt. 1")io /"n8eli? )eceive+ "n inst)uction to 2)ocee+ to Jose Re0es 1e-o)i"l >os2it"l to investig"te "n "("n+one+ 2e)son 8oun+ "t t3e No)t3 Dive)sion Ro"+ su88e)ing 8)ost"( 9oun+s. /3e "("n+one+ 2e)son 9"s #uis +el" C)u. 93o g"ve "n "nte$-o)te- st"te-ent n"-ing Ros")io C"()e)" "s t3e 2e)son 93o 3i)e+ 3is 5ee2 "n+ 93o 9"s 9it3 t3e t3)ee uni+enti8ie+ -en 93o st"((e+ 3i- "n+ too= 3is -one0 "n+ 5ee2. /3e ne?t -o)ning C"()e)" 9"s "))este+ "n+ t9o +"0s l"te) e?ecute+ "n e?t)"$5u+ici"l con8ession 2ointing to Con)"+o Vill"nuev" "s t3e -"ste)-in+ o8 t3e )o((e)0. S3e 3e)sel8 -e)el0 3i)e+ t3e 5ee2 u2on inst)uctions (ut t3e )o((e)0 "n+ =illing itsel8 9e)e +one (0 Vill"nuev" "n+ t9o ot3e)s. 'ne D"nte 1")celo "lso testi8ie+ t3"t on t3e nig3t o8 t3e )o((e)0 3e 3"+ seen C"()e)" )i+ing on t3e 5ee2 o8 +el" C)u. (ut +i+ not notice 93et3e) t3e)e 9e)e ot3e) 2"ssenge)s. C"()e)" "n+ Vill"nuev" 9e)e convicte+ on t3e ("sis o8 C"()e)"Ds e?t)"$5u+ici"l con8ession. ,*% CS 1**1 August , 1%7&

6*. 6eo2le v. C"()e)"

%ssue$ Is C"()e)"Ds e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent "+-issi(le "g"inst Vill"nuev"@ &eld$ No. /3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent o8 C"()e)" is in"+-issi(le "g"inst Vill"nuev" 93o -"+e ti-el0 o(5ection t3e)eto. C"()e)"Ds incul2"to)0 st"te-ents 9e)e -"+e +u)ing t3e investig"tion con+ucte+ (0 t3e V"len.uel" 2olice on J"nu")0 2! 1%72 t9o +"0s "8te) t3e +"te o8 t3e inci+ent in Buestion. 7o) t3is )e"son "lone s"i+ st"te-ent 9"s not -"+e +u)ing t3e e?istence o8 t3e "llege+ cons2i)"c0 (et9een 3e) "n+ Vill"nuev" (ut "8te) s"i+ su22ose+ cons2i)"c0 3"+ "l)e"+0 ce"se+ "n+ 93en s3e 9"s "l)e"+0 in t3e 3"n+s o8 t3e "ut3o)ites. >ence Sec. 27 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t 93ic3 "llo9s t3e "ct o) +ecl")"tion o8 " cons2i)"to) )el"ting to t3e cons2i)"c0 "n+ +u)ing its e?istence to (e given in evi+ence "g"inst t3e co$ cons2i)"to) "8te) t3e cons2i)"c0 is s3o9n (0 evi+ence ot3e) t3"n suc3 "ct o) +ecl")"tion c"nnot (e "v"ile+ o8. Doctrine$ :3e)e t3e "ct o) +ecl")"tion o8 " cons2i)"to) )el"ting to t3e cons2i)"c0 is -"+e "8te) suc3 cons2i)"c0 3"s ce"se+ "n+ t3e cons2i)"to) is "l)e"+0 in t3e 3"n+s o8 t3e "ut3o)ities suc3 "ct o) +ecl")"tion c"n no longe) (e given in evi+ence "g"inst t3e co$cons2i)"to). Se&( '1 A)m#ss#on b$ pr#v#es 6,. Al(2ue)to v. 6"sto) (*& 63il 7&5) GR No. 127%, 'ct. 1, 1%1& #acts$ El"+io Al2ue)to "n+ Jose 6e)e. 6"sto) ")e (ot3 cl"i-ing title to t3)ee 2")cels o8 l"n+ 8o)-e)l0 o9ne+ (0 Ju"n #lenos 9it3 Al2ue)to "s 2")t0 in 2ossession un+e) " cont)"ct o8 s"le 9it3 2"cto +e )et)o "n+ 6"sto) "s 2u)c3"se) "t " 2u(lic s"le un+e) "n e?ecution +i)ecte+ "g"inst #lenos. Al2ue)to cl"i-e+ t3"t (0 vi)tue o8 " cont)"ct o8 s"le 9it3 )ig3t to )e2u)c3"se 3e "cBui)e+ title to t3e l"n+ 8o) " consi+e)"tion o8 62 5!! "s 2"i+ 9it3 t3e )ig3t to )e2u)c3"se 8i?e+ 8o) " 2e)io+ o8 t9o 0e")s. S"i+ +ocu-ent 9"s "c=no9le+ge+ (e8o)e " not")0 2u(lic. 6"sto) 3o9eve) cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e t)"ns"ction (0 93ic3 Al2ue)to cl"i-s to 3"ve "cBui)e+ title 9"s si-ul"te+ o) 8ictitious "n+ t3"t t3e su22ose+ conve0"nce 9"s e88ecte+ 8o) t3e 2u)2ose o8 +e8)"u+ing 6"sto) "s c)e+ito) o8 #lenos. 6"sto) "s=e+ t3e cou)t to +ecl")e 3i- "s t3e t)ue o9ne) o8 t3e 2)o2e)t0 "n+ to o)+e) Al2ue)to to su))en+e) 2ossession to 3i-. %ssue$ :3o is entitle+ to t3e 2)o2e)t0@

23

&eld$ A)ticle 1225 +ecl")es t3"t " 2)iv"te +ocu-ent leg"ll0 )ecogni.e+ s3"ll 3"ve 9it3 )eg")+ to t3ose 93o signe+ it "n+ t3ei) 2)ivies t3e s"-e 8o)ce "s " 2u(lic inst)u-ent. /3e te)- ;leg"ll0 )ecogni.e+< -ust (e t"=en to -e"n )ecogni.e+ o) "c=no9le+ge+ (0 t3e 2e)son o) 2e)sons e?ecuting o) e-itting t3e +ocu-ent in t3is c"se t3e ven+o) Ju"n #lenos "n+ t3e ven+ee Al2ue)to. /3e "ct o8 leg"l )ecognition occu))e+ 93en t3e ++ocu-ent 9"s signe+ (0 t3e 2")ties "n+ +elive)e+ in t3e 2)esence o8 t3e "ttesting 9itnesses 93o 9e)e c"lle+ u2on to (e") 9itness to t3e t)"ns"ction. /3e te)- ;2)ivies < -e"n93ile +enotes t3e i+e" o8 succession not onl0 (0 )ig3t o8 3ei)s3i2 "n+ test"-ent")0 leg"c0 (ut "lso t3"t o8 succession (0 singul") title +e)ive+ 8)o- "cts #nter v#vos "n+ 8o) s2eci"l 2u)2osesE 3ence "n "ssignee o8 " c)e+it "n+ one su()og"te+ to it 9ill (e 2)ivies. In s3o)t 3e 93o (0 succession is 2l"ce+ in t3e 2osition o8 one o8 t3ose 93o cont)"cte+ t3e 5u)i+ic"l )el"tion "n+ e?ecute+ t3e 2)iv"te +ocu-ent "n+ "22e")s to (e su(stituting 3i- in 3is 2e)son"l )ig3ts "n+ o(lig"tions is " 2)iv0. >e)e 6"sto) t3e 2u)c3"se) "t " 2u(lic s"le un+e) "n e?ecution +i)ecte+ "g"inst #lenos -ust (e consi+e)e+ " 2)iv0 o) successo) in inte)est o8 t3e e?ecution +e(to). >e is t3e)e8o)e un+ou(te+l0 (oun+ (0 t3e inst)u-ent 93ic3 conve0e+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 to Al2ue)to "n+ t3is 8)o- t3e +"te o8 t3e e?ecution o8 t3"t inst)u-ent "s " 2)iv"te +ocu-ent. >o9eve) ci)cu-st"nces s3o9 t3"t t3e s"le -"+e (0 #lenos to Al2ue)to 9"s one in 8)"u+ o8 c)e+ito)sE 3ence t3e +ee+ -ust (e "nnulle+ "n+ t3e 2)o2e)t0 +elive)e+ to 6"sto). Doctrine$ " 2)iv"te +ocu-ent leg"ll0 )ecogni.e+ s3"ll 3"ve 9it3 )eg")+ to t3ose 93o signe+ it "n+ t3ei) 2)ivies t3e s"-e 8o)ce "s " 2u(lic inst)u-ent. /3e te)- ;2)ivies< +enotes t3e i+e" o8 succession not onl0 (0 )ig3t o8 3ei)s3i2 "n+ test"-ent")0 leg"c0 (ut "lso t3"t o8 succession (0 singul") title +e)ive+ 8)o"cts #nter v#vos "n+ 8o) s2eci"l 2u)2osesE 3ence "n "ssignee o8 " c)e+it "n+ one su()og"te+ to it 9ill (e 2)ivies. Se&t#on '2 A)m#ss#on b$ S#"en&e 65. 6eo2le v. Aleg)e &, S 1!5 66. 6eo2le v. R"Buel 265 S 2,6 #acts$ At -i+nig3t o8 Jul0 , 1%&6 Ag"2ito G"-("l"n "ns9e)e+ t3e +oo) t3in=ing o8 " neig3(o) in nee+. Inste"+ 3e"vil0 ")-e+ -en c"-e t3)oug3 t3e +oo) +ecl")e+ " 3ol+$u2 "n+ 8i)e+ t3ei) guns "t 3i-. C2on 3e")ing t3e guns3ots Ag"2itoDs 9i8e Juliet 9ent out o8 t3ei) )oo- "n+ 8oun+ 3is li8eless (o+0 93ile " -"n too= Ag"2itoDs gun "n+ le8t 3u))ie+l0 9it3 t3e ot3e)s. Geo)ge Jovill"no )es2on+e+ to JulietDs 2le" 8o) 3el2 "n+ )e2o)te+ t3e inci+ent to t3e 2olice 93o 8oun+ A-"+o 6once one o8 t3e "ccuse+ 9oun+e+ "n+ l0ing ne") t3e G"-("l"nDs 3ouse. 6once )eve"le+ to t3e 2olice t3"t S"("s "n+ V"le)i"no R"Buel 9e)e t3e 2e)2et)"to)s o8 t3e c)i-e "n+ t3"t t3e0 -"0 (e 8oun+ in t3ei) )esi+ence. /3e R"Buels 9e)e l"te) "22)e3en+e+ on +i88e)ent occ"sions. /3e t)i"l cou)t 8oun+ "ll t3e "ccuse+ guilt0 o8 t3e c)i-e. %ssue$ C"n t3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent o8 6once 2ointing "t t3e R"Buels "s 3is co$2e)2et)"to)s o8 t3e c)i-e (e use+ "s " ("sis to convict t3e-@ &eld$ No. /3e lone e0e9itness Juliet 9"s not "(le to i+enti80 t3e "ss"il"nts o8 3e) 3us("n+. /3e i+enti8ic"tion o8 t3e "ccuse+ "s t3e cul2)its 9"s ("se+ c3ie8l0 on t3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent o8 6once 2ointing to t3e- "s 3is co$2e)2et)"to)s o8 t3e c)i-e. 6once 3i-sel8 3"+ esc"2e+ 8)o- 5"il (e8o)e 3e coul+ testi80 in cou)t "n+ 3"s (een "t l")ge since. /3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ents o8 "n "ccuse+ i-2lic"ting " co$"ccuse+ -"0 not (e utili.e+ "g"inst t3e l"tte) unless t3e0 ")e )e2e"te+ in o2en cou)t. I8 t3e "ccuse+ neve) 3"+ t3e o22o)tunit0 to c)oss$e?"-ine 3is co$ "ccuse+ on t3e l"tte)Ds e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ents t3e s"-e ")e 3e")s"0 "s "g"inst s"i+ "ccuse+. E?t)e-e c"ution s3oul+ (e e?e)cise+ (0 t3e cou)ts in +e"ling 9it3 t3e con8ession o8 "n "ccuse+ 93ic3 i-2lic"tes 3is co$"ccuse+. A +istinction s3oul+ (e -"+e (et9een e?t)"5u+ici"l "n+ 5u+ici"l con8essions. /3e 8o)-e) +e2)ives t3e "ccuse+ o8 t3e o22o)tunit0 to c)oss$e?"-ine t3e con8ess"nt 93ile in t3e l"tte) 3is con8ession is t3)o9n 9i+e o2en 8o) c)oss$e?"-in"tion "n+ )e(utt"l. E?ce2t 8o) 6onceDs e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent t3e)e e?ists no evi+ence lin=ing t3e R"Buels to t3e c)i-e. S"i+ st"te-ent 9"s "lso -"+e in viol"tion o8 t3e constitution"l )ig3ts o8 6once "s "+-itte+ in t3e testi-on0 o8 t3e investig"ting o88ice). E?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ents -"+e +u)ing custo+i"l investig"tions 9it3out t3e "ssist"nce o8 counsel ")e in"+-issi(le "n+ c"nnot (e consi+e)e+ in t3e "+5u+ic"tion o8 t3e c"se. Doctrine$ /3e res #nter a"#os )ule o)+"ins t3"t t3e )ig3ts o8 " 2")t0 c"nnot (e 2)e5u+ice+ "n "ct +ecl")"tion o) o-ission o8 "not3e). An e?t)"5u+ici"l con8ession is (in+ing onl0 u2on t3e con8ess"nt "n+ is not "+-issi(le "g"inst 3is co$"ccuse+. 67. 6eo2le v. A"tco %7 63il ,%! #acts$ Ju"n Consun5i Al8onso 6"ng"ni("n "n+ "not3e) un=no9n in+ivi+u"l 9e)e c3")ge+ 9it3 3"ving cons2i)e+ toget3e) in t3e -u)+e) o8 Jose R"-os. Du)ing t3e t)i"l "s t3e 2)osecution 9"s Buestioning " 9itness Att0. A)tu)o H"vie) o8 N4I in connection 9it3 t3e -"=ing o8 " ce)t"in e?t)"$5u+ici"l con8ession (0 Consun5i 6"ng"ni("nDs counsel inte)2ose+ " gene)"l o(5ection to "n0 evi+ence on suc3 con8ession on t3e

24

g)oun+ t3"t it 9"s 3e")s"0 "n+ t3e)e8o)e inco-2etent "s "g"inst 6"ng"ni("n. /3e t)i"l cou)t o)+e)e+ t3e e?lusion o8 t3e evi+ence o(5ecte+ to on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e 2)osecution coul+ not (e 2e)-itte+ to int)o+uce t3e con8essions o8 Consun5i "n+ 6"ng"ni("n to 2)ove cons2i)"c0 (et9een t3e- 9it3out 2)io) 2)oo8 o8 suc3 cons2i)"c0 (0 " nu-(e) o8 +e8inite "cts con+itions "n+ ci)cu-st"nces. %ssue$ :"s t3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent o8 Consun5i 2)o2e)l0 e?clu+e+ 8)o- t3e evi+ence@ &eld$ No. Cn+e) t3e )ule o8 -ulti2le "+-issi(ilit0 o8 evi+ence even i8 Consun5iDs con8ession -"0 not (e co-2etent "s "g"inst 3is co$"ccuse+ 6"ng"ni("n (eing 3e")s"0 "s to t3e l"tte) o) to 2)ove cons2i)"c0 (et9een t3e- 9it3out t3e cons2i)"c0 (eing est"(lis3e+ (0 ot3e) evi+ence t3e con8ession o8 Consun5i 9"s neve)t3eless "+-issi(le "s evi+ence o8 3is o9n guilt "n+ s3oul+ 3"ve (een "+-itte+ "s suc3. As 8o) t3e )ule 2)ovi+ing t3"t ;t3e "ct o) +ecl")"tion o8 " cons2i)"to) )el"ting to t3e cons2i)"c0 "n+ +u)ing its e?istence -"0 (e given in evi+ence "g"inst t3e co$cons2i)"to) "8te) t3e cons2i)"c0 is s3o9n (0 evi+ence ot3e) t3"n suc3 "ct o) +ecl")"tion < t3e )ule )e8e)s to st"te-ents -"+e (0 one cons2i)"to) +u)ing t3e 2en+enc0 o8 t3e unl"98ul ente)2)ises "n+ in 8u)t3e)"nce o8 its o(5ect "n+ not to " con8ession -"+e "s in t3is c"se long "8te) t3e cons2i)"c0 3"+ (een ()oug3t to "n en+. 4esi+es t3e 2)osecution 3"+ not 0et o88e)e+ t3e con8essions to 2)ove cons2i)"c0 (et9een t3e t9o "ccuse+ no) "s evi+ence "g"inst (ot3 o8 t3e-. /3e "llege+ con8essions 3"+ not 0et even (een i+enti8ie+ -uc3 less o88e)e+ in evi+ence. /3e 2)osecution -ig3t still (e "(le to "++uce ot3e) 2)oo8 o8 cons2i)"c0 (et9een Consun5i "n+ 6"ng"ni("n (e8o)e t3ei) con8essions ")e 8o)-"ll0 o88e)e+ in evi+ence. It 9"s 2)e-"tu)e 8o) t3e cou)t to e?clu+e t3eco-2letel0 on t3"t g)oun+. Doctrine$ Sec. *! Rule 1*! "22lies onl0 to st"te-ents -"+e (0 one cons2i)"to) +u)ing t3e 2en+enc0 o8 t3e unl"98ul ente)2)ises "n+ in 8u)t3e)"nce o8 its o(5ect "n+ not to " con8ession -"+e "s in t3is c"se long "8te) t3e cons2i)"c0 3"+ (een ()oug3t to "n en+. 6&. 6eo2le v. Se))"no (1!5 63il 5*1) GR No. #$7%7* A2)il 27 1%5% #acts$ 'n 'cto(e) 16 1%5! Eulogio Se))"no tol+ Cenon Se))"no "n+ ot3e) co$"ccuse+ t3"t 6"(lo N"v"))o 3"+ (een inclu+ing "n+ 2)o-2ting 2eo2le to c"ll on Sen"to) 6"(lo Angeles D"vi+ "n+ testi80 on t3e 1"li9"lu -"ss"c)e "n+ 8o) t3"t )e"son 3e -"ni8este+ to t3e- 3is +esi)e "n+ 2l"n to +o "9"0 9it3 N"v"))o. Eulogio inst)ucte+ t3e ot3e)s to 9"it 8o) N"v"))o in 4"colo) lu)e 3i- to go 9it3 t3e- to ("))io Dolo)es "n+ t3e)e =ill 3i-. 6u)su"nt to t3is t3e "ccuse+ 9"ite+ 8o) N"v"))o t3en invite+ 3i- to +)in= "8te) 93ic3 t3e0 9ent to Dolo)es 4"colo) 9it3 t3e "l)e"+0 +)un= N"v"))o. /3e)e t3e0 tie+ N"v"))o "n+ "ccue+ o8 ()inging 9itnesses to t3e 3ouse o8 Sen"to) D"vi+ to testi80 on t3e 1"li9"lu -"ss"c)e. :3en 3e +enie+ t3e c3")ge t3e0 (eg"n (e"ting 3i- u2. #"te) 3e 9"s s3ot to +e"t3 "n+ 3is (o+0 9"s s3ove+ into " 2it "n+ cove)e+ 9it3 e")t3. Anot3e) -"n Si-2licio 1"ngue))" 9"s "lso =ille+ "n+ (u)ie+ in " 2it. /3e "ccuse+ 9e)e c3")ge+ 9it3 illeg"l +etention 9it3 -u)+e) 8o) t3e +e"t3s o8 6"(lo N"v"))o "n+ o8 Si-2licio 1"ngue))" in se2")"te c)i-in"l c"ses. C2on -otion o8 t3e "sst. 2)ovinci"l 8isc"l An"st"cio Re0es 9"s +isc3")ge+ to testi80 "s 9itness 8o) t3e 2)osecution. /3e0 9e)e 8oun+ guilt0 o8 t3e c)i-e. '8 "ll t3e "ccuse+ onl0 Do-ingo C"+i"ng S"nti"go Au-ul "n+ 7ile-on Cen.on "22e"le+. /3e "22ell"nts cl"i-e+ t3"t in o)+e) t3"t t3e testi-on0 o8 " cons2i)"to) (An"st"cio Re0es) -"0 (e "+-issi(le in evi+ence "g"inst 3is co$cons2i)"to)s it -ust "22e") "n+ (e s3o9n (0 evi+ence ot3e) t3"n t3e "+-ission itsel8 t3"t t3e cons2i)"c0 "ctu"ll0 e?iste+ "n+ t3"t t3e 2e)son 93o is (oun+ (0 t3e "+-ission 9"s " 2)iv0 to t3e cons2i)"c0. As t3e)e is not3ing (ut t3e lone testi-on0 o8 Re0es " co$ cons2i)"to) cons2i)"c0 9"s not est"(lis3e+ "n+ t3e t)i"l cou)t e))e+ in convicting t3e "22ell"nts on t3e ("sis o8 t3e testi-on0 o8 Re0es. %ssue$ Is Re0esDs testi-on0 "+-issi(le "g"inst 3is co$cons2i)"to)s@ &eld$ No. /3e )ule t3"t ;t3e "ct o) +ecl")"tion o8 " cons2i)"to) )el"ting to t3e cons2i)"c0 "n+ +u)ing its e?istence -"0 (e given in evi+ence "g"inst t3e co$cons2i)"to) "8te) t3e cons2i)"c0 is s3o9n (0 evi+ence ot3e) t3"n suc3 "ct o) +ecl")"tion < "22lies onl0 to e?t)"$5u+ici"l "cts o) +ecl")"tion (ut not to testi-on0 given on t3e st"n+ "t t3e t)i"l 93e)e t3e +e8en+"nt 3"s t3e o22o)tunit0 to c)oss$e?"-ine t3e +ecl")"nt. An+ 93ile t3e testi-on0 o8 "cco-2lices o) con8e+e)"tes in c)i-e is "l9"0s su(5ect to g)"ve sus2icion ;co-ing "s it +oes 8)o- " 2ollute+ sou)ce < "n+ s3oul+ (e )eceive+ 9it3 g)e"t c"ution "n+ +ou(tingl0 e?"-ine+ it is neve)t3eless "+-issi(le "n+ co-2etent. Doctrine$ :3e)e t3e testi-on0 9"s given on t3e st"n+ "t t)i"l 93e)e t3e +e8en+"nt 3"s t3e o22o)tunit0 to c)oss$e?"-ine t3e +ecl")"nt t3e )ule t3"t )eBui)es t3"t cons2i)"c0 (e s3o9n (0 evi+ence ot3e) t3"n t3e "ct o) +ecl")"tion o8 t3e cons2i)"to) -"=ing t3e testi-on0 +oes not "22l0 A)m#ss#on o% Pre)e&essor 6%. Cit0 o8 1"nil" v. J"cinto Del Ros")io 5 63il 227 The )e&"arat#on o% the pre)e&essor m!st be ma)e )!r#ng the t#me ;hen he ;as ho")#ng propert$ CON#!//%ON 7!. 6eo2le v. 1")io Co-2il (2,, S 1*5) GR No. %5!2& 1"0 15 1%%5 #acts$ Ro((e)s ()o=e into 1J 7u)nitu)es 93ic3 "lso se)ve+ "s t3e +9elling o8 its 2)o2)ieto)s t3e S2ouses 1"nuel "n+ 1")0 J"0 (0 +et"c3ing t3e 9in+o9 g)ills on t3e secon+ 8loo) 93e)e t3e J"0sD (e+)oo- 9"s

25

loc"te+. /3e t9o -"i+s 9e)e 3e)+e+ in t3e ("t3)oo- "n+ 1")0 9"s tie+ "n+ g"gge+ in t3e (e+)oo- "s t3e )o((e)s )"ns"c=e+ t3e )oo- t"=ing 6*5 !!! in c"s3 "n+ 5e9el)0 9o)t3 6*! !!!. C2on noticing t3"t t3e t9o -en gu")+ing t3e- 3"+ "l)e"+0 le8t t3e t9o -"i+s )us3e+ to t3e (e+)oo- "n+ 8)ee+ 1")0 "n+ t3e0 "ll )us3e+ to t3e g)oun+ 8loo) 93e)e t3e0 8oun+ 1"nuel 93o "22")entl0 3"+ 5ust co-e 3o-e 8)o- t3ei) ot3e) 8u)nitu)e sto)e 4est :oo+ 7u)nitu)e s2)"9le+ on t3e 8loo) "-ong 2ieces o8 8u)nitu)e t3"t 9e)e in +is"))"0. >e eventu"ll0 +ie+ 8)o- 1* st"( 9oun+s. Jessie 4")tolo-e 93o 9o)=e+ "t t3e sto)e tol+ t3e 2olice t3"t 3e "n+ 3is gi)l8)ien+ 93ile insi+e "n o9ne)$ t02e 5ee2 2")=e+ ne") t3e 8u)nitu)e s3o2 3"+ seen 3is co$9o)=e)s 1")lo Co-2il 4"lt".") 1"(ini "n+ Jose J"c"le going to t3e ("c= o8 t3e s3o2. 1o)eove) Co-2il 1"(ini "n+ J"c"le "ll 8"ile+ to )e2o)t 8o) 9o)= t3e +"0 "8te) t3e inci+ent. C2on (eing "))este+ Co-2il "+-itte+ 3is guilt "n+ 2ointe+ to t3e "))esting o88ice)s 3is co$2e)2et)"to)s in t3e 3eist 8)o- " 2ictu)e o8 t3e ("2tis- o8 t3e c3il+ o8 1"(iniDs siste). Co-2il 9"s 8u)t3e) investig"te+ "t t3e /"0"("s 6olice St"tion "n+ "g"in in 1"nil". >e con8esse+ t3"t 3e 3"+ (een 9it3 t3e g)ou2 t3"t )o((e+ 1J 7u)nitu)es cl"i-ing 3e -e)el0 se)ve+ "s " loo=out 8o) 93ic3 3e )eceive+ 61 !!! (ut +i+ not go into t3e s3o2 since 3e 9oul+ (e )ecogni.e+. Co-2il cl"i-e+ t3"t 3is co3o)ts st"((e+ 1"nuel to +e"t3. Co-2il "lso cl"i-e+ t3"t "8te) t3e )o((e)0 t3e0 "ll -et in t3e 3ouse o8 3is co$ cons2i)"to)Ds ()ot3e) to s3")e t3e loot "n+ +)in= (ee). /3e o9ne) o8 s"i+ 3ouse con8i)-e+ t3e 8"cts in Co-2ilDs con8ession. /3e +"0 "8te) 3is "))est Co-2il in t3e 2)esence o8 3is l"90e) "n+ t3)ee )el"tives e?ecute+ " s9o)n st"te-ent "+-itting 3is 2")tici2"tion in t3e c)i-e "s " loo=out "n+ n"-e+ 3is si? co3o)ts. /3e 2olice 3o9eve) 8"ile+ to "))est s"i+ co3o)ts "n+ "n In8o)-"tion 8o) )o((e)0 9it3 3o-ici+e 9"s l"te) 8ile+ "g"inst Co-2il 93o ente)e+ " 2le" o8 not guilt0. %ssue$ A)e Co-2ilDs e?t)"5u+ici"l con8essions "+-issi(le "s evi+ence "g"inst 3i-@ &eld$ No. O/3e )ig3t to counsel "tt"c3es u2on t3e st")t o8 "n investig"tion i.e. 93en t3e investig"ting o88ice) st")ts to "s= Buestions to elicit in8o)-"tion "n+Go) con8essions o) "+-issions 8)o)es2on+entG"ccuse+. At suc3 2oint o) st"ge t3e 2e)son (eing inte))og"te+ -ust (e "ssiste+ (0 counsel to "voi+ t3e 2e)nicious 2)"ctice o8 e?to)ting 8o)ce+ o) coe)ce+ "+-issions o) con8essions 8)o- t3e li2s o8 t3e 2e)son un+e)going inte))og"tion 8o) t3e co--ission o8 t3e o88ense.O /3e 2e)son "))este+ s3"ll 3"ve t3e )ig3t to co--unic"te 9it3 3is l"90e) " )el"tive o) "n0one 3e c3ooses (0 t3e -ost e?2e+ient -e"ns P (0 tele23one i8 2ossi(le P o) (0 lette) o) -essenge). It s3"ll (e t3e )es2onsi(ilit0 o8 t3e "))esting o88ice) to see to it t3"t t3is is "cco-2lis3e+. An0 st"te-ent o(t"ine+ in viol"tion o8 t3e 2)oce+u)e 3e)ein l"i+ +o9n 93et3e) e?cul2"to)0 o) incul2"to)0 in 93ole o) in 2")t s3"ll (e in"+-issi(le in evi+ence. In t3is c"se Co-2il 9"s su(5ecte+ to inte))og"tion "n+ con8esse+ to t3e co--ission o8 t3e c)i-e t3)ice 9it3out t3e "ssist"nce o8 counsel. /3e (el"te+ "))iv"l o8 t3e C#A' l"90e) t3e ne?t +"0 even i8 2)io) to t3e "ctu"l signing o8 t3e uncounsele+ con8ession +oes not cu)e t3e +e8ect since t3e investig"to)s 3"+ "l)e"+0 e?t)"cte+ inc)i-in"to)0 st"te-ents 8)o- Co-2il. /3e o2e)"tive "ct it 3"s (een st)esse+ is 93en t3e 2olice investig"tion is no longe) " gene)"l inBui)0 into "n unsolve+ c)i-e (ut 3"s (egun to 8ocus on " 2")ticul") sus2ect 93o 3"s (een t"=en into custo+0 (0 t3e 2olice to c"))0 out " 2)ocess o8 inte))og"tion t3"t len+s itsel8 to eliciting inc)i-in"to)0 st"te-ents "n+ not t3e signing (0 t3e sus2ect o8 3is su22ose+ e?t)"5u+ici"l con8ession. >o9eve) Co-2il 9"s still 8oun+ guilt0 o8 t3e c)i-e suc3 guilt 3"ving (een est"(lis3e+ t3)oug3 ci)cu-st"nti"l evi+ence.

Doctrine$ /3e )ig3t to counsel "tt"c3es u2on t3e st")t o8 "n investig"tion i.e. 93en t3e investig"ting o88ice) st")ts to "s= Buestions to elicit in8o)-"tion "n+Go) con8essions o) "+-issions 8)o- )es2on+entG"ccuse+. E?t)"5u+ici"l con8ession e?t)"cte+ 9it3out t3e "ssist"nce o8 counsel is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence even i8 suc3 counsel 9"s 2)esent "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e signing o8 t3e su22ose+ con8ession.
71. 6eo2le v. :ong C3uen 1ing 256 SCRA 1&2 #acts$ /3e 11 "ccuse+ "ll 1"l"0si"n n"tion"ls "))ive+ in 1"nil" 8)o- >ong Mong "s " tou) g)ou2 "))"nge+ (0 Select /ou)s Inte)n"tion"l Co. #t+. C2on )e"c3ing Custo-s Au :ing C3eung t3e tou) gui+e 3"n+e+ to t3e Custo-s e?"-ine) D"nilo Go-e. t3e tou) g)ou2Qs 2"ssenge)Qs -"ni8est t3ei) ("gg"ge +ecl")"tions "n+ t3ei) 2"ss2o)ts. C2on 8in+ing " nu-(e) o8 Al2en Ce)e"l (o?es in e"c3 o8 t3e ("gg"ge o8 t3e "ccuse+ 3o9eve) Go-e. (ec"-e sus2icious "n+ o2ene+ one o8 t3e-. /3e ("gg"ge 9"s 8oun+ to cont"in " 93ite c)0st"lline su(st"nce 93ic3 9"s l"te) 8oun+ to (e ;s3"(u.< /3e g)ou2 g)ou2 9"s t3en o)+e)e+ to 2)ocee+ to t3e +ist)ict collecto)Qs o88ice 93e)e t3e ("gg"ge o8 t3e ot3e) -e-(e)s o8 t3e tou) g)ou2 9e)e 8u)t3e) e?"-ine+. A tot"l o8 *! (o?es o8 Al2en Ce)e"ls cont"ining " 93ite c)0st"lline su(st"nce 9e)e )ecove)e+ 8)o- t3e ("gg"ge o8 t3e 11 "ccuse+. Go-e. (un+le+ s"i+ (o?es 9it3 -"s=ing t"2e "n+ 3"n+e+ t3e- ove) to Len"i+" Re0es 4oni8"cio C3ie8 o8 t3e Collection Division "n+ Acting Dut0 Collecto) o8 t3e Custo-s '88ice "t t3e NAIA. 4oni8"cio t3en c"lle+ out t3e n"-es o8 "ccuse+ "s liste+ in t3e 2"ssenge)sQ -"ni8est "n+ o)+e)e+ t3e- to sign on t3e -"s=ing t"2e 2l"ce+ on t3e (o?es. A 8iel+ test 9"s con+ucte+ t3e su(st"nce 9"s )eve"le+ to (e s3"(u "n+ t3e 11 "ccuse+ 9e)e "))este+. At C"-2 C)"-e "ccuse+ 9e)e "s=e+ to i+enti80 t3ei) sign"tu)es on t3e (o?es "n+ "8te) 3"ving i+enti8ie+ t3e- t3e0 9e)e "g"in -"+e to sign on t3e 2l"stic ("gs cont"ining 93ite c)0st"lline su(st"nce insi+e t3e (o?es (e")ing t3ei) sign"tu)es. A 8u)t3e) e?"-in"tion (0 t3e 8o)ensic c3e-ist o8 t3e 6N6 C)i-e #"( con8i)-e+ t3"t t3e 93ite c)0st"lline su(st"nce 9"s s3"(u.

26

Co$"ccuse+ #i- C3"n 7"tt "+-itte+ (eing )es2onsi(le 8o) ()inging t3e (o?es o8 Al2en Ce)e"ls into t3e count)0 (ut +enie+ "n0 =no9le+ge t3"t t3e0 cont"ine+ s3"(u. #i- cl"i-e+ t3"t " ce)t"in A3 >ong " co$ (o")+e) "n+ " >ong Mong (usiness-"n 3"+ "s=e+ 3i- to ()ing 9it3 3i- (o?es o8 ce)e"ls to t3e 63ili22ines 93e)e " ce)t"in A3 Sing 9oul+ get t3e- 8)o- 3i-. In e?c3"nge A3 Sing 9oul+ see to it t3"t #i- 9oul+ 3"ve " goo+ ti-e in t3e 63ili22ines. A3 >ong "llege+l0 even o2ene+ one (o? to s3o9 t3"t it )e"ll0 cont"ine+ ce)e"ls. #i- "cce+e+ to A3 >ongQs )eBuest (ut since 3is ("gg"ge coul+ not "cco--o+"te "ll *! (o?es 3e )eBueste+ t9o o8 3is co$"ccuse+ to "cco--o+"te so-e o8 t3e (o?es in t3ei) ("gg"ge. /3e tou) gui+e C3eung "n+ :ong C3uen 1ing +enie+ t3"t t3e (o?es 9e)e )ecove)e+ 8)o- t3ei) ("gg"ge cl"i-ing t3e0 "88i?e+ t3ei) sign"tu)es on t3e (o?es onl0 (ec"use t3e0 9e)e t3)e"tene+ (0 2olice "ut3o)ities 2)esent +u)ing t3e e?"-in"tion insi+e t3e collecto)Qs o88ice. All t3e "ccuse+ 9e)e l"te) 8oun+ guilt0 (e0on+ )e"son"(le +ou(t o8 viol"tion o8 R.A. 6,25. %ssue$ A)e t3e sign"tu)es o8 t3e "ccuse+ on t3e ce)e"l (o?es "+-issi(le "s evi+ence "g"inst t3e-@ &eld$ No. Accuse+ 9e)e not in8o)-e+ o8 t3ei) )ig3t to )e-"in silent "n+ to counsel "n+ "n0 st"te-ent t3e0 -ig3t -"=e coul+ (e use+ "g"inst t3e- 93en t3e0 9e)e -"+e to "88i? t3ei) sign"tu)es on t3e (o?es o8 Al2en Ce)e"ls 93ile t3e0 9e)e "t t3e NAIA "n+ "g"in on t3e 2l"stic ("gs 93en t3e0 9e)e "l)e"+0 t"=en in custo+0 "t C"-2 C)"-e. 40 "88i?ing t3ei) sign"tu)es "ccuse+ in e88ect -"+e " t"cit "+-ission o8 t3e c)i-e c3")ge+ 8o) -e)e 2ossession o8 s3"(u is 2unis3e+ (0 l"9. /3ese sign"tu)es o8 "ccuse+ ")e t"nt"-ount to "n uncounselle+ e?t)"5u+ici"l con8ession 93ic3 is not s"nctione+ (0 t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts (Section 12 (1)(*) A)ticle III 1%&7 Constitution). /3e0 ")e t3e)e8o)e in"+-issi(le "s evi+ence 8o) "n0 "+-ission 9)ung 8)ot3e "ccuse+ in viol"tion o8 t3ei) constitution"l )ig3ts is in"+-issi(le "g"inst t3e-. /3e 8"ct t3"t "ll "ccuse+ ")e 8o)eign n"tion"ls +oes not 2)eclu+e "22lic"tion o8 t3e Oe?clusion")0 )uleO (ec"use t3e constitution"l gu")"ntees e-(o+ie+ in t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts ")e given "n+ e?ten+ to "ll 2e)sons (ot3 "liens "n+ citi.ens. A-ong t3e 2)osecution 9itnesses onl0 Go-e. testi8ie+ t3"t "ll t3e sei.e+ ("gg"ge inclu+ing t3ose o9ne+ (0 C3uen 1ing "n+ :ing C3eung cont"ine+ " (o? o) (o?es o8 s3"(u. >o9eve) Go-e.Qs testi-on0 incul2"ting "ccuse+$"22ell"nts 9"s not co))o(o)"te+ (0 ot3e) 2)osecution 9itnesses. /3e 2)esu-2tion o8 )egul")it0 in t3e 2e)8o)-"nce o8 +uties "cco)+e+ to Go-e. c"nnot (0 itsel8 2)ev"il ove) t3e constitution"l )ig3t o8 "ccuse+$"22ell"nts to (e 2)esu-e+ innocent es2eci"ll0 in t3e lig3t o8 t3e 8o)egoing testi-onies o8 ot3e) 2)osecution 9itnesses. Doctrine$ E?t)"5u+ici"l con8ession e?t)"cte+ in viol"tion o8 t3e "ccuse+Ds constitution"l )ig3ts is in"+-issi(le "s evi+ence "g"inst 3i-. /3"t 8"ct t3"t 3e is " 8o)eign n"tion"l +oes not 2)eclu+e "22lic"tion o8 t3e Oe?clusion")0 )uleO (ec"use t3e constitution"l gu")"ntees e-(o+ie+ in t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts ")e given "n+ e?ten+ to "ll 2e)sons (ot3 "liens "n+ citi.ens. 72. 6eo2le v. Ai2 :"i 1ing #acts$ Ai2 :"i 1ing "n+ #"1"nil" on v"c"tion on Jul0 1! +e"t3 in t3ei) 3otel )oo-. 'n 93ile C3un st"0e+ in t3e 3otel 26, S 22, 6o C3un (ot3 >ong Mong n"tion"ls "n+ eng"ge+ to (e -"))ie+ c"-e to 1%%*. /3e ne?t +"0 C3un 9" 8oun+ ()ut"ll0 (e"ten u2 "n+ st)"ngle+ to t3"t +"0 1ing 9"s "llege+l0 tou)ing 1et)o 1"nil" 9it3 7ili2ino 9elco-e)s )oo- "llege+l0 +ue to " 3e"+"c3e.

1ing 9"s c3")ge+ 8o) -u)+e). As 9itness 8o) t3e 2)osecution C")i." Dest)es" t3e cou2leDs 3otel neig3(o) testi8ie+ t3"t s3e 3e")+ " lou+ ")gu-ent insi+e t3e cou2leDs )oo- "n+ " st)uggle 93e)e t3e)e 9"s su22ose+l0 " 8"int c)0 "n+ " lou+ t3u+. /3e 8)ont +es= cle)= "lso testi8ie+ t3"t 1ing "t "(out 1! ".-. c"-e +o9n l"te) to -eet 9it3 G9en +e los S"ntos 93o 9"s to "cco-2"n0 t3e- to " tou) ")oun+ 1"nil". 1ing le8t 3is 8i"ncRe C3ung in t3ei) )oo- giving s2eci8ic inst)uctions not to +istu)( 3e). >e 9"s 2e)s2i)ing "n+ =in+ o8 in " 3u))0. Du)ing 3is "(sence until 3is )etu)n "t 112- 3e +i+ not c"ll C3un to ve)i80 3e) 230sic"l con+ition. :3en 1ing )etu)ne+ 3e "s=e+ t3e )ece2tionist 8o) t3e =e0 o8 3is )oo- t3en toget3e) 9it3 " )oo- (o0 2)ocee+e+ to Roo- 21!. /3e0 8oun+ C3un +e"+ l0ing 8"ce +o9n on t3e (e+ cove)e+ 9it3 " (l"n=et. 1ing e?cl"i-e+ Q10 Go+ s3e is +e"+Q (ut +i+ not even e-()"ce 3is 8i"ncee. Inste"+ 3e "s=e+ t3e )oo- (o0 to go +o9n t3e 3otel to "s= so-eone to c"ll t3e 2olice. C2on e?"-in"tion o8 t3e )oo- "n+ t3e (o+0 o8 t3e victi- t3e 2olice 8oun+ no signs o8 8o)ci(le ent)0 "n+ o(se)ve+ t3"t no one c"n ente) 8)ot3e outsi+e 9it3out " =e0. /3e (o+0 -e"n93ile 9"s "l)e"+0 in st"te o8 )igo) -o)tis in+ic"ting t3"t C3ung 3"+ (een +e"+ 8o) 1! to 12 3ou)s. It 9"s "lso le")ne+ t3"t 3e) li8e 9"s insu)e+ 9it3 t3e Insu)"nce Co-2"n0 o8 Ne9 Le"l"n+ in C"use9"0 4"0 >ong Mong 9it3 1ing "s t3e (ene8ici")0. /3e 2)e-iu- 2"i+ 8o) t3e insu)"nce 9"s -o)e t3"n t3e -ont3l0 s"l")0 o8 t3e +ece"se+ "s "n insu)"nce un+e)9)ite) in >ong Mong. %ssue$ :e)e t3e con8essions -"+e (0 1ing +u)ing t3e custo+i"l investig"tions "s to 3is guilt o8 t3e c)i-e o8 -u)+e) "+-issi(le in evi+ence "g"inst 3i-@ &eld$ No./3e custo+i"l inte))og"tion o8 Ai2 :"i 1ing 9"s viol"tive o8 Section 12 A)ticle III o8 t3e 1%&7 Constitution 3ence t3e con8essions "ccuse+$"22ell"nt -"+e +u)ing t3e s"-e ")e in"+-issi(le "s evi+ence. An0 con8ession inclu+ing " )e$en"ct-ent 9it3out "+-onition o8 t3e )ig3t to silence "n+ to counsel "n+ 9it3out counsel c3osen (0 t3e "ccuse+ is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence. >e)e 1ing 9"s "))este+ 9it3out " 9"))"nt on t3e ("sis o8 " se)ies o8 ci)cu-st"nci"l evi+ence. /3e "))esting o88ice) 3"+ no 2e)son"l =no9le+ge o8 1ing 3"ving co--itte+ t3e c)i-e. 1ing -e"n93ile cl"i-e+ 3e 3"+ (een to)tu)e+ "n+

27

(e"ten u2 until 3e "+-itte+ t3e c)i-e c3")ge+ 2")tici2"te+ in " )e$en"ct-ent "n+ signe+ "n e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent. All t3e 93ile 3e 9"s not in8o)-e+ o8 3is )ig3t to )e-"in silent no) +i+ 3e 3"ve counsel o8 3is c3oice to "ssist 3i- in con8essing t3e c)i-e. Doctrine$ An0 con8ession inclu+ing " )e$en"ct-ent 9it3out "+-onition o8 t3e )ig3t to silence "n+ to counsel "n+ 9it3out counsel c3osen (0 t3e "ccuse+ is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence. 7*. 6eo2le v. En+ino (*52 S *!7) GR No. 1**!26 7e(. 2! 2!!1 Nag ;a/:;a/ s$a sa A-S:C-N #acts$ 'n " (us0 st)eet in 6ue)to 6)inces" Cit0 in t3e evening o8 16 'cto(e) 1%%1 Ge))0 G"lg")in uncle o8 "ccuse+ E+9")+ En+ino su++enl0 "n+ 9it3out 9")ning lunge+ "t Dennis ABuino "n+ st"((e+ 3i)e2e"te+l0 on t3e c3est. ABuino -"n"ge+ to 8)ee 3i-sel8 "n+ t)ie+ to )un "9"0 (ut En+ino 93o 3")(o)e+ ill$8eelings to9")+s ABuino "n+ t3e l"tte)Qs gi)l8)ien+ Cl")" Ag"g"s (93ose love t3e t9o -en once s3")e+) s3ot ABuino. G"lg")in "n+ En+ino 8le+ "n+ ABuino e?2i)e+ s3o)tl0 t3e)e"8te). G"lg")in 9"s "))este+ "n+ 9"s inte)vie9e+ (0 A4S$C4N )e2o)te)s to 93o- 3e "+-itte+ 3is guilt 93ile 2ointing to En+ino "s t3e gun-"n "n+ "22e"ling 8o) t3e l"tte) to give 3i-sel8 u2 to t3e "ut3o)ities. >o9eve) En+ino +iso9ne+ t3e con8ession cl"i-ing t3"t it 9"s in+uce+ (0 t3e t3)e"ts o8 t3e "))esting 2olice o88ice)s. >e "sse)te+ t3"t t3e vi+eot"2e+ con8ession 9"s constitution"ll0 in8i)- "n+ in"+-issi(le un+e) t3e e?clusion")0 )ule 2)ovi+e+ in Sec.12 A)t. III o8 t3e Constitution. /3e vi+eo 8oot"ges 3o9eve) 9"s "+-itte+ in evi+ence u2on " 8in+ing t3"t G"lg")inDs con8ession 9"s -"+e (e8o)e " g)ou2 o8 ne9s-en t3"t coul+ 3"ve +issi2"te+ "n0 se-(l"nce o8 3ostilit0 to9")+s 3i-. En+ino 9"s convicte+ o8 -u)+e). %ssue$ :"s t3e vi+eot"2e+ con8ession o8 G"lg")in "+-issi(le in evi+ence@ Ruling$ Aes. /3e inte)vie9 9"s )eco)+e+ on vi+eo "n+ it s3o9e+ G"lg")in un(u)+ening 3is guilt 9illingl0 o2enl0 "n+ 2u(licl0 in t3e 2)esence o8 ne9s-en. Suc3 con8ession +oes not 8o)- 2")t o8 custo+i"l investig"tion "s it 9"s not given to 2olice o88ice)s (ut to -e+i" -en in "n "tte-2t to elicit s0-2"t30 "n+ 8o)giveness 8)o- t3e 2u(lic. 4esi+es i8 3e 3"+ in+ee+ (een 8o)ce+ into con8essing 3e coul+ 3"ve e"sil0 soug3t succo) 8)o- t3e ne9s-en 93o in "ll li=eli3oo+ 9oul+ 3"ve (een s0-2"t3etic 9it3 3i-. >o9eve) (ec"use o8 t3e in3e)ent +"nge) in t3e use o8 television "s " -e+iu- 8o) "+-itting oneQs guilt "n+ t3e )ecu))ence o8 t3is 23eno-enon in seve)"l c"ses it is 2)u+ent t3"t t)i"l cou)ts ")e )e-in+e+ t3"t e?t)e-e c"ution -ust (e t"=en in 8u)t3e) "+-itting si-il") con8essions. 7o) in "ll 2)o("(ilit0 t3e 2olice 9it3 t3e conniv"nce o8 unsc)u2ulous -e+i" 2)"ctitione)s -"0 "tte-2t to legiti-i.e coe)ce+ e?t)"5u+ici"l con8essions "n+ 2l"ce t3e- (e0on+ t3e e?clusion")0 )ule (0 3"ving "n "ccuse+ "+-it "n o88ense on television. Suc3 " situ"tion 9oul+ (e +et)i-ent"l to t3e gu")"ntee+ )ig3ts o8 t3e "ccuse+ "n+ t3us i-2e)il ou) c)i-in"l 5ustice s0ste-. In ot3e) 9o)+s cou)ts s3oul+ neve) 2)esu-e t3"t "ll -e+i" con8essions +esc)i(e+ "s volunt")0 3"ve (een 8)eel0 given. Doct)ineF A con8ession 9illingl0 o2enl0 "n+ 2u(licl0 given in t3e 2)esence o8 ne9s-en t3)oug3 "n inte)vie9 +oes not 8o)- 2")t o8 custo+i"l investig"tion "s it 9"s not given to 2olice o88ice)s (ut to -e+i" -en in "n "tte-2t to elicit s0-2"t30 "n+ 8o)giveness 8)o- t3e 2u(lic. >ence it is "+-issi(le in evi+ence. >o9eve) cou)ts -ust e?e)cise c"ution "n+ s3oul+ neve) 2)esu-e t3"t "ll -e+i" con8essions +esc)i(e+ "s volunt")0 3"ve (een 8)eel0 given. 7,. 6eo2le v. A(ulenci" (*6* S ,%6) GR No. 1*&,!* Aug. 22 2!!1 Nag ;a/:;a/ s$a sa -ombo Ra)$o #acts$ /en$0e") ol+ Re(el0n G")ci"Ds n"=e+ (o+0 9"s 8oun+ 8lo"ting in " c)ee= in S"n 1"nuel 6"ng"sin"n 9it3 -")=s o8 ()uises (u)ns "n+ in5u)ies -"ni8esting t3"t s3e 9"s +e8ile+ "n+ l"te) +)o9ne+ to +e"t3. Re(el0n 9"s l"st seen 9it3 Roll0 A(ulenci" (e8o)e s3e 9"s 8oun+ +e"+. A(ulenci" su))en+e)e+ to 1"0o) 7eli2e Seville5" o8 S"n 1"nuel 6"ng"sin"n. 6'* R"n+0 4e)g"+o " 6N6 o88ice) 93o 9"s t3en in t3e -"0o)Ds 3ouse 9"s in8o)-e+ (0 A(ulenci" t3"t ;3e 3"+ " s-"ll gi)l co-2"nion t3"t 3e "cci+ent"ll0 (u-2e+ "t t3e A(u)i+o ()i+ge< "n+ 93o ;-ig3t 3"ve (een +e"+ (ec"use t3e 8lo9 o8 t3e )ive) is so 8"st.< Dennis 1o5")es " )"+io co--ent"to) o8 DL:N 4o-(o R"+io testi8ie+ t3"t on August 6 1%%& A(ulenci" "+-itte+ to 3i- in " t"2e+ inte)vie9 -"+e "t t3e 1unici2"l J"il 3"ving )"2e+ Re(el0n "n+ t3"t s3e 8ell o88 t3e ()i+ge. A(ulenci" 9"s c3")ge+ 9it3 )"2e 9it3 3o-ici+e. In 3is +e8ense A(ulenci" +enie+ t3e c3")ge. >e cl"i-e+ t3"t on August , 1%%& 3e notice+ Re(el0n 8olo9ing 3i- "s 3e 9"s going to t3e -")=et to (u0 )#"#s (ut 3e 5ust igno)e+ 3e). >o9eve) u2on )e"c3ing t3e -")=et 3e +eci+e+ not to (u0 )#"#s "n0-o)e "n+ inste"+ 2)ocee+e+ to9")+s S"n 1"nuel 93ile Re(el0n continue+ to 8ollo9 3i- closel0. Anno0e+ 3e tol+ 3e) 3e 9"s going to S"n 1"nuel (ut s3e insiste+ on 8ollo9ing 3i- (ec"use s3e 9"nte+ to go to 3is 3ouse. /3e0 t3en too= t3e 2)ovinci"l )o"+ (ut u2on )e"c3ing t3e A(u)i+o ()i+ge 3e +ist"nce+ 3i-sel8 8)o- t3e gi)l. >o9eve) s3e )"n to9")+s 3i-. :3ile s3e 9"s )unning 3e t)ie+ to tell 3e) to go 3o-e (ut in +oing so 3e "cci+ent"ll0 t)i22e+ *napat#), 3e) o88 c"using 3e) to 8"ll 8)o- t3e ()i+ge. >e got ne)vous "n+ 2)ocee+e+ to t3e 3ouse o8 3is Auntie Deci"ng Del8in "n+ "s=e+ 3e) to "cco-2"n0 3i- to t3e "ut3o)ities so 3e coul+ su))en+e). A(ulenci" 9"s 8oun+ guilt0 o8 t3e c3")ges "n+ convicte+. %ssue$ :"s t3e con8ession -"+e to t3e )"+io co--ent"to) "+-issi(le in evi+ence "g"inst A(ulenci"@

28

&eld$ Aes. A(ulenci" "+-itte+ 3"ving )"2e+ Re(el0n 93en 3e 9"s inte)vie9e+ (0 Dennis 1o5")es " )"+io co--ent"to) o8 4o-(o R"+io. 1o5")esD testi-on0 len+s su22o)t to t3e 8in+ing o8 guilt0. It 3"s (een 3el+ t3"t ;" con8ession to " )"+io )e2o)te) is "+-issi(le 93e)e it 9"s not s3o9n t3"t s"i+ )e2o)te) 9"s "cting 8o) t3e 2olice o) t3"t t3e inte)vie9 9"s con+ucte+ un+e) ci)cu-st"nces 93e)e it is "22")ent t3"t t3e sus2ect con8esse+ to t3e =illing out o8 8e").< Doctrine$ A con8ession to " )"+io )e2o)te) is "+-issi(le 93e)e it 9"s not s3o9n t3"t s"i+ )e2o)te) 9"s "cting 8o) t3e 2olice o) t3"t t3e inte)vie9 9"s con+ucte+ un+e) ci)cu-st"nces 93e)e it is "22")ent t3"t t3e sus2ect con8esse+ to t3e =illing out o8 8e"). 75. 6eo2le v. 1"Bue+" 2,2 S 565 1")c3 22 1%%5 J. D"vi+e #acts$ 'n August 27 1%%1 4)itis3 >o)"ce :illi"- 4")=e) " consult"nt o8 t3e :o)l+ 4"n= 9"s ()ut"ll0 sl"in 93ile 3is 7ili2in" 9i8e /e)esit" 9"s ("+l0 ("tte)e+ 9it3 le"+ 2i2es on t3e occ"sion o8 " )o((e)0 in t3ei) 3o-e. Pr#ma %a&#e evi+ence 2ointe+ to Rene S"lv"-"nte "s one o8 t3e sus2ects. Ric3")+ 1"lig "n+ l"te) >ecto) 1"Bue+" 9e)e inclu+e+ in t3e in8o)-"tion 8o) )o((e)0 9it3 3o-ici+e "n+ se)ious 230sic"l in5u)ies t3oug3 1"lig 9"s l"te) +)o22e+ 8o) l"c= o8 su88icient evi+ence "g"inst 3i-. 1"Bue+" 9"s "))este+ on 1")c3 , 1%%2 "n+ 9"s ()oug3t to t3e 3e"+Bu")te)s o8 t3e 2*5t3 6N6 1o(ile 7o)ce Co-2"n0. S6'* A)-"n+o 1olleno u2on o)+e) o8 1"5. Vi)gilio 7. Renton got 1"Bue+"Qs st"te-ent cl"i-ing t3"t 3e in8o)-e+ t3e l"tte) o8 3is Constitution"l )ig3ts. 1"Bue+" t3e)e"8te) signe+ " S#n!mpaang Sa"a$sa$ 93e)ein 3e n"))"te+ 3is 2")tici2"tion in t3e c)i-e "t t3e 4")=e) 3ouse. 'n A2)il % 1%%2 1"Bue+" 8ile+ "n "22lic"tion 8o) ("il "s=ing to (e -"+e " st"te 9itness "s it "22e")e+ t3"t ;3e is t3e le"st guilt0 "-ong t3e "ccuse+ in t3is c"se.O 6)osecuto) L")"te t3en t"l=e+ to 1"Bue+" )eg")+ing suc3 st"te-ent "s=ing 3i- i8 3e 9"s 9it3 S"lv"-"nte +u)ing t3e )o((e)0. C2on )eceiving "n "88i)-"tive "ns9e) L")"te tol+ 1"Bue+" t3"t 3e 9oul+ o22ose t3e -otion 8o) ("il since 3e 9"s t3e onl0 "ccuse+ on t)i"l. In t3e -e"nti-e R"0 De"n S"lvos" got 2e)-ission 8)o- L")"te to t"l= to 1"Bue+". 1"Bue+" n"))"te+ to S"lvos" t3"t S"lv"-"nte ()oug3t 3i- to 4"guio Cit0 in o)+e) to 8in+ " 5o( "s " 2e"nut ven+o) (ut 8oun+ out l"te) t3"t t3e0 9e)e going to )o( t3e 4")=e)s. >e initi"ll0 o(5ecte+ to t3e 2l"n (ut l"te) on "g)ee+ to it. >e "+-itte+ 3"ving 3it 1)s. 4")=e) 9it3 " le"+ 2i2e "8te) s3e c"-e +o9n "n+ in 3el2ing S"lv"-"nte (e"t u2 1). 4")=e) 93o 3"+ 8ollo9e+ 3is 9i8e +o9nst"i)s. :3en t3e 4")=e)s 9e)e "l)e"+0 unconscious on t3e 8loo) S"lv"-"nte loote+ t3e 3ouse. /3e0 -"+e t3ei) esc"2e t3)oug3 4"guio Cit0 "n+ t3en )o+e " 63ili22ine R"((it 4us 3e"+ing 8o) 1"nil". Du)ing t)i"l 3o9eve) 1"Bue+" +enie+ 3"ving (een in 4enguet "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e )o((e)0 "n+ cl"i-e+ 3e 9"s 9o)=ing "s " c")et"=e) in " 2olvo)on 8"cto)0 in Su="t 1untinlu2". /3is 9"s +enie+ 3o9eve) (0 t3e o9ne) o8 t3e 2olvo)on 8"cto)0 7)e+es-in+" C"st)ence. /3e t)i"l cou)t 8oun+ 1"Bue+" guilt0 "n+ convicte+ 3i- O("se+ on t3e con8ession "n+ t3e 2)oo8 o8 co)2us +elictiO "s 9ell "s on ci)cu-st"nti"l evi+ence. %ssue$ :"s t3e s#n!mpaang sa"a$sa$ "+-issi(le "s " con8ession@ &eld$ No. /3e e?e)cise o8 t3e )ig3ts to )e-"in silent "n+ to counsel "n+ to (e in8o)-e+ t3e)eo8 un+e) Section 12(1) A)ticle III o8 t3e Constitution ")e not con8ine+ to t3"t 2e)io+ 2)io) to t3e 8iling o8 " c)i-in"l co-2l"int o) in8o)-"tion (ut ")e "v"il"(le "t t3"t st"ge 93en " 2e)son is Oun+e) investig"tion 8o) t3e co--ission o8 "n o88ense.O ')+in")il0 once " c)i-in"l co-2l"int o) in8o)-"tion is 8ile+ in cou)t "n+ t3e "ccuse+ is t3e)e"8te) "))este+ (0 vi)tue o8 " 9"))"nt o8 "))est 3e -ust (e +elive)e+ to t3e ne")est 2olice st"tion o) 5"il "n+ t3e "))esting o88ice) -ust -"=e " )etu)n o8 t3e 9"))"nt to t3e issuing 5u+ge "n+ since t3e cou)t 3"s "l)e"+0 "cBui)e+ 5u)is+iction ove) 3is 2e)son it 9oul+ (e i-2)o2e) 8o) "n0 2u(lic o88ice) o) l"9 en8o)ce-ent "genc0 to investig"te 3i- in connection 9it3 t3e co--ission o8 t3e o88ense 8o) 93ic3 3e is c3")ge+. I8 neve)t3eless 3e is su(5ecte+ to suc3 investig"tion t3en Section 12(1) A)ticle III o8 t3e Constitution "n+ t3e 5u)is2)u+ence t3e)eon -ust (e 8"it38ull0 co-2lie+ 9it3. >e)e t3e s#n!mpaang sa"a$sa$ o8 1"Bue+" -"+e "8te) 3is "))est 9"s t"=en in 2"l2"(le viol"tion o8 t3e s"i+ Constitution"l 2)ovision cont)")0 to t3e cl"i- o8 S6'2 1olleno. As +isclose+ (0 " )e"+ing t3e)eo8 1"Bue+" 9"s not even tol+ o8 "n0 o8 3is constitution"l )ig3ts un+e) t3e s"i+ section. /3e st"te-ent 9"s "lso t"=en in t3e "(sence o8 counsel. Suc3 uncounselle+ S#n!mpaang Sa"a$sa$ is 93oll0 in"+-issi(le 2u)su"nt to 2")"g)"23 * Section 12 A)ticle III o8 t3e Constitution. Neve)t3eless t3e e?t)"5u+ici"l "+-issions o8 1"Bue+" to L")"te "n+ to S"lvos" ")e not gove)ne+ (0 t3e e?clusion")0 )ules un+e) t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts. 1"Bue+" volunt")il0 "n+ 8)eel0 -"+e t3e- to L")"te not in t3e cou)se o8 "n investig"tion (ut in connection 9it3 1"Bue+"Qs 2le" to (e utili.e+ "s " st"te 9itnessE "n+ "s to t3e ot3e) "+-ission it 9"s given to " 2)iv"te 2e)son. /3e 2)ovisions o8 t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts ")e 2)i-")il0 li-it"tions on gove)n-ent +ecl")ing t3e )ig3ts t3"t e?ist 9it3out gove)n-ent"l g)"nt t3"t -"0 not (e t"=en "9"0 (0 gove)n-ent "n+ t3"t gove)n-ent 3"s t3e +ut0 to 2)otect o) )est)ictions on t3e 2o9e) o8 gove)n-ent 8oun+ Onot in t3e 2")ticul") s2eci8ic t02es o8 "ction 2)o3i(ite+ (ut in t3e gene)"l 2)inci2le t3"t =ee2s "live in t3e 2u(lic -in+ t3e +oct)ine t3"t gove)n-ent"l 2o9e) is not unli-ite+.QQ /3e0 ")e t3e 8un+"-ent"l s"8egu")+s "g"inst "gg)essions o8 ")(it)")0 2o9e) o) st"te t0)"nn0 "n+ "(use o8 "ut3o)it0. In l"0ing +o9n t3e 2)inci2les o8 t3e gove)n-ent "n+ 8un+"-ent"l li(e)ties o8 t3e 2eo2le t3e Constitution +i+ not gove)n t3e )el"tions3i2s (et9een in+ivi+u"ls.

Doctrine$ A s#n!mpaang sa"a$sa$ -"+e in 2"l2"(le viol"tion o8 t3e Constitution"l )ig3t to )e-"in silent "n+ to counsel "n+ to (e in8o)-e+ o8 suc3 )ig3ts is in"+-issi(le in evi+ence.

29

>o9eve) suc3 e?clusion")0 )ule un+e) t3e 4ill o8 Rig3ts +o not "22l0 to e?t)"5u+ici"l "+-issions volunt")il0 "n+ 8)eel0 -"+e not in t3e cou)se o8 "n investig"tion o) given to " 2)iv"te 2e)son.
O11er o1 Compromise 76. 6eo2le v. D"nn0 Go+o0 25! S 67& P!b"#& &r#mes = o%%er o% &omprom#se not a)m#ss#b"e #n ev#)en&e7 o)o$ )oes not /no; that h#s mother ma)e the sett"ement( 5en&e, )oes not &onst#t!te #mp"#e) a)m#ss#on o% g!#"t( #acts$ 1i" /"3" "ccuse+ D"nn0 Go+o0 o8 )"2ing 3e) 93en s3e 9ent to t3e (o")+ing 3ouse o8 3e) cousin 1e)l0l0n C"s"ntos"n ne") t3e sc3ool 93e)e s3e 9"s stu+0ing. C2on ente)ing t3)oug3 t3e =itc3en +oo) 3e g)"((e+ 3e) 8)o- (e3in+ 2o=e+ " =ni8e on 3e) nec= "n+ +)"gge+ 3e) (0 t3e 3"n+ telling 3e) not to s3out. S3e 9"s 8o)ce+ to lie +o9n on t3e 8loo) "n+ )"2e+ "t =ni8e$2oint. Alt3oug3 it 9"s +")= /"3" )ecogni.e+ 3e) 630sic"s te"c3e) Go+o0 "s 3e) "ss"il"nt. Go+o0 t3)e"tene+ 3e) not to tell "n0one o) else 3e 9oul+ =ill 3e) "n+ 3e) 8"-il0. /3e ne?t +"0 Go+o0 "))ive+ "t 3e) 2")entsD 3ouse "n+ "s=e+ 2e)-ission 8)o- /"3"Ds 2")ents 8o) 3e) to "cco-2"n0 3i- to solicit 8un+s (ec"use s3e 9"s " c"n+i+"te 8o) ;1iss 6NS 6ulot.< S3e 9"s 8o)ce+ to go 8o) 8e") o8 getting 3e) 2")ents into t)ou(le. S3e 9"s t"=en to Sunset G")+en "n+ +et"ine+ 8o) t3)ee +"0s 93e)e s3e 9"s const"ntl0 )"2e+ "t =ni8e$2oint. /3en s3e 9"s t"=en to t3e 3ouse o8 Go+o0Ds 8)ien+ 93e)e s3e 9"s "g"in )"2e+ t3)ee ti-es. C2on 8in+ing t3"t /"3" 3"+ (een )e2o)te+ "s " -issing 2e)son in t3e 2olice (lotte) /"3" 9"s )ele"se+ onl0 "8te) 3e) 2")ents "g)ee+ to settle t3e c"se 9it3 Go+o0. Go+o0 +enie+ t3e "lleg"tions cl"i-ing t3"t t3e0 9e)e 3"ving "n "88"i) "n+ t3"t it 9"s /"3" 93o )e2e"te+l0 c3"se+ "8te) 3i- "n+ 93o 9ent 9it3 3i- to t3e Sunset G")+en out o8 8e") o8 3e) 2")ents (ec"use s3e t3oug3t s3e 9"s 2)egn"nt. It 9"s 3o9eve) "llege+ t3"t Go+o0Ds -ot3e) g"ve t3e- 6*! !!! "s settle-ent in e?c3"nge 8o) "n "88i+"vit o8 +esist"nce on t3e 2")t o8 1i" /"3". /3e)e 9"s "lso "n "llege+ o88e) o8 -"))i"ge. %ssue$ :"s t3e o88e) o8 co-2)o-ise "n "+-ission o8 guilt@ &eld$ No. In c)i-in"l c"ses "n o88e) o8 co-2)o-ise is gene)"ll0 "+-issi(le "s evi+ence "g"inst t3e 2")t0 -"=ing it. It is " leg"l -"?i- t3"t in t3e -"tte) o8 2u(lic c)i-es 93ic3 +i)ectl0 "88ect t3e 2u(lic inte)est no co-2)o-ise 93"teve) -"0 (e ente)e+ into "s )eg")+s t3e 2en"l "ction. >o9eve) in suc3 c"ses t3e "ccuse+ is 2e)-itte+ to s3o9 t3"t t3e o88e) 9"s not -"+e un+e) " consciousness o8 guilt (ut -e)el0 to "voi+ t3e inconvenience o8 i-2)ison-ent o) 8o) so-e ot3e) )e"son 93ic3 9oul+ 5usti80 " cl"i- (0 t3e "ccuse+ t3"t t3e o88e) to co-2)o-ise 9"s not in t)ut3 "n "+-ission o8 3is guilt o) "n "tte-2t to "voi+ t3e leg"l conseBuences 93ic3 9oul+ o)+in")il0 ensue t3e)e8)o-. In t3is c"se t3e evi+ence 8o) t3e +e8ense ove)93el-ingl0 2)oves Go+o0Ds innocence o8 t3e o88ense c3")ge+. 7u)t3e) t3e su22ose+ o88e) o8 -"))i"ge +i+ not co-e 8)o- Go+o0 (ut 9"s "ctu"ll0 suggeste+ (0 "n i-"- 93o in8o)-e+ 3i- t3"t 3e coul+ conve)t into 1usli- to (e "(le to -"))0 /"3" +es2ite "l)e"+0 (eing -"))ie+. >o9eve) Go+o0 )e8use+. As 8o) t3e 6*! !!! 2"i+ (0 Go+0Ds -ot3e) Go+o0 3i-sel8 9"s "ctu"ll0 un"9")e o8 t3is not until t3e t)i"l 2)o2e). /3e onl0 ones 2)esent +u)ing t3e negoti"tions 9e)e /"3" 3e) 2")ents "n+ Go+o0Ds -ot3e). :3e)e t3e "ccuse+ 9"s not 2)esent "t t3e ti-e t3e o88e) 8o) -onet")0 consi+e)"tion 9"s -"+e suc3 o88e) o8 co-2)o-ise 9oul+ not s"ve t3e +"0 8o) t3e 2)osecution. No i-2lie+ "+-ission c"n (e +)"9n 8)o- t3e e88o)ts to "))ive "t " settle-ent outsi+e t3e cou)t 93e)e t3e "ccuse+ +i+ not t"=e 2")t in "n0 o8 t3e negoti"tions "n+ t3e e88o)t to settle t3e c"se 9"s in "cco)+"nce 9it3 t3e est"(lis3e+ t)i("l custo-s t3"t is 1usli- 2)"ctices "n+ t)"+itions in "n e88o)t to 2)event 8u)t3e) +ete)io)"tion o8 t3e )el"tion (et9een t3e 2")ties. Doctrine$ In c)i-in"l c"ses "n o88e) to co-2)o-ise is gene)"ll0 "+-issi(le "s evi+ence "g"inst t3e 2")t0 -"=ing it. >o9eve) in suc3 c"ses t3e "ccuse+ is 2e)-itte+ to s3o9 t3"t t3e o88e) 9"s not -"+e un+e) " consciousness o8 guilt (ut -e)el0 to "voi+ t3e inconvenience o8 i-2)ison-ent o) 8o) so-e ot3e) )e"son 93ic3 9oul+ 5usti80 " cl"i- (0 t3e "ccuse+ t3"t t3e o88e) to co-2)o-ise 9"s not in t)ut3 "n "+-ission o8 3is guilt o) "n "tte-2t to "voi+ t3e leg"l conseBuences 93ic3 9oul+ o)+in")il0 ensue t3e)e8)o-. 77. 6eo2le v. De Gu.-"n 265 S 22& Dec. 2 1%%6 P"ea **o% %am#"$, %or %org#veness = >.S( The a&&!se) )oes not )#so;n the a&t o% h#s %am#"$( A p"ea o% %org#veness ma$ be &ons#)ere) as ana"ogo!s to o%%er o% &omprom#se, hen&e &ons#)ere) a)m#ss#on( #acts$ Gil+" A-()"0 " s"les cle)= "t t3e Anson De2")t-ent Sto)e 9"s 9"iting (0 t3e g"te o8 1e"+o9 :oo+ Su(+ivision in 4"coo) C"vite 8o) " t)ic0cle )i+e to9")+ 3e) 3ouse 93en s3e notice+ Gene) +e Gu.-"n sitting "t t3e gu")+3ouse. A8te) "s=ing 3i- so-e Buestions s3e st")te+ 9"l=ing (ut +e Gu.-"n got onto 3is t)ic0cle "n+ o88e)e+ 3e) " )i+e. :3ile on (o")+ Gil+" notice+ t3"t 3e too= " +i88e)ent )oute sto22ing once in " 93ile to tell 3e) t3"t t3e t)ic0cle 9"s not in goo+ con+ition. C2on )e"c3ing 63"se II o8 t3e s"-e su(+ivision ne") "n un8inis3e+ 3ouse +e Gu.-"n tol+ Gil+" to 2us3 t3e t)ic0cle. Gil+" got out "n+ 2"i+ 3i- 65.!! 93ic3 +e Gu.-"n )e8use+. As s3e 9"s 9"l=ing "9"0 +e Gu.-"n e-()"ce+ 3e) 8)o(e3in+ "n+ t3)e"tene+ 3e) not to s3out. /3en 3e +)"gge+ 3e) to " v"c"nt lot ne") t3e un8inis3e+ 3ouse "n+ )"2e+ 3e) "s s3e st)uggle+ +es2ite 3is t3)e"ts to =ill 3e).

30

It 9"s "lso "llege+ t3"t +e Gu.-"nDs 2")ents 9i8e "n+ c3il+)en 3"+ gone to Gil+" to 2le"+ 8o) 3e) 8o)giveness 93ic3 s3e )e5ecte+. %ssue$ S3oul+ t3e 2le" 8o) 8o)giveness -"+e (0 +e Gu.-"nDs 2")ents 9i8e "n+ c3il+)en (e +ee-e+ "n "+-ission o8 guilt@ &eld$ Aes. De Gu.-"n +i+ not +iso9n t3e "cts o8 3is 2")ents 9i8e "n+ c3il+)en in 2le"+ing 8o) Gil+"Ds 8o)giveness 93ic3 9e)e testi8ie+ to (0 3is /!ma)re Resu))eccion Juioc3o "n+ Gil+" 3e)sel8. >e c3ose not to +en0 t3ei) testi-on0. 1o)eove) +es2ite t3e uneBuivoc"l 2)onounce-ent (0 t3e t)i"l cou)t t3"t 3is guilt 9"s ;st)ongl0 est"(lis3e+ (0 t3e "cts o8 3is 2")ents 9i8e "n+ )el"tives 93o 3"+ gone to t3e 3ouse o8 t3e victi- to "s= 3e) 8o)giveness "n+ see= " co-2)o-ise < t3e "ccuse+ +")e+ not "ssign t3"t 8in+ing "n+ conclusion "s "n e))o) "n+ 3is A22ell"ntDs 4)ie8 is cons2icuousl0 silent t3e)eon. In+u(it"(l0 t3en t3e "ccuse+ 9"s " 2")t0 to t3e +ecision to see= 8o) 8o)giveness o) 3"+ 2)io) =no9le+ge o8 t3e 2l"n to see= 8o) it "n+ consente+ to 2u)sue it o) con8i)-e+ "n+ )"ti8ie+ t3e "ct o8 3is 2")ents 9i8e c3il+)en "n+ siste)$in$ l"9. A 2le" 8o) 8o)giveness -"0 (e consi+e)e+ "s "n"logous to "n "tte-2t to co-2)o-ise. In c)i-in"l c"ses e?ce2t t3ose involving Bu"si$o88ense o) t3ose "llo9e+ (0 l"9 to (e co-2)o-ise+ "n o88e) o8 co-2)o-ise (0 t3e "ccuse+ -"0 (e )eceive+ in evi+ence "s "n i-2lie+ "+-ission o8 guilt. No one 9oul+ "s= 8o) 8o)giveness unless 3e 3"+ co--itte+ so-e 9)ong 8o) to 8o)give -e"ns to "(solve to 2")+on to ce"se to 8eel )esent-ent "g"inst on "ccount o8 9)ong co--itte+E give u2 cl"i- to )eBuitt"l 8)o- o) )et)i(ution u2on "n o88en+e). Doctrine$ A 2le" 8o) 8o)giveness -"0 (e consi+e)e+ "s "n"logous to "n "tte-2t to co-2)o-ise. In c)i-in"l c"ses e?ce2t t3ose involving Bu"si$o88ense o) t3ose "llo9e+ (0 l"9 to (e co-2)o-ise+ "n o88e) o8 co-2)o-ise (0 t3e "ccuse+ -"0 (e )eceive+ in evi+ence "s "n i-2lie+ "+-ission o8 guilt. 7&. 6eo2le v. A2")"gui))e The ;#%e o% the a&&!se) ;ent to the parents o% the v#&t#m o%%er#ng 25/( at the t#me o% the o%%er, no &r#m#na" &omp"a#nt has $et been %#"e)( SC? an o%%er o% &omprom#se )oes not re@!#re that a &r#m#na" &omp"a#nt #s a"rea)$ pen)#ng( 6hat ;as re@!#re) #s that the &omprom#se ;as ma)e a%ter the &omm#ss#on o% the o%%ense( #acts$ Rosit" 4"c"ling " 3ouse-"i+ o8 C)is2in A2"))"gui))e "n+ 3is 9i8e 9"s coo=ing 2o))i+ge 8o) t3e s2ousesD t9o c3il+)en 93o 9e)e (ot3 "slee2 93en A2"))"gui))e "))ive+ 8)o- 9o)=. A2"))"gui))e 3"n+e+ Rosit" " s-"ll 93ite envelo2e s"i+ to cont"in -e+icine 8o) " s=in +ise"se Rosit" 3"+ "llege+l0 cont)"cte+ 8)o- one o8 t3e c3il+)en. Rosit" o2ene+ t3e envelo2e "n+ 8oun+ 15 t"(lets insi+e "ll o8 93ic3 A2"))"gui))e tol+ 3e) to t"=e. C2on +oing so s3e 8elt 9e"= "n+ 8ell +o9n. A2"))"gui))e +)"gge+ 3e) to t3e s2ousesD (e+ 93e)e 3e 93ile 2ointing " 3unting =ni8e "t 3e) nec= "n+ t3)e"tening to =ill 3e) i8 s3e -ove+ )"2e+ 3e). A2"))"gui))e t3)e"tene+ to =ill 3e) i8 s3e tol+ 3e) 2")ents "(out t3e inci+ent. A -ont3 l"te) Rosit" le8t t3e A2"))"gui))es "n+ 9ent ("c= 3o-e to 3e) -ot3e)Ds 3ouse. S3e 9"s su(-itte+ 8o) -e+ic"l e?"-in"tion "n+ t3en con8ine+ "t t3e D"v"o Cit0 1ent"l >os2it"l 8o) o(se)v"tion "n+ t)e"t-ent 8o) " 9ee= "8te) 93ic3 s3e )eve"le+ t3"t s3e 9"s )"2e+. It 9"s "lso "llege+ t3"t A2"))"gui))eDs 9i8e 9ent to t3e -ot3e) o8 Rosit" to negoti"te 8o) t3e +)o22ing o8 t3e c"se. %ssue$ Di+ 1)s. A2"))"gui))e o88e) to co-2)o-ise 9it3 t3e -ot3e) o8 Rosit"@ &eld$ Aes. /3e)e is evi+ence t3"t "8te) Rosit" )eve"le+ t3e )"2e to 3e) -ot3e) 1)s. A2"))"gui))e o88e)e+ 1)s. 4"c"ling 615 !!! to +issu"+e 3e) 8)o- 8iling t3e co-2l"int. :3en 1)s. 4"c"ling )e8use+ 1)s. A2"))"gui))e inc)e"se+ t3e o88e) to 625 !!! 93ic3 1)s. 4"c"ling still )e8use+. It is t)ue t3"t no c)i-in"l co-2l"int 3"+ 0et (een 8ile+ "t t3"t ti-e (ut t3e )"2e inci+ent 9"s "l)e"+0 =no9n to 1)s. A2"))"gui))e. 1)s. A2"))"gui))e 3e)sel8 testi8ie+ t3"t 1)s. 4"c"ling tol+ 3e) "(out it t3e +"0 93en t3e 8o)-e) 8i)st o88e)e+ t3e -one0. Doctrine$ An o88e) to co-2)o-ise +oes not )eBui)e t3"t " c)i-in"l co-2l"int (e 8i)st 8ile+ (e8o)e t3e o88e) c"n (e )eceive+ in evi+ence "g"inst t3e o88e)o). :3"t is )eBui)e+ is t3"t "8te) co--itting t3e c)i-e t3e "ccuse+ o) 3is )e2)esent"tive -"=es "n o88e) to co-2)o-ise "n+ suc3 o88e) is 2)ove+. 7%. E+9")+ Melle) K Co. v. C'4 G)ou2 1")=eting Inc. 1,1 S &6 J"nu")0 16 1%&6 #acts$ C'4 G)ou2 1")=eting (C'4) 9"s t3e e?clusive +ist)i(uto) o8 E+9")+ Melle) K Co.Ds (EMC) 3ouse3ol+ 2)o+ucts in 6"n"0 "n+ Neg)os 9it3 EMC selling on c)e+it s"i+ 2)o+ucts to C'4. As secu)it0 8o) t3e c)e+it 2u)c3"ses " ce)t"in 1"n"3"n "ssu-e+ soli+")0 li"(ilit0 9it3 C'4 (0 -o)tg"ging 3e) l"n+ to EMC. A secon+ s"les "g)ee-ent l"te) e?ten+e+ C'4Ds te))ito)0 to No)t3e)n "n+ Sout3e) #u.on 9it3 " ce)t"in #o)en.o e?ecuting " )e"l est"te -o)tg"ge in 8"vo) o8 EMC. Eventu"ll0 C'4Ds li"(ilit0 to Melle) "-ounte+ to 617% !!!. A settle-ent "g)ee-ent 9"s ente)e+ into 93e)e(0 C'4 e?ecute+ 2 secon+ c3"ttel -o)tg"ges in 8"vo) o8 Melle). >o9eve) s"i+ -o)tg"ges +i+ not (eco-e e88ective "s t3e 8i)st -o)tg"gee No)t3e)n 1oto)s +i+ not consent t3e)eto. >ence t9o C'4 stoc=3ol+e)s A+"o "n+ #o)en.o 2)o2ose+ vi" " lette) to 2"0 Melle) 65 !!! on Nove-(e) *! 1%71 "n+ t3e)e"8te) eve)0 *!t3 +"0 o8 t3e -ont3 8o) * 0e")s until t3e o(lig"tion is 8ull0 s"tis8ie+ "n+ to su(stitute t3e 1"n"3"n -o)tg"ge 9it3 one on A+"oDs lot.

31

%ssue$ S3oul+ t3e +ocu-ent")0 evi+ence "(ove (e +ee-e+ "+-issions on t3e 2")t o8 C'4 )eg")+ing its li"(ilit0 to EMC@ &eld$ Aes. Cn+e) Sec 22 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t t3e "ct +ecl")"tion o) o-ission o8 " 2")t0 "s to " )elev"nt 8"ct -"0 (e given in evi+ence "g"inst 3i- ;"s "+-issions o8 " 2")t0.< /3e secon+ c3"ttel -o)tg"ges t3oug3 ine88ective 8o) l"c= o8 consent o8 t3e 8i)st -o)tg"gee se)ve+ t3e 2u)2ose o8 (eing "+-issions o8 t3e li"(ilit0 o8 C'4 to Melle). /3e "+-issions o8 t3e 2)esi+ent o8 C'4 ")e "lso su22o)te+ (0 t3e +ocu-ent")0 evi+ence 2)esente+ (0 Melle) suc3 "s t3e invoices 9it3 +elive)0 )ecei2ts toget3e) 9it3 " t"(ul"tion t3e)eo8 "n+ " st"te-ent o8 "ccount s3o9ing C'4Ds li"(ilit0 to Melle) "s )e8lecte+ in t3e custo-e)Ds le+ge). C'4Ds 2)esi+ent "lso "+-itte+ t3"t Melle) sent C'4 -ont3l0 st"te-ent o8 "ccounts. 1o)eove) t3e stoc=3ol+e)Ds lette) to EMC "lso se)ve "s "+-issions o8 li"(ilit0. Doctrine$ 6ieces o8 +ocu-ent")0 evi+ence suc3 "s t3e c3"ttel -o)tg"ges "n+ t3e stoc=3ol+e)sD lette) in t3is c"se -"0 (e +ee-e+ "+-issions o8 li"(ilit0 8"lling un+e) Sec. 22 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t 93ic3 2)ovi+es t3"t t3e "ct +ecl")"tion o) o-ission o8 " 2")t0 "s to " )eleve"nt 8"ct -"0 (e given in evi+ence "g"inst 3i- ;"s "+-issions o8 " 2")t0.< /imilar Acts as !"idence 2Res %nter Alios Acta part34 &!. 6eo2le v. 6ine+" *7 63il O%%ense &omm#tte) #n the past #s not a)m#ss#b"e ho;ever #% the the %#rst o%%ense #s not !se) to prove the se&on) o%%ense b!t to prove a spe&#%#& #ntent et&, s!&h ma$ be re&e#ve) #n ev#)en&e( &1. 6eo2le v. I)"ng 6, 63il !.C!)T%ON/ TO T&! &!AR/A5 R0*! Se&( 'A 8$#ng )e&"arat#on 6eo2le vs. #"Buinon G.R. No. #$,5,7! 7e()u")0 2& 1%&5 #acts$ 'n t3e nig3t o8 Nove-(e) 1* 1%72 4"))io C"2t"in S"-"-" 4u"t 3e")+ guns3ots co-ing 8)o- t3e ("n= o8 " )ive) ne") 3is 3ouse. 1o-ents l"te) #eoc")io 4u"t S"-"-"Ds ()ot3e) "))ive+ "n+ tol+ t3e l"tte) t3"t " -"n 9"s s3outing 8o) 3el2 "t t3e ("n= o8 t3e )ive). S"-"-" 2)ocee+e+ to t3e 2l"ce 93e)e t3e uni+enti8ie+ -"n 9"s 8ollo9e+ (0 #eoc")io 93o 3"+ c"lle+ " ("))io council-"n. /3e0 8oun+ " -"n l0ing 8"ce +o9n on t3e s"n+ 9it3 3is t9o 3"n+s tie+ (e3in+ 3is ("c=. /3e -"n i+enti8ie+ 3i-sel8 "s 6"(lo Re-on+e. S"-"-" 4u"t too= Re-on+eDs "nte$-o)te- st"te-ent 93e)e(0 t3e l"tte) 2ointe+ to G)ego)io #"Buinon "s t3e one 93o s3ot 3i-. :3en "s=e+ 93et3e) 3e 9oul+ su)vive Re-on+e "ns9e)e+ ;I +onDt =no9.< S"-"-" "lso in8o)-e+ Vice 1"0o) 4i)"n "(out t3e s3ooting o8 Re-on+e. 4i)"n 9ent to t3e scene o8 t3e inci+ent "n+ 9"s "lso tol+ (0 Re-on+e t3"t 3e 3"+ (een s3ot (0 #"Buinon. Re-on+e +ie+ in t3e 3os2it"l * +"0s l"te) (ec"use o8 t3e (ullet 9oun+s. #"Buinon +enie+ t3e c3")ges "n+ cl"i-e+ t3"t it 9"s one Noli C"(")+o 93o =ille+ Re-on+e. #"Buinon " -e-(e) o8 t3e M1 onl0 ()oug3t Re-on+e to C"(")+o. #"Buinon 3o9eve) 9"s 8oun+ guilt0 o8 -u)+e). %ssue$ :"s t3e "nte$-o)te- +ecl")"tion o8 Re-on+e in"+-issi(le in evi+ence 8o) (eing 3e")s"0@ &eld$ Aes. /3e +0ing +ecl")"tion o8 Re-on+e is not "+-issi(le "s "n "nte$-o)te- +ecl")"tion since Re-on+e 9"s in +ou(t "s to 93et3e) 3e 9oul+ +ie o) not. :3en "s=e+ 93et3e) 3e 9oul+ su)vive Re-on+e "ns9e)e+ ;I +onDt =no9.< /3e +ecl")"tion 8"ils to s3o9 t3"t t3e +ece"se+ (elieve+ 3i-sel8 in e?t)e-is ;"t t3e 2oint o8 +e"t3 93en 3o2e o8 )ecove)0 is e?tinct < 93ic3 is t3e sole ("sis 8o) "+-itting t3is =in+ o8 +ecl")"tions "s "n e?ce2tion to t3e 3e")s"0 )ule. It -"0 (e "+-itte+ 3o9eve) "s 2")t o8 t3e )es gest"e since t3e st"te-ent 9"s -"+e i--e+i"tel0 "8te) t3e inci+ent "n+ +ece"se+ 6"(lo Re-on+e 3"+ no su88icient ti-e to concoct " sto)0. 1o)eove) t3e )est o8 t3e evi+ence 2)esente+ s3o9s t3"t t3e "ccuse+ is guilt0 (e0on+ )e"son"(le +ou(t o8 t3e c)i-e o8 -u)+e) Bu"li8ie+ (0 t)e"c3e)0. Doctrine$ 7o) " +0ing +ecl")"tion to (e "+-issi(le in evi+ence it -ust (e s3o9n t3"t t3e +ece"se+ (elieve+ 3i-sel8 in e?t)e-is ;"t t3e 2oint o8 +e"t3 93en 3o2e o8 )ecove)0 is e?tinct < 93ic3 is t3e sole ("sis 8o) "+-itting t3is =in+ o8 +ecl")"tions "s "n e?ce2tion to t3e 3e")s"0 )ule &2. 6eo2le vs. S"(io G.R. No. #$261%* J"nu")0 27 1%&1

#acts$ C"t"lino Es2in" 9"s 8oun+ on t3e secon+ 8loo) o8 3is 3o-e 9oun+e+ on t3e 8o)e3e"+. Jesus" 4i)on+o testi8ie+ t3"t ")oun+ 5"- t3"t +"0 "s s3e 9"s 2)e2")ing to go to t3e se"s3o)e s3e 3e")+ c)ies 8o) 3el2 co-ing 8)o- Es2in"Ds 3ouse. :3en s3e loo=e+ outsi+e 3e) 9in+o9 s3e s"9 t3e "ccuse+ Ro+ul8o S"(io co-ing out o8 Es2inoDs sto)e in 3is 3ouse. C"-ilo Se-ill" Es2inoDs g)"n+ne23e9 93o live+ 9it3 t3e Es2ino testi8ie+ t3"t so-eti-e "8te) 3e le8t Es2inoDs 3ouse to go 8is3ing 3e s"9 S"(io 8)o- 6 -ete)s "9"0 )unning 2"st 3i- "n+ to9")+s 3is (S"(ioDs) 3o-e 3is 3"n+s tuc=e+ insi+e 3is s3i)t. 1inutes l"te) " ce)t"in Eno= C"lle+o tol+ Se-ill" to go 3o-e (ec"use 3is g)"n+$uncle 9"s c)0ing 8o) 3el2. :3en Se-ill" "))ive+ 3e s"9 Es2in" l0ing 9oun+e+ u2st"i)s "n+ t3e l"tte) 9"s onl0 "(le to s2e"= 93en 3is 3e"+ 9"s )"ise+. Se-ill" "lso o(se)ve+ t3"t t3e tin c"n cont"ining t3e c"s3 s"les o8 t3e sto)e "-ounting to ")oun+ & 2esos 9"s l0ing e-2t0 on t3e 8loo).

32

Es2in" "s=e+ Se-ill" to c"ll 8o) t3e 2olice "n+ 6"t)ol-en 7uentes "n+ 4u)gos )es2on+e+. C2on "))iv"l 7uentes "s=e+ Es2in" Buestions "(out 3is 9oun+ing "n+ 9)ote t3e "ns9e)s on to)n c"len+") 2"ge. Acco)+ing to 7uentes Es2in" i+enti8ie+ S"(io "s 3is "ss"il"nt t3e l"tte) 3"ving "tt"c=e+ 3i- "8te) +e-"n+ing -one0. 7uentes t3en 3"+ Es2in" t3u-(-")= t3is ;"nte$-o)te- st"te-ent< 9it3 3is o9n (loo+ t3e)e (eing no in= "v"il"(le. 7uentes "n+ 4u)gos signe+ "s 9itnesses. Es2in" 9"s t3en ()oug3t to t3e 3os2it"l 93e)e 3e +ie+ * +"0s l"te) +ue to 3is 3e"+ 9oun+s. In 3is +e8ense S"(io testi8ie+ t3"t "t t3e ti-e o8 t3e su22ose+ )o((e)0 "n+ 3o-ici+e 3e 9"s "slee2 "t 3o-e 93ic3 9"s co))o(o)"te+ (0 " ce)t"in J"cinto 1en+e.. S"(io 9"s still 8oun+ guilt0 o8 Ro((e)0 9it3 >o-ici+e "n+ sentence+ 3i- to +e"t3. %ssue$ :"s t3e "nte$-o)te- st"te-ent o8 Es2in" "+-issi(le in evi+ence "g"inst S"(io@ &eld$ :it3 )es2ect to t3e c)i-e o8 )o((e)0 t3e +0ing +ecl")"tion is not "+-issi(le. A+-ission o8 +0ing +ecl")"tions 3"s "l9"0s (een st)ictl0 li-ite+ to c)i-in"l 2)osecutions 8o) 3o-ici+e o) -u)+e) "s evi+ence o8 t3e c"use "n+ su))oun+ing ci)cu-st"nces o8 +e"t3. :it3 )es2ect to t3e c)i-e o8 3o-ici+e t3e "nte$-o)te- st"te-ent is "+-issi(le "g"inst S"(io. /3"t Es2in"t3e victi- 9"s un+e) t3e consciousness o8 i-2en+ing +e"t3 is st)engt3ene+ (0 t3e se)iousness o8 in5u)0 to t3e victi-Ds 8o)e3e"+ t3e 2)o8use (lee+ing t3e in"(ilit0 to s2e"= unless 3is 3e"+ 9"s )"ise+ t3e s2ont"neous "ns9e)s to 7uentesD Buestions "n+ 3is su(seBuent +e-ise 8)o- t3e 9oun+s. /3e 8"ct t3"t +e"t3 +i+ not ensue until * +"0s l"te) +oes not "lte) its 2)o("tive 8o)ce since it is not "n in+is2ens"(le )eBui)e-ent t3"t t3e +ecl")"nt e?2i)e i--e+i"tel0 "8te). It is t3e (elie8 in i-2en+ing +e"t3 "n+ not t3e )"2i+ succession o8 +e"t3 in 2oint o8 8"ct t3"t )en+e)s t3e +0ing +ecl")"tion "+-issi(le. Neit3e) +oes t3e 8"ct t3"t Es2in" tol+ Se-ill" to 8etc3 t3e 2olice neg"te t3e 8o)-e)Ds 8eeling o8 3o2elessness o8 )ecove)0. R"t3e) it e-23"si.es t3e )e"li."tion t3"t 3e 3"+ little ti-e to +isclose 3is "ss"il"nt to t3e "ut3o)ities. Doctrine$ It is t3e (elie8 in i-2en+ing +e"t3 "n+ not t3e )"2i+ succession o8 +e"t3 in 2oint o8 8"ct t3"t )en+e)s t3e +0ing +ecl")"tion "+-issi(le.

&*. 6eo2le v. Jose Ag)i2"


&,. 6eo2le vs. De Jo0"

G.R. No. 722,, G.R. No. 75!2&

1"0 & 1%%2 Nove-(e) & 1%%1

Se&( '8 8e&"arat#on aga#nst 1nterest &5. 6eo2le v. /ole+o "n+ >olg"+o GR No. #$2&655 August 6 1%2& #acts$ Sisen"+o >olg"+o "n+ 7ilo-eno 1o)"les 3"+ " +is2ute ove) 2")cels o8 l"n+ loc"te+ in 6in"-"l"0"n 1in+o)o. 'ne -o)ning >olg"+o "n+ 1o)"les -et "n+ t3ei) ")gu-ent 9"s )ene9e+. A (olo +uel )esulte+ in t3e +e"t3 o8 1o)"les 93ile >olg"+o 9"s se)iousl0 9oun+e+ "n+ 8le+ to t3e neig3(o)ing 3ouse o8 D"l-"cio 1"nlisic. >e t3en 2)ocee+e+ to t3e -unici2"l (uil+ing "n+ -"+e " s9o)n st"te-ent (e8o)e t3e -unici2"l 2)esi+ent t3"t onl0 t9o 2e)sons 8oug3t. A -ont3 l"te) >olg"+o +ie+ o8 3is 9oun+s. /3e @!er#)a o8 1o)"les Justin" Vill"nuev" 3o9eve) testi8ie+ t3"t Eugenio /ole+o " 9o)=e) o8 >olg"+o 9o)=e)s 3"+ inte)vene+ in t3e 8ig3t "n+ +e"lt " -o)t"l (lo9 to 1o)"les suc3 testi-on0 (eing co))o(o)"te+ 2")ti"ll0 (0 " ce)t"in Justin" #l"ve. /ole+o +enie+ t3is "n+ cl"i-e+ t3"t 3e -e)el0 -et >olg"+o "8te) t3e 8ig3t "n+ 3el2e+ 3i- get to t3e 1"nlisic )esi+ence. As evi+ence /ole+oDs counsel 2)esente+ >olg"+oDs "88i+"vit -"+e "t t3e -unici2"l (uil+ing 93ic3 "88i+"vit 9"s )e5ecte+ "s evi+ence 8o) (eing 3e")s"0. /ole+o 9"s convicte+ o8 3o-ici+e. %ssue$ :"s t3e "88i+"vit o8 >olg"+o in"+-issi(le in evi+ence 8o) (eing 3e")s"0@ &eld$ No. /3e t)i"l cou)t e))e+ in not "+-itting t3e "88i+"vit "s " st"te-ent o8 8"ct "g"inst 2en"l inte)est "n+ 3"+ it (een )eceive+ its in8luence 9oul+ 3"ve (een 8elt (0 t3e t)i"l cou)t. >e")s"0 evi+ence is gene)"ll0 e?clu+e+ (0 t3e cou)ts. 'ne o8 t3e )ecogni.e+ e?ce2tions 3"s (een t3e +ecl")"tions o8 t3i)+ 2")ties cont)")0 to t3ei) 2ecuni")0 o) 2)o2)iet")0 inte)est. /)"+ition"ll0 t3is e?ce2tion 3"s (een -"+e onl0 to "22l0 to "+-issions "g"inst " 2ecuni")0 o) 2)o2)iet")0 inte)est (ut not " 2en"l inte)est. /3e Cou)t 3o9eve) 8"ils to see 930 " -"n 9ill (e 2)esu-e+ to tell t3e t)ut3 in t3e 8o)-e) inst"nces "n+ not t3e l"tte). /o li-it t3e e?ce2tion to st"te-ents "g"inst 2ecuni")0 inte)ests "n+ not c)i-in"l li"(ilit0 c"nnot (e 5usti8ie+ on g)oun+s o8 2u(lic 2olic0. /3e 2u)2ose o8 evi+ence is to get t3e t)ut3. /3e )e"son 8o) t3e 3e")s"0 )ule is t3"t t3e e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ents o8 "not3e) ")e not t3e (est 9"0 o8 se)ving t3is 2u)2ose. In ot3e) 9o)+s t3e g)e"t 2ossi(ilit0 o8 8"()ic"tion "n+ 8"lse3oo+ "n+ t3e in"(ilit0 to 2)ove suc3 unt)ut3s )eBui)es t3e +oo)s to (e close+ to suc3 evi+ence. So long t3e)e8o)e "s t3e +ecl")"nt is "v"il"(le 3is e?t)"5u+ici"l st"te-ent s3oul+ not (e 3e")+. :3e)e 3o9eve) t3e +ecl")"nt is +e"+ o) 3"s +is"22e")e+ 3is 2)evious out$o8$cou)t st"te-ents ")e t3e (est evi+ence i8 not in"+-issi(le on ot3e) g)oun+s. 4ut t3e0 c"nnot (e )en+e)e+ in"+-issi(le (0 t3e -e)e 8"ct t3"t t3e +ecl")"nt is un"v"il"(le. 'ne 8"ct t3"t 9ill s"tis80 t3is necessit0 is t3"t t3e +ecl")"tion is o)

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9"s "g"inst t3e +ecl")"ntDs inte)est "n+ t3is is (ec"use no s"ne 2e)son 9ill (e 2)esu-e+ to tell " 8"lse3oo+ to 3is o9n +et)i-ent. Doctrine$ :3e)e t3e +ecl")"nt is +e"+ o) 3"s +is"22e")e+ 3is 2)evious out$o8$cou)t st"te-ents ")e t3e (est evi+ence i8 not in"+-issi(le on ot3e) g)oun+s. /3e0 c"nnot (e )en+e)e+ in"+-issi(le (0 t3e -e)e 8"ct t3"t t3e +ecl")"nt is un"v"il"(le. &6. Vi"c)ucis vs. CA G.R. No. #$2%&*1 1")c3 2% 1%72 #acts$ 'n June & 1%*6 6e+)o S"nc3e. e?ecute+ " +ee+ selling t3e su(5ect lot to An"st"cio ')"is. S"i+ +ee+ 9"s )egiste)e+. S"nc3e. su(seBuentl0 e?ecute+ "not3e) +ee+ selling " 2o)tion o8 t3e s"-e lot to 4"lentin Rui.o 93o in tu)n sol+ it to Guille)-o Vi"c)ucis on 'cto(e) 1! 1%,5. ')"is -"+e o)"l +e-"n+s 8o) Vi"c)ucis to v"c"te s"i+ 2o)tion "n+ su))en+e) it to 3i- (ut Vi"c)ucis )e8use+ "n+ inste"+ e?ecute+ " +ee+ selling t3e s"i+ 2o)tion to 3is ()ot3e)$in$l"9 Cl")os 1")Bue.. /3e +ee+s o8 s"le in 8"vo) o8 Rui.o Vi"c)ucis "n+ 1")Bue. 3"ve not (een )egiste)e+ 9it3 t3e Registe) o8 Dee+s. /3e S2s. Vi"c)ucis "n+ t3e S2s. 1")Bue. insist t3"t t3e 8"ilu)e o8 ')"is to ()ing t3e 2)esent "ction e")lie) constitute+ "n o-ission t3"t ;-"0 (e given in evi+ence "g"inst 3i- < "s 2)ovi+e+ in Sec. 22 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t. /3e0 "lso cl"i- t3"t 93en ')"is 3"+ t)ie+ to o(t"in " lo"n 8)o- t3e 6N4 9it3 'C/ No. 2,* "s coll"te)"l secu)it0 "n+ 6N4 )e8use+ t3e o88e) on t3e g)oun+ t3"t t3e l"n+ 9"s not 3is 2)o2e)t0 ')"is s"i+ not3ing 93ic3 s3oul+ 3"ve (een consi+e)e+ "n "+-ission in silence 2u)su"nt to Sec. 2* Rule 1*!. /3e0 "lso o(5ecte+ to t3e 8"ct t3"t t3e CA consi+e)e+ in 8"vo) o8 ')"is "llege+l0 in viol"tion o8 Sec. 25 Rule 1*! t3e "+-ission o8 1)s. 4e"t)i. Costelo to t3e e88ect t3"t "lt3oug3 t3e l"n+ 9"s 230sic"ll0 in t3e 2ossession o8 3e) no9 +ece"se+ 3us("n+ 3e "n+ s3e )ecogni.e+ ')"is "s t3e o9ne) o8 s"i+ l"n+. %ssue 1$ :"s ')"isDs 8"ilu)e to ()ing "n "ction "g"inst t3e Vi"c)ucises "n+ t3e 1")Bue.es "n o-ission 8"lling un+e) t3e cove)"ge o8 Sec. 22 Rule 1*!@

&eld 1$ No./3e e88ect o) i-2o)t o8 t3e 8"ilu)e o8 ')"is to 8ile t3e 2)esent "ction until Nove-(e) 15 1%6! is " -"tte) )elev"nt to t3e issue o8 93et3e) t3e s"le "tteste+ to (0 E?3i(it 4 is si-ul"te+ "s conten+e+ (0 2etitione)s 3e)ein o) is " t)ue "n+ "ut3entic s"le "s ')"is -"int"ins. /3e +ecision o8 t3e Cou)t o8 A22e"ls "88i)-ing t3"t o8 t3e t)i"l cou)t "n+ sust"ining t3e cl"i- o8 ')"is constitutes " 8in+ing o8 8"ct 93ic3 is 8in"l in t3is 2)ocee+ing 8o) )evie9 on ce)tio)")i.
%ssue 3$ S3oul+ ')"isDs silence 93en t3e 6N4 )e5ecte+ 3is o88e) o8 coll"te)"l on t3e g)oun+ t3"t 3e +i+ not o9n t3e 2)o2e)t0 (eing o88e)e+ (e +ee-e+ "n "+-ission in silence@ &eld 3$ No. /3e)e is no co-2etent evi+ence on 93et3e) o) not ')"is 3"+ s"i+ "n0t3ing in )es2onse to s"i+ st"te-ent. 1o)eove) 'C/ N'. 2,* 9"s in t3e n"-e o8 6e+)o S"nc3e. "n+ no -"tte) 3o9 )e"l t3e s"le (0 t3e l"tte) to ')"is -"0 (e t3e ("n= 9oul+ not "cce2t t3e l"n+ in Buestion "s secu)it0 8o) s"i+ lo"n unless "n+ until 'C/ No. 2,* s3"ll 3"ve (een c"ncelle+ "n+ " t)"ns8e) ce)ti8ic"te o8 title issue+ to ')"is. /3is coul+ not t"=e 2l"ce (e8o)e t3e 8iling o8 3is lo"n "22lic"tion (ec"use t3e o9ne)Ds +u2lic"te o8 s"i+ 'C/ "+-itte+l0 +elive)e+ (0 S"nc3e. to ')"is 3"+ (een lost in t3e 2ossession o8 ')"isDs counsel to 93o ')"is 3"+ tu)ne+ it ove) in connection 9it3 " c)i-in"l c"se. %ssue 3$ :"s t3e "+-ission o8 1)s. Costelo 2)o2e)l0 consi+e)e+ in ')"isDs 8"vo)@ &eld 3$ Aes. /3e s"i+ testi-on0 o8 1)s. Costelo "n+ t3is )ecognition (0 t3e no9 +ece"se+ 6el"gio Costelo 93ic3 9e)e con8i)-e+ (0 " 2u(lic +ocu-ent constitute " +ecl")"tion o8 t3e S2s. Costelo "+ve)se to t3ei) inte)est 93ic3 is "+-issi(le in evi+ence 2u)su"nt to Sec. *2 o8 Rule 1*!. 6etitione)s 3"ve no )e"son to o(5ect to t3e consi+e)"tion in 8"vo) o8 ')"is o8 s"i+ "+-ission t3e s"-e 3"ving (een -"+e in 1%*6 -o)e t3"n 5 0e")s (e8o)e t3ei) 2)e+ecesso) in inte)est Rui.o 3"+ ente)e+ into t3e 2ictu)e 93en ')"is "n+ Costelo 9e)e t3e onl0 2")ties 93o 3"+ "n0 inte)est in t3e o(5ect o8 s"i+ "+-ission. 6u)su"nt to s"i+ leg"l 2)ovision suc3 "+-ission ;-"0 (e )eceive+ in evi+ence < not onl0 "g"inst t3e 2")t0 93o -"+e it ;o) 3is successo)s in inte)est < (ut "lso ;"g"inst t3i)+ 2e)sons.< Doctrine$ /3e leg"l 2)ovision )eg")+ing "+-issions "+ve)se to t3e inte)est o8 t3e one -"=ing t3e "+-ission -"0 (e )eceive+ in evi+ence not onl0 "g"inst t3e t3i)+ 2")t0 93o -"+e it o) 3is successo) in inte)est (ut "lso "g"inst t3i)+ 2e)sons. Se&( '9 A&t or 8e&"arat#on abo!t Pe)#gree &7. 6eo2le vs. Aleg"+o G.R. Nos. %*!*!$*1. August 21 1%%1 #acts$ 'n A2)il 1, 1%&& "t t3e 7)ee+o- SBu")e insi+e t3e 2u(lic -")=et o8 S"n C")los Cit0 Neg)os 'cci+ent"l Al8)e+o Aleg"+o " -")=et 9"tc3-"n too= C)istin" De"ng to t3e secon+ 8loo) o8 t3e +ese)te+ -")=et (uil+ing. /3e)e 3e o)+e)e+ C)istin" to -"stu)("te 3i- t3en 8o)ci(l0 2us3e+ 3e) to t3e 8loo). >e l"0 on to2 o8 3e) "n+ inse)te+ 3is 2enis (ut it +i+ not 2enet)"te 8ull0 (e8o)e 3e e5"cul"te+. /3e "22ell"nt g"ve 3e) 62.!! "n+ t3en le8t. 7e")ing t3"t 3e -ig3t =ill 3e) C)istin" tol+ no one. Ne")l0 " 9ee= l"te) Aleg"+o "g"in "s=e+ C)istin" to go 9it3 3i- to t3e s"-e s2ot. :3en s3e )e8use+ Aleg"+o s3ove+ 3e) to t3e st"i)s into t3e u22e) 8loo) ne") t3e civic cente). Initi"ll0 s3e )esiste+ (ut Aleg"+o t3)e"tene+ to =ill 3e) "n+ 9"s "(le to )"2e 3e). Ag"in Aleg"+o g"ve 3e) 62.!! t3en le8t. 6"t)ol9o-"n Ev"ngeline Al8")o s"9 Aleg"+o co-ing +o9n t3e st"i)s 8ollo9e+ (0 C)istin" " -inute l"te). S3e 9"s 2"le 9it3 (loo+ 8lo9ing 8)o- 3e) t3ig3 "n+ legs.

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Aleg"+o 9"s c3")ge+ "n+ convicte+ o8 t9o counts o8 st"tuto)0 )"2e "n+ sentence+ to Reclusion 6e)2etu". Aleg"+o cl"i-e+ t3"t t3e 2)osecution 8"ile+ to 2)ove 9it3 ce)t"int0 t3e "ctu"l "ge o8 C)istin" to (e "(le to convict 3i- o8 st"tuto)0 )"2e. %ssue$ :"s t3e +ecl")"tion o8 C)istin"Ds g)"n+8"t3e) "s to C)istin"Ds (i)t3+"te 3e")s"0 evi+ence@ &eld$ No. /3e testi-onies o8 t3e 2)osecution 9itnesses t3e o88en+e+ 2")t0 3e)sel8 "n+ 3e) -"te)n"l g)"n+8"t3e) Co)nelio Vill")os" "s to C)istin"Ds (i)t3 on Se2te-(e) 5 1%76 +o not constitute 3e")s"0 evi+ence cont)")0 to Aleg"+oDs cl"i-. Suc3 testi-onies 8"ll un+e) t3e e?ce2tions to t3e 3e")s"0 )ule "s 2)ovi+e+ un+e) Section *% "n+ ,! o8 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Revise+ Rules on Evi+ence. /3e 9o)+ ;2e+ig)ee< un+e) Section *% inclu+es )el"tions3i2 8"-il0 gene"log0 (i)t3 -"))i"ge +e"t3 t3e +"tes 93en "n+ 2l"ces 93e)e t3ese 8"cts occu))e+ "n+ t3e n"-e o8 t3e )el"tives. /3)ee )eBuisites 8o) its "+-issi(ilit0 ")eF (1) t3"t t3e)e is cont)ove)s0 in )es2ect to t3e 2e+ig)ee o8 "n0 -e-(e) o8 t3e 8"-il0E (2) t3"t t3e )e2ut"tion o) t)"+ition o8 t3e 2e+ig)ee o8 t3e 2e)son conce)ne+ e?iste+ 2)evious to t3e cont)ove)s0E "n+ (*) t3"t t3e 9itness testi80ing to t3e )e2ut"tion o) t)"+ition -ust (e " -e-(e) o8 t3e 8"-il0 o8 t3e s"i+ 2e)son. All t3ese 2)econ+itions ")e o(t"ining in t3e c"se "t (") consi+e)ing t3"t t3e +"te o8 (i)t3 o8 t3e )"2e victi- is 2ut in issueE t3"t t3e +ecl")"tion o8 Vill")os" )el"ting to t)"+ition e?iste+ long (e8o)e t3e )"2e c"se 9"s 8ile+E "n+ t3"t t3e 9itness testi80ing to t3e s"i+ t)"+ition is t3e -"te)n"l g)"n+8"t3e) o8 C)istin". 1o)eove) C)istin" 3e)sel8 c"tego)ic"ll0 st"te+ in o2en cou)t t3"t s3e 9"s (o)n on Se2te-(e) 5 1%76. Alt3oug3 " 2e)son c"n 3"ve no 2e)son"l =no9le+ge o8 t3e +"te o8 3is (i)t3 3e -"0 testi80 "s to 3is "ge "s 3e le")ne+ it 8)o- 3is 2")ents "n+ )el"tives "n+ 3is testi-on0 in suc3 c"se is "n "sse)tion o8 " 8"-il0 t)"+ition. Doctrine$ /3e t3)ee )eBuisites 8o) t3e "+-issi(ilit0 o8 2)oo8 o8 2e+ig)ee ")eF (1) t3"t t3e)e is cont)ove)s0 in )es2ect to t3e 2e+ig)ee o8 "n0 -e-(e) o8 t3e 8"-il0E (2) t3"t t3e )e2ut"tion o) t)"+ition o8 t3e 2e+ig)ee o8 t3e 2e)son conce)ne+ e?iste+ 2)evious to t3e cont)ove)s0E "n+ (*) t3"t t3e 9itness testi80ing to t3e )e2ut"tion o) t)"+ition -ust (e " -e-(e) o8 t3e 8"-il0 o8 t3e s"i+ 2e)son. Se&( +0 Bam#"$ rep!tat#on or tra)#t#on regar)#ng pe)#gree &&. 7e))e) vs. Inc3"usti G.R. No. 12%%*. 'cto(e) 2& 1%1& #acts$ R"8"el "n+ 1")i" Angelin" 7e))e) cl"i- t3"t t3ei) l"te -ot3e) Ros" Vi"+e-onte 3"+ t3e )ig3t to in3e)it 8)o- Is"(el Gon."les in t3e s"-e 2)o2o)tion "n+ c"2"cit0 "s t3e l"tte)Ds 8ou) ot3e) c3il+)en "n+ "s Ros"Ds onl0 legiti-"te 3ei)s R"8"el "n+ 1")i" Angelin" ")e entitle+ to )eceive Ros"Ds t3"t is one$8i8t3 o8 t3e est"te le8t (0 Is"(el. Acco)+ing to t3e- Is"(el 9"s 8i)st -"))ie+ to R"-on 1")tine. Vi"+e-onte 9it3 Ros" "s t3ei) +"ug3te). Is"(el t3en -"))ie+ Jose Jo"Buin +e Anc3"usti 8"t3e) o8 Is"(elDs ot3e) c3il+)en. Ros" 3"+ "llege+l0 (een t)e"te+ "n+ consi+e)e+ "s Is"(elDs +"ug3te) "n+ t3"t on one occ"sion Is"(el )e-")=e+ t3"t Ros"Ds 8"t3e) 9"s R"-on. It 9"s "lso "llege+ t3"t one o8 Is"(elDs sons Jo"Buin +e Inc3"usti +e+ic"te+ " 2ictu)e to Ros" in t3e 8ollo9ing -"nne)F ;/o -0 +e") "n+ un8o)gett"(le siste) Ros".< College )eco)+s o8 t3e l"tte) "t Collegio +e S"nt" Is"(el 9e)e s3o9n to use est"(lis3 8ili"tion. /3e +e8en+"nts -e"n93ile 2)esente+ "n ent)0 in t3e note(oo= o8 R"-on Vi"+e-onte J). st"ting t3"t t3e Ros"Ds t)ue n"-e 9"s Ros" Ro(les (o)n o8 un=no9n 2")ents in Se2te-(e) 1 1%52. Not9it3st"n+ing t3e ")gu-ents o8 t3e 2l"inti88 Jo"Buin "lso testi8ie+ t3"t one +"0 3e 9"s "ssu)e+ (0 3is 3"l8 ()ot3e) R"-on t3"t Ros" 9"s not 3is siste) (ut " -e)e 2)otRgRe "n+ t3"t on one occ"sion R"-on s3o9e+ 3i- Ros"Ds (i)t3 ce)ti8ic"te t"=en 8)o- " 2")oc3i"l c3u)c3. A co20 o8 s"i+ ce)ti8ic"te 9"s o88e)e+ in evi+ence. %ssue$ A)e t3e +i")0 "ccounts o8 R"-on Vi"+e-onte J). "n+ Jo"BuinDs testi-on0 "+-issi(le@ Ruling$ Aes. Evi+ence "++uce+ "t t3e t)i"l to 2)ove t3e o)igin o8 t3e c"use o8 "ction s3o9s in " -"nne) 93ic3 le"ves no )oo- 8o) +ou(t t3"t Ros" 9"s not " legiti-"te +"ug3te) o8 Is"(el Gon."les "n+ it 8ollo9s t3"t 3e) c3il+)en 3"ve no )ig3t to " 2")t o8 t3e 3e)e+it")0 2)o2e)t0 o8 Is"(el Gon."les. In vie9 o8 t3e 8"ct t3"t R"-on 1")tine. Vi"+e-onte is no9 +e"+ t3e testi-on0 o8 Jo"Buin Jose +e Inc3"usti )e8e))ing to t3e s"i+ +ece"se+ is "+-issi(le "s evi+ence o8 8"-il0 t)"+ition 8o) t3e0 ")e -e-(e)s o8 t3e s"-e 8"-il0 "n+ conseBuentl0 t3e conclusion is t3"t Ros" 1"til+e is t3e s"-e Ros" 1"til+e Ro(les -entione+ in E?3i(it 6 "n+ (ec"use s3e 9"s (o)n in 1%52 in no -"nne) coul+ s3e (e " legiti-"te +"ug3te) o8 R"-on Vi"+e-onte "n+ Is"(el Gon."les 93ose -"))i"ge 9"s +issolve+ 1n 1%*6 (0 t3e +e"t3 o8 t3e 3us("n+. Doctrine$ /esti-on0 -"+e (0 " 9itness )eg")+ing " +ecl")"tion -"+e (0 so-eone +ece"se+ 93en (ot3 t3e 9itness "n+ t3e +ecl")"nt ")e -e-(e)s o8 t3e s"-e 8"-il0 is "+-issi(le "s evi+ence o8 8"-il0 t)"+ition. %ssue$ :"s t3e +"0(oo= =e2t (0 R"-on Vi"+e-onte J). in"+-issi(le in evi+ence 8o) (eing 3e")s"0@ &eld$ No. Section 2%& No 1* o8 t3e Co+e o8 Civil 6)oce+u)e (no9 section ,1 Rule 1*! o8 t3e Rules o8 Cou)t) 2)ovi+es t3"t evi+ence -"0 (e given u2on t)i"l o8 -onu-ents "n+ insc)i2tions in 2u(lic 2l"ces "s

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evi+ence o8 co--on )e2ut"tionE "n+ ent)ies in 8"-il0 4i(les o) ot3e) 8"-il0 (oo=s o) c3")tsE eng)"vings on )ings 8"-il0 2o)t)"its "n+ t3e li=e "s evi+ence o8 2e+ig)ee. Doctrine$ Evi+ence -"0 (e given u2on t)i"l o8 -onu-ents "n+ insc)i2tions in 2u(lic 2l"ces "s evi+ence o8 co--on )e2ut"tionE "n+ ent)ies in 8"-il0 4i(les o) ot3e) 8"-il0 (oo=s o) c3")tsE eng)"vings on )ings 8"-il0 2o)t)"its "n+ t3e li=e "s evi+ence o8 2e+ig)ee Se&( ++ .ntr#es #n O%%#&#a" Re&or)sC Se&( +6 4earne) Treat#ses G.R. No. 55%6!. Nove-(e) 2, 1%&&

&%. A"o=ee vs. S0$Gon."les

$ 1i+te)-s$ $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$'oo'$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 6")t II 1. Reg"l" vs. S4 G.R. No. 1!5%*&. Se2te-(e) 2! 1%%6 #acts$ A co-2l"int 9"s 8ile+ (0 t3e 6CGG "g"inst E+u")+o Co5u"ngco J). 8o) t3e )ecove)0 o8 "llege+ ill$ gotten 9e"lt3 93ic3 inclu+es s3")es o8 stoc=s in ce)t"in co)2o)"tions. Co5u"ngcoDs co$+e8en+"nts 9e)e /eo+o)o Reg"l" E+g")+o Ang")" Avelino C)u. Jose Conce2cion Rogelio Vinlu"n Victo) #"."tin E+u")+o Escuet" 6")"5" >"0u+ini "n+ 2)iv"te )es2on+ent R"ul Roco "ll t3en 2")tne)s o8 ACCRA #"9 7i)-. /3e0 "ll "+-itte+ t3"t t3e0 "ssiste+ in t3e o)g"ni."tion "n+ "cBuisition o8 t3e "8o)es"i+ co)2o)"tions (0 "cting "s no-inees$stoc=3ol+e)s o8 t3e s"-e. Due to RocoDs 2)o-ise t3"t 3e 9oul+ )eve"l t3e i+entit0 o8 t3e 2)ici2"lGs 8o) 93o- 3e "cte+ "s no-ineeGstoc=3ol+e) Roco 9"s t"=en out o8 6CGGDs "-en+e+ co-2l"int. /3e )est o8 t3e ACCRA l"90e)s t3en insiste+ t3"t t3e0 too s3oul+ (e g)"nte+ t3e s"-e t)e"t-ent given to Roco (ut t3e S"n+ig"n("0"n +enie+ t3ei) e?clusion 8o) not "cce+ing to t3e con+itions set (0 6CGG 93ic3 inclu+e+ t3e +isclosu)e o8 t3e i+entit0 o8 its clients "n+ t3e su(-ission o8 2e)tinent +ocu-ents. %ssue$ A)e t3e ACCRA l"90e)s entitle+ to invo=e t3e "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege in t3is c"se@ &eld$ Aes. As " -"tte) o8 2u(lic 2olic0 " clientDs i+entit0 s3oul+ not (e s3)ou+e+ in -0ste)0. /3e gene)"l )ule is t3"t " l"90e) -"0 not invo=e t3e 2)ivilege "n+ )e8use to +ivulge t3e n"-e o) i+entit0 o8 3is client. >o9eve) t3e)e ")e ce)t"in e?ce2tionsF 1) 93e)e " st)ong 2)o("(ilit0 e?ists t3"t )eve"ling t3e clientDs n"-e 9oul+ i-2lic"te s"i+ client in t3e ve)0 "ctivit0 8o) 93ic3 3e soug3t t3e l"90e)Ds "+viceE 2) 93e)e +isclosu)e 9oul+ o2en t3e client to civil li"(ilit0E o) *) 93e)e t3e gove)n-entDs l"90e)s 3"ve no c"se "g"inst t3e "tto)ne0Ds client unless (0 )eve"ling t3e clientDs n"-e t3e s"i+ n"-e 9oul+ 8u)nis3 t3e onl0 lin= t3"t 9oul+ 8o)- t3e c3"in o8 testi-on0 necess")0 to convict "n in+ivi+u"l o8 " c)i-e. /3e 2)esent c"se 8"lls un+e) t3e "8o)es"i+ e?ce2tions "n+ 3ence "tto)ne0$client 2)ivilege -"0 (e invo=e+. In t3e constitution"l s23e)e t3e 2)ivilege gives 8les3 to one o8 t3e -ost s"c)os"nct )ig3ts "v"il"(le to t3e "ccuse+ t3e )ig3t to counsel. I8 t3e 2)ice o8 +isclosu)e is too 3ig3 o) i8 it "-ounts to sel8$inc)i-in"tion t3en t3e 8lo9 o8 in8o)-"tion 9oul+ (e cu)t"ile+ t3e)e(0 )en+e)ing t3e )ig3t 2)"ctic"ll0 nug"to)0. Doctrine$ /3e gene)"l )ule is t3"t " l"90e) -"0 not invo=e t3e 2)ivilege "n+ )e8use to +ivulge t3e n"-e o) i+entit0 o8 3is client. Ce)t"in e?ce2tions ")eF 1) 93e)e " st)ong 2)o("(ilit0 e?ists t3"t )eve"ling t3e clientDs n"-e 9oul+ i-2lic"te s"i+ client in t3e ve)0 "ctivit0 8o) 93ic3 3e soug3t t3e l"90e)Ds "+viceE 2) 93e)e +isclosu)e 9oul+ o2en t3e client to civil li"(ilit0E o) *) 93e)e t3e gove)n-entDs l"90e)s 3"ve no c"se "g"inst t3e "tto)ne0Ds client unless (0 )eve"ling t3e clientDs n"-e t3e s"i+ n"-e 9oul+ 8u)nis3 t3e onl0 lin= t3"t 9oul+ 8o)- t3e c3"in o8 testi-on0 necess")0 to convict "n in+ivi+u"l o8 " c)i-e. 6")t III 2. 6eo2le vs. #i9"n"g *. CS vs. Su"n ,. I7C vs. /o(i"s G.R. No. #$276&*. 'cto(e) 1% 1%76 G.R. No. %2!1. 1")c3 * 1%1, G.R. No. #$,1555. Jul0 27 1%77

/o(i"s (oug3t on inst"ll-ent " Do+ge t)uc=. >e e?ecute+ " 2)o-isso)0 note 93ic3 is secu)e+ (0 " c3"ttel -o)tg"ge on t3e +o+ge t)uc=. /3e selle) in+o)se+ t3e 2)o-isso)0 note to I7C. I7C +e-"n+e+ 2"0-ent o8 t3e ("l"nce o) to su))en+e) t3e +o+ge t)uc=. /o(i"s )e2lie+ t3"t 3e 9ill su))en+e) t3e t)uc= (ec"use it -et "n "cci+ent "n+ t3e)e 9"s too -uc3 +el"0 in t3e )e2"i). I7C "llege+ t3"t it 3"+ no =no9le+ge o8 t3e "cci+ent "n+ +eci+e+ not to get t3e t)uc= "n0-o)e. DOCTRINE: /3e "lleg"tion o8 I7C is " neg"tive "lleg"tion "n+ nee+s no evi+ence to su22o)t it not (eing "n essenti"l 2")t o8 t3e st"te-ent o8 t3e )ig3t on 93ic3 t3e c"use o8 "ction is 8oun+e+.
5. 6eo2le vs. 6"5en"+o G.R. Nos. #$276&!$&1. 7e()u")0 27 1%7! 6"5en"+o s3ot " 2e)son "n+ 9"s convicte+ 8o) 3is -u)+e) "n+ 8o) illeg"l 2ossession o8 " 8i)e")-.

HELD: In c)i-in"l c"ses t3e (u)+en o8 2)oo8 "s to t3e o88ense c3")ge+ lies on t3e 2)osecution "n+ t3"t "
neg"tive 8"ct "llege+ (0 t3e 2)osecution -ust (e 2)oven i8 ;it is "n essenti"l ing)e+ient o8 t3e o88ense c3")ge+.< /3e -e)e 8"ct t3"t t3e "+ve)se 2")t0 3"s t3e cont)ol o8 t3e (ette) -e"ns o8 2)oo8 o8 t3e 8"ct

36

"llege+ s3oul+ not )elieve t3e 2")t0 -"=ing t3e "ve)-ent o8 t3e (u)+en o8 2)oving it. A 2")t0 93o "lleges " 8"ct -ust (e "ssu-e+ to 3"ve "cBui)e+ so-e =no9le+ge t3e)eo8E ot3e)9ise 3e coul+ not 3"ve "llege+ t3e s"-e. 6. 6eo2le vs. Ve).ol" G.R. No. #$*5!22. Dece-(e) 21 1%77 Ve).ol" clu((e+ to 4e)n")+o in t3e 2)esence o8 Jose8in". >is (o+0 9"s c"))ie+ "n+ le8t "t t3e 8oot o8 t3e st"i)s o8 3is 3ouse. Ve).ol" c3"nge+ 3is clot3es "n+ 9ent to t3e -unici2"l (uil+ing "n+ )e2o)te+ to t3e 2olice "ut3o)ities t3"t 4e)n")+o 3"+ +ie+ in "n "cci+ent. Jose8in" g"ve " 9)itten st"te-ent 2ointing to Ve).ol" "s t3e "ss"il"nt o8 4e)n")+o. Ve).ol" e?ecute+ " 9)itten st"te-ent "+-itting t3"t 3e clu((e+ 4e)n")+o seve)"l ti-es. 4ot3 Ve).ol" "n+ Jose8in" )e2u+i"te+ t3ei) e?t)"5u+ici"l con8essions. Ve).ol" cl"i-s t3"t 3e =ille+ 4e)n")+o in sel8$+e8ense.

DOCTRINE: No suc3 2)oo8 o8 sel8 +e8ense 9"s "++uce+. 'nce "n "ccuse+ 3"s "+-itte+ t3e =illing o8 "
3u-"n (eing t3e (u)+en is on 3i- to est"(lis3 t3e e?istence o8 "n0 ci)cu-st"nce 93ic3 -"0 5usti80 t3e =illing o) "t le"st "ttenu"te t3e o88ense co--itte+. /o est"(lis3 3is e?cul2"tion o) t3e 5usti8ic"tion 8o) t3e "ct 3e -ust 2)ove suc3 "88i)-"tive "lleg"tion (0 cle") s"tis8"cto)0 "n+ convincing evi+ence. 7. 1olin" vs. CA &. 6eo2le vs. 6"+ie)-os %. 6eo2le vs. Esten.o 1!. Del" 6". vs. IAC 11. 6eo2le vs. Del C"stillo 12. 7ulg"+o vs. CA 1*. 6eo2le vs. Rive)" 1,. VIll"lon vs. IAC 15. 6eo2le vs. Res"("l 16. 4un"g vs. CA 17. 4")tolo-e vs. IAC 1&. #"cs" vs. CA 1%. 6eo2le vs. 1onleon 2!. 6eo2le vs. 1"te 21. 64C'1 vs. CA 22. /"(uenv" vs. CA 2*. Inte)2"ci8ic vs. Aviles 6")t IV 2,. I7C vs. /o(i"s 25. 6eo2le vs. 6"5en"+o 26. 6eo2le vs. 6"(lo 27. S2ouses Sige vs. CA 2&. Del" 6". vs. IAC 2%. 7ulg"+o vs. CA *!. 6eo2le vs. Rive)" *1. 6eo2le vs. S"lo-on *2. Vill"lon vs. IAC **. 6eo2le vs. Res"("l G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. No. #$,1555. Jul0 27 1%77 Nos. #$276&!$&1. 7e()u")0 27 1%7! No. %112%. August 25 1%%2 No. 1!7%51. June *! 1%%, No. 715*7. Se2te-(e) 17 1%&7 G.R. No. 6157!. 7e()u")0 12 1%%! G.R. No. %&*76. August 16 1%%1.S G.R. No. %6&,&. J"nu")0 21 1%%, G.R. No. 7*751. Se2te-(e) 2, 1%&6 G.R. No. 267!&. Se2te-(e) 2% 1%27 G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. G.R. No. #$1,52,. 'cto(e) 2, 1%6! No. #$*72&,. 7e()u")0 27 1%76 No. #$,1166. August 25 1%76 No. 715*7. Se2te-(e) 17 1%&7 G.R. No. #$16%,1. 'cto(e) 2% 1%6& G.R. No. 6157!. 7e()u")0 12 1%%! No. %&*76. August 16 1%%1 G.R. No. 7*751. Se2te-(e) 2, 1%&6 No. 267!&. Se2te-(e) 2% 1%27 No. #$*%!1*. 7e()u")0 2% 1%&& No. 767%2. 1")c3 12 1%%! Nos. 7%5%7$%&. 1"0 2! 1%%1 No. #$*62&2. Dece-(e) 1! 1%76 G.R. No. #$*,75,. 1")c3 27 1%&1 No. %2!67. 1")c3 22 1%%1 No. &5,2*. 1"0 6 1%%1 No. &6!62. June 6 1%%!

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